SOUTHERN ITALY (1)

v2.0a Updated 10 February 2011
minor correction 16 Feb 2012

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 5

Chapter 1.            BENEVENTO. 6

A.       DUKES (PRINCES from 774) of BENEVENTO (FAMILY of GISULF) 7

ZOTTO [584]-[604] 7

ARCHIS I [604]-[640], AION I [640]-642. 7

RADOALD 642-648, GRIMOALD I 648-671. 8

ROMOALD I 671-687, GRIMOALD II 687-690, GISULF I 690-706. 10

ROMOALD II 706-731, GISULF II 731, 742. 12

AUDELAHIS 731-734, GREGORIUS 734-742, GODESCHALK 742-745. 14

ARICHIS II 758-787, GRIMOALD III 787-806. 15

GRIMOALD IV 806-817. 19

SICO I 817-830, SICARD 830-839. 20

B.       PRINCES of BENEVENTO (FAMILY of RADELCHIS) 23

RADELCHIS I 839-849, RADELGAR I 851-854, GAIDERIS 878-881. 24

ADELCHIS 854-878, RADELCHIS II 881-884, 897-900, AIO 884-891, URSUS 891-892, GUIDO 895-897. 26

C.      PRINCES of BENEVENTO (FAMILY of PRINCES of CAPUA) 30

LANDOLF 940. 31

ADELFER 1003-1005. 32

LANDOLF V -1033, PANDOLF VI, LANDOLF VI -1077, PANDOLF IV -1074. 33

D.      CONTI di AVELLINO.. 35

E.       CONTI di LARINO.. 39

F.       CONTI di SUESSA e d´ISERNIA.. 50

G.      CONTI di TEANO.. 54

H.      CONTI di VENAFRO.. 66

I.    OTHER NOBILITY  in BENEVENTO.. 71

Chapter 2.            SALERNO. 76

A.       PRINCES of SALERNO 849-978 (FAMILY of SICONULF) 76

SICONULF 849-850, SICO 850-853. 77

ADEMAR 853-861. 79

DAUFER 861, GUAIFER 861-880. 80

GUAIMAR I 880-900, GUAIMAR II 900-946, GISULF I 946-973, -978. 84

B.       DESCENDANTS of ARECHIS di SALERNO.. 89

C.      DESCENDANTS of DAUFER di SALERNO.. 91

D.      DESCENDANTS of GUAIMAR di SALERNO.. 97

E.       DESCENDANTS of GUAIFER di SALERNO.. 102

F.       PRINCES of SALERNO 978-981, 1052 (FAMILY of PRINCES of CAPUA) 105

PALDOLF 977-981, PANDOLF 1052. 105

G.      PRINCES of SALERNO 981-1072 (FAMILY of LAMBERT) 109

IOANNES II 983-999. 110

GUAIMAR III 999-1027. 113

GUAIMAR IV 1027-1052, IOANNES III 1038-1042, GISULF II 1052-1072. 116

H.      DESCENDANTS of GUIDO di SALERNO, SIGNORI di GIFFONI 125

I.    DESCENDANTS of PALDOLF di SALERNO, SIGNORI di CAPACCIO.. 128

J.       OTHER NOBILITY in SALERNO.. 136

Chapter 3.            CAPUA. 172

A.       LOMBARD COUNTS of CAPUA.. 173

LANDOLF I -842, LANDO I 842-861, PANDO 842-862, LANDOLF II 842-879, LANDO II 861-884, PANDONULF 862-882, LANDO III 882-885, LANDENOLF I 885-[887] 173

ATENOLF I [887]-912, LANDOLF III 912-943, ATENOLF II 912-940, ATENOLF III 943. 182

LANDOLF IV 943-961, LANDOLF V 961-968, LANDOLF VII 1000-1007, PANDOLF II 1014-1022. 188

PANDOLF III 1007-1014, PANDOLF IV 1014-1049, PANDOLF V 1049-1057, LANDOLF VIII 1057-1058. 191

PANDOLF I 961-981, LANDOLF VI 981-982, LANDENOLF II 982-993, LAIDOLF 993-999, PANDOLF VI -1026, IOANNES -1026. 195

ADEMAR 999. 202

IOANNES 1070, LANDO IV 1098. 202

B.       PRINCES of CAPUA 1057-1130 (NORMAN COUNTS of AVERSA) 202

RICHARD I 1057-1078, JORDAN I 1078-1090, RICHARD II 1090-1106, ROBERT I 1106-1120, RICHARD III 1120, JORDAN I 1120-1127, ROBERT II 1127-1130. 202

C.      PRINCES of CAPUA 1136-1172 (HAUTEVILLE) 212

ALPHONSE 1135-1144, GUILLAUME 1144-1154, ROBERT [1154-1157] 213

ROBERT 1155. 213

ARRICO -1172. 214

D.      OTHER NOBILITY in CAPUA.. 214

Chapter 4.            NAPLES. 215

A.       DUKES of NAPLES.. 216

SERGIUS I 840-865, GREGORIUS III 865-870, SERGIUS II 870-878, ATHANASIUS 878-898. 216

GREGORIUS IV 898-915, IOANNES II 915-919. 222

MARINUS I 919-928, IOANNES III 928-969, MARINUS II 969-997. 225

SERGIUS III 992-998, IOANNES IV 998-[1005] 233

SERGIUS IV [1005]-1027, 1029. 235

IOANNES V [1029]-[1052], SERGIUS V [1052]-[1075], SERGIUS VI [1075]-1107, IOANNES VI 1107-[1123], SERGIUS VII [1123]-1139. 238

B.       CONTI di PUTEOLANO.. 242

C.      CONTI di ABELLE.. 244

Chapter 5.            AMALFI 245

A.       PREFECTS of AMALFI 840-958. 246

B.       DUKES of AMALFI 958-1073. 250

SERGIUS II 958-966. 250

MANSO II 958-1004. 253

IOANNES 1004-1007. 256

SERGIUS III 1007-1028, IOANNES III 1029-1033, 1038-1039, 1052, MARIA 1028-1029, 1034-1038, MANSO III 1028-1029, 1034-1038, 1040-1052, SERGIUS IV 1031/1073, GUAIMAR, IOANNES IV 1054. 259

C.      DESCENDANTS of ADEMAR di AMALFI 265

Chapter 6.            GAETA. 272

A.       [LORDS of GAETA] (FAMILY of ANATOLIUS) 272

B.       LORDS of GAETA, DUKES of GAETA 867-[1032] (FAMILY of DOCIBILIS) 274

DOCIBILIS I 274

IOANNES I 277

DOCIBILIS II, IOANNES II 954-962, GREGORIUS.. 279

MARINUS [978]-984, IOANNES III 984-1008, IOANNES IV 1008-1012, IOANNES V 1012-1032. 283

C.      DESCENDANTS of LEO di GAETA præfecturus (FAMILY of DOCIBILIS) 287

D.      DUKE of GAETA 1012, CONTI di SUIO (FAMILY of DOCIBILIS) 293

LEO II 1012, 1042. 293

E.       DUKES of GAETA 1043-1111 (VARIOUS FAMILIES) 298

RAINULF [1043]-1045, ATENULF I 1045-1061, ATENULF II 1061-1062, LANDO 1064-1066. 298

GUILLAUME 1064, DANIMBOLD 1066-1068. 300

GEOFFROY 1068-1086, RAINALD 1086- , GUALGANUS -1091. 300

LANDOLF 1091-1101, GUILLAUME 1101-1105, RICCARDO 1105-1111. 301

Chapter 7.  DUKES of SORRENTO. 303

A.       DUKES of SORRENTO.. 303

B.       DUKES of SORRENTO 1039-[1042] (PRINCES of SALERNO) 307

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Italian nobles families in the 6th to 12th centuries are set out in three sets of documents, NORTHERN ITALY (1), CENTRAL ITALY, and the present document SOUTHERN ITALY (1).  This geographic split in presenting the research on Italian nobility is justified by the divergent ways in which the noble families evolved in these three areas during the early medieval period, which is explained in part by the different outside influences to which each area was subject. 

 

The southern Italian principalities established themselves between the 6th and 9th centuries.  The Lombards who moved into southern Italy in the latter part of the 6th century established the principality of Benevento.  The principality of Salerno broke away from Benevento at the time of the civil war which followed the death of Sicard Prince of Benevento in 839, its autonomy being confirmed by Louis II King of Italy in 849.  Capua separated in [860/61] and established itself as the third autonomous Lombard principality in southern Italy.  Naples had been one of the Byzantine colonies in southern Italy.  The duchy of Naples became autonomous in the 8th century, with its vassal states of Gaeta and Amalfi, which asserted their independence in the 9th century.  Geographical distance from the northern Italian kingdom's administrative centres of Pavia and Ravenna enabled the southern Lombard principalities to evolve on autonomous lines.  In addition, the Papal territories represented a buffer between northern and southern Italy, especially after the 756 Donation of Pepin under which Papal claims to many parts of central Italy were recognised by the Frankish invaders. 

 

The Lombard duchies in southern Italy had three main adversaries:  the Byzantines whose colonies survived in the southern part of the Italian peninsula until well into the 11th century, the north African Muslims who conquered Sicily, Messina and Siracusa in the mid-9th century and raided the coastal cities on the west of mainland Italy throughout the period, and the Normans who established themselves in Puglia [Apulia] from the 11th century onwards. 

 

Byzantine possessions in southern Italy in the mid-9th century were restricted to Gallipoli and Otranto, as well as land south of a line from Rossano to Amantes in Calabria, the two areas being separated by the principality of Salerno[1].  However, Byzantium reconquered Bari in 876, Taranto in 880, and Conversano by 899, while the capital of the duchy of Benevento was occupied between 891 and 894[2].  They expanded their territories considerably during the 10th and early 11th centuries, so that by the early 11th century Byzantium controlled the whole of Puglia, the land of Otranto, and the major part of Calabria.  A Papal bull dated 1024, organising the ecclesiastical province of Canosa-Bari, shows that the Byzantines held Bari, Canosa, Meduno, Giovenazzo, Melfi, Rubo, Trani, Canne, Minervino, Aquatecta, Montemelo, Lavello, Cisterna, Bitalbi, Salpi, Conversano, Polignano, and Ecatera at that date[3].  Two charters dated 1003 and 1005 show that Venosa was held by the Byzantines[4].  Liudprand, describing the ecclesiastical province of Otranto, records Otranto, Turcico, Gravina, Matera and Tricarico as Byzantine possessions[5].  Taranto, Brindisi and Acerenza were also Byzantine territory in the early 11th century[6]

 

 

The dating of the Lombard rulers of southern Italy must be considered approximate as in many cases it depends on calculation from the lengths of their reigns as stated in primary sources, not all of which are consistent with each other.  Few dates can be corroborated accurately against non-Lombard sources. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    BENEVENTO

 

 

The Lombard duchy of Benevento was established in 571, and because of its remoteness from the northern centre of Lombard power developed largely autonomously.  It sacked the monastery of Monte Cassino in 580, raided Naples from 581, and ensured that the Byzantine enclaves in southern Italy did not expand further.  The first recorded Lombard duke of Benevento was Zotto[7].  Arichis II Duke of Benevento proclaimed himself Prince of Benevento in 774, as sole Lombard ruler in Italy after the Lombard Italian kingdom was incorporated into the Frankish domain following the defeat of Desiderius King of the Lombards.  By the early 9th century, the principality of Benevento had expanded to include most of Puglia and Calabria.  Prince Sicard concluded a peace agreement with the duchy of Naples in 836[8], and in 838 conquered Amalfi.  However, after he was assassinated in 839, the principality broke apart in a civil war between his brother and one of Sicard´s officers Radelchis.  Peace was eventually restored by Louis II King of Italy [Carolingian] who arranged the creation of the new principality of Salerno out of Beneventan territory under the Radelgisi et Siginulfi Divisio Ducatus Beneventani which was signed in early 849[9]

 

It is possible to assess the geographical extent of the principality of Benevento in the early 11th century from a bull of Pope Benedict VIII dated 1014, which named the towns of Bovino, Ascoli, Larino, Trivento, Lucera, Sant´Agata, Avellino, Ariano, Vulturaria, Telese, Alife, Sessula, Lesina, Termoli, and Siponto, as well as the region of Gargano, within the principality.  Chalandon points out that Siponto was lost by Benevento by 1023, according to the cartulario of Tremiti[10]

 

 

 

A.      DUKES (PRINCES from 774) of BENEVENTO (FAMILY of GISULF)

 

 

ZOTTO [584]-[604]

 

1.         ZOTTO, son of --- (-[603/04]).  He was installed as ZOTTO Duke of Benevento in [583/84].  Paulus Diaconus names "primus Langobardorum dux in Benevento…Zotto" stating that he ruled the principality for 20 years[11].  Paulus Diaconus records the death of "Zottone Beneventanorum duce", specifying that "Arigis" was appointed to succeed as missus by King Agilulf[12]

 

 

ARCHIS I [604]-[640], AION I [640]-642

 

1.         ARICHIS, son of --- (-[640]).  He was related to Gisulf II Duke of Friulia, but the precise relationship has not yet been identified.  Paulus Diaconus records the death of "Zottone Beneventanorum duce", specifying that "Arigis" was appointed to succeed as missus by King Agilulf, and that he was "consanguineus" of "Gisulfi Foroiulani ducis" (presumably referring to Duke Gisulf II) whose sons he had educated[13].  According to the Chronicon Ducum Beneventi, Salerni, Capuæ et Neapolis, "Archis" was installed as ARICHIS I Duke of Benevento in [604/05] and ruled 50 years[14], although this period must be exaggerated.  m ---.  The name of Duke Arichis's wife is not known.  Duke Arichis & his wife had one child: 

a)         AION (-killed in battle Siponto [641/42]).  The Chronicon Ducum Beneventi, Salerni, Capuæ et Neapolis records that "Aio, Arichis filius" succeeded as AION I Duke of Benevento and ruled for 1 year 5 months[15].  According to Paulus Diaconus, he was made to drink a potion which drove him mad, and was killed fighting the Slavs who raided the Adriatic coast of Italy[16].  He was succeeded by his relative Radoald, who was the son of Gisulf II Duke of Friulia. 

 

 

RADOALD 642-648, GRIMOALD I 648-671

 

GISULF II Duke of Friulia, son of GISULF I Duke of Friulia & his wife --- (-killed 610).  Duke of Friulia.  He was killed by the Avars. 

1.         other children: see FRIULIA

2.         RADOALD (-[647/48]).  Paulus Diaconus names "Taso et Cacco iam adulescentes, Raduald…et Grimuald adhuc in puerili ætate" as the sons of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when recording their escape after their father was killed[17].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Radoald…et Grimoald" went to Benevento to join "Arichis Beneventanorum ducem"[18].  He succeeded his relative Aion I in [641/42] as RADOALD Duke of Benevento.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Raduald duce" ruled for 5 years[19]

3.         GRIMOALD (-671, bur Ticino, Basilica of St Ambrosius).  Paulus Diaconus names "Taso et Cacco iam adulescentes, Raduald…et Grimuald adhuc in puerili ætate" as the sons of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when recording Grimoald's difficulty in escaping after the death of their father[20].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Radoald…et Grimoald" went to Benevento to join "Arichis Beneventanorum ducem"[21].  He succeeded his brother in [647/48] as GRIMOALD I Duke of Benevento.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Grimuald eius germanus" succeeded his brother Radoald and ruled for 25 years[22].  Godepert King of the Lombards sought help from Duke Grimoald in his dispute with his brother King Perctarit in 662, promising Grimoald the hand of their sister in marriage.  He deposed King Godepert and installed himself as GRIMOALD King of the Lombards in 662[23].  He threatened to end the peace with the khan of the Avars unless they expelled ex-King Perctarit, the brother of King Godepert[24].  According to Paulus Diaconus, Grimoald defeated an invading army of Franks by leaving his camp unattended with food and wine and attacking the Franks after they had feasted[25].  The same source records that he avenged the murder of his older brothers by destroying the city of Opitergium, where they had been killed, and distributing its territories between Friulia, Tarvisium and Ceneta[26].  Paulus Diaconus also states that Lupus Duke of Friulia rebelled against King Grimoald but was defeated with the help of the Avars, who refused to return home until King Grimoald began assembling an army against them[27].  According to Paulus Diaconus, King Grimoald made a peace treaty with Dagobert II King of the Franks[28], but this report must be inaccurate as King Dagobert only succeeded as king five years after Grimoald died.  Paulus reports that Grimoald died allegedly as a result of poisons applied by his doctors when wounds from a previous phlebotomy opened and bled, and was buried "in basilica beati Ambrosii"[29]m firstly ITA, daughter of --- (-before [663]).  Paulus Diaconus records that "Grimuald" had "Romualdum filium et duas filias" by "captiva puella, sed tamen nobili…Ita"[30]m secondly ([663]) --- of the Lombards, daughter of ARIPERT I King of the Lombards & his wife ---.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Grimuald" married "Ariperti regis filiam" soon after starting to rule at Ticino[31].  Duke Grimoald & his first wife had two children:

a)         ROMOALD (-687).  Paulus Diaconus names "Romualdum filium et duas filias" as the children of Grimoald and his wife Ita[32].  He succeeded his father in 671 as ROMOALD I Duke of Benevento

-        see below

b)         GISA (-Sicily after 662).  Paulus Diaconus names "Romualdum filium et duas filias" as the children of Grimoald and his wife Ita[33].  "Gysa soror Romuald" is named in the Benedicti Chronicon [34].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Romualdi sororem…Gisa" was given as a hostage to Emperor Constans II when his withdrawal from Benevento was negotiated, and that she was taken to Sicily where she died[35]

c)         daughter .  Paulus Diaconus names "Romualdum filium et duas filias" as the children of Grimoald & his wife[36].  Paulus Diaconus records that King Grimoald arranged the marriage of "sua filia, Romualdi altera sorore" to "Transamundum…Capuæ comes"[37]m ([663]) TRASIMUND Count of Capua, son of ---.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Transamundum…Capuæ comes" was installed as TRASIMUND Duke of Spoleto after helping Grimoald Duke of Benevento to secure the Lombard throne[38], the event probably being dated to [665]. 

Duke Grimoald & his second wife had one child:

d)         GARIPALD (-after 671).  Paulus Diaconus names "Garibald" as the son of King Grimoald and his wife "Ariperti regis filia"[39].  The same source records that, although still a child, he succeeded his father in 671 as GARIPALD King of the Lombards, but was deposed almost immediately by Perctarit[40]

 

 

ROMOALD I 671-687, GRIMOALD II 687-690, GISULF I 690-706

 

ROMOALD, son of GRIMOALD I Duke of Benevento, King of the Lombards & his first wife Ita --- (-687).  Paulus Diaconus names "Romualdum filium et duas filias" as the children of Grimoald and his wife Ita[41].  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti names Romoald as son of Grimoald[42].  His father appointed him as regent at Benevento after seizing the kingdom of the Lombards[43].  Paulus Diaconus records that Romoald was besieged in Benevento by Emperor Constans II in [663], and that his father led troops to relieve the siege at which time the emperor withdrew to Naples[44].  Paulus also records that Romoald defeated the Roman commander Saburrus near Forinus[45].  He succeeded his father in 671 as ROMOALD I Duke of Benevento.  He captured Taranto and Brindisi and subjugated the whole region[46].  Paulus Diaconus records that Romoald died after ruling for 16 years[47]

m ([664]) THEUDERADA, daughter of LUPUS dux of Forum Iulii [Friulia] & his wife --- (-after 690).  Paulus Diaconus records that "Grimualdus rex…suo filio Romualdo" married "Lupo duce…filiam eius Theuderadam" after her father's death[48].  "Theuderada" is named wife of Duke Romoald in the Benedicti Chronicon, but her origin is not given[49].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Romualdus…coniux…eius Theuderata" built "basilicam…beati Petri apostolic" at Benevento[50].  Romoald married Theuderada after her father, who had rebelled against King Grimoald, was killed.  She was regent in 690 during the minority of her son Duke Gisulf[51].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records a judgment "in Benevento palatio…in præsentia Domnæ Ageltrudis imperatricis augustæ et domni Radelchis principis" by "Lodoicus castaldeus" against "Bernardus clericus filius…Bernardi…in monasterio Sanctæ Mariæ…ad Castanietum propinquo Castro Piniano" founded by "domna Theoderada ducissa…et…Domno Gisulfo Duce filio eius", by charter dated to [896][52]

Duke Romoald & his wife had three children:

1.         GRIMOALD (-690).  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti names Grimoald as son of Romoald[53].  Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "Grimualdum, Gisulfum…et Arichis" as the three sons of Duke Romoald & his wife[54].  He succeeded his father in 687 as GRIMOALD II Duke of Benevento.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Romuald…eius filius Grimualdus" ruled for three years[55]m WIGLINDA of the Lombards, daughter of PERCTARIT King of the Lombards & his wife Rodelinda --- ([Benevento late 662 or Ticino after 672]-).  Paulus Diaconus names "Wigilinda, soror Cunincperti, filia Perctarit regis" as wife of "Romuald…eius filius Grimualdus"[56].  She is not referred to by Paulus Diaconus when he records her mother's exile[57], which suggests that she was born either in Benevento later in 662 or in Ticino after 672. 

2.         GISULF ([after 672]-706).  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti names "Gisulfus" as brother of Grimoald[58].  Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "Grimualdum, Gisulfum…et Arichis" as the three sons of Duke Romoald & his wife[59].  He succeeded his brother in 690 as GISULF I Duke of Benevento, under the regency of his mother, his birth date being estimated on the assumption that he was under 18 years old at the time.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Gisulfus eius germanus" succeeded Grimoald and ruled for 17 years[60].  Paulus also records that Gisulf captured the Roman city of Sura, with Hirpinum and Arcis, plundered Campania and was persuaded to return to Benevento after Pope John VI sent gifts and ransomed all his captives[61].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Gisolfus Summus dux gentis Langobardorum" donated property to Volturno monastery founded by "nobis carnis consanguinitate propinqui Paldo, Tato et Taso" by charter dated 703[62]m WINIPERGA, daughter of ---.  Paulus Diaconus names "Winiperga" as wife of "Gisulfus, eius germanus [Grimualdo]" but does not give her origin[63].  Duke Gisulf I & his wife had one child:

a)         ROMOALD ([690]-731).  Paulus Diaconus names "Romuald" as the son of Duke Gisulf & his wife[64].  "Romoaldus" is named as son of Gisulf in the Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti[65].  Paulus Diaconus names "Gisulfo Beneventano duce…Romuald eius filius" when recording that he succeeded on the death of his father[66].  He succeeded his father in 706 as ROMOALD II Duke of Benevento

-        see below

3.         ARICHIS (after 673-).  Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "Grimualdum, Gisulfum…et Arichis" as the three sons of Duke Romoald & his wife[67].  Stasser suggests that he was the ancestor of Arechis II who succeeded Luitprand as Duke of Benevento in 758[68]

 

 

ROMOALD II 706-731, GISULF II 731, 742

 

ROMOALD, son of GISULF I Duke of Benevento & his wife Winiperga --- ([690]-731).  Paulus Diaconus names "Romuald" as the son of Duke Gisulf & his wife[69].  "Romoaldus" is named as son of Gisulf in the Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti[70].  Paulus Diaconus names "Gisulfo Beneventano duce…Romuald eius filius" when recording that he succeeded on the death of his father[71].  He succeeded his father in 706 as ROMOALD II Duke of Benevento.  The monastery of Monte Cassino was resettled in [718], and a new monastic complex emerged at San Vinzenzo al Voltunro fifty kilometres to the north-east[72]

m firstly ([715]) GUMPERGA, daughter of --- & his wife Aurona of the Lombards.  Paulus Diaconus names "Gumpergam…filia Auronæ, Liutprandi regis sororis" as wife of "Romoald dux Beneventi"[73]

m secondly RANIGUNDA, daughter of GAIDOALD Duke of Brescia & his wife ---.  Paulus Diaconus records that Duke Romoald had "aliam coniugem…Ranigundam filiam Gaidualdi Brexiani ducis"[74]

Duke Romoald II & his first wife had one child:

1.         GISULF ([720]-after Nov 745).  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti names "Gisulfus puerulus" as son of Romuald[75].  Paulus Diaconus names "Gisulfum" as the son of "Romoald dux Beneventi" & his first wife[76].  When his father died, attempts were made to kill him and prevent his succession, but the people intervened and saved his life, enabling him to succeed as GISULF II Duke of Benevento.  He was deposed in a palace revolt and replaced by Audelahis, who was in turn replaced in [734/35] by Gregorius, nephew of Luitprand King of the Lombards.  King Luitprand invited Gisulf to his court at Pavia where he was brought up and his marriage arranged[77].  Paulus Diaconus records that Gisulf II was restored as Duke of Benevento I in 742 by King Luitprand[78].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Gisulfus…Dux Beneventi Langobardorum gentis" donated several churches to Volturno monastery by two charters dated 750[79].  "Gisolfus…dux Langobardorum gentis" donated property "in finibus Teano, loco Bairanum" to the monastery of Santa Maria in Cingla and "Acetruda…abbatissa", by charter dated Sep [745][80].  The dating clause of a charter under which "Anseramo scanfardo…cum Lupu et Ansone filii sui" sold property to Montecassino refers to "tempori dom Gisolfi summo duci, anno nono decimo ducati eius, men Nobembii, indict quarta decima" (Nov [745] according to the indiction, [749/50] for the regnal year)[81]m ([736/37]) SCAUNIPERGA, daughter of ---.  Paulus Diaconus records that the marriage of "Gisulfumque suum nepotem" and "Scaunipergam nobili ortam progenie" was arranged by Liutprand King of the Lombards[82].  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti names "Scauniperga" as wife of "Gisolfus Beneventanorum dux"[83].  She was regent of Benevento until 756, during the minority of her son Luitprand.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Domna Scaniperga et Domnus…Liuprand summi Ducibus gentis Langobardorum" donated serfs to Volturno monastery by charter dated Nov 747[84].  Duke Gisulf II & his wife had one child: 

a)         LUITPRAND (-after 758).  He succeeded his father as LUITPRAND Duke of Benevento.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Domna Scaniperga et Domnus…Liuprand summi Ducibus gentis Langobardorum" donated serfs to Volturno monastery by charter dated Nov 747[85].  He revolted against Desiderius King of the Lombards, who deposed him in 758, replacing him as duke by Arechis. 

 

 

AUDELAHIS 731-734, GREGORIUS 734-742, GODESCHALK 742-745

 

1.         AUDELAHIS (-after 734).  He was installed in 731 as AUDELAHIS Prince of Benevento after he deposed Duke Gisulf II.  The primary source which records this has so far not being identified.  His succession is ignored by Paulus Diaconus. 

 

 

1.         GREGORIUS, son of --- (-742).  Paulus Diaconus records that Liutprand King of the Lombards installed "suum nepotem Gregorium" as duke of Benevento after deposing Duke Gisulf[86].  "Gregorius" is named in the Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti as "nepos Lioprandi"[87], who installed him as GREGORIUS Duke of Benevento in [734/35] in place of Gisulf.  Paulus Diaconus records that he reigned for seven years and was replaced by Godeschalk[88]m (after [734/35]) GISELPERGA, daughter of ---.  Paulus Diaconus names "Giselperga" as wife of "Gregorius", specifying that the marriage was arranged by King Liutprand[89]

 

 

2.         GODESCHALK (-745).  Paulus Diaconus records that "Godescalcus" was installed as GODESCHALK Duke of Benevento after Duke Gregorius died, recording in a later passage that he was deposed and fled to Greece but died en route[90].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records donations of property by "Godeschalcus qui fuit quondam Dux…Annam conjugem suam" to Volturno, a judgment given by "Domnæ Ascanipergæ et Domni Liutprandi" relating to the property which was appealed to "Domni Aistulfi Regis Ticino", and another claim by "Radoaldo Gastaldeo…in præsentiam Domni Arichis intentionando pro causis de filiis et noras suas, seu germana eorum Eufimia ancilla Dei" which was settled in respect of "pars Radulhini et Ermeperti cum conjuge sua, vel Eufemia germana eorum", by charter dated Jun 766[91]m ANNA, daughter of ---.  Paulus Diaconus names "Anna" as wife of "Godescalcus", recording in a later passage that she arrived safely in Constantinople after her husband died[92]

 

 

ARICHIS II 758-787, GRIMOALD III 787-806

 

Brother and sister: 

1.         ARICHIS, son of --- ([736]-Salerno 26 Aug 787, bur Salerno Cathedral).  The parentage of Arichis is unknown.  Stasser suggests that he may have been descended from Arichis, third son of Romoald I Duke of Benevento, possibly his grandson[93].  He was installed as ARICHIS II Duke of Benevento in 758 by Desiderius King of the Lombards after the deposition of Duke Luitprand.  The dating clause of a charter under which "Arnaisclo fi[lius] q[uon]dd[am] Vvillerami" sold property to Montecassino refers to "tempori dom Arechis summi ducis Langobardorum, anno septimo ducati eius, men Magio per indict sec[un]da" (May [764])[94].  He proclaimed himself Prince of Benevento in 774, as sole Lombard ruler after the incorporation of the Lombard Italian kingdom into the Frankish domain after the defeat of King Desiderius.  Paul the Deacon lived at his court[95].  He founded the church of Santa Sophia at Benevento[96].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Arichis…Longobardorum gentis princeps" donated property to Volturno monastery by undated charter[97].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Arichis summus Dux gentis Langombardorum" confirmed the donation to Volturno monastery by "quondam Arichis filius Radychis" by charter dated 778[98].  The dating clause of a charter under which "Aredeo fi[lius] qdd Georgii" donated property to Montecassino refers to "tempori dom Arechis summi duci genti Langobardorum, anno vicesimo sec[un]do ducati eius, men Magio per indict sec[un]da" (May [779])[99].  It should be noted that this document refers to "ducati eius" not "principatu eius".  Different manuscripts of the Annales Beneventani record the death of "Arechis princeps et dux Samnitum" on "VII Kal Sep 788" and in Aug 787[100].  The Annales Laurissenses record the deaths in 787 of "Harichis dux Beneventanus" and of "Romaldum filium suum"[101].  Einhard records the deaths (in 786) of "Aragisus dux Beneventanorum…Rumoldo maiore filio suo" and the accession of "minore ducis filio Grimoldo"[102].  His place of burial is confirmed by the Chronicon Salernitanum which records that his son "Grimoald" was buried "in…ecclesia sedis Salernitanæ iuxta sepulchra patris fratrisque"[103]m ([758]) ADALPERGA of the Lombards, daughter of DESIDERIUS King of the Lombards & his wife Ansa --- (-after Feb 788).  The Chronicon Salernitanum names Adalperga, daughter of Desiderius, as wife of "Arichis Beneventanus dux"[104].  She is referred to as the wife of Duke Arichis in the Versus de Annis by Paulus Diaconus, the initial letters of each verse of the poem spelling out the words "Adelperga pia"[105].  Paul the Deacon dedicated his history of the Roman Empire to her[106].  Pope Hadrian I records "Adalberga relicta Arigihs…duas filias suas secum" in a letter to Charles I King of the Franks dated to [777/78][107].  Duke Arichis & his wife had five children: 

a)         ROMOALD ([761/62]-21 Jul 787, bur Salerno Cathedral).  "Rumoldum et Grimoldum" are named as sons of "Aragisus" by Einhard[108].  The Chronicon Salernitanum names (in order) "Romoald, Grimoald et Gisifum, Theoderadam et Adelchisam" as children of Duke Arichis and Adalperga[109].  The Annales Beneventani record the death "pridie Kal Aug 787" of "Roimoaldus filius Arechi", earlier in the same month in which his father died[110].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Romoald filii Arichis" died aged 25[111].  The Annales Laurissenses record the deaths in 787 of "Harichis dux Beneventanus" and of "Romaldum filium suum"[112].  The Annales Laurissenses record the deaths in 787 of "Harichis dux Beneventanus" and of "Romaldum filium suum"[113].  Einhard records the deaths (in 786) of "Aragisus dux Beneventanorum…Rumoldo maiore filio suo" and the accession of "minore ducis filio Grimoldo"[114].  His place of burial is confirmed by the Chronicon Salernitanum which records that his brother "Grimoald" was buried "in…ecclesia sedis Salernitanæ iuxta sepulchra patris fratrisque"[115]

b)         GRIMOALD (-Apr 806, bur Salerno Cathedral).  "Rumoldum et Grimoldum" are named as sons of "Aragisus" by Einhard[116].  The Chronicon Salernitanum names (in order) "Romoald, Grimoald et Gisifum, Theoderadam et Adelchisam" as children of Duke Arichis and Adalperga[117].  Grimoald was taken by Charles I King of the Franks as a hostage for his father's good behaviour, but after the death of his father his mother persuaded the king to release him[118].  He was installed as GRIMOALD III Prince of Benevento in succession to his father[119], in return for recognising Carolingian suzerainty.  Einhard records the deaths (in 786) of "Aragisus dux Beneventanorum…Rumoldo maiore filio suo" and the accession of "minore ducis filio Grimoldo"[120].  The Annales Regni Francorum record that, in 788, he won an overwhelming victory over Byzantine forces in Calabria[121].  The dating clause of a charter dated Oct 792, under which "Melonianus" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the fifth year of "Grimoald…dux gentis Langobardorum"[122].  The dating clause of a charter under which "Trasemundus fi[lius] Quodescalci" donated property "in Borfoniana finibus Apulie" to Montecassino refers to "temporibus domni Grimualdi Longobardorum gentis principis, anno septimo principatus eius, men Martio, quintadecima indict" (Mar [792])[123].  Grimoald revolted against the Franks in 792, from which time he issued coins in his own name.  He also refused to shave his beard despite the Carolingian order to do so[124].  Einhard records that "Grimaldus Beneventanorum dux" captured "Winigisum comitem Spoletii" at "Luceria" and released him the following year[125].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Winigisus dux Spolitanus" was besieged and captured by "Grimoldo" in 802, but released in the following year[126].  The Annales Regni Francorum also record that, in 802, Grimoald captured Winichis dux of Spoleto at Lucera, and released him the following year[127].  The dating clause of a charter under which "Lupo fi[lius] q[uon]dd[am] Gavioli" sold property "in vico Bonelle" to Montecassino refers to "tempori dom…Grimoalt summo magno princ Langobardorum genti, quinto decimo anno, men Aprile per indict undecima" (Apr [803])[128].  The dating clause of a charter under which "Vitaliano fi[lius] Vitali" sold property "in Prata, loco…Vico Bonelle" to Montecassino refers to "temporibus dom Grimoaldi summo magni princ Langobardorum ientis, octabo decimo anno princ eius, men Ianuario per indict quarta decima" (Jan [806])[129].  The Annales Beneventani record the death of Prince Grimoald in 806[130].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Grimoald" was buried "in…ecclesia sedis Salernitanæ iuxta sepulchra patris fratrisque"[131].  The Epitaphium Grimoaldi records that "vixisti septem [ter binis floridus annis]"[132]m ([789/91], repudiated [795]) EUANTHIA, daughter of --- & his wife Hypatia.  Erchempert records that "Grimoalt neptem augusti Achivorum in coniugium sumpsit nomine Wautiam"[133].  The Vita Philareti by Niketas of Amnia records the marriage of Euanthia, granddaughter of Philaretos (and sister of Maria, first wife of Emperor Konstantinos VI), to "un roi des Lombards nommé Argousis"[134].  Her repudiation is referred to in a letter from Theodore the Studite to Emperor Konstantinos VI reproaching him of his licentious lifestyle alleging that it provoked "la répudiation d´une épouse légitime dans une contrée lointaine"[135].  The dating of the repudiation is presumably around the same time as Emperor Konstantinos repudiated his first wife [dated to Jan 895], which is recorded by Theophanes[136]

c)         GISULF .  The Chronicon Salernitanum names (in order) "Romoald, Grimoald et Gisifum, Theoderadam et Adelchisam" as children of Duke Arichis and Adalperga[137]

d)         THEODERADA (-after Feb 788).  The Chronicon Salernitanum names (in order) "Romoald, Grimoald et Gisifum, Theoderadam et Adelchisam" as children of Duke Arichis and Adalperga[138].  Pope Hadrian I records "Adalberga relicta Arigihs…duas filias suas secum" in a letter to Charles I King of the Franks dated to [777/78][139]

e)         ADELCHISA (after 773-after Nov 817).  The Chronicon Salernitanum names (in order) "Romoald, Grimoald et Gisifum, Theoderadam et Adelchisam" as children of Duke Arichis and Adalperga[140].  Pope Hadrian I records "Adalberga relicta Arigihs…duas filias suas secum" in a letter to Charles I King of the Franks dated to [777/78][141].  Her date of birth is estimated from the introduction of Paulus Diaconus´s Historia Romana, written in 773, which is addressed to "dominæ Adelpergæ" and refers to her having three children[142], on the assumption that Adelchisa was the younger sister and that their brothers Romoald and Grimoald were definitely born at that date.  Abbess of San Salvatore d´Alife.  "Sico…Longobardorum gentis princeps" donated property to "Adelchisa filia…domini Arichis", at the request of "Radelchis gastaldi", by charter dated Nov 817[143].  "Sichenolfus…Langobardorum gentis princ[eps]" donated property, including that previously held by "dom[ne] Adelghise que nunc nostri palatii pertinet", to Santa Maria in Cingla by charter dated to [839/Jul 849][144]

2.         daughter (-after 774).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Arichis primus Beneventi principum" appointed "germanamque suam" as first abbess of Benevento Santa Sophia, dated to Nov 774[145]

 

 

GRIMOALD IV 806-817

 

1.         ERMENRICHm ---.  The name of Ermenrich´s wife is not known.  As noted below, it is possible that she was related to Grimoald III Prince of Benevento.  Ermenrich & his wife had one child: 

a)         GRIMOALD "Stoleseyz" (-murdered May 818).  His parentage is confirmed by the Vita S. Sabini which records that it was written during the reign of "Hermerich prole Grimoald"[146].  The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Idelrici filius Grimoalt, quem lingua Todesca…Stoleseyz fuit appellatus"[147].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records him as "exadelphos" of his predecessor[148], but the precise relationship is not known.  The absence of the name Ermenrich in the family of the princes of Benevento suggests that the connection was through Grimoald´s mother.  The Annales Beneventani record that "Grimoaldus thesaurarius/Grimoaldus Falco" succeeded in 806 as GRIMOALD IV Prince of Benevento[149].  The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Grimoalt storesais" as successor of "Grimoalt"[150].  The dating clause of a charter under which "Forti sculdais fi[lius] Roderissi sculdais, abitator in civitat Tarentina" donated property in Taranto to Montecassino refers to "temporibus…Grimualdi summi principis gentis Longobardorum, anno sec[un[do princ[i]p[atu]s eius, mse Octobrio, indic prima" (Oct [807])[151].  He was forced to pay tribute of 25,000 solidi to Emperor Charles I in 812, and from 814 annual tribute of 7,000 solidi to Emperor Louis I[152].  The dating clause of a charter dated Oct 816, under which "Roppolo filius quondam Tremodi" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the eleventh year of "domni Grimualdi Beneventane provincie princeps"[153].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records the conspiracy involving "Rofrit cum germano suo…Potelfrit, filii…Dauferii" which culminated in "Agelmundus" assassinating Grimoald IV Prince of Benevento after reigning for 11 years and 7 months (dated to May 818)[154].  Erchempert records that "Radechis comes Consinus, Sico Agerentinus castaldus" conspired to kill Grimoald[155].  The Annales Beneventani record Grimoald´s death in 818[156]

 

 

SICO I 817-830, SICARD 830-839

 

SICO, son of --- ([769/72]-Oct [830/32]).  No information has been found relating to the parentage of Sico.  His birth date is estimated from an Epitaphium Grimoaldi which records that he died aged 60[157].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Sico…cum uxorem et filiis et cunota sua" left the city of Spoleto to travel to Constantinople, but stayed at Benevento with "princeps Grimoalt"[158]Gastald of Acerenza.  Erchempert names "Sico Agerentinus castaldus" among the conspirators against Prince Grimoald IV[159].  The Annales Beneventani record that he succeeded in 817 as SICO I Prince of Benevento[160].  The dating clause of a charter dated 11 Aug 818, under which "Leo filius quondam Piperati" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the second year of "domnis nostri Siconi princeps Beneventane provincie"[161].  He raided Naples and captured the body of San Gennaro, the patron saint of the city[162].  The Annales Beneventani record that Sico died in 832[163], but the charter dated May 835, quoted below, refers to the fifth year of his son "domni nostri Sichardi…Beneventane provincie princeps"[164].  According to the Catalogus Principum Salerni, "Syco Spoletinus" was Count of Salerno for 15 years 8 months[165].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Sico princeps" arranged the marriages of "suas filias Beneventanis viros", that "unam ex eis…Sikelenda" married "Azoni filio", another "Ursi", and a third "iuveni Radelmundus", adding that the husbands of the others were not remembered[166]

m ---.  The name of Prince Sico's wife is not known. 

Prince Sico & his wife had seven or more children: 

1.         SICARD (-murdered 839[167]).  The Annales Beneventani record that "Sycardus filius Sico princeps" succeeded his father as SICARD Prince of Benevento[168], the Catalogus Principum Salerni stating that he ruled for 7 years 9 months[169].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Sichardus…Beneventanæ Provinciæ Princeps" donated land "in partibus Liburiæ…Pantano" to Volturno monastery by charter dated Feb [833][170].  The dating clause of a charter dated May 835, under which "Willus filius quondam Luperissi" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the fifth year of "domni nostri Sichardi…Beneventane provincie princeps"[171].  In 836, "Sicardus Langobardorum gentis princeps" made a peace agreement with Naples, represented by Ioannes bishop elect of the church of Naples and Andreas magister militum[172].  The Chronicon Amalphitani records that "Sicardus Princeps" was killed after reigning 7 years[173]m ADELCHISA, daughter of DAUFER "Mutus" & his wife --- (-before Feb 852).  The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Adelchisa filia Dauferii qui cognominatus fuit Mutus propter impeditionem suæ linguæ" as wife of Sicard[174].  "Gontarius abbas monasterii sancti Modesti" was testamentary executor of "domina Adelchisa qui fuit principessa relicta domni Sichardi principis" and as such donated her property in Canosa to Monte Casino by charter dated Feb 852[175]

2.         SICONULF [Sikenolf] (-Salerno [Nov/Dec] 849).  Nithard names "Sigenulf" as brother of "Sigihard"[176].  "Syconulfum eius fratrem [=Sycard]" is named in the Catalogus Principum Salerni, when recording his imprisonment at Taranto[177].  On the death of his older brother, Radelchis deprived Siconulf of Benevento and imprisoned him at Taranto.  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that, with help from Amalfi, he escaped and was brought back to Salerno which, under his leadership, declared war on Benevento[178].  During the civil war which followed, Siconulf gained control of the southern and western parts of the old principality of Benevento, declaring himself SICONULF Prince of Salerno.  The dating clause of a charter dated Mar 842, under which "Antipertu et Arnipertu germani filii quondam Cuniperti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the third year of "domni nostri Siconolfi"[179].  The ensuing civil war was eventually settled by Louis King of Italy [Carolingian] who arranged the creation of the new principality of Salerno out of Beneventan territory under the Radelgisi et Siginulfi Divisio Ducatus Beneventani which was signed in early 849[180].  The Chronica Sancti Benedicti Casinensis records the death of Siconolfo at Salerno[181]

-        see below, Chapter 2.A. PRINCES of SALERNO

3.         SICHELENDA .  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Sico princeps" arranged the marriages of "suas filias Beneventanis viros", that "unam ex eis…Sikelenda" married "Azoni filio", another "Ursi", and a third "iuveni Radelmundus", adding that the husbands of the others were not remembered[182]m ---, son of AZO & his wife ---. 

4.         daughter .  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Sico princeps" arranged the marriages of "suas filias Beneventanis viros", that "unam ex eis…Sikelenda" married "Azoni filio", another "Ursi", and a third "iuveni Radelmundus", adding that the husbands of the others were not remembered[183]m URSO Gastald of Conza, son of ---. 

5.         daughter .  m RADELMUNDO Gastald of Acerenza, son of ---. 

6.         other daughters .  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Sico princeps" arranged the marriages of "suas filias Beneventanis viros", that "unam ex eis…Sikelenda" married "Azoni filio", another "Ursi", and a third "iuveni Radelmundus", adding that the husbands of the others were not remembered[184]

 

 

 

B.      PRINCES of BENEVENTO (FAMILY of RADELCHIS)

 

 

It is not certain that the following family group, who is recorded in Benevento in the late 8th century, was related to the family of Radelchis who succeeded as Prince of Benevento in 839.  However, the common use of the name Ursus in both groups suggests that they may have been related.  The status of the so-called duchy of "Cerreto Sanita" in Benevento, recorded as shown below, has not been clarified, especially because dukes of Benevento (of the family of Gisulf, see Part A. above) are recorded during the same time-frame. 

 

 

1.         URSUS, son of MUNICHIS Duke of Friulia & his wife --- .  Paulus Diaconus names "Munichis, qui pater post Petri Foroiulani et Ursi Cenetensis ducum"[185].  Duke of Cerreto Sanita (in Benevento).  same person as…?  URSUS (-before 6 Mar 776).  "Ursoni bone memorie…Duci" is recorded as the father of "Johannes…Dux" in the latter´s charter dated 6 Mar 776 which records a donation to Nonantola monastery[186].  The co-identity with dux Ursus, son of Munichis, is not certain.  The precise territorial extent of the duchy ruled by Ioannes cannot be ascertained from the text of the 776 charter, although the donation to Nonantola (near Modena in Tuscany) suggests that it was further north than the duchy of Benevento.  However, no other reference has yet been found to a second dux Ursus during this period, which suggests that the co-identity may be correct.  m ARIFLADA, daughter of --- (-before 6 Mar 776).  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 6 Mar 776 under which her son "Johannes…Dux ac Ursa sorore mea, Ancilla Christi, filius ac filia Ursoni bone memorie" donated property to the monastery of Nonantola, for the souls of "genitori nostri Domno Ursoni Duci et Domna Ariflada genetrice nostra"[187].  Ursus & his wife had two children: 

a)         JOHANNES (-after 6 Mar 776).  Dux.  "Johannes…Dux ac Ursa sorore mea, Ancilla Christi, filius ac filia Ursoni bone memorie" donated property to the monastery of Nonantola, for the souls of "genitori nostri Domno Ursoni Duci et Domna Ariflada genetrice nostra", by charter dated 6 Mar 776, subscribed by "Opertus Comes…"[188]

b)         URSA (-after 6 Mar 776).  "Johannes…Dux ac Ursa sorore mea, Ancilla Christi, filius ac filia Ursoni bone memorie" donated property to the monastery of Nonantola, for the souls of "genitori nostri Domno Ursoni Duci et Domna Ariflada genetrice nostra", by charter dated 6 Mar 776, subscribed by "Opertus Comes…"[189].  Nun. 

 

 

RADELCHIS I 839-849, RADELGAR I 851-854, GAIDERIS 878-881

 

1.         RADELCHIS, son of --- ([788/60]-849).  His birth date is estimated from the Epitaphium Radelchis Principis which records that he died aged 60[190].  He seized power in Benevento in 839 on the death of Sicard Prince of Benevento.  During the civil war which followed, he gained control of Benevento and the northern parts of the old principality, declaring himself RADELCHIS I Prince of Benevento.  The civil war was eventually settled by Louis King of Italy [Carolingian] who arranged a division of territories between the two sides under the Radelgisi et Siginulfi Divisio Ducatus Beneventani signed in early 849, Benevento losing half its territory[191].  In 847, the Arabs captured Bari, where they established an emirate, and Taranto[192].  The Annales Beneventani record the death of Prince Radelchis in 849[193]m GARETRUDA, daughter of --- (-1 Jun ----).  The Epitaphium Caretrudæ names "coniux Radelchis…hæc Caretruda", adding that she died aged 70 and had twelve children[194].  Prince Radelchis & his wife had twelve children: 

a)         URSO ([809/16]-[844/50]).  "Ursus fils aîné de Radelchis I" is named in a charter of his father in favour of "gastald Gaidenard" dated May 841[195].  The Epitaphium Ursi records that he was the son of "Radelchis" and that he died before his father aged 34[196]

b)         RADELGAR ([822]-[Nov/Dec] [853/54]).  The Annales Beneventani record that "Radelgarius filius Radelchis princeps" succeeded his father in 849 as RADELGAR I Prince of Benevento[197].  The contemporary Epitaphium Radelcarii Principis names "Radelcarius, Beneventi celsa potestas"[198], arranged in the compilation immediately after the Epitaphium of his supposed mother.  The Chonicon Monasterii Beneventani records the death in 854 of "Radelgarius Princeps"[199]m TASSELGARDA, daughter of ---.  "Radelcharius…Langobardorum gentis princeps" donated property, at the request of "Tasselgardæ…conjugis nostræ", by charter dated Nov 851[200].  Prince Radelgar & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          GAIDERIS (-881).  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti record that "Gaiderius filius Radelgarii" succeeded after the murder of his uncle in 878 as GAIDERIS Prince of Benevento[201].  The Annales Beneventani record that he was deposed and expelled from Benevento in Jan 881[202]m ---.  The name of Gaideris´s wife is not known.  Gaideris & his wife had one child: 

(a)       son .  His parentage is confirmed by Erchempert who records that "Gaideris" made an alliance with "Pandonolfo", confirmed by the marriage of the son of the former to the daughter of the latter, dated to [880][203]m ([880]) --- di Capua, daughter of PANDENOLF Count of Capua & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Erchempert who records that "Gaideris" made an alliance with "Pandonolfo", confirmed by the marriage of the son of the former to the daughter of the latter, dated to [880][204]

ii)         [--- di Benevento .  Erchempert names "Landone filio Landonolfi, cognato…Gaideris"[205], which could indicate that Lando was the brother-in-law of Gaideriso.  m LANDO di Capua, son of LANDENOLF di Capua & his wife --- (-885).] 

c)         ADELCHIS (-murdered 878).  The Annales Beneventani record that "Adelgis germanus frater Radelgarii" succeeded his brother in 854 as ADELCHIS Prince of Benevento[206]

-        see below

d)         AIO (824 or after-886).  The Annales Beneventani record "Aio episcopus" in 840 and the death in 886 of "Aio episcopus"[207].  Bishop of Benevento 17 Jul 840.  His parentage is not specified, but the Epitaphium Caretrudæ records that "coniux Radelchis…hæc Caretruda" was the mother of a bishop[208]

e)         LADELCHIS (-after Jun 862).  The treaty of division between Radelchis Prince of Benevento and Siconulf, dated 849, names "Petrum filium Landonis et Paldefrit filium Paldulfi" and "Adelgisum et Ladelgisum filios meos et Potonem nepotem meum" as sureties/hostages for performance of the agreement[209].  "Le Prince Adelchis" gave the property of Drogo, who died without heirs, to "son frère Ladelchis" on the request of "un autre frère Arechis qui était son référendaire" by charter dated Jun 862[210]

f)          ARECHIS (-after Jun 862).  "Le Prince Adelchis" gave the property of Drogo, who died without heirs, to "son frère Ladelchis" on the request of "un autre frère Arechis qui était son référendaire" by charter dated Jun 862[211]

g)         six other children .  The Epitaphium Caretrudæ names "coniux Radelchis…hæc Caretruda", adding that she died aged 70 and had twelve children[212]

 

 

ADELCHIS 854-878, RADELCHIS II 881-884, 897-900, AIO 884-891, URSUS 891-892, GUIDO 895-897

 

ADELCHIS, son of RADELCHIS I Prince of Benevento & his wife Caretruda --- (-murdered 878).  The treaty of division between Radelchis Prince of Benevento and Siconulf, dated 849, names "Petrum filium Landonis et Paldefrit filium Paldulfi" and "Adelgisum et Ladelgisum filios meos et Potonem nepotem meum" as sureties/hostages for performance of the agreement[213].  The Annales Beneventani record that "Adelgis germanus frater Radelgarii" succeeded his brother in 854 as ADELCHIS Prince of Benevento[214].  Emperor Louis II occupied Benevento in 866, using it as his southern base particularly to plan the recapture of Bari from the Arabs.  During this time, the emperor minted coins in association with Prince Adelchis[215].  The over-bearing manner of Empress Engelberga triggered her arrest, and that of her husband, at Benevento in Aug 871, although their release was negotiated within a month by the bishop of Benevento[216].  Regino records that "Adalgisus dux Beneventanus" rebelled against Emperor Louis in 871, having been corrupted by the Greeks[217].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Adelchis…Langobardorum gentis Princeps" confirmed the privileges of the abbot of Volturno, at the request of "Audoaldi comitis cognati nostri", by charter dated Feb [878][218].  The Chonicon Monasterii Beneventani records that "Adelchis Princeps" was killed in 878[219].  A charter of his son "Aio…Langobardorum gentis princeps", dated May [885], records that "dom Adelchis princip…genitori nostro" was killed by "Potoni fi[lii] Potitionis"[220]

m ADELTRUDA, daughter of ---.  "Adelchis…Langobardorum gentis princeps" donated property, at the request of "Adeltrudæ…conjugis nostræ", by charter dated Feb 876[221].  She may have been the sister of Count Audoald, as suggested by the Chronicon Vulturnense which records that "Adelchis…Langobardorum gentis Princeps" confirmed the privileges of the abbot of Volturno, at the request of "Audoaldi comitis cognati nostri", by charter dated Feb [878][222]

Prince Adelchis & his wife had [ten] children:

1.         RADELCHIS (-900).  Erchempert records that "filiorum trium, Maionis et Maienolfi nec non et Radelgisi filii Adelgisi Beneventani principis" supported "Pando [di Capua]" in attacking "Guaiferio" Prince of Salerno, dated to 863[223].  The Annales Beneventani record that "Radelchis iunior/Radelgis filius predicti Adelgisii" succeeded in 881 as RADELCHIS II Prince of Benevento[224].  The Annales Beneventani record that he was deposed and expelled from Benevento in 885[225] and, in a later passage, that he was restored as Prince of Benevento in 898[226].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Radelchis…gentis Langobardorum Princeps" confirmed the privileges of the monastery of Santa Maria, at the request of "Garichisæ nostræ sororis", by charter dated Aug [898][227].  The Annales Beneventani  record that he was deposed again in Jan 900, by Atenolf I Prince of Capua "cognatus eius", who seized the Beneventan throne[228]m ARNIPERGA, daughter of --- (-after Feb 881).  "Radelchis…Langobardorum gentis princeps filius domini bonæ recordationis Adelchis" donated property, at the request of "Arniperge…conjugi nostre", by charter dated Feb 881[229].  Stasser suggests that she was Arniperga di Capua, daughter of Pando di Capua & his wife ---, on the assumption that "cognatus" in the following source should be interpreted as "brother-in-law" and therefore that Radelchis´s wife was Pandenolf´s sister[230]: the source in question is Erchempert, who records that "Pandonolfus" requested "Radelgisum principem cognatum suum" for help against "filiis Landonis et filiis Landonolfi"[231].  A difficulty with this theory is that a second source, the Annales Beneventani, record that in Jan 900 Radelchis II was deposed by Atenolf I Count of Capua "cognatus eius", who then seized the Beneventan throne[232].  Stasser, in another passage, contradicts himself by suggesting that the wife of Radelchis II was the sister of Atenolf, also on the basis that "cognatus" should be interpreted as meaning "brother-in-law"[233].  Pandenolf Count of Capua was the son of Pando, while Atenolf was the son of Pando´s brother Landenolf.  Arniperga could not therefore have been the sister of both these Capuan counts.  It is clear that "cognatus" in one or both of the sources quoted must be given a broader meaning than brother-in-law.  It is probably a safe conclusion that Radelchis was distantly related to the counts of Capua, and that the relationship may have been through his wife Arniperga as "consanguineus" was the term generally applied to indicate blood relationship, but the precise nature of the relationship is not known. 

2.         MAIO (-[May 878/Oct 884]).  Erchempert records that "filiorum trium, Maionis et Maienolfi nec non et Radelgisi filii Adelgisi Beneventani principis" supported "Pando [di Capua]" in attacking "Guaiferio" Prince of Salerno, dated to 863[234].  "Maio" is named in a charter of "son père" dated May 878[235]

3.         MAGENULF (-after 863).  Erchempert records that "filiorum trium, Maionis et Maienolfi nec non et Radelgisi filii Adelgisi Beneventani principis" supported "Pando [di Capua]" in attacking "Guaiferio" Prince of Salerno, dated to 863[236]

4.         AIO (-Oct 891).  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti record that "Aio frater Radelchis" succeeded in 884 as AIO Prince of Benevento[237].  The Byzantines, under Nikephoros Phokas, launched a major campaign in southern Italy between late 883 and 885, recapturing most of Calabria from Benevento and Salerno[238].  Byzantine forces attempted to capture Beneventan towns in [888] and Prince Aio responded by seizing Bari, although the town was recaptured within a year.  This was followed by an invasion of Beneventan territory by Naples[239].  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti record war between Capua and Naples "in Liburia ad sanctum Cartium" in the second year of the reign of Atenolf Count of Capua, that Atenolf "indictione 6 post dies undecim" captured "Berelais", but that in the same week he was defeated by "Aio princeps cum quodam patricio Constantinopolitano"[240].  "Aio…Langobardorum gentis princeps" donated property which belonged to "Potoni fi[lii] Potitionis infra finibus Alifanis et Telesinis", for which he had killed "dom Adelchis princip…genitori nostro", to Montecassino, at the request of "Ladelchis…germani nostri", by charter dated May [885][241].  The Chonicon Monasterii Beneventani records the death in Oct 891 of "Aio Princeps"[242]m ---.  The name of Aio's wife is not known.  Prince Aio & his wife had one child:

a)         URSUS (-892 or after).  The Annales Beneventani record that "Ursus puer filius Aio" succeeded his father in 891 as URSUS Prince of Benevento[243].  The Annales Beneventani record that "Sybbaticius/Simbaticius", Byzantine strategos of Calabria, captured Benevento in Oct 892, deposed Ursus, and established the town as the Byzantine administrative capital for the newly established theme of Longobardia in place of Bari[244].  The contemporary Epitaphium Ursi names "Ursus…splendida progenies", specifying that "hunc genuit princeps Bardorum stemmate clarus Radelchis", although it does not name his father[245]

5.         LADELCHIS (-after May 885).  "Aio…Langobardorum gentis princeps" donated property which belonged to "Potoni fi[lii] Potitionis infra finibus Alifanis et Telesinis", for which he had killed "dom Adelchis princip…genitori nostro", to Montecassino, at the request of "Ladelchis…germani nostri", by charter dated May [885][246]

6.         AGELTRUDA (-after 921)Herimannus names "Angildruda" as widow of Guido and mother of Lambert, but does not give her origin[247].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  "Vuido…imperator augustus" confirmed earlier donations to the church of Parma by "coniugi nostræ Ageltrudi" by charter dated 21 Feb 891[248].  The Annales Fuldenses name "Ageldrudis vidua Widonis" in 896[249].  A document dated 1 Dec 898 records a peace agreement reached between Berengar King of Italy and "Ageltrudæ relicta quondam Widoni imperatoris" and "filio eius Lamberto [imperatoris]"[250]m GUIDO III Duke of Spoleto, son of GUIDO II Duke of Spoleto & his wife Ita of Benevento (-894).  He was elected GUIDO I King of Italy at Pavia 12 Feb 889.  He was crowned Emperor at Rome 21 Feb 891. 

7.         GAIRICHISA (-after Aug 898).  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Radelchis…gentis Langobardorum Princeps" confirmed the privileges of the monastery of Santa Maria, at the request of "Garichisæ nostræ sororis", by charter dated Aug [898][251]

8.         [daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Erchempert who records that, after the murder of "Adelgis", he was replaced by "Gaideris filius Radelgari nepos extincti" and "Cailo et Dauferius generi illius" were expelled from Benevento[252].  It is possible that either she or her unnamed sister was the same person as Adelchis´s daughter named Gairichisa, named above.  m GAILO, son of --- (-after 878).] 

9.         [daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Erchempert who records that, after the murder of "Adelgis", he was replaced by "Gaideris filius Radelgari nepos extincti" and "Cailo et Dauferius generi illius" were expelled from Benevento[253].  It is possible that either she or her unnamed sister was the same person as Adelchis´s daughter named Gairichisa, named above.  m DAUFER, son of --- (-after 878).] 

10.      [--- di Benevento .  The Annales Beneventani record that Atenulf deposed Radelchis Prince of Benevento "cognatus eius" and seized the Beneventan throne[254].  Stasser suggests that "cognatus" in this passage should be interpreted as "brother-in-law" and therefore that Atenulf had married secondly the daughter of Prince Adelchis.  m (before 899) as his second wife, ATENOLF Count of Capua, son of LANDENOLF of Capua & his wife --- (-[912]).] 

 

 

1.         GUIDO di Spoleto, son of --- di Spoleto & his wife --- (-murdered Rome early 897).  He succeeded his [cousin] in [888/89] as GUIDO IV Duke of Spoleto.  The Chronicon Salernitanum quotes a letter addressed to "Guaimario principi", when Benevento was threatened by the Byzantines, requesting help from "Guidoni cognato vestro…sororem suam vestramque coniugem", the same passage later referring to "Guido marchio" [Guido IV Duke and Marchese of Spoleto] and "suæque sorori Idte", dated to 896 in the margin of the MGH edition of the text[255].  The Annales Beneventanti record that he expelled the Byzantines from Benevento in 895[256], forcing them back to Bari, and established himself as GUIDO Prince of Benevento[257].  He returned to Spoleto in 897 and offered Benevento to his brother-in-law Guaimar Prince of Salerno, who was captured and blinded on his way to the city[258].  He was killed by Alberico, who later succeeded as Duke of Spoleto. 

 

 

 

C.      PRINCES of BENEVENTO (FAMILY of PRINCES of CAPUA)

 

 

After Atenolf I Count of Capua deposed Radelchis Prince of Benevento in Jan 900, he seized the Beneventan throne[259] and united Benevento with Capua.  He used the title "Langobardorum gentis princeps"[260].  The following members of the royal family of Capua ruled separately as princes of Benevento. 

 

 

LANDOLF 940

 

LANDOLF di Capua, son of ATENOLF II joint Prince of Capua & his wife --- (-after 979).  A charter dated Jul 969 records a donation by "Landolfus filius bone memorie domni Atenolfi, qui fuid princeps Benebenti"[261].  He succeeded his father in 940 as LANDOLF Duke of Benevento.  He was exiled by Pandolf I Prince of Capua and took refuge in Naples, from where he appealed to his sister for shelter at Salerno.  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that he was made gastald of Conza and his sons were given Salernitan territories[262].  In 973, Landolf captured Gisolf I Prince of Salerno and succeeded as LANDOLF Prince of Salerno, but Gisolf was restored soon after with the help of Pandolf I Prince of Capua[263].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "suus patruus [referring to Pandolf I "Capiferreus/Ironhead" Prince of Capua and Benevento] Landolfusfilius..:Atenolfi principis", who had been expelled from Capua and found refuge in Naples, invaded Salerno, deposed Gisulf Prince of Salerno (dated to 973)[264]

m ---.  The name of Landolf´s wife is not known. 

Duke Landolf & his wife had four children:

1.         GUAIMAR .  The Chronicon Salernitanum names (in order) "Landenulfus, Landulfus, Indulfus et Guaimarius" as the four sons of Landolf[265].  Conte di Marsi. 

2.         INDULF .  The Chronicon Salernitanum names (in order) "Landenulfus, Landulfus, Indulfus et Guaimarius" as the four sons of Landolf[266].  Conte di Sarni. 

3.         LANDOLF (-after 1004).  The Chronicon Salernitanum names (in order) "Landenulfus, Landulfus, Indulfus et Guaimarius" as the four sons of Landolf[267].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "suus patruus [referring to Pandolf I "Capiferreus/Ironhead" Prince of Capua and Benevento] Landolfusfilius..:Atenolfi principis" left "filium suum…Landulfus" in Naples when he invaded Salerno (dated to 973)[268].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that, after the death of "Landenulfus", "Landulfus qui fuerat Neapolim derelictus" donated "Laurim castellum" and also left for Salerno[269].  "Otto…imperator augustus" confirmed donations to the church of Salerno by "Landulfi filii item Landulfi" by charter dated 2 Nov 982[270]

4.         LANDENOLF (-[973]).  The Chronicon Salernitanum names (in order) "Landenulfus, Landulfus, Indulfus et Guaimarius" as the four sons of Landolf, specifying that Landenolf "habuit unum claucosum oculum"[271].  Conte di Lauri.  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that, after the death of "Landenulfus", "Landulfus qui fuerat Neapolim derelictus" donated "Laurim castellum" and also left for Salerno[272]m ---, daughter of TASSELGARD & his wife ---.  The Chronicon Salernitanum names (in order) "Landenulfus, Landulfus, Indulfus et Guaimarius" as the four sons of Landolf and records that "ipse Landenulfus" married "puellam…Tasselgardi filiam"[273].  Landenolf & his wife had one child: 

a)         LANDOLF (-after 5 Dec 981).  "Otto…imperator augustus" gave judgment in a dispute between Abbot Iohannes of San Vincenzo, Volturno and "Landolfo comite filium cuiusdam Landenolfi comiti" in a charter dated 5 Dec 981, before "Gunzolino marchio et Azzolino Teatino comitibus[274]

 

 

ADELFER 1003-1005 

 

ADELFER [IV] di Avellino, son of ADELFER [III] Conte di Avellino & his wife --- (-after 1005).  "I conti Madelfrid e Adelferio, figli del fu Adelferio" granted land in Avellino to "Ludovico figlio di Ermengardo" by charter dated Aug 993[275].  He was installed in 1003 as ADELFER Prince of Benevento, deposed in 1005.  The Annales Beneventani record that "domni Pandolfi et…domni Landolfi filii eius" were expelled from Benevento in 1003 and replaced as prince by "Adelferium de Abellino", that 1004 was "anno primo domni Adelferii de Abellino et Adelferii filius eius", and that "domni Pandolfi et domni Landolfi filii eius" returned to Benevento in 1005[276]m ---.  The name of Adelfer´s wife is not known.  Adelfer [IV] & his wife had two children: 

1.         ADELFER [V] (-after 1005).  The Annales Beneventani record that "domni Pandolfi et…domni Landolfi filii eius" were expelled from Benevento in 1003 and replaced as prince by "Adelferium de Abellino", that 1004 was "anno primo domni Adelferii de Abellino et Adelferii filius eius", and that "domni Pandolfi et domni Landolfi filii eius" returned to Benevento in 1005[277]

2.         other children: CONTI di AVELLINO

 

 

LANDOLF V -1034, PANDOLF VI, LANDOLF VI -1077, PANDOLF IV -1074 

 

LANDOLF di Capua, son of PANDOLF III Prince of Capua & his wife --- (-Sep 1034).  The Annales Beneventani record that "domni Pandolfi et…domni Landolfi filii eius" were expelled from Benevento in 1003 and replaced as prince by "Adelferium de Abellino"[278].  The calculation of the regnal years of "Landolfi filii eius [=domini Pandolfi]" in the Annales Beneventani suggests that he was installed as joint Prince of Benevento, jointly with his father, in [987][279]LANDOLF V Prince of Benevento.  The Chonicon Monasterii Beneventani records the death in Sep 1034 of "Landulphus Princeps"[280]

m ---CARDA, daughter of MANSO II Duke of Amalfi & his wife --- ([982/87]-[1004/09], bur Benevento San Pietro).  The epitaph of "---carda…Landulfi…uxor proles Mansonis…ducis" records that she died aged 22, and was buried at Benevento San Pietro[281]

Duke Landolf & his wife had two children:

1.         PANDOLF (-Feb 1073).  The calculation of the regnal years of "Pandolfi filii eius [=domni Landolfi]" in the Annales Beneventani suggests that he was installed as joint Prince of Benevento, jointly with his father, in [1011][282]PANDOLF VI Prince of Benevento.  "Tesselgardus Comes filius bonæ memoriæ Tesselgardi Comitis ex civitate Benevento…[de] comitatus Larinensis" donated Gaudia to the monastery of Tremito by charter dated Jul 1045, whose dating clause refers to the forty-first year of "Domini Pandolfi…Principis" and the seventh year of "Domini Landolfi…filii eius"[283].  The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records that "Leone Papa et Principe Beneventano et Catapano imperiali" fought the Normans "in principatu Beneventu", but that "Rodulphus Princeps" escaped and Pope Leo was captured by "Humphredo et Northmannis" in Jun 1053[284].  The Annales Beneventani record that he became a monk in 1059[285].  The Chonicon Monasterii Beneventani records the death in Feb 1073 of "Pandulphus Princeps"[286]m ALTRUDA, daughter of --- (-20 May after 1069).  The necrology of Benevento San Pietro records the death 20 May of "Altruda principissa", who Stasser suggests was the wife of Prince Pandolf VI[287].  Duke Pandolf & his wife had one child:

a)         LANDOLF (-18 Dec 1077[288]).  "Tesselgardus Comes filius bonæ memoriæ Tesselgardi Comitis ex civitate Benevento…[de] comitatus Larinensis" donated Gaudia to the monastery of Tremito by charter dated Jul 1045, whose dating clause refers to the forty-first year of "Domini Pandolfi…Principis" and the seventh year of "Domini Landolfi…filii eius"[289].  He was installed as LANDOLF VI joint Prince of Benevento in Aug 1038.  The Chonicon Monasterii Beneventani records the installation in Aug 1038 of "Landulphus junior"[290].  He submitted to the Pope in 1051, papal suzerainty over the town being recognised by Emperor Heinrich III the following year[291].  The Annales Beneventani record that "Ricardus princeps et Robertus dux" besieged Benevento from Jan to 8 Apr 1078[292].  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti record that Benevento was incorporated into the Papal States after the death of Landolf VI[293]m [ALTRUDA, daughter of --- (-7 Jul [1069/1119]) or MARIA, daughter of --- (-10 Nov [1069/1119]).  The necrology of Benevento San Pietro records the death 7 Jul of "Altruda principissa" and 10 Nov of "Maria principissa", who Stasser suggests were the wives of Prince Landolf VI and Prince Pandolf IV[294].]  Duke Landolf & his wife had one child:

i)          PANDOLF (-Feb 1073[295]).  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti record that "Padolfus filius eius [=Landulfus]" was installed as PANDOLF IV joint Prince of Benevento in Aug 1056[296]m [ALTRUDA, daughter of --- (-7 Jul [1069/1119]) or MARIA, daughter of --- (-10 Nov [1069/1119]).  The necrology of Benevento San Pietro records the death 7 Jul of "Altruda principissa" and 10 Nov of "Maria principissa", who Stasser suggests were the wives of Prince Landolf VI and Prince Pandolf IV[297].] 

2.         ATENULF (-after [1041]).  According to Amatus, the Normans chose "Atenulf…the Prince of Benevento's brother" as their leader to fight the Greeks[298], dated from the context of the passage to [1041], but Amatus records in a later passage that he defected to Benevento taking with him the captured prisoners whom he sold and was "deprived of his wealth and castelli by the Normans"[299]

 

 

 

D.      CONTI di AVELLINO 

 

 

1.         DAUFER (-after 818).  The Chronicon Salernitanum records the conspiracy involving "Rofrit cum germano suo…Potelfrit, filii…Dauferii" which culminated in "Agelmundus" assassinating Grimoald IV Prince of Benevento (dated to May 818), and Daufer making a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in expiation of the crime[300]m ---.  The name of Daufer´s wife is not known.  Daufer & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROFRIT ([776/79]-[836/39]).  The Chronicon Salernitanum records the conspiracy involving "Rofrit cum germano suo…Potelfrit, filii…Dauferii" which culminated in "Agelmundus" assassinating Grimoald IV Prince of Benevento (dated to May 818), and Daufer making a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in expiation of the crime[301]Thesaurarius and referendarius of Sico I Prince of Benevento from [821] to [836].  The epitaph of "Rofrit" records his death aged 60[302]m firstly ---.  The name of Rofrit´s first wife is not known.  Thnis first marriage is indicated on the basis of the following reasoning: the dates attributed to Rofrit´s son Adelchis (as well as his possible daughter, the wife of Landolf [I] Count of Capua) indicate that they must have been adult when their father died, whereas Rofrit´s known wife Dauferada would probably have been too old to have had adult children when her husband died if, as is suggested, she was the daughter of Daufer "Mutus".  m secondly DAUFERADA, daughter of --- (-17 Oct ----).  The epitaph of "Dauferada…Rofrit…iugalis" 17 Oct aged 45[303].  Her parentage is not known.  The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Rofrit" and "sua principessa cognata", the latter referring from the context to the wife of Sicard Prince of Benevento (who is named in another passage of the same source as the daughter of Daufer "Mutus", see above)[304].  If, as consistently suggested by Stasser, the word "cognata" can be interpreted as brother-in-law, then it is possible that Rofrid´s second wife was Dauferada, daughter of Daufer "Mutus" & his wife --- [305].  However, the meaning of the word cannot be so limited, and therefore Rofrit´s second wife being the sister of Adelchisa is only one of the possible interpretations.  If Dauferada was Adelchisa´s sister, it is likely that she was older than the princess of Benevento.  Rofrit & his first wife had [two] children: 

i)          ADELCHIS (-killed 839).  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Adelchisi Rofrit filius…et suum cognatum Landolfum comite Capuano" attempted to assassinate Radelchis I Prince of Benevento and was arrested and put to death (dated [summer/autumn] 839)[306]

ii)         [daughter .  The parentage of the wife of Landolf [I] is suggested by the Chronicon Salernitanum which names "Adelchisi Rofrit filius…et suum cognatum Landolfum comite Capuano"[307].  Stasser suggests that "cognatus" should be interpreted as brother-in-law in this context, and therefore that Landolf´s wife was the daughter of Rofrit[308]m LANDOLF [I] Count of Capua, son of PANDO & his wife --- (-[842]).] 

Rofrit & his second wife had one child: 

iii)        ADELFER [I] .  His parentage is confirmed by the report that Guaimar I Prince of Salerno confiscated property which he had received from "sa tante Adelgisa" (which she had received from "son époux Adelfier fils de Roffrid") from "Roffrid fils de Gaido", dated to 900[309]m ADELGISA, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by the report that Guaimar I Prince of Salerno confiscated property which he had received from "sa tante Adelgisa" (which she had received from "son époux Adelfier fils de Roffrid") from "Roffrid fils de Gaido", dated to 900[310]

b)         POTELFRIT (-after 818).  The Chronicon Salernitanum records the conspiracy involving "Rofrit cum germano suo…Potelfrit, filii…Dauferii" which culminated in "Agelmundus" assassinating Grimoald IV Prince of Benevento (dated to May 818)[311]m ---.  The name of Potelfrit´s wife is not known.  Potelfrit & his wife had one child: 

i)          daughter (-after Jan 900).  The parentage of the wife of Landenolf is confirmed by the Chronicon Salernitanum which refers to "Potelfrit filia" as mother of "Atenolfus"[312]m LANDENOLF di Capua, son of LANDOLF [I] Count of Capua & his wife --- (-[859]). 

 

 

1.         ADELFER [II] (-after 897).  Gastald di Avellino.  The Catalogus rerum Langobardorum et ducum Beneventanorum records that "Guaimarius Salerni princeps Beneventum" [Guaimar I Prince of Salerno] was blinded by "Avellinum…cuius castaldeus…Adelferius, nepos magni Rofrit" who escaped to Capua (dated to [896/97])[313]

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         ROFRIT (-before Jan 963)Gastald [di Larino].  "Roffrid et Adelferi germanis et gastaldei" are named in a charter dated Nov 944 or 945 which records a judgment recognising the independence of the monastery of Santa Sophia di Benevento from Monte Cassino[314]

-        CONTI di LARINO.   

2.         ADELFER [III] (-after Oct 981).  Gastald [di Avellino].  "Roffrid et Adelferi germanis et gastaldei" are named in a charter dated Nov 944 or 945 which records a judgment recognising the independence of the monastery of Santa Sophia di Benevento from Monte Cassino[315]Conte [di Avellino].  Referendarius.  Pandulfus II Prince of Benevento donated property to the abbot of Santa Sophia di Benevento, at the request of "Adelferi comiti…parenti nostro", by charter dated Oct 981[316]m ---.  The name of Adelfer´s wife is not known.  Adelfer & his wife had two children: 

a)         MADELFRIT [I] (-after Jun 994).  "Guaiferius castaldus et Petrus iudicibus…Bisantio comes filius quondam Adelferi thesaurarii et Madelfrit thesaurarius filius Landolfi thesaurarii et Adelferi castaldus filius quondam Roffrit comitis et Madelfrit referendario filius Adelferi referendario et comes" donated property to Cava monastery by charter dated Jan 963[317]Conte di Avellino.  "I conti Madelfrid e Adelferio, figli del fu Adelferio" granted land in Avellino to "Ludovico figlio di Ermengardo" by charter dated Aug 993[318].  "Madelfrit comes filius Adelferi" is named as mediator in a charter dated Jun 994 which records a dispute between the abbots of Salerno San Lorenzo and Salerno San Massimo[319]m ---.  The name of Madelfrit´s wife is not known.  Madelfrit & his wife had one child: 

i)          ALOARA (-after May 1000).  A charter dated May 1000 relates to "monasterio sancti Nicolai de Gallocanta" built by "Aloara comitissa filis Madelfrit comitis que fuit uxor Landoarii comitis filii vone memorie Lamberti comitis et Guaiferio comes qui sum infra etate, filius istius Aloare et predicti Landoarii", owned by "Adelberti comiti…congnato et thio nostro filio ipsius Landoari comitis"[320]m LANDOAR, son of LAMBERT & his wife --- (-[Mar 997/May 1000]). 

b)         ADELFER [IV] (-after 1005).  "I conti Madelfrid e Adelferio, figli del fu Adelferio" granted land in Avellino to "Ludovico figlio di Ermengardo" by charter dated Aug 993[321]Conte di Avellino.  He was installed in 1003 as ADELFER Prince of Benevento, deposed in 1005.  The Annales Beneventani record that "domni Pandolfi et…domni Landolfi filii eius" were expelled from Benevento in 1003 and replaced as prince by "Adelferium de Abellino", that 1004 was "anno primo domni Adelferii de Abellino et Adelferii filius eius", and that "domni Pandolfi et domni Landolfi filii eius" returned to Benevento in 1005[322]m ---.  The name of Adelfer´s wife is not known.  Adelfer [IV] & his wife had two children: 

i)          ADELFER [V] (-after 1005).  The Annales Beneventani record that "domni Pandolfi et…domni Landolfi filii eius" were expelled from Benevento in 1003 and replaced as prince by "Adelferium de Abellino", that 1004 was "anno primo domni Adelferii de Abellino et Adelferii filius eius", and that "domni Pandolfi et domni Landolfi filii eius" returned to Benevento in 1005[323]

ii)         MADELFRIT [II] (-after Jun 1038).  "Madelfrit comes filius vone memorie Adelferi qui fuit comes" shared property with "Bernard fils de Truppoald et Jean fils de Musandus" by charter dated Sep 1024[324]Conte di Avellino.  Property previously sold to "Madelfrit comiti filio bone memorie Adelferi qui fuit comes" was excluded from a sale by "Prectio" of the property in the county of Avellino, recorded in a charter dated Jun 1038[325]

 

 

The parentage of Ioannes and Daufer is not known, but it appears likely that they were brothers: 

1.         IOANNES (-before Jan 1053).  Conte di Avellino.  "Domini Iohannis comitis" is named as present in a charter dated Apr 1025 which records a sale of properties by "germanorum Iaquintus clericus et Iohannes puerelus"[326].  "les comtes Jean et Adelfier" are named in a document dated May 1045 issued by "Domnella fille du moine Jean"[327]m ---.  The name of Ioannes´s wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had one child: 

a)         IOANNES (-after Jan 1053).  Conte di Avellino.  "Iohanni comiti filii vone memorie Iohanni qui fuit comes" is named in a charter dated Jan 1053 issued by "Falco fils du notaire Risus"[328]

 

2.         DAUFER (-before May 1045).  Conte di Avellinom ---.  The name of Daufer´s wife is not known.  Daufer & his wife had one child: 

a)         ADELFER [VI] (-after May 1045).  Conte di Avellino.  Pandulf III and Landolf VI Princes of Benevento donated property in the county of Avellino "au clerc Rodelfier", at the request of "Adelferium comitem…nostrum parentem hac filius quoddam Dauferi qui olim fuit comes", by charter dated May 1045[329]

 

 

1.         ADELFERm ADELTRUDA, daughter of ---.  Adelfer & his wife had one child: 

a)         SICHELGARDA (-after 1118).  "Guaimarius filius Guaimarius qui fuerat filius domini Guidonis ducis filii domini Guaimarii principis et Sicelgaita noverca eius filia Adelferii comitis Beneventani" are named in a charter of Cava abbey dated Nov 1092[330].  "Sichelgarda veuve de Gaimar I de Giffoni" donated property to Cava abbey, in the presence of "sa fille Mabilia [et] de l´époux de celle-ci Robert", by charter dated 1118, which names "son mundoald…Landulf de Baragiano, fils d´une fille du défunt Gaimar I de Giffoni"[331]m as his second wife, GUAIMAR di Giffoni, son of GUIDO di Salerno Duke of Sorrento & his wife Raingarda --- (-[Oct 1091/Nov 1092], bur Cava abbey). 

 

 

 

E.      CONTI di LARINO 

 

 

References to members of this family are found in primary sources between the mid-10th and mid-11th centuries.  However, the repetition of the same names means that a definitive family reconstruction is not possible.  Stasser suggests various interesting hypotheses[332], but none can be considered conclusive enough to be used as the basis for the presentation in the present document.  The main difficulty is that links could be through the female as well as the male line.  The principal family members with the same name have been assigned sequential numbers in square brackets below.  It must be emphasised that this numbering system is designed only to assist identification of further links in the family and that it has no historical significance. 

 

 

ROFRIT di Avellino, son of --- (-before Jan 963)Gastald [di Larino].  "Roffrid et Adelferi germanis et gastaldei" are named in a charter dated Nov 944 or 945 which records a judgment recognising the independence of the monastery of Santa Sophia di Benevento from Monte Cassino[333].  It is assumed that this Rofrit was the ancestor of the conti di Larino, although no primary source has yet been identified which confirms that this hypothesis is correct beyond doubt. 

m ---.  The name of Rofrit´s wife is not known. 

Rofrit & his wife had three children: 

1.         ROFRIT [II] (-after 11 Aug 992).  Pandolf Count of Capua donated property at Albut in Liburia to Santa Sophia, at the request of "Roffrid comes", by charter dated Oct 970[334].  Paldolf Prince of Benevento confirmed the privileges of the monastery of Benevento Santa Sophia, at the request of "Roffrid comes…nostro", by charter dated Aug 986[335].  Pandolf II and Landolf V Princes of Benevento confirmed the privileges of the monastery of San Modesto di Benevento, at the request of "Roffridum comitem…thium nostrum", by charter dated to [Aug 991/Aug 992][336].  Pandulf II and Landolf V Princes of Benevento granted the city of Trivento to "Randoisio comite…hac filius Berardi comiti", at the request of "Roffridum comitem", by charter dated 11 Aug 992[337]m ---.  The name of Rofrit´s wife is not known.  Rofrit [II] & his wife had one child: 

a)         MARIA (-after 1003).  "Mulier vidua…Maria filia bone memorie Roffridus comes et relicta Potefrid bonæ memoriæ Magenolfi comiti" donated the church of San Apolinario near castellum Macchiagodena to Volturno by charter dated Nov 1003[338]m POTELFRID, son of MAGENOLF Conte di Boiano & his wife --- (-before 1003). 

2.         ADELFER (-after Jan 963).  "Guaiferius castaldus et Petrus iudicibus…Bisantio comes filius quondam Adelferi thesaurarii et Madelfrit thesaurarius filius Landolfi thesaurarii et Adelferi castaldus filius quondam Roffrit comitis et Madelfrit referendario filius Adelferi referendario et comes" donated property to Cava monastery by charter dated Jan 963[339]

3.         GAITELGRIMA .  The epitaph of "Gaitelgrima…proles Roffredi…coniux Landulfi principis" records that she died aged over 60 years old[340].  Stasser suggests that her father was the same person as Rofrit Conte di Larino[341].  The hypothesis appears to be confirmed correct by the charter dated to [Aug 991/Aug 992] under which Pandolf II and Landolf V Princes of Benevento confirmed the privileges of the monastery of San Modesto di Benevento, at the request of "Roffridum comitem…thium nostrum"[342]m (Summer 958) LANDOLF V Prince of Capua and Benevento, son of LANDOLF IV Prince of Capua & his wife [Maria de Gaeta/Euanthia ---] (-968). 

 

 

1.         DAUFER (-before 986).  The chronology suggests that Daufer was the son of Rofrit di Avellino gastald [di Larino], but this affiliation is not beyond doubt.  m ([955]) --.  The name of Daufer´s wife is not known.  Daufer [I] & his wife had four children: 

a)         MADELFRIT [I] (-[before 18 Dec 1012]).  Pandulf II Prince of Benevento granted property at Airola, which he had received from "Madelfrid et Dauferii et Maghenolfus germanis atque comitibus consobrini fratres mei et filii quondam Dauferi qui fuit comes", to "Madelbert", by charter dated May 1001[343]

-        see below.  

b)         ROFRIT [III] (-before 1030).  "Madelfrit et Rofrit germani atque comites et filii…bone memorie domini Rofrit comiti" donated the church of Santa Maria di Corneto to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated May 1010[344]

-        see below

c)         DAUFER [II] (-after 1001).  Pandulf II Prince of Benevento granted property at Airola, which he had received from "Madelfrid et Dauferii et Maghenolfus germanis atque comitibus consobrini fratres mei et filii quondam Dauferi qui fuit comes", to "Madelbert", by charter dated May 1001[345]

d)         MAGENOLF (-after 1001).  Pandulf II Prince of Benevento granted property at Airola, which he had received from "Madelfrid et Dauferii et Maghenolfus germanis atque comitibus consobrini fratres mei et filii quondam Dauferi qui fuit comes", to "Madelbert", by charter dated May 1001[346]

 

 

MADELFRIT [I] di Larino, son of DAUFER Conte di Larino & his wife --- (-[before 18 Dec 1012]).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Madelfrid comitis" adjudged the monastery of San Benedetto di Pettinari to the prior of San Benedetto di Larino, dated to [986][347].  Pandulf II Prince of Benevento granted property at Airola, which he had received from "Madelfrid et Dauferii et Maghenolfus germanis atque comitibus consobrini fratres mei et filii quondam Dauferi qui fuit comes", to "Madelbert", by charter dated May 1001[348].  The abbot of Monte Cassino granted property to "Madelfrit comiti" which had been donated by "Dauferi genitoris mei" by charter dated Jul 1006[349].  "Madelfrit et Rofrit germani atque comites et filii…bone memorie domini Rofrit comiti" donated the church of Santa Maria di Corneto to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated May 1010[350]

m ---.  The name of Madelfrid´s wife is not known. 

Madelfrid [I] & his wife had three children: 

1.         ROFRIT [V] (-before 1045).  Landolf V and Pandulf III Princes of Benevento confirmed the privileges of the monastery of Santi Lupulo e Zosimo di Benevento, at the request of "Roffridum comitem…nostrum parentum", by charter dated 11 Sep 1015[351].  "Roffrit filius…bone memorie Malfrit comitis et Malfrit comes filius…bone memorie Rofrit comitibus" donated property to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Nov 1042[352]m ADELEITA, daughter of --- (-after Aug 1049).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Adelferius comes de Beneventano principatu" donated the monastery of San Eustachio di Pantasia to Monte Cassino, dated to Aug 1049[353], the corresponding charter dated Aug 1049 recording that the donor acted "avec sa mère Adeleita et son épouse Adeltruda"[354].  Rofrit [IV] & his wife had three children: 

a)         ADELFIER (-after 8 Mar 1050).  Pandulf III and Landulf VI Princes of Benevento donated property next to the river Fresilone to the monastery of Santa Colomba, at the request of "Adelfier fils du comte Roffrid", by charter dated 8 Mar 1050[355].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Adelferius comes de Beneventano principatu" donated the monastery of San Eustachio di Pantasia to Monte Cassino, dated to Aug 1049[356], the corresponding charter dated Aug 1049 recording that the donor acted "avec sa mère Adeleita et son épouse Adeltruda"[357]m ADELTRUDA, daughter of --- (-after Aug 1049).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Adelferius comes de Beneventano principatu" donated the monastery of San Eustachio di Pantasia to Monte Cassino, dated to Aug 1049[358], the corresponding charter dated Aug 1049 recording that the donor acted "avec sa mère Adeleita et son épouse Adeltruda"[359]

b)         DAUFER (-after 1050).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Dauferio comiti de Larino" donated territory "in pertinentia Thermulensi" to Monte Cassino, dated to [1050][360]

c)         MADELFRIT (-after 1052).  "Madelfrid comes filius quondam bo. me. Rofridi que fuit comes" granted his part of Santa Maria in Aurole which came from "domni Madelfrid barbuto qui fuit comes et ciano meo" to "Falco" by charter dated Nov 1052[361]

2.         MADELFRIT [II] (-before Apr 1016).  Pandulf II, Landolf V and Pandulf III Princes of Benevento confirmed the privileges of the monastery of San Benedetto di Benevento, at the request of "Madelfridum comitem…et filii Madelfrid", by charter dated 18 Dec 1012[362]

3.         POTO [II] (-before Nov 1041).  "Poto comes et filius…bone memorie Madelfrit comes" donated the territory of Vivario near the river Saccione to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated 1016[363]

 

 

1.         POTO [I] (-after 17 May 988).  Conte di Greci.  Pandulf II and Landulf V Princes of Benevento granted "la cité de Greci" to "comte Poto", at the request of "comte Adelfier", by charter dated 17 May 988[364]

 

 

ROFRIT [III] di Larino, son of DAUFER Conte di Larino & his wife --- (-before 1030).  "Madelfrit et Rofrit germani atque comites et filii…bone memorie domini Rofrit comiti" donated the church of Santa Maria di Corneto to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated May 1010[365]

m ([970]) ---. 

Rofrit [III] & his wife had one child: 

1.         MADELFRIT [III] (-after Aug 1044).  "Roffrit filius…bone memorie Malfrit comitis et Malfrit comes filius…bone memorie Rofrit comitibus" donated property to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Nov 1042[366].  "Malfrit comes filius…bone memorie Roffrit comes" donated property to Santa Maria di Tremiti, for the souls of "Theodenande uxoris mee et…filiorum vivis atque defunctis", by charter dated Aug 1044, witnessed by "…Rofrit comes…"[367]m THEODENANDA, daughter of --- (-after Aug 1044).  "Malfrit comes filius…bone memorie Roffrit comes" donated property to Santa Maria di Tremiti, for the souls of "Theodenande uxoris mee et…filiorum vivis atque defunctis", by charter dated Aug 1044, witnessed by "…Rofrit comes…"[368].  Madelfrit & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROFRIT (-Jan [1060/62]).  "Rofrit comes filius…bone memorie Malfrit comitis", on his deathbed, donated the church of Santa Colomba near castellum Portocannone to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Jan [1060/62][369]

 

 

1.         TASSELGARD [I] (-before Jul 1045).  m MARIA, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated Jul 1045 under which "Tesselgardus Comes filius bonæ memoriæ Tesselgardi Comitis ex civitate Benevento…[de] comitatus Larinensis" donated Gaudia to the monastery of Tremito, for the souls of "patris mei Tesselgardi et genitricis meæ Mariæ, et Bertæ materteræ meæ…"[370].  It is assumed that Berta was the donor´s maternal aunt, assuming that "matertera" should be interpreted in its strict sense in the document.  Tasselgard [I] & his wife had three children: 

a)         TASSELGARD [II] (-Dec 1049).  Conte di Larino"Tesselgardus Comes filius bonæ memoriæ Tesselgardi Comitis ex civitate Benevento…[de] comitatus Larinensis" donated Gaudia to the monastery of Tremito, for the souls of "patris mei Tesselgardi et genitricis meæ Mariæ, et Bertæ materteræ meæ…mearumque uxorum mortuis et vivis, quarum nomina sunt, Marada, et…filiorum meorum Tesselgardi et Bernardi, et Porum: necnon et fratrum meorum Roffria et Malfria", by charter dated Jul 1045, whose dating clause refers to "Domini Pandolfi…Principis et…Domini Landolfi…filii eius", subscribed by "Dauferius Comes…"[371].  "Traselgardus filius…bone memorie domini Tasselgardi qui fuit comes", on his deathbed, and "domina Altruda uxor mea" donated property to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Dec 1049, witnessed by "…Roffrit comes, Madelfrit comes, Roffrit comes, Madelfrit comes…"[372]m firstly MARADA, daughter of ---.  This earlier marriage is confirmed by the charter dated Jul 1045 under which "Tesselgardus Comes filius bonæ memoriæ Tesselgardi Comitis ex civitate Benevento…[de] comitatus Larinensis" donated Gaudia to the monastery of Tremito, for the souls of "…mearumque uxorum mortuis et vivis, quarum nomina sunt, Marada…"[373].  As Tesselgardo´s living wife makes a similar donation in the same document, it is assumed that Marada was the name of his earlier deceased wife.  m secondly ALTRUDA, daughter of MAGENOLFO & his wife --- (-after Dec 1049).  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated Jul 1045 under which "Tesselgardus Comes filius bonæ memoriæ Tesselgardi Comitis ex civitate Benevento…[de] comitatus Larinensis" donated Gaudia to the monastery of Tremito, for the souls of "…mearumque uxorum mortuis et vivis, quarum nomina sunt, Marada…"[374].  The same document includes a similar donation by "Alarada Comitissa filia Magenolfi Comitis…uxor prædicti Tesselgardi Comitis".  "Traselgardus filius…bone memorie domini Tasselgardi qui fuit comes", on his deathbed, and "domina Altruda uxor mea" donated property to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Dec 1049, witnessed by "…Roffrit comes, Madelfrit comes, Roffrit comes, Madelfrit comes…"[375].  Tasselgard [II] & his [first/second] wife had two children: 

i)          TASSELGARD [III] .  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Jul 1045 under which "Tesselgardus Comes filius bonæ memoriæ Tesselgardi Comitis ex civitate Benevento…[de] comitatus Larinensis" donated Gaudia to the monastery of Tremito, for the souls of "…filiorum meorum Tesselgardi et Bernardi…"[376]

ii)         BERNARDO .  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Jul 1045 under which "Tesselgardus Comes filius bonæ memoriæ Tesselgardi Comitis ex civitate Benevento…[de] comitatus Larinensis" donated Gaudia to the monastery of Tremito, for the souls of "…filiorum meorum Tesselgardi et Bernardi…"[377]

b)         ROFRIT [VI] (-after Feb [1059/62]).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Jul 1045 under which "Tesselgardus Comes filius bonæ memoriæ Tesselgardi Comitis ex civitate Benevento…[de] comitatus Larinensis" donated Gaudia to the monastery of Tremito, for the souls of "…fratrum meorum Roffria et Malfria"[378].  "Rofrit comes filius…bone memorie Traselgardi qui fuit comes" donated the church of San Andrea de Silpoli to Santa Maria di Tremiti, with the advice of "Roffreda filio meo", by charter dated Feb [1059/62][379].  No direct proof has been found that this Rofrit was the father of the children shown below.  However, the fact that one of them was called Tasselgard indicates a close connection with the family.  m [ROFREDA], daughter of --- (-after Jun 1057).  "Rofrit filius…bone memorie dominus Roffrit comes", on his deathbed, "cum dominus Rofreda comes genitor meus [error for "domina Rofreda genetrix mea"?]" donated castellum Petraficta near Saccione to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Jun [1057 or 1059][380].  Rofrit & his wife had six children:  Rofrit [VI] & his wife had six children: 

i)          ROFRIT (-after Aug 1059).  "Rofrit filius…bone memorie dominus Roffrit comes", on his deathbed, "cum dominus Rofreda comes genitor meus [error for "domina Rofreda genetrix mea"?] cum domino Atto et Traselgardo et Malfrit et Addenolfo et Siinolfo comitibus germanis meis" donated castellum Petraficta near Saccione, and other property in Pleuti next to land "que fuit domini Malfrit comitis filii…bone memorie Traselgardi comitis", to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Jun [1057 or 1059][381].  "Rofrit comes filius…bone memorie Traselgardi qui fuit comes" donated the church of San Andrea de Silpoli to Santa Maria di Tremiti, with the advice of "Roffreda filio meo", by charter dated Feb [1059/62][382].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Roffredum quondam Roffredi Comitis filium" restored "Cellam…Sanctam Mariam in Castanieto" to Volturno by charter dated Aug 1059[383]

ii)         ATTO (-after Jun 1063).  "Rofrit filius…bone memorie dominus Roffrit comes", on his deathbed, "cum…domino Atto et Traselgardo et Malfrit et Addenolfo et Siinolfo comitibus germanis meis" donated castellum Petraficta near Saccione to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Jun [1057 or 1059][384].  "Actus et Traselgardus et Adenolfus germanos comites et Rofrit nepotem nostrum filii…Malfrit qui fuit germanus noster, filii…bone memorie domini Rofrit qui fuit comes…in civitate Campomarini" donated the church of Santa Maria di Arcora to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Jun [1063/64][385]

iii)        TASSELGARD [IV] (-after Jun 1063).  "Rofrit filius…bone memorie dominus Roffrit comes", on his deathbed, "cum…domino Atto et Traselgardo et Malfrit et Addenolfo et Siinolfo comitibus germanis meis" donated castellum Petraficta near Saccione to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Jun [1057 or 1059][386].  "Actus et Traselgardus et Adenolfus germanos comites et Rofrit nepotem nostrum filii…Malfrit qui fuit germanus noster, filii…bone memorie domini Rofrit qui fuit comes…in civitate Campomarini" donated the church of Santa Maria di Arcora to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Jun [1063/64][387]

iv)       MADELFRIT [VI] (-[Jun 1057/Jun 1064]).  "Rofrit filius…bone memorie dominus Roffrit comes", on his deathbed, "cum…domino Atto et Traselgardo et Malfrit et Addenolfo et Siinolfo comitibus germanis meis" donated castellum Petraficta near Saccione to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Jun [1057 or 1059][388]m ---.  The name of Madelfrit´s wife is not known.  Madelfrit [VI] & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ROFRIT (-after Jun 1063).  "Actus et Traselgardus et Adenolfus germanos comites et Rofrit nepotem nostrum filii…Malfrit qui fuit germanus noster, filii…bone memorie domini Rofrit qui fuit comes…in civitate Campomarini" donated the church of Santa Maria di Arcora to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Jun [1063/64][389]

v)        ATENOLF (-after Jun 1063).  "Rofrit filius…bone memorie dominus Roffrit comes", on his deathbed, "cum…domino Atto et Traselgardo et Malfrit et Addenolfo et Siinolfo comitibus germanis meis" donated castellum Petraficta near Saccione to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Jun [1057 or 1059][390].  "Actus et Traselgardus et Adenolfus germanos comites et Rofrit nepotem nostrum filii…Malfrit qui fuit germanus noster, filii…bone memorie domini Rofrit qui fuit comes…in civitate Campomarini" donated the church of Santa Maria di Arcora to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Jun [1063/64][391]

vi)       SICONULF (-after Jun 1057).  "Rofrit filius…bone memorie dominus Roffrit comes", on his deathbed, "cum…domino Atto et Traselgardo et Malfrit et Addenolfo et Siinolfo comitibus germanis meis" donated castellum Petraficta near Saccione to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Jun [1057 or 1059][392]

c)         MADELFRIT [V] (-after Nov 1054).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Jul 1045 under which "Tesselgardus Comes filius bonæ memoriæ Tesselgardi Comitis ex civitate Benevento…[de] comitatus Larinensis" donated Gaudia to the monastery of Tremito, for the souls of "…fratrum meorum Roffria et Malfria"[393].  "Malfrit marchione filius quoddam bone memorie Tasselgardi comitis" donated the church of San Pietro di Puliano to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Nov [1054/56][394]

 

 

1.         ROFRIT [IV] (-before 1030).  m ---.  The name of Rofrit´s wife is not known.  Rofrit & his wife had three children: 

a)         GRIMOALD (-after 1030).  "Grimoald comte fils du feu comte Roffrid" divided his territories with "son neveu le comte Roffrid fils de son défunt frère Daufier et ses nieces Rodelgrima, Aloara et Alferada, filles de son défunt frère Poto" by charter dated 1030, signed by "les comtes Alfan et Landulf"[395]m ---.  Grimoald & his wife had [four] children: 

i)          ALFAN (-before Jun 1047).  m ---.  Alfan & his wife had one child: 

(a)       IOANNES (-after Jun 1105).  A charter dated Jun 1047 records the presence of "domni…Guaimarii…principis et ducis [et] domnus Guido dux et Paldulfus germani eius…filii…domni Guaimarii principis" at a donation, with "Atenolfum comitem filium quondam Landolfi comitis, et…Iohannem comitem filium quondam Alfani comitis" named as guarantors[396].  "Riccia relicta domini Mansoni filii domini Risi filii bone memorie domini Iohannis…ducis…et pro vice de Riso de Johanne filiis meis" sold land to "domino Iohanne nepoti nostro filio domini Alfani filii domini Grimoaldi comite et iudice de civitate Salerno", with the consent of "Aloare et Stephanie germane filie mee" and specifying "a parte Regale filia mea qui est sine etate", by charter dated Mar 1078 which names "domino Mansone viro meo et…domino Iohannes…gemano suo cognato meo"[397].  "Jean fils du comte Alfan comte fils du comte et juge Grimoald" sold territories including some held "aux filles du défunt comte Poto, cousines de son père" to "son cousin le moine Jean, fils de son oncle paternal le comte Roffrid" by charter dated Jun 1105, which names "consobrinum fratrem Ademar fils du comte Landulf" as fiduciary[398]

ii)         ROFRITm ---.  Rofrit & his wife had one child: 

(a)       IOANNES (-after Jun 1105).  "Jean fils du comte Alfan comte fils du comte et juge Grimoald" sold territories including some held "aux filles du défunt comte Poto, cousines de son père" to "son cousin le moine Jean, fils de son oncle paternal le comte Roffrid" by charter dated Jun 1105[399]

iii)        RICCIA (-before Mar 1078).  "Riccia relicta domini Mansoni filii domini Risi filii bone memorie domini Iohannis…ducis…et pro vice de Riso de Johanne filiis meis" sold land to "domino Iohanne nepoti nostro filio domini Alfani filii domini Grimoaldi comite et iudice de civitate Salerno", with the consent of "Aloare et Stephanie germane filie mee" and specifying "a parte Regale filia mea qui est sine etate", by charter dated Mar 1078 which names "domino Mansone viro meo et…domino Iohannes…gemano suo cognato meo"[400]m MANSO, son of ARECHIS [Riso] di Amalfi & his wife --- (-before Mar 1078). 

iv)       [--- .  Her parentage and marriage are suggested by the charter dated Jun 1105 under which "Jean fils du comte Alfan comte fils du comte et juge Grimoald" sold territories including some held "aux filles du défunt comte Poto, cousines de son père" to "son cousin le moine Jean, fils de son oncle paternal le comte Roffrid", which names her son "consobrinum fratrem Ademar fils du comte Landulf" as fiduciary[401]m LANDOLF, son of [ADEMAR di Amalfi & his wife ---] (-before May 1064).] 

b)         DAUFER [III] (-before 1030).  m ---.  The name of Daufer´s wife is not known.  Daufer [III] & his wife had one child: 

i)          ROFRIT (-after 1030).  "Grimoald comte fils du feu comte Roffrid" divided his territories with "son neveu le comte Roffrid fils de son défunt frère Daufier et ses nieces Rodelgrima, Aloara et Alferada, filles de son défunt frère Poto" by charter dated 1030[402]

c)         POTO [III] (-before 1030).  His relationship to the family of Grimoald is confirmed by the charter dated Jun 1105 under which "Jean fils du comte Alfan comte fils du comte et juge Grimoald" sold territories including some held "aux filles du défunt comte Poto, cousines de son père"[403].  ["Poto figlio del fu Roffrid" donated land outside Benevento at Calcara to "conte Audoaldo figlio del fu Aldemaro", with the consent "della moglia Adeltruda", by charter dated Aug 987[404].  It is not certain that this document refers to the same Poto, although the chronology suggests that this may be correct.]  m ---.  The name of Poto´s wife is not known.  If the charter dated Aug 987, under which "Poto figlio del fu Roffrid" donated land outside Benevento at Calcara to "conte Audoaldo figlio del fu Aldemaro", with the consent "della moglia Adeltruda"[405], refers to the same Poto as is shown in this family, her name was Adeltruda.  Poto & his wife had three children: 

i)          RODELGRIMA (-after Sep 1065).  "Grimoald comte fils du feu comte Roffrid" divided his territories with "son neveu le comte Roffrid fils de son défunt frère Daufier et ses nieces Rodelgrima, Aloara et Alferada, filles de son défunt frère Poto" by charter dated 1030[406].  "Rolegrima filia quondam Potonis comitis que fuerat uxor quondam Ederradi comitis" donated property to "Landolfo filio quondam Roffrit comitis", with the consent of "Aldemari clerici filii quondam Landemarii comitis et Maraldi filii quondam Landolfi comitis mundoalt sui", by charter dated Sep 1065[407]m EDERAD, son of --- (-before Sep 1065)

ii)         ALOARA (-after 1030).  "Grimoald comte fils du feu comte Roffrid" divided his territories with "son neveu le comte Roffrid fils de son défunt frère Daufier et ses nieces Rodelgrima, Aloara et Alferada, filles de son défunt frère Poto" by charter dated 1030[408]

iii)        ALFERADA (-after 1030). "Grimoald comte fils du feu comte Roffrid" divided his territories with "son neveu le comte Roffrid fils de son défunt frère Daufier et ses nieces Rodelgrima, Aloara et Alferada, filles de son défunt frère Poto" by charter dated 1030[409]

 

 

1.         MADELFRIT [IV] (-before Jun 1052).  m ---.  The name of Madelfrit´s wife is not known.  Madelfrit [IV] & his wife had one child: 

a)         PURPURA (-before Jun 1052).  "Gualbertus filius…Gusberti" donated property, which came to him from "Purpure filia quodam Malfrit comite que fuit uxor mea", to Santa Maria di Tremiti by charter dated Jun 1052[410]m GUALBERT, son of GUISBERT & his wife --- (-after Jun 1052). 

 

2.         MADELFRIT [VII] (-before 1 Feb 1104).  m ---.  The name of Madelfrit´s wife is not known.  Madelfrit [VII] & his wife had one child: 

a)         OLFUS Caraczulo (-after 1 Feb 1104).  "Mari et Olfus, qui nominator Caraczulo, filio q. d. Malfredo comitis beneventani" donated property by charter dated 1 Feb [1104][411]

 

 

 

F.      CONTI di SUESSA e d´ISERNIA 

 

 

LANDENOLF [I] di Capua, son of ATENOLF II joint Prince of Capua and Benevento & his wife Sichelgaita di Gaeta (-before Mar 963).  His parentage is suggested by the charter dated 5 May 964 under which Pandulf I and Landulf Princes of Benevento granted "civitatem Isernensem" to his son "Landolfo comitis…fratri nostro fil. quondam Landenolfi thio nostro"[412].  His affiliation is confirmed by the charter of his grandson "Atenolfus comes filius domni Atenolfi comitis bone memorie" dated 981, under which he donated property "in finibus Cageta que mihi pertinet de domna Sikelgaita bone memorie principissa bisabia mea" to Marinus, son of Constantine[413].  Another possibility is suggested by the epitaph of his son "domino Landulfo comes…filius domini Landenulfi comiti cuius domini Landenulfi…principis"[414].  No other reference has been found to "Landenulfi principis", alive in the early 10th century, although it is possible that he was another otherwise unrecorded son of Atenolf Count of Capua.  If the latter is correct, the other sources quoted above indicate that Sichelgaita di Gaeta must have been the wife of this Landenolf.  Another epitaph, which records the death of his grandson "Landenolfus comes filius bone memorie domini Landulfi comitis ex quidem nato Atenulfi principis ortus"[415], suggests that the reference to "Landenulfi principis" may simply have been an error. 

m ---.  The name of Landenolf´s wife is not known. 

Landenolf & his wife had two children: 

1.         ATENOLF [I] (-before 981).  "Domnum Atenolfum et domnum Landolfum germanis filiis bone memorie Landenolfi" are named as present in a charter dated Mar 963 which records a judgment relating to land "Baloneu" in favour of Monte Cassino[416]Conte de Suessa.  "Atenulfus comes filius bone recordatione domini Landolfi" donated property along the banks of the river Garigliano to Monte Cassino by charter dated Sep 971[417].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records a judgment, dated Jun 976, relating to property of the monastery of San Martin di Monte Marsico in the presence of "dominum Atenolfum et Landulfum germanis comitibus eiusdem civitatis [=civitatis Suessane]"[418]m ---.  The name of Atenolf´s wife is not known.  Atenolf & his wife had two children: 

a)         ATENOLF [II] (-after 981).  Conte de Suessa"Atenolfus comes filius domni Atenolfi comitis bone memorie" donated property "in finibus Cageta que mihi pertinet de domna Sikelgaita bone memorie principissa bisabia mea" to Marinus, son of Constantine, by charter dated 981[419]

b)         LANDENOLF [II] (-after May 984).  "Landenolfus filius quondam domni Atenolfi bone memorie" donated property inherited from "domni Atenolfi comiti genitore meo et ei obvenit a domna Sikelgaita principissa visabia mea" to "domno Marino filio domni Constantini" by charter dated May 984[420]

2.         LANDOLF [I] "Grecus" ([935/40]-[997/1002], bur Santa Maria d´Isernia).  "Domnum Atenolfum et domnum Landolfum germanis filiis bone memorie Landenolfi" are named as present in a charter dated Mar 963 which records a judgment relating to land "Baloneu" in favour of Monte Cassino[421]Conte d´Isernia.  Pandulf I and Landulf Princes of Benevento granted "civitatem Isernensem" to "Landolfo comitis…fratri nostro fil. quondam Landenolfi thio nostro" by charter dated 5 May 964[422].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records a judgment, dated Jun 976, relating to property of the monastery of San Martin di Monte Marsico in the presence of "dominum Atenolfum et Landulfum germanis comitibus eiusdem civitatis [=civitatis Suessane]"[423].  The epitaph of "domino Landulfo comes…filius domini Landenulfi comiti cuius domini Landenulfi…principis" records his death aged 62[424]m ([958/60]) SICHELGAITA, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated Mar 1003 under which her sons "Laidulfus et Landenulfus germani comitibus et filii bone memorie domini Landolfi comiti" donated property to San Pietro d´Isernia, for the souls of "supradicti nostri genitori et domine Sikelgaite nostra genetrice…et…Landolfum comitem nostrum fratrem"[425].  Landulf & his wife had three children: 

a)         LANDENOLF [III] (-after Oct 1004, bur Santa Maria d´Isernia).  "Laidulfus et Landenulfus germani comitibus et filii bone memorie domini Landolfi comiti" donated property to San Pietro d´Isernia, for the souls of "supradicti nostri genitori et domine Sikelgaite nostra genetrice…et…Landolfum comitem nostrum fratrem", with the consent of "uxoribus nostris", by charter dated Mar 1003[426]Conte d´Isernia.  Pope John XVIII confirmed the rights of "Landinolfus comes filius comitis Landolfi Greci" over the church of Santa Maria d´Isernia, restored by him "cum bone memorie Gemma conjuge sua", by bull dated Oct 1004[427].  The epitaph records the death of "Landenolfus comes filius bone memorie domini Landulfi comitis ex quidem nato Atenulfi principis ortus"[428]m GEMMA, daughter of --- (-[Mar 1003/Oct 1004]).  Pope John XVIII confirmed the rights of "Landinolfus comes filius comitis Landolfi Greci" over the church of Santa Maria d´Isernia, restored by him "cum bone memorie Gemma conjuge sua", by bull dated Oct 1004[429]

b)         LAIDOLF (-after Mar 1003).  "Laidulfus et Landenulfus germani comitibus et filii bone memorie domini Landolfi comiti" donated property to San Pietro d´Isernia, for the souls of "supradicti nostri genitori et domine Sikelgaite nostra genetrice…et…Landolfum comitem nostrum fratrem", with the consent of "uxoribus nostris", by charter dated Mar 1003[430]Conte d´Iserniam --- (-after Mar 1003).  The name of Laidolf´s wife is not known.  Laidolf & his wife had one child: 

i)          BERNARDO [I] (-after 1064).  "Bernardus comes filius cuiusdam bone memorie Laidolfi comitis ex civitate Eserniæ…et filio eius Bernardus pater et filius" donated the monastery of San Marco in Carpenone to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "…nostræ duæ filiorum <sic> et duo filii mei qui interfecti sunt", by charter dated Oct 1064[431]m ---.  The name of Bernardo´s wife is not known.  Bernardo & his wife had five children: 

(a)       BERNARDO [II] (-after 1064).  "Bernardus comes filius cuiusdam bone memorie Laidolfi comitis ex civitate Eserniæ…et filio eius Bernardus pater et filius" donated the monastery of San Marco in Carpenone to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "…nostræ duæ filiorum <sic> et duo filii mei qui interfecti sunt", by charter dated Oct 1064[432]

(b)       son (-killed in battle before Oct 1064).  "Bernardus comes filius cuiusdam bone memorie Laidolfi comitis ex civitate Eserniæ…et filio eius Bernardus pater et filius" donated the monastery of San Marco in Carpenone to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "…nostræ duæ filiorum <sic> et duo filii mei qui interfecti sunt", by charter dated Oct 1064[433]

(c)       son (-killed in battle before Oct 1064).  "Bernardus comes filius cuiusdam bone memorie Laidolfi comitis ex civitate Eserniæ…et filio eius Bernardus pater et filius" donated the monastery of San Marco in Carpenone to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "…nostræ duæ filiorum <sic> et duo filii mei qui interfecti sunt", by charter dated Oct 1064[434]

(d)       daughter (-before Oct 1064).  "Bernardus comes filius cuiusdam bone memorie Laidolfi comitis ex civitate Eserniæ…et filio eius Bernardus pater et filius" donated the monastery of San Marco in Carpenone to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "…nostræ duæ filiorum <sic> et duo filii mei qui interfecti sunt", by charter dated Oct 1064[435]

(e)       daughter (-before Oct 1064).  "Bernardus comes filius cuiusdam bone memorie Laidolfi comitis ex civitate Eserniæ…et filio eius Bernardus pater et filius" donated the monastery of San Marco in Carpenone to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "…nostræ duæ filiorum <sic> et duo filii mei qui interfecti sunt", by charter dated Oct 1064[436]

c)         LANDOLF [II] (-before Mar 1003).  Conte d´Isernia.  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Mar 1003 under which his brothers "Laidulfus et Landenulfus germani comitibus et filii bone memorie domini Landolfi comiti" donated property to San Pietro d´Isernia, for the souls of "supradicti nostri genitori et domine Sikelgaite nostra genetrice…et…Landolfum comitem nostrum fratrem"[437]m ---.  The name of Landolf´s wife is not known.  Landolf [II] & his wife had two children: 

i)          LANDOLF [III] (-before 1069).  Conte de Suessa.  "Domno Landolfus et Landolfo filio eius et Atenolfo comitibus de civitate Suessa" are named as present in a charter dated to [1047/48] which records a judgment of Atenulf I Duke of Gaeta[438]m ---.  The name of Landolf´s wife is not known.  Landolf [III] & his wife had two children: 

(a)       LANDOLF [IV] (-after 1083).  "Domno Landolfus et Landolfo filio eius et Atenolfo comitibus de civitate Suessa" are named as present in a charter dated to [1047/48] which records a judgment of Atenulf I Duke of Gaeta[439]Conte de Suessam ---.  The name of Landolf´s wife is not known.  Landolf [IV] & his wife had one child: 

(1)       AGELTRUDA (after 1050-before 1100).  "Johannes filius bone memorie Paldulfi filii domini Guaimarii principis et Ageltruda uxor eius filia Landolfi comitis Sesse civitatis" are named in a charter dated 1083[440]m IOANNES di Salerno Signore di Capaccio, son of PALDULF di Salerno & his wife Theodora di Tusculanum (-after 1083). 

(b)       LANDO (-after 1069).  His parentage is confirmed by the marriage contract of his daughter "domnum Lando comes Suessa filius bone recordationis domni Landolfi…Offa…filiam suam" dated 1069[441]Conte de Suessam ---.  The name of Lando´s wife is not known.  Lando & his wife had one child: 

(1)       OFFA (after 1052-after 1069).  The marriage contract of "Bernardus consule de civitate Fundane filius quondam bone recordationis domni Leoni" and "domnum Lando comes Suessa filius bone recordationis domni Landolfi…Offa…filiam suam" is dated 1069, and names "Crescentius consule Fundano e filius quondam bone recordationis domni Crescentius" as fiduciary[442]m (1069) BERNARDO Conte di Fondi, son of LEO Conte di Fondi & his wife --- (-after 1069). 

ii)         PIETRO (-after 1049).  The Stemma principum Langobardorum records "Pierre comte de Suessa fils de Landulf de Suessa, et son épouse Gemma, fille de Docibilis vir illustris"[443]Conte di Suessa.  "Domnus Petrus comes Suessanus…" and "duc Atenulf I de Gaète, les ducs de Fundi et son beau-père Docibilis fils de Landulf" are named as present in a charter dated Jun 1049 which records a memoratorium of "comte Ederrad de Traetto"[444]m GEMMA, daughter of DOCIBILIS & his wife ---.  The Stemma principum Langobardorum records "Pierre comte de Suessa fils de Landulf de Suessa, et son épouse Gemma, fille de Docibilis vir illustris"[445].  "Domnus Petrus comes Suessanus…" and "duc Atenulf I de Gaète, les ducs de Fundi et son beau-père Docibilis fils de Landulf" are named as present in a charter dated Jun 1049 which records a memoratorium of "comte Ederrad de Traetto"[446]

 

 

1.         ATENOLF [III] (-after [1047/48]).  Atenolf [III] was presumably the grandson of Landolf [I] but no indication has been found about his precise parentage.  Conte d´Isernia e Suessa.  "Atenulfum comitem Iserniensem et Landonem comitem Cajactiensem" are named as fiduciaries in a charter dated Apr 1029[447].  "Domno Landolfus et Landolfo filio eius et Atenolfo comitibus de civitate Suessa" are named as present in a charter dated to [1047/48] which records a judgment of Atenulf I Duke of Gaeta[448]

 

 

 

G.      CONTI di TEANO 

 

 

ATENOLF di Capua, son of ATENOLF II joint Prince of Capua and Benevento & his wife Sichelgaita di Gaeta (-after 15 Mar 952).  "Atenolfus comes fili bone memorie domni Atenolfi prin[cipis]" refers to a dispute with the monastery of Santa Maria de Cingla relating to land "in Bairano finibus pertinentiis nostro comitato Teano", in a charter dated Aug [944][449]Conte di Teano.  Landulf and Pandulf his son Princes of Benevento donated property to Monte Cassino, at the request of "Atenulfus comes…nepoti nostro", by charter dated 15 Mar 952[450]

 m ---.  The name of Atenolf´s wife is not known. 

Atenolf [I] & his wife had one child: 

1.         ATENOLF [II] (-after May 964).  "Atenolfus comes filius bone recordationis domni Atenolfi comitis…et…Radelgardis…uxor…filia bonæ memoriæ Potoni" donated property at Teano to Santa Maria de Cingla, by charter dated May 961[451]Conte di Teano.  "Atenolfus comes Teanensis et filius bone recordacionis domni Atenolfi comitis" recorded a dispute with Santa Maria de Cingla, by charter dated May 964[452]m RADELGARDA, daughter of POTO & his wife --- (-after May 961).  "Atenolfus comes filius bone recordationis domni Atenolfi comitis…et…Radelgardis…uxor…filia bonæ memoriæ Potoni" donated property at Teano to Santa Maria de Cingla, by charter dated May 961[453].  Atenolf [II] & his wife had five children: 

a)         LANDO (-after Nov 986).  Pandulf I and Landulf Princes of Benevento donated property to Monte Cassino, at the request of "Lando comes…nepoti nostro filio quondam Atenolfi comitis", by charter dated Oct 968[454]Conte di Teano.  The testament "du comte Lando, fils du comte Atenulf" is dated Oct 986[455].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Lando comes ex civitate Teanense filius bonæ memoriæ domni Atenulfi comitis" donated property "in finibus…civitatis Teanensis", including "terræ meæ et de nepoti meæ quem genitor meus…habuit de pars episcopi Teanensi…[et terra] qui fuit Landoni senioris castaldei…[et] terra…ad potestatem Sellectæ et Gemmæ sorori meæ", by charter dated Nov 986[456]m as her first husband, GISULFA di Chieti, daughter of ATTO [II] Conte di Chieti & his wife --- (-after May 998).  "Jesulfa comitissa quæ fuit uxor bonæ memorie Landoni comitis comitatu Teano et filia Attoni comitis…uxor…Rainaldi comiti filii bonæ recordatione Berardi comiti" donated property to Monte Cassino by charter dated to [989/96][457].  She married secondly Rinaldo Conte di Marsi.  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Oderisius comes…Gervisæ coniugie suæ"[458].  "Gervisa comitissa filia Actoni comitis et uxor…Rainaldi comitis Marsicane urbis" donated property "in finibus comitatui Teanensis in loco Baccari et Corrigre…datum Landoni comitis anteriori viri mei…comes…Teanensis filius Atenolfi comitis" to Monte Cassino by charter dated May 998[459]

b)         ATENOLF [III] (-before Nov 986).  Conte di Teano.  "Le comte Atenulf, fils du feu comte Atenulf, et son épouse Blatta" donated property to San Salvatore di Cucuruzzu by charter dated Nov 982[460]m BLATTA, daughter of ---.  "Le comte Atenulf, fils du feu comte Atenulf, et son épouse Blatta" donated property to San Salvatore di Cucuruzzu by charter dated Nov 982[461]

c)         DAUFIER (-[before Nov 986]).  Conte di Teanom ---.  The name of Daufier´s wife is not known.  Daufier & his wife had one child: 

i)          IOANNES (-after Nov 1027).  Conte di Teano.  "Iohannes comes Teanensis…et filii bone memorie domni Dauferi comitis" donated property "quod…pertinuit Gervisæ comitissæ…Landoni comiti Teanensis et thius meus" to San Salvatore di Cucuruzzu by charter dated Nov 1027[462]

d)         SELLECTA (-after Nov 986).  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Lando comes ex civitate Teanense filius bonæ memoriæ domni Atenulfi comitis" donated property "in finibus…civitatis Teanensis", including "terræ meæ et de nepoti meæ quem genitor meus…habuit de pars episcopi Teanensi…[et terra] qui fuit Landoni senioris castaldei…[et] terra…ad potestatem Sellectæ et Gemmæ sorori meæ", by charter dated Nov 986[463]

e)         GEMMA (-after Nov 986).  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Lando comes ex civitate Teanense filius bonæ memoriæ domni Atenulfi comitis" donated property "in finibus…civitatis Teanensis", including "terræ meæ et de nepoti meæ quem genitor meus…habuit de pars episcopi Teanensi…[et terra] qui fuit Landoni senioris castaldei…[et] terra…ad potestatem Sellectæ et Gemmæ sorori meæ", by charter dated Nov 986[464]

 

 

The following (probable) brothers were grandsons of Pandolf I Prince of Capua and Benevento and his wife Aloara, but it is not known which of the couple´s sons was their father.  Stasser says that "on peut affirmer avec une quasi certitude qu´il s´agit de Gisulf", excluding Laidolf on the basis that Pandolf VI Prince of Capua would have claimed this connection in contemporary documentation if he had been Laidolf´s son[465].  Stasser´s analysis does not consider the possibility that Atenolf was their father. 

1.         PANDOLF (-[1026/28]).  According to Stasser, "les sources ne précisent pas lequel …[des] six fils connus [du prince Pandulf I de Capoue] fut le fondateu de cette lignée, mais on peut affirmer avec une quasi certitude qu´il s´agit de Gisulf"[466]Conte di Teano.  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Pandulfus et Gisulfus Teanenses comites" [presumably brothers, although the relationship between the donors is not specified in the document] donated land at Cesima to Monte Cassino, dated to [1011/22][467].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Pandulfo Teanensi comiti" succeeded as PANDOLF VI Prince of Capua, dated to [1022][468].  "Pandolphus et Johannes filius eiusdem principis…Langobardorum gentis principes" confirmed the rights of the monastery of San Salvatore near Naples, at the request of Emperor Heinrich II, by charter dated 2 Sep 1022[469].   "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted the principality of Capua to "Pandulfo et Iohanni filio eius…ita ut avus eius Pandulfus tenuit" by charter dated 5 Jan 1023[470].  "Paldolfus et Joannes filius eiusdem…principis…Langovardorum gentis principes" confirmed rights as abbess to "domna Sichelgayta abbatissa" (abbess of Santa Maria di Cingla), at the request of "Landenolfus comes Calacianus…filius quondam Landolfi", by charter dated 13 Jun 1024[471].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Pandulfus…Teanensis quem principem Capuæ factum ab imperatore" joined "Boaino", left Capua for Naples, and later lived in Rome where he died, dated to [1026/28][472].  The Chronicon Comitum Capuæ records that Prince Pandolf VI was exiled with his son "in Romaniam"[473]m ---.  The name of Pandolf's wife is not known.  Pandolf & his wife had three children:

a)         IOANNES (-after 1026).  "Pandolphus et Johannes filius eiusdem principis…Langobardorum gentis principes" confirmed the rights of the monastery of San Salvatore near Naples, at the request of Emperor Heinrich II, by charter dated 2 Sep 1022[474].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted the principality of Capua to "Pandulfo et Iohanni filio eius…ita ut avus eius Pandulfus tenuit" by charter dated 5 Jan 1023[475].  The Chronicon Comitum Capuæ records that "Iohanne filio suo [=Pandulfo Teanensi]" ruled jointly with his father as IOANNES Prince of Capua but was exiled with his father "in Romaniam"[476].  "Otto…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted Pontecorvo to "principis Capuani…Iohannis Gagetani senioris consulis atque ducis nostri" by charter dated 15 Oct 999[477]m BLATTA, daughter of --- (-after Jul 1049).  "…Blacta…monachile…quæ fui principissa et relicta quondam Johanni principis filia [sic] supradicti Paldulfi principis…" donated property to the monastery of San Giovanni di Clusa by charter dated Jul 1049[478].  Stasser suggests that she was Blatta of Naples, daughter of Sergius IV Duke of Naples & his wife ---, based on the close connection between the ducal family of Naples and Pandolf VI Prince of Capua who found refuge with Duke Sergius IV after being expelled from Capua[479]

b)         PANDOLF (-before Jul 1049).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Jul 1049 under which "Landolfus…Teanensis comes et filius quondam…bonæ memoriæ domni Paldulfi principis…et…Paldulfus et Landulfus comitibus et filii qdd. bonæ recordationis domini Paldulfi comitis filii supradicti domini Paldulfi principis…" donated property to the monastery of San Giovanni di Clusa[480]m ANNA, daughter of SERGIUS & his wife --- (-after Jul 1049).  "…Paldulfus et Landulfus comitibus et filii qdd. bonæ recordationis domini Paldulfi comitis filii supradicti domini Paldulfi principis…et…Anna comitissa filia Sergii et relicta quoddam supradicti Paldulfi comiti" donated property to the monastery of San Giovanni di Clusa by charter dated Jul 1049[481].  Stasser suggests that she was Anna of Naples, daughter of Sergius IV Duke of Naples & his wife ---, based on the close connection between the ducal family of Naples and Pandolf VI Prince of Capua who found refuge with Duke Sergius IV after being expelled from Capua[482].  Pandolf & his wife had two children: 

i)          PANDOLF (-after Jul 1049).  "…Paldulfus et Landulfus comitibus et filii qdd. bonæ recordationis domini Paldulfi comitis filii supradicti domini Paldulfi principis…" donated property to the monastery of San Giovanni di Clusa by charter dated Jul 1049[483]

ii)         LANDOLF (-after 19 Jan 1065).  "…Paldulfus et Landulfus comitibus et filii qdd. bonæ recordationis domini Paldulfi comitis filii supradicti domini Paldulfi principis…" donated property to the monastery of San Giovanni di Clusa by charter dated Jul 1049[484].  A charter dated 19 Jan 1065 records that Richard Prince of Capua confiscated property from "Landolfus filius quondam Pandulfi olim principis et Landulfus nepos ipsius Landolfi et filii quondam Pandulfi et Johannes et Petrus germani et filii quondam Gisulfi et Paldulfus et Landenolfus germani et filii quondam Laydolfi olim Thianensis comitibus" and donated castellum de Mortula to Monte Cassino[485]

c)         LANDOLF (-[19 Jan 1065/Sep 1070]).  Conte di Teano.  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Laidulfus Teanensis comes" captured "Adenulfum qui postmodum dux Caietæ" at Teano, in support of Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno against Pandulf VII Prince of Capua, but that in revenge "Aquinenses comites" imprisoned the abbot of Monte Cassino who was helped by "Landulfus…Teanensis comes", dated to [1039][486].  "Landolfus…Teanensis comes et filius quondam…bonæ memoriæ domni Paldulfi principis…et…Paldulfus et Landulfus comitibus et filii qdd. bonæ recordationis domini Paldulfi comitis filii supradicti domini Paldulfi principis…et…Blacta…monachile…quæ fui principissa et relicta quondam Johanni principis filia [sic] supradicti Paldulfi principis…et Urania comitissa filia Johanni comitis et uxor…supradicti Landolfi comitis…et…Anna comitissa filia Sergii et relicta quoddam supradicti Paldulfi comiti" donated property to the monastery of San Giovanni di Clusa by charter dated Jul 1049[487].  A charter dated 19 Jan 1065 records that Richard Prince of Capua confiscated property from "Landolfus filius quondam Pandulfi olim principis et Landulfus nepos ipsius Landolfi et filii quondam Pandulfi et Johannes et Petrus germani et filii quondam Gisulfi et Paldulfus et Landenolfus germani et filii quondam Laydolfi olim Thianensis comitibus" and donated castellum de Mortula to Monte Cassino[488]m URANIA, daughter of IOANNES & his wife --- (-after Jul 1049).  "Landolfus…Teanensis comes et filius quondam…bonæ memoriæ domni Paldulfi principis…et Urania comitissa filia Johanni comitis et uxor…supradicti Landolfi comitis…" donated property to the monastery of San Giovanni di Clusa by charter dated Jul 1049[489].  Pandolf & his wife had two children:

i)          IOANNES (-after Jul 1086).  "Iohannes quoque filius Landulfi comitis Teanensis" donated part of his castle at Mortula to the monastery of Monte Cassino in Sep 1070[490].  Conte di Venafro.  "Iohannes comes Benafri filius Landolfi comitis…et son épouse Anna" donated castellum de Cardeto to Monte Cassino by charter dated Jul 1086[491]m ATTA di Venafro, daughter of PALDO Conte di Venafro & his wife Maria --- (-after Jul 1086).  "Atta filia Paldi comitis de civitate di Venafro…uxor…Iohannis comitis filii quoddam Landolfi qui fuit comes de suprascripta civitate" donated her part of land "infra finibus Teanense civitatis loco Presenzano ubi ad Savinianu" to the monastery of Santa Maria de Cingla by charter dated Feb 1072[492].  "Iohannes comes Benafri filius Landolfi comitis…et son épouse Anna" donated castellum de Cardeto to Monte Cassino by charter dated Jul 1086[493].  Ioannes & his wife had three children: 

(a)       PALDO di Venafro (-after Jun 1123).  "Paldi comes filius domni Ioannis comitis" is named in a charter dated Jun 1089 under which "comte Hugues Morinus" donated property[494].  Conte di Venafro.  "Paldo comte de Venafro" was named in the charter dated 1118 under which "Roger comte de Calvi" donated property[495]m ---.  The name of Paldo´s wife is not known.  Paldo & his wife had one child: 

(1)       ATENOLF di Venafro (-bur Monte Cassino).  An epitaph records the death (undated) of "Adenulfi comitis filius Paldi comiti di Venafro"[496]

(b)       ALTRUDA (-after Nov 1104).  "Guilielmus…domino castelli…Nove…filius quondam Guilielmi qui dictus est de Magnia et Altruda filia quondam Johannis comitis Tianensis" donated property to the abbey of Cava by charter dated Nov 1104[497]m GUGLIELMO Signore di Novi Velia, son of GUGLIELMO de Mannia & his wife --- (-after Nov 1104). 

(c)       SICHELGAITA (-after 1119).  "Sichelgaita fille du feu comte Jean de Teano et veuve de Grégoire de Capaccio" donated property to Cava abbey, in the presence of "son fils Guillaume et de ses nepotes Grégoire, Gaimar, Gisulf, Tudinus et Jordan" by charter dated 1119[498]m as his second wife, GREGORIO di Capaccio, son of PALDULF di Salerno & his wife Theodora di Tusculanum (-[1118/19]). 

ii)         LANDOLF (after [1050]-after Sep 1070).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "frater eius [=Iohannes] Landulfus infans"[499].  "Landolfus infans infra ætate filii quondam Landolfi qui fuit comes Teanensis" donated his part of castellum de Mortula to Monte Cassino by charter dated Sep 1070[500]

2.         [GISULF (-after 1011)Conte di Teano.  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Pandulfus et Gisulfus Teanenses comites" [presumably brothers, although the relationship between the donors is not specified in the document] donated land at Cesima to Monte Cassino, dated to [1011/22][501].]  m ---.  The name of Gisulf´s wife is not known.  Gisulf & his wife had [five] children: 

a)         PETRUS (-after 19 Jan 1065).  Conte di Teano.  "Les comtes de Teano Pierre et Jean" recognised the jurisdiction of Monte Cassino over Bantra castle in order to free "leur frère Laidulf Comte de Teano emprisonné par Ardemannus neveu de l´abbé Richer", dated to Aug 1040[502].  A charter dated 19 Jan 1065 records that Richard Prince of Capua confiscated property from "Landolfus filius quondam Pandulfi olim principis et Landulfus nepos ipsius Landolfi et filii quondam Pandulfi et Johannes et Petrus germani et filii quondam Gisulfi et Paldulfus et Landenolfus germani et filii quondam Laydolfi olim Thianensis comitibus" and donated castellum de Mortula to Monte Cassino[503]

b)         IOANNES (-after 19 Jan 1065).  Conte di Teano.  "Les comtes de Teano Pierre et Jean" recognised the jurisdiction of Monte Cassino over Bantra castle in order to free "leur frère Laidulf Comte de Teano emprisonné par Ardemannus neveu de l´abbé Richer", dated to Aug 1040[504].  A charter dated 19 Jan 1065 records that Richard Prince of Capua confiscated property from "Landolfus filius quondam Pandulfi olim principis et Landulfus nepos ipsius Landolfi et filii quondam Pandulfi et Johannes et Petrus germani et filii quondam Gisulfi et Paldulfus et Landenolfus germani et filii quondam Laydolfi olim Thianensis comitibus" and donated castellum de Mortula to Monte Cassino[505]m ---.  The name of Ioannes´s wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had one child: 

i)          PIETRO (-after Oct 1116).  "Le comte Pierre fils du comte Jean de Teano et son fils le comte Jean" confirmed their part of Camino, Mortula and Rocca Bantra to Monte Cassino by charter dated Oct 1116[506]m ---.  The name of Pietro´s wife is not known.  Pietro & his wife had one child: 

(a)       IOANNES (-after Oct 1116).  "Le comte Pierre fils du comte Jean de Teano et son fils le comte Jean" confirmed their part of Camino, Mortula and Rocca Bantra to Monte Cassino by charter dated Oct 1116[507]

c)         LAIDOLF (-before 19 Jan 1065).  Conte di Teano.  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Laidulfus Teanensis comes" captured "Adenulfum qui postmodum dux Caietæ" at Teano, in support of Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno against Pandulf VII Prince of Capua, but that in revenge "Aquinenses comites" imprisoned the abbot of Monte Cassino who was helped by "Landulfus…Teanensis comes", dated to [1039][508].  "Les comtes de Teano Pierre et Jean" recognised the jurisdiction of Monte Cassino over Bantra castle in order to free "leur frère Laidulf Comte de Teano emprisonné par Ardemannus neveu de l´abbé Richer", dated to Aug 1040[509]m ---.  The name of Laidolf's wife is not known.  Laidolf & his wife had two children: 

i)          PANDOLF (-[19 Jan 1065/7 Dec 1089])).  A charter dated 19 Jan 1065 records that Richard Prince of Capua confiscated property from "Landolfus filius quondam Pandulfi olim principis et Landulfus nepos ipsius Landolfi et filii quondam Pandulfi et Johannes et Petrus germani et filii quondam Gisulfi et Paldulfus et Landenolfus germani et filii quondam Laydolfi olim Thianensis comitibus" and donated castellum de Mortula to Monte Cassino[510]m ---.  The name of Pandolf´s wife is not known.  Pandolf & his wife had one child: 

(a)       PANDOLF (-after Sep 1091).  "…Pandulphi de Presumzanu" witnessed the charter dated 7 Dec 1089 which records a judgment in favour of the monastery of San Stefano di Fossanova[511].  Conte di Presenziano.  "Pandulfus comes filius domni Pandulfi qui fuit comes Tiano" donated his part of castellum Mortula to Monte Cassino by charter dated Sep 1091, signed by "Pandulfus comes, Ectore, Laidulfus…"[512]m MARIA, daughter of --- (-after Apr 1108).  "Mariæ quondam uxoris Pandulfi comitis Teanensis…avec ses fils Hector, Pandulf et Gisulf" her rights in Camino, Mortula and Rocca Bantra to Monte Cassino by charter dated Apr 1108[513].  Pandolf & his wife had four children: 

(1)       ECTORE (-after 1115).  "Pandulfus comes filius domni Pandulfi qui fuit comes Tiano" donated his part of castellum Mortula to Monte Cassino by charter dated Sep 1091, signed by "Pandulfus comes, Ectore, Laidulfus…"[514].  "Mariæ quondam uxoris Pandulfi comitis Teanensis…avec ses fils Hector, Pandulf et Gisulf" her rights in Camino, Mortula and Rocca Bantra to Monte Cassino by charter dated Apr 1108[515].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Hector, Pandulfus et Gisulfus filii Pandulfi de Presenzano" occupied castellum Camino but were forced to return it to Monte Cassino on the intervention of Pope Pascal II, dated to [1115][516]

(2)       LAIDULF (-after Sep 1108).  "Pandulfus comes filius domni Pandulfi qui fuit comes Tiano" donated his part of castellum Mortula to Monte Cassino by charter dated Sep 1091, signed by "Pandulfus comes, Ectore, Laidulfus…"[517].  "Laydulfus comes filius quondam Pandulfi comitis Thianense" donated his part of castellum Mortula and Camino to Monte Cassino by charter dated Sep 1108[518]

(3)       PANDOLF (-after 1115).  "Mariæ quondam uxoris Pandulfi comitis Teanensis…avec ses fils Hector, Pandulf et Gisulf" her rights in Camino, Mortula and Rocca Bantra to Monte Cassino by charter dated Apr 1108[519].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Hector, Pandulfus et Gisulfus filii Pandulfi de Presenzano" occupied castellum Camino but were forced to return it to Monte Cassino on the intervention of Pope Pascal II, dated to [1115][520]

(4)       GISULF (-after 1115).  "Mariæ quondam uxoris Pandulfi comitis Teanensis…avec ses fils Hector, Pandulf et Gisulf" her rights in Camino, Mortula and Rocca Bantra to Monte Cassino by charter dated Apr 1108[521].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Hector, Pandulfus et Gisulfus filii Pandulfi de Presenzano" occupied castellum Camino but were forced to return it to Monte Cassino on the intervention of Pope Pascal II, dated to [1115][522]

ii)         LANDENOLF (-after [Aug 1101]).  A charter dated 19 Jan 1065 records that Richard Prince of Capua confiscated property from "Landolfus filius quondam Pandulfi olim principis et Landulfus nepos ipsius Landolfi et filii quondam Pandulfi et Johannes et Petrus germani et filii quondam Gisulfi et Paldulfus et Landenolfus germani et filii quondam Laydolfi olim Thianensis comitibus" and donated castellum de Mortula to Monte Cassino[523].  "Landenulf comte de Presenziano, fils du défunt comte Laidulf de Teano, avec ses fils Landulf et Laidulf" donated his rights to castellum Mortula by charter dated Sep 1097[524].  "Landenulfus comes filius quondam Laidolfi comitis" donated his part of Camino to Monte Cassino by charter dated Aug 1101[525].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Landenulfus comes, filius Laydolfi comitis" when recording his donation to Monte Cassino (Aug 1101 in the margin)[526]m ---.  The name of Landenolf´s wife is not known.  Landenolf & his wife had two children: 

(a)       LANDOLF (-after Sep 1097).  "Landenulf comte de Presenziano, fils du défunt comte Laidulf de Teano, avec ses fils Landulf et Laidulf" donated his rights to castellum Mortula by charter dated Sep 1097[527]

(b)       LAIDOLF (-after Sep 1097).  "Landenulf comte de Presenziano, fils du défunt comte Laidulf de Teano, avec ses fils Landulf et Laidulf" donated his rights to castellum Mortula by charter dated Sep 1097[528]

d)         daughter .  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Teanenses comites" betrothed "sororem suam" to "propinquo suo [=Richer abbot of Monte Cassino]…Ardemanno" provided he granted them "Vantra" castle but that "Laidulfum unum ex eisdem comitibus" was imprisoned (which suggests that the proposed marriage never took place), dated to [1039/40][529]Betrothed ([1039/40]) to ARDEMANNO, son of ---. 

e)         [daughter (-after [May/Jul] 1045).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Pandulfus" captured "sororem Teanensium comitum" to force the liberation of "Adenulfus" [Duke of Gaeta] who had been captured by Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno, dated to [May/Jul] 1045[530].  It is not known whether this person was the same as the other sister of the counts of Teano who is referred to above.] 

 

 

Stasser suggests that the following person was another brother of Pandolf VI Prince of Capua, although emphasising that this affiliation is only a hypothesis[531]

1.         LAIDOLF (-before Feb 1046).  "Laidolfus comes" is named as present in a charter dated 1028 under which "Gemma…uxor Leoni filii quondam Corbi et filia Iaquinti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the eleventh year of "domni Grimualdi Beneventane provincie princeps"[532]m firstly ---.  The name of Laidolf´s first wife is not known, but the marriage of his daughter before May 1023 strongly suggests this earlier marriage.  m secondly ALOARA, daughter of TRUPPOALD & his wife ---.  A charter dated Feb 1046 records that "Aloara que fuit uxore quondam Laidolfi comitis et filia quondam Truppoaldi comitis et…Iohannes comes germano suo" granted property to "Ademari filio quondam Grimoaldi et Amatus filio quondam Petri…thio et nepotes"[533].  Laidolf & his first wife had six children: 

a)         daughter .  Amatus records that the "sister of Guaimar's [Guaimar IV Duke of Salerno] wife was married to the Duke of Sorrento who had exiled her" and that Pandolf IV Duke of Capua attempted to seduce "the daughter of this lady"[534].  The editor of the edition consulted notes that the two sisters were the daughters of Laidolf, citing the sources which are quoted below relating to Gemma di Capua, wife of Guaimar IV Duke of Salerno[535].  However, as discussed more fully in the chapter dealing with the dukes of Salerno, it appears probable that Gemma di Capua was Duke Guaimar IV´s third wife whom he married in [1031/32].  Is it certain, therefore, that Amatus is referring to Guaimar´s third wife?  The key to answering this question is determining how closely the relevant passage in Amatus can be dated.  Amatus, in the paragraph preceding the passage reporting the attempted seduction of the young lady, records the succession of Duke Guaimar IV to his father[536], which is dated from other sources to [Feb/Jun] 1027.  In the paragraph about the attempted seduction, Amatus records that "Guaimar…prepared to avenge this infamy.  He brought forth his wealth…and presented these gifts to the Normans…[who] wasted no time in proclaiming his lordship over all the princes".  Chalandon suggests that the dispute (which is also recorded by Malaterra[537]) broke out after Pandolf IV´s attack on Benevento in 1036[538].  This appears to be correct: Amatus records that Emperor Konrad II intervened in Italy in response to the problem[539], and his visit to Italy can be dated to 1037/38 from other sources (see, for example, the detailed account in the Chronica Monasterii Casinensis which specifies the date 1038 for the emperor´s arrival in Italy[540]).  It can therefore safely be concluded that the attempted seduction of the daughter of the duke of Sorrento´s wife should be dated to [1035/36] and therefore that her mother was the sister of Prince Guaimar´s [third] wife Gemma di Capua.  This means that the duke of Sorrento´s must have married the Capuan lady before 1020, assuming that her daughter was adolescent by [1035/36].  m (before 1020, repudiated [before 1035]) --- Duke of Sorrento, son of --- (-after 1038). 

b)         PANDOLF (-murdered 1052 after 3 Jun).  He was installed in 1052 as PANDOLF Prince of Salerno.  Amatus records that, after the murder of Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno in 1052, "they…made Pandulf prince as he was first born of the brothers"[541].  Amatus records that Pandolf and his brothers were released by Guido di Salerno, brother of the murdered prince, after he recaptured the city with help from the Normans, but the latter murdered Pandolf, his brothers and the other conspirators[542]

c)         ATENULF (-murdered 1052 after 3 Jun).  Amatus records that Pandolf and his brothers were released by Guido di Salerno, brother of the murdered prince, after he recaptured the city with help from the Normans, but the latter murdered Pandolf, his brothers and the other conspirators[543]

d)         son (-murdered 1052 after 3 Jun).  Amatus records that Pandolf and his brothers were released by Guido di Salerno, brother of the murdered prince, after he recaptured the city with help from the Normans, but the latter murdered Pandolf, his brothers and the other conspirators[544]

e)         LANDOLF (-murdered 1052 after 3 Jun).  Amatus names Landulf "youngest of the four brothers of Guaimar's wife" as one of the murderers of Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno[545].  Amatus records that Pandolf and his brothers were released by Guido di Salerno, brother of the murdered prince, after he recaptured the city with help from the Normans, but the latter murdered Pandolf, his brothers and the other conspirators[546]

f)          GEMMA (-after Dec 1070).  Amatus refers to the wife of Prince Guaimar as sister of Landolf, one of his murderers[547].  "Waimarius…Longobardorum gentis Principes" confirmed the rights of Salerno church, with the consent of "Gemme Principisse…coniugis", by charter dated May 1032[548].  A charter dated Jul 1059, under which "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis que uxor denique Petri comitis et referendarii fuerat" donated property, quotes an earlier charter under which "Guaimar Prince of Salerno", in "the fourteenth year" of his reign, granted property in Salerno to "Petri comiti thio et referendario nostro" at the request of "Laidolfi comitis socero nostro"[549].  It is assumed that this document refers to Prince Guaimar IV (whose fourteenth year was 1032) and that "Laidolfi comitis" was therefore the father of the prince´s third wife.  Gemma, daughter of Laidulf, donated a mill at Vietri to the monastery of Cava dated Dec 1070, consented to by her five named sons[550]m (before May 1032) as his third wife, GUAIMAR IV Duke of Salerno, son of GUAIMAR III Duke of Salerno & his second wife Gaitelgrima of Capua ([1010/12]-murdered 3 Jun 1052). 

 

 

 

H.      CONTI di VENAFRO 

 

 

1.         AUDOALD (-after Feb 878).  Conte.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Adelchis…Langobardorum gentis Princeps" confirmed the privileges of the abbot of Volturno, at the request of "Audoaldi comitis cognati nostri", by charter dated Feb [878][551].  The relationship between Count Audoald and Prince Adelchis has not been traced.  It is possible that Audoald was the brother of Adelchis´s wife, assuming that "cognatus" can be interpreted in this document as "brother-in-law".  Audoald is placed with the conti di Venafro because his name is repeated several times in their family groupings. 

 

 

The following reconstruction results from the charter dated Jan 955 which is quoted below.  It is clear from the document that Ademar thesaurarius was great-grandfather of all four named donors.  It is also clear that Audoald, son of Ademar, was not the brother of Alfan and Ademar, sons of Ademar.  Their fathers must therefore have been first cousins.  Another possible variation is that Patero was the son of another unnamed son of Ademar [I], rather than the brother of Ademar [III]. 

 

1.         ADEMAR [I] .  Thesaurariusm ---.  The name of Ademar´s wife is not known.  Ademar & his wife had two children: 

a)         --- .  m ---.  One child: 

i)          ADEMAR [II] (-before Jan 955).  Conte [di Venafro].  m ---.  The name of Ademar´s wife is not known.  Ademar & his wife had two children: 

(a)       ALFAN (-after Jan 955).  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Alfanus et Aldemari germani filii quondam Aldemar qui fuit comes et Audoaldus castaldeus filius quondam Aldemari et Landulfus castaldeus filius bonæ memoriæ Pateri" donated "curtem nostram de finibus Benafro propinquo ecclesia Sancti Nicandri", granted to "Aldemari thesaurarius bisavius noster…a parte sacri palatii", to Volturno, by charter dated Jan [955][552]

(b)       ADEMAR [IV] (-after Jan 955).  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Alfanus et Aldemari germani filii quondam Aldemar qui fuit comes et Audoaldus castaldeus filius quondam Aldemari et Landulfus castaldeus filius bonæ memoriæ Pateri" donated "curtem nostram de finibus Benafro propinquo ecclesia Sancti Nicandri", granted to "Aldemari thesaurarius bisavius noster…a parte sacri palatii", to Volturno, by charter dated Jan [955][553]

b)         --- .  m ---.  [Two] children: 

i)          [ADEMAR [III] (-before Jan 955).  m ---.  The name of Ademar´s wife is not known.  Ademar & his wife had one child: 

(a)       AUDOALD (-after Jan 955).  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Alfanus et Aldemari germani filii quondam Aldemar qui fuit comes et Audoaldus castaldeus filius quondam Aldemari et Landulfus castaldeus filius bonæ memoriæ Pateri" donated "curtem nostram de finibus Benafro propinquo ecclesia Sancti Nicandri", granted to "Aldemari thesaurarius bisavius noster…a parte sacri palatii", to Volturno, by charter dated Jan [955][554].  

ii)         [PATEROm ---.  The name of Patero´s wife is not known.  Patero & his wife had one child: 

(a)       LANDOLF (-after Jan 955).  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Alfanus et Aldemari germani filii quondam Aldemar qui fuit comes et Audoaldus castaldeus filius quondam Aldemari et Landulfus castaldeus filius bonæ memoriæ Pateri" donated "curtem nostram de finibus Benafro propinquo ecclesia Sancti Nicandri", granted to "Aldemari thesaurarius bisavius noster…a parte sacri palatii", to Volturno, by charter dated Jan [955][555]

 

 

1.         ADEMAR [V] (-before Aug 987).  The names of this family suggest that Ademar [V] was closely connected with the family of Ademar [I] who is shown above.  It is possible that Ademar [V] was the same person as either Ademar [III] or Ademar [IV].  m ---.  The name of Ademar´s wife is not known.  Ademar [V] & his wife had two children: 

a)         AUDOALD (-after Aug 990).  "Poto figlio del fu Roffrid" donated land outside Benevento at Calcara to "conte Audoaldo figlio del fu Aldemaro", with the consent "della moglia Adeltruda", by charter dated Aug 987[556].  "Pietro figlio di Dauferio" donated land at Calcara and Pantano, inherited "dalla moglie Aloara", to "conte Audoaldo figlio del fu Aldemaro", by charter dated Aug 987[557].  "Il conte Audoaldo figlio del fu Aldemaro" paid money to "Poto figlio di Giovanni Sapaticio", in the presence "dei conti Magenolfo et Aldemaro", by charter dated Aug 990[558]m ---.  The name of Audoald´s wife is not known.  Audoald & his wife had two children: 

i)          ADEMAR (-after Aug 1003).  "Madelberto presbitero ed il nipote Giovanni" donated land in Telese at Cortesano, Titerno and Piscinola "ai conti Aldemaro e Audoaldo, figli del fu Audoaldo" by charter dated Aug 1003[559]

ii)         AUDOALD (-after Aug 1003).  "Madelberto presbitero ed il nipote Giovanni" donated land in Telese at Cortesano, Titerno and Piscinola "ai conti Aldemaro e Audoaldo, figli del fu Audoaldo" by charter dated Aug 1003[560]

 

2.         MAGENULF (-after Aug 990).  "Il conte Audoaldo figlio del fu Aldemaro" paid money to "Poto figlio di Giovanni Sapaticio", in the presence "dei conti Magenolfo et Aldemaro", by charter dated Aug 990[561]m ---.  The name of Magenulf´s wife is not known.  Magenulf & his wife had one child: 

a)         ADEMAR (-after 8 Apr 1043).  "Comte Rodelpot fils du comte Poto…[et] ses frères" divided land outside Benevento at Plesco di Calcara held jointly with "la comtesse Gaitelgrima, fille de feu le comte Alfan et épouse du comte Adémar fils du comte Magenulf" by charter dated Nov 1041[562].  "I principi Pandolfo III e Landolfo VI" granted fiscal immunities to specified persons, at the request "del conte Aldemario", by charter dated 8 Apr 1043[563]m GAITELGRIMA, daughter of ALFAN & his wife --- (-after Nov 1041).  "Comte Rodelpot fils du comte Poto…[et] ses frères" divided land outside Benevento at Plesco di Calcara held jointly with "la comtesse Gaitelgrima, fille de feu le comte Alfan et épouse du comte Adémar fils du comte Magenulf" by charter dated Nov 1041[564]

 

3.         ADEMAR (-after Aug 990).  "Il conte Audoaldo figlio del fu Aldemaro" paid money to "Poto figlio di Giovanni Sapaticio", in the presence "dei conti Magenolfo et Aldemaro", by charter dated Aug 990[565]

 

4.         ADEMAR (-before Mar 1022).  m ---.  The name of Ademar´s wife is not known.  Ademar & his wife had one child: 

a)         ADEMAR (-after Mar 1022).  A charter dated Mar 1022 records an agreement between "Aldemari comes filius idem Aldemari que fuit Comes" and the abbot of Volturno relating to a dispute about properties in Telesia[566]

 

 

1.         PALDEFRID (-after Nov 954).  Conte di Venafro.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records a judgment against "Paldefrit comes castaldatus Benafrani" who had appropriated properties of the monastery of Volturno, by charter dated Nov 954[567]m ---.  The name of Paldefrid´s wife is not known.  Paldefrid & his wife had two children: 

a)         PANDOLF [I] .  "Pandulf et le diacre Landulf, fils du défunt comte Paldefrid de Venafro, et Paldo fils di défunt comte Adenulf de Venafro" opposed the rights of Monte Cassino to certain property in the county of Venafro by charter dated to [966][568]Conte di Venafrom ---.  The name of Pandolf´s wife is not known.  Pandolf & his wife had two children: 

i)          AUDOALD (-after 1032).  "Audoald fils du défunt comte Pandulf de Venafro et ses neveux Pandulf et Landulf" shared properties in Cardito, Fondiniani, Casale and Acquafundata in the county of Venafro by charter dated 1032[569]Conte di Venafro

ii)         son .  m ---.  Two children: 

(a)       PANDOLF [II] .  "Audoald fils du défunt comte Pandulf de Venafro et ses neveux Pandulf et Landulf" shared properties in Cardito, Fondiniani, Casale and Acquafundata in the county of Venafro by charter dated 1032[570]

(b)       LANDOLF .  "Audoald fils du défunt comte Pandulf de Venafro et ses neveux Pandulf et Landulf" shared properties in Cardito, Fondiniani, Casale and Acquafundata in the county of Venafro by charter dated 1032[571]

b)         LANDOLF (-after Dec 970).  "Pandulf et le diacre Landulf, fils du défunt comte Paldefrid de Venafro, et Paldo fils di défunt comte Adenulf de Venafro" opposed the rights of Monte Cassino to certain property in the county of Venafro by charter dated to [966][572].  "Landolfus diaconus et monachus filius Paldefridi comitis" donated property in the county of Venafro to Monte Cassino by charter dated Dec 970[573]

2.         [ATENOLF (-before [966]).]  m ---.  The name of Atenolf´s wife is not known.  Atenolf & his wife had one child: 

a)         PALDO [I] .  "Pandulf et le diacre Landulf, fils du défunt comte Paldefrid de Venafro, et Paldo fils di défunt comte Adenulf de Venafro" opposed the rights of Monte Cassino to certain property in the county of Venafro by charter dated to [966][574]

 

 

1.         LANDENOLF .  It is possible, but not certain, that Landenolf was the same person as the unnamed younger son of Pandolf [I] Conte di Venafro (see above).  Conte di Venafrom ---.  The name of Landenolf´s wife is not known.  Landenolf & his wife had one child: 

a)         PANDOLF [III] (-after Sep 1071).  As mentioned above, assuming that Pandolf [III]´s father was the same person as the unnamed younger son of Pandolf [I] Conte di Venafro, Pandolf [III] was the same person as Pandolf [II].  Conte di Venafro.  "Paldolfi comite Benafro filius cuiusdam domni Landenolfi comiti" was authorised by "domna Maria religiosa abbatissa…consobrine sorori tuæ" (abbess of Santa Maria de Cingla) to occupy castellum de Sant´Arcangelo by charter dated to [1062][575].  "Paldulfus comes de civitate Venafro et fili quoddam Landenulfi qui fuit comes" donated land "infra finibus Teano loco Presenzanu ubi Sabinianu…cum Paldo germano meo" to Monte Cassino by charter dated Sep 1071[576]

b)         PALDO [II] (-after Feb 1072).  Conte di Venafro.  "Paldi…comes…cum Maria comitissa conjuge mea" donated castellum di Veticusu to Monte Cassino by charter dated Mar 1064[577]m MARIA, daughter of ---.  "Paldi…comes…cum Maria comitissa conjuge mea" donated castellum di Veticusu to Monte Cassino by charter dated Mar 1064[578].  Paldo & his wife had one child: 

i)          ATTA di Venafro (-after Jul 1086).  "Atta filia Paldi comitis de civitate di Venafro…uxor…Iohannis comitis filii quoddam Landolfi qui fuit comes de suprascripta civitate" donated her part of land "infra finibus Teanense civitatis loco Presenzano ubi ad Savinianu" to the monastery of Santa Maria de Cingla by charter dated Feb 1072[579].  "Iohannes comes Benafri filius Landolfi comitis…et son épouse Anna" donated castellum de Cardeto to Monte Cassino by charter dated Jul 1086[580]m IOANNES di Teano, son of LANDOLF Conte di Teano & his wife Urania --- (-after Jul 1086). 

 

 

 

I.        OTHER NOBILITY  in BENEVENTO

 

 

1.         RODOALD (-before Jun 766).  Gastald.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records donations of property by "Godeschalcus qui fuit quondam Dux…Annam conjugem suam" to Volturno, a judgment given by "Domnæ Ascanipergæ et Domni Liutprandi" relating to the property which was appealed to "Domni Aistulfi Regis Ticino", and another claim by "Radoaldo Gastaldeo…in præsentiam Domni Arichis intentionando pro causis de filiis et noras suas, seu germana eorum Eufimia ancilla Dei" which was settled in respect of "pars Radulhini et Ermeperti cum conjuge sua, vel Eufemia germana eorum", by charter dated Jun 766[581]m ---.  The name of Rodoald´s wife is not known.  Rodoald & his wife had three children: 

a)         RADULHIN (-after Jun 766).  The Chronicon Vulturnense records donations of property by "Godeschalcus qui fuit quondam Dux…Annam conjugem suam" to Volturno, a judgment given by "Domnæ Ascanipergæ et Domni Liutprandi" relating to the property which was appealed to "Domni Aistulfi Regis Ticino", and another claim by "Radoaldo Gastaldeo…in præsentiam Domni Arichis intentionando pro causis de filiis et noras suas, seu germana eorum Eufimia ancilla Dei" which was settled in respect of "pars Radulhini et Ermeperti cum conjuge sua, vel Eufemia germana eorum", by charter dated Jun 766[582]

b)         ERMEPERT (-after Jun 766).  The Chronicon Vulturnense records donations of property by "Godeschalcus qui fuit quondam Dux…Annam conjugem suam" to Volturno, a judgment given by "Domnæ Ascanipergæ et Domni Liutprandi" relating to the property which was appealed to "Domni Aistulfi Regis Ticino", and another claim by "Radoaldo Gastaldeo…in præsentiam Domni Arichis intentionando pro causis de filiis et noras suas, seu germana eorum Eufimia ancilla Dei" which was settled in respect of "pars Radulhini et Ermeperti cum conjuge sua, vel Eufemia germana eorum", by charter dated Jun 766[583]

c)         EUFEMIA (-after Jun 766).  The Chronicon Vulturnense records donations of property by "Godeschalcus qui fuit quondam Dux…Annam conjugem suam" to Volturno, a judgment given by "Domnæ Ascanipergæ et Domni Liutprandi" relating to the property which was appealed to "Domni Aistulfi Regis Ticino", and another claim by "Radoaldo Gastaldeo…in præsentiam Domni Arichis intentionando pro causis de filiis et noras suas, seu germana eorum Eufimia ancilla Dei" which was settled in respect of "pars Radulhini et Ermeperti cum conjuge sua, vel Eufemia germana eorum", by charter dated Jun 766[584].  Nun. 

 

 

1.         RODERISSUS (-before 810).  m ---.  The name of Roderissus´s wife is not known.  Roderissus & his wife had two children: 

a)         RODEGAR (-after 807).  "Rodegari…Theodericus, Framici fi[lius] Roderissi" witnessed the charter dated Oct [807] ("temporibus…Grimualdi summi principis gentis Longobardorum, anno sec[un[do princ[i]p[atu]s eius, mse Octobrio, indic prima") under which "Forti sculdais fi[lius] Roderissi sculdais, abitator in civitat Tarentina" donated property in Taranto to Montecassino[585]Gastald [di Conza].  "Rodegari gastaldius filius quondam Roderissi…habitator in Gasananu" donated property "in finibus C[on[sinis…territorio Abolæ", including property belonging to "Eusebia c[on]iuge mea iuxta fines Canusie quæ…habui de genitore suo…Guartecausæ", to Montecassino by charter dated to Apr [795 or 810] ("temporibus domini n[ostr]I Grimoaldi summi principis Langobardorum gentis, mse Aprili idict IIIa", which could refer to either date, although the donor´s signatory in the charter dated Oct [807] quoted below suggests that the latter date may be correct)[586]m EUSEBIA, daughter of GUARTACAUSA & his wife --- (-after [Apr 810]).  "Rodegari gastaldius filius quondam Roderissi…habitator in Gasananu" donated property "in finibus C[on[sinis…territorio Abolæ", including property belonging to "Eusebia c[on]iuge mea iuxta fines Canusie quæ…habui de genitore suo…Guartecausæ", to Montecassino by charter dated to Apr [795 or 810][587].  Rodegar & his wife had [one] child: 

i)          [RODERISSUS .  "Raderissi, Cunefrid filius Cunicici" witnessed the charter dated Apr [795 or 810] under which "Rodegari gastaldius filius quondam Roderissi…habitator in Gasananu" donated property to Montecassino[588].  The parentage of the witness Roderissus is not specified in the document but his name suggests that he may have been the son of the donor, whose father bore the same name.] 

b)         FRAMICUS (-after Oct 807).  "Rodegari…Theodericus, Framici fi[lius] Roderissi" witnessed the charter dated Oct [807] ("temporibus…Grimualdi summi principis gentis Longobardorum, anno sec[un[do princ[i]p[atu]s eius, mse Octobrio, indic prima") under which "Forti sculdais fi[lius] Roderissi sculdais, abitator in civitat Tarentina" donated property in Taranto to Montecassino[589]

 

 

1.         DAUFER (-before Jul 830).  m ---.  The name of Daufer´s wife is not known.  Daufer & his wife had one child: 

a)         RODEGAR .  "Rodegari gastaldius filius sanctæ recordationis Dauferii" confirmed the foundation of a hospice, under the authority of Montecassino, near ponte Leproso and donated property in Benevento by charter dated Jul [830][590]Gastald

 

 

1.         MAIO (-before Jan 813).  Gastaldm ---.  The name of Maio´s wife is not known.  Maio & his wife had one child: 

a)         MAIO (-after Nov 849).  Gastald.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Majo castaldeus filius bonæ memoriæ Mayonis castaldei" donated "casalem meum in finibus Capuæ in loco…Ponte Pozzolano et…in Monte Mariniano" to Volturno monastery by charter dated Jan 813 at Benevento[591].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Domnus…Sikelnolfus…Langobardorum gentis Princeps" confirmed various donations to Volturno, including the donations by "Mauroaldum abbatem, et Truppoaldum et Majonem seu Radelchis comitibus nostris", by charter dated Nov 849 "anno regni nostri…decimo"[592]

 

2.         TRUPPOALD (-after Nov 849).  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Domnus…Sikelnolfus…Langobardorum gentis Princeps" confirmed various donations to Volturno, including the donations by "Mauroaldum abbatem, et Truppoaldum et Majonem seu Radelchis comitibus nostris", by charter dated Nov 849 "anno regni nostri…decimo"[593]

 

3.         RADELCHIS (-after Nov 849).  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Domnus…Sikelnolfus…Langobardorum gentis Princeps" confirmed various donations to Volturno, including the donations by "Mauroaldum abbatem, et Truppoaldum et Majonem seu Radelchis comitibus nostris", by charter dated Nov 849 "anno regni nostri…decimo"[594]

 

 

1.         PALDO (-before Oct 817).  m ---.  The name of Paldo´s wife is not known.  Paldo & his wife had one child: 

a)         STEFANO (-after Oct 817).  Gastald.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Stephanus castaldeus filius quondam Paldoni…cum duobus filiis meis Paldone et Tatone" donated "casale in partibus Beneventi et in Apulia et in Capuanis finibus" to Volturno monastery, retaining the right of use "post nostrum discessum si Imetrada uxor mea et Radegisa et Arnegisa et Leopola advixerint", by charter dated Oct 817 at Benevento[595]m IMETRADA, daughter of ---.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Stephanus castaldeus filius quondam Paldoni…cum duobus filiis meis Paldone et Tatone" donated "casale in partibus Beneventi et in Apulia et in Capuanis finibus" to Volturno monastery, retaining the right of use "post nostrum discessum si Imetrada uxor mea et Radegisa et Arnegisa et Leopola advixerint", by charter dated Oct 817 at Benevento[596].  Stefano & his wife had five children: 

i)          PALDO .  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Stephanus castaldeus filius quondam Paldoni…cum duobus filiis meis Paldone et Tatone" donated "casale in partibus Beneventi et in Apulia et in Capuanis finibus" to Volturno monastery, retaining the right of use "post nostrum discessum si Imetrada uxor mea et Radegisa et Arnegisa et Leopola advixerint", by charter dated Oct 817 at Benevento[597]

ii)         TATO .  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Stephanus castaldeus filius quondam Paldoni…cum duobus filiis meis Paldone et Tatone" donated "casale in partibus Beneventi et in Apulia et in Capuanis finibus" to Volturno monastery, retaining the right of use "post nostrum discessum si Imetrada uxor mea et Radegisa et Arnegisa et Leopola advixerint", by charter dated Oct 817 at Benevento[598]

iii)        [RADEGISA .  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Stephanus castaldeus filius quondam Paldoni…cum duobus filiis meis Paldone et Tatone" donated "casale in partibus Beneventi et in Apulia et in Capuanis finibus" to Volturno monastery, retaining the right of use "post nostrum discessum si Imetrada uxor mea et Radegisa et Arnegisa et Leopola advixerint", by charter dated Oct 817 at Benevento[599].  It is assumed that the three persons named after the donor´s wife were their daughters, but this is not specified in the document.] 

iv)       [ARNEGISA .  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Stephanus castaldeus filius quondam Paldoni…cum duobus filiis meis Paldone et Tatone" donated "casale in partibus Beneventi et in Apulia et in Capuanis finibus" to Volturno monastery, retaining the right of use "post nostrum discessum si Imetrada uxor mea et Radegisa et Arnegisa et Leopola advixerint", by charter dated Oct 817 at Benevento[600].  It is assumed that the three persons named after the donor´s wife were their daughters, but this is not specified in the document.] 

v)        [LEOPOLA .  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Stephanus castaldeus filius quondam Paldoni…cum duobus filiis meis Paldone et Tatone" donated "casale in partibus Beneventi et in Apulia et in Capuanis finibus" to Volturno monastery, retaining the right of use "post nostrum discessum si Imetrada uxor mea et Radegisa et Arnegisa et Leopola advixerint", by charter dated Oct 817 at Benevento[601].  It is assumed that the three persons named after the donor´s wife were their daughters, but this is not specified in the document.] 

 

 

1.         ATTIO (-before Jun 877).  Gastald.  "Be[ne]d[ic]tus et Sicardus filii bone memorie Attioni gast[aldei]" donated property "in finibus Tianu, loco---Scatunianu et Purpuranu" to Montecassino by charter dated Jun [877][602]m ---.  The name of Attio´s wife is not known.  Attio & his wife had two children:  

a)         BENEDICTO (-after Jun 877).  "Be[ne]d[ic]tus et Sicardus filii bone memorie Attioni gast[aldei]" donated property "in finibus Tianu, loco---Scatunianu et Purpuranu" to Montecassino by charter dated Jun [877][603]

b)         SICARD (-after Jun 877).  "Be[ne]d[ic]tus et Sicardus filii bone memorie Attioni gast[aldei]" donated property "in finibus Tianu, loco---Scatunianu et Purpuranu" to Montecassino by charter dated Jun [877][604]

 

 

1.         LODOVICO (-after [896]).  Gastald.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records a judgment "in Benevento palatio…in præsentia Domnæ Ageltrudis imperatricis augustæ et domni Radelchis principis" by "Lodoicus castaldeus" against "Bernardus clericus filius…Bernardi…in monasterio Sanctæ Mariæ…ad Castanietum propinquo Castro Piniano" founded by "domna Theoderada ducissa…et…Domno Gisulfo Duce filio eius", by charter dated to [896][605]

 

 

1.         RAIMELFRID (-after Jul 949).  Gastald.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that Leo abbot of the monastery of Volturno "et Adeferi referendario abocatore meo" claimed ownership of the monastery of San Salvatore di Alife in the court of the prince of Benevento, in ther presence of "Raimelfrid castaldeo et judice…cum Alfano castaldeo", by charter dated Jul 949[606]

 

2.         ALFAN (-after Jul 949).  Gastald.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that Leo abbot of the monastery of Volturno "et Adeferi referendario abocatore meo" claimed ownership of the monastery of San Salvatore di Alife in the court of the prince of Benevento, in ther presence of "Raimelfrid castaldeo et judice…cum Alfano castaldeo", by charter dated Jul 949[607]

 

 

3.         GAIDERADm ---.  The name of Gaiderad´s wife is not known.  Gaiderad & his wife had one child: 

a)         EDERAD (-after Jan 975).  Gastald.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Erderado castaldeus filius cuiusdam Caiderradi habitator sum civitati Beneventanæ" donated "infra civitate Lisine et…ecclesiam Sancti Johannis…Caldole" to the monastery of Volturno by charter dated Jan 975[608]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    SALERNO

 

 

The principality of Salerno separated from Benevento at the time of the civil war which followed the death of Sicard Prince of Benevento in 839, its autonomy being confirmed by Louis II King of Italy in 849.  The treaty of division between Radelchis Prince of Benevento and Siconulf Prince of Salerno, dated 849, specifies the towns which lay within the principality of Salerno: Taranto, Latiniano, Cassano, Cosenza, Laino, Lucania, Conza, Montella, Rota, Salerno, Sarno, Cimiterio, Furculo, Capua, Teano and Sora, as well as half of the gastaldat of Acerenza[609].  The extent of Salernitan territory eroded over the years.  By about 860, the rulers of Capua had severed their links with Salerno and acted autonomously, resulting in the loss of the towns of Capua, Teano and Sora[610].  Byzantine possessions in southern Italy were restricted to Gallipoli and Otranto, as well as land south of a line from Rossano to Amantes in Calabria, the two areas being separated by the principality of Salerno[611].  However, Byzantium reconquered Bari in 876, Taranto in 880, and Conversano by 899, while the capital of the duchy of Benevento was occupied between 891 and 894[612].  By the early 11th century, Byzantium had reconquered Acerenza, as well as the territory south of that town, Bisignano, Cassano and Cosenza[613].  The princes of Salerno must have acknowledged Byzantine suzerainty, at least from time to time, as shown by the Byzantine titles which were used by the Salernitan princes, as recorded in the various charters which are quoted below. 

 

 

 

A.      PRINCES of SALERNO 849-978 (FAMILY of SICONULF)

 

 

SICONULF 849-850, SICO 850-853

 

SICONULF [Sikenolf], son of SICO I Prince of Benevento & his wife --- (-Salerno [Nov/Dec] 849).  Nithard names "Sigenulf" as brother of "Sigihard"[614].  "Syconulfum eius fratrem [=Sycard]" is named in the Catalogus Principum Salerni, when recording his imprisonment at Taranto[615].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that, on the death of his older brother, Radelchis deprived Siconulf of Benevento and held him captive at Taranto.  With help from Amalfi, he escaped and was brought back to Salerno which, under his leadership, declared war on Benevento[616].  During the civil war which followed, Siconulf gained control of the southern and western parts of the old principality of Benevento, declaring himself SICONULF Prince of Salerno.  The dating clause of a charter dated Mar 842, under which "Antipertu et Arnipertu germani filii quondam Cuniperti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the third year of "domni nostri Siconolfi"[617].  "Sichenolfus…Langobardorum gentis princ[eps]" donated property, including that previously held by "dom[ne] Adelghise que nunc nostri palatii pertinet", to Santa Maria in Cingla by charter dated to [839/Jul 849][618].  The civil war was eventually settled by Louis II King of Italy [Carolingian], who arranged the creation of the new principality of Salerno out of Beneventan territory under the Radelgisi et Siginulfi Divisio Ducatus Beneventani signed in early 849[619].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Domnus…Sikelnolfus…Langobardorum gentis Princeps" confirmed various donations to Volturno, including the donations by "Mauroaldum abbatem, et Truppoaldum et Majonem seu Radelchis comitibus nostris", by charter dated Nov 849 "anno regni nostri…decimo"[620].  Siconulf´s death is dated from the charter dated Dec 849, whose dating clause refers to the first year of "domni nostri Siconi filii Siconolfi magno principis"[621].  The Chronica Sancti Benedicti Casinensis records the death of Siconulf at Salerno[622]

m ITTA, daughter of ---(-after [Nov/Dec] 849).  The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Sikenolfus…suæ coniugis Ittæ" when recording that she survived her husband[623].  The origin of Prince Siconulf's wife is not known.  Erchempert names "Guido dux Spoletanorum, Siconulfi cognatus" when recording that the former attacked the latter, dated to [843/43][624].  The Chronicon Salernitanum also names "Sikenolfus…suum cognatum Guidonem" when recording the same event[625].  This has been interpreted in two ways.  Hlawitschka and Bougard proposed that the relationship indicated was that Guido of Spoleto had married a sister of Siconulf, daughter of Sico I Prince of Benevento[626].  On the other hand, Taviani Carozzi and Settipani considered that the correct interpretation was that Siconulf´s wife was Guido´s sister[627], and therefore Itta di Spoleto, daughter of Lambert [I] Marchese and Duke of Spoleto & his wife ---.  Stasser approves the principle argument in favour of the latter hypothesis, which is based on the Chronicon Salernitanum recording the marriages of three of the daughters of "Sico princeps" and adding that the author could not remember the husbands of the others[628], and the unlikelihood that a marriage of one daughter with Guido of Spoleto would have been forgotten.  The difficulty with both hypotheses is the assumption that "cognatus" should be interpreted only as meaning "brother-in-law", although the word could indicate a more remote family relationship. 

Prince Siconulf & his wife had one child: 

1.         SICO ([839/45]-[May/Oct] 855).  The dating clause of a charter dated Dec 849, under which "Leo quondam Iohanni [filius]" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the first year of "domni nostri Siconi filii Siconolfi magno principis"[629].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni record that "Syco eius filius [=Syconolfus] puer" succeeded his father as SICO II Prince of Salerno, under the regency of his godfather Petrus ("Petri comitis viri illustris de Salerno") and the latter's son Ademar[630].  His birth date range is estimated based on "puer" indicating a pre-adolescent, and taking into account that Sico was still a minor when he died.  The dating clause of a charter dated Mar 850, under which "Leo filius quondam Iohanni" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the first year of "domni nostri Siconi filii bone memorie domni Siconolfi summo princeps"[631].  The dating clause of a charter Mar 852, under which "Teodericus filius Leonis" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the third year of "domni nostri Siconis et domni Petri rectori eius"[632].  The dating clause of a charter Feb 854, under which "Lupus et Lanpertus et Amipertus diaconus et Walpertus germani filii Boneperti" and others donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the fifth year of "domni nostri Siconi et domni Petri rectori eius" and the first year of "domni Ademari principibus"[633], demonstrating that Ademar shared power with Prince Sico before the latter was killed.  The Catalogus Principum Salerni and the Chronicon Salernitanum record that Sico was taken north by Louis II King of Italy [Carolingian] for grooming as eventual successor, but was assassinated in 853 by Petrus and Ademar when he returned to Benevento[634].  His death is dated to [May/Oct] 855, as the dating clause of a charter dated May 855, under which "Locerna religiosa femina filia quondam Santiperti et relicta…quondam Gennari filio Optimi" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the sixth year of "domni nostri Siconis et domni Petri" and the second year of "domni Ademari principibus"[635], while the dating clause of a charter dated Oct 855, under which "Teodi et Cunipertus germani filii Pauliperti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the sixth year of "principatus domni Petri" and the second year of "domni Ademari principibus"[636]Betrothed ([849]) to --- di Capua, daughter of LANDENOLF di Capua & his wife ---.  Erchempert records that "Landonolfus" betrothed "natam suam" to "Siconolfo…filio illius" but that "filiis eius" died young "post patris"[637]

 

 

ADEMAR 853-861

 

PETRUS, son of --- ([Dec 855/Feb 856]).  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that Petrus, godfather of Sico II Prince of Salerno, and his son were appointed regents on the new prince's accession in 851[638].  The dating clause of a charter dated Mar 852, under which "Teodericus filius Leonis" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the third year of "domni nostri Siconis et domni Petri rectori eius"[639].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni and the Chronicon Salernitanum record that Petrus and Ademar arranged Sico´s assassination when he returned to Salerno in 853[640], although the death of Sico is dated to [May/Oct] 855 as demonstrated by the charters quoted above.  The dating clause of a charter dated Oct 855, under which "Teodi et Cunipertus germani filii Pauliperti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the sixth year of "principatus domni Petri" and the second year of "domni Ademari principibus"[641].  Petrus´s death is dated to [Dec 855/Feb 856], as the dating clause of a charter dated Dec 855, under which "Leodempertus filio Miteperti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the seventh year of "domni nostri Petri" and the third year of "domni Ademari principibus"[642], while the dating clause of a charter dated Feb 856, under which "Roffrida flius quondam Ropperti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the third year of "principatu domni Ademari" without mentioning Petrus[643]

m AUDPERGA, daughter of --- (-before Apr 858).  Her marriage is confirmed by the Chronicon Vulturnense which records that "Domnus Ademari Princeps" confirmed various donations to Volturno, including the donations by "domnus Petrus genitor meus…et ipsa Audperga" where they lived until their deaths, by charter dated Apr 858 "quinto anno principatus domini nostri Ademari"[644]

Petrus & his wife had one child: 

1.         ADEMAR (-861).  The Catalogus Principum Salerni and the Chronicon Salernitanum record that "filius Petri prefati comitis Adimarius" installed himself as ADEMAR Prince of Salerno in 853 after he and his father murdered Sico II[645].  However, the dating clause of a charter Feb 854, under which "Lupus et Lanpertus et Amipertus diaconus et Walpertus germani filii Boneperti" and others donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the fifth year of "domni nostri Siconi et domni Petri rectori eius" and the first year of "domni Ademari principibus"[646], demonstrating that Ademar shared power with Prince Sico before the latter was killed.  The dating clause of a charter dated Oct 855, under which "Teodi et Cunipertus germani filii Pauliperti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the sixth year of "principatus domni Petri" and the second year of "domni Ademari principibus"[647].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Domnus Ademari Princeps" confirmed various donations to Volturno, including the donations by "domnus Petrus genitor meus…et ipsa Audperga" where they lived until their deaths, by charter dated Apr 858 "quinto anno principatus domini nostri Ademari"[648].  He was deposed in 861 by Guaifer, who succeeded as Prince of Salerno.  m GUMELTRUDA, daughter of ---.  "Gumeltruda" is named as wife of "Ademarius" in the Chronicon Salernitanum, which says that she was avaricious[649].  Prince Ademar & his wife had one child: 

a)         PETRUS .  The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Ademari filius Petrus"[650]

 

 

DAUFER 861, GUAIFER 861-880

 

DAUFER "Mutus", son of --- (-before Mar 852).  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Dauferius…cum Guaiferium Maioque suis filiis" sent a delegation to Salerno, dated to [839/40] from the context[651].  [Erchempert names "liberi Dauferii Balbi…Romoalt, Arichis et Grimoalt nec non et Gauiferius" when recording that they invaded Salerno from Benevento [dated to 840 by the editor of the MGH edition][652].  It is assumed that "Dauferius Balbus" indicates the same person as Daufer "Mutus", as Daufer´s son Guaifer is named in other sources as Guaifer "Balbus", although this is not beyond all doubt.] The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Dauferii qui cognominatus fuit Mutus propter impeditionem suæ linguæ"[653].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Dauferius cognominatus Mutus" settled in "Nuceriam in loco…Forma", dated to [839/40] from the context[654]

m ---.  The name of Daufer's wife is not known. 

Daufer & his wife had [eight] children: 

1.         [DAUFERADA .  The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Rofrit" and "sua principessa cognata", the latter referring from the context to the wife of Sicard Prince of Benevento (who is named in another passage of the same source as the daughter of Daufer "Mutus", see above)[655].  If, as consistently suggested by Stasser, the word "cognata" can be interpreted as brother-in-law, then it is possible that Rofrid´s wife was Adelchisa´s sister[656].  However, the meaning of the word cannot be so limited, and therefore Rofrit´s second wife being the sister of Adelchisa is only one of the possible interpretations.  If Dauferada was Adelchisa´s sister, it is likely that she was older than the princess of Benevento.  The epitaph of "Dauferada…Rofrit…iugalis" records her death 17 Oct aged 45[657]m as his second wife, ROFRIT, son of DAUFER & his wife --- ([776/79]-[836/39]).] 

2.         ADELCHISA .  The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Adelchisa filia Dauferii qui cognominatus fuit Mutus propter impeditionem suæ linguæ" as wife of Sicard[658].  "Gontarius abbas monasterii sancti Modesti" was testamentary executor of "domina Adelchisa qui fuit principessa relicta domni Sichardi principis" and as such donated her property in Canosa to Monte Casino by charter dated Feb 852[659]m SICARD Prince of Benevento, son of SICO I Prince of Benevento & his wife --- (-murdered 839). 

3.         [ROMOALD (-after 840).  Erchempert names "liberi Dauferii Balbi…Romoalt, Arichis et Grimoalt nec non et Gauiferius" when recording that they invaded Salerno from Benevento [dated to 840 by the editor of the MGH edition][660].  It is assumed that "Dauferius Balbus" indicates the same person as Daufer "Mutus", as Daufer´s son Guaifer is named in other sources as Guaifer "Balbus", although this is not beyond all doubt.] 

4.         [ARICHIS (-after 840).  Erchempert names "liberi Dauferii Balbi…Romoalt, Arichis et Grimoalt nec non et Gauiferius" when recording that they invaded Salerno from Benevento [dated to 840 by the editor of the MGH edition][661].  It is assumed that "Dauferius Balbus" indicates the same person as Daufer "Mutus", as his son Guaifer is named in other sources as Guaifer "Balbus", although this is not beyond all doubt.] 

5.         [GRIMOALD (-after 840).  Erchempert names "liberi Dauferii Balbi…Romoalt, Arichis et Grimoalt nec non et Gauiferius" when recording that they invaded Salerno from Benevento [dated to 840 by the editor of the MGH edition][662].  It is assumed that "Dauferius Balbus" indicates the same person as Daufer "Mutus", as his son Guaifer is named in other sources as Guaifer "Balbus", although this is not beyond all doubt.] 

6.         GUAIFER "Balbus" (-[Feb/Aug] 880, bur Teano).  [Erchempert names "liberi Dauferii Balbi…Romoalt, Arichis et Grimoalt nec non et Gauiferius" when recording that they invaded Salerno from Benevento [dated to 840 by the editor of the MGH edition][663].  It is assumed that "Dauferius Balbus" indicates the same person as Daufer "Mutus", as his son Guaifer is named in other sources as Guaifer "Balbus", although this is not beyond all doubt.]  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Dauferius…cum Guaiferium Maioque suis filiis" sent a delegation to Salerno, dated to [839/40] from the context[664].  "Teodericus filius Loenis" sold property to "Waiferio filius bone memorie Dauferi" by charter dated Mar 852[665].  "Radechis comes filius Moncolani" sold property "circo carbonario propinquo civitatem Salernitatem" to "Waiferi comiti filius Dauferi" by charter dated Apr 856[666].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni record that "Guaiferius Balbus, filius Daiferi exulis Beneventani" usurped Salerno from his nephew[667].  The Chronicon Salernitanum names him "Muti Dauferii filius"[668].  He deposed his nephew and installed himself as GUAIFER Prince of Salerno in 861.  Around this time, Capua broke free from Salerno and established itself as an autonomous principality[669].  The dating clause of a charter dated Jun 865, under which "Antipertus filius Trudiperti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the fourth year of "principatus domni nostri Waiferii magni principis"[670].  An Aghlabid force invaded Calabria from North Africa in 871, besieged Salerno and devastated the surrounding countryside.  Amalfi sent help to Salerno to help withstand the siege, which was finally lifted after Louis II King of Italy dispatched a Frankish force from the north[671].  In 873, a Byzantine force recaptured Otranto from the Arabs, and in 876 Bari from the Lombards[672].  Erchempert records that "Landulfus" [Count of Capua] captured "Guaiferium principem" [dated to 874 by the editor of the MGH edition], that he was released after appointing "filios Landonis, Landonem…et Landonulfum, cognatos suos" as pledges and left for Ravenna in exile[673].  The dating clause of a charter Feb 880, under which "Senato filius Ragimperti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the nineteenth year of "principatu domni nostri Waiferius" and the fourth year of "domni Waimari principibus"[674].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that Guaifer became a monk[675].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Guaiferius…princeps" became a monk and travelled to "cœnobium beati Benedicti" but died before arriving, and was buried "Teanensi in castro eius ecclesia", dated to [880] from the context[676]m firstly --- (-[849])  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Guaiferius" killed his wife whom he suspected of adultery, dated to [849] from the context[677]m secondly ([856]) LANDELAICHA di Capua, daughter of LANDO [I] Count of Capua & his wife Aloara --- (-after Mar 882).  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "comes Capuanus Lando" had "duas filias", one of whom was intended to marry "Guaiferii" [dated to [856] from the context][678].  Her marriage is also indicated by Erchempert who records that "Landulfus" captured "Guaiferium principem" [dated to 874 by the editor of the MGH edition], that he was released after appointing "filios Landonis, Landonem…et Landonulfum, cognatos suos" as pledges and left for Ravenna in exile[679].  "Domne Landelaiche uxorem domni Waiferii principis" is named in a charter dated Jul 869, which also refers to, but does not name, "filiis et filie sue"[680].  "Domna Landelaicha…cum…domno Waimario principe filio suo" made a donation by charter dated Mar 882[681].  Prince Guaifer & his second wife had [five] children: 

a)         GUAIMAR (-901).  The dating clause of a charter dated Feb 880, under which "Senato filius Ragimperti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the nineteenth year of "principatu domni nostri Waiferius" and the fourth year of "domni Waimari principibus"[682].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni record that "Weimarius eius filius [=Guaiferius Balbus]" succeeded his father in 880 as GUAIMAR I Prince of Salerno[683]

-        see below

b)         daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m PULCHARUS prefect of Amalfi, son of MARINUS prefect of Amalfi & his wife --- (-after Sep 879). 

c)         ARECHIS ([860/70]-after Jul 923).  "Arechis et Dauferius germani filii cuiusdam domni Waiferii qui fuit princeps" are named in a charter dated Feb 904[684].  "Arechiso gastaldo" is named as present in a charter dated Jul 923 which records that "Iohannelgarius monachus filius Iohanni…et…Ermengarda qui fuit uxor eius" donated property to San Massimo di Salerno[685]

-        see Part B

d)         DAUFER ([860/70]-[Feb 904/928]).  "Arechis et Dauferius germani filii cuiusdam domni Waiferii qui fuit princeps" are named in a charter dated Feb 904[686]Gastald

-        see Part C

e)         [GUAIFER (-after [887]).  Erchempert records that "filiis Landonis…Lando cum omnibus germanis suis…Landonolfus, Pando et nepos eorum Guaiferius" returning to "Teanum"[687].  It is not certain that Guaifer was the son of Guaifer Prince of Salerno but his name indicates that this may be correct.] 

7.         MAIO (-after [839/40]).  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Dauferius…cum Guaiferium Maioque suis filiis" sent a delegation to Salerno, dated to [839/40] from the context[688].  Maio is named "Guaiferi germanus" in the Chronicon Salernitanum[689]m ---.  The name of Maio's wife is not known.  Maio & his wife had one child: 

a)         DAUFER .  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that "Dauferius Beneventanus" succeeded Ademar as Prince of Salerno but ruled only 18 days before he was expelled by his uncle "Guaiferio"[690].  He installed himself as DAUFER Prince of Salerno in 861.  He is named as son of Maio in the Chronicon Salernitanum[691]

 

 

GUAIMAR I 880-900, GUAIMAR II 900-946, GISULF I 946-973, -978

 

GUAIMAR di Salerno, son of GUAIFER Prince of Salerno & his wife Landelaiche --- (-901).  The dating clause of a charter dated Feb 880, under which "Senato filius Ragimperti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the nineteenth year of "principatu domni nostri Waiferius" and the fourth year of "domni Waimari principibus"[692].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that "Weimarius eius filius [=Guaiferius Balbus]" succeeded his father in 880 as GUAIMAR I Prince of Salerno[693].  The dating clause of a charter dated Aug 880, under which "Odelbertus filius ---" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the fourth year of "principatu domni nostri Waimarii"[694].  The Byzantines, under Nikephoros Phokas, launched a major campaign in southern Italy in late 883 and recaptured most of Calabria from Benevento and Salerno[695].  Erchempert records that, in 887, Duke Guaimar visited Constantinople and was invested as patrikios[696].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that, after the Byzantine capture of Benevento in 892, the Byzantines unsuccessfully attempted to capture Salerno[697].  The dating clause of a charter dated Aug 893, under which "Petrus filius quondam Raudiperti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the seventeenth year of "principatus domni nostri Waimario imperiali patricio" and the first year of "principatus domni Waimario filio eius"[698].  Guido of Spoleto Prince of Benevento offered the throne of Benevento to Prince Guaimar in 897, but the latter was captured and blinded on his way to the city[699].  The Catalogus rerum Langobardorum et ducum Beneventanorum records that "Guaimarius Salerni princeps Beneventum" [Guaimar I Prince of Salerno] was blinded by "Avellinum…cuius castaldeus…Adelferius, nepos magni Rofrit" (dated to [896/97])[700].  Subject to unpredictable and violent behaviour, he was deposed in 900 by his son and confined to the monastery of St Maximus[701]

m ([880]) ITTA di Spoleto, daughter of --- di Spoleto & his wife --- ([865]-after [897/98]).  The Chronicon Salernitanum quotes a letter addressed to "Guaimario principi", when Salerno was threatened by the Byzantines, requesting help from "Guidoni cognato vestro…sororem suam vestramque coniugem", the same passage later referring to "Guido marchio" [Guido IV Duke and Marchese of Spoleto] and "suæque sorori Idte", dated to 896 in the margin of the MGH edition of the text[702].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Idte uxore præfati principis senioris" (referring from the context to "Guaimarii principis") refused the marriage of her daughter to Landolf, son of Atenulf Count of Capua, on the basis that she was "ex regali stegmate orta", dated to [897/98] from the context[703].  The date of her marriage is based on the assumption that her daughter was nubile at the time, and is also consistent with the dates attributed to her son Guaimar.  Her estimated birth date follows from her assumed marriage date.  Her having inherited property in Spoleto, which she transmitted to her descendants, is confirmed by the Chronica Mon. Casinensis which records that her grandson "Gisulfus…Salernitanus princeps filius Guaimarii" donated property possessed by "Lambertus dux et marchio…in comitatu Marsicano, et Balva, et Forcone, et Amiterno, necnon et marchia Firmana et ducatu Spoletino" to the monastery[704]

Prince Guaimar & his wife had [four] children: 

1.         GUAIMAR (-946).  The dating clause of a charter dated Aug 893, under which "Petrus filius quondam Raudiperti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the seventeenth year of "principatus domni nostri Waimario imperiali patricio" and the first year of "principatus domni Waimario filio eius"[705].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni record that "Weimarius alter, Gybbosus dictus, eius filius [=Weimarius]" succeeded in 900 as GUAIMAR II Prince of Salerno[706] after deposing his father.  He participated in the joint Capuan, Beneventan and Salernitan expedition which removed the Arab settlement from the mouth of the River Garigliano in 915, although this is not mentioned in Salernitan sources[707].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that his forces defeated a Byzantine army along the Basintello River, east of Acerenza[708].  The dating clause of a charter dated Nov 933, under which "Adelpertus, qui Cicero vocatur, filius Adelberti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the forty-first year of "principatus domni nostri Guaimarii principi" and the first year of "domni Gisulfi principi filio eius"[709]m firstly ---.  The fact of Prince Guaimar's first marriage is deduced from the estimated date of his daughter's marriage, around the same time as her father's own marriage to Gaitelgrima of Capua.  m secondly ([920/23]) GAITELGRIMA of Capua, daughter of ATENOLF II Prince of Capua and Benevento & his wife --- (-950 or after).  The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Gaitelgrima Atenolfi principi Beneventi filia" when recording the death of her husband "Guaimari"[710].  "Gisolfus…Langobardorum gentis princeps" gave property at the request of "Gaitelgrime…matrix nostre" by charter dated 950[711].  As she is not named in later charters, it is possible that the donation was made around the time of her death.  Prince Guaimar & his first wife had one child:

a)         ROTILDA di Salerno (-after 954).  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Atenolfus Beneventanus princeps" married "Guaimarius…sua filia Rothilda"[712]m ([925]) ATENOLF di Capua, son of LANDOLF III joint Prince of Capua & his wife Gemma of Naples (-943). 

Prince Guaimar & his second wife had two children:

b)         GISULF ([930]-[Nov/Dec] 977).  The dating clause of a charter dated Nov 933, under which "Adelpertus, qui Cicero vocatur, filius Adelberti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the forty-first year of "principatus domni nostri Guaimarii principi" and the first year of "domni Gisulfi principi filio eius"[713].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that "Gesulfus filius Gybbosi" succeeded his father in 946 as GISULF I Prince of Salerno[714].  On his accession, Landolf III Prince of Capua and Ioannes III Duke of Naples prepared to invade Salerno, but they were repulsed by the Salernitans with support from Amalfi[715].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that he appointed "Priscum, comitem suum tesaurarium et magistrum palatii"[716].  In 973, Duke Gisolf was deposed by Landolf of Capua gastald of Conza, his maternal uncle, helped by Marinus II Duke of Naples and Manso II Duke of Amalfi, but was restored soon after with the help of Pandolf I Prince of Capua[717].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that Duke Gisulf adopted Pandolf's second son, Paldulf (see Part B. below), as his heir in Salerno[718].  "Gisolfus et Gemma vir et uxor et Paldolfus optatus filius noster…Langobardorum gentis principibus" granted property in Salerno to "Nicole magistri filius Sergi" by charter dated 974[719].  A charter dated Nov 977 refers to the 40th year of "Gisolfi…principis" and the 4th year of "domne gemme uxoris eius et domni Paldofi optato eorum filio"[720]m GEMMA, daughter of ---.  "Gisolfus et Gemma vir et uxor et Paldolfus optatus filius noster…Langobardorum gentis principibus" granted property in Salerno to "Nicole magistri filius Sergi" by charter dated 974[721].  A charter dated Nov 977 refers to the 40th year of "Gisolfi…principis" and the 4th year of "domne gemme uxoris eius et domni Paldofi optato eorum filio"[722].  A charter dated Dec 977 refers to the 4th year of "domne gemme et domni Paldofi optato filio eius…principis"[723].  "Otto…imperator augustus" confirmed privileges to the church of Salerno which had been granted by "Gisulpus princeps cum uxore sua Gemma", by charter dated 31 Jan 983[724]

c)         GUIDO (-after Nov 936).  "Andrea filius Ramperti" gave property to "Guidoni comes filius…domni Guaimarii principi" by charter dated Nov 936[725].  It is assumed that Guido was an otherwise unrecorded younger son of Prince Guaimar by his second wife.  As he is not named in later charters, he probably died young. 

2.         GUIDO di Salerno ([880/90]-after Apr 940).  A charter dated May 947 refers to a donation by "domnus Guaimarius princeps" at the request of "Guidoni comitis et thensaurarii fratri suo"[726].  "Guido comes filius…domni Guaimarii prioris principis" gave property to "Ursu" by charter dated Aug 932[727]Thesaurarius.  A charter dated Apr 940 refers to property received from "Widoni comitis filius domni Waimarii principi" which was donated by "Adelchisi filius Albuin…et Adelchisi filium meum"[728]m ---.  The name of Guido´s wife is not known.  Guido & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         GUAIMAR di Salerno ([910/20]-[Aug 967/Dec 974]).  "Guaimarius comes filius quondam Guidoni comitis…et…Adeltruda qui Mira vocatur uxor ipsius Guaimarii comitis" donated land "in locum Nucerie" to "Benedictus presbiter" by charter dated Jun 1064 (redated to Jun 954)[729].  A charter dated 959 names "comte Gaimar fils du comte Guy, son épouse Adeltruda dite Mira et leurs fils Guaifier et Guy"[730]

-        see Part C

b)         [GUAIFER "Imperatus/Imperator" di Salerno ([910/20]-[May/Jun] 981).  No primary source has been identified which confirms that Guaifer "Imperatus" was the son of Guido thesaurarius, but this affiliation provides the best explanation for the primary source extracts quoted in this document, which are otherwise difficult to interpret.  He is not named in his own capacity in any of the sources identified.  An explanation for Guaifer´s "imperial" nickname has not been found.] 

-        see Part D

3.         [GUAIFER .  Capasso names "Guaimarium II, Guidonem, Guaiferium, et Immam comitissam" as the children of "Guaimarius" and his wife "Iotam sive Idtam Guidonis II Spoletensium ducis filiam"[731], without citing the corresponding primary sources.] 

4.         [EMMA] (-after [897/98]).  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Idte uxore præfati principis senioris" (referring from the context to "Guaimarii principis") refused the marriage of her daughter to Landolf, son of Atenulf Count of Capua, on the basis that she was "ex regali stegmate orta", dated to [897/98] from the context[732].  Capasso names "Guaimarium II, Guidonem, Guaiferium, et Immam comitissam" as the children of "Guaimarius" and his wife "Iotam sive Idtam Guidonis II Spoletensium ducis filiam"[733], without citing the corresponding primary sources.  Stasser says "elle est appelée "Emma comitissa" par Capasso et A. Sanfelice", implying that he had not found the primary source on which the information is based[734].  If the information is correct, the identity of her husband "comes" has not been ascertained. 

 

 

 

B.      DESCENDANTS of ARECHIS di SALERNO

 

 

ARECHIS, son of GUAIFER Prince of Salerno & his wife Landelaiche --- ([860/70]-after Jul 923).  "Arechis et Dauferius germani filii cuiusdam domni Waiferii qui fuit princeps" are named in a charter dated Feb 904[735].  "Arechiso gastaldo" is named as present in a charter dated Jul 923 which records that "Iohannelgarius monachus filius Iohanni…et…Ermengarda qui fuit uxor eius" donated property to San Massimo di Salerno[736]

m ---.  The name of Arechis´s wife is not known.  The dates of death of Arechis´s children suggest that they were born late in their father´s life, maybe from a second marriage. 

Arechis & his wife had three children: 

1.         GUAIFER (-after Mar 972).  A charter dated Aug 918 names "Waiferio" as advocato of the church of San Massimo di Salerno[737].  "Guaiferius monachus filius quondam Arechisi et mulier…Alpherada monachile…relicta quondam Maioni filio istius Guaiferi et Aloara filia predicti Maioni et…Petrus gastaldus filius Aghenardi virum istius Aloare" donated property to the monastery of Santa Maria and San Michele at Duliaria in the territory of Amalfi by charter dated Mar 972[738]m ---.  The name of Guaifer´s wife is not known.  Guaifer & his wife had one child: 

a)         MAIO (-before Mar 972).  m ALFERADA, daughter of --- (-after Mar 972).  "Guaiferius monachus filius quondam Arechisi et mulier…Alpherada monachile…relicta quondam Maioni filio istius Guaiferi et Aloara filia predicti Maioni et…Petrus gastaldus filius Aghenardi virum istius Aloare" donated property to the monastery of Santa Maria and San Michele at Duliaria in the territory of Amalfi by charter dated Mar 972[739].  Maio & his wife had one child: 

i)          ALOARA (-after Mar 972).  "Guaiferius monachus filius quondam Arechisi et mulier…Alpherada monachile…relicta quondam Maioni filio istius Guaiferi et Aloara filia predicti Maioni et…Petrus gastaldus filius Aghenardi virum istius Aloare" donated property to the monastery of Santa Maria and San Michele at Duliaria in the territory of Amalfi by charter dated Mar 972[740]m PETRUS gastald, son of AGHENARD & his wife --- (-after Mar 972). 

2.         PETRUS (-after May 975).  "Petrus gastaldeus filius Arechis" is named in a charter dated May 949 which records a judgment in a dispute between "Daufier et son épouse Maria" and the abbot of San Maximo di Salerno[741].  "Petrus castaldus, qui Cristallo vocatur filius quondam Arechisi et Azzo filius quondam Azzoni…thio et nepotem" donated property near the river Liris, which Prince Gisulf had granted to "ipsius Arechisi genitor et abio noster", to Cava, in the presence of "uxori mee qui supra Cristalli aut genetrici meaque Azzoni…Iaquintus castaldus cognato meum que Cristalli filius quondam Totoni clerici et abbati", by charter dated May 975[742]m --- (-after May 975). 

3.         AZZO (-[Mar 963/May 975]).  Ioannes Bishop of Paestum granted to "Truppoaldus et Maio castaldei germani filii predicti Maionis castaldiei" his part in a mill built by "Maio castaldus filius quondam Dauferii comitis", dated Mar 963, also naming "Iaquinti germani illorum…et…Aczonis castaldei cognati illorum"[743]m --- (-after May 975).  Azzo & his wife had one child: 

a)         AZZO (-after Sep 990).  "Petrus castaldus, qui Cristallo vocatur filius quondam Arechisi et Azzo filius quondam Azzoni…thio et nepotem" donated property near the river Liris, which Prince Gisulf had granted to "ipsius Arechisi genitor et abio noster", to Cava, in the presence of "uxori mee qui supra Cristalli aut genetrici meaque Azzoni…Iaquintus castaldus cognato meum que Cristalli filius quondam Totoni clerici et abbati", by charter dated May 975[744].  Property near castellum Capaccio was shared between "Maio diaconus et Guaiferius et infantulus…Alfanus […cum Aczone gastaldo advocato suo qui erat consobrini illius] germani filii quondam Truppoaldi", dated Sep 990[745]

 

 

 

C.      DESCENDANTS of DAUFER di SALERNO

 

 

DAUFER, son of GUAIFER Prince of Salerno & his wife Landelaiche --- ([860/70]-[Feb 904/928]).  "Arechis et Dauferius germani filii cuiusdam domni Waiferii qui fuit princeps" are named in a charter dated Feb 904[746]Gastald

m IMELSENDA, daughter of MADELMUS & his wife --- (-928).  "Imelsenda religionsa femina filia cuiusdam Madelmi relicta quondam Dauferii gastaldi" donated property "a gravissima infirmitate preoccupata" by charter dated Aug 928, in which she names "Dauferius et Maio filii mei"[747]

Daufer & his wife had three children: 

1.         GUAIFER (-before Aug 928).  m RADELGRIMA, daughter of ---.  A charter dated Jan 966 names "Petrus castaldus filius quondam Romoaldi" as guarantor for the church of San Massimo di Salerno, and "Moncola iudex filius quondam Moncole" as guarantor for "Aloare uxori sue", under the testament of "Dauferius filius quondam Guaiferi…cum Radelgrima genetrice sua" under which "ipsa Aloara uxor ipsius Moncole iudici et Imelaita uxore Talarici qui fuerunt sorores ipsius Dauferi" inherited after Daufer´s death[748].  Guaifer & his wife had three children: 

a)         DAUFER (-before Jan 966).  Paul Bishop of Paestun settled a dispute between "Dauferio et Maio germanis filiis Dauferii comitis" and "Dauferio filio Gauferii que fuerat frater istorum germanorum", dated Apr 932[749].  A charter dated Jan 966 names "Petrus castaldus filius quondam Romoaldi" as guarantor for the church of San Massimo di Salerno, and "Moncola iudex filius quondam Moncole" as guarantor for "Aloare uxori sue", under the testament of "Dauferius filius quondam Guaiferi…cum Radelgrima genetrice sua" under which "ipsa Aloara uxor ipsius Moncole iudici et Imelaita uxore Talarici qui fuerunt sorores ipsius Dauferi" inherited after Daufer´s death[750]

b)         ALOARA (-after Feb 979).  A charter dated Jan 966 names "Petrus castaldus filius quondam Romoaldi" as guarantor for the church of San Massimo di Salerno, and "Moncola iudex filius quondam Moncole" as guarantor for "Aloare uxori sue", under the testament of "Dauferius filius quondam Guaiferi…cum Radelgrima genetrice sua" under which "ipsa Aloara uxor ipsius Moncole iudici et Imelaita uxore Talarici qui fuerunt sorores ipsius Dauferi" inherited after Daufer´s death[751].  "Aloara filia quondam Dauferi relicta Moncole iudici…cum Adelferi monachus filio nostro" donated property to the church of San Massimo di Salerno by a charter dated Feb 979[752]m MONCOLA, son of MONCOLA & his wife --- (-[Jan 966/Feb 979]). 

c)         IMELAITA (-[before Jan 966]).  A charter dated Jan 966 names "Petrus castaldus filius quondam Romoaldi" as guarantor for the church of San Massimo di Salerno, and "Moncola iudex filius quondam Moncole" as guarantor for "Aloare uxori sue", under the testament of "Dauferius filius quondam Guaiferi…cum Radelgrima genetrice sua" under which "ipsa Aloara uxor ipsius Moncole iudici et Imelaita uxore Talarici qui fuerunt sorores ipsius Dauferi" inherited after Daufer´s death[753]m TALARIC, son of ---. 

2.         DAUFER (-after Apr 932).  "Imelsenda religionsa femina filia cuiusdam Madelmi relicta quondam Dauferii gastaldi" donated property "a gravissima infirmitate preoccupata" by charter dated Aug 928, in which she names "Dauferius et Maio filii mei"[754].  Paul Bishop of Paestun settled a dispute between "Dauferio et Maio germanis filiis Dauferii comitis" and "Dauferio filio Gauferii que fuerat frater istorum germanorum", dated Apr 932[755]

3.         MAIO (-[Aug 960/Mar 963]).  "Imelsenda religionsa femina filia cuiusdam Madelmi relicta quondam Dauferii gastaldi" donated property "a gravissima infirmitate preoccupata" by charter dated Aug 928, in which she names "Dauferius et Maio filii mei"[756].  Paul Bishop of Paestun settled a dispute between "Dauferio et Maio germanis filiis Dauferii comitis" and "Dauferio filio Gauferii que fuerat frater istorum germanorum", dated Apr 932[757].  A charter dated Aug 960 records "Sico et Petrus et Maio castaldi" as representatives of the church of San Massimo di Salerno, the last two named being the church´s owners[758]m GAITA, daughter of --- (-after Mar 980).  Pando Bishop of Paestun granted property near castellum Capaccio, next to the property of "Gaite genitricis ipsius Truppoaldi et Maionis", to "Truppoaldo filio Maionis et Ermesende germane ipsius Pandonis religionis…relicte Maionis qui fuerat germanus ipsius Truppoaldi", dated Mar 980[759].  Maio & his wife had three children: 

a)         TRUPPOALD (-[Mar 980/Mar 989]).  Ioannes Bishop of Paestum granted to "Truppoaldus et Maio castaldei germani filii predicti Maionis castaldiei" his part in a mill built by "Maio castaldus filius quondam Dauferii comitis", dated Mar 963, also naming "Iaquinti germani illorum…et…Aczonis castaldei cognati illorum"[760]

-        see below

b)         MAIO (-[Jun 965/Mar 980]).  Ioannes Bishop of Paestum granted to "Truppoaldus et Maio castaldei germani filii predicti Maionis castaldiei" his part in a mill built by "Maio castaldus filius quondam Dauferii comitis", dated Mar 963, also naming "Iaquinti germani illorum…et…Aczonis castaldei cognati illorum"[761].  A charter dated Jun 965 names "Truppoaldus et Maio et Iaquintus germani filii quondam Maioni" as guarantors for the lease of lands near the church of San Paolo and San Cosimo[762]m ERMESENDA, sister of Pando Bishop of Paestum, daughter of --- (-after Mar 989).  Pando Bishop of Paestun granted property near castellum Capaccio, next to the property of "Gaite genitricis ipsius Truppoaldi et Maionis", to "Truppoaldo filio Maionis et Ermesende germane ipsius Pandonis religionis…relicte Maionis qui fuerat germanus ipsius Truppoaldi", dated Mar 980[763].  Property near castellum Capaccio was shared between "Maio diaconus et Guaiferius et infantulus…Alfanus germani filii quondam Truppoaldi" (including the part which had fallen to deceased "Petri germani illorum") and "Maius filius quondam Maionis…consobrini fratres…et vice Ermesende genetricis sue", dated Mar 989[764].  Maio & his wife had one child: 

i)          MAIO .  Property near castellum Capaccio was shared between "Maio diaconus et Guaiferius et infantulus…Alfanus germani filii quondam Truppoaldi" (including the part which had fallen to deceased "Petri germani illorum") and "Maius filius quondam Maionis…consobrini fratres…et vice Ermesende genetricis sue", dated Mar 989[765]

c)         IAQUINTUS (-[Jun 965/Dec 972]).  Ioannes Bishop of Paestum granted to "Truppoaldus et Maio castaldei germani filii predicti Maionis castaldiei" his part in a mill built by "Maio castaldus filius quondam Dauferii comitis", dated Mar 963, also naming "Iaquinti germani illorum…et…Aczonis castaldei cognati illorum"[766].  A charter dated Jun 965 names "Truppoaldus et Maio et Iaquintus germani filii quondam Maioni" as guarantors for the lease of lands near the church of San Paolo and San Cosimo[767]m ---.  The name of Iaquintus´s wife is not known.  Iaquintus & his wife had one child: 

i)          IAQUINTA (-after Dec 972).  A charter dated Dec 972 relates to property "in locum Correciano finibus Salernitanis" held by "Iaquinta uxor eius filia quondam Iaquinti", naming "Adelferi castaldus filius quondam Moncole" as her husband[768]m ADELFER gastald, son of MONCOLA & his wife Aloara --- (-after Dec 972).  Adelfer´s mother was Aloara, daughter of Guaifer, see above: "Aloara filia quondam Dauferi relicta Moncole iudici…cum Adelferi monachus filio nostro" donated property to the church of San Massimo di Salerno by a charter dated Feb 979[769]

 

 

TRUPPOALD, son of MAIO & his wife Gaita --- (-[Mar 980/Mar 989]).  Ioannes Bishop of Paestum granted to "Truppoaldus et Maio castaldei germani filii predicti Maionis castaldiei" his part in a mill built by "Maio castaldus filius quondam Dauferii comitis", dated Mar 963, also naming "Iaquinti germani illorum…et…Aczonis castaldei cognati illorum"[770].  A charter dated Jun 965 names "Truppoaldus et Maio et Iaquintus germani filii quondam Maioni" as guarantors for the lease of lands near the church of San Paolo and San Cosimo[771].  Pando Bishop of Paestun granted land on the road to castellum Capaccio to "Truppoaldo filio Maionis castaldei", dated Jul 979[772].  Pando Bishop of Paestun granted property near castellum Capaccio, next to the property of "Gaite genitricis ipsius Truppoaldi et Maionis", to "Truppoaldo filio Maionis et Ermesende germane ipsius Pandonis religionis…relicte Maionis qui fuerat germanus ipsius Truppoaldi", dated Mar 980[773]

m ---.  The name of Truppoald´s wife is not known. 

Truppoald & his wife had three children: 

1.         GUAIFER .  Property near castellum Capaccio was shared between "Maio diaconus et Guaiferius et infantulus…Alfanus germani filii quondam Truppoaldi" (including the part which had fallen to deceased "Petri germani illorum") and "Maius filius quondam Maionis…consobrini fratres…et vice Ermesende genetricis sue", dated Mar 989[774].  Property near castellum Capaccio was shared between "Maio diaconus et Guaiferius et infantulus…Alfanus […cum Aczone gastaldo advocato suo qui erat consobrini illius] germani filii quondam Truppoaldi", dated Sep 990[775]

2.         PETRUS (-before Mar 989).  Property near castellum Capaccio was shared between "Maio diaconus et Guaiferius et infantulus…Alfanus germani filii quondam Truppoaldi" (including the part which had fallen to deceased "Petri germani illorum") and "Maius filius quondam Maionis…consobrini fratres…et vice Ermesende genetricis sue", dated Mar 989[776]

3.         MAIO .  Property near castellum Capaccio was shared between "Maio diaconus et Guaiferius et infantulus…Alfanus germani filii quondam Truppoaldi" (including the part which had fallen to deceased "Petri germani illorum") and "Maius filius quondam Maionis…consobrini fratres…et vice Ermesende genetricis sue", dated Mar 989[777].  Property near castellum Capaccio was shared between "Maio diaconus et Guaiferius et infantulus…Alfanus […cum Aczone gastaldo advocato suo qui erat consobrini illius] germani filii quondam Truppoaldi", dated Sep 990[778]

4.         ALFAN (-before Jun 1019).  Property near castellum Capaccio was shared between "Maio diaconus et Guaiferius et infantulus…Alfanus germani filii quondam Truppoaldi" (including the part which had fallen to deceased "Petri germani illorum") and "Maius filius quondam Maionis…consobrini fratres…et vice Ermesende genetricis sue", dated Mar 989[779].  Property near castellum Capaccio was shared between "Maio diaconus et Guaiferius et infantulus…Alfanus […cum Aczone gastaldo advocato suo qui erat consobrini illius] germani filii quondam Truppoaldi", dated Sep 990[780]m ---.  The name of Alfan´s wife is not known.  Alfan & his wife had three children: 

a)         PETRUS (-after May 1072).  Ioannes Bishop of Paestum transferred property near castellum Capaccio to "Guaiferio comiti filio quondam Guale" acting for "Petri filii quondam Alfani", dated Jun 1019[781].  "Petrus filius quondam Alfani comitis" bequeathed property to "Ademarii naturalis filii sui…Alfano filio ipsius Petri…Landelayce sororis sue que quondam fuerat uxor Lupeni filii Leonis" under his testament dated Apr 1064, made in the presence of "Iohanni comiti cognato suo filio quondam Alfani comitis"[782].  "Petronus…comes…in…Tarentine civitatis" donated the church of San Giorgio to the abbot of San Benedetto di Taranto, with the consent of "mei…nepoti et seniori domini Riccardi…comiti", by charter dated May 1072[783]m ---.  The name of Petrus´s wife is not known.  Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Petrus´s mistress is not known.  Petrus & his wife had one child: 

i)          ALFAN (-[Aug 1079/1080]).  "Petrus filius quondam Alfani comitis" bequeathed property to "Ademarii naturalis filii sui…Alfano filio ipsius Petri…Landelayce sororis sue que quondam fuerat uxor Lupeni filii Leonis" under his testament dated Apr 1064, made in the presence of "Iohanni comiti cognato suo filio quondam Alfani comitis"[784].  "Alfanus filius quondam Petri comitis…et Aloare uxori sue filie Castelmanni comitis" sold property near castellum Capaccio to "Gregorio filio quondam bone memorie domni Paldolfi filii domni Guaimarii principis" after proving his rights under charter dated Nov 1073[785].  "Alfanus filius quondam Petri comitis et Aloara uxor eius filie Castelmanni comitis" donated property to Cava, for the soul of "Riccardus…parenti illorum…filius fuit bene recordationis domni Drogonis comitis qui fuit germanus…domni nostri ducis" by charter dated Aug 1079[786].  The relationship between Conte Alfan and Richard, son of Drogo, has not been traced but was presumably through Richard´s mother.  m ALOARA, daughter of CASTELMAN & his wife Aloara --- (-after 1084).  "Alfanus filius quondam Petri comitis…et Aloare uxori sue filie Castelmanni comitis" sold property near castellum Capaccio to "Gregorio filio quondam bone memorie domni Paldolfi filii domni Guaimarii principis" after proving his rights under charter dated Nov 1073[787].  "Alfanus filius quondam Petri comitis et Aloara uxor eius filie Castelmanni comitis" donated property to Cava, for the soul of "Riccardus…parenti illorum…filius fuit bene recordationis domni Drogonis comitis qui fuit germanus…domni nostri ducis" by charter dated Aug 1079[788].  "Aloara veuve du comte Alfan fils du comte Pierre et son fils le comte Pierre" donated property to Cava by charter dated 1080[789].  "Le comte Castelman fils de feu le comte Adelfier et son fils Jean, en presence de Sico comte et juge, d´Altruda l´épouse de Castelman, de leur fille Aloara veuve d´Alfan fils du comte Pierre, et de son fils Pierre" declared their ownership of the part of the church of San Massimo di Salerno which had belonged to "Aloara mere de Castelman", by charter dated 1084[790].  Alfan & his wife had one child: 

(a)       PETRUS (-after 1084).  "Aloara veuve du comte Alfan fils du comte Pierre et son fils le comte Pierre" donated property to Cava by charter dated 1080[791].  "Le comte Castelman fils de feu le comte Adelfier et son fils Jean, en presence de Sico comte et juge, d´Altruda l´épouse de Castelman, de leur fille Aloara veuve d´Alfan fils du comte Pierre, et de son fils Pierre" declared their ownership of the part of the church of San Massimo di Salerno which had belonged to "Aloara mere de Castelman", by charter dated 1084[792]

Petrus had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

ii)         ADEMAR .  "Petrus filius quondam Alfani comitis" bequeathed property to "Ademarii naturalis filii sui…Alfano filio ipsius Petri…Landelayce sororis sue que quondam fuerat uxor Lupeni filii Leonis" under his testament dated Apr 1064, made in the presence of "Iohanni comiti cognato suo filio quondam Alfani comitis"[793]

b)         GAITELGRIMA (-after Nov 1041).  "Comte Rodelpot fils du comte Poto…[et] ses frères" divided land at Plesco di Calcara held jointly with "la comtesse Gaitelgrima, fille de feu le comte Alfan et épouse du comte Adémar fils du comte Magenulf" by charter dated Nov 1041[794]m ADEMAR Conte, son of MAGENULF Conte & his wife --- (-after Nov 1041). 

c)         [ALTRUDA (-before 1045).  It is likely that Altruda, first wife of Drogo, was related to the comital family of Salerno of Conte Alfan son of Conte Petrus, as shown by the charter dated Aug 1079 under which "Alfanus filius quondam Petri comitis et Aloara uxor eius filie Castelmanni comitis" donated property to Cava, for the soul of "Riccardus…parenti illorum…filius fuit bene recordationis domni Drogonis comitis qui fuit germanus…domni nostri ducis"[795].  The precise relationship is not known, but she is shown in the present document as the possible sister of Petrus for presentational purposes only.  "Riccardus Senescalcus maximi comitis Drogonis filius" donated property to Cava, for the souls of "predicti patris mei et Roberti Guiscardi magnifici ducis et Rogerii…ducis et Boamundi filiorum eius et Altrude…coniugis mee atque Rocce…sororis mee et Altrude matris mee", by charter dated Mar 1115[796]m as his first wife, DROGO de Hauteville, son of TANCRED de Hauteville & his first wife Moriella --- ([1010/20]-murdered Castle of Monte Ilaro 10 Aug 1051, bur Venosa, Monastery of Santissima Trinità).  He succeeded his brother in 1046 as DROGO Conte di Apulia.] 

d)         LAIDELAICHA (-after Apr 1064).  "Petrus filius quondam Alfani comitis" bequeathed property to "Ademarii naturalis filii sui…Alfano filio ipsius Petri…Landelayce sororis sue que quondam fuerat uxor Lupeni filii Leonis" under his testament dated Apr 1064, made in the presence of "Iohanni comiti cognato suo filio quondam Alfani comitis"[797]m LUPINUS, son of LEO & his wife --- (-before Apr 1064). 

5.         ALOARA .  Her name is confirmed by the charter dated 1084 under which "le comte Castelman fils de feu le comte Adelfier et son fils Jean, en presence de Sico comte et juge, d´Altruda l´épouse de Castelman, de leur fille Aloara veuve d´Alfan fils du comte Pierre, et de son fils Pierre" declared their ownership of the part of the church of San Massimo di Salerno which had belonged to "Aloara mere de Castelman"[798]m ADELFER, son of ADEMAR di Amalfi & his wife --- (-[Jun 1025/Jul 1027]). 

 

 

 

D.      DESCENDANTS of GUAIMAR di SALERNO

 

 

GUAIMAR di Salerno, son of GUIDO di Salerno & his wife --- ([910/20]-[Aug 967/Dec 974]).  "Guaimarius comes filius quondam Guidoni comitis…et…Adeltruda qui Mira vocatur uxor ipsius Guaimarii comitis" donated land "in locum Nucerie" to "Benedictus presbiter" by charter dated Jun 1064 (redated to Jun 954)[799].  A charter dated 959 names "comte Gaimar fils du comte Guy, son épouse Adeltruda dite Mira et leurs fils Guaifier et Guy"[800].  A charter dated Aug 967 records a donation by "Guaimari comes filius Guidoni comitis…cum Ira uxore sua"[801].  The date of his death is set by the charter dated Sep 984, quoted below, which quotes a donation dated Dec 974 by Prince Gisulf to "Guaiferii…nepoti nostro filius quondam Guaimarii comitis". 

m ADELTRUDA [Mira], daughter of --- (-after Aug 967).  "Guaimarius comes filius quondam Guidoni comitis…et…Adeltruda qui Mira vocatur uxor ipsius Guaimarii comitis" donated land "in locum Nucerie" to "Benedictus presbiter" by charter dated Jun 1064 (redated to Jun 954)[802].  A charter dated Aug 967 records a donation by "Guaimari comes filius Guidoni comitis…cum Ira uxore sua"[803].  A charter dated 959 names "comte Gaimar fils du comte Guy, son épouse Adeltruda dite Mira et leurs fils Guaifier et Guy"[804]

Guaimar & his wife had [three] children: 

1.         GUAIFER (-[Jun 983/Sep 984]).  A charter dated 959 names "comte Gaimar fils du comte Guy, son épouse Adeltruda dite Mira et leurs fils Guaifier et Guy"[805].  "Guaiferius filius quondam Guaimari comitis" donated property to "Romualdo filio quondam Leoni Franci" by charter dated Apr 983 which appoints "Romoaldus comes congnato suo filius quondam Bisantii…et ipse Guaiferii et suos filios et eredes" as mediators[806].  A charter dated Sep 984 quotes a donation dated Dec 974 by Prince Gisulf to "Guaiferii…nepoti nostro filius quondam Guaimarii comitis" as heir of "Petri comitis filii Guaiferii", a donation dated Jun 983 by Prince Gisulf to "Guaimari filius Guaiferi et Guaiferi filius Guaimari nepotes mei", a confirmation dated May 981 by Prince Pandolf to "…Guaiferio comiti et thesaurario filio quondam Guaimarii", and a donation dated Jun 981 by "…Guaiferius comes filius quondam Guaimari"[807].  It appears from the same document that Guaifer died before Sep 984 as the principle donors are named "Guaimarius et Guaiferius germani filii quondam Guaiferi comitis et Guido filius Guaimari comitis".  m ---.  The name of Guaifer´s wife is not known.  Guaifer & his wife had two children: 

a)         GUAIMAR (-[Oct 991/Sep 1011]).  "Guaimarius et Guaiferius germani filii quondam Guaiferi comitis et Guido filius Guaimari comitis" confirmed their fathers´ donations by charter dated Sep 984, which quotes a donation dated Jun 983 by Prince Gisulf to "Guaimari filius Guaiferi et Guaiferi filius Guaimari nepotes mei", a confirmation dated May 981 by Prince Pandolf to "Guaimario comiti filio imperatorii et Guaiferio comiti et thesaurario filio quondam Guaimarii", and a donation dated Jun 981 by "…Guaimarius comes filius quondam Guaiferi qui imperatus vocabat et Guaiferius comes filius quondam Guaimari"[808].  "Guaimarius filio bone memorie Guaiferi comitis…et vice Guaiferi germanus meus" donated property by charter dated Apr 986[809].  "Guido filius quondam Guaimarii comiti…et…Guaimarius et Guaiferi germani filii quondam Guaiferii" donated property by charter dated Sep 987[810].  "Guaiferi filio quondam Guaiferi comiti" named "Guaimarius qui fuit germanus meus" in a charter dated Sep 1011[811]m as her first husband, GEMMA, daughter of GUAIMAR & his wife --- (-after May 1044).  "Gemma relicta quondam Guaiferi, filio idem Guaiferi comiti et filia quondam Guaimari comiti" donated property by charter dated Aug 1037, which names "Guaimari comiti, germani et mundoalt meus, et filius supradicti Guaimari comiti"[812]. She married secondly Guaifer, who is assumed to have been her first husband´s younger brother.  Her two marriages are confirmed by a charter dated Feb 1041 which names "domne Gemme filie quondam domni Guaimarii comitis, et relicta quondam domni Guaimarii comitis, et relicta quondam Guaiferi comiti"[813].  It is not known with certainty that Guaimar and his sister Gemma were the children of Guaimar, son of Guido.  "Gemma filia quondam Germani comiti et relicta Gauiferii" donated property, with the consent of "Guaimarii comiti germani et mundoalt meum", by charter dated May 1044[814]

b)         GUAIFER (-[Sep 1018/Aug 1037]).  "Guaimarius et Guaiferius germani filii quondam Guaiferi comitis et Guido filius Guaimari comitis" confirmed their fathers´ donations by charter dated Sep 984[815].  "Guaimarius filio bone memorie Guaiferi comitis…et vice Guaiferi germanus meus" donated property by charter dated Apr 986[816].  "Guido filius quondam Guaimarii comiti…et…Guaimarius et Guaiferi germani filii quondam Guaiferii" donated property by charter dated Sep 987[817].  "Guaiferi filio quondam Guaiferi comiti" named "Guaimarius qui fuit germanus meus" in a charter dated Sep 1011[818].  "Guaiferius filius quondam Guaiferi comitis" donated property by charter dated Sep 1018[819]m as her second husband, GEMMA, widow of GUAIMAR, daughter of GUAIMAR & his wife --- (-after May 1044).  "Gemma relicta quondam Guaiferi, filio idem Guaiferi comiti et filia quondam Guaimari comiti" donated property by charter dated Aug 1037, which names "Guaimari comiti, germani et mundoalt meus, et filius supradicti Guaimari comiti"[820].  Her two marriages are confirmed by a charter dated Feb 1041 which names "domne Gemme filie quondam domni Guaimarii comitis, et relicta quondam domni Guaimarii comitis, et relicta quondam Guaiferi comiti"[821].  Her first husband is assumed to have been the older brother of her second husband.  It is not known with certainty that Guaimar and his sister Gemma were the children of Guaimar, son of Guido.  "Gemma filia quondam Germani comiti et relicta Gauiferii" donated property, with the consent of "Guaimarii comiti germani et mundoalt meum", by charter dated May 1044[822]

2.         GUIDO (-after May 991).  A charter dated 959 names "comte Gaimar fils du comte Guy, son épouse Adeltruda dite Mira et leurs fils Guaifier et Guy"[823].  "Guaimarius et Guaiferius germani filii quondam Guaiferi comitis et Guido filius Guaimari comitis" confirmed their fathers´ donations by charter dated Sep 984[824].  "Guido filius quondam Guaimarii comiti…et…Guaimarius et Guaiferi germani filii quondam Guaiferii" donated property by charter dated Sep 987[825].  "Guido filius bone memorie Guaimarii comitis et Aloara filia quondam Landoari comiti…vir et uxor" donated property by charter dated May 991[826]m ALOARA, daughter of LANDOAR & his wife --- (-after May 991).  "Guido filius bone memorie Guaimarii comitis et Aloara filia quondam Landoari comiti…vir et uxor" donated property by charter dated May 991[827].  Guido & his wife had three children: 

a)         AIDULF (-after Oct 1026).  "Aydolfo et Astolfo et Gysolfo germani filii Guidoni" are named as domini of the church of San Martino on the Irno river, in a charter dated Jan 1012[828].  "Aidolfus filius quondam Guidonis" donated property to "Petrus et Iaquintus" by charter dated Oct 1026[829]

b)         ASTOLF (-after Sep 1023).  "Aydolfo et Astolfo et Gysolfo germani filii Guidoni" are named as domini of the church of San Martino on the Irno river, in a charter dated Jan 1012[830].  "Astilfus filius quondam Guidoni" bequeathed property to "Gemmola filia tuoque Desege que ego genuit" by charter dated Sep 1023[831]Mistress (1): DESEIA, daughter of --- (-after Sep 1023).  "Astilfus filius quondam Guidoni" bequeathed property to "Gemmola filia tuoque Desege que ego genuit" by charter dated Sep 1023[832].  Astolf had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

i)          GEMMOLA (-after Sep 1023).  "Astilfus filius quondam Guidoni" bequeathed property to "Gemmola filia tuoque Desege que ego genuit" by charter dated Sep 1023[833]

c)         GISULF (-after 1027).  "Aydolfo et Astolfo et Gysolfo germani filii Guidoni" are named as domini of the church of San Martino on the Irno river, in a charter dated Jan 1012[834].  A charter dated Aug 1043 recites the history of property donated by "Iohannes filius quondam Amandi", including declarations by "Gisolfus filius quondam Guidoni [et Aloare] et…Adeltruda filia quondam Alfani comitis…vir et uxor" dated 1026 and 1027[835]m ADELTRUDA, daughter of ALFAN & his wife --- (-after 1027).  A charter dated Aug 1043 recites the history of property donated by "Iohannes filius quondam Amandi", including declarations by "Gisolfus filius quondam Guidoni [et Aloare] et…Adeltruda filia quondam Alfani comitis…vir et uxor" dated 1026 and 1027[836].  Gisulf & his wife had two children: 

i)          ASTOLF (-after 1087).  A charter dated Apr 1056 names "--- et Lando germano filii quondam Gisulphi comitis"[837].  "Antocia filia quondam Constantini castaldei que quondam fuerat uxor Petri comitis filii Pandenolfi clerici" sold property at Materno to "Astulfo filio quondam Gisolfi comitis" by charter dated Mar 1074[838].  "Astulf fils du comte Gisulf et son neveu le comte Guy, fils de feu le comte Landulf" donated their part of San Massimo di Salerno to the abbey of Cava by charter dated 1087[839]

ii)         LANDO (-[Feb 1078/1087]).  A charter dated Apr 1056 names "--- et Lando germano filii quondam Gisulphi comitis"[840].  "Guy fils de feu Guaifer fils de feu le comte Gisulf" wrote his testament on his deathbed, in the presence of "son oncle Landulf fils de feu le comte Gisulf", and bequeathes "le mundium de son épouse Sichelgaita fille de feu Jaquintus" to "Jaquintus fils de feu le juge Pierre" by charter dated Feb 1078[841].  m ---.  The name of Lando´s wife is not known.  Lando & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GUIDO (-after 1087).  "Astulf fils du comte Gisulf et son neveu le comte Guy, fils de feu le comte Landulf" donated their part of San Massimo di Salerno to the abbey of Cava by charter dated 1087[842]

iii)        GUAIFER (-before Feb 1078).  m ---.  The name of Guaifer´s wife is not known.  Guaifer & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GUIDO (-[Feb 1078]).  "Guy fils de feu Guaifer fils de feu le comte Gisulf" wrote his testament on his deathbed, in the presence of "son oncle Landulf fils de feu le comte Gisulf", and bequeathes "le mundium de son épouse Sichelgaita fille de feu Jaquintus" to "Jaquintus fils de feu le juge Pierre" by charter dated Feb 1078[843]m SICHELGAITA, daughter of IAQUINTUS & his wife --- (-after Aug 1097).  "Guy fils de feu Guaifer fils de feu le comte Gisulf" wrote his testament on his deathbed, in the presence of "son oncle Landulf fils de feu le comte Gisulf", and bequeathes "le mundium de son épouse Sichelgaita fille de feu Jaquintus" to "Jaquintus fils de feu le juge Pierre" by charter dated Feb 1078[844].  "Sichelgaita fille de feu Jaquintus et veuve de Guy fils de Guaifier fils du comte Gisulf" sold property at Vietri to "Theophilact fils de Jean" by charter dated Dec 1094[845].  "Sichelgaita fille de feu Jaquintus et veuve de Guy fils de Guaifier fils du comte Gisulf et son fils Jaquintus" renounced claims over property at Duliarola in Cilento in favour of Cava abbey by charter dated Aug 1097[846].  Guido & his wife had one child: 

(1)       IAQUINTUS (-after Aug 1097).  "Sichelgaita fille de feu Jaquintus et veuve de Guy fils de Guaifier fils du comte Gisulf et son fils Jaquintus" renounced claims over property at Duliarola in Cilento in favour of Cava abbey by charter dated Aug 1097[847]

3.         [--- di Salerno (-after Apr 983).  Stasser suggests that the wife of Romoald, son of Bisantio, was the daughter of Guaimar di Salerno and his wife Adeltruda [Mira][848], on the basis of the charter dated Apr 983 under which "Guaiferius filius quondam Guaimari comitis" donated property to "Romualdo filio quondam Leoni Franci" and appoints "Romoaldus comes congnato suo filius quondam Bisantii…et ipse Guaiferii et suos filios et eredes" as mediators[849].  The difficulty with this hypothesis is the over-restrictive interpretation of the word "cognatus" which it requires.  m (before Apr 983) ROMOALD Conte, son of BISANTIO & his wife --- (-after Apr 983).] 

 

 

 

E.      DESCENDANTS of GUAIFER di SALERNO

 

 

GUAIFER "Imperatus/Imperator" di Salerno, son of [GUIDO di Salerno & his wife ---] ([910/20]-[May/Jun] 981).  No primary source has been identified which confirms that Guaifer "Imperatus" was the son of Guido thesaurarius, but this affiliation provides the best explanation for the primary source extracts quoted in this document, which are otherwise difficult to interpret.  He is not named in his own capacity in any of the sources identified.  An explanation for Guaifer´s "imperial" nickname has not been found. 

m ---.  The name of Guaifer´s wife is not known. 

Guaifer & his wife had three children: 

1.         PETRUS (-before Dec 974).  A charter dated Sep 984 quotes a donation dated Dec 974 by Prince Gisulf to "Guaiferii…nepoti nostro filius quondam Guaimarii comitis" as heir of "Petri comitis filii Guaiferii"[850]

2.         GUAIMAR (-[Oct 991/Sep 1011]).  "Guaimarius et Guaiferius germani filii quondam Guaiferi comitis et Guido filius Guaimari comitis" confirmed their fathers´ donations by charter dated Sep 984, which quotes a donation dated Jun 983 by Prince Gisulf to "Guaimari filius Guaiferi et Guaiferi filius Guaimari nepotes mei", a confirmation dated May 981 by Prince Pandolf to "Guaimario comiti filio imperatorii et Guaiferio comiti et thesaurario filio quondam Guaimarii", and a donation dated Jun 981 by "…Guaimarius comes filius quondam Guaiferi qui imperatus vocabat et Guaiferius comes filius quondam Guaimari"[851].  "Guaimarius comes filius bone memorie Guaiferii qui imperatus vocabad" donated property by charter dated Oct 991[852].  Guaimar & his wife had two children: 

a)         LANDOLF (-after Jan [1018/19]).  "Landolfus comes filius quondam Guaimari comiti" donated property by charter dated Jan [1018/19][853]

b)         GUAIMAR (-before Aug 1037).  "Iohannes Iubene Amalfitanus" sold property which had belonged to "domne Rigale ducissa gentis Amalfitanorum et de Areghisi genitor illius" to "Guaimario comite filio quondam Guaimarii comitis" by charter dated Nov 1012[854]m ---.  The name of Guaimar´s wife is not known.  Guaimar & his wife had two children: 

i)          GUAIMAR (-after May 1044).  "Gemma relicta quondam Guaiferi, filio idem Guaiferi comiti et filia quondam Guaimari comiti" donated property by charter dated Aug 1037, which names "Guaimari comiti, germani et mundoalt meus, et filius supradicti Guaimari comiti"[855].  The meaning of the word "mundoalt" has not been ascertained with certainty, but from the context of other charters in the same cartulary appears to indicate "legal representative".  It is not known with certainty that Guaimar and his sister Gemma were the children of Guaimar, son of Guido.  "Guaimarius comes filius quondam Guaimari comiti, pro vice Gemme sorori mee relicta quondam Guaiferi et filia supradicta Guaimari comiti…" donated property by charter dated Sep 1042 "Iohannes de locum Nuceria filio quondam Alfano, qui fuit genero et filiastro Faroaldi"[856].  "Gemma filia quondam Germani comiti et relicta Gauiferii" donated property, with the consent of "Guaimarii comiti germani et mundoalt meum", by charter dated May 1044[857].]  m ---.  The name of Guaimar´s wife is not known.  Guaimar & his wife had two children: 

(a)       GUAIMAR (-[Jan 1064/Apr 1068]).  "…Guaimarius et Iohannes comites germani filii quondam Guaimarii comitis" donated property by charter dated Dec 1058, which also names "Gemme amite eorum"[858].  "Guaimario comite filio quondam Guaimarii comitis" donated property by charter dated Jan 1064[859]m ---.  Guaimar & his wife had two children: 

(1)       PIETRO .  "Petrus et Guaifairius germani filii quondam Guaimarii comitis" sold property to "Desideo filio quondam Ferrandi clerici" by charter dated Apr 1068[860]

(2)       GUAIFER .  "Petrus et Guaifairius germani filii quondam Guaimarii comitis" sold property to "Desideo filio quondam Ferrandi clerici" by charter dated Apr 1068[861]

(b)       IOANNES (-after Dec 1058).  "…Guaimarius et Iohannes comites germani filii quondam Guaimarii comitis" donated property by charter dated Dec 1058, which also names "Gemme amite eorum"[862]m (before Apr 1056) --- di Sorrento, daughter of GUIDO di Salerno Duke of Sorrento & his wife Raingarda ---.  "Guido…dux qui fuit filius gloriose recordationis domini Guaimarii principis et domna Raingarda duce uxor illius filia Landonis comitis coniuncti" sold property to "Sicenolfo gastaldo filio quondam Sicenolfi" by charter dated Apr 1056 which names "Iohannem comitem generum eorum filium Guaimarii comitis" as fiduciary[863]

ii)         GEMMA (-after May 1044).  "Gemma relicta quondam Guaiferi, filio idem Guaiferi comiti et filia quondam Guaimari comiti" donated property by charter dated Aug 1037, which names "Guaimari comiti, germani et mundoalt meus, et filius supradicti Guaimari comiti"[864].  Her two marriages are confirmed by a charter dated Feb 1041 which names "domne Gemme filie quondam domni Guaimarii comitis, et relicta quondam domni Guaimarii comitis, et relicta quondam Guaiferi comiti"[865].  Her two husbands are assumed to have been brothers.  "Guaimarius comes filius quondam Guaimari comiti, pro vice Gemme sorori mee relicta quondam Guaiferi et filia supradicta Guaimari comiti…" donated property by charter dated Sep 1042 "Iohannes de locum Nuceria filio quondam Alfano, qui fuit genero et filiastro Faroaldi"[866].  "Gemma filia quondam Germani comiti et relicta Gauiferii" donated property, with the consent of "Guaimarii comiti germani et mundoalt meum", by charter dated May 1044[867]m firstly GUAIMAR, son of GUAIFER & his wife --- (-[Oct 991/Sep 1011]).  m secondly GUAIFER, son of GUAIFER & his wife --- (-[Sep 1018/Aug 1037]).] 

 

 

 

F.      PRINCES of SALERNO 978-981, 1052 (FAMILY of PRINCES of CAPUA)

 

 

Gisulf I Prince of Salerno was succeeded in 978 by his adopted son Paldolf of Capua.  Prince Paldolf was deposed in [Sep] 981 by Manso II Duke of Amalfi, and died before May 986, the date of a charter of his mother who names him "bone memorie".  The charters quoted below show that a second Prince Paldolf (see below), whose parentage has not been established, claimed the principality of Salerno and may have succeeded in recovering the throne briefly in 993, 1008, 1012 and 1013. 

 

 

PALDOLF 977-981, PANDOLF 1052

 

Two brothers: 

1.         PALDOLF, son of PANDOLF I "Capiferreus/Ironhead" Prince of Capua & his wife Aloara --- ([955/60]-before May 986).  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that "Paldulfum filium Pandulfi Capuæ principis eius atfinis" was adopted by Gisulf I Duke of Salerno as his heir after Pandolf's father helped to restore him to the throne of Salerno in 973[868].  His birth date range is estimated from his being still a minor on his accession in 977, but bearing in mind that he associated his son in his rule before Feb 993.  "Gisolfus et Gemma vir et uxor et Paldolfus optatus filius noster…Langobardorum gentis principibus" granted property in Salerno to "Nicole magistri filius Sergi" by charter dated 974[869].  A charter dated Nov 977 refers to the 40th year of "Gisolfi…principis" and the 4th year of "domne gemme uxoris eius et domni Paldofi optato eorum filio"[870].  He succeeded his adoptive father in 977 as PALDOLF Prince of Salerno, under the guardianship of "Ioannis, filii Lambert comitis eius atfinis"[871].  A charter dated Dec 977 refers to the 4th year of "domne gemme et domni Paldofi optato filio eius…principis"[872].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that he was deposed in [Sep] 981 by Manso II Duke of Amalfi[873].  According to the Catalogus Principum Capuæ, "Landulfus IV…et Paldulfus, qui fuit princeps Salerni cum patre, et mortuus est ibi post patrem suum", without specifying the relationship between the two[874].  "Aloara…principissa relicta bone memorie domini Paldolfi…et filia cuiusdam Petri comitis", with the consent of "Landenolfi principis et Gisolfi germanis filiis et mundoalt meis", donated land and rights to the monastery of San Lorenzo di Capua, for the souls of "domini Paldolfi…principis viri meo et…bone memorie Paldolfi principis Salernitane cibitate filio meo et…Landolfi principis et Atenolfi marchionis filiis meis", by charter dated May 986, witnessed by "Grimoaldo comes…"[875]m GAITELGRIMA, daughter of --- (-after May 981).  Her marriage is confirmed by a charter dated Sep 984 which quotes a confirmation dated May 981 by Prince Paldolf and "Gaitelgrima…principissa uxor istius domni Paldolfi…principis" to "Guaimario comiti filio imperatorii et Guaiferio comiti et thesaurario filio quondam Guaimarii"[876]

2.         ATENOLF .  The Chronicon Comitum Capuæ records that "Athnulph germano suo, Ingulph et Vadipert et Gudo de Suessia, nepotibus suis" were killed fighting in Calabria with "Landulph Audax filius Capiferreu"[877].   

a)         other children: see CAPUA

b)         PANDOLF (-1026).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted the principality of Capua to "Pandulfo et Iohanni filio eius…ita ut avus eius Pandulfus tenuit" by charter dated 5 Jan 1023[878].  "Pandulfo Teanensi" succeeded as PANDOLF VI Prince of Capua, ruling jointly with his son Ioannes and Prince Pandolf V, but was exiled with his son "in Romaniam"[879]

i)          other children: see CAPUA

ii)         PANDOLF (-murdered 1052 after 3 Jun).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di Teano.  He was installed in 1052 as PANDOLF Prince of Salerno.  Amatus records that, after the murder of Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno in 1052, "they…made Pandulf prince as he was first born of the brothers"[880], presumably meaning first surviving brother.  He and his brothers were released by Guido di Salerno, brother of the murdered prince, after he recaptured the city with help from the Normans, but the latter murdered Pandolf, his brothers and the other conspirators[881]

 

 

1.         PALDOLF, son of --- (-[Apr 1012/Apr 1017]).  The parents of Paldolf have not yet been identified.  What is clear is that he was a different person from Paldolf Prince of Salerno, son of Pandolf I Prince of Capua, as the mother of this earlier Paldolf referred to him as "bone memorie" in a charter dated May 986 (see above).  From a chronological point of view, it appears impossible that the second Paldolf was the son of the first.  The dating clause of a charter dated Feb 993, under which "Bisanteo filio Iaquinti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the twelfth year of "domni Paldolfi…princeps" and the sixth year of "principatus domni Landolfi filii eius"[882].  This suggests that Prince Paldolf wrested power from Prince Ioannes II, or at least claimed to have done so, some time in Feb 993, although his restoration must have been brief as Prince Iohannes is named in the dating clause of all previous and subsequent charters in the compilation around that time.  Similar events must have occurred in Nov 1008, in Apr 1012 and in Dec 1013: the dating clause of a charter dated Nov 1008 refers to the twenty-eighth year of "principatus domni Paldolfi…principis" and the twenty-second year of "principatus domni Landolfi magni principis filii eius"[883]; of a charter dated Apr 1012 to the thirty-first year of "principatus domni Paldolfi" and the twenty-fifth year of "principatus domni Landolfi filii eius" and the first year of "principatus domni Paldolfi filii supradicti domni Landolf…principibus"[884]; and of a charter dated Dec 1013 to the thirty-second year of "domni Paldolfi…princeps", the twenty-seventh year of "principatus domni Landolfi filii eius" and the second year of "principatus domni Paldolfi filii supradicti domni Landolfi…principis"[885].  Paldolf is not named in the charter of his son dated Apr 1017 (see below).  Paldolf & his wife had one child: 

a)         LANDOLF ([975/80]-after Jun 1033).  The dating clause of a charter dated Feb 993, under which "Bisanteo filio Iaquinti" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the twelfth year of "domni Paldolfi…princeps" and the sixth year of "principatus domni Landolfi filii eius"[886].  "Landenolfus comes" is named in a charter dated May 995[887].  The dating clause of a charter dated Nov 1008 refers to the twenty-eighth year of "principatus domni Paldolfi…principis" and the twenty-second year of "principatus domni Landolfi magni principis filii eius"[888].  The dating clause of a charter dated Apr 1012 refers to the thirty-first year of "principatus domni Paldolfi" and the twenty-fifth year of "principatus domni Landolfi filii eius" and the first year of "principatus domni Paldolfi filii supradicti domni Landolf…principibus"[889].  The dating clause of a charter dated Dec 1013 refers to the thirty-second year of "domni Paldolfi…princeps", the twenty-seventh year of "principatus domni Landolfi filii eius" and the second year of "principatus domni Paldolfi filii supradicti domni Landolfi…principis"[890].  The dating clause of a charter dated Apr 1017 refers to the thirtieth year of "principatus domni Landolfi…princeps" and the sixth year of "principatus domni Paldolfi filii eius"[891].  The dating clause of a charter dated Jun 1033 refers to the forty-seventh year of "principatus domni Landolfi…princeps" and the twenty-third year of "principatus domni Paldolfi filii eius"[892]m ---.  The name of Landolf´s wife is not known.  Landolf & his wife had one child: 

i)          PALDOLF ([1000/05]-after Nov 1057).  The dating clause of a charter dated Apr 1012 refers to the thirty-first year of "principatus domni Paldolfi" and the twenty-fifth year of "principatus domni Landolfi filii eius" and the first year of "principatus domni Paldolfi filii supradicti domni Landolf…principibus"[893].  The dating clause of a charter dated Dec 1013 refers to the thirty-second year of "domni Paldolfi…princeps", the twenty-seventh year of "principatus domni Landolfi filii eius" and the second year of "principatus domni Paldolfi filii supradicti domni Landolfi…principis"[894].  The dating clause of a charter dated Apr 1017 refers to the thirtieth year of "principatus domni Landolfi…princeps" and the sixth year of "principatus domni Paldolfi filii eius"[895].  The dating clause of a charter dated Jun 1033 refers to the forty-seventh year of "principatus domni Landolfi…princeps" and the twenty-third year of "principatus domni Paldolfi filii eius"[896].  The dating clause of a charter dated Jan 1054 refers to the forty-third year of "principatus domni Paldolfi…principis" and the sixteenth year of "principatus domni Landolfi filii eius"[897].  The dating clause of a charter dated Jan 1056 refers to the thirty-seventh year of "principatus domni Paldolfi" and the ninth year of "principatus domni Landolfi filii eius…principibus"[898].  It is unclear why the regnal numbers in this last charter do not match those in the earlier ones, unless it refers to a different father and son of the same name.  The dating clause of a charter dated Nov 1057 refers to the forty-seventh year of "principatus domni…Paldolfi…principis" and the twentieth year of "principatus domni Landolfi filii eius"[899]m ---.  The name of Paldolf´s wife is not known.  Paldolf & his wife had one child: 

(a)       LANDOLF ([1020/25]-after Nov 1057).  The dating clause of a charter dated Jan 1054 refers to the forty-third year of "principatus domni Paldolfi…principis" and the sixteenth year of "principatus domni Landolfi filii eius"[900].  The dating clause of a charter dated Jan 1056 refers to the thirty-seventh year of "principatus domni Paldolfi" and the ninth year of "principatus domni Landolfi filii eius…principibus"[901].  The dating clause of a charter dated Nov 1057 refers to the forty-seventh year of "principatus domni…Paldolfi…principis" and the twentieth year of "principatus domni Landolfi filii eius"[902]

 

 

 

G.      PRINCES of SALERNO 981-1072 (FAMILY of LAMBERT)

 

 

Gisulf I Prince of Salerno was succeeded in 978 by his adopted son Paldolf of Capua (see Part F. above).  The latter, however, was deposed in [Sep] 981 by Manso II Duke of Amalfi.  Duke Manso was deposed in 983 by Ioannes comes palatii from Spoleto[903].  The source quoted below states that Ioannes, son of Lambert, was "atfinis" of Prince Paldulf but the exact family relationship has not been traced. 

 

 

1.         LAMBERT, son of --- .  m ---.  The name of Lambert's wife is not known.  Lambert & his wife had one child: 

a)         IOANNES (-[Nov/Dec] 983).  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that "Ioannis, filii Lambert comitis eius atfinis" was guardian of Paldulf di Capua Prince of Salerno in 978[904]Comes palatii at Salerno: "Gariperto filio cuiusdam Landoari comitis et Landolfus filius cuiusdam Landoari […Landoari comes genitor et abius noster]" granted property in Salerno to "Iohanni comes palatio de predicta civitate Salernitana et filius cuiusdam Lamberti comiti" by charter dated May 980[905]m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had [two] children:

i)          IOANNES (-[Jan/Oct] 999).  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that "Ioanne altero, filio Ioannis Lamberti comitis" deposed Manso III Duke of Amalfi as Prince of Salerno in 983 and succeeded as IOANNES II "Maledictus" Prince of Salerno and ruled for 11 years[906]

-         see below

ii)         [LAMBERT .  Stasser suggests that Lambert was the brother of Ioannes II "Maledcitus" Prince of Salerno (died [Jan/Oct] 999), for onomastic reasons and chronological consistency[907].] 

-         OTHER NOBILITY in SALERNO

 

 

IOANNES II 983-999

 

IOANNES "Maledictus", son of IOANNES & his wife --- (-[Jan/Oct] 999)Comes palatii from Spoleto.  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that "Ioanne altero, filio Ioannis Lamberti comitis" deposed Manso III Duke of Amalfi as Prince of Salerno in 983 and succeeded as IOANNES II "Maledictus" Prince of Salerno and ruled for 11 years[908].  The dating clause of a charter dated Jan 984, which records a donation by "Cicenus et Mari germani filii Adelghisi" and others, refers to the first year of "principatus domni nostri Iohanni et domni Guidoni eius filio…principibus"[909].  The dating clause of a charter dated Apr 989, which records a donation by "Lando…episcopus sanct sedis Pestane", refers to the sixth year of "principatus domni nostri Iohanni…principis" and the first year of "principatus domni Guaimarii principis filio eius"[910]

m SICHELGAITA, daughter of --- (-after Oct 989).  A charter dated Oct 989 names "domne Sichelgaita principissa uxor…domni Iohanni…principis" and "domnus Guaimarius princeps et Iohannes comes germani filii…domni Iohanni et domne Sichelgaite"[911].  "Gisolfus filius quondam Joannis comitis qui clericus et abbas fuit" donated property to the church of Cavensi by charter dated Oct 1094, which names "…Domina Sichelgaita Princeps Proabia sua…uxor…quondam Domini Johannis Principis Proabii"[912]

Ioannes & his wife had three children:

1.         GUIDO (-988).  The dating clause of a charter dated Jan 984, which records a donation by "Cicenus et Mari germani filii Adelghisi" and others, refers to the first year of "principatus domni nostri Iohanni et domni Guidoni eius filio…principibus"[913].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni record that "Wido eius filius [=Ioannes Maledictus]" ruled jointly with his father for 3 years 6 months before he died in a fire[914]

2.         GUAIMAR (-[Feb/Jun] 1027).  The dating clause of a charter dated Apr 989, which records a donation by "Lando…episcopus sanct sedis Pestane", refers to the sixth year of "principatus domni nostri Iohanni…principis" and the first year of "principatus domni Guaimarii principis filio eius"[915].  He succeeded his father in 999 as GUAIMAR III Prince of Salerno

-        see below

3.         IOANNES (-[Nov 1031/Aug 1034]).  A charter dated Oct 989 names "domne Sichelgaita principissa uxor…domni Iohanni…principis" and "domnus Guaimarius princeps et Iohannes comes germani filii…domni Iohanni et domne Sichelgaite"[916].  A charter dated Apr 1000 refers to property owned by "domno Guaimari principi et Iohanni comitis fratri eius"[917].  A charter dated 2 Jul 1002 refers to property owned by "domni…Guaimari…principis…et Iohanni comiti germano predicti domni principis"[918].  A charter dated Jun 1004 refers to property owned by "domni…Guaimari…principis…et Iohanni comiti germano eius"[919].  A charter dated Mar 1012 refers to property owned by "domni…Guaimari…principis…et Iohanni comiti fratri sui"[920].  "Domnus Guaimarius princeps et Iohannes comes, germani filii domni Iohanni, qui fuit princeps" donated property to Cava under a charter dated May 1022[921].  A charter dated Aug 1026 records property owned by "domni…Guaimari…et Iohanni comiti germano eius" donated property to Cava under a charter dated Aug 1025[922].  A charter dated Nov 1031 records property owned by "domni…Guaimari…princeps, filius quondam domni Guaimari principis…et…germani sui et Iohanni comiti thio illorum filio domni Iohanni olim principis"[923]m ---.  The name of Ioannes´s wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife one child: 

a)         --- .  A charter dated Aug 1034 records property owned by "domni Guaimarii principis et de germani eius et de eredibus Iohanni comiti"[924].  A charter dated Aug 1059 records that the church of Santa Maria di Domno belonged to "heredum quondam domni Guaimarii principis filii iamdicti domni Iohannis principis…heredum quondam Iohannis comitis filii suprascripti domni Iohannis principis"[925]m ---.  Two children: 

i)          IOANNES (-before Apr 1110).  "Jean abbé de Sainte-Marie de Domno et propriétaire de l´église avec les autres héritiers du prince Jean II" donated property to "Nicolas fils de Jean" by charter dated Mar 1078[926]m ---.  The name of Ioannes´s wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had three children: 

(a)       PANDOLF (-after Apr 1110).  "Jean fils du comte Pandulf" was confirmed as abbot of Santa Maria di Domno by charter dated Apr 1110 which records that he and "ses cousins Pandulf, Jean et Barthélemy, fils du comte Jean" owned the church[927]

(b)       IOANNES (-after Apr 1110).  "Jean fils du comte Pandulf" was confirmed as abbot of Santa Maria di Domno by charter dated Apr 1110 which records that he and "ses cousins Pandulf, Jean et Barthélemy, fils du comte Jean" owned the church[928]

(c)       BARTOLOMEO (-after Apr 1110).  "Jean fils du comte Pandulf" was confirmed as abbot of Santa Maria di Domno by charter dated Apr 1110 which records that he and "ses cousins Pandulf, Jean et Barthélemy, fils du comte Jean" owned the church[929]

ii)         PANDOLF (-before Apr 1110).  m GAITELGRIMA, daughter of ABELARDO & his wife ---.  "Gaitelgrima fille d´Aballanus et veuve du comte Pandulf avec ses fils l´abbé Jean de Sainte-Marie de Domno, Robert, Barthélemy" mortgaged her rights in the church of Santa Maria di Domno to Cava abbey by charter dated Dec 1117[930]

(a)       IOANNES (-after Dec 1117).  "Jean fils du comte Pandulf" was confirmed as abbot of Santa Maria di Domno by charter dated Apr 1110 which records that he and "ses cousins Pandulf, Jean et Barthélemy, fils du comte Jean" owned the church[931].  "Gaitelgrima fille d´Aballanus et veuve du comte Pandulf avec ses fils l´abbé Jean de Sainte-Marie de Domno, Robert, Barthélemy" mortgaged her rights in the church of Santa Maria di Domno to Cava abbey by charter dated Dec 1117[932]

(b)       ROBERTO (-after Dec 1117).  "Gaitelgrima fille d´Aballanus et veuve du comte Pandulf avec ses fils l´abbé Jean de Sainte-Marie de Domno, Robert, Barthélemy" mortgaged her rights in the church of Santa Maria di Domno to Cava abbey by charter dated Dec 1117[933]

(c)       BARTOLOMEO (-after Dec 1117).  "Gaitelgrima fille d´Aballanus et veuve du comte Pandulf avec ses fils l´abbé Jean de Sainte-Marie de Domno, Robert, Barthélemy" mortgaged her rights in the church of Santa Maria di Domno to Cava abbey by charter dated Dec 1117[934]m ---.  The name of Bartolomeo´s wife is not known.  Bartolomeo & his wife had three children: 

(1)       PANDOLF (-after 1175).  "Pandulf fils de Barthélemy fils du comte Pandulf" is named in a charter of Cava abbey dated 1175[935]

(2)       GAITELGRIMA (-after 1185).  "Gaitelgrima et…Truda filles de Barthélemy fils du comte Pandulf" are named in a charter of Cava abbey dated 1185[936]

(3)       TRUDA (-after 1185).  "Gaitelgrima et…Truda filles de Barthélemy fils du comte Pandulf" are named in a charter of Cava abbey dated 1185[937]

(d)       SICHELGAITA (-after Sep 1113).  "Sichelgaita fille du comte Pandulf et épouse du juge Romuald" donated her rights in the church of Santa Maria di Corno to Cava abbey by charter dated Sep 1113[938]m ROMOALD, son of --- (-after Sep 1113). 

 

 

GUAIMAR III 999-1027

 

GUAIMAR di Salerno, son of IOANNES II Prince of Salerno & his wife Sichelgaita --- (-[Feb/Jun] 1027).  The dating clause of a charter dated Apr 989, which records a donation by "Lando…episcopus sanct sedis Pestane", refers to the sixth year of "principatus domni nostri Iohanni…principis" and the first year of "principatus domni Guaimarii principis filio eius"[939].  A charter dated Oct 989 names "domne Sichelgaita principissa uxor…domni Iohanni…principis" and "domnus Guaimarius princeps et Iohannes comes germani filii…domni Iohanni et domne Sichelgaite"[940].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni record that "Weimarius princeps eius frater [=Wido] benignus et clemens" succeeded as Prince of Salerno and ruled for 43 years 9 months[941].  He succeeded his father in 999 as GUAIMAR III Prince of Salerno.  The dating clause of a charter dated Oct 999, under which "Alfanus filius quondam Petri de Capazzana" donated property to Cava monastery, refers to the eleventh year of "principatus domni nostri Guaimari…principis" without naming his father[942].  Normans returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem helped him defend Salerno from Muslim invaders [1000] and were invited to stay, the first Normans to settle in southern Italy[943].  [The dating clause of a charter dated Sep 1006 refers to the eighth year of "Guaimarii filii quondam Guaimarii principis"[944].  It is assumed that this charter is misdated and should refer to Prince Guaimar IV as no other indication has been found that the father of Prince Guaimar III was named Guaimar.]  Prince of Capua and Duke of Amalfi [1010].  Duke of Sorrento [1011].  The dating clause of a charter dated May 1012 refers to the twenty-fourth year of "principatus Salerni domni…Guaimari…princeps", the fourth year of "principatus eius Capue et ducatui Amalfi", the third year of "ducatus illius Sirrenti", and the first year of "suprascriptorum principatuum et ducatuum domni Gisulfi…principis filii eius"[945].  The dating clause of a charter dated Nov 1018 refers to the thirtieth year of "principatus domni…Guaimari" and the first year of "principatus domni Guaimari eius filii…principibus"[946]. The date of his death is estimated from his being named with his son for the last time in the dating clause of a charter dated Feb 1027[947], and the dating clause of a charter dated Jun 1027 referring to the ninth year of "principatus domni…Guaimari" and the first year of "principatus domne Gaytelgrime genetrice eius"[948].  The Annals of Romoald record the death in 1030 of "Iohannes princeps Salerni" and the succession of his son "Guaimarius"[949], but the charter quoted above shows that this date must be inaccurate. 

m firstly PURPURA, daughter of --- (-[Jul 1010/1011]).  "Guaimarius…Langobardorum gentis Princeps" donated property to "Luce Abbati Monasterium Sancte Barbare", with the consent of "Purpure Principisse…coniugis nostre", by charter dated 1005[950].  "Guaimarius…Langobardorum gentis Princeps" donated property to "Ecclesia Veati Michaëlis Arcangeli…in Monte…Aureo", with the consent of "Purpure Principisse…coniugis nostre", by charter dated Jul 1010[951].  The parentage of Purpura, first wife of Prince Guaimar III, is unknown.  A charter dated Jul 1059, under which "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis que uxor denique Petri comitis et referendarii fuerat" donated property, quotes an earlier charter under which "Guaimar Prince of Salerno", in "the fourteenth year" of his reign, granted property in Salerno to "Petri comiti thio et referendario nostro" at the request of "Laidolfi comitis socero nostro"[952].  If "Guaimar Prince of Salerno" in this document refers to Prince Guaimar III, the fourteenth year of his reign would have been 1006, in which case "Laidolfi comitis" would have been the father of Guaimar´s first wife Purpura.  However, it is more likely that the document refers to Prince Guaimar IV (whose fourteenth year was 1032) whose wife named her father Laidolf in a later source (see below). 

m secondly ([Jul 1010/1011]) GAITELGRIMA, daughter of PANDOLF III Prince of Capua and Benevento, Duke of Salerno & his wife ---.  "Guaimarius et Guaimarius…Longobardorum gentis Principes" confirmed the rights of Salerno church, with the consent of "Gaitelgrime Principisse…coniugis nostre", by charter dated May 1023, the dating clause stating that the year was the thirty-fifth of "Domni Guaimarii Principis" and the fifth year of "Domni Guaimarii eius filio", subscribed by "Gaitelgrimam Guaimarii III uxorem" and "uxorem Guaimarii IV…Gemmam"[953].  Amatus records that the wife of Guaimar [III] Prince of Salerno was the sister of Pandolf [IV] Prince of Capua and that the latter was released after the intervention of Prince Guaimar[954].  The dating clause of two charters dated Jun 1027 and Jul 1027 refer to the ninth year of "principatus domni…Guaimari" and the first year of "principatus domne Gaytelgrime genetrice eius"[955], indicating that Gaitelgrima was appointed co-ruler or regent because of the minority of her son.  "Gaitelgrima" is not named in the charters from Nov 1027 onwards, presumably indicating that she died before that date. 

Prince Guaimar III & his first wife had two children: 

1.         GISULF (-[May 1012/1013]).  The dating clause of a charter dated May 1012 refers to the twenty-fourth year of "principatus Salerni domni…Guaimari…princeps", the fourth year of "principatus eius Capue et ducatui Amalfi", the third year of "ducatus illius Sirrenti", and the first year of "suprascriptorum principatuum et ducatuum domni Gisulfi…principis filii eius"[956].  Gisulf presumably died soon after the date of this charter as he is not named in any subsequent documents in the same cartulary. 

2.         IOANNES (-[Sep/Nov] 1018).  The dating clause of a charter dated Jan 1016 refers to the twenty-seventh year of "principatus domni…Guaimari" and the first year of "principatus domni Iohanni eius filio…principibus"[957].  The dating clause of a charter dated Sep 1018 refers to the thirtieth year of "principatus domni…Guaimari" and the third year of "principatus domni Iohanni eius filio…principibus"[958]

Prince Guaimar & his second wife had four children: 

3.         GUAIMAR ([1011/12]-murdered 3 Jun 1052).  The dating clause of a charter dated Nov 1018 refers to the thirtieth year of "principatus domni…Guaimari" and the first year of "principatus domni Guaimari eius filii…principibus"[959].  The dating clause of a charter dated Jul 1020 refers to the thirtieth-second year of "principatus domni Guaimari" and the second year of "principatus domni Guaimarii optato filio…principes"[960].  This is the only reference so far found to Prince Guaimar IV having been the adopted son of Prince Guaimar III.  The Catalogus Principum Salerni record that "Weimarius alter eius filius [=Weimarius]" succeeded his father as GUAIMAR IV Prince of Salerno and ruled for 34 years and 17 days[961]

-        see below

4.         GUIDO ([1012/13]-before 1077).  A charter of Guaimar III Prince of Salerno dated Feb 1032 names "Guidoni et Paldulfi germani eiusdem…potestatis"[962].  Amatus records that Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno gave the title Duke of Sorrento "to his blood brother Guido", dated to 1039[963]

-        see below, Part H.   

5.         PALDOLF ([1014 or after]-murdered 3 Jun 1052).  A charter of Guaimar III Prince of Salerno dated Feb 1032 names "Guidoni et Paldulfi germani eiusdem…potestatis"[964].  A charter dated Aug 1043 names "domni Paldolfi germani…domni Guaimari…princeps et dux"[965].  Lord of Capaccio 1040[966]

-        see below, Part I

6.         daughter (-after Jun 1052).  Amatus refers to the unnamed sister of Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno being captured and "imprisoned in a filthy and horrible prison", together with his nephew's wife, after her brother was murdered[967].  It is unclear who this "nephew" was, as Prince Guaimar´s brothers were too young in 1052 to have had a son who was already married.  It is possible that the passage refers to the wife of one of the sons of Ioannes, younger brother of Prince Guaimar III. 

 

 

GUAIMAR IV 1027-1052, IOANNES III 1038-1042, GISULF II 1052-1072

 

GUAIMAR di Salerno, [adopted] son of GUAIMAR III Prince of Salerno & his second wife Gaitelgrima of Capua ([1010/12]-murdered 3 Jun 1052).  The dating clause of a charter dated Nov 1018 refers to the thirtieth year of "principatus domni…Guaimari" and the first year of "principatus domni Guaimari eius filii…principibus"[968].  The dating clause of a charter dated Jul 1020 refers to the thirty-second year of "principatus domni Guaimari" and the second year of "principatus domni Guaimarii optato filio…principes"[969].  This is the only reference so far found to Prince Guaimar IV having been the adopted son of Prince Guaimar III.  It is assumed to be an error.  "Guaimarius et Guaimarius…Longobardorum gentis Principes" confirmed the rights of Salerno church, with the consent of "Gaitelgrime Principisse…coniugis nostre", by charter dated May 1023, the dating clause stating that the year was the 35th of "Domni Guaimarii Principis" and the 5th of "Domni Guaimarii eius filio", subscribed by "Gaitelgrimam Guaimarii III uxorem" and "uxorem Guaimarii IV…Gemmam"[970].  Amatus records that Guaimar, son of the Prince of Salerno, was captured by the archbishop of Cologne on the orders of Emperor Heinrich II and sent to Pope Benedict [VIII][971].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni record that "Weimarius alter eius filius [=Weimarius]" succeeded his father as GUAIMAR IV Prince of Salerno and ruled for 34 years and 17 days[972].  The dating clause of two charters dated Jun 1027 and Jul 1027 refer to the ninth year of "principatus domni…Guaimari" and the first year of "principatus domne Gaytelgrime genetrice eius"[973], indicating that Gaitelgrima was appointed co-ruler or regent because of the minority of her son.  The dating clause of a charter dated Jan 1038 refers to the twentieth year of "principatus domni…Guaimari" and the first year of "principatus domni Iohanni eius filii"[974].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that Prince Guaimar IV conquered the duchies of Sorrento and Amalfi, and the principality of Capua[975].  The dating clause of a charter dated Dec 1039 refers to the twenty-second year of "principatus Salerni domni…Guaimari", the second year of "principatus eius Capue" and the first year of "ducatus eius Amalfi et Sirento"[976] enables the dating of these conquests to be estimated precisely: Prince of Capua [1038/early 1039].  Duke of Sorrento [late 1039/1040].  The Chronicon Amalphitani records that "Dominus Guaimarius Princeps Salerni" was installed as Duke of Amalfi in Apr 1039 and ruled for five years and six months[977].  Amatus records that Guaimar was invested as Prince of Capua by Emperor Konrad II (presumably as a confirmation of his acquisition of the principality by conquest), who also made him "his adopted son", on the latter's visit to Italy[978].  The dating clause of a charter dated Apr 1042 refers to the twenty-fourth year of "principatus Guaimari, et quarto principatus eius Capuæ et tertio ducatus Amalphiæ et Sirrenti" and the first year of "Gisulphi filii eius"[979].  Prince Guaimar and his son assumed the titles Duke of Apulia and Calabria: the dating clause of a charter dated Jan 1043 refers to the first year of "ducatus illorum Apulie et Calabrie"[980], this title being used for the last time in a charter dated 1047[981].   Amatus records that Prince Guaimar was expelled from Capua in [1047] by Emperor Heinrich III and that the emperor restored Prince Pandolf IV but recaptured the city[982].  The Annals of Romoald record that "Guaimarius princeps Salerni" was killed "a suis" and succeeded by his son "Gisolfus"[983].  The Annales Casinenses record that "Guaimarius princeps" was killed in 1052[984].  The Chronicon Amalphitani records that "Dominus Guaimarius Princeps Salerni" was killed in 1052 after ruling for 23 years[985].  Amatus describes in detail the plot to murder him[986]

The primary sources present considerable difficulty about the wife or wives of Prince Guaimar IV.  As will be seen from the extracts which are quoted below, the only explanation which reconciles all the sources is that the prince married three times, his first and third wives having the same name.  However, the possibility cannot be excluded that one or more of these sources is defective in some way and that the information contained in the documents is inaccurate. 

m firstly (before May 1023) GEMMA, daughter of ---.  "Guaimarius et Guaimarius…Longobardorum gentis Principes" confirmed the rights of Salerno church, with the consent of "Gaitelgrime Principisse…coniugis nostre", by charter dated May 1023, the dating clause stating that the year was the thirty-fifth of "Domni Guaimarii Principis" and the fifth of "Domni Guaimarii eius filio", subscribed by "Gaitelgrimam Guaimarii III uxorem" and "uxorem Guaimarii IV…Gemmam"[987].  The dating of this document, together with the apparent existence of Prince Guaimar´s supposed second wife Purpura, indicates that it could not refer to Guaimar´s known wife Gemma of Capua and therefore that this Gemma was an otherwise unrecorded first wife. 

m secondly PURPURA, daughter of --- (-before 1032).  "Dominæ Gaytelgrimæ comitissæ filiæ bonæ recordationis domini Guaimarii…principis et ducis" donated property for the souls of "domini Drogonis et domini Roberti et domini Alfredi comitum qui fuerunt viri sui" and for the souls of "Purpure genitricis suæ et…Ricardi filii sui qui de ipso Roberto comite marito suo primogenitum habuit", by charter dated Jan 1087[988].  As mentioned below, Amatus records that "Guaimar" [which indicates Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno from the context] gave his daughter in marriage to "Drogo…with a very grand dowry"[989].  Reading these two sources together, it is assumed that Gaitelgrima was the daughter of Prince Gaimar IV by an otherwise unrecorded marriage to Purpura.  One possibility is that the extract from Amatus should have read "sister" instead of "daughter".  However, Gaitelgrima is recorded with children from both her second and third marriages which suggests that it is unlikely that Purpura, first wife of Guaimar III Prince of Salerno, was her mother as she died in [1010/11]. 

m thirdly (before May 1032) GEMMA of Capua, daughter of LAIDOLF of Capua & his first wife --- (-after Dec 1070).  "Waimarius…Longobardorum gentis Principes" confirmed the rights of Salerno church, with the consent of "Gemme Principisse…coniugis", by charter dated May 1032[990].  Amatus refers to the wife of Prince Guaimar as sister of Landolf, one of his murderers[991].  A charter dated Jul 1059, under which "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis que uxor denique Petri comitis et referendarii fuerat" donated property, quotes an earlier charter under which "Guaimar Prince of Salerno", in "the fourteenth year" of his reign, granted property in Salerno to "Petri comiti thio et referendario nostro" at the request of "Laidolfi comitis socero nostro"[992].  It is assumed that this document refers to Prince Guaimar IV (whose fourteenth year was 1032) and that "Laidolfi comitis" was therefore the father of the prince´s third wife.  Gemma donated a mill at Vietri to Cava, with the consent of "domni nostri Gisulfi et Landolfi et Guidonis et Iohannis et Gaimarii filiorum suorum", by charter dated Dec 1070[993]

Prince Guaimar IV & his [first/second] wife had one child: 

1.         IOANNES ([1025/30]-[early 1040]).  The dating clause of a charter dated Jan 1038 refers to the twentieth year of "principatus domni…Guaimari" and the first year of "principatus domni Iohanni eius filii"[994].  It is unlikely that Ioannes could have been born before 1025 considering the likely birth date of his father.  However, it is also unlikely that he was born much after 1030 considering that he was named associate ruler by his father.  If this is correct, Ioannes must have been born either from his father´s first or second marriage.  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that "Ioannes eius filius [=Weimarius]" was associated as IOANNES III Prince of Salerno by his father and ruled 4 years and 9 months, and ruled in Sorrento alone after his father was expelled[995].   He is not named as prince with his father in the dating clauses of Cava charters dated after end-1039, which suggests that Ioannes died earlier than is indicated by the Catalogus.  This is especially probable as his brother Gisulf is named with his father Prince Guaimar in all charters in the same cartulary which are dated after Guaimar associated Gisulf in the principality. 

Prince Guaimar IV & his second wife had one child: 

2.         GAITELGRIMA di Salerno ([before 1032]-after Jan 1087).  Amatus records that "Guaimar" [Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno] gave Drogo his daughter in marriage "with a very grand dowry" after his succession[996].  Amatus records that Prince Guaimar gave "Count Drogo's [daughter]" to "Robert brother of Count Richard", the editor of the edition consulted speculating that "daughter" must be an error for "widow"[997].  "Domina Gaytelgrima comitissa filia…Robberti ducis" donated property to the monastery of La Trinità at Cava for the souls of "suprascripti domini Robberti et…domini Drogonis et domini Affridi comitum qui fuerunt viri sui" by charter dated Jan 1087[998], although the parentage attributed to her in this document is presumably an error.  It is also curious that the document omits any reference to the donor's second husband.  This copy of the document appears to be defective as another copy records that "dominæ Gaytelgrimæ comitissæ filiæ bonæ recordationis domini Guaimarii…principis et ducis" donated property for the souls of "domini Drogonis et domini Roberti et domini Alfredi comitum qui fuerunt viri sui" and for the souls of "Purpure genitricis suæ et…Ricardi filii sui qui de ipso Roberto comite marito suo primogenitum habuit"[999]m firstly (1046) as his second wife, DROGO de Hauteville Conte di Apulia, son of TANCRED de Hauteville & his first wife Moriella --- (-murdered castle of Monte Ilaro 10 Aug 1051, bur Monastery of Santissima Trinità, Venosa).  He was invested as "Dux et magister Italiae comesque Normannorum totius Apuliae et Calabriae" by Emperor Heinrich III in 1047.  He received Benevento from Emperor Heinrich III in 1047, jointly with Rainulf Conte di Aversa, after the latter confiscated it from citizens who had refused to open its gates to him but the Beneventans invited Pope Leo IX to take over their town.  m secondly ([end 1051/May 1052]) ROBERTO di Lucera Conte di Gargano, son of ASCLETTIN di Aversa & his wife ---.  m thirdly AFFRED comte, son of --- (-before Sep 1081).  Stasser suggests that "Affred comte de Sarno", third husband of Gaitelgrima, was the same person as"Asfred surnommé Buterellus, frère de Robert de Torpo seigneur de Lacedonia" who was named in a charter dated Nov 1081 under which this Robert de Torpo donated property to Cava abbey[1000].  Stasser mentions that Gaitelgrima had one son "Richard comte de Sarno" by her third marriage, who was named in Sep 1081 and Sep 1111, who died before Oct 1114 and was buried at Cava[1001].  He also records that "son petit-fils Richard II de Sarno" is called "ortus ex genere nortmannorum" in a charter[1002]

Prince Guaimar IV & his third wife had eight children: 

3.         GISULF ([1035]-2 Jan 1091).  The dating clause of a charter dated Apr 1042 refers to the twenty-fourth year of "principatus Guaimari, et quarto principatus eius Capuæ et tertio ducatus Amalphiæ et Sirrenti" and the first year of "Gisulphi filii eius"[1003].  Amatus records that Gisulf, son of Guaimar, was installed as GISULF II Prince of Salerno by his paternal uncle Guido after his father was murdered[1004].  The Chronicon Amalphitani records that "Gisulfus filius eius" succeeded in 1052 after his father was killed[1005].  Amatus records that Prince Gisulf "from his earliest childhood…began little by little to vomit venom" and plotted against his paternal uncle[1006].  "Gisulfus…Longobardorum gentis Princeps" confirmed the rights of Salerno church, with the consent of "Gemme Principisse…genitricis nostre", by charter dated May 1058[1007].  Gemma donated a mill at Vietri to Cava, with the consent of "domni nostri Gisulfi et Landolfi et Guidonis et Iohannis et Gaimarii filiorum suorum", by charter dated Dec 1070[1008].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni records that "Gesulfus, filius Weimarii" ruled under 34 years, after which "Robertus Viscardum ducem cognatum suum" conquered Salerno in 1072 after 227 years of Lombard domination[1009].  The Annals of Romoald record the death of "Gisolphus frater uxoris [=Robbertus Guiscardus]" in 1076[1010], but the subsequent mentions of Gisulf show that this date is incorrect.  The Normans conquered Salerno in 1077.  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi records that "gente Salernum dux…Gisulfi" was expelled by Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia and found refuge with Pope Gregory VII who granted him "regio Campanica"[1011].  He was installed as Duke of Amalfi in [Mar/Jul] 1088[1012].  The necrology of San Matteo di Salerno records his death 2 Jun 1091[1013]m (before Aug 1058, repudiated) MARIA, daughter of ---.  A charter dated 1100 quotes three earlier charters dated Aug 1058, dealing with the division of territories of Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno, one of which names "Domini Gisulfi et Domine Marie Principisse uxoris ipsius Domini Gisulfi"[1014].  A charter dated Aug 1058 names "Gisulphus…Longobardorum gentis princeps…domne Gemme principis nostre"[1015].  The form of this charter is dissimilar to other charters in the same collection which suggests that it is spurious.  The document does not specify explicitly that Gemma was the mother of Prince Gisulf.  However, the relationship is clarified by a charter in similar form, dated Jul 1060, which names "Gisulphus…Langobardorum gentis princeps" and "domne Gemme…genitricis nostre"[1016].  This suggests that Gemma who is named in the Aug 1058 charter was also Prince Gisulf´s mother.  Amatus refers to the repudiation by Prince Gisulf of his wife[1017]

4.         LANDOLF ([1040 or after]-after Mar 1092).  Amatus names (in order) "Gisulf, Landulf, Guido…John Seurre…and Guaimar" as the five sons of Prince Guaimar when he died[1018].  A charter dated 1100 quotes three earlier charters dated Aug 1058, dividing the territories of Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno between "Domini Gisulfi…et Landulfi et Guidonis et Johannis et Guaimarii fratrum ipsius domini Gisulfi", specifying that Landolf was less than 18 years old[1019].  Amatus records that Landulf surrendered San Severino and Policastro when his brother Prince Gisulf was deposed[1020].  Gemma donated a mill at Vietri to Cava, with the consent of "domni nostri Gisulfi et Landolfi et Guidonis et Iohannis et Gaimarii filiorum suorum", by charter dated Dec 1070[1021].  Landolf donated property to Cava for the soul of "Imilie…coniugis mee filie quondam domni Adenolfi ducis Gagete civitatis" by charter dated Mar 1092[1022]m EMILIA di Gaeta, daughter of ATENOLF I Duke of Gaeta & his wife Maria di Capua.  Landolf donated property to Cava for the soul of "Imilie…coniugis mee filie quondam domni Adenolfi ducis Gagete civitatis" by charter dated Mar 1092[1023].  Landulf & his wife had two children: 

a)         MABILIA (-1126 or after).  Mabilia, daughter of Landulf "once lord of Policastro", was a nun at St George, Salerno in 1136[1024]

b)         SICA (-before Jun 1121).  "Rogerius de Sancto Severino filius quondam Turgisii normanni" donated property to Cava abbey, for the soul of "domine Sike quondam…conjugis nostre filiæ quondam domini Landolfi filii domini Guaymarii principis", by charter dated Jun 1121, subscribed by "Enricus filius et heres domini Roggerii"[1025]m ROGER di San Severino, son of TURGISIO & his wife --- (-before Mar 1125). 

c)         [SICHELGARDA (-after Mar 1116).  "Gaufridus qui vocor de Medania Suessolanorum et Acerranorum…senior" donated property, for the souls of "…Roberti barbani mei", by charter dated Mar 1116, subscribed by "Sikelgarda sua conjux…Robertus de Medania"[1026].  He argues convincingly that the only way of explaining why Enrico di San Severino, son of Roger di San Severino & his wife Sika di Salerno, names her son "Robertus de Medania uterinus frater"[1027], is that the term "uterinus frater" must be interpreted in this document as maternal cousin.  m GEOFFROY de Meduana, son of --- (-after Mar 1116).] 

5.         GUIDO (-murdered Capua 1075).  Amatus names (in order) "Gisulf, Landulf, Guido…John Seurre…and Guaimar" as the five sons of Prince Guaimar when he died, and names "Guido the duke's [Robert "Guiscard"] brother-in-law" among those sent by Robert "Guiscard" to quell the rebellion in Trani led by Herman[1028].  A charter dated 1100 quotes three earlier charters dated Aug 1058, dividing the territories of Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno between "Domini Gisulfi…et Landulfi et Guidonis et Johannis et Guaimarii fratrum ipsius domini Gisulfi", specifying that Guido received the lordships of Policastro and San Severino[1029].  Gemma donated a mill at Vietri to Cava, with the consent of "domni nostri Gisulfi et Landolfi et Guidonis et Iohannis et Gaimarii filiorum suorum", by charter dated Dec 1070[1030].  Amatus records that Guido was killed by "Norman enemies" who ambushed him en route to Capua, for a hearing concerning a dispute with "Guimund" with whom he jointly held the valley of San Severino, dated to 1075[1031]

6.         IOANNES Seurre (-after [1095/1100]).  Amatus names (in order) "Gisulf, Landulf, Guido…John Seurre…and Guaimar" as the five sons of Prince Guaimar when he died[1032].  A charter dated 1100 quotes three earlier charters dated Aug 1058, dividing the territories of Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno between "Domini Gisulfi…et Landulfi et Guidonis et Johannis et Guaimarii fratrum ipsius domini Gisulfi"[1033].  Gemma donated a mill at Vietri to Cava, with the consent of "domni nostri Gisulfi et Landolfi et Guidonis et Iohannis et Gaimarii filiorum suorum", by charter dated Dec 1070[1034].  Amatus records that he supported his brother Prince Gisulf when Robert "Guiscard" deposed him[1035].  He became a cleric and abbot in charge of an almshouse on Monte Gargano founded in the late 1090s by his nephew Henry Count of Monte Sant'Angelo[1036].  "Henricus…comes…qm Roberti comitis" donated property to "Joannes dictus de Curte zianus meus olim filius bone memorie Guaimarii principis Salernitani avi mei" by charter dated Nov 1098[1037]m ---.  The name of Ioannes´s wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had one child: 

a)         GISULF (-after 1094).  "Gisolfus filius quondam Joannis comitis qui clericus et abbas fuit" donated property to the church of Cavensi by charter dated Oct 1094, which names "quondam Guaimario…patruelis frater suprascripti Joannis Comitis…Domina Sichelgaita Princeps Proabia sua…uxor…quondam Domini Johannis Principis Proabii" and "Guaimarii…filius Domini Guidonis Ducis filii Domini Guaimarii Principis"[1038]

7.         GUAIMAR (-after 1076).  Amatus names (in order) "Gisulf, Landulf, Guido…John Seurre…and Guaimar" as the five sons of Prince Guaimar when he died, calling the last named "the tormenter and devourer who was insatiable"[1039].  A charter dated 1100 quotes three earlier charters dated Aug 1058, dividing the territories of Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno between "Domini Gisulfi…et Landulfi et Guidonis et Johannis et Guaimarii fratrum ipsius domini Gisulfi"[1040].  Gemma donated a mill at Vietri to Cava, with the consent of "domni nostri Gisulfi et Landolfi et Guidonis et Iohannis et Gaimarii filiorum suorum", by charter dated Dec 1070[1041].  Amatus records that Guaimar surrendered Cilento when his brother Prince Gisulf was deposed[1042]

8.         SICHELGAITA ([1040/45]-Salerno 27 Jul 1090, bur Monte Cassino)The Gestis Ducum Normannorum names "primogenitam filiam Gaumarii principis Salerni…Sichelgaitam" as the wife of "Robertus Wiscardus Normannigena dux Apuliæ"[1043].  The Annals of Romoald in 1060 record the marriage of "Sikelgaitum Guaimerii principis filia" and "Robbertus Guiscardus"[1044].  Malaterra names "filiamque Gaimari Salernitani principis Sigelgaytam" as the second wife of Robert "Guiscard"[1045].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names the second wife of Robert as "sororem Salernitani principis…Sikelgaita"[1046].  Her birth date is estimated from her having borne children immediately after her marriage.  Her husband became heir to the Principality of Salerno through this marriage, although her husband forestalled his inheritance by conquering Salerno in 1077.  The Alexeiad names Robert "Guiscard"'s wife Gaita when recording that "she went on campaign with her husband and when she donned armour she was indeed a formidable sight"[1047].  She successfully laid siege to Trani, while her husband did the same at Taranto, as part of their campaign to suppress the rebellion of autumn 1078.  She also fought in the battle to capture Durazzo in 1081/82.  The Annals of Romoald record the death in Apr 1090 of "Sikelgaita ducissa mater Rogerii ducis"[1048]m ([1058/59]) as his second wife, ROBERT "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia, son of TANCRED de Hauteville & his second wife Fressenda --- ([1020]-Phiscardo Bay, Cephalonia 17 Jul 1085, bur Monastery of Santissima Trinità, Venosa). 

9.         GAITELGRIMA (-[Jun 1104/9 Dec 1108]).  The Annals of Romoald record the marriage in 1077 of "filiam Guaimarii princeps Salernitani" and "Riccardus princeps"[1049].  According to William of Apulia, "Gaitelgrima" daughter of Prince Guaimar IV married Jordan Prince of Capua[1050].  The Gestis Ducum Normannorum names "Gatteclina soror eius [=Sichelgaitæ] minor" as the wife of "Iordani principi Capuæ filio Ricardi senioris"[1051].  Guillaume de Jumièges states that the younger sister of Sichelgaita, wife of Robert "Guiscard", married "Jordan prince de Capoue fils de Richard l'Ancien" but does not name her[1052].  Robert Prince of Capua donated property to San Paolo di Aversa for the souls of "quondam principum Richardi…avi et Jourdani patris nec non Richardi fratris nostri et matris nostre Gaytelgrime" by charter dated 9 Dec 1108[1053]m firstly (1077) JORDAN Prince of Capua, son of RICHARD Prince of Capua, Count of Aversa & his first wife Fredesende de Hauteville ([1045/50]-Feb 1091).  m secondly ([1091/93]) UGO di Faida, son of --- (-Mar 1121). 

10.      [daughter .  Amatus records that "Gisulf´s sister wrote to the duchess, her sister, asking for provisions", during the siege of Salerno, dated to Spring 1077[1054].  It is possible that this sister is the same person who married Jordan Prince of Capua about the same time (see above).]   

 

 

 

H.      DESCENDANTS of GUIDO di SALERNO, CONTE di CONZA, SIGNORI di GIFFONI

 

 

GUIDO di Salerno, son of GUAIMAR III Prince of Salerno & his second wife Gaitelgrima of Capua ([1012/13]-before 1077).  A charter of Guaimar III Prince of Salerno dated Feb 1032 names "Guidoni et Paldulfi germani eiusdem…potestatis"[1055].  Amatus records that Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno gave the title Duke of Sorrento "to his blood brother Guido", dated to 1039[1056].  The Catalogus Principum Salerni record that "Wido alter, Weimarii frater" ruled in Salerno for two months[1057].  A charter dated Jun 1047 records the presence of "domni…Guaimarii…principis et ducis [et] domnus Guido dux et Paldulfus germani eius…filii…domni Guaimarii principis" at a donation, with "Atenolfum comitem filium quondam Landolfi comitis, et…Iohannem comitem filium quondam Alfani comitis" named as guarantors[1058].  "Guido…dux qui fuit filius gloriose recordationis domini Guaimarii principis et domna Raingarda duce uxor illius filia Landonis comitis coniuncti" sold property to "Sicenolfo gastaldo filio quondam Sicenolfi" by charter dated Apr 1056 which names "Iohannem comitem generum eorum filium Guaimarii comitis" as fiduciary[1059]Conte di Conza.  Amatus records that Guido escaped death when his brother Prince Guaimar was murdered, fled to the Normans, and with their help expelled the conspirators from Salerno within a week[1060]

m RAINGARDA, daughter of LANDO Conte di Caiazzo & his wife --- (-after 1056).  "Guido…dux qui fuit filius gloriose recordationis domini Guaimarii principis et domna Raingarda duce uxor illius filia Landonis comitis coniuncti" sold property to "Sicenolfo gastaldo filio quondam Sicenolfi" by charter dated Apr 1056 which names "Iohannem comitem generum eorum filium Guaimarii comitis" as fiduciary[1061]

Guido & his wife had five children: 

1.         [GUIDA] ([1030/32]-).  Amatus records the marriage of "Guida the daughter of his [Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno] brother" to Guillaume d'Hauteville when the latter was installed as Count of Apulia[1062].  Considering that the birth of her father´s older brother is estimated to [1011/12], it is unlikely that Guida could have been born earlier than [1030/32].  She was therefore still a child when she married.  m ([Sep 1042]) GUILLAUME d'Hauteville "Bras-de-Fer", son of TANCRED d'Hauteville & his first wife Moriella --- ([1010/20]-[May/Sep] 1046, bur Venosa, Monastery of Santissima Trinità). 

2.         GUAIMAR (-[Oct 1091/Nov 1092], bur Cava abbey).  "Guaimar de Giffoni" donated property to Cava abbey, for the souls of "son fils Jean, de son frère Pandulf", by charter dated Oct 1091[1063].  "Gisolfus filius quondam Joannis comitis qui clericus et abbas fuit" donated property to the church of Cavensi by charter dated Oct 1094, which names "quondam Guaimario…patruelis frater suprascripti Joannis Comitis…" and "Guaimarii…filius Domini Guidonis Ducis filii Domini Guaimarii Principis"[1064]m firstly ---.  The name of Guaimar's first wife is not known.  m secondly SICHELGARDA, daughter of ADELFER Conte & his wife Adeltruda --- (-after 1118).  "Guaimarius filius Guaimarius qui fuerat filius domini Guidonis ducis filii domini Guaimarii principis et Sicelgaita noverca eius filia Adelferii comitis Beneventani" are named in a charter of Cava abbey dated Nov 1092[1065].  "Sichelgarda veuve de Gaimar I de Giffoni" donated property to Cava abbey, in the presence of "sa fille Mabilia [et] de l´époux de celle-ci Robert", by charter dated 1118, which names "son mundoald…Landulf de Baragiano, fils d´une fille du défunt Gaimar I de Giffoni"[1066].  Guaimar & his first wife had three children: 

a)         IOANNES (-before Oct 1091).  "Guaimar de Giffoni" donated property to Cava abbey, for the souls of "son fils Jean, de son frère Pandulf", by charter dated Oct 1091[1067]

b)         GUAIMAR (-after Mar 1114).  "Guaymarius filius Guaymarii…cum Johanne et Mauro germanis ac filiis quondam Mauri de civitate Atrano" donated property to Cava abbey on his marriage with "Gaytelgrimam sororem ipsorum Johannis et Mauri ac filiam quondam supradicti Mauri", by charter dated Apr 1088[1068].  "Guaimarius filius Guaimarius qui fuerat filius domini Guidonis ducis filii domini Guaimarii principis et Sicelgaita noverca eius filia Adelferii comitis Beneventani" are named in a charter of Cava abbey dated Nov 1092[1069].  "Guaimarius filius quondam Guaimarii qui fuit filius domini Guidonis ducis" donated property to Cava by charter dated Apr 1110, which names "Iohannem filium quondam Ademarii comitis qui dictus est Rufus" as fiduciary[1070].  "Guaimarius filius quondam bone memorie domini Guaimarii qui fuit filius domini Guidonis ducis" donated property to the monastery of San Giorgio di Salerno, in the presence of "Iohanne filio quondam Guaimarii comitis et Landulfo filio quondam Ademarii comitis", by charter dated Mar 1114 which names "Ademarius filium quondam Landulfi comitis" as fiduciary[1071]m (Apr 1188) GAITELGRIMA, daughter of MAURO di Atrano & his wife --- (-after 1124).  "Guaymarius filius Guaymarii…cum Johanne et Mauro germanis ac filiis quondam Mauri de civitate Atrano" donated property to Cava abbey on his marriage with "Gaytelgrimam sororem ipsorum Johannis et Mauri ac filiam quondam supradicti Mauri", by charter dated Apr 1088[1072].  "Landulfum filium quondam Pandulfi filii…Domini Guidonis ducis" is named as fiduciary for Cava in a charter dated 1124 which records the testament of "Gaitelgrima veuve de Gaimar II de Giffoni"[1073]

c)         daughter .  "Sichelgarda veuve de Gaimar I de Giffoni" donated property to Cava abbey by charter dated 1118, which names "son mundoald…Landulf de Baragiano, fils d´une fille du défunt Gaimar I de Giffoni"[1074]m --- di Baragiano, son of ---. 

Guaimar & his second wife had [two] children: 

d)         MABILIA (-[Feb 1122/1143]).  "Robert seigneur d´Eboli" donated property to Cava abbey, for the souls of "Amabile…conjugis mee…Guaimarii…filiis nostris", by charter dated Sep 1105[1075].  "Sichelgarda veuve de Gaimar I de Giffoni" donated property to Cava abbey, in the presence of "sa fille Mabilia [et] de l´époux de celle-ci Robert", by charter dated 1118, which names "son mundoald…Landulf de Baragiano, fils d´une fille du défunt Gaimar I de Giffoni"[1076].  "Mabilia filia quondam Guaymarii qui fuit filius domini Guidonis filii domini Guaymarii principis…uxor Symonis Normanni qui dicitur de Tibilla" confirmed the donation to Cava abbey by her mother by charter dated Feb 1122[1077]m firstly (before 1105) ROBERTO di Eboli, son of GUGLIELMO & his wife --- (-1121).  m secondly (before Feb 1122) as his first wife, SIMONE di Tivilla [Theville], son of RAOUL de Theville & his wife --- (-[1158/Feb 1159]).  "Simon de Theville fils de Raoul" donated the church of San Michele Arcangelo near castellum Bessantino to the prior of San Leonardo di Siponto, for the salvation of "son père Raoul, de son épouse Mabilia et de son fils Robert", by charter dated 1143[1078]

e)         [--- m ALFAN, son of conte ADEMAR Rufus & his wife --- (-[1119/20]).] 

3.         PANDOLF .  "Guaimar de Giffoni" donated property to Cava abbey, for the souls of "son fils Jean, de son frère Pandulf", by charter dated Oct 1091[1079]m ---.  The name of Pandolf´s wife is not known.  Pandolf & his wife had one child: 

a)         LANDOLF (-after 1124).  "Landulfum filium quondam Pandulfi filii…Domini Guidonis ducis" is named as fiduciary for Cava in a charter dated 1124 which records the testament of "Gaitelgrima veuve de Gaimar II de Giffoni"[1080]

4.         --- di Sorrento .  "Guido…dux qui fuit filius gloriose recordationis domini Guaimarii principis et domna Raingarda duce uxor illius filia Landonis comitis coniuncti" sold property to "Sicenolfo gastaldo filio quondam Sicenolfi" by charter dated Apr 1056 which names "Iohannem comitem generum eorum filium Guaimarii comitis" as fiduciary[1081]m IOANNES, son of GUAIMAR Conte & his wife --- (-after Apr 1056). 

5.         [MARIA] (-1085 or after).  Amatus records the marriage of the daughter of Guido and Guillaume de Hauteville[1082], in a later passage than the one recording the marriage of Guido´s daughter Guida to another Guillaume d´Hauteville.  Europäische Stammtafeln[1083] confuses the two brothers named Guillaume, sons of Tancred de Hauteville, giving the same wife to each, but Amatus is clearly referring to the two different half-brothers of the same name.  According to Drell, Maria witnessed her husband's 1080 will[1084].  She is named as witness of a donation by her son Robert to the abbey of Holy Trinity Venosa dated 1085[1085]m ([1059]) GUILLAUME d'Hauteville "Sanicandro", son of TANCRED d'Hauteville & his second wife Fressenda --- (-1080). 

 

 

 

I.        DESCENDANTS of PALDOLF di SALERNO, SIGNORI di CAPACCIO

 

 

PALDOLF di Salerno, son of GUAIMAR III Prince of Salerno & his second wife Gaitelgrima of Capua ([1014 or after]-murdered 3 Jun 1052).  A charter of Guaimar III Prince of Salerno dated Feb 1032 names "Guidoni et Paldulfi germani eiusdem…potestatis"[1086].  A charter dated Aug 1043 names "domni Paldolfi germani…domni Guaimari…princeps et dux"[1087].  Lord of Capaccio 1040[1088].  A charter dated Jun 1047 records the presence of "domni…Guaimarii…principis et ducis [et] domnus Guido dux et Paldulfus germani eius…filii…domni Guaimarii principis" at a donation, with "Atenolfum comitem filium quondam Landolfi comitis, et…Iohannem comitem filium quondam Alfani comitis" named as guarantors[1089].  Amatus records that "Pandolf" was killed at the same time as Prince Guaimar IV[1090]

m ([1040/45]) THEODORA, daughter of GREGORIUS [II] Conte di Tusculo & his wife --- (-after Jul 1068).  A charter dated Oct 1052 records a donation "pro parte domne Theodore…uxor fuit domni Paldulfi…filium bone memorie domni Guaimarii…princeps et pro parte de filiis eorum"[1091].  A charter dated Mar 1053 records a donation by "Guiselmari vicecomite filius quondam Martini" with the consent of "domne Theodore filie Gregorii et de domne Guaimarii, et Gregorii et Iohanni germani filii sui", which names "domnus Paldulfus…genitor supradicti domni…seniori"[1092].  A charter dated Feb 1054 names "Theodora…filia domni Gregorii Romanorum ducis et consulis et fuerat uxor Paldulfi filii…domni Guaimarii principis" when recording a donation[1093].  A charter dated Aug 1056 names "domne Theodore filie domne Gregorii consulis et ducis Romanorum, que fuerat uxor Paldulfi…filius…domni Guaimarii principis…et Guaimarii et Gregorii et Iohannis et Guidonis filii ipsius domne Theodore et iamdicti Paldulfi"[1094].  Theodora is also named in charters dated Dec 1058 and Jul 1059[1095].  A charter dated Jul 1068 records that "Ursus et Petrus germani…fils du défunt Alfan avec leurs épouses Fresa et Laita" donated property to the church of San Michele Arcangelo di Venanzana near Capaccio which belonged to "domne Theodore et domni Guaimarii et Gregorii et Guidoni et Iohannes germani filii quondam domni Paldulfi et prefate Theodore"[1096]

Pandolf & his wife had four children: 

1.         GUAIMAR (-[Aug 1100/1103]).  A charter dated Mar 1053 records a donation by "Guiselmari vicecomite filius quondam Martini" with the consent of "domne Theodore filie Gregorii et de domne Guaimarii, et Gregorii et Iohanni germani filii sui", which names "domnus Paldulfus…genitor supradicti domni…seniori"[1097].  A charter dated Aug 1056 names "domne Theodore filie domne Gregorii consulis et ducis Romanorum, que fuerat uxor Paldulfi…filius…domni Guaimarii principis…et Guaimarii et Gregorii et Iohannis et Guidonis filii ipsius domne Theodore et iamdicti Paldulfi"[1098].  A charter dated Jul 1068 records that "Ursus et Petrus germani…fils du défunt Alfan avec leurs épouses Fresa et Laita" donated property to the church of San Michele Arcangelo di Venanzana near Capaccio which belonged to "domne Theodore et domni Guaimarii et Gregorii et Guidoni et Iohannes germani filii quondam domni Paldulfi et prefate Theodore"[1099].  "Asclitinus comes qui dicitur de Siciniano et Sicilgayta uxor eius filia bone recordationis Paldulfi qui fuit filius domini Guaimarii prinicipis" donated the church of San Pietro di Polla to Cava abbey, in the presence of "Guaimarius cognatus et germanus eorum ac filius supradicti Paldulfi", by charter dated May 1086[1100]m SICHELGAITA di Capua, daughter of LANDOLF VIII Prince of Capua & his wife --- (-after 1098).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 1098 which records that "Gaimar fils de Pandulf fils du prince Gaimar, fils du prince Jean" donated his part of the church of Santa Maria di Salerno to Cava abbey, for the salvation of "son épouse Sichelgaita, fille de Landulf, fils du prince Pandulf di Capoue et de leurs enfants", and Sichelgaita "fille de Landulf fils du prince Pandulf de Capoue" added a personal request for prayers for herself after he death[1101].  Guaimar & his wife had five children: 

a)         PANDOLF (-[1104/19]).  m ---.  The name of Pandolf´s wife is not known.  Pandolf & his wife had three children: 

i)          GUGLIELMO (-after May 1134).  "Guidelmo qui dicitur de Mannia filius quondam domni Pandulfus de Caputaquis…cum domno Gisulfo germanus eius" donated property to Cava abbey by charter dated May 1134[1102]m ---.  The name of Guglielmo´s wife is not known.  Guglielmo & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GISULF (-after Jan 1167).  "Emma amita ipsius domni Gisulfi et filia quondam domni Pandulfi" donated property to Cava abbey by charter dated Jan 1167[1103]m ---.  The name of Gisulf´s wife is not known. Gisulf & his wife had one child: 

(1)       GUGLIELMO (-after 1187).  Signore di Novi. 

ii)         GISULF (-after May 1134).  "Guidelmo qui dicitur de Mannia filius quondam domni Pandulfus de Caputaquis…cum domno Gisulfo germanus eius" donated property to Cava abbey by charter dated May 1134[1104]

iii)        EMMA (-after Jan 1167).  "Emma amita ipsius domni Gisulfi et filia quondam domni Pandulfi" donated property to Cava abbey by charter dated Jan 1167[1105]

b)         GREGORIO (-before 1130).  "Sichelgaita fille du feu comte Jean de Teano et veuve de Grégoire de Capaccio" donated property to Cava abbey, in the presence of "son fils Guillaume et de ses nepotes Grégoire, Gaimar, Gisulf, Tudinus et Jordan" by charter dated 1119[1106]m ---.  The name of Gregorio´s wife is not known.  Gregorio & his wife had four children: 

i)          ERMANO .  "Ermannus et Basdardus germani et domni Caputaquensi, Todinus patruus ipsorum germanorum qui fuit germanus ipsius Gregorii ac filius quondam Gaymarii" are named in a charter dated 1130 which records a donation to Cava abbey[1107]

ii)         PANDOLF (-after Oct 1154).  "Bagelard et Pandulf, fils de Grégoire de Capaccio et leur cousin Mathieu, fils di défunt Gisulf di Capaccio" donated property outside Salerno, previously held by "Petri qui dictus est de facterosa prioris viri Marotte quondam genetricis eiusdem Mathei que postea fuit uxor…Gisulfi genitoris eiusdem Mathei", to Cava abbey by charter dated 1138[1108].  "Pandolfus et Bailardus…Cannarum domini" are named in a charter dated Oct 1154[1109]

iii)        ABELARDO [Bagelardo] (-after Oct 1154).  "Ermannus et Basdardus germani et domni Caputaquensi, Todinus patruus ipsorum germanorum qui fuit germanus ipsius Gregorii ac filius quondam Gaymarii" are named in a charter dated 1130 which records a donation to Cava abbey[1110].  "Bagelard et Pandulf, fils de Grégoire de Capaccio et leur cousin Mathieu, fils di défunt Gisulf di Capaccio" donated property outside Salerno, previously held by "Petri qui dictus est de facterosa prioris viri Marotte quondam genetricis eiusdem Mathei que postea fuit uxor…Gisulfi genitoris eiusdem Mathei", to Cava abbey by charter dated 1138[1111].  "Pandolfus et Bailardus…Cannarum domini" are named in a charter dated Oct 1154[1112]

iv)       GEMMA (-after 1138).  "Bagelard fils de Grégoire de Capaccio…avec son frère Pandulf et son cousin Mathieu" donated property to Cava abbey by charter dated 1138 which provides for the burial at the abbey of "les deux frères et leur sœur Gemma"[1113]

c)         GUAIMAR (-5 Dec 1137).  "Sichelgaita fille du feu comte Jean de Teano et veuve de Grégoire de Capaccio" donated property to Cava abbey, in the presence of "son fils Guillaume et de ses nepotes Grégoire, Gaimar, Gisulf, Tudinus et Jordan" by charter dated 1119[1114].  Signore di Capaccio.  "Gaimar seigneur de Capaccio" named "son épouse Sibillia et leur fils Gaimar" in his testament dated Dec 1137[1115].  The necrology of Salerno cathedral records the death 5 Dec 1137 of "dom. Guaymarii Caputaquensis f. dom Guaymarii"[1116]m SIBILLA, daughter of --- (-after Dec 1137).  "Gaimar seigneur de Capaccio" named "son épouse Sibillia et leur fils Gaimar" in his testament dated Dec 1137[1117].  Guaimar & his wife had one child: 

i)          GUAIMAR (-after Dec 1137).  "Gaimar seigneur de Capaccio" named "son épouse Sibillia et leur fils Gaimar" in his testament dated Dec 1137[1118]

d)         GISULF (-after 1119).  m as her second husband, MAROTTA, widow of PIETRO di Facterosa, daughter of ---.  "Bagelard et Pandulf, fils de Grégoire de Capaccio et leur cousin Mathieu, fils di défunt Gisulf di Capaccio" donated property outside Salerno, previously held by "Petri qui dictus est de facterosa prioris viri Marotte quondam genetricis eiusdem Mathei que postea fuit uxor…Gisulfi genitoris eiusdem Mathei", to Cava abbey by charter dated 1138[1119].  Gisulf & his wife had one child: 

i)          MATTEO .  "Bagelard et Pandulf, fils de Grégoire de Capaccio et leur cousin Mathieu, fils di défunt Gisulf di Capaccio" donated property outside Salerno, previously held by "Petri qui dictus est de facterosa prioris viri Marotte quondam genetricis eiusdem Mathei que postea fuit uxor…Gisulfi genitoris eiusdem Mathei", to Cava abbey by charter dated 1138[1120]

e)         TUDINUS (-after 1130).  "Sichelgaita fille du feu comte Jean de Teano et veuve de Grégoire de Capaccio" donated property to Cava abbey, in the presence of "son fils Guillaume et de ses nepotes Grégoire, Gaimar, Gisulf, Tudinus et Jordan" by charter dated 1119[1121].  "Ermannus et Basdardus germani et domni Caputaquensi, Todinus patruus ipsorum germanorum qui fuit germanus ipsius Gregorii ac filius quondam Gaymarii" are named in a charter dated 1130 which records a donation to Cava abbey[1122]

2.         GREGORIO (-[1118/19]).  A charter dated Mar 1053 records a donation by "Guiselmari vicecomite filius quondam Martini" with the consent of "domne Theodore filie Gregorii et de domne Guaimarii, et Gregorii et Iohanni germani filii sui", which names "domnus Paldulfus…genitor supradicti domni…seniori"[1123].  A charter dated Aug 1056 names "domne Theodore filie domne Gregorii consulis et ducis Romanorum, que fuerat uxor Paldulfi…filius…domni Guaimarii principis…et Guaimarii et Gregorii et Iohannis et Guidonis filii ipsius domne Theodore et iamdicti Paldulfi"[1124].  A charter dated Jul 1068 records that "Ursus et Petrus germani…fils du défunt Alfan avec leurs épouses Fresa et Laita" donated property to the church of San Michele Arcangelo di Venanzana near Capaccio which belonged to "domne Theodore et domni Guaimarii et Gregorii et Guidoni et Iohannes germani filii quondam domni Paldulfi et prefate Theodore"[1125].  "Alfanus filius quondam Petri comitis…et Aloare uxori sue filie Castelmanni comitis" sold property near castellum Capaccio to "Gregorio filio quondam bone memorie domni Paldolfi filii domni Guaimarii principis" after proving his rights under charter dated Nov 1073[1126].  A charter dated 1103 records that "Grégoire fils de Pandulf fils du prince Gaimar" agreed a division with Cava abbey, acting with the consent of "son neveu Tancrède fils de Geoffroy de Hauteville et de Theodora sœur de Grégoire"[1127].  A charter dated 1104 records that "Grégoire fils de Pandulf fils du prince Gaimar" agreed a division with Cava abbey, acting with the consent of "son neveu Tancrède fils de Theodora"[1128]m firstly MARIA, daughter of HERBERT [Caput Asinus & his wife Delicta di Sanseverino].  Gregorio and his wife "Maria fille d´un Herbert" donated property to San Niccolo di Capaccio by charter dated May 1092[1129]m secondly SICHELGAITA di Teano, daughter of IOANNES di Teano & his wife Atta di Venafro (-after 1119).  "Sichelgaita fille du feu comte Jean de Teano et veuve de Grégoire de Capaccio" donated property to Cava abbey, in the presence of "son fils Guillaume et de ses nepotes Grégoire, Gaimar, Gisulf, Tudinus et Jordan" by charter dated 1119[1130].  Gregorio & his first wife had two children: 

a)         ERBERTO (-after 1096).  He and his brother are named by Stasser as sons of Gregorio, probably by his first wife[1131]

b)         IOANNES (-after 1132).  He and his brother are named by Stasser as sons of Gregorio, probably by his first wife[1132]

Gregorio & his first wife had [two] children: 

c)         GUGLIELMO (-after 1134).  "Sichelgaita fille du feu comte Jean de Teano et veuve de Grégoire de Capaccio" donated property to Cava abbey, in the presence of "son fils Guillaume et de ses nepotes Grégoire, Gaimar, Gisulf, Tudinus et Jordan" by charter dated 1119[1133].  He is named "dominus castello de Trintinaria" in a charter dated 1134[1134]m ---.  The name of Guglielmo´s wife is not known.  Guglielmo & his wife had one child: 

i)          ROBERTO (-after 3 Oct 1156).  Signore di Trentinaria.  "Robert de Trentinaria fils du défunt Guillaume" bequeathed property to "son épouse Lolegrima, fille d´Alfan de Castrimaris camérier du roi" by charter dated 3 Oct 1156[1135]m LOLEGRIMA, daughter of ALFAN camerarius & his wife --- (-after 3 Oct 1156).  "Robert de Trentinaria fils du défunt Guillaume" bequeathed property to "son épouse Lolegrima, fille d´Alfan de Castrimaris camérier du roi" by charter dated 3 Oct 1156[1136].  Roberto & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GUIDO di Trentinaria .  He named in the Catalogus Baronum[1137]

d)         [SOPHIA (-after 1120).  "Sophia épouse de Robert fils de Nicholas, fille de Grégoire" is named in a charter dated 1120 at castellum Trentinaria[1138].  Stasser highlights that Trentinaria was then owned by Guglielmo, son of Gregorio, and suggests that Sophia was his sister[1139]m ROBERT, son of NICHOLAS & his wife --- (-after 1120).] 

3.         IOANNES (-[1100/16]).  A charter dated Mar 1053 records a donation by "Guiselmari vicecomite filius quondam Martini" with the consent of "domne Theodore filie Gregorii et de domne Guaimarii, et Gregorii et Iohanni germani filii sui", which names "domnus Paldulfus…genitor supradicti domni…seniori"[1140].  A charter dated Aug 1056 names "domne Theodore filie domne Gregorii consulis et ducis Romanorum, que fuerat uxor Paldulfi…filius…domni Guaimarii principis…et Guaimarii et Gregorii et Iohannis et Guidonis filii ipsius domne Theodore et iamdicti Paldulfi"[1141].  A charter dated Jul 1068 records that "Ursus et Petrus germani…fils du défunt Alfan avec leurs épouses Fresa et Laita" donated property to the church of San Michele Arcangelo di Venanzana near Capaccio which belonged to "domne Theodore et domni Guaimarii et Gregorii et Guidoni et Iohannes germani filii quondam domni Paldulfi et prefate Theodore"[1142].  Signore di Cappaccio.  "Johannes filius bone memorie Paldulfi filii domini Guaimarii principis et Ageltruda uxor eius filia Landolfi comitis Sesse civitatis" are named in a charter dated 1083[1143]m firstly AGELTRUDA di Suessa, daughter of LANDOLF [IV] Conte di Suessa & his wife --- (after 1050-before 1100).  "Johannes filius bone memorie Paldulfi filii domini Guaimarii principis et Ageltruda uxor eius filia Landolfi comitis Sesse civitatis" are named in a charter dated 1083[1144]m secondly (before Apr 1100) ACZOLINA, daughter of ---.  "Johannes filius bone memorie Paldulfi qui fuerat filius domni Gaimarii principis" donated property to Cava, for the soul of "Ageltrude amisse conjugis mee et…Aczoline…uxoris mee et filiorum nostrorum", by charter dated Apr 1100[1145].  Ioannes & his first wife had two children: 

a)         GIORDANO (-after 1137).  "Sichelgaita fille du feu comte Jean de Teano et veuve de Grégoire de Capaccio" donated property to Cava abbey, in the presence of "son fils Guillaume et de ses nepotes Grégoire, Gaimar, Gisulf, Tudinus et Jordan" by charter dated 1119[1146].  "Iordanus dominus de casteloo Cornito ac filius quondam Iohannis similiter dominus de Cornito qui fuit filius domni Pandulfi filii domni Gaimarii principis" donated property to Cava by charter dated 1137[1147].  Signore di Corneto. 

b)         EMMA (-after Oct 1134).  She and her husband donated the church of San Niccolo da lu Frassu, near castellum Fasanella, to Cava by charter dated Oct 1134[1148]m LAMPUS di Fasanella, son of GUAIFER Conte & his wife --- (-after 1137). 

4.         GUIDO (-after Jul 1068).  A charter dated Aug 1056 names "domne Theodore filie domne Gregorii consulis et ducis Romanorum, que fuerat uxor Paldulfi…filius…domni Guaimarii principis…et Guaimarii et Gregorii et Iohannis et Guidonis filii ipsius domne Theodore et iamdicti Paldulfi"[1149].  A charter dated Jul 1068 records that "Ursus et Petrus germani…fils du défunt Alfan avec leurs épouses Fresa et Laita" donated property to the church of San Michele Arcangelo di Venanzana near Capaccio which belonged to "domne Theodore et domni Guaimarii et Gregorii et Guidoni et Iohannes germani filii quondam domni Paldulfi et prefate Theodore"[1150]

5.         SICHELGAITA (-after May 1086).  "Asclitinus comes qui dicitur de Siciniano et Sicilgayta uxor eius filia bone recordationis Paldulfi qui fuit filius domini Guaimarii prinicipis" donated the church of San Pietro di Polla to Cava abbey, in the presence of "Guaimarius cognatus et germanus eorum ac filius supradicti Paldulfi", by charter dated May 1086[1151]m ASCLETTIN de Sicignano, son of --- (-after May 1068). 

6.         THEODORA .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 1103 which records that "Grégoire fils de Pandulf fils du prince Gaimar" agreed a division with Cava abbey, acting with the consent of "son neveu Tancrède fils de Geoffroy de Hauteville et de Theodora sœur de Grégoire"[1152].  A charter dated 1104 records that "Grégoire fils de Pandulf fils du prince Gaimar" agreed a division with Cava abbey, acting with the consent of "son neveu Tancrède fils de Theodora"[1153]m as his second wife, GODEFROI de Hauteville Conte di Loritello, son of TANCRED de Hauteville & his first wife Moriella --- ([1015/20]-1063). 

 

 

 

J.      CONTI di CAIAZZO

 

 

1.         LANDOConte di Caiazzom ---.  The name of Lando´s wife is not known.  Lando & his wife had two children: 

a)         [LANDENOLF (-after 20 Jun 1041).  Conte di Caiazzo.  "Il principe Guaimario IV" granted two families in Capua to "Grimoaldo conte del palazzo di Capua", at the request "del conte di Caiazzo Landenolfo", by charter dated 20 Jun 1041[1154].] 

b)         RAINGARDA (-after 1056)m GUIDO di Salerno, son of GUAIMAR III Prince of Salerno & his second wife Gaitelgrima of Capua ([1012/13]-before 1077).  Duke of Salerno 1039.  Conte di Conza. 

 

 

 

K.      OTHER NOBILITY in SALERNO

 

 

The charters of the monastery of Cava reveal an extensive network of comital families in Salerno between the 10th and 12th centuries.  The reconstruction of these families from this source is shown in this Part, based on information in the first eight volumes of the published cartulary.  There are many gaps and the extent of inter-marriage between the families, as well as with the families of the ruling princes of Salerno, suggests that many more family relationships existed beyond those which can be confirmed on the basis of the available information.  Reconstruction is helped by the charters invariably specifying the names of the fathers of the individuals who are named.  On the other hand, certainty is hampered by the duplication of names which occurs in the documents during the latter part of the period.  Only those individuals who are named in the charters with the title "count" have been noted below.  Numerous other persons are named in the cartulary, but it is impossible to know whether they were related to the comital families.  The names of the counties in which these counts enjoyed jurisdiction are not stated in any of the charters.  It is not even known whether the jurisdiction of the counts was defined by a specific geographic area or whether the title was solely honorific.  Several cases are shown below where the title is linked to positions in the princely household or the governmental administration, for example comes palatii and the judges. 

 

 

1.         MONCOLANUSm ---.  The name of Moncolanus´s wife is not known.  Moncolanus & his wife had one child: 

a)         RADELCHIS (-after Apr 856).  "Radechis comes filius Moncolani" sold property "circo carbonario propinquo civitatem Salernitatem" to "Waiferi comiti filius Dauferi" by charter dated Apr 856[1155]

 

 

1.         ADELFER (-before Jan 963).  m ---.  The name of Adelfer´s wife is not known.  Adelfer & his wife had one child: 

a)         BISANTIO (-[Jan 963/Apr 983]).  "Guaiferius castaldus et Petrus iudicibus…Bisantio comes filius quondam Adelferi thesaurarii et Madelfrit thesaurarius filius Landolfi thesaurarii et Adelferi castaldus filius quondam Roffrit comitis et Madelfrit referendario filius Adelferi referendario et comes" donated property to Cava monastery by charter dated Jan 963[1156]m ---.  The name of Bisantio´s wife is not known.  Bisantio & his wife had one child: 

i)          ROMOALD (-after Apr 983).  "Guaiferius filius quondam Guaimari comitis" donated property to "Romualdo filio quondam Leoni Franci" by charter dated Apr 983 which appoints "Romoaldus comes congnato suo filius quondam Bisantii…et ipse Guaiferii et suos filios et eredes" as mediators[1157]m ---.  The parentage of Romoald´s wife is not known.  Stasser suggests[1158] that she was --- di Salerno, daughter of GUAIMAR di Salerno & his wife Adeltruda [Mira] ---, on the basis of the charter dated Apr 983 under which "Guaiferius filius quondam Guaimari comitis" donated property to "Romualdo filio quondam Leoni Franci" and appoints "Romoaldus comes congnato suo filius quondam Bisantii…et ipse Guaiferii et suos filios et eredes" as mediators[1159].  The difficulty with this hypothesis is the over-restrictive interpretation of the word "cognatus" which it requires. 

 

 

1.         LANDOLF (-after Jan 963).  m ---.  The name of Landolf´s wife is not known.  Landolf & his wife had one child: 

a)         MADELFRIT (-after Jan 963).  "Guaiferius castaldus et Petrus iudicibus…Bisantio comes filius quondam Adelferi thesaurarii et Madelfrit thesaurarius filius Landolfi thesaurarii et Adelferi castaldus filius quondam Roffrit comitis et Madelfrit referendario filius Adelferi referendario et comes" donated property to Cava monastery by charter dated Jan 963[1160]

 

 

1.         LANDOARm ---.  The name of Landoar´s wife is not known.  Landoar & his wife had one child: 

a)         LANDOAR (-[Apr 944/May 966]).  "Landoari filius cuiusdam Lanoari et Alferada uxor eius filia quondam Iohannis" donated property to Cava monastery, with the consent of "Landoari et Petri et Gariperto germani filii mei" by charter dated Apr 944, which also records that "nos ambo bir et coniux" donated property to "Adelgarde…filie nostre…et Aloare que Sammara clara sorori tue filie nostre" near to property of "Aloara soror et cognata nostra"[1161]m ALFERADA, daughter of IOANNES & his wife --- (-after Apr 944).  "Landoari filius cuiusdam Lanoari et Alferada uxor eius filia quondam Iohannis" donated property to Cava monastery, with the consent of "Landoari et Petri et Gariperto germani filii mei" by charter dated Apr 944[1162].  Landoar & his wife had five children: 

i)          LANDOAR (-before May 980).  "Landoari filius cuiusdam Lanoari et Alferada uxor eius filia quondam Iohannis" donated property to Cava monastery, with the consent of "Landoari et Petri et Gariperto germani filii mei" by charter dated Apr 944[1163]m ---.  The name of Landoar´s wife is not known.  Landoar & his wife had two children: 

(a)       LANDOAR ([Feb/May] 980).  "Gariperto filio cuiusdam Landoari comitis et Landolfus filius cuiusdam Landoari…et vice Landoari nepoti meo filio cuiusdam Landoari germani mei" declared that "Landoari comes genitor et abius noster" held property in Salerno which they granted to "Iohanni comes palatio de predicta civitate Salernitana et filius cuiusdam Lamberti comiti" by charter dated May 980[1164]m ---.  The name of Landoar´s wife is not known.  Landoar & his wife had one child: 

(1)       LANDOAR .  "Gariperto filio cuiusdam Landoari comitis et Landolfus filius cuiusdam Landoari…et vice Landoari nepoti meo filio cuiusdam Landoari germani mei" declared that "Landoari comes genitor et abius noster" held property in Salerno which they granted to "Iohanni comes palatio de predicta civitate Salernitana et filius cuiusdam Lamberti comiti" by charter dated May 980[1165]

(b)       LANDOLF (-after May 980).  "Gariperto filio cuiusdam Landoari comitis et Landolfus filius cuiusdam Landoari…et vice Landoari nepoti meo filio cuiusdam Landoari germani mei" declared that "Landoari comes genitor et abius noster" held property in Salerno which they granted to "Iohanni comes palatio de predicta civitate Salernitana et filius cuiusdam Lamberti comiti" by charter dated May 980[1166]

(c)       ALOARA (-after May 991).  "Guido filius bone memorie Guaimarii comitis et Aloara filia quondam Landoari comiti…vir et uxor" donated property by charter dated May 991[1167]m GUIDO comes, son of GUAIMAR comes & his wife Mira --- (-after May 991). 

ii)         PETRUS (-after May 966).  "Landoari filius cuiusdam Lanoari et Alferada uxor eius filia quondam Iohannis" donated property to Cava monastery, with the consent of "Landoari et Petri et Gariperto germani filii mei" by charter dated Apr 944[1168].  A charter dated May 966 records the sale of property to "Petri castaldo…filio quondam Landoari"[1169]

iii)        GARIPERT (-after May 980).  "Landoari filius cuiusdam Lanoari et Alferada uxor eius filia quondam Iohannis" donated property to Cava monastery, with the consent of "Landoari et Petri et Gariperto germani filii mei" by charter dated Apr 944[1170].  "Gariperto filio cuiusdam Landoari comitis et Landolfus filius cuiusdam Landoari…et vice Landoari nepoti meo filio cuiusdam Landoari germani mei" declared that "Landoari comes genitor et abius noster" held property in Salerno which they granted to "Iohanni comes palatio de predicta civitate Salernitana et filius cuiusdam Lamberti comiti" by charter dated May 980[1171]

iv)       ADELGARDA (-after Apr 944).  "Landoari filius cuiusdam Lanoari et Alferada uxor eius filia quondam Iohannis" donated property to "Adelgarde…filie nostre…et Aloare que Sammara clara sorori tue filie nostre" near to property of "Aloara soror et cognata nostra" by charter dated Apr 944[1172]

v)        ALOARA (-after Apr 944).  "Landoari filius cuiusdam Lanoari et Alferada uxor eius filia quondam Iohannis" donated property to "Adelgarde…filie nostre…et Aloare que Sammara clara sorori tue filie nostre" near to property of "Aloara soror et cognata nostra" by charter dated Apr 944[1173]

b)         ALOARA (-after Apr 944).  "Landoari filius cuiusdam Lanoari et Alferada uxor eius filia quondam Iohannis" donated property to "Adelgarde…filie nostre…et Aloare que Sammara clara sorori tue filie nostre" near to property of "Aloara soror et cognata nostra" by charter dated Apr 944[1174]

 

 

1.         LAMBERT (-before Jan 995).  m ---.  The name of Lambert´s wife is not known.  Lambert & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         LANDOAR (-[Mar 997/May 1000]).  "Landoarius comes filius Lamberti et Petrus castaldeus filius Rocci et Leo Atrianense filius Gucti" granted property "in loco Veteri" by charter dated to before Jan 995[1175].  "Landoarius comes filius vone memorie cuidam Lamberti" reached agreement with several individuals about land at Monte Falerio by charter dated Jan 995[1176].  "Urso filio Maraldi…" sold property to "Landoario comes filio Lamberti" by charter dated Mar 997[1177]m ALOARA, daughter of MADELFRIT comes & his wife --- (-after May 1000).  A charter dated May 1000 relates to "monasterio sancti Nicolai de Gallocanta" built by "Aloara comitissa filis Madelfrit comitis que fuit uxor Landoarii comitis filii vone memorie Lamberti comitis et Guaiferio comes qui sum infra etate, filius istius Aloare et predicti Landoarii", owned by "Adelberti comiti…congnato et thio nostro filio ipsius Landoari comitis"[1178].  Landoar & his wife had one child: 

i)          GUAIFER ([980/85]-after May 1000).  A charter dated May 1000 relates to "monasterio sancti Nicolai de Gallocanta" built by "Aloaram comitissam filiam Madelfriti comitis, uxorem Landoarii comitis" and by "Guaiferium comitem filium eius" and donated by "supradicta mater et filio", adding that the monastery was owned by "Adelberti comiti…congnato et thio nostro filio ipsius Landoari comitis"[1179].  "Infantulus infra etate…Guaiferio comes, filius quondam Landoarii comitis" donated property in Salerno by charter dated Aug 1000[1180]

b)         ADALBERTO ([May 1000/May 1012].  "Ursu filius quondam Marini" sold property to "Abelverti comiti filio bone memorie Lamberti" by charter dated Apr 996[1181].  A charter dated May 1000 relates to "monasterio sancti Nicolai de Gallocanta" built by "Aloara comitissa filis Madelfrit comitis que fuit uxor Landoarii comitis filii vone memorie Lamberti comitis et Guaiferio comes qui sum infra etate, filius istius Aloare et predicti Landoarii", owned by "Adelberti comiti…congnato et thio nostro filio ipsius Landoari comitis"[1182].  A charter dated Sep 1008 records that "Adelbertus et Rodelgrimus comitibus" had founded "ecclesia monasterii Sancte Marie…in finibus Maliano illorum comitatum"[1183].  It is not clear from the document whether the joint founders were alive at the date of the charter.  A charter dated May 1012 records that "quondam Lamberti comitis filii bone memorie Adelberti comitis et Adelberti comitis filii quondam Landoari comitis" founded "ecclesie Sancti Nicolai…in locum Beteri"[1184]m ---.  The name of Adalberto´s wife is not known.  Adalberto & his wife had two children: 

i)          LAMBERTO (-[Apr 1030/Apr 1043]).  A charter dated May 1012 records that "quondam Lamberti comitis filii bone memorie Adelberti comitis et Adelberti comitis filii quondam Landoari comitis" founded "ecclesie Sancti Nicolai…in locum Beteri"[1185].  The word "quondam", referring to Lambert, must be misplaced in this charter as the following document shows that Lambert must have been alive at that date.  A charter dated Jan 1016 records that "Lambertus et Landoari comitibus germani filii quondam Alberti comiti" owned "ecclesie Sancti Nicolai…in locum Beteri"[1186].  "Le comte Landoar fils du comte Lambert et sa mère Gaitelgrima, fille du comte Landulf" donated property by charter dated Nov 1066, which names "Ademarium filium quondam Landolfi comitis" as fiduciary[1187].  A charter dated Apr 1043 records that "heredes quondam Lamberti comiti et Adelberti comiti filii quondam Landoarii comiti" had granted property to "Alfanus filius quondam Leoni"[1188]m URANIA, daughter of ADEMAR & his wife --- (-after Apr 1047).  "Urania comitissa filia Ademarii comitis et relicta bone memorie Lamberti comitis et Ebulus clericus et abbas et Petrus et Alebertus et Landoarius comitibus germani filii suprascripti Lamberti comitis et Uranie" donated property by charter dated Apr 1047[1189].  Lamberto & his wife had five children: 

(a)       PETRUS (-after Jan 1058).  "Urania comitissa filia Ademarii comitis et relicta bone memorie Lamberti comitis et Ebulus clericus et abbas et Petrus et Alebertus et Landoarius comitibus germani filii suprascripti Lamberti comitis et Uranie" donated property by charter dated Apr 1047[1190].  A charter dated Jan 1058 records that "Adelbertus filius quondam Petri comitis et Gaitelgrima filia Landolfi comitis, que fuerat uxor Adelberti comitis, filii quondam Landoari" and "ipsa Gaitelgrima et Landoarius filius eius" donated property, and names "Petrum et Adelbertum et Landoarium comites filios quondam Lamberti comitis"[1191]

(b)       EBULUS (-after Apr 1047).  "Urania comitissa filia Ademarii comitis et relicta bone memorie Lamberti comitis et Ebulus clericus et abbas et Petrus et Alebertus et Landoarius comitibus germani filii suprascripti Lamberti comitis et Uranie" donated property by charter dated Apr 1047[1192]

(c)       ADALBERTO (-after Jun 1058).  "Urania comitissa filia Ademarii comitis et relicta bone memorie Lamberti comitis et Ebulus clericus et abbas et Petrus et Alebertus et Landoarius comitibus germani filii suprascripti Lamberti comitis et Uranie" donated property by charter dated Apr 1047[1193].  A charter dated Jan 1058 records that "Adelbertus filius quondam Petri comitis et Gaitelgrima filia Landolfi comitis, que fuerat uxor Adelberti comitis, filii quondam Landoari" and "ipsa Gaitelgrima et Landoarius filius eius" donated property, and names "Petrum et Adelbertum et Landoarium comites filios quondam Lamberti comitis"[1194].  "Adilvertus et Landuarius comites et germani, filii bone memorie domni Lamberti comitis…de civitate Salerno" donated property by charter dated Jun 1058 in Amalfi[1195]

(d)       LANDOARIO (-after Jun 1058).  "Urania comitissa filia Ademarii comitis et relicta bone memorie Lamberti comitis et Ebulus clericus et abbas et Petrus et Alebertus et Landoarius comitibus germani filii suprascripti Lamberti comitis et Uranie" donated property by charter dated Apr 1047[1196].  A charter dated Jan 1058 records that "Adelbertus filius quondam Petri comitis et Gaitelgrima filia Landolfi comitis, que fuerat uxor Adelberti comitis, filii quondam Landoari" and "ipsa Gaitelgrima et Landoarius filius eius" donated property, and names "Petrum et Adelbertum et Landoarium comites filios quondam Lamberti comitis"[1197].  "Adilvertus et Landuarius comites et germani, filii bone memorie domni Lamberti comitis…de civitate Salerno" donated property by charter dated Jun 1058 in Amalfi[1198]

(e)       MIRANDA (-after May 1064).  "Ademarium comitem filium quondam Landolfi comitis" acted as guarantor in a charter dated May 1064 under which "Petrus filius quondam Petri comitis qui fuit filius Adelferii comitis et Miranda uxor ea filia quondam Lamberti comitis" granted property to "Petro Atrianense"[1199]m PETRUS, son of PETRUS & his wife --- (-after May 1064). 

ii)         LANDOARIO (-after Jan 1016).  A charter dated Jan 1016 records that "Lambertus et Landoari comitibus germani filii quondam Alberti comiti" owned "ecclesie Sancti Nicolai…in locum Beteri"[1200]same person as…?  LANDOARIOm ROTELGRIMA, daughter of ---.  "Iaquintus docdus…pro pars et vice Rotelgrime comitisse relicta quondam Landoarii comiti et Aleberti comiti, mater et filius" donated property by charter dated Jan 1043[1201].  Landoario & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ADALBERTO (-[Jan/Apr] 1043).  "Iaquintus docdus…pro pars et vice Rotelgrime comitisse relicta quondam Landoarii comiti et Aleberti comiti, mater et filius" donated property by charter dated Jan 1043[1202].  A charter dated Apr 1043 records that "heredes quondam Lamberti comiti et Adelberti comiti filii quondam Landoarii comiti" had granted property to "Alfanus filius quondam Leoni"[1203]m GAITELGRIMA, daughter of LANDOLF & his wife Aloara --- (-after Jan 1058).  A charter dated Jul 1060, under which "Landolfus filius quondam Guaiferii comitis et Aloara uxor sua filia Iohannis comitis palatii et Petrus filius quondam Lamberti comitis" donated property, quotes another charter dated Jan 1056 under which "…Gaitelgrime filia Landolfi comitis relicta quondam Alberti comitis et…Landoarius filius ipsorum Gaitelgrime et Alberti" donated property[1204].  A charter dated Jan 1058 is witnessed by "Adelbertus filius quondam Petri comitis et Gaitelgrima filia Landolfi comitis que fuerat uxor Adelberti comitis filii quondam Landoari" and records a donation by "ipsa Gaitelgrima et Landoarius filius eius et ipsius Adelberti" to "Theophilo monacho et sacerdote filio quondam Ieorgii"[1205].  Adalberto & his wife had [two] children: 

(1)       LANDOARIO (-after Apr 1073).  A charter dated Jul 1060, under which "Landolfus filius quondam Guaiferii comitis et Aloara uxor sua filia Iohannis comitis palatii et Petrus filius quondam Lamberti comitis" donated property, quotes another charter dated Jan 1056 under which "…Gaitelgrime filia Landolfi comitis relicta quondam Alberti comitis et…Landoarius filius ipsorum Gaitelgrime et Alberti" donated property[1206].  A charter dated Jan 1058 is witnessed by "Adelbertus filius quondam Petri comitis et Gaitelgrima filia Landolfi comitis que fuerat uxor Adelberti comitis filii quondam Landoari" and records a donation by "ipsa Gaitelgrima et Landoarius filius eius et ipsius Adelberti" to "Theophilo monacho et sacerdote filio quondam Ieorgii"[1207].  "Le comte Landoar fils du comte Lambert et sa mère Gaitelgrima, fille du comte Landulf" donated property by charter dated Nov 1066, which names "Ademarium filium quondam Landolfi comitis" as fiduciary[1208].  "Landolfum comitem filium quondam Landolfi comitis qui et filius quondam Ademarii comitis" is named as fiduciary in a charter dated Apr 1073 under which "Landoar fils du comte Lambert" donated property[1209]

(2)       [PETRUS .  The charter quoted below suggests that Adalberto, son of Petrus, was closely related to Gaitelgrima, possibly her grandson.  However, if this hypothesis is correct, it is not known whether it was Adalberto´s father or mother was Gaitelgrima´s child.  m ---.  The name of Petrus´s wife is not known.  Petrus & his wife had one child: 

a.         ADALBERTO (-after Jan 1058).  A charter dated Jan 1058 is witnessed by "Adelbertus filius quondam Petri comitis et Gaitelgrima filia Landolfi comitis que fuerat uxor Adelberti comitis filii quondam Landoari" and records a donation by "ipsa Gaitelgrima et Landoarius filius eius et ipsius Adelberti" to "Theophilo monacho et sacerdote filio quondam Ieorgii"[1210]

c)         [RODELGRIM .  A charter dated Sep 1008 records that "Adelbertus et Rodelgrimus comitibus" had founded "ecclesia monasterii Sancte Marie…in finibus Maliano illorum comitatum"[1211].  The document does not state any relationship between the two, but suggests a close relationship, maybe brothers.  It is not clear from the document whether the joint founders were alive at the date of the charter.] 

 

 

1.         LANDOLF (-before Nov 977).  m ---.  The name of Landolf´s wife is not known.  Landolf & his wife had one child: 

a)         PETRUS (-after Nov 977).  "Alfanus comes filius quondam Ademarii comitis et iudicis et Alfanus filius quondam Guaimarii comitis" donated property by charter dated Mar 1057, which recites the previous history of the property including a donation dated Nov 977 by "Petrus comes filius quondam Landolfi et…Aloara que Fasana vocatur, filia quondam Leoni Neapolitano…vir et uxor", by "Alfanus thio noster" and by "filii Petri comitis", and a donation dated Jun 1054 by "Alfanus comes pro parte…Alfani et Petri filii quondam Adelberti comitis et pro parte Alfani filii Guaimarii comtis" subscribed by "Sico comes et iudex"[1212]m ALOARA [Fasana], daughter of LEO & his wife --- (-after Nov 977). 

 

 

1.         ROMOALDm ---.  The name of Romoald´s wife is not known.  Romoald & his wife had one child: 

a)         PETRUS (-after 966).  A charter dated Oct 959 names "Petrus castaldus filius Romoaldi" as advocatus of the church of San Massimo di Salerno[1213].  A charter dated Aug 960 records "Sico et Petrus et Maio castaldi" as representatives of the church of San Massimo di Salerno, the last two named being the church´s owners[1214].  A charter dated Jan 966 names "Petrus castaldus filius quondam Romoaldi" as guarantor for the church of San Massimo di Salerno, and "Moncola iudex filius quondam Moncole" as guarantor for "Aloare uxori sue", under the testament of "Dauferius filius quondam Guaiferi…cum Radelgrima genetrice sua" under which "ipsa Aloara uxor ipsius Moncole iudici et Imelaita uxore Talarici qui fuerunt sorores ipsius Dauferi" inherited after Daufer´s death[1215]

b)         ALFAN (-[Oct 978/Jul 983]).  A charter dated Oct 978 names "Alfanus gastaldus filius…Romoaldi qui fuit gastaldus" as advocatus of the church of San Massimo di Salerno[1216]m ---.  The name of Alfan´s wife is not known.  Alfan & his wife had two children: 

i)          ROMOALD (-after Nov 1008).  A charter dated Jul 983 records the presence of "Romualdus filius Alfani gastaldi" as advocatus of the church of San Massimo di Salerno[1217].  "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Alfani" donated property by charter dated Feb 1004[1218].  "Romoaldus comes" donated property by charter dated Apr 1004[1219].  A charter dated May 1006 notes the presence of "Romoalt et Petrus comitibus germani filii Alfani comiti" at a donation[1220].  A charter dated Jan 1007 notes the presence of "Romoaldus et Petrus comitibus" at a donation[1221].  A charter dated Feb 1008 notes the presence of "Romoaldus et Petrus comitibus" at a donation[1222].  A charter dated Nov 1008 notes the presence of "Romoaldus comes" at a donation[1223]m as her first husband, ATA, daughter of LANDOLF & his wife --- (-after Nov 1059).  A charter dated Nov 1059 records the division of the property of "Romoaldum comitem" between "Iaquintus filius quondam Iohannis qui dictus est Barbatu et Miranda uxor eius filia quondam Alfano comitis…cum Petro filio quondam Ursi et cum Ata uxore eius filia quondam Landolfi comitis que quondam fuerat uxor Romualdi comitis filii suprascripti Alfani"[1224].  She married secondly Petrus, son of Ursus. 

ii)         MIRANDA .  A charter dated Nov 1059 records the division of the property of "Romoaldum comitem" between "Iaquintus filius quondam Iohannis qui dictus est Barbatu et Miranda uxor eius filia quondam Alfano comitis…cum Petro filio quondam Ursi et cum Ata uxore eius filia quondam Landolfi comitis que quondam fuerat uxor Romualdi comitis filii suprascripti Alfani"[1225]m IOANNES Barbatus, son of ---. 

iii)        PETRUS (-[Feb 1021/Jul 1036]).  "Petrus comes" donated property by charter dated May 1005[1226].  A charter dated May 1006 notes the presence of "Romoalt et Petrus comitibus germani filii Alfani comiti" at a donation[1227]

-         see below

 

 

PETRUS, son of ALFAN & his wife --- (-[Feb 1021/Jul 1036]).  "Petrus comes" donated property by charter dated May 1005[1228].  A charter dated May 1006 notes the presence of "Romoalt et Petrus comitibus germani filii Alfani comiti" at a donation[1229].  A charter dated Jan 1007 notes the presence of "Romoaldus et Petrus comitibus" at a donation[1230].  A charter dated Feb 1008 notes the presence of "Romoaldus et Petrus comitibus" at a donation[1231].  A charter dated Jul 1014 notes the presence of "Petrus comes" at a donation[1232].  "Petrus comes filius quondam Alfani" donated property by charter dated Feb 1021[1233]

m [firstly] ---.  The name of Petrus´s supposed first wife is not known.  His supposed two marriages are suggested by the Jul 1036 charter, quoted below, Petrus´s son Ioannes "thio" of his daughter Aloara.  The same word is used to indicate half-brother in the charter dated May 1000 which records the family of Count Adalbert (see above). 

m [secondly] ---.  The name of Petrus´s supposed second wife is not known.  As noted below, a charter dated Jul 1059, under which "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis que uxor denique Petri comitis et referendarii fuerat" donated property, quotes an earlier charter under which "Guaimar Prince of Salerno", in "the fourteenth year" of his reign, granted property in Salerno to "Petri comiti thio et referendario nostro" at the request of "Laidolfi comitis socero nostro"[1234].  It is assumed that this document refers to Prince Guaimar IV (whose fourteenth year was 1032).  Stasser discusses the problem of interpreting the relationship indicated by the word "thio" in this document, concluding that it probably means first cousin and therefore that Petrus senior would have been the son of Lambert, son of Ioannes II Prince of Salerno[1235].  He does not make the link with Petrus son of Alfan.  The difficulty with this hypothesis is that the relationship could have been through the female line, even though the word "thio" is more often used to indicate paternal uncle.  It is therefore possible that the mother of Petrus was closely related to Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno. 

Petrus & his [first] wife had one child: 

1.         IOANNES (-after Jul 1036).  "Iaquintus comes filius quondam Gaudoni iudici, et Iohannes comes filius quondam Petri, et Landolfus comes et Landemari germani filii quondam Maraldi, et Truppoaldus filius quondam Gaidoni" donated property by charter dated Jul 1026[1236].  "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis" donated property, with the support of "…Aloara filia quondam Petri comiti et iudici, relicta quondam Rodelgrimi qui fuit nepotem meum et filius fuit quondam Iohanni, qui fuit germanus meus", by charter dated Jul 1036, which states that part of the property belonged to "Raco comes filius Grimoaldi cum ipsa Aloara…Iohannes comes thio ipsius mulieri hac filius quondam Petri"[1237]

Petrus & his [first/second] wife had three children: 

2.         ADEMAR (-after Mar 1040).  A charter dated May 1034 notes the presence of "Ademari comiti et iudici" at a donation[1238].  A charter dated Mar 1040 records that "Ademari comiti et iudici filio quondam Petri comitis et…nepotibus ipsius…Albertus et Guaimari comitibus, germani filii quondam Alfani" were owners of "ecclesie…Sancti Mathei et Sancte Thome…intus anc Salernitanam civitatem"[1239]

3.         ALFAN (-before Mar 1040).  m ---.  The name of Alfan´s wife is not known.  Alfan & his wife had two children: 

a)         ADALBERTO (-after Mar 1040).  A charter dated Mar 1040 records that "Ademari comiti et iudici filio quondam Petri comitis et…nepotibus ipsius…Albertus et Guaimari comitibus, germani filii quondam Alfani" were owners of "ecclesie…Sancti Mathei et Sancte Thome…intus anc Salernitanam civitatem"[1240]

b)         GUAIMAR (-after Mar 1040).  A charter dated Mar 1040 records that "Ademari comiti et iudici filio quondam Petri comitis et…nepotibus ipsius…Albertus et Guaimari comitibus, germani filii quondam Alfani" were owners of "ecclesie…Sancti Mathei et Sancte Thome…intus anc Salernitanam civitatem"[1241]

4.         PETRUS (-before Jan 1038).  A charter dated Jul 1059, under which "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis que uxor denique Petri comitis et referendarii fuerat" donated property, quotes an earlier charter under which "Guaimar Prince of Salerno", in "the fourteenth year" of his reign, granted property in Salerno to "Petri comiti thio et referendario nostro" at the request of "Laidolfi comitis socero nostro"[1242].  It is assumed that this document refers to Prince Guaimar IV (whose fourteenth year was 1032).  Stasser discusses the problem of interpreting the relationship indicated by the word "thio" in this document, concluding that it probably means first cousin and therefore that Petrus senior would have been the son of Lambert, son of Ioannes II Prince of Salerno[1243].  He does not make the link with Petrus son of Alfan.  The difficulty with his hypothesis is that the relationship could have been through the female line, even though the word "thio" is more often used to indicate paternal uncle.  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Jul 1042 which records that his wife "Aloara comitissa, relicta quondam Petri comitis filii quondam Petri et filia quondam Romoaldi comitis" had granted property to "Grimoaldus et Iohannes et Mari germani filii quondam Iaquinti"[1244]m (before Dec 1012) ALOARA, daughter of ROMOALD & his wife --- (-after Jul 1059).  A charter dated Jul 1042 records that "Aloara comitissa, relicta quondam Petri comitis filii quondam Petri et filia quondam Romoaldi comitis" had granted property to "Grimoaldus et Iohannes et Mari germani filii quondam Iaquinti"[1245].  "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis que uxor denique Petri comitis et referendarii fuerat" and "Lando et Iohannes comites et referendarii germani hac filii ipsorum Petri et Aloare et Alferada olim filia Guaiferii comitis que uxor est ipsius Landonis et Bensolana filia quondam Petri et uxor est ipsius Iohannis" by charter dated Jul 1059[1246].  The same charter dated Jul 1059 quotes another charter dated Dec 1012 which records that "Petrus comes maritus ipsius Aloare" granted property to "Malfredi et Iohanni comitibus germanis predicti Aloare".  The same charter dated Jul 1059 quotes another charter dated Jan 1038 which records a donation by "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis et relicta quondam Petri comitis cum duobus filios suos…Lando et Iohannes…infantes infra etatem".  Petrus & his wife had two children: 

a)         LANDO ([1018/20]-after Aug 1059).  A charter dated Aug 1042 records that "Lando et Iohannes comitibus, germani filii quondam Petri comiti" had granted property to "Iohannes de locum Nuceria filio quondam Alfano, qui fuit genero et filiastro Faroaldi"[1247].  "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis que uxor denique Petri comitis et referendarii fuerat" and "Lando et Iohannes comites et referendarii germani hac filii ipsorum Petri et Aloare et Alferada olim filia Guaiferii comitis que uxor est ipsius Landonis et Bensolana filia quondam Petri et uxor est ipsius Iohannis" by charter dated Jul 1059[1248].  The same charter quotes another charter dated Jan 1038 which records a donation by "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis et relicta quondam Petri comitis cum duobus filios suos…Lando et Iohannes…infantes infra etatem".  Stasser traces his supposed descendants, the "Capuanus" family, in Amalfi until the 13th century[1249]m ALFERADA, daughter of GUAIFER & his wife --- (-after Aug 1059).  "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis que uxor denique Petri comitis et referendarii fuerat" and "Lando et Iohannes comites et referendarii germani hac filii ipsorum Petri et Aloare et Alferada olim filia Guaiferii comitis que uxor est ipsius Landonis et Bensolana filia quondam Petri et uxor est ipsius Iohannis" by charter dated Jul 1059[1250]

b)         IOANNES ([1020/22]-after Aug 1059).  A charter dated Aug 1042 records that "Lando et Iohannes comitibus, germani filii quondam Petri comiti" had granted property to "Iohannes de locum Nuceria filio quondam Alfano, qui fuit genero et filiastro Faroaldi"[1251].  "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis que uxor denique Petri comitis et referendarii fuerat" and "Lando et Iohannes comites et referendarii germani hac filii ipsorum Petri et Aloare et Alferada olim filia Guaiferii comitis que uxor est ipsius Landonis et Bensolana filia quondam Petri et uxor est ipsius Iohannis" by charter dated Jul 1059[1252].  The same charter quotes another charter dated Jan 1038 which records a donation by "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis et relicta quondam Petri comitis cum duobus filios suos…Lando et Iohannes…infantes infra etatem".  m BENSOLANA, daughter of PETRUS & his wife --- (-after Aug 1059).  "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis que uxor denique Petri comitis et referendarii fuerat" and "Lando et Iohannes comites et referendarii germani hac filii ipsorum Petri et Aloare et Alferada olim filia Guaiferii comitis que uxor est ipsius Landonis et Bensolana filia quondam Petri et uxor est ipsius Iohannis" by charter dated Jul 1059[1253]

Petrus & his [second] wife had one child: 

5.         ALOARA (-after Jul 1036).  "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis" donated property, with the support of "…Aloara filia quondam Petri comiti et iudici, relicta quondam Rodelgrimi qui fuit nepotem meum et filius fuit quondam Iohanni, qui fuit germanus meus" and in the presence of "ipsa Aloara…[et] Petrus comes cognatum suum…qui est filius Areghisi", by charter dated Jul 1036, which states that part of the property belonged to "Raco comes filius Grimoaldi cum ipsa Aloara…Iohannes comes thio ipsius mulieri hac filius quondam Petri"[1254]m RODELGRIM, son of IOANNES & his wife --- (-before Jul 1036). 

 

 

1.         BERENGARIO (-after Jun 1015).  m ---.  The name of Berengario´s wife is not known.  Berengario & his wife had two children: 

a)         BERENGARIO (-after Jun 1015).  "Verengnarius comes filius Verengnarii comitis…[et uxor mea] Rodelinda filia quondam Atenolfi comitis" donated property by charter dated Jun 1015 which states that it was their wedding day, signed by "…Imetancus comes…"[1255]m (Jun 1015) RODELINDA, daughter of ATENOLF & his wife ---.  "Verengnarius comes filius Verengnarii comitis…[et uxor mea] Rodelinda filia quondam Atenolfi comitis" donated property by charter dated Jun 1015 which states that it was their wedding day[1256]

b)         SICHELGAITA (-after May 1045).  "Alfanus comes filius quondam Petri comitis et…Sikelgaita filia quondam Beringneri comitis et relicta Romoaldi comitis…thia et nepotes" donated property by charter dated May 1045[1257]m ROMOALD, son of GUIDO & his wife --- (-[Jul 1036/Sep 1042]). 

c)         PETRUS (-before May 1045).  m ---.  The name of Petrus´s wife is not known.  Petrus & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          ALFAN (-after May 1045).  "Alfanus comes filius quondam Petri comitis et…Sikelgaita filia quondam Beringneri comitis et relicta Romoaldi comitis…thia et nepotes" donated property by charter dated May 1045[1258]

ii)         [ADALBERTO (-after Jan 1058).  A charter dated Jan 1058 records that "Adelbertus filius quondam Petri comitis et Gaitelgrima filia Landolfi comitis, que fuerat uxor Adelberti comitis, filii quondam Landoari" and "ipsa Gaitelgrima et Landoarius filius eius" donated property, and names "Petrum et Adelbertum et Landoarium comites filios quondam Lamberti comitis"[1259].] 

 

 

1.         LANDO (-before Apr 1018).  "Manni castaldus filius Petri, pro pars et vice Alfani comitis filii quondam Landoni et…Landoni nepotem ipsius Alfani comitis" donated property by charter dated Apr 1018[1260].  The name of Lando´s father is not known.  However, the name of his son suggests that he may have been the son of Alfan, father of Romoald and Petrus, who died [Oct 978/Jul 983].  m [ROTELGRIMA, daughter of --- (-after Jan 1043).  "Iaquintus docdus…pro pars et vice Rotelgrime comitisse relicta quondam Landoarii comiti et Aleberti comiti, mater et filius" donated property by charter dated Jan 1043[1261].  It is not known with certainty that Rotelgrima was the wife of Lando, possible son of Alfan.  However, the name of her son Adalberto suggests a close connection with this family.]  Lando & his wife had [five] children: 

a)         ALFAN (-[Apr 1018/1026]).  "Manni castaldus filius Petri, pro pars et vice Alfani comitis filii quondam Landoni et…Landoni nepotem ipsius Alfani comitis" donated property by charter dated Apr 1018[1262]m ---.  The name of Alfan´s wife is not known.  Alfan & his wife had [four] children: 

i)          [ALFAN (-after Sep 1037).  "Grimoaldus comes" is named as present in a charter dated Sep 1037 under which "Alfanus comes cognati meus filius quondam Alfani comiti" donated property[1263].  It is not certain that this Alfan was the son of Alfan, son of Lando.]  m PURPURA, daughter of LEO di Amalfi & his wife --- (-after Jan 1043).  "Purpura…filia quondam Leonis Sergii…quondam Alfani comitis" donated property inherited from her husband, who had placed it in the hands of "Grimoaldi comiti et iudici cognato suo", to Cava by charter dated Jan 1043, which names "Alfani et Tauselgardi germani filii Petri qui fuit germanus de ipso viro meus"[1264]

ii)         [PETRUSm ---.  The name of Petrus´s wife is not known.  Petrus & his wife had two children: 

(a)       ALFAN (-after Jan 1043).  Purpura…filia quondam Leonis Sergii…quondam Alfani comitis" donated property inherited from her husband, who had placed it in the hands of "Grimoaldi comiti et iudici cognato suo", to Cava by charter dated Jan 1043, which names "Alfani et Tauselgardi germani filii Petri qui fuit germanus de ipso viro meus"[1265]

(b)       TASSELGARD (-after Jan 1043).  Purpura…filia quondam Leonis Sergii…quondam Alfani comitis" donated property inherited from her husband, who had placed it in the hands of "Grimoaldi comiti et iudici cognato suo", to Cava by charter dated Jan 1043, which names "Alfani et Tauselgardi germani filii Petri qui fuit germanus de ipso viro meus"[1266]

iii)        [daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated Sep 1037 in which "Grimoaldus comes" is named as present and under which "Alfanus comes cognati meus filius quondam Alfani comiti" donated property[1267]m GRIMOALD, son of --- (-after Sep 1037). 

iv)       ADELTRUDA (-after 1027).  A charter dated Aug 1043 recites the history of property donated by "Iohannes filius quondam Amandi", including declarations by "Gisolfus filius quondam Guidoni [et Aloare] et…Adeltruda filia quondam Alfani comitis…vir et uxor" dated 1026 and 1027[1268]m GISOLF, son of GUIDO & his wife Aloara --- (-after 1027). 

b)         --- .  m ---.  One child: 

i)          LANDO .  "Manni castaldus filius Petri, pro pars et vice Alfani comitis filii quondam Landoni et…Landoni nepotem ipsius Alfani comitis" donated property by charter dated Apr 1018[1269]

c)         [DROGOCARO (-after Mar 1022).  "Drogocaro filius Landoni comiti" donated property by charter dated Mar 1022[1270].  It is not known whether Drogocaro´s father was the same Lando who was the father of Alfan.  It should be noted that Lando is not called "quondam" in this charter, which suggests that he may have been a different Lando.] 

 

 

The following family was related to the preceding family of Count Alfan, as shown by the charter dated Jul 1036 which is quoted below.  However, it is not known whether the relationship was through the male or female line. 

 

1.         GAUDO (-before Jul 1026).  m ---.  The name of Gaudo´s wife is not known.  Gaudo & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         IAQUINTUS (-[May 1028/Feb 1041]).  "Iaquintus comes filius quondam Gaudoni iudici, et Iohannes comes filius quondam Petri, et Landolfus comes et Landemari germani filii quondam Maraldi, et Truppoaldus filius quondam Gaidoni" donated property by charter dated Jul 1026[1271].  "Iaquintus comes filius quondam Gaidoni" donated property by charter dated May 1028, which names "Petrus comes nepotem meum filius quondam Areghisi"[1272]

b)         [ARECHIS (-before May 1028).]  m ---.  The name of Arechis´s wife is not known.  Arechis & his wife had one child: 

i)          PETRUS (-after Jul 1036).  "Iaquintus comes filius quondam Gaidoni" donated property by charter dated May 1028, which names "Petrus comes nepotem meum filius quondam Areghisi"[1273].  "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis" donated property, with the support of "…Aloara filia quondam Petri comiti et iudici, relicta quondam Rodelgrimi qui fuit nepotem meum et filius fuit quondam Iohanni, qui fuit germanus meus" and in the presence of "ipsa Aloara…[et] Petrus comes cognatum suum…qui est filius Areghisi", by charter dated Jul 1036[1274]

c)         [TRUPPOALD (-before Feb 1046).  "Iaquintus comes filius quondam Gaudoni iudici, et Iohannes comes filius quondam Petri, et Landolfus comes et Landemari germani filii quondam Maraldi, et Truppoaldus filius quondam Gaidoni" donated property by charter dated Jul 1026[1275].  It is possible, but not known with certainty, that "Gaudoni" and "Gaidoni" who are named in this document were the same person.  At least this would explain the joint donation in which Truppoaldus was involved.  m ---.  The name of Truppoald´s wife is not known.  Truppoald & his wife had two children: 

i)          IOANNES (-Sorrento before 1098).  A charter dated Feb 1046 records that "Aloara que fuit uxore quondam Laidolfi comitis et filia quondam Truppoaldi comitis et…Iohannes comes germano suo" granted property to "Ademari filio quondam Grimoaldi et Amatus filio quondam Petri…thio et nepotes"[1276].  "Richardo comes cognomento Senescalcus filius…bone memorie Drogonis…comitis" donated the church of San Angelo di Terrisino, and property "Salernitanam civitatem in Lucaniensibus finis in locis Tyrisinum et Staynum et Licosa" confiscated from "Ioannes filius Truppoaldi comitis palatii et filii eius…Matrone uxori ipsius Ioannis filia cuiusdam Constantini" by "Rogerium…ducem", to the abbot of SS Trinitá de Cava by charter dated Jul 1090[1277]m MATRONA, daughter of CONSTANTINO gastald & his wife ---.  "Richardo comes cognomento Senescalcus filius…bone memorie Drogonis…comitis" donated the church of San Angelo di Terrisino, and property "Salernitanam civitatem in Lucaniensibus finis in locis Tyrisinum et Staynum et Licosa" confiscated from "Ioannes filius Truppoaldi comitis palatii et filii eius…Matrone uxori ipsius Ioannis filia cuiusdam Constantini" by "Rogerium…ducem", to the abbot of SS Trinitá de Cava by charter dated Jul 1090[1278].  Ioannes & his wife had [two or more] children: 

(a)       children .  "Richardo comes cognomento Senescalcus filius…bone memorie Drogonis…comitis" donated the church of San Angelo di Terrisino, and property "Salernitanam civitatem in Lucaniensibus finis in locis Tyrisinum et Staynum et Licosa" confiscated from "Ioannes filius Truppoaldi comitis palatii et filii eius…Matrone uxori ipsius Ioannis filia cuiusdam Constantini" by "Rogerium…ducem", to the abbot of SS Trinitá de Cava by charter dated Jul 1090[1279]

(b)       --- (-[after Sep 1070]).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated Sep 1070 under which her husband "Ademarium comitem generum eorum filium quondam Landolfi comitis" is named as fiduciary in relation to a donation by "Iohannes [comes palatii fils de Truppoald] et Matrona [fille du gastald Constantin]"[1280]m ADEMAR "Rufus", son of LANDOLF & his wife --- (-[1105/10]). 

ii)         ALOARA (-after Feb 1046).  A charter dated Feb 1046 records that "Aloara que fuit uxore quondam Laidolfi comitis et filia quondam Truppoaldi comitis et…Iohannes comes germano suo" granted property to "Ademari filio quondam Grimoaldi et Amatus filio quondam Petri…thio et nepotes"[1281]m LAIDOLF, son of --- (-before Feb 1046). 

 

 

1.         LAMBERT, son of [IOANNES & his wife ---] .  Stasser suggests that Lambert was the brother of Ioannes II "Maledcitus" Prince of Salerno (died [Jan/Oct] 999), for onomastic reasons and chronological consistency[1282]m ---.  The name of Lambert´s wife is not known.  Lambert & his wife had two children: 

a)         IOANNES (-before 1042).  His parentage is confirmed by the testament of his son "Iohannes comes filius quondam Iohannes comitis qui fuit filius Lamberti comitis", dated Nov 1065, which bequeathed property to the church of San Mateo & San Giovanni, Salerno[1283]m MIRANDA, daughter of [GUIDO & his wife ---] (-after 1042).  A charter dated 1100 includes the text of a charter dated 1041 which records that "les comtes Guy et Jean, fils du comte Jean et de Miranda" owned "l´église St-Apollinaire d´Apusmonte", and the text of the testament of "le comte Guy, fils du comte Jean" who divided his property between "son épouse Megalu fille du clerc Pandenulf, sa mère Miranda, son frère Jean"[1284].  Two manuscripts of the testament of "Iohannes comes filius quondam Iohannes comitis", dated Nov 1065, bequeathed property to "Romoaldi ex parte matris consobrini fratris sui […filii Grimoaldi comitis]…"[1285].  Ioannes & his wife had two children: 

i)          GUIDO (-after 1042).  A charter dated 1100 includes the text of a charter dated 1041 which records that "les comtes Guy et Jean, fils du comte Jean et de Miranda" owned "l´église St-Apollinaire d´Apusmonte", and the text of the testament of "le comte Guy, fils du comte Jean" who divided his property between "son épouse Megalu fille du clerc Pandenulf, sa mère Miranda, son frère Jean"[1286]m MEGALU, daughter of PANDENOLF & his wife --- (-after 1042).  A charter dated 1100 includes the text of a charter dated 1041 which records that "les comtes Guy et Jean, fils du comte Jean et de Miranda" owned "l´église St-Apollinaire d´Apusmonte", and the text of the testament of "le comte Guy, fils du comte Jean" who divided his property between "son épouse Megalu fille du clerc Pandenulf, sa mère Miranda, son frère Jean"[1287]

ii)         IOANNES (-after Nov 1065).  A charter dated 1100 includes the text of a charter dated 1041 which records that "les comtes Guy et Jean, fils du comte Jean et de Miranda" owned "l´église St-Apollinaire d´Apusmonte", and the text of the testament of "le comte Guy, fils du comte Jean" who divided his property between "son épouse Megalu fille du clerc Pandenulf, sa mère Miranda, son frère Jean"[1288].  The testament of "Iohannes comes filius quondam Iohannes comitis qui fuit filius Lamberti comitis", dated Nov 1065, bequeathed property to the church of San Mateo & San Giovanni, Salerno[1289].  Another manuscript of the testament of "Iohannes comes filius quondam Iohannes comitis", dated Nov 1065, bequeathed property to "Romoaldi ex parte matris consobrini fratris sui […filii Grimoaldi comitis] et heredum eius, [et] Leone…ex parte patris consobrino fratri suo […filio Alfani comitis]…[et] Leonis et Romoaldi et Iacobi et Grimoaldi et Berengarii germanorum ac filiorum suprascripti Alfani comitis"[1290]

b)         ALFAN (-before Nov 1065)m ---, daughter of ROMOALD & his wife Sichelgaita ---.  Stasser records that the wife of Alfan was the daughter of Romoald but does not cite the corresponding primary source[1291].  Alfan & his wife had six children: 

i)          LEO (-after Nov 1065).  Two manuscripts of the testament of "Iohannes comes filius quondam Iohannes comitis", dated Nov 1065, bequeathed property to "…Leone…ex parte patris consobrino fratri suo […filio Alfani comitis]…[et] Leonis et Romoaldi et Iacobi et Grimoaldi et Berengarii germanorum ac filiorum suprascripti Alfani comitis"[1292]

ii)         ROMOALD (-after Nov 1065).  Two manuscripts of the testament of "Iohannes comes filius quondam Iohannes comitis", dated Nov 1065, bequeathed property to "…Leone…ex parte patris consobrino fratri suo […filio Alfani comitis]…[et] Leonis et Romoaldi et Iacobi et Grimoaldi et Berengarii germanorum ac filiorum suprascripti Alfani comitis"[1293]

iii)        IACOBUS (-after Nov 1065).  Two manuscripts of the testament of "Iohannes comes filius quondam Iohannes comitis", dated Nov 1065, bequeathed property to "…Leone…ex parte patris consobrino fratri suo […filio Alfani comitis]…[et] Leonis et Romoaldi et Iacobi et Grimoaldi et Berengarii germanorum ac filiorum suprascripti Alfani comitis"[1294]

iv)       GRIMOALD (-after Nov 1065).  Two manuscripts of the testament of "Iohannes comes filius quondam Iohannes comitis", dated Nov 1065, bequeathed property to "…Leone…ex parte patris consobrino fratri suo […filio Alfani comitis]…[et] Leonis et Romoaldi et Iacobi et Grimoaldi et Berengarii germanorum ac filiorum suprascripti Alfani comitis"[1295]

v)        BERENGARIO (-after Jul 1093).  Two manuscripts of the testament of "Iohannes comes filius quondam Iohannes comitis", dated Nov 1065, bequeathed property to "…Leone…ex parte patris consobrino fratri suo […filio Alfani comitis]…[et] Leonis et Romoaldi et Iacobi et Grimoaldi et Berengarii germanorum ac filiorum suprascripti Alfani comitis"[1296].  "Bérenger fils du défunt comte Alfan et sa sœur Sichelgaita épouse de Pardo, de comite Urso" donated their parts of "l´église St-Apollinaire d´Apusmonte" to Cava abbey by charter dated Jul 1093[1297]

vi)       SICHELGAITA (-after Jul 1093).  "Bérenger fils du défunt comte Alfan et sa sœur Sichelgaita épouse de Pardo, de comite Urso" donated their parts of "l´église St-Apollinaire d´Apusmonte" to Cava abbey by charter dated Jul 1093[1298]m PARDO, son of URSO & his wife ---. 

 

 

1.         ATENOLF (-[May 1006/Jun 1015]).  "Adenolfus comes" donated property by charter dated May 1006[1299]m ---.  The name of Atenolf´s wife is not known.  Atenolf & his wife had one child: 

a)         RODELINDA (-after Jun 1015).  "Verengnarius comes filius Verengnarii comitis…[et uxor mea] Rodelinda filia quondam Atenolfi comitis" donated property by charter dated Jun 1015 which states that it was their wedding day[1300]m (Jun 1015) BERENGARIO, son of BERENGARIO & his wife --- (-after Jun 1015). 

 

 

1.         ALFAN (-before Jul 1058).  m ---.  The name of Alfan´s wife is not known.  Alfan & his wife had one child: 

a)         BERENGARIO (-after Jul 1058).  "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis, et Romoaldus comes filius quondam Guidoni comitis, et Berengarius comes filius quondam Alfani comitis" donated property by charter dated Jul 1058[1301]

 

 

1.         IMETANCUSm ---.  The name of Imetancus´s wife is not known.  Imetancus & his wife had one child: 

a)         IMETANCUS (-[Aug 1028/Jan 1041]).  "Verengnarius comes filius Verengnarii comitis…[et uxor mea] Rodelinda filia quondam Atenolfi comitis" donated property by charter dated Jun 1015 which states that it was their wedding day, signed by "…Imetancus comes…"[1302].  "Imetanci comiti filii quondam Imetanci" donated property by charter dated Aug 1028[1303]m ---.  The name of Imetancus´s wife is not known.  Imetancus & his wife had two children: 

i)          ALAIS (-after Jan 1041).  A charter dated Jan 1041 names "Alais et Adelferi comitibus, germanis filiis quondam Imetanci comiti" as witnesses to a donation[1304]

ii)         ADELFER (-after Feb 1041).  A charter dated Jan 1041 names "Alais et Adelferi comitibus, germanis filiis quondam Imetanci comiti" as witnesses to a donation[1305].  "Desiderio et Iohannes comites palatii…germani et filii quondam Iaquinti comitis palatii" donated property by charter dated Feb 1041, which names "Adelferi comes filius quondam Imetanci comiti…" as guarantor[1306]

 

 

1.         STEFANUSm ---.  The name of Stefanus´s wife is not known.  Stefanus & his wife had one child: 

a)         GRIMOALD .  "Grimoaldus filius Stefani comitis et Iohannes filius Stefani Calbenzo" donated property by charter dated Mar 1018[1307]

 

 

1.         DESIDERIO [Disio] (-before Nov 1018).  m ---.  The name of Disiu´s wife is not known.  Disiu & his wife had three children: 

a)         IAQUINTUS (-[Aug 1031/Feb 1041]).  "Iaquintus et Lando et Disiu comitibus, germani filii quondam Disigi comitis" donated property by charter dated Nov 1018[1308].  "Iaquintus et Lando et Disiio comitibus, germani filii quondam Disigi comitis" donated property by charter dated Feb 1029[1309].  "Iaquintus comes filius quondam Disigi comitis" donated property by charter dated Aug 1031[1310]m ---.  The name of Iaquintus´s wife is not known.  Iaquintus & his wife had two children: 

i)          DESIDERIO (-after Jul 1054).  "Desiderio et Iohannes comites palatii…germani et filii quondam Iaquinti comitis palatii" donated property, with the consent of "Lando comes palatio thio nostro" and in the presence of "Grimoaldi comiti", by charter dated Feb 1041, which names "Adelferi comes filius quondam Imetanci comiti et ipse Lando comes…[et] Iohannes comes filius quondam Rodegrimi" as guarantors, and also names "Disio et Iohannes comes palatii"[1311].  A charter dated Jan 1043 records that "Lando comes palatii filius quondam Disigii comitis, et Disius et Iohannes germani et comitis palatii filii quondam Iaquinti comitis palatii et Lando comes filii quondam Disigii comitis" granted property to "Stefanus filius quondam Ursi"[1312].  "Lando comes palatio filius quondam Desidei comitis, et Disideus et Iohanne comites palatii germani et filii quondam Iaquinti qui fuit comes palatio, et Lando comes filius quondam Disdei comitis" donated property by charter dated Dec 1045[1313].  A charter dated Jul 1054 records that "Desideus et Iohannes…germani et comites palatii filii quondam Iaquinti…comes palatii" donated property "pro parte de infantulu…Alferius filius quondam Landoni comitis thium eorum et pro parte Landoni filii quondam Desidei comitis"[1314]

ii)         IOANNES (-after Jul 1054).  "Desiderio et Iohannes comites palatii…germani et filii quondam Iaquinti comitis palatii" donated property, with the consent of "Lando comes palatio thio nostro" and in the presence of "Grimoaldi comiti", by charter dated Feb 1041, which names "Adelferi comes filius quondam Imetanci comiti et ipse Lando comes…[et] Iohannes comes filius quondam Rodegrimi" as guarantors, and also names "Disio et Iohannes comes palatii"[1315].  A charter dated Jan 1043 records that "Lando comes palatii filius quondam Disigii comitis, et Disius et Iohannes germani et comitis palatii filii quondam Iaquinti comitis palatii et Lando comes filii quondam Disigii comitis" granted property to "Stefanus filius quondam Ursi"[1316].  "Lando comes palatio filius quondam Desidei comitis, et Disideus et Iohanne comites palatii germani et filii quondam Iaquinti qui fuit comes palatio, et Lando comes filius quondam Disdei comitis" donated property by charter dated Dec 1045[1317].  A charter dated Jul 1054 records that "Desideus et Iohannes…germani et comites palatii filii quondam Iaquinti…comes palatii" donated property "pro parte de infantulu…Alferius filius quondam Landoni comitis thium eorum et pro parte Landoni filii quondam Desidei comitis"[1318]m ---.  The name of Ioannes´s wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ALOARA (-after Jul 1060).  "Landolfus filius quondam Guaiferii comitis et Aloara uxor sua filia Iohannis comitis palatii et Petrus filius quondam Lamberti comitis" donated property by charter dated Jul 1060[1319]m LANDOLFO, son of GUAIFER & his wife --- (-after Jul 1060). 

b)         LANDO (-after Dec 1045).  "Iaquintus et Lando et Disiu comitibus, germani filii quondam Disigi comitis" donated property by charter dated Nov 1018[1320].  "Iaquintus et Lando et Disiio comitibus, germani filii quondam Disigi comitis" donated property by charter dated Feb 1029[1321].  "Desiderio et Iohannes comites palatii…germani et filii quondam Iaquinti comitis palatii" donated property, with the consent of "Lando comes palatio thio nostro" and in the presence of "Grimoaldi comiti", by charter dated Feb 1041, which names "Adelferi comes filius quondam Imetanci comiti et ipse Lando comes…[et] Iohannes comes filius quondam Rodegrimi" as guarantors, and also names "Disio et Iohannes comes palatii"[1322].  A charter dated Jan 1043 records that "Lando comes palatii filius quondam Disigii comitis, et Disius et Iohannes germani et comitis palatii filii quondam Iaquinti comitis palatii et Lando comes filii quondam Disigii comitis" granted property to "Stefanus filius quondam Ursi", and names "Grimoaldus comes filius quondam Rottelgrimi comitis"[1323].  A charter dated Feb 1044 records a dispute between "Lando comes filius quondam Landenolfi comitis" and "Iohannes clericus filius quondam Iohannes presbiteri" before the court of "Lando comes"[1324].  "Lando comes palatio filius quondam Desidei comitis, et Disideus et Iohanne comites palatii germani et filii quondam Iaquinti qui fuit comes palatio, et Lando comes filius quondam Disdei comitis" donated property by charter dated Dec 1045[1325].  m ---.  The name of Lando´s wife is not known.  Lando & his wife had one child: 

i)          ALFERIUS .  A charter dated Jul 1054 records that "Desideus et Iohannes…germani et comites palatii filii quondam Iaquinti…comes palatii" donated property "pro parte de infantulu…Alferius filius quondam Landoni comitis thium eorum et pro parte Landoni filii quondam Desidei comitis"[1326]

c)         DESIDERIO [Disio] (-[Feb 1041/Jan 1043]).  "Iaquintus et Lando et Disiu comitibus, germani filii quondam Disigi comitis" donated property by charter dated Nov 1018[1327].  "Iaquintus et Lando et Disiio comitibus, germani filii quondam Disigi comitis" donated property by charter dated Feb 1029[1328].  "Desiderio et Iohannes comites palatii…germani et filii quondam Iaquinti comitis palatii" donated property, with the consent of "Lando comes palatio thio nostro" and in the presence of "Grimoaldi comiti", by charter dated Feb 1041, which names "Adelferi comes filius quondam Imetanci comiti et ipse Lando comes…[et] Iohannes comes filius quondam Rodegrimi" as guarantors, and also names "Disio et Iohannes comes palatii"[1329]m ---.  The name of Desiderio´s wife is not known.  Desiderio & his wife had one child: 

i)          LANDO (-after Jul 1054).  A charter dated Jan 1043 records that "Lando comes palatii filius quondam Disigii comitis, et Disius et Iohannes germani et comitis palatii filii quondam Iaquinti comitis palatii et Lando comes filii quondam Disigii comitis" granted property to "Stefanus filius quondam Ursi", and names "Grimoaldus comes filius quondam Rottelgrimi comitis"[1330].  "Lando comes palatio filius quondam Desidei comitis, et Disideus et Iohanne comites palatii germani et filii quondam Iaquinti qui fuit comes palatio, et Lando comes filius quondam Disdei comitis" donated property by charter dated Dec 1045[1331].  A charter dated Jul 1054 records that "Desideus et Iohannes…germani et comites palatii filii quondam Iaquinti…comes palatii" donated property "pro parte de infantulu…Alferius filius quondam Landoni comitis thium eorum et pro parte Landoni filii quondam Desidei comitis"[1332]

 

 

1.         MARALDO (-before Jul 1026).  m ---.  The name of Maraldo´s wife is not known.  Maraldo & his wife had two children: 

a)         LANDOLF (-after Jul 1026).  "Iaquintus comes filius quondam Gaudoni iudici, et Iohannes comes filius quondam Petri, et Landolfus comes et Landemari germani filii quondam Maraldi, et Truppoaldus filius quondam Gaidoni" donated property by charter dated Jul 1026[1333]same person as…?  LANDOLF (-before Jun 1047).  m ---.  The name of Landolf´s wife is not known.  Landolf & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          ATENOLF (-after Jun 1047).  A charter dated Jun 1047 records the presence of "domni…Guaimarii…principis et ducis [et] domnus Guido dux et Paldulfus germani eius…filii…domni Guaimarii principis" at a donation, with "Atenolfum comitem filium quondam Landolfi comitis, et…Iohannem comitem filium quondam Alfani comitis" named as guarantors[1334]

b)         LANDEMARO (-after Jul 1026).  "Iaquintus comes filius quondam Gaudoni iudici, et Iohannes comes filius quondam Petri, et Landolfus comes et Landemari germani filii quondam Maraldi, et Truppoaldus filius quondam Gaidoni" donated property by charter dated Jul 1026[1335]

 

 

1.         RISANDO (-before Jan 1027).  m ---.  The name of Risando´s wife is not known.  Risando & his wife had two children: 

a)         ADELFER .  "Adelferi et Guaiferi germanis adque comitibus filii quondam Risandi" donated property by charter dated Jan 1027[1336]

b)         GUAIFER .  "Adelferi et Guaiferi germanis adque comitibus filii quondam Risandi" donated property by charter dated Jan 1027[1337]

 

 

1.         RADOALD (-before Feb 1033).  m ---.  The name of Radoald´s wife is not known.  Radoald & his wife had one child: 

a)         FRIDERISIO .  "Friderisius comes filius quondam Radoaldi" donated property by charter dated Feb 1033[1338]

 

 

1.         RAIDULF (-after Dec 1034).  A charter dated Dec 1034 notes the presence of "Raidolfus comes…ex genere Francorum" at a donation[1339]

 

 

1.         GRIMOALD (-before Jul 1036).  m ---.  The name of Grimoald´s wife is not known.  Grimoald & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROMOALD (-after Jul 1036).  "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis" donated property, with the support of "Iohannes nepotem meum filium quondam Rodelgrimi comiti, qui fuit ipse Rodelgrimus germanus meus, et…Grimoaldus et Romoaldus comitibus germani, filii quondam Guidoni, qui fuit ipse Guido germanus meus, et…Aloara filia quondam Petri comiti et iudici, relicta quondam Rodelgrimi qui fuit nepotem meum et filius fuit quondam Iohanni, qui fuit germanus meus" and in the presence of "ipsa Aloara…[et] Petrus comes cognatum suum…qui est filius Areghisi", by charter dated Jul 1036, which states that part of the property belonged to "ipsius Grimoaldi comiti genitori meo et abio ipsorum, filii Guidoni" and another part to "Raco comes filius Grimoaldi cum ipsa Aloara…Iohannes comes thio ipsius mulieri hac filius quondam Petri"[1340]

b)         RODELGRIM (-before Jul 1036).  m ---.  The name of Rodelgrim´s wife is not known.  Rodelgrim & his wife had one child: 

i)          IOANNES (-after Feb 1041).  "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis" donated property, with the support of "Iohannes nepotem meum filium quondam Rodelgrimi comiti, qui fuit ipse Rodelgrimus germanus meus…", by charter dated Jul 1036[1341].  "Desiderio et Iohannes comites palatii…germani et filii quondam Iaquinti comitis palatii" donated property by charter dated Feb 1041, which names "…Iohannes comes filius quondam Rodegrimi" as guarantor[1342]

c)         GUIDO (-before Jul 1036).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Jul 1036 under which his brother "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis" donated property, with the support of "…Grimoaldus et Romoaldus comitibus germani, filii quondam Guidoni, qui fuit ipse Guido germanus meus…"[1343]m ---.  The name of Guido´s wife is not known.  Guido & his wife had two children: 

i)          GRIMOALD (-after Feb 1041).  "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis" donated property, with the support of "…Grimoaldus et Romoaldus comitibus germani, filii quondam Guidoni, qui fuit ipse Guido germanus meus…", by charter dated Jul 1036[1344].  A charter dated Dec 1034 notes the presence of "Grimoaldi comiti et iudice" at a donation[1345].  "Desiderio et Iohannes comites palatii…germani et filii quondam Iaquinti comitis palatii" donated property, with the consent of "Lando comes palatio thio nostro" and in the presence of "Grimoaldi comiti", by charter dated Feb 1041[1346]m ---.  The name of Grimoald´s wife is not known.  Grimoald & his wife had [one child]: 

(a)       [ROMOALD (-after Mar 1074).  "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis, et Romoaldus comes filius quondam Guidoni comitis, et Berengarius comes filius quondam Alfani comitis" donated property by charter dated Jul 1058[1347].  Two manuscripts of the testament of "Iohannes comes filius quondam Iohannes comitis", dated Nov 1065, bequeathed property to "Romoaldi ex parte matris consobrini fratris sui […filii Grimoaldi comitis]…"[1348].  "Ademarium cognatum eius filium quondam Landolfi" is named as fiduciary in a charter dated Mar 1074 under which "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis" sold property inherited from "Iohannis comiti filio Iohannis" to the monastery of San Martino di Forma, in the presence of "Rottelgrimo comite et iudice"[1349].] 

ii)         ROMOALD (-[Jul 1036/Sep 1042]).  "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis" donated property, with the support of "…Grimoaldus et Romoaldus comitibus germani, filii quondam Guidoni, qui fuit ipse Guido germanus meus…", by charter dated Jul 1036[1350]m SICHELGAITA, daughter of BERENGARIO & his wife --- (-after May 1045).  "Alfanus comes filius quondam Petri comitis et…Sikelgaita filia quondam Beringneri comitis et relicta Romoaldi comitis…thia et nepotes" donated property by charter dated May 1045[1351].  Romoald & his wife had [three] children: 

(a)       [GRIMOALD .  A charter dated Sep 1042 records a grant to "Iohannes Curcone filio Landolfi de Apus Monte" by "Grimoaldus comes filius quondam Romoaldi" of property "in…locum Apus-monte" which held in common with "eredes Grimoaldi comitis thio suo et eredes Alfani germano suo"[1352].  The reference to Apusmonte, in which Grimoald´s supposed aunt Miranda and first cousin Romoald also held interests, suggests that the reconstruction as shown in this document is correct.  "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis, et Romoaldus comes filius quondam Guidoni comitis, et Berengarius comes filius quondam Alfani comitis" donated property by charter dated Jul 1058[1353].] 

(b)       [ALFAN (-before Sep 1042).  A charter dated Sep 1042 records a grant to "Iohannes Curcone filio Landolfi de Apus Monte" by "Grimoaldus comes filius quondam Romoaldi" of property "in…locum Apus-monte" which held in common with "eredes Grimoaldi comitis thio suo et eredes Alfani germano suo"[1354]m ---.  The name of Alfan´s wife is not known.  Alfan & his wife had four children: 

(1)       ROMOALD (-after 1059).  Stasser records that "Romuald, Pierre, Bérenger et Miranda", children of Alfan, are named in a charter dated 1059[1355]

(2)       PETRUS (-after 1059).  Stasser records that "Romuald, Pierre, Bérenger et Miranda", children of Alfan, are named in a charter dated 1059[1356]

(3)       BERENGARIO (-after 1059).  Stasser records that "Romuald, Pierre, Bérenger et Miranda", children of Alfan, are named in a charter dated 1059[1357]

(4)       MIRANDA (-after 1059).  Stasser records that "Romuald, Pierre, Bérenger et Miranda", children of Alfan, are named in a charter dated 1059[1358]m IAQUINTUS, son of ---. 

(c)       [daughter .  Stasser records that the wife of Alfan was the daughter of Romoald but does not cite the corresponding primary source[1359]m ALFAN, son of LAMBERT & his wife --- (-before Nov 1065).] 

iii)        [MIRANDA (-after 1042).  Her parentage is assumed on the basis of Romoald, who inherited property from her son Ioannes, being the son of Grimoald, son of Guido (see above).  A charter dated 1100 includes the text of a charter dated 1041 which records that "les comtes Guy et Jean, fils du comte Jean et de Miranda" owned "l´église St-Apollinaire d´Apusmonte", and the text of the testament of "le comte Guy, fils du comte Jean" who divided his property between "son épouse Megalu fille du clerc Pandenulf, sa mère Miranda, son frère Jean"[1360]m IOANNES, son of LAMBERT & his wife --- (-before 1042).] 

d)         IOANNES (-before Jul 1036).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Jul 1036 under which his brother "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis" donated property, with the support of "…Aloara filia quondam Petri comiti et iudici, relicta quondam Rodelgrimi qui fuit nepotem meum et filius fuit quondam Iohanni, qui fuit germanus meus"[1361]m ---.  The name of Ioannes´s wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had one child: 

i)          RODELGRIM (-before Jul 1036).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Jul 1036 under which his paternal uncle "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis" donated property, with the support of "…Aloara filia quondam Petri comiti et iudici, relicta quondam Rodelgrimi qui fuit nepotem meum et filius fuit quondam Iohanni, qui fuit germanus meus"[1362]m ALOARA, daughter of PETRUS & his wife --- (-after Jul 1036).  "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis" donated property, with the support of "…Aloara filia quondam Petri comiti et iudici, relicta quondam Rodelgrimi qui fuit nepotem meum et filius fuit quondam Iohanni, qui fuit germanus meus" and in the presence of "ipsa Aloara…[et] Petrus comes cognatum suum…qui est filius Areghisi", by charter dated Jul 1036, which states that part of the property belonged to "Raco comes filius Grimoaldi cum ipsa Aloara…Iohannes comes thio ipsius mulieri hac filius quondam Petri"[1363].  Rodelgrim & his wife had [one child]: 

(a)       [GRIMOALD (-[Feb 1055/Dec 1067]).  A charter dated Jan 1043 records that "Lando comes palatii filius quondam Disigii comitis, et Disius et Iohannes germani et comitis palatii filii quondam Iaquinti comitis palatii et Lando comes filii quondam Disigii comitis" granted property to "Stefanus filius quondam Ursi", and names "Grimoaldus comes filius quondam Rottelgrimi comitis"[1364].  It is not known with certainty that Grimoald was the son of Rodelgrim, son of Ioannes.  "Grimoaldus comes filius quondam Rottelgrimi comitis et Rottelgrimus et Petrus filii ipsius Grimoaldi…cum Grimoaldo vicecomite filio quondam Iohannis notarii" donated property by charter dated Feb 1055, with "Maionem comitem filium quondam Landonis comitis" as guarantor[1365].]  m ---.  The name of Grimoald´s wife is not known.  Grimoald & his wife had two children: 

(1)       RODELGRIM (-after Jul 1069).  "Grimoaldus comes filius quondam Rottelgrimi comitis et Rottelgrimus et Petrus filii ipsius Grimoaldi…cum Grimoaldo vicecomite filio quondam Iohannis notarii" donated property by charter dated Feb 1055[1366].  "Rottelgrimus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis et Gemma uxor sua filia quondam Landolfi comitis" donated land which he had bought from "Petro germano ipsius Rottelgrimi et Alferana uxore illius" to "Romoaldo notario" by charter dated Dec 1067[1367].  "Rottelgrimus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi qui postea monachus fuit et Gemma uxor sua filia quondam Landolfi comitis" donated land which he had bought from "Petrus germanus ipsius Rottelgrimi et Alferana uxor eius filia Landolfi comitis" to "Romoaldo notario" by charter dated Jul 1069[1368]m GEMMA, daughter of LANDOLF & his wife --- (-after Jul 1069).  "Rottelgrimus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis et Gemma uxor sua filia quondam Landolfi comitis" donated land which he had bought from "Petro germano ipsius Rottelgrimi et Alferana uxore illius" to "Romoaldo notario" by charter dated Dec 1067[1369].  "Rottelgrimus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi qui postea monachus fuit et Gemma uxor sua filia quondam Landolfi comitis" donated land which he had bought from "Petrus germanus ipsius Rottelgrimi et Alferana uxor eius filia Landolfi comitis" to "Romoaldo notario" by charter dated Jul 1069[1370]

(2)       PETRUS (-after Jul 1069).  "Grimoaldus comes filius quondam Rottelgrimi comitis et Rottelgrimus et Petrus filii ipsius Grimoaldi…cum Grimoaldo vicecomite filio quondam Iohannis notarii" donated property by charter dated Feb 1055[1371].  "Rottelgrimus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis et Gemma uxor sua filia quondam Landolfi comitis" donated land which he had bought from "Petro germano ipsius Rottelgrimi et Alferana uxore illius" to "Romoaldo notario" by charter dated Dec 1067[1372].  "Rottelgrimus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi qui postea monachus fuit et Gemma uxor sua filia quondam Landolfi comitis" donated land which he had bought from "Petrus germanus ipsius Rottelgrimi et Alferana uxor eius filia Landolfi comitis" to "Romoaldo notario" by charter dated Jul 1069[1373]m ALFERANA, daughter of LANDOLF & his wife --- (-after Jul 1069).  "Rottelgrimus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis et Gemma uxor sua filia quondam Landolfi comitis" donated land which he had bought from "Petro germano ipsius Rottelgrimi et Alferana uxore illius" to "Romoaldo notario" by charter dated Dec 1067[1374].  "Rottelgrimus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi qui postea monachus fuit et Gemma uxor sua filia quondam Landolfi comitis" donated land which he had bought from "Petrus germanus ipsius Rottelgrimi et Alferana uxor eius filia Landolfi comitis" to "Romoaldo notario" by charter dated Jul 1069[1375]

 

 

1.         ROMOALD (-[before Dec 1012]).  The charter dated Dec 1012, quoted in the charter dated Jul 1059 referred to below, suggests that Romoald may already have died before that date.  The property transaction recorded was most likely connected with the marriage of Romoald´s daughter Aloara and would presumably have been transacted with her father, rather than her brothers, if he had still been alive.  His son´s name Rodelgrim suggests that this Romoald was closely related to Grimoald (died before Jul 1036, see above) one of whose sons was also named Rodelgrim.  m ---.  The name of Romoald´s wife is not known.  Romoald & his wife had four children: 

a)         MALFREDO [Madelfrit] (-after [1038]).  A charter dated Jul 1059, under which "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis que uxor denique Petri comitis et referendarii fuerat" donated property, quotes another charter dated Dec 1012 which records that "Petrus comes maritus ipsius Aloare" granted property to "Malfredi et Iohanni comitibus germanis predicti Aloare", and an earlier acceptance by "Aloara", with the consent of "Madelfrit et Rodelgrimus comitibus filii iamdicti Romoaldi", which presumably took place after the death of her husband who is not named with his wife in this part of the document[1376]

b)         IOANNES (-[Jan 1038/Jul 1059]).  A charter dated Jul 1059, under which "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis que uxor denique Petri comitis et referendarii fuerat" donated property, quotes another charter dated Dec 1012 which records that "Petrus comes maritus ipsius Aloare" granted property to "Malfredi et Iohanni comitibus germanis predicti Aloare"[1377].  The same Jul 1059 charter quotes a second charter, dated Jan 1038, which records a donation by "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis et relicta quondam Petri comitis cum duobus filios suos…Lando et Iohannes…infantes infra etatem" and the presence of "Iohannes germanus predicte Aloare".  m PURPURA, daughter of RADELCHIS & his wife --- (-after Jul 1059).  The charter dated Jul 1059, quoted above, quotes an earlier charter dated Feb 1038 under which "Iohannes comes filius quondam Romoaldi comitis et…Purpura filia quondam Radelchisi que sum uxor istius Iohanni" confirmed a sale of property to "Aloara germana mea", and also a confirmation of a transaction (referring, it appears, to the Jul 1059 donation which is the main purpose of the charter) by "iamdicta Purpura" (suggesting that her husband Ioannes was then deceased)[1378]

c)         RODELGRIM (-[after 1038]).  A charter dated Jul 1059, under which "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis que uxor denique Petri comitis et referendarii fuerat" donated property, quotes an earlier acceptance by "Aloara", with the consent of "Madelfrit et Rodelgrimus comitibus filii iamdicti Romoaldi", which presumably took place after the death of her husband who is not named with his wife in this part of the document[1379]

d)         ALOARA (-after Jul 1059).  A charter dated Jul 1042 records that "Aloara comitissa, relicta quondam Petri comitis filii quondam Petri et filia quondam Romoaldi comitis" had granted property to "Grimoaldus et Iohannes et Mari germani filii quondam Iaquinti"[1380].  "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis que uxor denique Petri comitis et referendarii fuerat" and "Lando et Iohannes comites et referendarii germani hac filii ipsorum Petri et Aloare et Alferada olim filia Guaiferii comitis que uxor est ipsius Landonis et Bensolana filia quondam Petri et uxor est ipsius Iohannis" donated property by charter dated Jul 1059, which names "Malfredi et Iohanni comitibus germanis predicti Aloare"[1381].  The same charter quotes other property transactions, of which the following are relevant to Aloara´s family.  Firstly, a charter dated Dec 1012, which records that "Petrus comes maritus ipsius Aloare" granted property to "Malfredi et Iohanni comitibus germanis predicti Aloare".  This transaction was presumably connected with Aloara´s marriage, which presumably took place shortly before this date.  Secondly, a charter dated Jan 1038 which records a donation by "Aloara filia quondam Romoaldi comitis et relicta quondam Petri comitis cum duobus filios suos…Lando et Iohannes…infantes infra etatem" and the presence of "Iohannes germanus predicte Aloare".  Thirdly, a charter under which Guaimar Prince of Salerno (indicating, it appears from the context, Prince Guaimar III which, if correct, dates the charter to Mar 1006 described as "the fourteenth year" of the prince´s reign) granted property in Salerno to "Petri comiti thio et referendario nostro" at the request of "Laidolfi comitis socero nostro".  Fourthly, an acceptance by "Aloara" with the consent of "Madelfrit et Rodelgrimus comitibus filii iamdicti Romoaldi", which presumably took place after the death of her husband who is not named with his wife in this part of the document.  Fifthly, a charter dated Feb 1038 under which "Iohannes comes filius quondam Romoaldi comitis et…Purpura filia quondam Radelchisi que sum uxor istius Iohanni" confirmed a sale of property to "Aloara germana mea", which also contained a reference to earlier grant by Prince Guaimar [III] to "Petri comiti…".  Sixthly, a confirmation of the transaction (referring, it appears, to the Jul 1059 donation which is the main purpose of the charter) by "iamdicta Purpura" (suggesting that her husband Ioannes was then deceased).  m (before Dec 1012) PETRUS, son of PETRUS & his [first/second wife ---] (-before Jan 1038). 

 

 

1.         GRIMOALDm ---.  The name of Grimoald´s wife is not known.  Grimoald & his wife had one child: 

a)         RACO .  "Romoaldus comes filius quondam Grimoaldi comitis" donated property, with the support of "…Aloara filia quondam Petri comiti et iudici, relicta quondam Rodelgrimi qui fuit nepotem meum et filius fuit quondam Iohanni, qui fuit germanus meus" and in the presence of "ipsa Aloara…[et] Petrus comes cognatum suum…qui est filius Areghisi", by charter dated Jul 1036, which states that part of the property belonged to "…Raco comes filius Grimoaldi cum ipsa Aloara…Iohannes comes thio ipsius mulieri hac filius quondam Petri"[1382]

 

 

1.         LANDEMARIO (-before Jul 1060).  m ---.  The name of Landemario´s wife is not known.  Landemario & his wife had two children:  

a)         EDERRADO (-after Jul 1060).  "Gisulphus…Langobardorum gentis princeps" confirmed the grant to "Ederrado…parenti nostro, filio quondam Landemarii comitis" and to "Gaite et Marie filie quondam Friderisii comitis qui fuit germanus…Ederrado…parentibus nostris" made by Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno, with the consent of "domne Gemme…genitricis nostre", by charter dated Jul 1060[1383]

b)         FRIDERISIO (-before Jul 1060).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Jul 1060 under which "Gisulphus…Langobardorum gentis princeps" confirmed the grant to "Ederrado…parenti nostro, filio quondam Landemarii comitis" and to "Gaite et Marie filie quondam Friderisii comitis qui fuit germanus…Ederrado…parentibus nostris" made by Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno[1384]m ---.  The name of Friderisio´s wife is not known.  Friderisio & his wife had two children: 

i)          GAITA (-after Jul 1060).  "Gisulphus…Langobardorum gentis princeps" confirmed the grant to "Ederrado…parenti nostro, filio quondam Landemarii comitis" and to "Gaite et Marie filie quondam Friderisii comitis qui fuit germanus…Ederrado…parentibus nostris" made by Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno, with the consent of "domne Gemme…genitricis nostre", by charter dated Jul 1060[1385]

ii)         MARIA (-after Jul 1060).  "Gisulphus…Langobardorum gentis princeps" confirmed the grant to "Ederrado…parenti nostro, filio quondam Landemarii comitis" and to "Gaite et Marie filie quondam Friderisii comitis qui fuit germanus…Ederrado…parentibus nostris" made by Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno, with the consent of "domne Gemme…genitricis nostre", by charter dated Jul 1060[1386]

 

 

1.         LANDENOLF (-before Feb 1044).  m ---.  The name of Landenolf´s wife is not known.  Landenolf & his wife had two children: 

a)         LANDO (-after Feb 1044).  A charter dated Feb 1044 records a dispute between "Lando comes filius quondam Landenolfi comitis" and "Iohannes clericus filius quondam Iohannes presbiteri" before the court of "Lando comes"[1387]

b)         ROLEGRIM .  A charter dated Apr 1050 records that "Rolegrimo comes filius quondam Landenolfi comitis" granted property to "Ioccardus filio quondam Leoni…de locum Nuncerie"[1388]

 

 

1.         ADEMAR (-[1048/49]).  A charter dated Nov 1034 records the presence of "Ademari comitis et iudici" at a donation[1389].  A charter dated Aug 1045 records the presence of "Ademari comes et iudex" at a donation[1390].  Ademar was not named in similar charters after 1048.  m ---.  The name of Ademar´s wife is not known.  Ademar & his wife had two children: 

a)         ALFAN .  "Alfanus filius quondam Ademarii comiti et iudicis" donated property "pro vice Alfani filii quondam Guaimarii et…Alfani et Petri filii quondam Adelberti" by charter dated Mar 1050[1391].  "Alfanus comes filius quondam Ademarii comitis et iudicis et Alfanus filius quondam Guaimarii comitis" donated property by charter dated Mar 1057, which recites the previous history of the property including a donation dated Nov 977 by "Petrus comes filius quondam Landolfi et…Aloara que Fasana vocatur, filia quondam Leoni Neapolitano…vir et uxor", by "Alfanus thio noster" and by "filii Petri comitis", and a donation dated Jun 1054 by "Alfanus comes pro parte…Alfani et Petri filii quondam Adelberti comitis et pro parte Alfani filii Guaimarii comtis" subscribed by "Sico comes et iudex"[1392]

b)         URANIA (-after Apr 1047).  "Urania comitissa filia Ademarii comitis et relicta bone memorie Lamberti comitis et Ebulus clericus et abbas et Petrus et Alebertus et Landoarius comitibus germani filii suprascripti Lamberti comitis et Uranie" donated property by charter dated Apr 1047[1393]m LAMBERTO, son of ADALBERTO & his wife --- (-before Apr 1043). 

 

 

1.         ALFERIOm ---.  The name of Alferio´s wife is not known.  Alferio & his wife had one child: 

a)         AUDOALD .  "Audoaldus comes filius quondam Alferii comitis" donated property by charter dated Mar 1064[1394].  m ---.  The name of Adoald´s wife is not known.  Adoald & his wife had one child: 

i)          GUAIFER .  "Guaiferio filio Adoaldi comitis" donated property by charter dated Feb 1052[1395]

 

 

1.         GUIDO (-before Jun 1053).  m ---.  The name of Guido´s wife is not known.  Guido & his wife had two children: 

a)         ALFAN .  "Alfanus comes filius quondam Guidoni comitis" declared that he and "Landoni germani mei" jointly owned property by charter dated Jun 1053, and named "Sico comes filius quondam Guala" as guarantor[1396]

b)         LANDO .  "Alfanus comes filius quondam Guidoni comitis" declared that he and "Landoni germani mei" jointly owned property by charter dated Jun 1053, and named "Sico comes filius quondam Guala" as guarantor[1397]

 

 

1.         GUIDO (-before Jun 1064).  m ---.  The name of Guido´s wife is not known.  Guido & his wife had one child: 

a)         GUAIMAR (-after Jun 1064).  "Guaimarius comes filius quondam Guidoni comitis", gravely ill, and "Adeltruda qui Mira vocatur uxor ipsius Guaimarii comitis" donated property, with "Guaiferium et Guidonem filiis nostris", by charter dated Jun 1064[1398]m ADELTRUDA, daughter of --- (-after Jun 1064).  "Guaimarius comes filius quondam Guidoni comitis", gravely ill, and "Adeltruda qui Mira vocatur uxor ipsius Guaimarii comitis" donated property, with "Guaiferium et Guidonem filiis nostris", by charter dated Jun 1064[1399].  Guaimar & his wife had two children: 

i)          GUAIFER (-after Jun 1064).  "Guaimarius comes filius quondam Guidoni comitis", gravely ill, and "Adeltruda qui Mira vocatur uxor ipsius Guaimarii comitis" donated property, with "Guaiferium et Guidonem filiis nostris", by charter dated Jun 1064[1400]

ii)         GUIDO (-after Jun 1064).  "Guaimarius comes filius quondam Guidoni comitis", gravely ill, and "Adeltruda qui Mira vocatur uxor ipsius Guaimarii comitis" donated property, with "Guaiferium et Guidonem filiis nostris", by charter dated Jun 1064[1401]

 

 

1.         MANSOm ---.  The name of Manso´s wife is not known.  Manso & his wife had one child: 

a)         IOANNES [Ioannicus] (-before Sep 1054).  A charter dated Jan 1055 records that "heredibus Iohannacii comitis filii Mansonis castaldi" owned property[1402].  A charter dated Apr 1055 refers to "heredum Iohannis comitis, filii Mansonis castaldi" in connection with property which was donated[1403]m ---.  The name of Ioannacus´s wife is not known.  Ioannacus & his wife had three children: 

i)          SICO (-after Sep 1054).  A charter dated Sep 1054 records the presence of "Siconem comitem et iudicem Urso et Iohannes gastaldi germani filii quondam Ioannaci castaldi" at a donation[1404]

ii)         URSO (-after Feb 1056).  A charter dated Sep 1054 records the presence of "Siconem comitem et iudicem Urso et Iohannes gastaldi germani filii quondam Ioannaci castaldi" at a donation[1405].  "Ursus et Iohannes gastaldi filii quondam Iohannacii gastaldi" and others donated property by charter dated Feb 1056[1406]

iii)        IOANNES (-after Feb 1056).  A charter dated Sep 1054 records the presence of "Siconem comitem et iudicem Urso et Iohannes gastaldi germani filii quondam Ioannaci castaldi" at a donation[1407].  "Ursus et Iohannes gastaldi filii quondam Iohannacii gastaldi" and others donated property by charter dated Feb 1056[1408]

 

 

1.         ALFERIO (-before Apr 1058).  m ---.  The name of Alferio´s wife is not known.  Alferio & his wife had two children: 

a)         GUAIFER (-[Apr 1058/Jul 1060]).  A charter dated Apr 1058 records a donation by "Guaiferium et Lambertum comitibus germani filii quondam Alferii comitis"[1409].  A charter dated Jul 1060, under which "Landolfus filius quondam Guaiferii comitis et Aloara uxor sua filia Iohannis comitis palatii et Petrus filius quondam Lamberti comitis" donated property, quotes another charter dated Jan 1056 under which "---filius quondam Alferii comitis et…Landolfus filius…Guaiferii comitis et Petrus filius quondam Lamberti comitis et Sergius filius quondam Desidei sartori" donated property[1410].  It is assumed that Guaifer is the unnamed son referred to in this document.  m ---.  The name of Guaifer´s wife is not known.  Guaifer & his wife had [three] children: 

i)          LANDOLFO (-after Jul 1060).  "Landolfus filius quondam Guaiferii comitis et Aloara uxor sua filia Iohannis comitis palatii et Petrus filius quondam Lamberti comitis" donated property by charter dated Jul 1060, which quotes another charter dated Jan 1056 under which "---filius quondam Alferii comitis et…Landolfus filius…Guaiferii comitis et Petrus filius quondam Lamberti comitis et Sergius filius quondam Desidei sartori", and "ipse Sergius pro parte Gaitelgrime filia Landolfi comitis relicta quondam Alberti comitis et pro parte Landoarius filius ipsorum Gaitelgrime et Alberti" donated property[1411]m ALOARA, daughter of IOANNES & his wife --- (-after Jul 1060).  "Landolfus filius quondam Guaiferii comitis et Aloara uxor sua filia Iohannis comitis palatii et Petrus filius quondam Lamberti comitis" donated property by charter dated Jul 1060, which quotes another charter dated Jan 1056 under which "---filius quondam Alferii comitis et…Landolfus filius…Guaiferii comitis et Petrus filius quondam Lamberti comitis et Sergius filius quondam Desidei sartori", and "ipse Sergius pro parte Gaitelgrime filia Landolfi comitis relicta quondam Alberti comitis et pro parte Landoarius filius ipsorum Gaitelgrime et Alberti" donated property[1412].  Landolf & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GAITELGRIMA (-after Jan 1058).  A charter dated Jul 1060, under which "Landolfus filius quondam Guaiferii comitis et Aloara uxor sua filia Iohannis comitis palatii et Petrus filius quondam Lamberti comitis" donated property, quotes another charter dated Jan 1056 under which "…Gaitelgrime filia Landolfi comitis relicta quondam Alberti comitis et…Landoarius filius ipsorum Gaitelgrime et Alberti" donated property[1413].  A charter dated Jan 1058 is witnessed by "Adelbertus filius quondam Petri comitis et Gaitelgrima filia Landolfi comitis que fuerat uxor Adelberti comitis filii quondam Landoari" and records a donation by "ipsa Gaitelgrima et Landoarius filius eius et ipsius Adelberti" to "Theophilo monacho et sacerdote filio quondam Ieorgii"[1414]m ADALBERTO, son of LANDOARIO & his wife --- (-[Jan/Apr] 1043). 

ii)         [DAUFER (-after Dec 1061).  "Dauferius archidiaconus filius quondam Guaiferii comitis" donated property "pro parte…Angeli germani sui" by charter dated Dec 1061[1415].] 

iii)        [ANGELO (-after Dec 1061).  "Dauferius archidiaconus filius quondam Guaiferii comitis" donated property "pro parte…Angeli germani sui" by charter dated Dec 1061[1416].] 

b)         LAMBERTO (-before Jan 1056).  A charter dated Apr 1058 records a donation by "Guaiferium et Lambertum comitibus germani filii quondam Alferii comitis"[1417].  The date of his death is set by a charter dated Jul 1060, under which "Landolfus filius quondam Guaiferii comitis et Aloara uxor sua filia Iohannis comitis palatii et Petrus filius quondam Lamberti comitis" donated property, quotes another charter dated Jan 1056 under which "--- filius quondam Alferii comitis et…Landolfus filius…Guaiferii comitis et Petrus filius quondam Lamberti comitis et Sergius filius quondam Desidei sartori" donated property[1418]m ---.  The name of Lambert´s wife is not known.  Lambert & his wife had one child: 

i)          PETRUS (-after Jul 1060).  "Landolfus filius quondam Guaiferii comitis et Aloara uxor sua filia Iohannis comitis palatii et Petrus filius quondam Lamberti comitis" donated property by charter dated Jul 1060[1419]

 

 

1.         PANDENOLF (-before Jan 1060).  m ---.  The name of Pandenolf´s wife is not known.  Pandenolf & his wife had one child: 

a)         PETRUS (-after Jan 1060).  A charter dated Jan 1060 records a donation by "Petrus comes filius quondam Pandenolfi clerici"[1420].  "Petro comite filio quondam Pandenolfi clerici" donated property "pro parte…Atocie uxori mee" by charter dated Sep 1062[1421]m ATOCIA, daughter of --- (-after Jan 1060).  "Petro comite filio quondam Pandenolfi clerici" donated property "pro parte…Atocie uxori mee" by charter dated Sep 1062[1422]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    CAPUA

 

 

Capua was awarded to Salerno when the latter's status as an autonomous principality was confirmed by the Radelgisi et Siginulfi Divisio Ducatus Beneventani, which was negotiated in early 849 by Louis II King of Italy[1423].  The town was ruled by a gastald who held the additional title count.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that fire destroyed the original city of Capua "Capua vetere" in 841, as well as a replacement settlement "in monticulum…Tripliscus qui alio nomine…Sicopolis", dated to [857], when a second move was made "ad pontem Cannii…civitatem qui nunc est Capua"[1424].  By about 860, the counts had severed their links with the principality of Salerno and acted autonomously.  At that time the towns of Capua, Teano and Sora formed the principality of Capua, while the later Liber censuum notes the addition of Calvi, Carinola, Caserta, Sessa, Venafro and Aquino[1425].  The contemporary sources are confusing and contradictory concerning the genealogy of the counts of Capua.  In addition, the numbering of the various princes is inconsistent between the sources.  Precise dating is also a problem as the primary sources rarely specify precise years for events.  Dating of the death and succession of the counts and princes of Capua is therefore mainly based on calculation from the number of years and months during which successive counts held the city, as reported in the list of counts of Capua (for the 9th and early 10th centuries) which is included in the Cronica de Monasterio S. Benedicti[1426].  The following reconstruction is an attempt to reconcile the various contradictions, but cannot be guaranteed as correct. 

 

 

 

A.      LOMBARD COUNTS of CAPUA

 

 

LANDOLF I 815-[843], LANDO I [843]-861, PANDO 842-862, LANDOLF II 842-879, LANDO II 861-884, PANDONULF 862-882, LANDO III 882-885, LANDENOLF I 885-[887]

 

LANDOLF [I], son of PANDO & his wife --- (-[842/44]).  "Landulph Maticu [=magnarum maxillarum], filius Pald" was installed as gastald and Count of Capua, dated to 815 by the editor of the MGH edition[1427].  Erchempert records "Landolfus" as "Capuæ…gastaldeus" when recording that he supported Siconulf, son of Sico Prince of Benevento, in the civil war with Arechis Prince of Benevento (dated to 839/42)[1428].  Arab mercenaries from Benevento burnt the old city of Capua in 841, after which a new city was built a few kilometres away[1429].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Landulfus comes" left "Capua vetere", which he had held for 25 years and 3 months, and moved "in monticulum…Tripliscus qui alio nomine…Sicopolis" in 841, and died three years later[1430].  Count Landolf built a heavily fortified castrum overlooking the city of Capua, referred to as "Rebelopolis"[1431].  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti record that "Landolfus senior" held "Capua veterem" for 25 years and 4 months and built "civitatem nobam in monte Trifisco" which he held for a further one year and eight months[1432]

m ---, daughter of [ROFRIT & his wife ---].  The parentage of the wife of Landolf [I] is suggested by the Chronicon Salernitanum which names "Adelchisi Rofrit filius…et suum cognatum Landolfum comite Capuano"[1433].  Stasser suggests that "cognatus" should be interpreted as brother-in-law in this context, and therefore that Landolf´s wife was the daughter of Rofrit[1434]

Landolf & his wife had four children: 

1.         LANDO [I] (-[860]).  Erchempert records that "Landulfo Capuano comite" was succeeded by "quatuor…liberos Landonem…Pandonem, Landonolfum et Landolfum futurum pontificem", adding that Lando ruled in Capua[1435].  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti record that "Lando filius eius" succeeded "Landolfus senior" as Count of Capua, dated to 842 by the editor of the MGH edition[1436].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Lando filius" succeeded on the death of "Landulfus comes", dated to 844 from the context, and ruled for 13 years and 8 months before "civitatem…novam…in monticulo" was destroyed by fire, after which he and "fratribus suis Landone, Pandone et Landulfo episcopo" built "ad pontem Cannii…civitatem qui nunc est Capua" where Lando ruled for another 3 years and 8 months[1437].  Erchempert records that "Landonem comitem Capuanum, filium Landolfi…et…Ademarium" resisted Emperor Louis II after his accession [in 855][1438].  Erchempert records that "Lando" was struck by paralysis not long after the death of "Landonolfo" [dated to 859 by the editor of the MGH edition][1439].  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti record that "Lando" held "civitatem" for 13 years and 9 months, until it was destroyed by fire, after which he and "fratribus suis…Landone, Pandone, Landolfo episcopo et Landenolfo" built "ad pontem Casulini…civitatem quæ nunc est Capua" in which he lived for a further 4 year and 9 months[1440]m ALOARA, daughter of ---.  "Aloara, Landonis coniux comitis" is named in the Chronicon Casinense, which specifies that she was expelled from Capua and went to Salerno after her husband died[1441].  Lando & his wife had [seven] children: 

a)         LANDO [II] (-after [887]).  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti record that "Lando filius eius [=Lando]" succeeded his father as Count of Capua, dated to 860 by the editor of the MGH edition, but was expelled from Capua after six months by "Pandon thio suo"[1442].  Erchempert records that "Sergius magister militum" sent "duos liberos suos Gregorium magistrum militum et Cæsarium nec non et Landulfum generum suum Suessulanum" to fight "Lando…filium…Lando iunior" [Count of Capua] after his father´s death [dated to 859 by the editor of the MGH edition] but that "Cæsarium" was captured[1443].  Erchempert records that "Landulfus" captured "Guaiferium principem" [dated to 874 by the editor of the MGH edition], that he was released after appointing "filios Landonis, Landonem…et Landonulfum, cognatos suos" as pledges and left for Ravenna in exile[1444].  Erchempert records that, after the death of "Landulfus" [dated to 879 by the editor of the MGH edition], "nepotes illius" divided Capuan territories among themselves and that "Pandonolfus" took "urbem Tianensem et Casam Irlam", "Lando" took "Berelais et Suessam", "alter Lando" took "Calinum et Caiaziæ", "Atenolfus" took "castrum in Calvo", and that "Landulfum…adolescentulum Landoni filium" was consecrated as bishop[1445].  It is assumed that Lando who received "Berelais et Suessam" was Lando [II] ex-Count of Capua, son of Count Lando [I], but this is not beyond all doubt.  Erchempert records that, after the accession of "Atenolfus", he was opposed by "Landone germano eius…cum ceteris fratribus" (which passage must refer to Lando [II] ex-Count of Capua, cousin of Atenolf not his brother) but that "Lando" returned to "Teanum" which he left to "Landonolfus frater suus"[1446].  [m firstly ---.  No direct evidence has been found of this supposed first marriage.  However, the chronology of this family suggests that [884] would have been late for Lando [II] to have married for the first time, when he was probably born in the 820s.]  m [secondly] ([884]) as her second husband, --- of Naples, widow of ---, daughter of [SERGIUS II Duke of Naples & his wife ---].  Erchempert records that "Athanasius" arranged the marriage of "neptem suam…adhuc lactantem" to "Landoni seniori, filio…Landonis" [dated to 884 by the editor of the MGH edition][1447]

b)         LANDOLF (-[after 891]).  His parentage is confirmed by Erchempert who names "Landulfo, Landonis filio" and "Sergio magistro militum…socer…illius"[1448].  A later passage in Erchempert records that "Sergius magister militum" sent "duos liberos suos Gregorium magistrum militum et Cæsarium nec non et Landulfum generum suum Suessulanum" to fight "Lando…filium…Lando iunior" [Count of Capua] after his father´s death [dated to 859 by the editor of the MGH edition][1449]m (before 856) --- of Naples, daughter of SERGIUS I Duke of Naples & his wife Drosu ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Erchempert who names "Landulfo, Landonis filio" and "Sergio magistro militum…socer…illius"[1450].  A later passage in Erchempert records that "Sergius magister militum" sent "duos liberos suos Gregorium magistrum militum et Cæsarium nec non et Landulfum generum suum Suessulanum" to fight "Lando…filium…Lando iunior" [Count of Capua] after his father´s death [dated to 859 by the editor of the MGH edition][1451].  Landolf & his wife had two children: 

i)          LANDO .  Erchempert records that Athanasius II Duke of Naples besieged Avella, held by "Landolfus Suessulanus", and captured "filio eius iuniore nurumque illius, uxore…Landonis" who accompanied Guaimar Prince of Salerno to Constantinople[1452]m ---.  Erchempert records that Athanasius II Duke of Naples besieged Avella, held by "Landolfus Suessulanus", and captured "filio eius iuniore nurumque illius, uxore…Landonis" who accompanied Guaimar Prince of Salerno to Constantinople[1453]

ii)         son .  Erchempert records that Athanasius II Duke of Naples besieged Avella, held by "Landolfus Suessulanus", and captured "filio eius iuniore nurumque illius, uxore…Landonis" who accompanied Guaimar Prince of Salerno to Constantinople[1454]

c)         LANDENOLF (-after [887]).  Erchempert records that "Landulfus" captured "Guaiferium principem" [dated to 874 by the editor of the MGH edition], that he was released after appointing "filios Landonis, Landonem…et Landonulfum, cognatos suos" as pledges and left for Ravenna in exile[1455].  Erchempert records that, after the accession of "Atenolfus", he was opposed by "Landone germano eius…cum ceteris fratribus" (which passage must refer to Lando [II] ex-Count of Capua, cousin of Atenolf not his brother) but that "Lando" returned to "Teanum" which he left to "Landonolfus frater suus"[1456].  Erchempert records that "filiis Landonis…Lando cum omnibus germanis suis…Landonolfus, Pando et nepos eorum Guaiferius" returning to "Teanum"[1457]

d)         PIETRO ([833/37]-after 849).  The treaty of division between Radelchis Prince of Benevento and Siconulf, dated 849, names "Petrum filium Landonis et Paldefrit filium Paldulfi" and "Adelgisum et Ladelgisum filios meos et Potonem nepotem meum" as sureties/hostages for performance of the agreement[1458].  Pietro was presumably an adolescent at that time. 

e)         PANDO .  Erchempert records that "filiis Landonis…Lando cum omnibus germanis suis…Landonolfus, Pando et nepos eorum Guaiferius" returning to "Teanum"[1459]

f)          LANDELAICHA (-after Mar 882).  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "comes Capuanus Lando" had "duas filias", one of whom was intended to marry "Guaiferii" [dated to [856] from the context][1460].  Her marriage is also indicated by Erchempert who records that "Landulfus" captured "Guaiferium principem" [dated to 874 by the editor of the MGH edition], that he was released after appointing "filios Landonis, Landonem…et Landonulfum, cognatos suos" as pledges and left for Ravenna in exile[1461].  "Domne Landelaiche uxorem domni Waiferii principis" is named in a charter dated Jul 869, which also refers to, but does not name, "filiis et filie sue"[1462].  "Domna Landelaicha…cum…domno Waimario principe filio suo" made a donation by charter dated Mar 882[1463]m ([856]) as his second wife, GUAIFER Prince of Salerno, son of DAUFER "Mutus" & his wife --- (-[Feb/Aug] 880). 

g)         daughter .  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "comes Capuanus Lando" had "duas filias", one of whom was intended to marry "Guaiferii" [dated to [856] from the context][1464]

2.         PANDO (-[862]).  The Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti record that "Lando" and "fratribus suis…Landone, Pandone, Landolfo episcopo et Landenolfo" built "ad pontem Casulini…civitatem quæ nunc est Capua" after the old city was destroyed by fire[1465].  Erchempert records that "Landulfo Capuano comite" was succeeded by "quatuor…liberos Landonem…Pandonem, Landonolfum et Landolfum futurum pontificem", adding that Pando ruled "marepahissatum"