SOUTHERN ITALY (2)

  v2.0 Updated 10 February 2011

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.            COUNTIES in BASILICATA. 4

A.       SIGNORI di CHIAROMONTE.. 5

B.       CONTI di MARSICO.. 7

C.      CONTI di POLICASTRO (LORDS of PATERNÒ) 7

D.      CONTI di SANSEVERINO.. 7

E.       CONTI di TRICARICO.. 7

Chapter 2.            COUNTIES in CALABRIA. 7

A.       CONTI di CATANZARO.. 7

B.       CONTI di SQUILLACE.. 7

C.      CONTI di TARSIA.. 7

Chapter 3.            COUNTIES in CAMPANIA. 7

A.       CONTI di ACERRA.. 7

B.       CONTI di ALIFE.. 7

C.      CONTI di APICE (BALBANO) 7

D.      CONTI di ARIANO.. 7

F.       CONTI di AVELLINO.. 7

G.      CONTI di AVERSA.. 7

H.      CONTI di BUONALBERGO.. 7

I.    CONTI di CASERTA.. 7

K.       CONTI di GESUALDO.. 7

L.       CONTI di PRINCIPATO.. 7

M.      CONTI di SARNO.. 7

Chapter 4.            COUNTIES in MOLISE. 7

A.       CONTI di CIVITATE.. 7

B.       CONTI di LESINA.. 7

D.      CONTI di MOLISE (CONTI di BOIANO) 7

E.       CONTI di SANGRO.. 7

Chapter 5.            COUNTIES in PUGLIA. 7

A.       CONTI di ANDRIA, DUCA di ANDRIA.. 7

B.       CONTI di ASCOLI 7

C.      PRINCES of BARI 7

D.      CONTI di CONVERSANO.. 7

E.       CONTI di GRAVINA.. 7

F.       CONTI di LECCE.. 7

G.      CONTI di MATERA.. 7

H.      CONTI di MOLFETTA.. 7

I.    CONTI di MONTESCAGLIOSO.. 7

I.    CONTI di TARANTO.. 7

Chapter 6.            OTHER NEAPOLITAN NOBILITY, UNALLOCATED. 7

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

This document provides a continuation to the document SOUTHERN ITALY (1), and shows nobles families in the southern half of the Italian peninsula in the 11th to 14th centuries, after the fall of the Lombard principalities, in the area of the present-day Italian regions of Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Molise and Puglia.  The nobles in question were vassals of the dukes of Apulia, later kings of Sicily.  They were, in turn, followers of the Norman Hauteville dynasty of kings (until the end-12th century), the Hohenstaufen (first half of the 13th century), the Anjou-Capet kings (from 1266), and their Aragonese rivals (from the late-13th century).  As will be seen, control of many of the counties changed with each successive change of dynasty. 

 

The arrival of the Normans in southern Italy in the early 11th century triggered a complete change in the profile of the nobility.  The new Norman rulers established their own network of counties and appointed their own followers as counts.  There were numerous new appointments, and counts were frequently switched from one county to another, or dispossessed entirely as punishment for participation in the numerous rebellions organised against the Norman rulers.  The information in the primary sources about these early Norman nobles is patchy.  Despite access to many sources, it has proved difficult to reconstitute many of these noble Norman families for more than a couple of generations.  Nor has much information been found on the precise origins of the Norman counts who settled in southern Italy.  A few can be connected to noble families in Normandy, but they are the exception.  It is assumed that the majority of Norman immigrants came from relatively humble backgrounds.  In several cases, the sources hint at family connections between these newly established nobility and the Hauteville family of the dukes of Apulia/kings of Sicily, but not all such relationships can be traced precisely. 

 

A handful of Lombard noble families survived the transition and continued to flourish under Norman rule.  They were also joined by families from northern Italy, in some cases related to the Aleramici dynasty of the Marchesi di Monferrato and Marchesi del Vasto e Saluzzo, who arrived in southern Italy as a result of dynastic marriages into the ruling family of the Norman counts of Apulia and Sicily, or as adventurers. 

 

The Norman dynasty of the kingdom of Sicily became extinct in the legitimate male line at the end of the 12th century.  The arrival of the Hohenstaufen dynasty from Germany brought a new wave of nobles in its wake, the most influential of which was the family of the Bavarian Markgrafen von Hohenburg.  Existing Norman families who supported King Federigo (the future Emperor Friedrich II) retained their positions, but dissatisfaction with the new rulers triggered rebellions and confiscation of their properties which followed the suppression of the revolts, for example the case of the Conti di Sanseverino.  During the ten years of rule by Manfredo King of Sicily, illegitimate son of Emperor Friedrich, a change in the practice of noble appointments can be observed from the primary sources, which reveal only a handful of new counts most of whom were the king´s relatives on his mother´s side of the family.  The holdings of Manfredo´s nobles were confiscated by King Charles I after his accession in 1266, and a new group of nobility arrived in the kingdom, notably the various members of the Baux family of Provence who came to Naples with the Angevin king. 

 

It is noteworthy that the primary sources so far consulted do not mention any counts who were installed on the island of Sicily itself, the territories established on the Italian mainland presumably being less challenging to maintain. 

 

Two comprehensive documents provide an effective census of nobility in the kingdom of Sicily for the mid-12th and mid-13th centuries.  A listing of nobles and their landholdings under the Norman kings is provided by the "Catalogus Baronum", which was compiled under the auspices of Guillaume II "le Bon" King of Sicily[1].  The document is not dated but it can probably be assigned narrowly to [1168], judging by the names of some of the individuals who are recorded, assuming that all parts of the survey were compiled at the same time.  The Catalogus records fiefholders in the following named duchies, counties and principalities within the Sicilian kingdom: "ducatus Apuliæ…terræ Bari…comitatus Gravinæ…comitatus Andriæ…comitatu Cupersani…principatu Tarenti…comitatus Montis Caveosi…comitatus Licii…comitatus Civitatis…comitatu Loritelli…comitatus Casertæ…comitatus Fundanus…Domini di Aquino…comitatu Simonis comitis de Sangro".  Other counties which were known before the mid-12th century are also referred to by name, but not as counties, for example Avellino, Marsico and Aversa.  It is difficult to be sure whether this omission was intended or only represents unintentional drafting errors.  Just over 100 years after the Catalogus was written, Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] compiled a "Book of Fees" which lists properties which had been confiscated from the supporters of his predecessor, King Manfredo, and were restored to their previous owners by the new regime[2].  The listing refers to many nobles and their castles, including genealogical details which have not been found elsewhere, but names only four counties in the kingdom: Sanseverino, Marsico, Caserta and Apice. 

 

The counties set out in this document are grouped by present-day Italian region.  This is not especially satisfactory as it in no way reflects the divisions which existed in medieval times.  Nevertheless, it is anticipated that it will prove more helpful to future research to group the nobility territorially.  In addition, a large number of references have been found to nobles in southern Italy which have not yet been allocated geographically.  They are set out in Chapter 6 of the present document.  I am grateful to Paolo Rossi's work in helping to establish the geographical allocation of these counties[3]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    COUNTIES in BASILICATA

 

 

The present-day Italian region of Basilicata is located north of Calabria and the south of Puglia [Apulia].  The only medieval counties so far identified with this area are Marsico, Policastro, Sanseverino and Tricarico, as well as the Signoria di Chiaromonte. 

 

 

 

A.      SIGNORI di CHIAROMONTE

 

 

Chiaromonte is located mid-way between the towns of Senise and Fardella in the southern part of the present-day Italian region of Basilicata.  It lies between the rivers Sinni and Serrapótamo.  Hugues "Monoculus" is recorded as Lord of Chiaromonte from 1074.  Descendants of his family have so far been traced in primary sources until the 1130s. 

 

 

Four siblings: 

1.         HUGUES "Monoculus" (-after 13 May 1111).  "Ugo Clarimontis" and his wife "Gimarga" donated property to the monastery of San Anastasio di Carbone by charter dated Mar 1074[4].  "Hugues de Chiaromonte" donated the church of Santa Maria di Cersosimo to Cava, for the soul of "son fils Roger", by charter dated 15 Nov 1088, subscribed by "Ascettinus de Claromonte"[5].  "Alexander filius domine Rocce et gener domini Ugonis Clarimontis" with his wife "Avenia" donated property to San Anastasio di Carbone, with the consent of "son seigneur et beau-père sire Hugues", by charter dated [Sep 1085/Aug 1096], subscribed by "…Nicolaus frater domini [Alexandri]…"[6].  "Ugo de Claromonte et Alexander nepos Riccardi dapiferi" subscribed the charter dated [Sep 1100/Aug 1101] under which "Richard Sénéchal neveu de Robert Guiscard" donated property which "sa sœur Aumberga" possessed until her death to the bishop of Nicastro[7].  "Riccardus comitis Drogonis filius atque Roberti Guiscardi totius Calabrie et Apulie atque Sicilie ducis…atque fili eiusdem Rogeri et ipsius heredis dapifer" donated property inherited from "soror mea Aumburga" to the bishop of Nicastro and the church of San Pietro founded by "sorore mea Aumberga" by charter dated 1101, witnessed by "Ugo de Claromonte, Rogerius Roberti ducis filius…Dragus frater Alexandri…Alexander nepos Riccardi dapifer"[8].  Roger II King of Sicily confirmed the possessions of the monastery of Santa Maria di Tercia by charter dated 16 Oct 1133, including property donated by "Hugo de Claromonte…MCI mense Decembris"[9].  "Albereda Colubrari Pollicorique domina" donated the church of San Nicola Peratico to Cava, for the souls of "Roberti Guiscardi ducis…bone memorie viri, Dominique Boamundi, nec non Rogerii de Pomareda…mei quondam viri, Dominique Ugonis Clarimontis…dominique Alexandri Clarimontis suique fratris domini Riccardi meorum…nepotum", by charter dated Jul 1122[10]m GIMARGA, daughter of ---.  "Ugo Clarimontis" and his wife "Gimarga" donated property to the monastery of San Anastasio di Carbone by charter dated Mar 1074[11].  Hugues & his wife had three children: 

a)         ASKETILL di Chiaromonte .  "Hugues de Chiaromonte" donated the church of Santa Maria di Cersosimo to Cava, for the soul of "son fils Roger", by charter dated 15 Nov 1088, subscribed by "Ascettinus de Claromonte"[12].  m ---.  The name of Asketill´s wife is not known.  Asketill & his wife had one child: 

i)          UGO di Chiaromonte (-after Sep 1125).  "Alexandro de Claromonte et Riccardo fratre meo" confirmed the donation of the church of Santa Maria di Scanzana to the monastery of San Anastasio di Carbone by "beatæ memoriæ Riccardi Sinescalci et dominæ Alberedæ amitæ nostræ et Petri Boiti et clarissimi dynastæ domini Boamundi", by charter dated Sep 1125, witnessed by "Hugo filius Raneri et Comestabulus, Hugo filius Ascintini de Claromonte…"[13]

b)         ROGER di Chiaromonte .  "Hugues de Chiaromonte" donated the church of Santa Maria di Cersosimo to Cava, for the soul of "son fils Roger", by charter dated 15 Nov 1088, subscribed by "Ascettinus de Claromonte"[14]

c)         AVENIA (-after Mar 1108).  "Alexander filius domine Rocce et gener domini Ugonis Clarimontis" with his wife "Avenia" donated property to San Anastasio di Carbone, with the consent of "son seigneur et beau-père sire Hugues", by charter dated [Sep 1085/Aug 1096], subscribed by "…Nicolaus frater domini [Alexandri]…"[15].  "Alexander de Sinesio" with his wife "Avenia" donated the church of San Filippo di Palaciis to San Anastasio di Carbone by charter dated Mar 1108, subscribed by "Niellis frater domini Alexandri"[16]m ALESSANDRO, son of UBERTO & his wife Rocca --- (-[Mar/Apr] 1108, bur San Niccolo di Bari). 

2.         ALEXANDRE (-after 1116).  Roger II King of Sicily confirmed the possessions of the monastery of Santa Maria di Tercia by charter dated 16 Oct 1133, including property donated by "Alexander de Claromonte…MCXVI" for the soul of "fratris sui Hugonis"[17]

3.         --- .  m ---.  Two children: 

a)         ALESSANDRO (-after 1139).  "Albereda Colubrari Pollicorique domina" donated the church of San Nicola Peratico to Cava, for the souls of "Roberti Guiscardi ducis…bone memorie viri, Dominique Boamundi, nec non Rogerii de Pomareda…mei quondam viri, Dominique Ugonis Clarimontis…dominique Alexandri Clarimontis suique fratris domini Riccardi meorum…nepotum", by charter dated Jul 1122[18].  Signore di Pollicori.  "Alexandro de Claromonte et Riccardo fratre meo" confirmed the donation of the church of Santa Maria di Scanzana to the monastery of San Anastasio di Carbone by "beatæ memoriæ Riccardi Sinescalci et dominæ Alberedæ amitæ nostræ et Petri Boiti et clarissimi dynastæ domini Boamundi", by charter dated Sep 1125, witnessed by "Hugo filius Raneri et Comestabulus, Hugo filius Ascintini de Claromonte…"[19].  The Romoaldi Annales record that "Riccardus…de Claromonte" was killed at Bari, dated to Oct 1139, and "Alexander…frater eius" retreated "in Romaniam"[20]

b)         RICCARDO di Chiaromonte (-executed Bari Oct 1139).  "Albereda Colubrari Pollicorique domina" donated the church of San Nicola Peratico to Cava, for the souls of "Roberti Guiscardi ducis…bone memorie viri, Dominique Boamundi, nec non Rogerii de Pomareda…mei quondam viri, Dominique Ugonis Clarimontis…dominique Alexandri Clarimontis suique fratris domini Riccardi meorum…nepotum", by charter dated Jul 1122[21].  "Alexandro de Claromonte et Riccardo fratre meo" confirmed the donation of the church of Santa Maria di Scanzana to the monastery of San Anastasio di Carbone by "beatæ memoriæ Riccardi Sinescalci et dominæ Alberedæ amitæ nostræ et Petri Boiti et clarissimi dynastæ domini Boamundi", by charter dated Sep 1125, witnessed by "Hugo filius Raneri et Comestabulus, Hugo filius Ascintini de Claromonte…"[22].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Goffredus…domini Alexandri comitis filius et Riccardus Clarimontis dominus" defended Brindisi in 1133 against King Roger who had returned from Sicily in May 1133 to recapture the citadel[23].  The Romoaldi Annales record that "Riccardus…de Claromonte" was killed at Bari, dated to Oct 1139, and "Alexander…frater eius" retreated "in Romaniam"[24]

4.         ALBEREDA (-[Jul 1122/Sep 1125], bur Church of the Abbey of Santissima Trinità, near Venosa).  "Roggerius de Pomareda…cum domina Albereda…coniuge mea" donated the church of Santa Maria di Scanzana to the abbot of Santa Maria di Pisticci by charter dated Jan 1095[25].  "Ricchardus Senescalcus maximi comitis Drogonis filius…cum domina Albereda…coniuge mea" donated the church of Santa Maria di Scanzana to the abbot of Santa Maria di Pisticci by charter dated Mar 1113[26].  "Albereda domina Colubrarii et Policorii" donated property to SS Trinità di Venosa, for the souls of "Rogerii de Pomareda viri mei" and for the health of "viri mei Riccardi Senescalli…militis Domini comitis Drogonis filii, et filii mei Roberti", and with the consent of "Riccardus Senescallus domini comitis Drogonis filius", by charter dated 1118[27].  "Albereda Colubrari Pollicorique domina" donated the church of San Nicola Peratico to Cava, for the souls of "Roberti Guiscardi ducis…bone memorie viri, Dominique Boamundi, nec non Rogerii de Pomareda…mei quondam viri, Dominique Ugonis Clarimontis…dominique Alexandri Clarimontis suique fratris domini Riccardi meorum…nepotum", by charter dated Jul 1122[28].  "Alexandro de Claromonte et Riccardo fratre meo" confirmed the donation of the church of Santa Maria di Scanzana to the monastery of San Anastasio di Carbone by "beatæ memoriæ Riccardi Sinescalci et dominæ Alberedæ amitæ nostræ et Petri Boiti et clarissimi dynastæ domini Boamundi", by charter dated Sep 1125, witnessed by "Hugo filius Raneri et Comestabulus, Hugo filius Ascintini de Claromonte…"[29]m firstly RUGGIERO di Pomareda, son of ---.  m secondly ([Apr 1108/Mar 1113]) as his second wife, RICHARD Conte di Mottola, Castellaneta e Oria, son of DROGO de Hauteville Conte di Apulia & his first wife Altruda --- ([1047/51]-[1118/Sep 1125]).  Albereda & her first husband had one child: 

a)         ROBERTO [di Pomareda] (-[1122/Sep 1125]).  "Albereda domina Colubrarii et Policorii" donated property to SS Trinità di Venosa, for the souls of "Rogerii de Pomareda viri mei" and for the health of "viri mei Riccardi Senescalli…militis Domini comitis Drogonis filii, et filii mei Roberti", and with the consent of "Riccardus Senescallus domini comitis Drogonis filius", by charter dated 1118[30].  It is likely that he died before Sep 1125, the date of the charter under which his mother´s nephews confirmed her donation to San Anastasio di Carbone.  He was probably still alive in 1122, otherwise his mother would have named him among her deceased relatives for whom she made donations to Cava. 

 

 

 

B.      CONTI di MARSICO

 

 

The town of Marsico, now Marsico Nuovo, is situated in the south-western part of the present-day Italian region of Basilicata.  It was elevated into a county by Roger I King of Sicily in [1150] in favour of Silvestre, son of Geoffroy di Ragusa who was an illegitimate son of Roger I Count of Sicily.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Silvester de Marsico" holding fees "in demanio Marsicum…Roccettam…et Dianum…et Salam…" in "de Marsico"[31].  The county was later granted to the counts of Sanseverino, who were descended from the daughter of Count Silvestre.  Manfredo King of Sicily appointed Enrico di Spernaria as conte di Marsico, and later Riccardo Filangeri.  After the fall of King Manfredo, the county was returned to the Sanseverino family by Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet].  The subsequent history of the county has not yet been traced. 

 

 

GEOFFROY, illegitimate son of ROGER I Count of Sicily & his mistress --- (-after 1120).  It is not possible that this Geoffroy was the same person as Comte Roger´s son, named Geoffroy/Godefroi, who is recorded as having been a leper.  It is also chronologically impossible that he was the son of Roger II Count of Sicily, given the latter´s birth in 1095.  It is assumed therefore that this second son named Geoffroy was an illegitimate son of Count Roger I.  His father granted him Ragusa[32].  "Tancredus de Siracusa et Goffredus de Ragusia et Robert Avenelles et Radulfus de Belvaco" are named as present in a charter dated [Mar 25/31 Aug] 1107 under which "Adalasia comitissa Siciliæ et Calabriæ et…comes Rogerius filius eius" donated property to the bishopric of Squillace on the advice of "ipsorum baronum…Roberti Borelli et Gosberti de Licia et Willelmi de Altavilla"[33].  "Geoffroi de Raguse, fils du comte Roger" is named with his three sons in a charter dated 1120[34]

m ROGALIA, daughter of --- (-[after Sep 1141]).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  She was presumably alive in Sep 1141, the date of the charter, subscribed by "…Rogerii filii domne Raguse…", under which "Gaimarus filius Alfani…et uxor mea Beatrix" restored property to the bishop of Cefalù[35]

Godefroi & his wife had three children: 

1.         ROGER .  "Geoffroi de Raguse, fils du comte Roger" is named with his three sons in a charter dated 1120[36].  "…Roberti de Constantino, Rogerii Marescalli, Manguisi privigni eius, Gaufridi Andegavensis, Robert Scalionis, Willelmi de Aurentia…Rogerii filii domne Raguse…" subscribed the charter dated Sep 1141 under which "Gaimarus filius Alfani…et uxor mea Beatrix" restored property to the bishop of Cefalù[37].  1154. 

2.         SILVESTRE (-after 1166).  "Geoffroi de Raguse, fils du comte Roger" is named with his three sons in a charter dated 1120[38].  Chalandon says that Silvestre de Marsico was the son of "Geoffroi de Raguse, fils du comte Roger I"[39].  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was invested as Conte di Marsico in [1150] by Roger I King of Sicily.  Hugo Falcandus names "Count Silvester" describing him as "the most timid of men" and one of the nobles in Sicily whose survival was attributable to their unwillingness to move against chancellor Maio[40].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Guillelmus filius Henrici de Sancto Severino" holding "demanium eius de Sancto Severino…de Principatu", with "milites XIII et augmentum eius milites XIV…una…inter feudum et augmentum milites XXVIII", adding in a later passage that "comes Silvester tenet eium in servitio"[41].  The same source records "comes Silvester de Marsico" holding fees "in demanio Marsicum…Roccettam…et Dianum…et Salam…" in "de Marsico", with "militum XXXVI et augmentum eius milites LXXII"[42]m ---.  The name of Silvestre's wife is not known.  Silvestre & his wife had four children: 

a)         GUILLAUME (-after 15 Aug 1176).  His parentage is confirmed by the reference to a lost charter dated to [1161/66] which records the sale by Guillaume I King of Sicily of houses in Palermo to "…comitis Silvestris patri mei", and his son Count Guillaume reselling these houses[43].  1166.  Hugo Falcandus records that "the queen created eight counts in that one year [1166]" including "Count Silvester's son William"[44]Conte di Marsico.  "Guglielmo conte di Marsico" sold property which Guillaume I King of Sicily had granted to "Silvestro padre suo" by charter dated 1175[45].  "Guillelmus…comes Marsici" confirmed having sold property to the "Dogana dei Baroni", which had been sold to "comiti Silvestro patri meo", by charter dated Jul 1176, signed by "Henrici de Vizino, Guidoni de Gifone"[46].  "…Conte Guglielmo di Marsico, conte Anfuso, Ugo Lapino" subscribed the charter dated 15 Aug 1176 under which Guillaume II King of Sicily founded a church at Monreale, and donated property of "fu Silvestro conte di Marsico"[47]m STEFANIA, daughter of ---.  1190/92.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Guillaume & his wife had one child: 

i)          DESIDERATA (-Jan 1201).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m BARTHOLOME de Lucy Conte di Paternò, son of --- de Lucy & his wife --- (-1200).

b)         GODEFROI .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

c)         MATHILDE .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

d)         ISABELLE .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m GUGLIELMO Conte di Sanseverino, son of ENRICO Conte di Sanseverino & his wife Fenicia --- (-after [1168]).  

3.         son .  "Geoffroi de Raguse, fils du comte Roger" is named with his three sons in a charter dated 1120[48]

 

 

1.         TOMMASO di Sanseverino, son of GUGLIELMO di Sanseverino & his wife Isabella di Marsico (-after 1223)Conte di SanseverinoConte di Marsico.  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that Emperor Friedrich II restored "castrum Siani", confiscated from his brother, to "comes Thomasius frater ipsius comitis Jacobi" who held Sanseverino for one year but then exchanged "terram S. Severini et Roccam Cilenti" for "comitatu Marsici"[49].   The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that Emperor Friedrich II confiscated "castrum S. Severini" from "comitem Thomasium patri…comitis Rogerii, et d. Guilielmum filium eius" at the time of "rebellionis Caputacii" when "ipsi…cum aliis baronibus" plotted to assassinate the emperor and fled the country[50].  Tommaso & his wife had two children: 

a)         see SANSEVERINO

b)         RUGGIERO di Sanseverino (-[1281/86]).  His parentage is confirmed by the Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily which records that "castrum Atani, Sala et Dianum" were restored to "comiti Rogerio de S. Severino", adding that "castrum Sale" had been granted to "comiti Thomasio patri dicti comitis Rogerii" by Emperor Friedrich II[51]Conte di SanseverinoConte di Marsico.  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that "Rocca Cilenti…castrum Atani, Sala et Dianumcastrum S. Severini" were restored to "comiti Rogerio de Sancto Severino" who exchanged it and "S. Severinum" for "comitatum Marsici"[52].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "el conte Rugier de San Severin, el conte de Mersiche" landed at Acre 7 Jun, in 1277 from the context, leading troops sent by Charles I King of Naples [Anjou-Capet][53].  "Rogerius de San Severino comes de Marsica, bajulus Caroli I regis Siciliæ et Hierosolymitani" settled a dispute between the Knights Hospitallers and the Pisans by charter dated 31 Oct 1281[54]

 

 

1.         ENRICO di SpernariaConte di MarsicoThe Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that "Henrico de Spernaria" was granted "comitatus Marsici" in Feb 1256 by the future Manfredo King of Sicily[55]

 

 

1.         RICCARDO Filangeri .  The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that "Thomas comes Acerræ cognatus Principis" [referring to the future Manfredo King of Sicily] "et Riccardus Filangerius" visited Manfredo to negotiate their support during the period when he was plotting to seize the kingdom, dated to [1254/55] from the context[56]Conte di Marsico.  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina names "Richardus Filangerius comes Marsici" as viceroy of Manfredo King of Sicily in Sicily[57]

2.         [TOMMASO Filangeri (-before 2 May 1256).  The parentage of Tommaso is not known.  But his name suggests that he may have been a younger brother or paternal uncle of Riccardo Filangerio.]  m ---.  The name of Tommaso´s wife is not known.  Tommaso & his wife had one child: 

a)         MATTIA (-after 2 May 1256).  Pope Alexander IV wrote to "Mattia filia q. d. Thomasii cognomino Filangerii tenens baroniam in Aversa" referring to a dispute with the monastery of "S. petri ad aram de Neap." about a mill at Aversa, dated 2 May 1256[58]

 

 

 

C.      CONTI di POLICASTRO (LORDS of PATERNÒ)

 

 

The southern coast of the present-day Italian region of Basilicata lies on the Gulf of Policastro.  A town of Policastro has not yet been located.  A county of Policastro is recorded by Hugo Falcandus in the early 1150s, but no later references have been identified.  The count of Policastro also held Butera and Paternò in Sicily. 

 

 

ENRICO del Vasto, son of MANFREDO del Vasto Marchese di Savona & his wife --- (-1137). "Bonifacius marchio filius quondam Teutonis…marchio et Henrico nepos suus" donated property to the canons of the church "in valle Burmia in loco…Ferranica" by charter dated 1097[59].   He was granted Paternò and Butera, either by his brother-in-law Roger I Count of Sicily or by Roger´s widow after Count Roger's death.  "Henricus avunculus comitis…" witnessed a charter dated [Oct] 1116 by which "Rogerius Sicilie atque Calabrie comes" confirmed a judgment relating to Bagnara[60]

m (before 1094) FLANDRINA of Sicily, daughter of ROGER I Count of Sicily & his second wife Eremburge de Mortain.  Chalandon records that her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Pirro[61]

Enrico & his wife had one child: 

1.         SIMONE (-after Sep 1156).  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese names "Simon comes Sancti Angeli Montis Gargani…consobrinus frater regis…filiusque Henrici comitis…regis avunculi" among the supporters of Roger King of Sicily, dated to [1134/35] from the context[62].  Conte di Santo Angelo (nel Monte Gargano).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Sep 1156 under which "Guillelmus…rex Sicilie, ducatus Apulie et principatus Capue" guaranteed continued possession by the monastery of Patti of property previously donated by "comes Henricus pater ipsius comitis Simonis", which the latter had taken[63]Conte di Policastro.  Hugo Falcandus names "Count Simon of Policastro", records that he opposed chancellor Maio of Bari who plotted against him in [1154/55] and that he was arrested and deprived of his office of constable[64]m ---.  The name of Simone's wife is not known.  Simone & his wife had one child:

a)         MANFREDO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

Simone had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

b)         ROGER "Sclavus" (-after 1161).  Hugo Falcandus names "Count Simon's bastard son Roger Sclavus" among those responsible for the capture of Guillaume I King of Sicily in 1161[65]

 

 

1.         LUCA di Policastro (-before Dec 1252).  m MARIA, daughter of --- (-after Dec 1252).  "Maria uxor quondam Luce de Policastro et Henricus filius suus" granted dowry to "Bonaventuram filiam et sororem eorum" for her marriage to "Leoni de Paolo Amalfitano cive Messane", by charter dated Dec 1252[66].  Luca & his wife had two children: 

a)         ENRICO di Policastro (-after Dec 1252).  "Maria uxor quondam Luce de Policastro et Henricus filius suus" granted dowry to "Bonaventuram filiam et sororem eorum" for her marriage to "Leoni de Paolo Amalfitano cive Messane", by charter dated Dec 1252[67]

b)         BONAVENTURA di Policastro (-after Dec 1252).  "Maria uxor quondam Luce de Policastro et Henricus filius suus" granted dowry to "Bonaventuram filiam et sororem eorum" for her marriage to "Leoni de Paolo Amalfitano cive Messane", by charter dated Dec 1252[68]m ([Dec 1252]) LEONE di Paolo Amalfitano, son of [PAOLO & his wife ---].  

 

 

1.         JOSBERT de Lucy (-after 1110)m MURIELLA of Sicily, daughter of ROGER I Count of Sicily & his second wife Eremburge de Mortain (-after 1119).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

a)         --- de Lucym ---.  [Two] children: 

i)          [ALPHONSE de Lucy .] 

ii)         BARTHOLOME de Lucy (-1200).  Emperor Heinrich VI granted Paternò to Bartolomé de Lucy in 1194[69]m DESIDERATA, daughter of GUILLAUME Conte di Marsico & his wife Stefania --- (-1201).  Bartholomé & his wife had one child: 

(a)       MARGUERITE de Lucy .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m PAGANO, son of BARTOLOMEO de Parisio & his wife ---. 

 

 

 

D.      CONTI di SANSEVERINO

 

 

The original base of the lords and counts of Sanseverino was what is today the town of San Severino Lucano, in the south of the present-day Italian region of Basilicata.  However, the influence of the comital family spread far from its original stronghold.  The evolution of the county of Sanseverino is complex.  The castle of Sanseverino was presumably built in the mid-11th century: references have been found in primary sources to the Norman family which took its name from the castle from 1081.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Guillelmus filius Henrici de Sancto Severino" holding "demanium eius de Sancto Severino…de Principatu", with 28 knights´ fees[70].  The lordship was presumably elevated to the status of a county for the first time by Emperor Friedrich II (the first reference found to the county dates to 1218).  Emperor Friedrich confiscated the castle of Sanseverino from Giacopo Conte di Sanseverino, who rebelled against him, but later restored it to Giacopo´s brother Tommaso who promptly exchanged Sanseverino and his other lands for the county of Marsico.  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] records that Manfredo King of Sicily restored "castrum S. Severini" to Ruggiero, son of Conte Tommaso, but confiscated it from him after another rebellion[71].  The same source records that King Manfredo granted "comitatum…Apicii…cum castrum S. Severi" to his uncle Federigo Maletta[72].  After the accession of King Charles I, the county was restored to Ruggiero di Sanseverino, but he also exchanged it for the county of Marsico.  No further references have yet been found in primary sources to Sanseverino as a county after that time.  

 

 

1.         TURGISE de Rota .  A Norman.  m ---.  Turgise & his wife had four children: 

a)         ROBERT di Sanseverino .  "Roger de San Severino" donated property to Cava abbey, for the souls of "son père Turgisius, de son frère Robert et de l´épouse de ce dernier Gaitelgrima", by charter dated Mar 1082[73]m GAITELGRIMA, daughter of ---.  "Roger de San Severino" donated property to Cava abbey, for the souls of "son père Turgisius, de son frère Robert et de l´épouse de ce dernier Gaitelgrima", by charter dated Mar 1082[74]

i)          --- di Sanseverinom as her first husband, ---, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriages has not yet been identified.   She married secondly Robert Capumazza .  One child: 

(a)       ROBERTO (-1183).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Conte di Caserta 1150.  Hugo Falcandus states that Robert Count of Caserta was first cousin of Guillaume Count of Sanseverino[75]m as her first husband, ---, sister of BERARDO, daughter of ---.  The Annales Casenses record the marriage in 1193 of "Bertoldus" and "sororem comitis Berardi relictam comitis Roberti di Caserta"[76].  She married secondly (1193) as his second wife, Berthold [II] Markgraf von Vohburg.  Roberto & his wife had one child: 

(1)       RUGGIERIO di Sanseverino (-after 1160)Conte di TricaricoHugo Falcandus records that "Count Robert of Caserta was at Messina with his son Roger Count of Tricarico"[77].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Jonathas comes Consiæ et Gilbertus comes Gravinæ et Boamundus comes Monopelli et Rogerus comes Acerræ et Philippus comes de Sangro et Rogerius Tricarici comes" rebelled against "Mayonem Ammiratum", dated to 1160 from the context[78]

-         CONTI di TRICARICO

b)         ROGER di Sanseverino (-before Mar 1125).  "Roger de San Severino fils de Turgisius de Rota" is named in a charter dated Nov 1081 which records a donation to Cava abbey[79].  Signore di Montoro near Avellino [1097]. 

-        see below

c)         TURGISE di Sanseverino (-after Apr 1105).  "Rucgerius filius quondam Trugisi de Castello Sancto Severino de locum Rota" donated property to the monastery of San Lorenzo d´Aversa by charter dated Apr 1105, witnessed by "Robbertus filius Rucgerius, Trugisi filius Rucgerii, Rucgerius filius Rucgterii, Turgisius frater Rogerii, Rogerius filius Turgisi"[80]m ---.  The name of Turgise´s wife is not known.  Turgise & his wife had one child: 

i)          RUGGIERO di Sanseverino (-after Apr 1105).  "Rucgerius filius quondam Trugisi de Castello Sancto Severino de locum Rota" donated property to the monastery of San Lorenzo d´Aversa by charter dated Apr 1105, witnessed by "Robbertus filius Rucgerius, Trugisi filius Rucgerii, Rucgerius filius Rucgterii, Turgisius frater Rogerii, Rogerius filius Turgisi"[81]

d)         DELICTA .  Stasser records that "Delicta fille de Turgisius de Rota" is named as wife of "Herbert Caput Asinus" in a spurious charter dated 1104[82]m HERBERT Caput Asinus, son of --- (-after 1118).  He is discussed by Ménager[83]

 

 

ROGER di Sanseverino, son of TURGISE de Rota & his wife --- (-before Mar 1125).  "Roger de San Severino fils de Turgisius de Rota" is named in a charter dated Nov 1081 which records a donation to Cava abbey[84].  "Roger de San Severino" donated property to Cava abbey, for the souls of "son père Turgisius, de son frère Robert et de l´épouse de ce dernier Gaitelgrima", by charter dated Mar 1082[85].  Signore di Montoro near Avellino [1097].  "Rucgerius filius quondam Trugisi de Castello Sancto Severino de locum Rota" donated property to the monastery of San Lorenzo d´Aversa by charter dated Apr 1105, witnessed by "Robbertus filius Rucgerius, Trugisi filius Rucgerii, Rucgerius filius Rucgterii, Turgisius frater Rogerii, Rogerius filius Turgisi"[86].  "Rogerius de Sancto Severino filius quondam Turgisii normanni" donated property to Cava abbey, for the soul of "domine Sike quondam…conjugis nostre filiæ quondam domini Landolfi filii domini Guaymarii principis", by charter dated Jun 1121, subscribed by "Enricus filius et heres domini Roggerii"[87]

m SICA di Salerno, daughter of LANDOLF di Salerno & his wife Emilia di Gaeta (-before Jun 1121).  "Rogerius de Sancto Severino filius quondam Turgisii normanni" donated property to Cava abbey, for the soul of "domine Sike quondam…conjugis nostre filiæ quondam domini Landolfi filii domini Guaymarii principis", by charter dated Jun 1121, subscribed by "Enricus filius et heres domini Roggerii"[88]

Ruggerio & his wife had four children: 

1.         ROBERTO di Sanseverino (-[Jan 1110/1117]).  "Rucgerius filius quondam Trugisi de Castello Sancto Severino de locum Rota" donated property to the monastery of San Lorenzo d´Aversa by charter dated Apr 1105, witnessed by "Robbertus filius Rucgerius, Trugisi filius Rucgerii, Rucgerius filius Rucgterii, Turgisius frater Rogerii, Rogerius filius Turgisi"[89].  "Robberto…filio…domini…Rogerii de Sancto Severino" received the allegiance of "Guillaume Carbonus seigneur de Monteforte Irpino", in the presence of his father, by charter dated Jan 1110[90]

2.         TURGISIO di Sanseverino (-after Apr 1105).  "Rucgerius filius quondam Trugisi de Castello Sancto Severino de locum Rota" donated property to the monastery of San Lorenzo d´Aversa by charter dated Apr 1105, witnessed by "Robbertus filius Rucgerius, Trugisi filius Rucgerii, Rucgerius filius Rucgterii, Turgisius frater Rogerii, Rogerius filius Turgisi"[91]

3.         RUGGERIO di Sanseverino (-after Apr 1105).  "Rucgerius filius quondam Trugisi de Castello Sancto Severino de locum Rota" donated property to the monastery of San Lorenzo d´Aversa by charter dated Apr 1105, witnessed by "Robbertus filius Rucgerius, Trugisi filius Rucgerii, Rucgerius filius Rucgterii, Turgisius frater Rogerii, Rogerius filius Turgisi"[92]

4.         ENRICO di Sanseverino (-31 Aug 1150).  "Rogerius de Sancto Severino filius quondam Turgisii normanni" donated property to Cava abbey, for the soul of "domine Sike quondam…conjugis nostre filiæ quondam domini Landolfi filii domini Guaymarii principis", by charter dated Jun 1121, subscribed by "Enricus filius et heres domini Roggerii"[93].  Signore di Sanseverino and Montoro Mar 1125.  "Henricus filius quondam Rogerii de S. Severino" donated property to Cava abbey by charter dated Mar 1125, subscribed by "Robertus de Medania uterinus frater"[94].  "Enrico signore del castello di Sanseverino, figlio del fu Ruggiero" donated land at Pretosa and Oscato to the monastery of Santa Maria di Montevergine by charter dated Aug 1135[95]m FENICIA, daughter of --- (-after 1161).  Enrico & his wife had two children: 

a)         GUGLIELMO di Sanseverino (-after [1168]).  Minor on the death of his father.  Hugo Falcandus names "her [Fenicia] son William" recording that he "avoided the king's ire [in 1161] by fleeing with the count [Count Roger of Avellino]"[96].  Hugo Falcandus records that "William of Sanseverino" returned from exile in [1168] and had his lands returned to him[97].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Guillelmus filius Henrici de Sancto Severino" holding "demanium eius de Sancto Severino…de Principatu", with "milites XIII et augmentum eius milites XIV…una…inter feudum et augmentum milites XXVIII", adding in a later passage that "comes Silvester tenet eium in servitio"[98]m ISABELLE di Marsico, daughter of SILVESTRE Conti di Marsico & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Guglielmo & his wife had two children: 

i)          GIACOPO di Sanseverino (-after 1223)Conte di Sanseverino.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Dyopoldus" was captured by "comite Iacobo de Sancto Severino genero suo" on the orders of "regis Frederici in Romanum imperatorem electi" in 1218[99].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "comes Roggerius de Aquila, comes Iacobus di Sancto Severino, comes Riccardus de Celano" were present at the coronation of Friedrich II as Emperor in Rome in 1220[100].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Roggerium de Aquila, Thomam de Caserta, Iacobum de Sancto Severino, et filium comitis Tricaricensis, regni comites" rebelled against Emperor Friedrich II in Sicily in 1223[101].  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that Emperor Friedrich II granted "[castrum] Siani" to "comitem Jacobum de S. Severino…frater carnalis comitis Thomasii", but confiscated it when he exiled Giacopo, who with "comitem Thomasium Casertanum senem et comitem Rogerium Aquila et comitem Tricarici" were captured in Sicily[102]m --- von Vohburg, daughter of DIEPOLD Markgraf von Vohburg & [his first wife ---].  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by the Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica which records that "Dyopoldus" was captured by "comite Iacobo de Sancto Severino genero suo" on the orders of "regis Frederici in Romanum imperatorem electi" in 1218[103]

ii)         TOMMASO di Sanseverino (-after 1223)Conte di SanseverinoConte di MarsicoThe Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that Emperor Friedrich II restored "castrum Siani", confiscated from his brother, to "comes Thomasius frater ipsius comitis Jacobi" who held Sanseverino for one year but then exchanged "terram S. Severini et Roccam Cilenti" for "comitatu Marsici"[104]

-         see below

b)         MAROCTA di Sanseverino .  Hugo Falcandus records that "Count Roger of Avellino" was among those who fled into the Abruzzi after the general conspiracy in 1161, thinking it "wiser to avoid the king's anger for having recently - without the court's permission - married the daughter of Fenicia of Sanseverino", but that the countess "was captured and taken to Palermo together with her mother Fenicia"[105].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m RUGGIERO di Aquila Conte di Avellino, son of RICCARDO di Aquila Conte di Avellino & his wife Adelisia di Adernò. 

 

 

TOMMASO di Sanseverino, son of GUGLIELMO di Sanseverino & his wife Isabella di Marsico (-after 1223)Conte di SanseverinoConte di Marsico.  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that Emperor Friedrich II restored "castrum Siani", confiscated from his brother, to "comes Thomasius frater ipsius comitis Jacobi" who held Sanseverino for one year but then exchanged "terram S. Severini et Roccam Cilenti" for "comitatu Marsici"[106].   The same source records that Emperor Friedrich II confiscated "castrum S. Severini" from "comitem Thomasium patri…comitis Rogerii, et d. Guilielmum filium eius" at the time of "rebellionis Caputacii" when "ipsi…cum aliis baronibus" plotted to assassinate the emperor and fled the country[107]

m PERNA, daughter of ---.  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily names "comitissa Perna" as wife of "comes Thomasius frater ipsius comitis Jacobi"[108].   

Tommaso & his wife had two children: 

1.         GUGLIELMO di Sanseverino .  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that Emperor Friedrich II confiscated "castrum S. Severini" from "comitem Thomasium patri…comitis Rogerii, et d. Guilielmum filium eius" at the time of "rebellionis Caputacii" when "ipsi…cum aliis baronibus" plotted to assassinate the emperor and fled the country[109]

2.         RUGGIERO di Sanseverino (-[1281/86]).  His parentage is confirmed by the Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily which records that "castrum Atani, Sala et Dianum" were restored to "comiti Rogerio de S. Severino", adding that "castrum Sale" had been granted to "comiti Thomasio patri dicti comitis Rogerii" by Emperor Friedrich II[110]Conte di Sanseverino.  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that Manfredo King of Sicily had restored "castrum S. Severini" (confiscated by Manfredo´s father from Ruggiero´s father) to "comiti Rogerio" but confiscated it again after Ruggiero fled the country[111].  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina records that "Manfredus" invested "Jordanum de Anglano consanguineum suum" with "comitatum Sancti Severini", after expelling "Rogerio comite", and sent him "in Thusciam"[112].  The Diurnali of Matteo Spinelli di Giovinazzo records that "Messer Rugiero de Sanseverino" was expelled in 1253 and that "Aimario de Sanseverino" fled to "Bisaglia" to sail from the kingdom[113].  The Diurnali of Matteo Spinelli di Giovinazzo names "Mess. Rugiero di Sanseverino Capitanio de li forasciti del Regno" in Apr 1261[114]Conte di Marsico.  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that "Rocca Cilenti…castrum Atani, Sala et Dianumcastrum S. Severini" were restored to "comiti Rogerio de Sancto Severino" who exchanged it and "S. Severinum" for "comitatum Marsici"[115].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "el conte Rugier de San Severin, el conte de Mersiche" landed at Acre 7 Jun, in 1277 from the context, leading troops sent by Charles I King of Naples [Anjou-Capet][116].  "Rogerius de San Severino comes de Marsica, bajulus Caroli I regis Siciliæ et Hierosolymitani" settled a dispute between the Knights Hospitallers and the Pisans by charter dated 31 Oct 1281[117]m firstly --- di Fieschi, daughter of OPIZZONE di Fieschi di Lavagna & his wife Simona ---.  The Diurnali of Matteo Spinelli di Giovinazzo records that "Messer Rugiero de Sanseverino" married "la sorore del conte di Fiesco"[118]m secondly ([1246/56]) TEODORA di Aquino, daughter of LANDOLFO di Aquino & his wife --- (-after 1294).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Ruggiero & his second wife had children: 

a)         TOMASO di Sanseverino (-after 1317).  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina names "dominus Thomas comes S. Severini et Marsici" among those who triumphed in the tournament held by Charles I King of Sicily, dated to [1270/71] from the context[119].  The dating of this event suggests that he must have been born from his father´s second marriage, as he was presumably an adolescent or young adult at the time. 

 

 

Brother and sister: 

1.         AIMARIO di Sanseverino .  The Diurnali of Matteo Spinelli di Giovinazzo records that "Messer Rugiero de Sanseverino" was expelled in 1253 and that "Aimario de Sanseverino" fled to "Bisaglia" to sail from the kingdom[120]

2.         MARIA POLISENA di Sanseverino .  The Diurnali of Matteo Spinelli di Giovinazzo names "la contessa Maria Polisena sorore del…Mess. Aimario di Sanseverino", in 1253[121]

 

 

1.         --- di Sanseverino .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   m --- di Lauria, daughter of ROGER de Lauria & his first wife Margherita Lancia.  The Chronicle of Ramon Muntaner records the marriage of the third daughter of "Roger de Luria" and his wife "la sœur de Corral Llança" and "le comte de Santo Sobrino"[122]

 

2.         ROBERTO di Sanseverino (-1361).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Conte di Corigliano e Terlizzi.  m GIACOMA del Bosco, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Roberto & his wife had one child: 

a)         MARGHERITA di Sanseverino .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (1343) LOUIS di Durazzo Conte di Gravina, son of JEAN of Sicily Duke of Durazzo & his second wife Agnès de Périgord (1324-poisoned Naples 22 Jul 1362, bur Naples, Convent of Santa Chiara). 

 

3.         ANTONIO di Sanseverino (-1384).  Conte di Marsico.  m ISABELLE de Baux, daughter of BERTRAND de Baux Conte d'Andria e Montescaglioso & his second wife Marguerite d'Aulnay (-1379).  Antonio & his wife had children: 

a)         GIOVANNA di Sanseverino (-after 1393)m LOUIS d´Enghien Comte de Brienne, son of GAUTHIER [III] Seigneur d'Enghien & his wife Isabelle de Brienne (-Conversano 17 Mar 1394). 

 

 

1.         GIORDANO di Anglono, son of --- Conte di Sanseverino.  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina records that "Manfredus" invested "Jordanum de Anglano consanguineum suum" with "comitatum Sancti Severini", after expelling "Rogerio comite", and sent him "in Thusciam"[123].  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that "comes Jordanus" deprived "episcopum Capaducii de castro Agropoli", which was restored to the bishop[124]

 

 

 

E.      CONTI di TRICARICO

 

 

Tricarico is a town in the north-eastern part of the present-day Italian region of Basilicata and lies on the banks of the river Bilioso.  The earliest mention of the county so far found dates to 1143, but no information other has been found relating to Conte Goffredo who is named at that time or about his ancestry.  The county of Tricarico passed to the Sanseverino family during the early part of the reign of Guillaume I King of Sicily.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comestabularia comitatus Tricarici… Tricarico…Albano…Petragalli…Culba…Sancto Juliano" and "Abriola…Montis Morconis…Spinosa…Armento…Monte Murro…Burganum…Riviscum…Picerno…Gloriosa…Castello Menzano… Galiiipolum de Montana…Trivinea…Ancia" as the fees held in the principality of Taranto, together with the names of the corresponding feeholders, but does not name the count[125].  No information has yet been found in primary sources concerning the history of the county of Tricarico after the early 13th century, although secondary sources indicate that it continued to be held by the Sanseverino family until 1606. 

 

 

1.         GOFFREDO (-after Nov 1143).  Conte di Tricarico"…Goffridus comes Tricarici" was among the subscribers of a charter dated Nov 1143 under which "Rogerus…rex Sicilie, ducatus Apulie et principatus Capue" assured Santa Maria a Capella, Naples of his protection[126]

 

 

1.         RUGGIERO di Sanseverino, son of ROBERTO di Sanseverino Conte di Caserta & his wife --- di Caserta (-after 1166)Conte di Tricarico.  Hugo Falcandus records that "Count Robert of Caserta was at Messina with his son Roger Count of Tricarico"[127].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Jonathas comes Consiæ et Gilbertus comes Gravinæ et Boamundus comes Monopelli et Rogerus comes Acerræ et Philippus comes de Sangro et Rogerius Tricarici comes" rebelled against "Mayonem Ammiratum", dated to 1160 from the context[128].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Rogerius comes Tricarici" holding "Tricarico…Albano…Petragalli…Culba…Sancto Juliano" as fees in the constabulary of the county of Tricarico, in the principality of Taranto, with a total of "militum XX"[129]

 

2.         GIACOPO di Tricarico .  The chronology suggests that Giacopo di Tricarico was the son of Ruggiero di Sanseverino Conte di Tricarico, but the primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified.  m (6 Nov 1188) MABILIA di Ceccano, daughter of LANDULFO Conte di Ceccano & his wife ---.  The Annales Ceccanenses record the marriage "1188 8 Id Nov" of "Mobilia filia Landulfi de Ceccano" and "comiti Iacobo de Tricarico"[130]

 

3.         GIACOMO di Sanseverino .  It is possible that this was the same person as Giacopo di Tricarico who is named above, but the primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified.  Conte di Tricarico.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "comes Gualterius" [Gauthier [III] de Brienne] allied himself with "Iacobo Tricaricensi et comite Roggerio de Theate" in 1204[131]m (after Jun 1205) as her second husband, ELVIRA [Albinia] of Sicily, widow of GAUTHIER [III] de Brienne, daughter of TANCRED King of Sicily & his wife Sibilla de Medania (-after 1216).  The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum names (in order) "Alberia, Constantia et Madania" as the three daughters of "Tancredus [rex Siciliæ]" & his wife, naming the first husband of "Alberia vel Alceria" as "comes Gualterius de Brenna, frater regis", her second husband as "Iacobo comiti de Tricario", and her third husband "comiti Tigrino palatino comiti in Tuscia", specifying that her third marriage was arranged by "papa Honorius" and that her dowry was "comitatum Licie et Montis Iscaliosi in regno Apulie"[132].  Giacomo & his wife had two children: 

a)         SIMON di Sanseverino .  The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum names "comytem Symonem et dominam Adalitam" as the children of "Iacobo comiti de Tricario" & his wife[133].  [The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Roggerium de Aquila, Thomam de Caserta, Iacobum de Sancto Severino, et filium comitis Tricaricensis, regni comites" rebelled against Emperor Friedrich II in Sicily in 1223[134].  It is not known whether "filium comitis Tricaricensis" refers to Simon or to another unidentified son of the conte di Tricarico.] 

b)         ADALITA di Sanseverino .  The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum names "comytem Symonem et dominam Adalitam" as the children of "Iacobo comiti de Tricario" & his wife[135]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    COUNTIES in CALABRIA

 

 

The present-day Italian region of Calabria covers the whole of the southern-most part of the peninsula, adjacent to the island of Sicily.  The Norman counties identified with this area are Catanzaro, Squillace, and Tarsia. 

 

 

 

A.      CONTI di CATANZARO

 

 

The town of Catanzaro is now the capital of the present-day Italian region of Calabria, located near the eastern coast overlooking the Gulf of Squillace.  The earliest reference to the lordship of Catanzaro dates to the mid-11th century.  It was awarded as a county to Raoul di Loritello in 1088 and remained in his family until the mid-12th century.  In the mid-13th century, the county of Catanzaro was held briefly by Otto Markgraf von Hohenburg.  Manfredo King of Sicily awarded it to Pietro Ruffo, an early member of the family which later became known as Ruffo di Calabria. 

 

 

1.         HUGUES Falluca (-after 1045).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Stephano autem, Melo et Petro nepotibus præfati Melo" were granted "comitatum Cominensis" (by Emperor Heinrich II) together with "in auxilium Normannos, Giselbertum, Gosmannum, Stigandum, Torstainum balbum, Gualterium de Canosa et Ugonem Falluccam, cum aliis decem et octo", dated to [1022] from the context[136].  Chalandon identifies these Normans as "Gilbert, Osmond, Asclettin, Toustain le Bègue, Gautier de Canisy et Hugues Falluca"[137].  Amatus records that, after the death of his first cousin Asclettin Count of Aversa in 1045, Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno imprisoned "the nephew of the elder Count Rainulf, who was called Trincanocte and Hugh, who was surnamed Fallacia" in the "Torre Maggiore"[138], presumably because of their opposition to the appointed by Prince Guaimar of Rodolphe, son of Eudes capellus, as Conte di Aversa.  m ---.  The name of Hugues´s wife is not known.  Hugues & his wife had one child: 

a)         MIHERALord of Catanzaro.  Chalandon records that "Mihera, fils d´Hugues Falluca et seigneur de Catanzaro" supported Robert "Guiscard"´s son Bohémond after the death of Duke Robert[139]

 

 

RAOUL di Loritello, son of GODEFROI de Hauteville Conte di Loritello & his wife --- (-[1096/1111]).  Amatus names "Raul brother of Robert of Loritello" among those sent by Robert "Guiscard" to quell the rebellion in Trani[140].  "…Radulfi di Lauritello" was among the subscribers of the charter dated May 1086 under which "Roggerius dux, ducis Robberti filius" granted property to the monastery at Vietri[141]Count of Catanzaro 1088.  The Cronica Trium Tabernarum et de civitate Catanzarii records that "Rogerius comes" [Roger Count of Sicily] granted Taberna to "Radulfo comiti Loritelli"[142]

m BERTA, daughter of --- (-after 1131).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  The Cronica Trium Tabernarum et de civitate Catanzarii records that "comitissa Loritelli…vidua" governed "terram [Tabernæ] et suos parvulos filios" after the death of "Radulfus comes", adding a dispute arose between "Iordanum Capriolum et Guillelmum Carbonendum et comitissam Loritelli"[143]

Raoul & his wife had two children: 

1.         GOFFREDO (-[1131/45]).  The Cronica Trium Tabernarum et de civitate Catanzarii names "Gaufridi…Catacensis comitis" as successor after the death of "Radulfus comes", but does not specify the relationship between the two[144].  A later passage in the same source records that "Gaufridus, Radulfi comitis Loretelli filius" attained "iuventute primæus militiam…et comitatum patris sui"[145]Conti di Catanzaro.  "Alexander Cupersanensis comes et Tanc Cupersani et Gauf Catenzarii comes et Robertus Gravini" signed a charter dated 22 Jun 1132 relating to the city of Bari[146].  Gofredo had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

a)         GUGLIELMO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   1170. 

2.         RAIMONDO (-before 1158).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conti di Catanzarom SICHELGARDA, sister of Alferius and Tomaso, daughter of --- (-after 28 Jul 1167).  Hugo Falcandus records that "the countess of Catanzaro" defected to Robert Conte di Loritello in 1161, and that she "her mother and Alferius and Thomas…maternal uncles of the younger countess" were brought to the king for punishment, Tomaso being hanged at Messina and she and her mother being imprisoned in Palermo[147].  "Segelguarda…quondam uxor R. comitis" donated property to the church of San Cristoforo, with the consent of "comitissa Clemencia…filie eius", by charter dated 28 Jul 1167, which names "domini Riccardi comitis…Calinuli…Riccardus…Cosentie comes", signed by "Segelgarda comitissa uxor comitis Raymundi"[148].  Raimondo & his wife had one child: 

a)         CLEMENTIA (-after 28 Jul 1167).  Ctss di Catanzaro.  Hugo Falcandus records that Matthew [Bonellus] was promised marriage with "the countess of Catanzaro" if he killed chancellor Maio[149].  The Annals of Romoald record that "Matheus autem Bonella" was promised marriage with "Clemenciam comitissam Catanzarii" if he killed "ammiratum"[150].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Matthæus autem Bonella", who was betrothed to "filiam Ammirati", was promised marriage with "Clementiam comitissam Catanzarii" if he killed "Ammiratum"[151].  Hugo Falcandus records that "the countess of Catanzaro" defected to Robert Conte di Loritello in 1161, and that she "her mother and Alferius and Thomas…maternal uncles of the younger countess" were brought to the king for punishment, Thomas being hanged at Messina and she and her mother being imprisoned in Palermo[152].  "Segelguarda…quondam uxor R. comitis" donated property to the church of San Cristoforo, with the consent of "comitissa Clemencia…filie eius", by charter dated 28 Jul 1167, which names "domini Riccardi comitis…Calinuli…Riccardus…Cosentie comes", signed by "Segelgarda comitissa uxor comitis Raymundi"[153]m UGO Lupino, son of ---.  Hugo Falcandus names "Count Hugh of Catanzaro…a relative of the chancellor" in [1168][154].  Ugo & his wife had two children: 

i)          UGOConte di Catanzaro e Conversano 1191. 

ii)         GIORDANO (-executed 1197).  Conte di Bovino 1191.  He was executed by Emperor Heinrich VI[155]

 

3.         TOMASO .  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Thomasius filius Comitis Catacensis" as holding "Mortaclium…et Carbonariam" from "comes JonathasConsia", with "feudum III militum et cum augmento…mil. XII"[156]

 

 

1.         OTTO von Vohburg Markgraf von Hohenburg, son of DIEPOLD [VII] Markgraf von Vohburg & his second wife Mechtild von Wasserburg (-in prison [2 Feb 1256/21 Mar 1258])Markgraf von Hohenburg 1249.  The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia names "Marchionis Oddonis fratres sui", referring to "Bertholdus Marchio de Honebruch"[157]Conte di Catanzaro.  The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that the Pope had installed "Oddo Marchio de Honebruch" with "comitatus Catanzarii"[158]Conte di Chieti 1254.  The castle of Hohenburg was transferred to the Bishop of Regensburg. 

 

 

1.         PIETRO Ruffo di Calabria .  "Manfredus…imp. Frid. filius" accepted the allegiance of "Henricum…fratrem nostrum et Petrum Ruffum de Calabria regni Siciliæ marescalcum", on behalf of "regis…Conradi", by charter dated 15 Dec 1250[159]Conte di Catanzaro.  The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that "Petro de Calabria" was granted "comitatus Catanzarii" and appointed to the office of "Marescalliæ Regiæ Regni Siciliæ" in Feb 1256 by the future Manfredo King of Sicily[160]

 

 

 

B.      CONTI di SQUILLACE

 

 

The town of Squillace lies on the eastern coast of the present-day Italian region of Calabria, on the Gulf of Squillace.  It is recorded as a county in the second half of the 12th century, but few references to it have been found in primary sources.  The county was briefly held by the Lancia family during the reign of Manfredo King of Sicily.  In the early 14th century, it was awarded to the Marzano family, who bore the title Duca di Squillace from the end-15th century. 

 

 

1.         EVERARDOConte di Squillace.  Hugo Falcandus names "Count Everard of Squillace" and records that he opposed chancellor Maio of Bari who plotted against him in [1154/55][161]

 

2.         ALFONSO (-[1188]).  Conte di Squillace.  "Tancredus…rex Sicilie, ducatus Apulie, principatus Capue" transferred property to the monastery of San Stefano del Bosco which had taken it from "filiis Anfusi quondam comitis Squillacini consanguinei nostri", by charter dated May 1191[162].  The precise relationship between King Tancred and Count Alfonso has not been found.  m ---.  The name of Alfonso's wife is not known.  Alfonso & his wife had --- children: 

a)         sons.  "Tancredus…rex Sicilie, ducatus Apulie, principatus Capue" transferred property to the monastery of San Stefano del Bosco which had taken it from "filiis Anfusi quondam comitis Squillacini consanguinei nostri", by charter dated May 1191[163]

 

 

1.         FEDERIGO Lancia, son of MANFREDO [II] Lancia Marchese di Busca & his wife Bianca Maletta (-[1298/99])The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that Konrad IV King of Germany and Sicily expelled "Gualvanum Lanceam", who had been appointed "vicarium suum in Tuscia" by Emperor Friedrich II, "Fredericum…Lanceam fratrem eius et Bonifacium de Anglone ipsius principis [referring to the future Manfredo King of Sicily] avunculum…omnesque ipsius consanguineus, et affines ex parte materna" from his kingdom, dated to [1253] from the context[164]Conte di Squillace.  The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that the future Manfredo King of Sicily invested "Fredericum Lanceam fratrem…Gualvani avunculi sui" with "comitatu Squillacii", dated to [1254/55] from the context, and recording his installation as such in Feb 1256 in a later passage[165].  Viceroy of Apulia.  The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that "Princeps Manfredus" installed "Fredericum Lanceam avunculum suum" as "Vicarium generalum in Calabria et Sicilia" and sent him "in Calabriam" in Feb 1256[166].  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina records that "comes Federicus Lancea germanus quondam Galvani" opposed Charles I King of Sicily at "castrum Sali…in Calabria", in 1268 from the context[167]

 

 

 

C.      CONTI di TARSIA

 

 

The town of Tarsia is located in the centre of the northern part of the present-day Italian region of Calabria.  It was briefly recorded as a county of the Norman kingdom of Sicily in the mid-12th century.  No later references to this county have yet been found. 

 

 

1.         BOHEMOND (-[1156/57])Conte di TarsiaConte di ManopelloHugo Falcandus records that "Count William of Lesina, Bohemond of Tarsia" were already being held in chains in Palermo after the rebellion against Guillaume I King of Sicily in [1156][168]m ---.  The name of Bohemond's wife is not known.  Bohemond & his wife had two children: 

a)         BOHEMOND di Tarsia .  Hugo Falcandus names "Bohemond of Tarsia the brother of Carbonellus"[169]

b)         CARBONELLO .  Hugo Falcandus names "Bohemond of Tarsia the brother of Carbonellus"[170]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    COUNTIES in CAMPANIA

 

 

The present-day Italian region of Campania covers the territory on the west coast of the Italian peninsula, northwards and southwards from the city of Naples.  Numerous Norman counties have been identified with this area: Acerra, Airola, Alife, Avellino, Aversa, Buonalbergo, Fondi, Gesualdo, Policastro, and Sorrento.  In addition, the towns of Amalfi, Benevento, Capua, Gaeta, Napoli, and Salerno were the bases of Lombard principalities before the arrival of the Normans in southern Italy, the rulers of which are shown in the document SOUTHERN ITALY (1).  The county of Aquino was mainly associated with the Lombards, as can be seen from the typically Lombard names of their family.  Other medieval counties identified in the area were Ariano, Atella, Cajazzo, Calvi, Capri, Carinola, Caserta, Castel Laurino, Castro Argento, Conza, Cuma, Greci, Ischia, Maranola, Massa Lubrense, Nocera, Nola, Pozzuoli, Rota, Sant'Agata, Sarno, Sessa, Somma Vesuviana, Suessola, Sujo, Telese, and Volturara, but little information has so far emerged from the primary sources which have been consulted concerning these counties and their counts. 

 

 

 

A.      CONTI di ACERRA

 

 

The town of Acerra is located in the northern part of the present-day Italian region of Campania, south of Caserta and north-east of Naples.  The primary sources show that, as late as the early 12th century, the count was the vassal of the duchy of Gaeta.  The county of Acerra was held by Roger de Medania, of the family of the conti di Buonalbergo, during the early years of the reign of Guillaume I King of Sicily.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Rogerius Boni Albergi" holding fees "[in] demanium suum Terræ Beneventanæ, de Apice…de Bono Albergo…de Sancto Severo"[171].  After the death in 1196 of Roger´s son, Riccardo, the county of Acerra was awarded to the Bavarian immigrant Diepold Markgraf von Vohburg.  It is recorded in the Aquino family from 1220 until the end of the 13th century. 

 

 

1.         BERNARDO (-before 8 May 1113).  Conte di Sessula e di Acerram ---.  The name of Bernardo´s wife is not known.  Bernardo & his wife had one child: 

a)         GIOVANNI di Acerra (-after 8 May 1113).  "Marino filio q--- et dux civitatis Caiete" donated property "per absolutionem…d. Iohannis…consul et dux atque…magister militum et imperiali Protosebasto exadelfo germano suo" by charter dated 8 May [1113], which names his "abbocatore d. Iohanne qui nominator de Acerre filio q. d. Bernardi qui fuit comite de Sessula et de Acerre"[172]

 
 

ROGER de Medania, son of ROBERT de Medania Conte di Buonalbergo & his wife --- (-after 1166).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di BuonalbergoConte di Acerra.  Hugo Falcandus names "Count Roger of Acerra" among the conspirators against chancellor Maio in [1156][173].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Jonathas comes Consiæ et Gilbertus comes Gravinæ et Boamundus comes Monopelli et Rogerus comes Acerræ et Philippus comes de Sangro et Rogerius Tricarici comes" rebelled against "Mayonem Ammiratum", dated to 1160 from the context[174].  Hugo Falcandus records that "Count Roger of Acerra" fled into the Abruzzi after the general conspiracy in 1161[175].  Hugo Falcandus records that the queen restored "Count Roger of Acerra" to his previous rank in [1166][176].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Rogerius Boni Albergi" holding fees "[in] demanium suum Terræ Beneventanæ, de Apice…de Bono Albergo…de Sancto Severo", with "milites XIII et cum augmento…milites XXXI"[177]

m ---.  The name of Roger's wife is not known. 

Roger & his wife had [two] children:

1.         [RICCARDO (-Capua 5 Dec 1196).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di Acerra.  ["Riccardo d´Aquino conte d´Acerra" donated "il casale di San Lorenzo" to the monastery of Montevergine by charter dated Sep 1171[178].  This document suggests that Riccardo´s parentage may not be correct as shown here, although in that case his relationship to the Aquino family has not been ascertained.]  The Annales Ceccanenses record that in 1185 Guillaume King of Sicily appointed "Alduinem et comitem Riccardo de Cerra" as captains over his land army[179]"Il conte Guglielmo di Caserta ed il conte Riccardo di Acerra, capitani e maestri giustizieri de Puglia e Terra di Lavoro" wrote relating to a claim, by charter dated Aug 1190[180]Benedict of Peterborough records that "Ricardus comes de Cerne, frater uxoris regis Tancredi" made war with "comite Rogero de Andria" but was captured by King Tancred[181].  The Annales Casenses name "Riccardi Acerrarum comitis cognati sue [=Tancredi?]" in 1190, and in 1191 record that he besieged "ecclesiam Casinensem" after leaving Naples[182].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that "Acerrarum comes" came from Naples with Neapolitan soldiers and besieged Capua[183].  The Ignoti Monachi Chronica records that "comitem Riccardum Acerrarum" was hanged 5 Dec 1196 "apud Capuam"[184].  The Annales Ceccanenses record the execution "pridie Kal Dec [1196]" of "comite Riccardo de Cerra"[185].] 

2.         [SIBILLA (-after 1195).  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica name "Ryccardo Acerrarum comitis cuius soror erat sua [=Tancredi] coniux"[186].  The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum names "Tancredus [rex Siciliæ] uxorem Sybiliam"[187].  After her husband's death, she acted as regent for her son King Guillaume III.  Emperor Heinrich VI promised her and her son the county of Lecce and principality of Taranto in return for their surrender.  However, an alleged conspiracy was discovered shortly after Heinrich's coronation as king of Sicily 25 Dec 1194.  According to William of Tyre (continuator), King Tancred's widow and her three daughters sought refuge first with the Pope and subsequently with the king of France[188].  The Annales Argentinenses record that Emperor Heinrich imprisoned "Sibillam reginam Sicilie, uxorem Tancredi" and her daughters at the monastery of Hohenburg [in Alsace] in 1195[189]m (before [1180]) TANCREDO Conte di Lecce, illegitimate son of ROGER of Sicily Duke of Apulia & his mistress Bianca di Lecce ([Lecce 1138]-Palermo 20 Feb 1194).  He was unlawfully elected as TANCRED King of Sicily in 1190, crowned at Palermo and recognised as king by the Pope in 1192.] 

 

 

1.         DIEPOLD [VII] von Vohburg, son of BERTHOLD [I] Markgraf von Vohburg & his wife --- (-26 Dec 1225, bur Kastl).  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that Emperor Heinrich VI left "Dyopuldo cuidam Teutonico in rocca Arcis" in 1191[190].  The Annales Casenses record that Berthold left "in comitatu Molisii Conrado Muscaincervello et Diopuldo" but do not specify that Diepold was Berthold's brother[191]Conte di Acerra.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that "Dyopoldus per imperatorum comes factus est Acerrarum" in 1197 but do not specify his origin or ancestry[192].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that in 1199 "Dyopoldus a Guilielmo comite captus est" and held for a long time in chains[193].  In a later passage, the same source records the atrocities commited by Diepold the following year[194].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that in 1201 Gauthier de Brienne captured Diepold at Aquino[195]Markgraf von Vohburg 1205.  "Il conte di Acerra Diopoldo di Schweinspeunt, maestro giustiziere di Puglia e di Terra di Lavoro ed il fratello Siffrido conte di Alife" granted concessions to the abbot of Montevergine by charter dated 28 Jan 1209[196].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Dyopoldus" was captured by "comite Iacobo de Sancto Severino genero suo" on the orders of "regis Frederici in Romanum imperatorem electi" in 1218[197]

-        MARKGRAFEN von VOHBURG

 

 

TOMASO [I] d'Aquino, son of ADENOLFO [II] d´Aquino & his wife --- (-27 Feb 1251)Conte di Acerra 1220.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Thomas de Aquino factus Acerrarum comes" was made "magister iustitiarius" of "Apuliæ et terre laboris" in 1221[198].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Thomas de Aquino Acerrarum comes" left for Syria in Jul 1227[199].  The Ignoti Monachi Chronica records that in 1227 Emperor Friedrich II sent "domino Thomasio Acerrarum comite" as emissary to Jerusalem[200].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Thomas de Aquino" was made "regni capitaneus" in Jan 1232[201].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Thomas Acerrarum comes" was appointed "capitaneus in Syriam" in Jul 1242[202].  The necrology of Capua records the death "III Kal Mar" of "domnus Thomasius comes de la Cherra"[203]

m ---.  The name of Tomaso´s wife is not known.  

Tomaso [I] & his wife had one child: 

1.         ADENOLFO d´Aquino (-1242).  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Landulfo de Aquino…Adenulfo de Aquino filio Thome de Aquino Acerrarum comitis…domino etiam de Aquino Pandulfus et Robbertus Aquinum" supported imperial forces in 1229, adding that "Adenulfus filius Acerrarum comitis" was wounded in the arm after the battle "ad Sanctum Germanum" and recuperated at Montecassino[204].  Emperor Friedrich II sent a letter to "Tommaso I di Acerra" sending condolences "ad patrem…ad nepotes" dated 31 Aug 1243[205].  He is named in a bull of Pope Innocent IV dated 21 Jun 1251[206]m CUBITOSA di Laurito, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.     Adenolfo & his wife had two children: 

a)         TOMASO d'Aquino (-15 Mar 1273, bur Capua, Santa Maria della Monache)His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 6 Jun 1270 which records that "il conte Tommaso" to "Spedalieri" because the order had assisted "patri suo in Ungaria" where Emperor Friedrich II had sent him as part of a legation[207]Conte di Acerra.  "Conr. rex" wrote to "Thomasio comitis Acerrarum…consanguineo…suo" forgiving the transgressions of "idem comes et Iacobus frater eius" and confirming their "bonis patrimonialibus", dated Aug 1252[208].  "Manfridus" King of Sicily names "comite Acerrarum cognato suo" in a charter dated 1254[209].  The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that "Thomas comes Acerræ cognatus Principis" [referring to the future Manfredo King of Sicily] "et Riccardus Filangerius" visited Manfredo to negotiate their support during the period when he was plotting to seize the kingdom, dated to [1254/55] from the context[210].  The necrology of Capua records the death 15 Mar 1273 of Tomaso II Conte di Acerra[211]m MARGHERITA di Suevia, illegitimate daughter of Emperor FRIEDRICH I & his mistress --- ([1230]-[12 Jul 1297/24 Jan 1298]).  Emperor Friedrich II names "Tomaso d´Aquino…genero" when the emperor sent him to the march of Ancona with "l´altro genero Riccardo conte di Caserta", in a document dated Sep 1247[212].  A document dated 26 Nov 1288 at Naples records the serious illness of "comitissa mater comitis Acerrarum"[213].  A charter dated 8 Apr 1295 ordered an inquiry into the revenue from "casalium…in territorio terre Lanei…civitatis Capue" held by "mater quondam Adenulfi comitis Acerrarum"[214].  A charter dated 12 Jul 1297 was addressed to "domine Margarite olim comitisse Acerrarum" relating to her fees "de comitatu Acerrarum"[215].  A charter dated 24 Jan 1298 records that property of "domina Margarita senior comitissa Acerrarum", her dower "in Suessula" constituted by "quondam domino Thomasio Acerrarum comite viro suo", was granted to "dominus Philippus princeps Tarentinus"[216].  Tomaso & his wife had two children: 

i)          ADENOLFO [IV] d'Aquino (-1294)Conte di Acerra"Karolus secundus…rex Ierusalem Sicilie Ducatus Apulie…Karolo primogenito suo…" granted property of "quondam Adenulfus de Aquino comes Acerrarum" to "Philippum filium nostrum" by charter dated 1293[217]m CONSTANZA Lancia, daughter of GALVANO Lancia Prince of Salerno & his second wife Margherita de Ocra. 

ii)         CUBITOSA d'Aquino )m GALEOTTO Lancia, son of GALVANO Lancia Prince of Salerno & his second wife Margherita de Ocra (-killed in battle 1268). 

b)         GIACOPO d´Aquino (-after Aug 1252).  "Conr. rex" wrote to "Thomasio comitis Acerrarum…consanguineo…suo" forgiving the transgressions of "idem comes et Iacobus frater eius" and confirming their "bonis patrimonialibus", dated Aug 1252[218]

 

 

 

B.      CONTI di ALIFE

 

 

The town of Alife is located in the northern part of the present-day Italian region of Campania, west of Benevento.  It is recorded as a county held from the Norman rulers by a junior branch of the Norman family of Conti di Aversa, in the early 12th century.  Conte Ranulfo rebelled against Roger I King of Sicily and was installed as rival duke of Apulia by Emperor Lothar and Pope Innocent II.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Malcerius" holding fees "in Alifa…et de Præsentiano…et de Penta…et de Mignano"[219].  His family origin has not been traced, but it is assumed that he was unrelated to the previous comital family whose properties had been confiscated.  Paolo di Ciccala is recorded as conte di Alife in the early 13th century.  After that, no further references to the county have yet been found in primary sources. 

 

 

ROBERTO di Aversa, son of RAINULF di Aversa Conte di Caiazzo & his wife --- (-1115).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Robbertus Caiatianorum comes, filius Raynulfi comes" in a paragraph recording events in 1105[220].  Conte d'Airola, Conte di Alife, Conte di Caiazzo. 

m GAITELGRIMA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.    

Roberto & his wife had [four] children: 

1.         RAINULFO (-Troia 30 Apr 1139, bur Troia).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di Alife.  The Ignoti Monachi Chronica records a war between "comes Raynulphus Alfie et Areole" and "comes Iordanus de Ariano" in 1119[221].  The Romoaldi Annales name "Raydulfo comite Ayrole cognato predicti ducis Grimoaldo principe Barensi" in 1127[222].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "comes Ranulphus", who had married "eius…sororem…Mathildim", swore homage to his brother-in-law after his accession to the duchy of Apulia (in 1127) after being promised the lands of "Rogerii Orianensis comitis"[223].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that Pope Honorius II invaded Apulia in 1127 with "Roberto Capuano principe, Raydulfo comite Ayrolæ cognato prædicti ducis, cum Conversanensibus, Grimoaldo principe Barensi" in an unsuccessful attempt to expel Duke Roger, adding that "dux Rogerius" made peace "cum prædictis baronibus et Roberto Capuano principe" after the Pope withdrew later in the same year[224].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Robertus Capuanorum princeps et Raydulfus comes Ayrolæ…" rebelled against Duke Roger in 1130 and defeated him "apud Scafatum fluvium in territorio Nuceriæ", before their rebellion was suppressed[225].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that, after "dominus Tancredus…cum domino Alexandro comite fratre suo et…domino Grimoaldo Barensi" made peace with Duke Roger 10 Aug [1129/30], "Robertus…Capuanus princeps et comes Raydulfus" sought help from Emperor Lothar[226]Conte di Avellino.  Leading the barons opposed to Roger's coronation as king of Sicily, he declared war on Roger, defeating him at Nocera 25 Jul 1132.  The Chronicle of Falco Beneventano records that Roger King of Sicily disinherited "principem Robertum et Rainulphum comitem" in 1132[227].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "comiti Ranulpho" demanded the return of Avellino and Mercogliano, along with his wife and son, from Roger King of Sicily at Taranto, dated to [1130/32] from the context[228].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that the Pope and Emperor Lothar invested "comitem Raydulfum" with "ducatu Apuliæ" in 1133 in opposition to King Roger[229].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "comesque Ranulphus cum filio suo Roberto" defended Naples against the Pisans, dated to [1134/35] from the context[230].  He surrendered to Roger in 1134.  After the fall of Salerno 8 Aug 1137, Emperor Lothar and Pope Innocent II jointly invested him as Duke of Apulia.  Roger II King of Sicily re-entered Salerno in Oct 1137, but was defeated by Rainulfo at Rignano near Monte Gargano, 30 Oct 1137.  Conte di Ariano 1138.  The Annales Casinenses record the death in 1139 of "Raynulfus dux"[231].  The Ignoti Monachi Chronica records that "dux Raynulfus" died "pridie Kal Maii" in 1139[232].  The Romoaldi Annales record that "comes Raidulfus, qui dux dicebatur" died at Troia "occasione flebotomie"[233].  After Rainulf's death, Roger reasserted his position in all of southern Italy.  When recapturing Troia, he insisted that Rainulf's body be disinterred.  m (before 1127, separated [1130/32]) MATHILDE of Sicily, daughter of ROGER I Count of Sicily & his second wife Eremburge de Mortain (-after [1132]).  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese names "comitissæ Mathildis sororis Regis Rogerii, conjugisque Ranulphi comitis"[234].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "comitissa Mathildis", hearing that "Rogerium regem fratrem suum" had gone from Alife to Salerno, rejoined her brother who restored her dowry "tota vallis Caudina", dated to [1130] from the context[235].  The Chronicle of Falco Beneventano records that Roger King of Sicily disinherited "principem Robertum et Rainulphum comitem" in 1132 and in the same year sent "Mathildi uxori suæ" (wife of "Rainulphum") to Sicily to escape her husband[236].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that Roger King of Sicily sent "Mathildem sororem suam…cum filio suo Roberto" to Sicily to avoid her husband, dated to [1130] from the context[237].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "comiti Ranulpho" demanded the return of Avellino and Mercogliano, along with his wife and son, from Roger King of Sicily at Taranto, dated to [1130/32] from the context[238].  Ranulfo & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROBERTO ([1115/20]-after [1134/35]).  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that Roger King of Sicily sent "Mathildem sororem suam…cum filio suo Roberto" to Sicily to avoid her husband, dated to [1130] from the context[239].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "comiti Ranulpho" demanded the return of Avellino and Mercogliano, along with his wife and son, from Roger King of Sicily at Taranto, dated to [1130/32] from the context[240].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "comesque Ranulphus cum filio suo Roberto" defended Naples against the Pisans, adding that Roberto was knighted at the time "in primis adolescentiæ annis", dated to [1134/35] from the context[241].  

2.         RICCARDO (-after [1130])   The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "Ricardus Ranulphi comitis frater" claimed "Avellinum urbem nec non castrum Merculianum" and was blinded by Roger of Sicily, dated to [1127/30] from the context[242].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "Ricardus frater eius" supported his brother Rainulfo in his claim against Roger King of Sicily after his wife left him, dated to [1130] from the context[243].  

3.         --- .  m ---.  One child: 

a)         ANDREA (-after 1190).  The Ignoti Monachi Chronica records that in the first year of the reign of Guillaume I King of Sicily, [1154/55], "Robertus, qui fuerat princeps Capuanus, Robertus comes de Lauritello consanguineus regis et comes Andreas nepos condam Raynulfi" invaded the kingdom "cum Grecorum exercitu" and subjugated "totam Apuliam et Terram Laboris"[244].  The Annales Casenses record that in 1156 Guillaume King of Sicily destroyed Bari but allowed "comitem Lorotelli et comitem Andream" to leave[245].  The Annales Ceccanenses record that "comes Andreas" went against the city of "Sancti Germani" in 1158 "in festivitate Innocentum feria quarta post epiphania" and brought it under his control[246].  The Annales Casenses record that in 1160 "comes Robbertus di Lorotello et comes Andreas" entered the kingdom[247]Conte di Rupecanina.  Hugo Falcandus records that "Andrew [count] of Rupecanina" captured Aquino in [1161][248].  The Annales Ceccanenses record that, after "comes Robbertus" invaded "terram usque Tarrentum" in 1161, "comes Andreas" left the land and went to Constantinople[249].  The Annales Ceccanenses record that in 1166 "comes Andreas" entered the land of the king of Sicily with "comite Riccardo" and besieged "Pastinam"[250].  The Annales Casenses record that in 1190 "Roggerius Andreas et Richardus Caleni comites" supported "Tancredus comes Lici"[251]m (Oct 1160) --- di Alba, daughter of BERARD Conte di Alba & his wife ---.  The Annales Ceccanenses record the marriage in Oct 1160 of "filiam Berardi de Albe" and "Andreas comes Comini"[252].  Andrea & his wife had one child: 

i)          ROBERTO di Calagio (-after 1193).  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica name "Robertus di Calagio dicti comitis Andrie filius" in 1193[253]

4.         GAITELGRIMA di Airola (-1117).  The Annals of Romoald record the marriage in 1116 of "Gaitelgrima filiam comitis Roberti de Airola" and "Gulielmus dux"[254].  "…Duchessa Gaitelgrima…" subscribed the charter dated May 1115 under which "Guglielmo duca, figlia del duca Ruggiero" confirmed donations to the monastery of Santa Maria di Malfinó, for the soul of "madre Ala", by charter dated May 1115[255]m (before May 1115) as his first wife, GUILLAUME Duke of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily, son of ROGER "Borsa/the Purse" Duke of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily & his wife Adela de Flandre ([1096/97]-Salerno 25 Jul 1127, bur Salerno Cathedral). 

 

 

1.         MAUGERConte di Alife.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Malcerius" holding fees "in Alifa…et de Præsentiano…et de Penta…et de Mignano", with "feudum XXXI et augmentum eius…milites XXXIX, inter feudum et augmentum…milites LXX" and lists his feeholders[256]

 

 

1.         PAOLO di Cicala (-after Feb 1205).  Conte di Alife.  Conte de Golosano.  "Paulus de Cycala…Golosani et Aliphie comes" donated la Roccella to the church of Cefalù, with the consent of "consortis nostre comitisse Syce filie quondam domini Riccardi Musca…et noster filios", by charter dated Feb 1205[257]m SICA, daughter of RICCARDO Musca & his wife --- (-after Feb 1205).  "Paulus de Cycala…Golosani et Aliphie comes" donated la Roccella to the church of Cefalù, with the consent of "consortis nostre comitisse Syce filie quondam domini Riccardi Musca…et noster filios", by charter dated Feb 1205[258]

 

 

1.         SIEGFRIED von Vohburg, son of BERTHOLD [I] Markgraf von Vohburg & his wife --- (-after Jan 1209).  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that Diepold's brother Siegfried was among those captured by Gauthier de Brienne at the battle of Canne 25 Oct 1202[259]Conte di Alife.  "Il conte di Acerra Diopoldo di Schweinspeunt, maestro giustiziere di Puglia e di Terra di Lavoro ed il fratello Siffrido conte di Alife" granted concessions to the abbot of Montevergine by charter dated 28 Jan 1209[260]

 

 

 

C.      CONTI di APICE (BALBANO)

 

 

Apice is a town in the northern part of the interior of the present-day Italian region of Campania, due east of Benevento.  A history of Apice is available on the internet.  Unfortunately, the presentation is extremely poor, with footnotes which are especially difficult to reference, but the content appears relatively well researched, with extracts from printed and archival primary sources which are cited in full in the bibliography[261].  Apice lay within the Lombard principality of Benevento in the early 12th century[262].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Rogerius Boni Albergi" holding fees "[in] demanium suum Terræ Beneventanæ, de Apice…de Bono Albergo…de Sancto Severo"[263].  The same source records "comes Philippus de Balbano" holding "demanium suum…in Ducatu…de Sancto Angelo…de Calabretta…de Capusele…de Diana"[264].  A reference in the Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] records that Raone di Balbano held the county of Apice during the reign of Emperor Friedrich II but died without direct heirs.  Manfredo King of Sicily granted the county of Apice to Federigo Maletta, one of his maternal relatives, who married the heiress of the former count.  After King Manfredo was defeated, King Charles restored the county to Federigo´s wife. 

 

 

1.         RUGGIERO di Balbano (-after 1124).  "Ruggiero de Balbano" subscribed a document dated 1124 which records the relinquishment "del territorio di Luzzano" in return for compensation[265]

 

2.         GILBERTO di Balbano (-[after Apr 1156]).  "Gilberto de Balbano" led the army of Roger I King of Sicily in 1137 against Emperor Lothar[266].  "Gilberto de Balbano" was created Justiciar of Roger I King of Sicily in 1149[267].  ["Gilberto conte di San Severo" donated the church of Santa Maria del Gualdo "all´eremita Giovanni ed ai suoi monaci" by charter dated Apr 1156[268].] 

 

3.         FILIPPO di BalbanoConte di BalbanoThe "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Philippus de Balbano" holding "demanium suum…in Ducatu…de Sancto Angelo…de Calabretta…de Capusele…de Diana", with "X militum et cum augmento…milites XXIV" as well as listing his barons[269]

 

4.         RUGGIERO di Balbanom ---.  The name of Ruggiero´s wife is not known.  Ruggiero & his wife had one child: 

a)         FILIPPO di Balbano (-1196).  The "Signoria di Apice" was held by "Conte Filippo fu Ruggiero di Balbano"[270]m ---.  The name of Filippo´s wife is not known.  Filippo & his wife had one child: 

i)          RAONE di Balbano (-before 28 Apr 1240).  Conte di Conza 1222.  Conte di Apice"Rao filius quondam…comitis Philippi de Balbano…comes Consie et dominus Apicii" donated property in Apice to the abbey of Montevergine by charter dated 1226[271].  Conte di San Angelo dei Lombardi.  Lord of Sanseverino.  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that "comes Raho de Balbano…comes Apicii" was "castrum S. Severi…dominus", and died childless "tempore imp. Frederici"[272]

 

 

1.         RICCARDO GentileConte di Apicem ---.  The name of Riccardo´s wife is not known.  Riccardo & his wife had one child: 

a)         MINORA Gentile (-after 1266).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that "comes Fredericus Maletta" married "tempore principis Manfredi…d. Minoram consanguineam de genere dicti comitis Raonis", referring to "comes Raho de Balbano…comes Alpicii", and that "castrum S. Severi" was restored to "domine Minore comitisse Apicii" (having been occupied by "d. Thomas de Draguna")[273]m FEDERICO Maletta, son of --- (-after 1264). 

 

 

1.         FEDERICO Maletta, son of --- (-killed [1258/59]).  The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that "Fredericus Maletta principis avunculus" was installed as "Luceria capitaneus" and was sent "in Capitanata" by the future Manfredo King of Sicily in early 1256[274]Conte di Apice.  Signore di Sanseverino.  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that King Manfredo had granted "comitatum…Apicii…cum castrum S. Severi" to "comes Fredericus Maletta" at the time of his marriage[275].  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina names "Fredericum Malecta comitem Bizani consanguineum suum" as one of the advisers of Manfredo King of Sicily, dated to [late 1264/early 1265] from the context[276].  The monk Conrad´s Brevis Chronica records that "comes Fredericus Malecta" was appointed "capitaneus Siciliæ" in 1257 and in the same year was killed "a Theobaldo Theutonico"[277], although the passage follows the report of King Manfred´s coronation as king which is dated to Aug 1258 from other sources.  m MINORA Gentile, daughter of RICCARDO Gentile Conte di Apice & his wife --- (-after 1266).  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that "comes Fredericus Maletta" married "tempore principis Manfredi…d. Minoram consanguineam de genere dicti comitis Raonis", referring to "comes Raho de Balbano…comes Alpicii", and that "castrum S. Severi" was restored to "domine Minore comitisse Apicii"[278].  Federico & his wife had one child: 

a)         FRANCESCO Malettam ---.  The name of Francesco´s wife is not known.  Francesco & his wife had one child: 

i)          ISABELLA Maletta .  Heiress of Apice and Calabritto.  m (1301) BERARDO GIANNATTASIO di San Giorgio, son of ---. 

 

 

 

D.      CONTI di ARIANO

 

 

The town of Ariane is located east of Apice in the present-day Italian region of Campania, and was originally within the Lombard principality of Benevento[279].  References have been found in secondary sources to Norman counts of Ariano from the late 11th century.  However, the first primary source reference which has so far been found dates to 1119.  No record has been found relating to the county of Ariano which is dated later than the exile of Conte Ruggiero by Roger I King of Sicily in 1139. 

 

 

1.         GERARD (-before 1100).  Conte di Arianom ---.  The name of Gérard´s wife is not known.  Gérard & his wife had one child: 

a)         HERBERT (-after 1100).  Chalandon refers to Herbert, son of Gérard Conte di Ariano, who was recorded as having succeeded his father in 1100, married to Altrude, parents of Giordano[280].  Conte di Arianom ALTRUDE, daughter of ---.  Herbert & his wife had one child: 

i)          GIORDANO (-killed Firenzola 12 Aug 1127).  Conte di ArianoThe Chronicle of Falco Beneventano records a war between "Jordanis comitis" and "comitis Rainulphi" in 1119[281].  The Ignoti Monachi Chronica also records a war between "comes Raynulphus Alfie et Areole" and "comes Iordanus de Ariano" in 1119[282].  The Chronicle of Falco Beneventano records that "comes…Jordanus", who had been disinherited by the duke of Apulia, stormed "Montemfuscum" on the day that the duke was buried in 1127, but was attacked 15 days later by "Robertus filius Richardi comitem" in "civitatem Florentinum" and killed[283]m ---.  The name of Giordano´s wife is not known.  Giordano & his wife had one child: 

(a)       RUGGIERO (-after 1139).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Conte di Ariano.  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "comes Ranulphus", who had married "eius…sororem…Mathildim", swore homage to his brother-in-law after his accession to the duchy of Apulia (in 1127) after being promised the lands of "Rogerii Orianensis comitis"[284].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "Grimoaldus Barensium princeps, Gofridus comes Andrensis, Tancredus de Conversano atque Rogerius Orianensis comes…et Robertus Capuanorum princeps" supported the Pope in opposing the accession of Roger Count of Sicily in Apulia (in 1127)[285].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese names "Robertus filius Ricardi…et Rogerius Orianensis comes" as supporters of Roger King of Sicily, dated to [1134/35] from the context[286].  The Chronicle of Falco Beneventano records that Roger King of Sicily exiled "comitem…Rogerium de Ariano…cum uxore sua" to Sicily in 1139[287]m --- (-after 1139).  The name of Roger´s wife is not known.  The Chronicle of Falco Beneventano records that Roger King of Sicily exiled "comitem…Rogerium de Ariano…cum uxore sua" to Sicily in 1139[288]

 

 

 

F.      CONTI di AVELLINO

 

 

The town of Avellino is located due east of Nola and due south of Benevento in the present-day Italian region of Campania, and is now the name of one of the five provinces of the region.  The county of Avellino first developed in the Lombard principality of Benevento in the early 10th century and is recorded as a Lombard county until the mid-11th century, see CONTI di AVELLINO in the document SOUTHERN ITALY (1).  Rainulfo Conte di Alife was appointed Conte di Avellino by Roger I King of Sicily in the early years of his reign as a reward for his support.  However, Conte Rainulfo rebelled against the king, sided with Emperor Lothar, and was installed as rival duke of Apulia by the emperor.  His territories in the kingdom of Sicily were confiscated.  King Roger appointed Riccardo di Aquila as Conte di Avellino in the early 1140s.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Rogerus de Aquila" holding "demanium suum…in Principatu…de Riardo…de Avellino…in Ducatu…de Merculiano…de Caprilia…et de Sancto Angelo" in the county of Avellino[289].  After the death of Conte Ruggiero in 1183, no further information has yet been found on the county of Avellino until the appointment of Bertrand de Baux as conte di Avellino by Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet]. 

 

 

1.         RAINULFO [di Aversa],  son of ROBERTO di Aversa Conte di Alife & his wife Gaitelgrima --- (-Troia 30 Apr 1139, bur Troia).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di AlifeConte di Avellino

 

 

RICCARDO di Aquila, son of --- (-24 Sep 1152).  He was installed as Conte di Avellino before 1144 by Roger I King of Sicily. 

m MAGALDA, daughter of --- & his wife Adelicia di Adernò.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

Riccardo & his wife had one child: 

1.         RUGGIERO di Aquila (-1183).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Aug 1167 under which "il conte di Avellino, Ruggiero de Aquila, figlio del fu conte Riccardo" donated property to the monastery of Montevergine[290]Conte di Avellino.  Cousin of Robert di Sorrento[291].  Hugo Falcandus names "Roger Count of Avellino" among those who conspired to capture Guillaume I King of Sicily in 1161, and records that the king pardoned him "moved by the appeals of his cousin Adelicia, the same count's grandmother…who had no other surviving heir"[292].  Hugo Falcandus records that the queen restored "Count Roger of Avellino" to his previous rank in [1166][293].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Rogerus de Aquila" holding "demanium suum…in Principatu…de Riardo…de Avellino…in Ducatu…de Merculiano…de Caprilia…et de Sancto Angelo" in the county of Avellino, with "milites XLVI et augmentum eius…milites XLV…una inter feudum et augmentum…milites LXXXVIII"[294].  "Ruggiero de Aquila conte di Avellino" donated a mill at Volturno near "del casale Schiavi…" to the monastery of Montevergine by charter dated Mar 1174[295].  "Il conte Ruggiero di Andria…comestabile e giustiziere di Puglia e Terra di Lavoro" confirmed the usurpation of property "dal defunto conte Ruggiero di Avellino" by charter dated Jan 1184[296]m ([1160/61]) MAROCTA di San Severino, daughter of ENRICO di San Severino & his wife Fenicia ---.  Hugo Falcandus records that "Count Roger of Avellino" was among those who fled into the Abruzzi after the general conspiracy in 1161, thinking it "wiser to avoid the king's anger for having recently - without the court's permission - married the daughter of Fenicia of San Severino", but that the countess "was captured and taken to Palermo together with her mother Fenicia"[297].  Ruggiero & his wife had one child: 

a)         PERRONAContessa di Avellino.  "Ruggiero di Giacomo fu Torgisio Fraineta Signore di Apice…detto Ruggiero del Castello Vetere Avellino" married "Perrona comitissa di Avellino, figlia del Conte Ruggiero de Aquila di Avelino"[298].  "Perrona gia contessa di Avellino ed il figlio Matteo di Castelvetere, nella qualità di signori del castello di Taurasi" granted property near "castello…Stalla" to "vassallo Taurasino" by charter dated Jan 1196[299]m RUGGIERO Signore di Apice, son of GIACOMO Fraineta [Frasneta] & his wife ---.  

Ruggiero had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

b)         MATTEO (-after May 1200).  It is assumed that Matteo was illegitimate as he did not inherit the county of Avellino from his father.  Signore di Taurasi.  "Perrona gia contessa di Avellino ed il figlio Matteo di Castelvetere, nella qualità di signori del castello di Taurasi" granted property near "castello…Stalla" to "vassallo Taurasino" by charter dated Jan 1196[300].  "Matteo signore di Taurasi e di altri luoghi, figlio del conte Ruggiero di Avellino" remitted the work obligations of "il sacerdote Alferio" by charter dated May 1200[301]

 

 

BERTRAND de Baux, son of BARRAL Sire de Baux & his wife Sibylle d'Anduze (-[12 Nov 1304/25 Sep 1305])Alphonse Comte de Poitou et de Toulouse "senescallo Venaissini" wrote to "Barralli domini Baucii et Bertrandi eius filii, militum" concerning a dispute "inter homines de Montiliis {Monteux, Vaucluse, cant. Carpentras} et de Auriolo {Loriol, Vaucluse, cant. Carpentras} ex una parte et homines de Sarriano {Sarrians, Vaucluse, cant. Carpentras} ex altera", dated 31 Jul 1267[302]He fought at the battle of Benevento against Manfred King of Sicily and was appointed Conte di Avellino by Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet][303].   

m firstly (before 12 Oct 1254) PHILIPPA de Poitiers-Valentinois, daughter of AYMAR [III] de Poitiers Comte de Valentinois et de Diois & his first wife Sibylle de Beaujeu (-[1283]).  By charter dated 10 Apr 1244, "Aymar de Poitiers III comte de Valentinois, fils de feu Guillaume et de Florie" confirmed his desire for the marriage of "sa fille Philippine" to "Hugues fils ainé de Barral seigneur de Baux", when they reached the age of puberty, or if he died to "Bertrand fils cadet de Barral"[304].  Considering the chronology of the family, Philippa must have been a baby at the time and was probably her parents' first child.  Her marriage took place before the charter dated 12 Oct 1254 under which "Philippine fille d'Aymar de Poitiers comte du Valentinois, épouse de Bertrand de Baux d'Avellin" confirmed the payment of her dowry by her father[305]

m secondly AGATHE de Mévouillon Dame de Caromb, daughter of RAYMOND de Mévouillon & his wife Comtessone ---. 

Bertrand & his first wife had two children:

1.         RAYMOND de Baux (-killed in battle Grusans 1321)Seigneur de Baux.  Conte di AvellinoSeneschal of Provence.  Regent of Naples and Sicily 1295.  m firstly (1274) JEANNE Britaud de Nangis Dame de Nangis.  m secondly ETIENNETTE de Baux, daughter of ---.  Raymond & his second wife had four children: 

a)         HUGUES [Ugonello] (-murdered Gaeta 1351).  Seigneur de Baux.  Conte di Avellino

-        see below

b)         PHILIPPINE de Baux (-after 1371)m (before 5 Mar 1326) GARIN de Châteauneuf Sire d'Apchier (-after 1374). 

c)         ALIX de Bauxm (1323) FOULQUE d'Agoult Baron de Sault . 

d)         SIBYLLE de Baux (-before 16 May 1361, bur Marseille, église des Franciscains).  The testament of "Dominus Jacobus de Sabaudia Princeps Achayæ filius et hæres…Domini Philippi de Sabaudia Principis Achayæ quondam" dated 16 May 1366 names "Philippum eius filium, quem suscepit a D. Sibilla de Baucio eius conjuge…"[306].  The primary source which confirms her parentage more precisely has not yet been identified.  m (contract 9 Jun 1339) as his second wife, JACQUES de Savoie Signore di Piemonte titular Prince of Achaia, son of PHILIPPE de Savoie Prince of Achaia & his second wife Catherine de Viennois ([6/16] Jan 1315-Pinerolo 14 May 1367). 

2.         HUGUES de Baux (-murdered Milan 1302).  Signore di Lauro.  Neapolitan seneschal of Piemonte and Vicar-General of Lombardy.  m (before 3 Apr 1301) CECILE de Sabran, daughter of ---. 

Bertrand & his second wife had five children:

3.         BARRAL de Baux (-1331).  Signore di Loreto.  m ALLEGRINIA di Luco, daughter of ---.  Barral & his wife had one child: 

a)         JACQUES de Baux (-after 26 Nov 1331). 

4.         AGOUT de Baux (-1346).  Seigneur de Caromb.  Seneschal of Beaucaire, Nîmes, Toulouse and Albi.  French Captain-General in Languedoc.  m (before Aug 1321) CATHERINE Artaud de Châtillon, daughter of --- (-[1372/74]).  Agout & his wife had eight children: 

a)         BERTRAND de Baux dit de Courthezon (-[1374/75]).  Seigneur de Caromb.  m (1336) CATHERINE de Baux Dame de Courthezon, daughter of --- (-[1392/94]). 

b)         DRAGONNET de Baux ([1327/28]-1362 or after).  Seigneur de Villefranche.  

c)         RAYMOND de Baux dit de Malaucene ([1328/29]-1381 or after). 

d)         LOUIS de Baux .  1340. 

e)         AMIEL de Baux (-after 1374).  Seigneur de Caromb.  Seneschal of Beaucaire and Nîmes.  m ISABELLE de Linières, daughter of ---. 

f)          AGATHE de Bauxm (before 1359) DECANUS Vicomte d'Uzès

g)         CECILE de Baux .  1340. 

h)         BAUCIE de Baux (-1390).  m GANTELMI de Beaudinard

5.         SIBYLLE de Baux (-1360)m as his second wife, AYMAR de Poitiers, son of AYMAR de Poitiers Comte de Valentinois et de Diois & his first wife Hippolyte de Bourgogne dame de Saint-Vallier (-Baix-en-Vivarais [27 Sep 1339/8 Jan 1340], bur Crest Franciscan Monastery).  He succeeded his father in 1329 as Comte de Valentinois et de Diois. 

6.         BEATRIX de Baux dite Contessone (-after 3 Aug 1344).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (1284) GUIGUES de Viennois Baron de Montaubon, son of HUMBERT de la Tour du Pin et de Coligny, Dauphin de Viennois & his wife Anne Dauphine de Viennois [Bourgogne-Capet] (-Pont-de-Sorgues-en-Provence 5 Mar 1319, bur Saint-André de Grenoble). 

7.         CECILE de Baux dite Rascassia (-after 9 Mar 1342).  Dame de Caromb.  m (before 21 Oct 1314) RAYMOND Guillaume Seigneur de Budos

 

 

HUGUES [Ugonello] de Baux, son of RAYMOND de Baux & his second wife Stephanette de Baux (-murdered Gaeta 1351).  Seigneur de Baux.  Conte di Avellino.  Seneschal of Provence and Forcalquier 1334.  Grand Admiral of Naples 1347.  He rebelled against Jeanne I Queen of Sicily, took her and her husband to Gaeta, ostensibly to protect them from Lajos I King of Hungary who had invaded Naples to avenge the death of his brother.  On returning to Naples, he forced the Queen's sister to marry his son.  He was murdered by Louis of Sicily Principe di Taranto on returning to Gaeta[307]

m (before 23 May 1332) JEANNE d'Apchier, daughter of ---. 

Hugues & his wife had six children: 

1.         ANTOINE de Baux (-1376).  Seigneur d'Aubagne.  Canon at Marseille and Bari. 

2.         ROBERT de Baux (-murdered château de l’Œuf Summer 1353).  His father forced the Queen's sister to marry him.  Seigneur de Baux.  Conte di Avellino.  He was captured by Louis of Sicily Principe di Taranto, imprisoned at the château de l’Œuf and murdered on the orders of his wife in her presence while still in prison[308]m (1348) as her second husband, MARIE of Naples, widow of CHARLES di Durazzo Duke of Durazzo, daughter of CHARLES of Sicily Duca di Calabria & his second wife Marie de Valois (posthumously Naples [mid-May] 1329-Naples 20 May 1366, bur Naples Santa Chiara).  After her first husband died, she sought refuge with Pope Clement VI at Avignon.  Returning to Naples she lived in the château de l’Œuf, from where she was abducted once more by Ugo del Balzo and forced to marry his son.  She was rescued by Lajos King of Hungary, and her second husband imprisoned at the château de l’Œuf.  She married thirdly (1355) as his first wife, Philippe di Taranto.  Robert & his wife had four children: 

a)         RAYMOND de Baux (-1372).  Seigneur de Baux.  Conte di Avellinom (1358) JEANNE de Beaufort, daughter of --- (1351-1404).  Raymond & his wife had two children: 

i)          JEAN de Baux ([1367/73]-1375). 

ii)         ALIX de Baux (before 21 Aug 1367-[7/12] Oct 1426, bur Avignon)Ctss di Avellino.  Dame de Baux.  Ctss de Beaufort.  Vicomtesse de Turenne.  m firstly (before 1 Sep 1380) ODON de Villars titular Comte de Genève (-after 18 Mar 1413).  m secondly ([18 Mar 1413/Nov 1418]) as his second wife, KONRAD [IV] Graf von Freiburg, son of EGINO [III] Graf von Freiburg & his wife Verona de Neuchâtel (-16 Apr 1424). 

Raymond had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

iii)        BORGUETTE de Baux .  1367/1426. 

b)         FRANÇOIS de Baux (-1390).  Seigneur d'Aubagne.  m (before 8 Sep 1381) PHILIPPINE de Vintimille, daughter of ---. 

c)         PHANETTEm (1355) GHIBERTO Terrici

d)         ETIENNETTE de Baux (-after 1360)m (before 17 Nov 1357) AYMAR Seigneur de Roussillon et d'Annonay, son of ---. 

 

 

 

G.      CONTI di AVERSA

 

 

Aversa is a town just north of the city of Naples in the north-western part of the present-day Italian region of Campania.  It was awarded as a county in 1029 to Rainulf "Drengot", a Norman mercenary, by Sergius IV Duke of Naples as a reward for helping to restore him to power in the duchy.  The appointment was confirmed in 1038 by Emperor Konrad II, although by that time Rainulf had become the vassal of the prince of Salerno.  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis and Amatus both record the arrival in southern Italy around the same time from Normandy of five brothers, Gilbert, Rainulf, Asclettin, Osmond and Rodolphe, who supported Melus in his rebellion in Apulia[309].  This expedition represented the first intervention of the Normans in the affairs of southern Italy.  Orderic Vitalis records that one of the brothers, Osmond, was the first Norman to settle in southern Italy and that he was granted "oppidum" by "principe Beneventanorum", although the report is a little garbled on points of detail[310].  The county of Aversa was held by descendants of the brothers of Rainulf "Drengot".  Richard Conte di Aversa conquered Capua in [1057] and installed himself as Prince of Capua, a position held by his descendants until they were expelled by Roger I King of Sicily in 1030.  No reference has been found to the county after this date and it is assumed that it was subsumed into the principality of Capua.  The descendants of Prince Richard are shown in the document SOUTHERN ITALY (1). 

 

 

Five brothers from Normandy, parents not known: 

1.         RAINULF "Drengot" (-Jun 1045).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Giselbertus…qui et Buttericus…[cum] quatuor fratribus suis, Rainulfo, Asclittino, Osmundo, atque Rodulfo" arrived in Capua (after Gilbert was banished from Normandy) where they joined "Melus", dated to [1015/16] from the context[311].  Originally recruited by Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno to fight the Byzantines, Amatus records that Rainulf was enfeoffed with Aversa by Sergius IV Duke of Naples and married the latter's sister as a reward for having helped restore him to power in 1029[312].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records "dehinc Sergius recuperata Neapoli, Rainulfum strenuum virum affinitate sibi coniunxit, et Aversæ illum comitem faciens"[313].  After his third marriage, he became the vassal of the Prince of Capua.  In [1035] he turned to support Salerno.  He was invested as Conte di Aversa by Emperor Konrad II in 1038, as vassal of the Prince of Salerno[314].  Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno installed him as Duke of Gaeta in 1041[315].  Amatus records that "the Normans…decided among themselves to place a count over them…and…chose William, son of Tancred" and after installing him as their count “went to the court of Prince Guaimar of Salerno” who they asked “to make Rainulf a count over them” who was "count of Aversa whom they had left behind when they went with Arduin in search of conquests"[316].  Amatus also records that Rainulf was at the same time given the city of Siponto and part of Monte Gargano as his fiefdom[317]Duke of Gaeta: Amatus records that "Count Rainulf" was made "Duke of Gaeta", dated to [1043/44] from the context[318].  The necrology of San Benedetto di Capua records the death in Jun of Rainulf[319]m firstly (1030) as her second husband, --- of Naples, widow of --- Duke of Gaeta, daughter of IOANNES IV Duke of Naples & his wife --- (-1034).  Amatus records that Sergius IV Duke of Naples gave his sister, "recently widowed by the death of the Count of Gaeta", in marriage to Rainulf in return for helping him resume power in Naples from Pandulf IV Prince of Capua[320].  The Count (Duke) of Gaeta in question has not yet been identified.  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records "dehinc Sergius recuperata Neapoli, Rainulfum strenuum virum affinitate sibi coniunxit, et Aversæ illum comitem faciens"[321].  Amatus records her death soon after the marriage[322]m secondly (1034) --- di Amalfi, daughter of SERGIUS III Duke of Amalfi & his wife Maria di Capua.  Amatus records the marriage of Rainulf to "the Patrician of Amalfi's daughter, who was Prince Pandulf's niece [Pandulf IV Prince of Capua], as the Patrician's wife was Pandulf's sister"[323].  [m thirdly as her first husband, EMMA di Loritello, daughter of GODEFROI de Hauteville & his first wife ---.  This marriage is recorded in Europäische Stammtafeln[324] but is improbable chronologically.  Rainolf died in 1045, before Emma's father was first recorded in Italy.  In any case, Emma could have been no more than an infant at the time of such a suggested marriage.]   

2.         ASCLETTIN (-before Jun 1045).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Giselbertus…qui et Buttericus…[cum] quatuor fratribus suis, Rainulfo, Asclittino, Osmundo, atque Rodulfo" arrived in Capua (after Gilbert was banished from Normandy) where they joined "Melus", dated to [1015/16] from the context[325].  He is described as "Anschetillus de Quadrellis [Anquetil of Quarrel]" by Orderic Vitalis[326].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Stephano autem, Melo et Petro nepotibus præfati Melo" were granted "comitatum Cominensis" (by Emperor Heinrich II) together with "in auxilium Normannos, Giselbertum, Gosmannum, Stigandum, Torstainum balbum, Gualterium de Canosa et Ugonem Falluccam, cum aliis decem et octo", dated to [1022] from the context[327].  Chalandon identifies these Normans as "Gilbert, Osmond, Asclettin, Toustain le Bègue, Gautier de Canisy et Hugues Falluca"[328].  Lord of Acerenza from early 1042: Amatus records that "the Normans divided among themselves" the lands at Melfi, following their victories against the Byzantines dated to 1041, and that “William received Ascoli; Drogo had Venosa; Arnolin had Lavello; Hugh Toutebove had Monopoli; Rodulf had Canne; Walter, Civitate; Peter, Trani; Rodulf son of Bebena, Sant´Arcangelo; Tristan, Montepeloso; Hervey, Grumento; Asclettin, Acerenza; and Rainfroi, Malarbine”, adding that “Prince Guaimar of Salerno…invested each one of them[329].  the Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records the division of properties agreed at Melfi, dated to Feb 1042, as follows: "Guilelmo Asculum, Drogoni Venusiam, Arnolino Labellum, Ugoni Tutabovi Monopolim, Petro Tranum, Gualterio Civitatem, Rodulfo Cannim, Tristaino Montem pilosum, Herveo Grigentum, Asclittino Acerentiam, Rodulfo Sanctum Archangelum, Raimfrido Monerbinum"[330]m ---.  The name of Asclettin's wife is not known.  Asclettin & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         ASCLETTIN (-[Jul/Dec] 1045).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records that "Asclittinus qui cognominatus est Comes iuvenis" succeeded Rainulf as Conte di Aversa[331].  Amatus records that "the Normans chose Asclettin, the son of Count Rainulf´s brother…an elegant youth", the choice being approved by Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno, but that "his death came too soon"[332].  His parentage is confirmed by a later passage in Amatus which records that "a man called Sarulus" held "the city of Genzano which has belonged to [Richard´s] brother Asclettin"[333]

b)         RICHARD (-Apr 1078).  Orderic Vitalis names Richard son of "Anschetillus de Quadrellis [Anquetil of Quarrel]"[334].  The Catalogus Principum Capuæ names "Riccardus comes de Aversa, primus princeps Normanusfilius Asclittini comitis"[335].  Amatus records that "Richard, the son of Asclettin…a young man" arrived in southern Italy, dated to [1046] from the context, that "his cousin Rainulf [Trincanocte]…asked Richard to leave" because he was too popular, and that Richard "went to his friend Humphrey, who was Drogo´s brother"[336].  Amatus records that "a man called Sarulus" held "the city of Genzano which has belonged to [Richard´s] brother Asclettin" and willingly granted it to Richard[337].  Amatus records that "Drogo seized Richard and imprisoned him", that "while Richard was in prison Count Rainulf of Aversa died" (dated to 1048), and that Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno "asked Drogo to surrender Richard to him" and installed him as Conte di Aversa[338].  A charter dated [Nov/Dec] 1050 is dated to the first year of "Richard count…the fourth year of the boy count Herman his nephew"[339].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records "Richardum filium Asclittini" succeeding "Raidulfus Trinclinocte comes" as Conte di Aversa[340].  Richard conquered Capua and succeeded in [1057] as RICHARD I Prince of Capua

-        PRINCES of CAPUA

c)         RAINULF (-1088).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Richardus princeps Capuanus cum Iordane filio et fratre Rainulfo"[341].  Conte di Caiazzo.  Amatus records that "the prince's [Richard Prince of Capua] brother Rainulf and his own son Jordan conspired to diminish the prince's honour and…took up arms against him"[342]m ---.  The name of Rainulf's wife is not known.  Rainulf & his wife had two children:

i)          RICHARD .  Amatus names "Richard son of Prince Richard's brother…cousin [of] Jordan" when recording that he was captured by the forces of Robert "Guiscard" who were besieging Lacedonia, the headquarters of Jordan[343].  "Ricardus filius Rannulfi comitis" is recorded by Orderic Vitalis as one of those who left with Bohemond of Apulia on the First Crusade in 1097[344].  William of Tyre also names "Richardus filius comitis Ranulfi" among those who accompanied Bohemond on crusade[345]

ii)         ROBERT (-1115).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Robbertus Caiatianorum comes, filius Raynulfi comes" in a paragraph recording events in 1105[346]Conte di Alife 1086.  Conte di Caiazzo. 

-         CONTI di ALIFE

d)         [daughter .  Amatus records that Richard son of Asclettin gave his sister in marriage to his cousin Rainulf "Tricanocte"[347], although such a marriage between first cousins would seem surprising.  One possible explanation is that she was Richard's uterine sister.  m ([1046/47]) RAINULF "Tricanocte" Conte di Aversa, son of [GILBERT/OSMOND/RODOLPHE] & his wife --- (-1048).] 

3.         GILBERT "Buatère" (-[after 1022]).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Giselbertus…qui et Buttericus" killed "Guilielmus cognomento Repostellus", for which he was banished by "Robbertus comes", and that "Giselbertus…[cum] quatuor fratribus suis, Rainulfo, Asclittino, Osmundo, atque Rodulfo" arrived in Capua where they joined "Melus", dated to [1015/16] from the context[348].  According to Amatus, Gilbert Buatère threw William from a very high place and killed him, took over William's position as viscount, but fled to Italy with his four brothers when sentenced to death[349].  Amatus also records how the brothers helped Melus fight the Greeks in Apulia[350].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Stephano autem, Melo et Petro nepotibus præfati Melo" were granted "comitatum Cominensis" (by Emperor Heinrich II) together with "in auxilium Normannos, Giselbertum, Gosmannum, Stigandum, Torstainum balbum, Gualterium de Canosa et Ugonem Falluccam, cum aliis decem et octo", dated to [1022] from the context[351].  Chalandon identifies these Normans as "Gilbert, Osmond, Asclettin, Toustain le Bègue, Gautier de Canisy et Hugues Falluca"[352]

4.         OSMOND (-[after 1022]).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Giselbertus…qui et Buttericus…[cum] quatuor fratribus suis, Rainulfo, Asclittino, Osmundo, atque Rodulfo" arrived in Capua (after Gilbert was banished from Normandy) where they joined "Melus", dated to [1015/16] from the context[353].  Orderic Vitalis records that "Osmund surnamed Drengot" fled "from the wrath of [Robert II Duke of Normandy] first to Brittany, then to England and finally to Apulia" where he was "the first Norman to settle" and was granted "oppidum" by "principe Beneventanorum", dated to [1015/16] from the context although this is inconsistent with the reference to Robert II Duke of Normandy[354].  Guillaume de Jumièges records that Osmond Drengot killed "Guillaume surnommé Repostel" and escaped to Apulia[355].  Amatus records that they joined forces at Capua with Melus, another exile from Apulia, and together returned to fight the Greeks[356].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Stephano autem, Melo et Petro nepotibus præfati Melo" were granted "comitatum Cominensis" (by Emperor Heinrich II) together with "in auxilium Normannos, Giselbertum, Gosmannum, Stigandum, Torstainum balbum, Gualterium de Canosa et Ugonem Falluccam, cum aliis decem et octo", dated to [1022] from the context[357].  Chalandon identifies these Normans as "Gilbert, Osmond, Asclettin, Toustain le Bègue, Gautier de Canisy et Hugues Falluca"[358]m (before [1010/15]) ---.  The name of Osmond's wife is not known.  Osmond & his wife had one child: 

a)         daughter ([1010/15]-).  According to Orderic Vitalis, Guillaume Repostel "boasted at [the Norman] court of seducing" her and was killed by her father "in the arms of Duke Robert whilst they were hunting in the woods"[359], although other sources state that Osmond's brother Gilbert was the murderer.  If the latter is correct, this may have been Gilbert's daughter.  Her birth date range is estimated on the assumption that the story of Orderic Vitalis relating to her seduction is true and that she was of marriageable age at the time. 

5.         RODOLFE (-after 1024).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Giselbertus…qui et Buttericus…[cum] quatuor fratribus suis, Rainulfo, Asclittino, Osmundo, atque Rodulfo" arrived in Capua (after Gilbert was banished from Normandy) where they joined "Melus", dated to [1015/16] from the context[360].  He and his three brothers left with their brother Gilbert after he was banished.  They joined forces at Capua with Melus, another exile from Apulia, and together returned to fight the Greeks353.  Rodulfus Glaber records that "a very brave Norman called Rodulf incurred the anger of Count Richard [Richard II Comte de Normandie]" and fled to Italy, where he fought the Greeks and visited Emperor Heinrich II[361].  There is little basis for dating the events, except a reference to Rodolfe being received "joyfully" by Count Richard in Normandy the year before the death of the Emperor (1024).  Chalandon suggests that meeting with the emperor must have taken place in Germany after Rodolfe accompanied Melus there after his defeat in southern Italy, dated to 1017[362]

6.         [Gilbert/Osmond/Rodolfe was father of:]  Two children: 

a)         RAINULF [II] "Tricanocte" (-1048).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records "Rodulfus cognomento Capellus" as Conte d'Aversa after "Asclittinus qui cognominatus est Comes iuvenis", and "quo ab Aversanis expulso, Raidulfus Trinclinocte comes effectus est"[363].  Amatus refers to Rainulf as "son of the brother of the great Rainulf", without specifying which brother was his father, but in a later passage excludes Asclettin by describing the latter's son Richard as cousin of Rainulf[364].  Amatus records that, after the death of his first cousin Asclettin Count of Aversa in 1045, Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno imprisoned "the nephew of the elder Count Rainulf, who was called Trincanocte and Hugh, who was surnamed Fallacia" in the "Torre Maggiore"[365], presumably because of their opposition to the appointed by Prince Guaimar of Rodolphe, son of Eudes capellus, as Conte di Aversa.  He expelled Rodolfe from Aversa and succeeded as Conte di Aversa, later confirmed as count by Prince Guaimar[366] and by Emperor Heinrich III in 1047[367].  An alternative manuscript of the Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "R. filius Oddonis c. C." was expelled from Aversa after a short time and replaced by "Rodulfum Trincanocte"[368].  He received Benevento from Emperor Heinrich III in 1047, jointly with Drogo Conte di Apulia, after he had confiscated it from the citizens who had refused to open its gates to him, although the Beneventans invited Pope Leo IX to take over the town.  Amatus records that "Drogo seized Richard and imprisoned him", and that "while Richard was in prison Count Rainulf of Aversa died"[369].  An alternative manuscript of the Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Guilelmum Bellabocca de cognaitione Tancridi" was installed as Conte di Aversa after "Rodulfum Trincanocte" but was expelled[370]m ([1046/47]) --- of Aversa, daughter of ASCLETTIN & his wife ---.  Amatus records that Richard son of Asclettin gave his sister in marriage to his cousin Rainulf "Tricanocte"[371], although such a marriage between first cousins would seem surprising.  One possible explanation is that she was Richard's uterine sister.  Rainulf [II] & his wife had [one child]: 

i)          [HERMAN (-after [Nov/Dec] 1050).  Chalandon says that "son fils Hermann" succeeded on the death of Rainulf [II] Conte di Aversa "sous la tutelle du comte Guillaume Bellebouche", that the latter was expelled from Aversa and his place as regent was taken by Richard (son of Asclettin, see above)[372].  The corresponding primary sources have not yet been consulted.  There seems a possibility of confusion with Herman, son of Rodolphe Capellus (see below), as the name Herman is not otherwise found in the family of the counts of Aversa.  He succeeded his father as Conte di Aversa 1048, under the regency first of Guillaume Bellaboca, subsequently of his cousin Richard, who deposed him.  A charter dated [Nov/Dec] 1050 is dated to the first year of "Richard count…the fourth year of the boy count Herman his nephew"[373].  The relationship "nephew" is consistent with Herman being the son of Count Rainulf [II] and his wife, the sister of Richard, but it must be borne in mind how flexibly the word "nepos" could be interpreted in contemporary documentation.] 

b)         ASCLETTIN .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

7.         [Gilbert/Osmond/Rodolfe was father of:]  One child: 

a)         ROBERTO di Lucera .  According to Jahn, Roberto was nephew of Rainulf Count of Aversa, son of his brother Asclettin, from whom he inherited Monte Sant'Angelo which stood on Monte Gargano[374].  No other indication has been found that Roberto was the son of Asclettin, and it appears more likely that he was the son of one of the other brothers, but probably not the same brother who was the father of the two brothers Rainulf [II] "Tricanocte" and Asclettin (see above).  Conte di Gargano.  m ([end 1051/May 1052]) as her second husband, GAITELGRIMA di Salerno, widow of DROGO de Hauteville Conte di Apulia, daughter of GUAIMAR IV Prince of Salerno & his [second wife Purpura ---] ([before 1032]-after Jan 1087).  Amatus records that Prince Guaimar gave "Count Drogo's [daughter]" to "Robert brother of Count Richard", the editor of the edition consulted speculating that "daughter" must be an error for "widow"[375].  She married thirdly Affred Conte.  "Domina Gaytelgrima comitissa filia…Robberti ducis" donated property to the monastery of La Trinità at Cava for the souls of "suprascripti domini Robberti et…domini Drogonis et domini Affridi comitum qui fuerunt viri sui" by charter dated Jan 1087[376], although the parentage attributed to her in this document is presumably a copyist's error.  It is also curious that the document omits any reference to Gaitelgrima's second husband.  This copy of the document appears to be defective as another copy records that "dominæ Gaytelgrimæ comitissæ filiæ bonæ recordationis domini Guaimarii…principis et ducis" donated property for the souls of "domini Drogonis et domini Roberti et domini Alfredi comitum qui fuerunt viri sui" and for the souls of "Purpure genitricis suæ et…Ricardi filii sui qui de ipso Roberto comite marito suo primogenitum habuit"[377].  The mother of Henry Count of Monte Sant'Angelo was the sister of Ioannes di Salerno whom he put in charge of an almshouse which he founded on Monte Gargano in the late 1090s[378].  Roberto & his wife had four children: 

i)          RICCARDO (-before Jan 1087).  "Dominæ Gaytelgrimæ comitissæ filiæ bonæ recordationis domini Guaimarii…principis et ducis" donated property for the souls of "domini Drogonis et domini Roberti et domini Alfredi comitum qui fuerunt viri sui" and for the souls of "Purpure genitricis suæ et…Ricardi filii sui qui de ipso Roberto comite marito suo primogenitum habuit", by charter dated Jan 1087[379]

ii)         ENRICO (-[1101/Aug 1103]).  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi names "Henricus comes" among the participants in the rebellion against Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia, dated to 1078[380]Conte di Lucera e del Gargano.  Conte di Monte San Angelo.  "Enricus comes filius…bone memorie Robberti…comitis et Adelisa filia Ruggeri comitis…vir et uxor de civitate Sancti Michaelis Archangeli monte Gargano" donated property for the soul of "[Adelisa…]…Iudite matri mee" donated property by charter dated Mar 1083, signed by "Guillelmo fratris…"[381].  "…Henrici comitis de Monte…" was among the subscribers of the charter dated Jun 1087 under which "Rogerius…dux ducis Robberti filius" donated property to the church of Bari[382].  He founded an almshouse on Monte Gargano in the late 1090s in which he appointed his maternal uncle Ioannes di Salerno abbot[383].  "Henricus…comes…qm Roberti comitis" donated property to "Joannes dictus de Curte zianus meus olim filius bone memorie Guaimarii principis Salernitani avi mei" by charter dated Nov 1098[384].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Guilelmus comes civitatis montis sancti Michahelis archangeli" when recording his donation dated Apr 1100, mentioning "Heinricus frater eius"387m ADELISA of Sicily, daughter of ROGER I Count of Sicily & his first wife Judith d'Evreux [Normandie] (-before 1096).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated Mar 1083 under which "Enricus comes filius…bone memorie Robberti…comitis et Adelisa filia Ruggeri comitis…vir et uxor de civitate Sancti Michaelis Archangeli monte Gargano" donated property for the soul of "[Adelisa…]…Iudite matri mee"[385]

iii)        GUGLIELMO (-after 1107).  "Enricus comes filius…bone memorie Robberti…comitis et Adelisa filia Ruggeri comitis…vir et uxor de civitate Sancti Michaelis Archangeli monte Gargano" donated property for the soul of "[Adelisa…]…Iudite matri mee" donated property by charter dated Mar 1083, signed by "Guillelmo fratris…"[386].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Guilelmus comes civitatis montis sancti Michahelis archangeli" when recording his donation dated Apr 1100, mentioning "Heinricus frater eius"[387]m BASILIA, daughter of ---.  Basilia is named as wife of Guglielmo in a charter dated Apr 1099[388].  Guglielmo & his wife had one child: 

(a)       SIMONE .  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "Simone conte di S. Angelo nel monte Gargano…fratel consobrino del re…e figliuolo del conte Enrico, zio di esso re" succeeded "il conte Roberto figliuolo di Riccardo" in "Terra di Lavoro"[389].  According to Stasser, Simone was the son of Guglielmo not of Enrico, but he does not cite the corresponding primary source[390]

iv)       GAITA .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated Mar 1104 under which "Devie Rao…cum…conjuge comitissa Gaita et cum filii mei" donated property to Santa Maria di Tremiti for the soul of "cognati fratrisque mee uxoris comitis Henrici"[391]m RAOUL [I] de Devia, son of ---. 

 

 

1.         EUDES Capellus .  m ---.  The name of Eudes´s wife is not known.  Eudes & his wife had one child: 

a)         RODOLPHE [Raoul] Capellus (-[1046/Mar 1048]).  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronica Monasterii Casinensis which records that "Rodulfus cognomento Cappellus" succeeded "Asclittinus qui cognominatus est Comes iuvenis" as conte di Aversa (another manuscript calling him "R. filius Oddonis c. C.")[392].  Lord of Canne from early 1042: Amatus records that "the Normans divided among themselves" the lands at Melfi, following their victories against the Byzantines dated to 1041, and that “William received Ascoli; Drogo had Venosa; Arnolin had Lavello; Hugh Toutebove had Monopoli; Rodulf had Canne; Walter, Civitate; Peter, Trani; Rodulf son of Bebena, Sant´Arcangelo; Tristan, Montepeloso; Hervey, Grumento; Asclettin, Acerenza; and Rainfroi, Malarbine”, adding that “Prince Guaimar of Salerno…invested each one of them[393].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records the division of properties agreed at Melfi, dated to Feb 1042, as follows: "Guilelmo Asculum, Drogoni Venusiam, Arnolino Labellum, Ugoni Tutabovi Monopolim, Petro Tranum, Gualterio Civitatem, Rodulfo Cannim, Tristaino Montem pilosum, Herveo Grigentum, Asclittino Acerentiam, Rodulfo Sanctum Archangelum, Raimfrido Monerbinum"[394]Conte di Aversa.  Amatus records that, after the death of Asclettin Count of Aversa in 1045, Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno appointed "a man called Rodulf as Count of Aversa without the agreement of the people"[395].  An alternative manuscript of the Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "R. filius Oddonis c. C." was expelled from Aversa after a short time and replaced by "Rodulfum Trincanocte"[396].  Amatus records that he was expelled from Aversa by Rainulf "Tricanocte", nephew of Rainulf (above), after which "he was called Count Capellus"[397]m as her first husband, GAITELGRIMA di Sorrento, daughter of --- di Sorrento & his wife --- ([1015/20]-).  "Gaitelgrima…comitissa senatrix" donated property to the monastery of San Blasio, for the soul of "domni Rodolfi comiti seniori mei", by charter dated Mar 1048, dated to "comitante domno Guilielmo et domno Herimano in castro Aversum…anno primo"[398].  Her birth date range is estimated based on her having had children by both her marriages.  She married secondly (after Aug 1051) Onfroi Conte di Apulia.  Amatus refers to the wife of Humphrey as "the Duke of Sorrento's sister"[399].  The fact that these references are to the same person is confirmed by the Gesta Roberti Wiscardi which names "genitus genetrice Hermannus [Comte di Canne] eadem Unfredi fuerat qua filius Abagelardus"[400], Abelard being the son of Onfroi and Herman presumably being the son of Rodolfe (who was reported as having received Canne under the treaty of Melfi in 1042[401]).  Rodolfe & his wife had one child: 

i)          HERMAN (-after 1097).  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi names "genitus genetrice Hermannus eadem Unfredi fuerat qua filius Abagelardus"[402].  Amatus recounts that "Abelard's brother" was among those taken hostage as the time of his brother's rebellion against Robert "Guiscard"[403].  Conte di Canne (in Bari) 1072/81.  Malaterra names "Hermannum comitem fratrem Abagelaudi" when recording his capture[404].  He led an insurrection against Robert Guiscard at Canosa in 1083[405].  "Hermannus de Canni" is recorded by Orderic Vitalis among those who left with Bohemond of Apulia on the First Crusade in 1097[406].  William of Tyre also names "Hermannus de Carni" among those who accompanied Bohemond on crusade[407]m ---.  The name of Herman's wife is not known.  Herman & his wife had one child: 

(a)       RICHARD .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

1.         GUILLAUME "Bellaboca" (-after 1048).  [Conte di Aversa.]  An alternative manuscript of the Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Guilelmum Bellabocca de cognaitione Tancridi" was installed as Conte di Aversa after "Rodulfum Trincanocte" but was expelled[408]

 

 

 

H.      CONTI di BUONALBERGO

 

 

Buonalbergo is located north-east of Benevento in the northern part of the present-day Italian province of Campania.  In the early 1050s, Amatus records Gérard di Buonalbergo, who is probably the same person as "comes…Giraldius" who is named in the Gesta Roberti Wiscardi at the battle of Civitate in 1053.  Amatus records Alberada, aunt of Gérard, as the first wife of Robert "Guiscard", future Duke of Apulia.  Buonalbergo was granted as a county by Roger I King of Sicily to Robert de Medania in [1150].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Rogerius Boni Albergi" holding fees "[in] demanium suum Terræ Beneventanæ, de Apice…de Bono Albergo…de Sancto Severo"[409], and "comes Robertus de Bonoherbergo" holding "in principatu Capuæ in demanio Sessulam Patanam…de parte sua de la Cerra…et Marellanum"[410], although it is not known whether both of these individuals belonged to the same family.  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] records that "castrum Bonalberghi" was restored to "domino Mattheo de Tocco", adding that it was now held by "d. Johannes de Salerno" who married "Margaritam filiam Bartholomei de Tocco filii dicti Matthei", and that Emperor Friedrich II had granted the castle to "dicto d. Mattheo"[411].  The source does not refer to Buonalbergo as a county.  One branch of the Tocco family is noteworthy for having installed themselves as Counts of Kefalonia in Greece (see the document GREECE LATIN LORDSHIPS). 

 

 

1.         --- [di Buonalbergo] .  m ---.  One child: 

a)         GERARD di Buonalbergo (-1086).  Amatus records that "Gerard who was called Buonalbergo" came to Robert "Guiscard" who was visiting his brother in Apulia, proposed his marriage to "my aunt, my father´s sister…Alberada" (specifying that Robert´s brother Drogo at first opposed the marriage) and agreed to serve him in Calabria, dated to [1050/51] from the context, adding that Gerard was "believed to have been the first to call him Guiscard"[412].  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi records the presence of "Petrus et Galterus Amici insignes soboles, simul Aureolanus, Ubertus Muscaque, Ranaldus, comes Hugo, comesque Giraldius, Bovianensis comitis comitatu Radulfi" at the battle of Civitate, dated to 17 Jun 1053[413].  "…Gerardus de Bonoherbene…" subscribed the charter dated 1060 under which "Robertus dux Italie, Apulie et Calabrie atque Sicilie" donated "castrum Aquebelle" to the monastery of La Trinità at Cava[414].  "…Girardus de Bonherbere" subscribed a charter dated Jun 1063 which declared the restitution of property to the monastery of Banzi[415].  The Chonicon Monasterii Beneventani records the death in 1086 of "Girardus Comes"[416]m ---.  The name of Girardo's wife is not known.  Girardo & his wife had two children: 

i)          ERBERTO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m ---.  The name of Erberto's wife is not known.  Herberto & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GIORDANO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

ii)         ROBERTO (-murdered 1121, bur Benevento Santa Sofia).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He left on the First Crusade with Bohémond of Apulia, later Prince of Antioch.  In Italy in 1112, he received land from his nephew Jordan[417]

2.         ALBERADA ([1032]-after 1058).  Amatus records that "Gerard who was called Buonalbergo" came to Robert "Guiscard" who was visiting his brother in Apulia, proposed his marriage to "my aunt, my father´s sister…Alberada" (specifying that Robert´s brother Drogo at first opposed the marriage) and agreed to serve him in Calabria, dated to [1050/51] from the context[418].  Malaterra names "Alberadam" as the first wife of Robert "Guiscard", recording that they were separated on grounds of consanguinity[419], although the precise relationship between husband and wife is not known.  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names the first wife of Robert as "Alveradam amitam suam [=Girardus de bono alipergo]", recording the couple's separation on grounds of consanguinity[420]m ([1051], divorced [1058] on grounds of consanguinity[421]) as his first wife, ROBERT "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia, son of TANCRED de Hauteville & his second wife Fressenda --- ([1020]-Phiscardo Bay, Cephalonia 17 Jul 1085, bur Monastery of Santissima Trinità, Venosa). 

 

 

1.         ROBERT de Medania (-after 1108).  He came to southern Italy from Anjou.  The name "Medania" is reminiscent of "Medana", Latin for Mayenne, but no connection has so far been made with the family of the Seigneurs de Mayenne in Maine.  Robert de Medania is named in a charter at Capua dated May 1092[422].  Robert de Medania is named "consanguineus" of Richard II Prince of Capua in a charter dated Oct 1105[423], but his precise relationship with the family of the conti di Aversa has not been traced.  Robert de Medania is named in a charter dated 1108[424]

2.         --- de Medaniam ---.  One child: 

a)         GEOFFROY de Medania (-after Mar 1116)"Robbertus filius bone memorie Iordanis principis procurator…principatus Capuæ" donated property, at the request of "Goffridi de Medania", by charter dated Apr 1106[425].  Lord of Acerra.  "Gaufridus qui vocor de Medania Suessolanorum et Acerranorum…senior" donated property, for the souls of "…Roberti barbani mei", by charter dated Mar 1116, subscribed by "Sikelgarda sua conjux…Robertus de Medania"[426]m SICHELGAITA, daughter of --- (-after Mar 1118).  "Gaufridus qui vocor de Medania Suessolanorum et Acerranorum…senior" donated property, for the souls of "…Roberti barbani mei", by charter dated Mar 1116, subscribed by "Sikelgarda sua conjux…Robertus de Medania"[427].  Stasser suggests that she was Sichelgaita di Salerno, daughter of Landolf di Salerno & his wife Emilia di Gaeta[428].  He argues convincingly that the only way of explaining why Enrico di San Severino, son of Roger di San Severino & his wife Sika di Salerno, names her son "Robertus de Medania uterinus frater"[429], is that the term "uterinus frater" must be interpreted in this document as maternal cousin.  Geoffroy & his wife had one child: 

i)          ROBERT de Medania (-before Jun 1154).  "Gaufridus qui vocor de Medania Suessolanorum et Acerranorum…senior" donated property, for the souls of "…Roberti barbani mei", by charter dated Mar 1116, subscribed by "Sikelgarda sua conjux…Robertus de Medania"[430].  "Henricus filius quondam Rogerii de S. Severino" donated property to Cava abbey by charter dated Mar 1125, subscribed by "Robertus de Medania uterinus frater"[431].  He was installed as Conte di Buonalbergo by Roger I King of Sicily in [1150].  m JUDITH, daughter of ---.  Robert & his wife had two children: 

(a)       ROGER de Medania (-after 1166).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di BuonalbergoConte di Acerra.  Hugo Falcandus names "Count Roger of Acerra" among the conspirators against chancellor Maio in [1156][432].  Hugo Falcandus records that "Count Roger of Acerra" fled into the Abruzzi after the general conspiracy in 1161[433].  Hugo Falcandus records that the queen restored "Count Roger of Acerra" to his previous rank in [1166][434].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Rogerius Boni Albergi" holding fees "[in] demanium suum Terræ Beneventanæ, de Apice…de Bono Albergo…de Sancto Severo", with "milites XIII et cum augmento…milites XXXI"[435]

-         CONTI di ACERRA

(b)       CECILIA de Medania .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m RINALDO d´Aquino, son of --- (-after 1197). 

 

3.         ROBERTOConte di Buonalbergo.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Robertus de Bonoherbergo" holding "in principatu Capuæ in demanio Sessulam Patanam…de parte sua de la Cerra…et Marellanum", with "milites XX et augmentum eius…milites XX…inter proprium feudum et augmentum milites XL" and listing his feeholders[436]

 

 

1.         UGOLINO Tocco .  Grand Seneschal of Emperor Heinrich VI in 1195[437]

 

2.         PIETRO di Toccom ---.  The name of Pietro´s wife is not known.  Pietro & his wife had one child: 

a)         MANASSE di Tocco (-after 25 Feb 1201).  "Manasse figlio di Pietro di Tocco" sold property "nella città nuova di Benevento" to the abbey of Montevergine by charter dated 25 Feb 1201[438]

 

3.         MATTHEO di Tocco .  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that "castrum Bonalberghi" was restored to "domino Mattheo de Tocco", adding that it was now held by "d. Johannes de Salerno" who married "Margaritam filiam Bartholomei de Tocco filii dicti Matthei", and that Emperor Friedrich II had granted the castle to "dicto d. Mattheo"[439]m ---.  The name of Mattheo´s wife is not known.  Mattheo & his wife had one child: 

a)         BARTOLOMEO di Tocco .  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that "castrum Bonalberghi" was restored to "domino Mattheo de Tocco", adding that it was now held by "d. Johannes de Salerno" who married "Margaritam filiam Bartholomei de Tocco filii dicti Matthei"[440]m PERTECUSA di Lecto, daughter of MATTHEO di Lecto & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily which records that "castrum Bonalberghi" was held "tempore principis Manfridi" by "Franciscus Simplex", but restored by King Charles to "d. Mattheo de Lecto avo materno d. Margarite uxoris dicti d. Johannis de Salerno", together with "medietatem Montiscalvi et castrum Montisfalconis", a later passage recording that "dominus Mattheus de Lecto…dominus Montisfalconis et medietatis Montiscalvi" had two daughters of whom the younger "Pertecusam" married "Bartholomeo de Tocco filius d. Matthei"[441].  Bartolomeo & his wife had one child: 

i)          MARGHERITA di Tocco .  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that "castrum Bonalberghi" was restored to "domino Mattheo de Tocco", adding that it was now held by "d. Johannes de Salerno" who married "Margaritam filiam Bartholomei de Tocco filii dicti Matthei"[442]m (after 1266) GIOVANNI di Salerno, son of ---. 

 

4.         GUGLIELMO Tocco, son of [PIETRO Tocco notario in Melfi & his [first/second] wife ---] (-Naples 22 Sep 1335).  He was appointed Governor of Corfu by Philippe Principe di Taranto [Anjou-Sicily] in [1330/31]. 

-        COUNTS of KEFALONIA

 

 

 

I.        CONTI di CASERTA

 

 

Caserta is located due west of Benevento, in the north-western part of the present-day Italian region of Campania.  The earliest record so far identified of Caserta as a county is the "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], which records "comes Robertus Casertanus" holding fees "[in] Mandra et Pulcarinum" and "demanium suum de Caserta…de Morrone…de Meliczano…de Bublano…de Gurupato…de Telesia…in Valle Comana…Fontanam…de Arpino…et de Monte Nigro"[443].  Roberto´s family origin has not yet been traced.  The descendants of Roberto´s brother continued to hold the county until the reign of Manfredo King of Sicily, an unusual example of retention of power by a Norman family through the various changes of regime in the kingdom.  No information has so far been found about the county after the arrival of the Angevin dynasty in the kingdom of Sicil y. 

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         ROBERTOConte di Caserta.  "Robbertus…Casertanorum…comes" donated serfs to San Angelo ad Formas by charter dated Jul 1165[444].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Robertus Casertanus" holding fees "[in] Mandra et Pulcarinum", with "inter feudum et augmentum…milites VI", and "comes Robertus de Caserta" holding "demanium suum de Caserta…de Morrone…de Meliczano…de Bublano…de Gurupato…de Telesia…in Valle Comana…Fontanam…de Arpino…et de Monte Nigro" with "feuda militum XXXIV et augmentum eius…milites XLII…inter feudum et augmentum demanii…milites LXXVI" listing his feeholders[445]m ---.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "domina Comitissa Casertæ" holding "Esclitellum" in Capitinata from "episcopus Forconen", with "feudum I militis"[446]

2.         GUGLIELMO (-after 1199).  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Guillelmus frater…comitis Roberti" holding "in Aprutio Tortoretum…et…Montorium…et Casale Sancti Benedicti" from "Raynaldus de la Troia" in "episcopus Forconen", with "milites VI et augmentum eius…milites VI"[447]Conte di Caserta.  "Il conte Guglielmo di Caserta ed il conte Riccardo di Acerra, capitani e maestri giustizieri de Puglia e Terra di Lavoro" wrote relating to a claim, by charter dated Aug 1190[448]The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that "Guilielmo Caserte comes" supported Emperor Heinrich VI against King Tancred, when recounting that he captured "Riccardum Caleni comitem" at Capua and took him to "roccam Arcis", in 1192[449].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that in 1199 "Dyopoldus a Guilielmo comite captus est"[450]m ---.  The name of Guglielmo's wife is not known.  Guglielmo & his wife had three children: 

a)         ROBERTO (-1212 or after).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di Caserta

b)         GUGLIELMO .  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that in 1199 "Dyopoldus a Guilielmo comite captus est…set eo mortuo, Guilielmus filius eius" married Diepold's daughter and freed Diepold[451]m (1199) --- von Vohburg, daughter of DIEPOLD Markgraf von Vohburg & [his first wife ---].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that in 1199 "Dyopoldus a Guilielmo comite captus est…set eo mortuo, Guilielmus filius eius" married Diepold's daughter and freed Diepold[452]

c)         ---.  m ---.  One child: 

i)          RICCARDO (-after 2 Mar 1265).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Vicar General of the March of Ancona and duchy of Spoleto 1243-1244.  Vicar of the kingdom of Sicily 1248.  Conte di Caserta.  The dating clause of a charter dated Nov 1252 refers to "secundo anno d. n. Riccardi…Caserte comitis"[453]m ([1245/46]) VIOLANTA, illegitimate daughter of Emperor FRIEDRICH I & his mistress Bianca Lancia ([1233]-after Summer 1264).  The Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis refer to "filiam imperatoris naturalem" as wife of "comitissam de Caserta filius"[454].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. 

 

 

1.         TOMASOConte di Caserta.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Roggerium de Aquila, Thomam de Caserta, Iacobum de Sancto Severino, et filium comitis Tricaricensis, regni comites" rebelled against Emperor Friedrich II in Sicily in 1223[455]

 

 

 

K.      CONTI di GESUALDO

 

 

The town of Gesualdo is located south-east of Benevento, in the central part of the present-day Italian region of Campania.  It is recorded briefly as a county in the hands of Guillaume, illegitimate son of Roger "Borsa" Duke of Apulia.  No further references have been found to the county after that time. 

 

 

1.         GUILLAUME, illegitimate son of ROGER "Borsa/the Purse" Duke of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily & his mistress --- (-[1145/50]).  Chalandon records that Guillaume, signor di Gesualdo e Lucera, illegitimate son of Duke Roger, is named in charters dated Apr 1115 and May 1116[456].  Lord of Lucera 1115.  Conte di Gesualdom ALBERADA di Lecce, daughter of GOFFREDO Conte di Lecce & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Guillaume & his wife had one child: 

a)         ELIA (-1187).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m ---.  The name of Elia's wife is not known.  Elia & his wife had two children: 

i)          GUILLAUME .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Hugo Falcandus records that "William of Gesualdo" was one of the leaders of the conspiracy against Richard Count of Molise[457]

ii)         ARISTOLF "Gesualdo".  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  1187.  m ---.  The name of Aristolf's wife is not known.  Aristolf & his wife had one child:

(a)       ELIA "Gesualdo".  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  1191. 

 

 

 

L.      CONTI di PRINCIPATO

 

 

"Principato" was the name given to a county, also called San Nicandro, which covered the inland territory bordered by the counties of Rota, Marsico and Conza, located in the south-eastern part of the present-day Italian region of Campania, from Eboli in the west to Brienza and Teggiano in the east.  The county was granted to Guillaume, son of Tancred de Hauteville, and remained in his family until the mid-1150s when Guillaume Conte di Principato rebelled against Guillaume I King of Sicily and was deprived of his lands and titles. 

 

 

GUILLAUME de Hauteville "Sanicandro", son of TANCRED de Hauteville & his second wife Fressenda --- (-1080).  Malaterra names "…tertius Willelmus…" third among the sons of Tancred & his second wife[458].  Amatus records that the brothers "Mauger, Geoffrey, William and Roger" arrived in Apulia from Normandy[459], dated from the context to [1054/57].  Conte di Principato.  Malaterra records that "fratres suos…Malgerium…Willelmum" were made counts in "Capitanatæ…[et] in Principatu" respectively by their brother Count Onfroi, and that after the death of Mauger the county of the Capitanata passed to his brother Guillaume[460].  "Guilelmus comes…" was among the subscribers to a charter dated 1060 under which "Robertus dux Italie, Apulie et Calabrie atque Sicilie" donated "castrum Aquebelle" to the monastery of La Trinità at Cava[461].  Conte di San Nicandro.  "Guglielmo comite fratre ducis" is recorded as present in a charter dated 1069 under which "duce Roberto dominante universe Apulie regioni atque Calabrie" donated property to Trinità di Venosa[462]

m (after 1053[463]) [MARIA] di Conza-Salerno, daughter of GUIDO di Salerno Conte di Conza [Duca di Sorrento] & his wife --- (-after 1080).  Amatus records the marriage of the daughter of Guido and Guillaume de Hauteville[464], in a later passage than the one recording the marriage of Guido´s daughter Guida to another Guillaume d´Hauteville.  Europäische Stammtafeln[465] confuses the two brothers named Guillaume, sons of Tancred de Hauteville, giving the same wife to each, but Amatus is clearly referring to the two different half-brothers of the same name.  According to Drell, Maria witnessed her husband's 1080 will[466].  She is named as witness of a donation by her son Robert to the abbey of Holy Trinity Venosa dated 1085[467]

Guillaume & his wife had six children: 

1.         ROBERTO (-1099).  The Annals of Romoald name "Wilhelmus de Sancto Nicandro [filius Tancredi] pater Robberti comitis de Principatu"[468].  "…Robertus ducis nepos…" was among the subscribers of the charter dated 19 Feb 1076 under which "Rotbertus dux" made concessions to the cathedral of Santa Maria at Melfi[469].  He witnessed his father's 1080 will[470].  He succeeded his father in 1080 as Conte di Principato.  "Robertus…Comes Salerni Principatus, filius quondam Domini Comitis Guillielmi" confirmed the rights of the archbishop of Salerno by charter dated Jun 1090 which names "Domine Gilie…conjuncis nostre"[471]m GILIA, daughter of RAINONE "Brito" & his wife Atta ---.  "Robertus…Comes Salerni Principatus, filius quondam Domini Comitis Guillielmi" confirmed the rights of the archbishop of Salerno by charter dated Jun 1090 which names "Domine Gilie…conjuncis nostre"[472].  "Ralnolfus qui vocor Brictone…et Atta uxor mea et Johel filius meus" donated property to Cava by charter dated Oct 1086[473].  Her parentage is confirmed by a charter dated Apr 1101 under which "Guilielmi comitis principatus" called Rainulf "Brito" his "avunculus"[474].  Robert & his wife had one child: 

a)         [475]GUGLIELMO (-1128).  He succeeded his father 1099 as Conte di Principato.  "Guilielmi comitis principatus" calls Rainulf "Brito" his "avunculus" in a charter dated Apr 1101[476]m ---.  The name of Guillaume's wife is not known.  Guillaume & his wife had two children: 

i)          [477]NICCOLO (-after 1141).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father 1128 as Conte di Principato.  He gained control of Eboli by 1129.  "Rogerius…Sicilie et Italie rex…Rogerii primi comitis heres et filius" confirmed donations by "consanguineus noster comes Nicolaus de Principatu" to the monastery of Cava, Salerno by charter dated after May 1137[478]

ii)         GUGLIELMO (-after 1160).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his brother as Conte di Principato.  He joined the rebellion against Guillaume I King of Sicily in 1155/56, was imprisoned in Palermo, escaped to take part in another rebellion and was exiled to Jerusalem 1161[479].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "comes Guilielmus de Principatu et Riccardus de Mandra et Alexander monachus" were released from prison during a rebellion, dated to [1160] from the context, adding that "Guilielmus comes de Principatu et Tancredus comes de Lycia" joined "ad Matthæum Bonellam"[480]

2.         RICCARDO ([1053/60]-Spring 1112[481]).  William of Tyre records "Richardus de Principatu filius Guillelmi Ferrebrachia[482] fratris Roberti Guischart, Ranulfus frater eius" among those who accompanied Bohemond on the First Crusade in 1097[483], although the reference to "…Guillelmi Ferrebrachia…" must be incorrect resulting from confusion in the source between the two brothers of Robert "Guiscard" who were both called Guillaume.  "Ricardus de Principatu et Ranulfus frater eius" are also recorded by Orderic Vitalis on the same occasion[484].  Albert of Aix records that "Richardus princeps Salernæ civitatis Italiæ de genere Nortmannorum, proximus Tancredi" was captured during the siege of Mamistra, dated to late 1097 from the context[485]"Ricardo de Principatu filiolo di Roberto Ferra Brachiu fratel di Roberto Guiscardo" is recorded in Itinerario di la Gran Militia a la Pavese[486]According to Europäische Stammtafeln[487], Richard was the son of Drogo de Hauteville Count of Apulia.  His birth date is estimated from the likely marriage date of his parents.  Vardan's History records that "Danishman lord of Sebastia, whom they say was of Armenian nationality, came against Melitene" in 1100 and captured "Pemond and Rajard who were at Edessa [and] who came against him"[488]: it is suggested that "Rajard" was Richard of the Principate.  He was appointed regent in Edessa in 1104 during the captivity of Baudouin II Count of Edessa[489], but Baudouin had to evict him forcibly to regain Edessa in 1108 after his release in 1107[490]m ALTRUDE, daughter of Marchese ODO [Guglielmo] "le Bon" & his wife Emma of Apulia.  Albert of Aix records the mother of Roger Prince of Antioch as the sister of Tancred, but does not name her[491].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  If the estimated birth date of her son is correct, Altrude could not have been born later than [1065/70].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[492], Richard's wife was Altrude, daughter of Godofredo Conte di Conversano e Brindisi, but this is inconsistent with Tancred regent of Antioch having appointed his nephew, Richard's son Roger, as his heir. 

-        PRINCES of ANTIOCH.   

3.         RAINOLFO .  William of Tyre records "Richardus de Principatu filius Guillelmi Ferrebrachia fratris Roberti Guischart, Ranulfus frater eius" among those who accompanied Bohemond on the First Crusade in 1097[493].  "Ricardus de Principatu et Ranulfus frater eius" are also recorded by Orderic Vitalis on the same occasion[494]

4.         TANCREDO "de Hauteville" (-after 1104).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  1098.  Installed at Syracuse by Roger I Count of Sicily after the death in [1091/92] of the latter's son Jordan[495]m MURIELLA, daughter of GUILLAUME de Mountzel & his wife --- (-after 10 Jun 1102). 

5.         daughter .  Malaterra refers to the betrothal of "dux…neptem" (referring to a Venetian named Dominico) and "filiam fratris sui Guilielmi Principatus comitis" at the time of the siege of Durazzo, dated to Oct 1081[496]Betrothed (Oct 1081) to DOMENICO Silvio, son of DOMENICO Silvio Doge of Venice & his wife ---. 

6.         GUGLIELMO (-after Apr 1103).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

1.         RAINO di Principato (-after 1135).  The Annales Casenses record that in 1134 "rex Rogerius" entered the Principatum and expelled "comitem Rainonem…et reddidit ei comitissam", and that in 1135 captured "Raynoni et Ugoni comitatum" at Aversa but that "Raynon comes" fled to Naples[497]

 

 

 

M.     CONTI di SARNO

 

 

Sarno is located north-west of Salerno in the present-day Italian region of Campania.  It is recorded as a county in the 1080s, and again in the 1120s/1130s.  No information has yet been found about the county after that time. 

 

 

1.         ONFROI (-1081 or before).  [Conte di Sarno.  "Gaitelgrime comtesse de Sarno, veuve du comte Anfroi" is named in a charter dated 1081[498].]  m as her second husband, GAITELGRIMA of Apulia, widow of DROGO, daughter of ROBERT "Guscard" Duke of Apulia & his [second wife Sichelgaita di Salerno].  Chalandon records that Gaitelgrima, married firstly to Drogo and secondly to Onfroi, is named in a charter of Cava dated 1086[499].  "Gaitelgrime comtesse de Sarno, veuve du comte Anfroi" is named in a charter dated 1081[500].  Onfroi & his wife had one child: 

a)         RICHARD .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   m ---.  The name of Richard´s wife is not known.  Richard & his wife had one child: 

i)          RICCARDO (-after May 1125).  "Richard comte de Sarno" "filius quondam domini Riccardi qui fuit comes, ortus ex genere Normannorum" issued a charter dated Jan 1115[501].  Chalandon states that Richard made his testament dated May 1125 in the presence of his son Enrico[502]m ---.  The name of Richard´s wife is not known.  Richard & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ENRICO (-after Jan 1138).  Chalandon states that Richard made his testament dated May 1125 in the presence of his son Enrico[503]Conte di Sarno.  "Enrico conte di Sarno, figlio del fu conte Riccardo" donated a mill to the church of Santa Maria built on the monte detto Vergine by charter dated Feb 1134[504].  "Il conte Enrico di Sarno, figlio del fu Riccardo" donated two serfs to the monastery of Montevergine by charter dated Jan 1138[505]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    COUNTIES in MOLISE

 

 

The present-day Italian region of Molise is located to the south of Abruzzo, north of Puglia [Apulia] and west of the regions of Lazio and Campania.  The families of the counts of Civitate, Lesina, Loritello, Molise and Sangre are set out below.  In addition, the family of the counts of Loreto has been placed here, although this place has not yet been identified.  Apart from these counties, Bojano, Campomarino, Isernia, Larino, Pietrabbondante, Termoli, Trivento and Venafro have been identified as other counties in the Molise area but no information has yet been found concerning their counts. 

 

 

 

A.      CONTI di CIVITATE

 

 

The town of Civitate, now known as Civitella, is located north-west of Foggia in the present-day Italian region of Molise.  It was the scene of the decisive battle between the Normans and a combined Swabian, Italian and Lombard army organised by Pope Leo IX in 1053.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Philippus de Civitate" holding fees "in demanium Campum Marinum", in the county of Civitate, as well as in "episcopus Civitatis"[506]

 

 

1.         FILIPPOConte di Civitate.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Philippus de Civitate" holding fees "in demanium Campum Marinum", in the county of Civitate, "inter feudum et augmentum…milites LXII", as well as fees of "milites XL" in "episcopus Civitatis"[507]

 

2.         --- .  Conte di Civitatem SICA, daughter of --- (-after 25 Feb 1178).  Rao Bishop of Volturara Appula confirmed the privileges of the church of Santo Spirito at Celenza Valfortore ("Fontana della Noce"), at the request "del conte Enrico di Civitate e della madre contessa Sica", by charter dated 25 Feb 1178[508].  One child: 

a)         ENRICO (-after 25 Feb 1178).  Conte di Civitate.  Rao Bishop of Volturara Appula confirmed the privileges of the church of Santo Spirito at Celenza Valfortore ("Fontana della Noce"), at the request "del conte Enrico di Civitate e della madre contessa Sica", by charter dated 25 Feb 1178[509]

 

 

 

B.      CONTI di LESINA

 

 

The following family sub-group was related to the Hauteville family according to William of Apulia (see below) but the precise relationship is not known. 

 

 

1.         AMICUS [I] .  m ---.  The name of Amicus's wife is not known.  Amicus [I] & his wife had two children: 

a)         PIERRE (-after 1057).  Lord of Trani from early 1042: Amatus records that "the Normans divided among themselves" the lands at Melfi, following their victories against the Byzantines dated to 1041, and that “William received Ascoli; Drogo had Venosa; Arnolin had Lavello; Hugh Toutebove had Monopoli; Rodulf had Canne; Walter, Civitate; Peter, Trani; Rodulf son of Bebena, Sant´Arcangelo; Tristan, Montepeloso; Hervey, Grumento; Asclettin, Acerenza; and Rainfroi, Malarbine”, adding that “Prince Guaimar of Salerno…invested each one of them[510].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records the division of properties agreed at Melfi, dated to Feb 1042, as follows: "Guilelmo Asculum, Drogoni Venusiam, Arnolino Labellum, Ugoni Tutabovi Monopolim, Petro Tranum, Gualterio Civitatem, Rodulfo Cannim, Tristaino Montem pilosum, Herveo Grigentum, Asclittino Acerentiam, Rodulfo Sanctum Archangelum, Raimfrido Monerbinum"[511].  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi records that "Unfredum…cum fratre Drogone" disputed the succession of their brother Guillaume with "Petrus consanguinitate propinquus", dated to 1046[512].  The same source reports that Pierre founded "Andrum…et…Coretum" {Andria and Corato}, and fortified "Buxilias, Barolum" {Bisceglie and Barletta}.  He was defeated and captured by Drogo and his brother Onfroi.  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi records the presence of "Petrus et Galterus Amici insignes soboles, simul Aureolanus, Ubertus Muscaque, Ranaldus, comes Hugo, comesque Giraldius, Bovianensis comitis comitatu Radulfi" at the battle of Civitate, dated to 17 Jun 1053[513].  Amatus records that "Peter son of Amicus" entered Melfi after the accession of Robert "Guiscard" in 1057, but the citizens rebelled against him and he fled to Cisterna[514]m ---.  The name of Pierre's wife is not known.  Pierre & his wife had two children: 

i)          2 daughters .  Amatus records that Robert "Guiscard" "gave Peter's two daughters rich husbands"[515]

b)         GAUTHIER (-after 1053).  Lord of Civitate from early 1042: Amatus records that "the Normans divided among themselves" the lands at Melfi, following their victories against the Byzantines dated to 1041, and that “William received Ascoli; Drogo had Venosa; Arnolin had Lavello; Hugh Toutebove had Monopoli; Rodulf had Canne; Walter, Civitate; Peter, Trani; Rodulf son of Bebena, Sant´Arcangelo; Tristan, Montepeloso; Hervey, Grumento; Asclettin, Acerenza; and Rainfroi, Malarbine”, adding that “Prince Guaimar of Salerno…invested each one of them[516].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records the division of properties agreed at Melfi, dated to Feb 1042, as follows: "Guilelmo Asculum, Drogoni Venusiam, Arnolino Labellum, Ugoni Tutabovi Monopolim, Petro Tranum, Gualterio Civitatem, Rodulfo Cannim, Tristaino Montem pilosum, Herveo Grigentum, Asclittino Acerentiam, Rodulfo Sanctum Archangelum, Raimfrido Monerbinum"[517].  He was established as Conte di Lesina by Jun 1047[518].  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi records the presence of "Petrus et Galterus Amici insignes soboles, simul Aureolanus, Ubertus Muscaque, Ranaldus, comes Hugo, comesque Giraldius, Bovianensis comitis comitatu Radulfi" at the battle of Civitate, dated to 17 Jun 1053[519]m ---.  The name of Gauthier's wife is not known.  Gauthier & his wife had one child: 

i)          PIETRO (-1092 or after)Conte di Lesina 1056/1092. 

-         see below

ii)         AMICUS [II] (-1090 or after).  "Robertus comes Lorotelli, Amicus inclitus comes, Riccardus Andrie comes, Goffredus comes Cupersani, Petrus comes de Lesena, Robertus comes filius Guillelmi Ybonis comitis" declared the restitution of property to the monastery of Banzi by charter dated Jun 1063[520]Conte di Molfetta 1063/1090. 

-         CONTI di MOLFETTA

 

 

PIERRE, son of GAUTHIER Conte di Lesina & his wife --- (-1092 or after).  "Petro filius Gualteri…comitis" donated property to the monastery of Tremiti by charter dated Jun 1058 and Feb 1069[521]Conte di Lesina.  "Robertus comes Lorotelli, Amicus inclitus comes, Riccardus Andrie comes, Goffredus comes Cupersani, Petrus comes de Lesena, Robertus comes filius Guillelmi Ybonis comitis" declared the restitution of property to the monastery of Banzi by charter dated Jun 1063[522].  The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records that "Northmanni et Petronius comes" captured "civitatem Traniensem" in Jan 1073, but that Duke Robert "Guiscard", returning from Sicily, expelled "Petronium comitem circa Barim" who "inimicatus est cum Rogerio"[523].  The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records that "Petronius comes" reentered Bari in 1079, from where he was expelled by Duke Robert in 1080, after which he reentered Trani[524].  "…Petronis comitis de Alesna…" subscribed a charter of Roger duke of Apulia dated Aug 1086[525]

m ---.  The name of Pierre's wife is not known. 

Pierre & his wife had three children:

1.         FILIPPO (-after 1082).  Philippe and Geoffroy, sons of Pierre Conte di Lesina, attested a charter dated 1082[526]

2.         GODOFREDO (-after 1082).  Lupus Protospatarius records that "Ioffredus comes filius Petronii" was obstructed by "quidam ductor Græcorum…Mambrita" in his pursuit of the Byzantines in 1066[527].  Philippe and Geoffroy, sons of Pierre Conte di Lesina, attested a charter dated 1082[528]

3.         RAO (-after Feb 1119).  Conte di Lesina"Rao comes Lisine…Petronis comitis heres et filius" is named in a charter dated Feb 1119[529]

 

 

1.         GUILLAUME (-after 1161).  Conte di LesinaHugo Falcandus records that "Count William of Lesina, Bohemond of Tarsia" were already being held in chains in Palermo after the rebellion against Guillaume I King of Sicily in [1156][530].  Hugo Falcandus names "William of Lesina" among those responsible for the capture of Guillaume I King of Sicily in 1161[531]

 

2.         GODEFREDOConte di Lesina.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Goffridus…Alexinæ" holding "de Domino Rege in demanio…de Peschizo…de Biccara…de Caprilia…de Barano… in Monte…in Syponto", in "Sanctus Johannes in Lama", with "milites XV et augmentum milites XX", "Banciam quam tenuit Henricus de Ullia…feudum IV militum et cum augmento…milites VIII", as well as fiefs in "episcopus Civitatis"[532]

 

 

 

D.      CONTI di MOLISE (CONTI di BOIANO)

 

 

1.         GUIMOND de Moulins (-before 1082).  "Guidmundus et mea uxor Emma cum nostre prole" donated property "in Rislo et in Moira et in Itone" and "de Molinis…meo castro, decimam" to Chartres Saint-Père by charter dated to before 1067 (but presumably dated to before 1053, when the donors´ son Rodulf is recorded in Italy) signed by "…Rodulfi filii eius, Rodberti filii eius, Antonii filii eius, Guimundi filii eius, Hugonis filii eius, Alanni filii eius, Guillelmi filii eius, Toresgaudi filii eius…"[533]m as her first husband, EMMA, daughter of GEOFFROY & his wife --- (-after 1082).  "Guidmundus et mea uxor Emma cum nostre prole" donated property "in Rislo et in Moira et in Itone" and "de Molinis…meo castro, decimam" to Chartres Saint-Père by charter dated to [before 1053][534].  She married secondly Raon "Trincanocte" d´Eboli.  "Emma fille de Geoffroi et veuve de Raon Trincanocte d´Eboli et de Gimond de Molise" donated property to Cava, with "les enfants de son fils Guillaume: Roger, Robert et Rainolf", by charter dated 1082[535].  Guimund & his wife had eight children: 

a)         RODULF de Moulins (-after Mar 1092).  "…Rodulfi filii eius, Rodberti filii eius, Antonii filii eius, Guimundi filii eius, Hugonis filii eius, Alanni filii eius, Guillelmi filii eius, Toresgaudi filii eius…" signed the charter dated to [before 1053] under which "Guidmundus et mea uxor Emma cum nostre prole" donated "de Molinis…meo castro, decimam" to Chartres Saint-Père[536]Conte di Boiano.  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi records the presence of "Petrus et Galterus Amici insignes soboles, simul Aureolanus, Ubertus Muscaque, Ranaldus, comes Hugo, comesque Giraldius, Bovianensis comitis comitatu Radulfi" at the battle of Civitate, dated to 17 Jun 1053[537]

-        see below, CONTI di BOIANO

b)         ROBERT de Moulins .  "…Rodulfi filii eius, Rodberti filii eius, Antonii filii eius, Guimundi filii eius, Hugonis filii eius, Alanni filii eius, Guillelmi filii eius, Toresgaudi filii eius…" signed the charter dated to [before 1053] under which "Guidmundus et mea uxor Emma cum nostre prole" donated "de Molinis…meo castro, decimam" to Chartres Saint-Père[538]

c)         ANTOINE de Moulins .  "…Rodulfi filii eius, Rodberti filii eius, Antonii filii eius, Guimundi filii eius, Hugonis filii eius, Alanni filii eius, Guillelmi filii eius, Toresgaudi filii eius…" signed the charter dated to [before 1053] under which "Guidmundus et mea uxor Emma cum nostre prole" donated "de Molinis…meo castro, decimam" to Chartres Saint-Père[539]

d)         GUIMOND de Moulins (-after 1075).  "…Rodulfi filii eius, Rodberti filii eius, Antonii filii eius, Guimundi filii eius, Hugonis filii eius, Alanni filii eius, Guillelmi filii eius, Toresgaudi filii eius…" signed the charter dated to [before 1053] under which "Guidmundus et mea uxor Emma cum nostre prole" donated "de Molinis…meo castro, decimam" to Chartres Saint-Père[540].  Amatus records that Guido, brother of Gisulf Prince of Salerno, was killed by "Norman enemies" who ambushed him en route to Capua for a hearing concerning a dispute with "Guimund" with whom he jointly held the valley of San Severino, dated to 1075[541]

e)         HUGUES de Moulins .  "…Rodulfi filii eius, Rodberti filii eius, Antonii filii eius, Guimundi filii eius, Hugonis filii eius, Alanni filii eius, Guillelmi filii eius, Toresgaudi filii eius…" signed the charter dated to [before 1053] under which "Guidmundus et mea uxor Emma cum nostre prole" donated "de Molinis…meo castro, decimam" to Chartres Saint-Père[542]

f)          ALAIN de Moulins .  "…Rodulfi filii eius, Rodberti filii eius, Antonii filii eius, Guimundi filii eius, Hugonis filii eius, Alanni filii eius, Guillelmi filii eius, Toresgaudi filii eius…" signed the charter dated to [before 1053] under which "Guidmundus et mea uxor Emma cum nostre prole" donated "de Molinis…meo castro, decimam" to Chartres Saint-Père[543]

g)         GUILLAUME de Moulins .  "…Rodulfi filii eius, Rodberti filii eius, Antonii filii eius, Guimundi filii eius, Hugonis filii eius, Alanni filii eius, Guillelmi filii eius, Toresgaudi filii eius…" signed the charter dated to [before 1053] under which "Guidmundus et mea uxor Emma cum nostre prole" donated "de Molinis…meo castro, decimam" to Chartres Saint-Père[544].  m ---.  The name of Guillaume´s wife is not known.  Guillaume & his wife had three children: 

i)          ROGER .  "Emma fille de Geoffroi et veuve de Raon Trincanocte d´Eboli et de Gimond de Molise" donated property to Cava, with "les enfants de son fils Guillaume: Roger, Robert et Rainolf", by charter dated 1082[545]

ii)         ROBERT .  "Emma fille de Geoffroi et veuve de Raon Trincanocte d´Eboli et de Gimond de Molise" donated property to Cava, with "les enfants de son fils Guillaume: Roger, Robert et Rainolf", by charter dated 1082[546]

iii)        RAINOLF .  "Emma fille de Geoffroi et veuve de Raon Trincanocte d´Eboli et de Gimond de Molise" donated property to Cava, with "les enfants de son fils Guillaume: Roger, Robert et Rainolf", by charter dated 1082[547]

h)         TORESGAUD de Moulins .  "…Rodulfi filii eius, Rodberti filii eius, Antonii filii eius, Guimundi filii eius, Hugonis filii eius, Alanni filii eius, Guillelmi filii eius, Toresgaudi filii eius…" signed the charter dated to [before 1053] under which "Guidmundus et mea uxor Emma cum nostre prole" donated "de Molinis…meo castro, decimam" to Chartres Saint-Père[548]

 

 

RODULF de Moulins, son of GUIMOND Seigneur de Moulins & his wife Emma --- (-after Mar 1092).  "…Rodulfi filii eius, Rodberti filii eius, Antonii filii eius, Guimundi filii eius, Hugonis filii eius, Alanni filii eius, Guillelmi filii eius, Toresgaudi filii eius…" signed the charter dated to [before 1053] under which "Guidmundus et mea uxor Emma cum nostre prole" donated "de Molinis…meo castro, decimam" to Chartres Saint-Père[549]Conte di Boiano.  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi records the presence of "Petrus et Galterus Amici insignes soboles, simul Aureolanus, Ubertus Muscaque, Ranaldus, comes Hugo, comesque Giraldius, Bovianensis comitis comitatu Radulfi" at the battle of Civitate, dated to 17 Jun 1053[550].  "Rodulfus comes…cognomina de Molinis…cum conjuge mea…Emma" donated the castle of Balneo to the church of Santa Croce di Isernia by charter dated 1088[551].  "Rodulfus cognomina de Molisio…comes patriæ Bovianensis" donated the church of Santa Cruce d´Isernia to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "Ugonis filii mei et Rogerii et Roberti nepotis mei filii Roberti filii mei…patris mei Guimundi et matris meæ Emma et filiorum meorum Robberti et Rodulfi et Wilielmi nec non et Alferadæ uxoris meæ iam defunctæ et filiarum mearum Adelicza et Beatricis", by charter dated Mar 1092[552]

m firstly ALFERADA di Guardia, daughter of ROFRIT Conte di Guardia & his wife --- (-before 1088).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Gesta Roberti Wiscardi which names "Molinensisque Rodulfi Rofredus socer – huius castrum Gardia" when recording the participation of the last named in the battle of Civitate (dated to 17 Jun 1053) in support of Pope Leon IX[553].  "Rodulfus cognomina de Molisio…comes patriæ Bovianensis" donated the church of Santa Cruce d´Isernia to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "Ugonis filii mei et Rogerii et Roberti nepotis mei filii Roberti filii mei…patris mei Guimundi et matris meæ Emma et filiorum meorum Robberti et Rodulfi et Wilielmi nec non et Alferadæ uxoris meæ iam defunctæ et filiarum mearum Adelicza et Beatricis", by charter dated Mar 1092[554]

m secondly EMMA, daughter of --- (-after 1088).  "Rodulfus comes…cognomina de Molinis…cum conjuge mea…Emma" donated property by charter dated 1088[555]

Rodulf & his first wife had children: 

1.         HUGUES de Molise (-after Sep 1105).  "Rodulfus cognomina de Molisio…comes patriæ Bovianensis" donated the church of Santa Cruce d´Isernia to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "Ugonis filii mei et Rogerii et Roberti nepotis mei filii Roberti filii mei…patris mei Guimundi et matris meæ Emma et filiorum meorum Robberti et Rodulfi et Wilielmi nec non et Alferadæ uxoris meæ iam defunctæ et filiarum mearum Adelicza et Beatricis", by charter dated Mar 1092[556]Conte di Molise.  "Ugo comes qui dicor de Mulisi filius quondam Rodulfi comitis" donated the monastery of San Benedetto di Dalfani to San Angelo ad Formas by charter dated Feb 1097, signed by "Grimoaldi comes palatii…"[557].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Ugo comitis de Molisio, filius comitis Raulis" when recording his donation of "castellum Vitecosum" in Sep 1105[558].  The Annales Casenses record that in 1098 "Ugo de Molisi" captured "Pandulfum comitem" and held him in chains[559]m ---.  The name of Ugo's wife is not known.  Ugo & his wife had [three] children:

a)         SIMONE di Molise (-[1114/18], bur Montecassion).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records the death of "Symon filius Ugonis de Molisi" at "apud Yserniam" and his burial in Montecassino, undated but between passages recording events in 1114 and 1118[560]

b)         [UGO di Molise (-29 Oct or 28 Dec [1156]).  The Annales Casenses record that in 1135 "rex Rogerius" captured "Raynoni et Ugoni comitatum" at Aversa[561]m firstly (repudiated before 1153) --- [of Sicily], illegitimate daughter of ROGER I King of Sicily & his mistress ---.  Hugo Falcandus records that "Matthew [Bonellus] was captivated by the beauty of an illegitimate daughter of King Roger who had been married to Hugh Count of Molise"[562].  As this is probably dated to [1160/63] in this source, it is likely that she was one of the younger children of King Roger, born no later than [1130].  John of Salisbury records the attempt by Hugo de Molise to annul his first marriage, refused by Pope Eugenius III, but presumably subsequently accepted as his widow is recorded as still alive in 1206[563]m secondly ([after 1153]) ADELAIDE, daughter of --- (-1206 or after).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  John of Salisbury records the attempt by Hugo de Molise to annul his first marriage, refused by Pope Eugenius III, but presumably subsequently accepted as his widow is recorded as still alive in 1206[564]

c)         [--- di Molise .  The Ignoti Monachi Chronica records that in 1141 King Roger married "sororem comitis Ugonis de Molisio" by whom he had "filium Symonem, quem constituit principem Capue"[565].  Houben assumes that she was the mistress of King Roger[566], but assuming the date quoted in the Ignoti Monachi Chronica is correct, it is not impossible that the couple married as it is after his first wife´s death and well before his marriage with his known second wife.  Mistress (1141) of ROGER II King of Sicily, son of ROGER I Count of Sicily & his third wife Adelaida di Savona [Monferrato] (22 Dec 1095-Palermo 26 Feb 1154, bur Palermo Cathedral).] 

2.         ROBERT di Molise .  "Rodulfus cognomina de Molisio…comes patriæ Bovianensis" donated the church of Santa Cruce d´Isernia to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "Ugonis filii mei et Rogerii et Roberti nepotis mei filii Roberti filii mei…patris mei Guimundi et matris meæ Emma et filiorum meorum Robberti et Rodulfi et Wilielmi nec non et Alferadæ uxoris meæ iam defunctæ et filiarum mearum Adelicza et Beatricis", by charter dated Mar 1092[567]m ---.  The name of Robert´s wife is not known.  Robert & his wife had two children: 

a)         ROGER .  "Rodulfus cognomina de Molisio…comes patriæ Bovianensis" donated the church of Santa Cruce d´Isernia to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "Ugonis filii mei et Rogerii et Roberti nepotis mei filii Roberti filii mei…patris mei Guimundi et matris meæ Emma et filiorum meorum Robberti et Rodulfi et Wilielmi nec non et Alferadæ uxoris meæ iam defunctæ et filiarum mearum Adelicza et Beatricis", by charter dated Mar 1092[568]

b)         ROBERT .  "Rodulfus cognomina de Molisio…comes patriæ Bovianensis" donated the church of Santa Cruce d´Isernia to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "Ugonis filii mei et Rogerii et Roberti nepotis mei filii Roberti filii mei…patris mei Guimundi et matris meæ Emma et filiorum meorum Robberti et Rodulfi et Wilielmi nec non et Alferadæ uxoris meæ iam defunctæ et filiarum mearum Adelicza et Beatricis", by charter dated Mar 1092[569]

3.         RODULF di Molise .  "Rodulfus cognomina de Molisio…comes patriæ Bovianensis" donated the church of Santa Cruce d´Isernia to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "Ugonis filii mei et Rogerii et Roberti nepotis mei filii Roberti filii mei…patris mei Guimundi et matris meæ Emma et filiorum meorum Robberti et Rodulfi et Wilielmi nec non et Alferadæ uxoris meæ iam defunctæ et filiarum mearum Adelicza et Beatricis", by charter dated Mar 1092[570]

4.         GUILLAUME di Molise .  "Rodulfus cognomina de Molisio…comes patriæ Bovianensis" donated the church of Santa Cruce d´Isernia to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "Ugonis filii mei et Rogerii et Roberti nepotis mei filii Roberti filii mei…patris mei Guimundi et matris meæ Emma et filiorum meorum Robberti et Rodulfi et Wilielmi nec non et Alferadæ uxoris meæ iam defunctæ et filiarum mearum Adelicza et Beatricis", by charter dated Mar 1092[571]

5.         SICHELGAITA di Molise (-after Sep 1101).  "Goffridus…comes" donated land of S. Nicola to the abbot of Santa Maria di Nardò by charter dated May 1092, signed by "Sikelgaite comitisse, Roberti Cupersanensis…Rogerii vice comitis"[572].  "Sikelgaita filia Rao de Mulisi" is named with "son époux Geoffroy de Conversano" in a charter dated Oct 1093[573].  "Goffridus…[co]me[s] dominator civitatis Neritoni…cum Sechelgayta comitissa uxore mea et cum filiis nostris [R]oberto et [A]lexandri[o]" donated the church of Santa Anastasia di Matino, near Gallipoli to the monastery of Santa Maria di Nardò by charter dated Jan 1099[574].  "Goffridus…comes, Brundusine civitatis dominator…et mea uxor domina Sichelgaita" donated the churches of the parishes of Santa Maria antica and San Andrea dell´isola, Brindisi to the church of San Leucio, Brindisi by charter dated Aug 1100[575].  "Goffridus…comes dominator civitatis Neritoni…cum Sechelgayta comitissa uxore mea et cum filiis nostris domino Roberto et Alexandro" donated the church of SS Trinità, Nardò and other churches to the monastery of Santa Maria by charter dated Feb 1104, signed by "Robertus infans, Alexander, Ugo vice come…"[576].  "Sichelgaita comitissa, Goffredi comitis…quondam uxor…meique filii domini Tanchedi…comes" donated "il casale di Tuterano…il casale di Valerano, quello di Fenestrito" to the monastery of Santa Maria veterana di Brindisi by charter dated Apr 1107, signed by "Tanchredus comes---Constantia, Raimundi filius magni Raimundi…Sendi nepotis comitisse…"[577].  "Rogerius…Sicilie et Italie rex…Rogerii primi comitis heres et filius" confirmed past donations by "…comitis quoque Goffridi Cupersani et uxoris eius Sikelgaite comitisse" by charter dated 28 Sep 1133[578]m GODEFROI Conte di Conversano, son of --- di Conversano & his wife --- de Hauteville (-Sep 1101). 

6.         --- di Molise (-after 1073).  Malaterra names "miles…Ingelmarus" and records his marriage to "uxorem nepotis sui Serlonis…filia Rodulfi Bojanensis comitis"[579]m firstly SERLON, son of SERLON & his wife --- (-killed in battle near Nicosia, Sicily summer 1072).  m secondly INGELMAR, son of ---. 

7.         ADELISA di Molise .  "Rodulfus cognomina de Molisio…comes patriæ Bovianensis" donated the church of Santa Cruce d´Isernia to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "Ugonis filii mei et Rogerii et Roberti nepotis mei filii Roberti filii mei…patris mei Guimundi et matris meæ Emma et filiorum meorum Robberti et Rodulfi et Wilielmi nec non et Alferadæ uxoris meæ iam defunctæ et filiarum mearum Adelicza et Beatricis", by charter dated Mar 1092[580]

8.         BEATRICE di Molise .  "Rodulfus cognomina de Molisio…comes patriæ Bovianensis" donated the church of Santa Cruce d´Isernia to Monte Cassino, for the souls of "Ugonis filii mei et Rogerii et Roberti nepotis mei filii Roberti filii mei…patris mei Guimundi et matris meæ Emma et filiorum meorum Robberti et Rodulfi et Wilielmi nec non et Alferadæ uxoris meæ iam defunctæ et filiarum mearum Adelicza et Beatricis", by charter dated Mar 1092[581]

9.         [--- .  The parents of Sende, nepos of Sichelgaita, wife of Godefroi Conte di Conversano, have not been identified.  Either his mother or his father was presumably one of Sichelgaita´s brothers and sisters, presumably one of those which are named above.  m ---.  One child:] 

a)         SENDE (-after Apr 1107).  "Sichelgaita comitissa, Goffredi comitis…quondam uxor…meique filii domini Tanchedi…comes" donated "il casale di Tuterano…il casale di Valerano, quello di Fenestrito" to the monastery of Santa Maria veterana di Brindisi by charter dated Apr 1107, signed by "Tanchredus comes---Constantia, Raimundi filius magni Raimundi…Sendi nepotis comitisse…"[582]

 

 

1.         RICHARD de Mandra (-after 1167).  Conte di Molise 1167.  Hugo Falcandus records that "the queen created eight counts in that one year [1167]" including "Richard of Mandra"[583].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Richardus comes de Mulisio, Bartholomaeus de Parisio, Joannes de Sinopoli" were captured and imprisoned[584].  The Ignoti Monachi Chronica records that "Riccardum de Mandra comitem" was captured and blinded after rebelling against King Guillaume II in 1168[585]

 

2.         ROGER (-after 1196).  The Annales Casenses record that in 1176 "comes Roggerius et comes Tancredus" went to Andria[586].  The Annales Casenses record that in 1190 "Roggerius Andreas et Richardus Caleni comites" supported "Tancredus comes Lici"[587]Conte di Molise.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica name "comes Roggerius de Molisio" as one of Tancred's supporters when recording that he defected to Emperor Heinrich VI "in roccam Magenulfi" in 1193[588].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that "Roggerium Molisii comitem" besieged "Muscancervellus" in 1196 but died soon after[589]

 

3.         TOMASO de Molise (-after Jul 1240).  Conte di Molise.  Conte di Celano.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Thomas Molisii comes" sent "filium suum" to Emperor Friedrich II in 1220, but that he took "roccam…Magenulfi" against the wishes of the emperor and left "comitissa uxore sua in rocca Boiani", adding that the latter fortress surrendered to the emperor "contra Thomam Celani et Milissi comitem" and that "uxorem suam comitissam" returned to "roccam Maienulfi" in 1221[590].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Acerrarum comes" besieged "rocce Maiennulfi" in which "comes Thomas" was holed up, in 1221[591].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "comes Thomas de Celano" escaped by night from "roccam…Magenulfi" and made his way to "castrum" held by "Raynerius de Aversa sororius eius", in 1222[592].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Thomas dictus Molisii comes" went to Spoleto, held by the Pope, in Jul 1240[593]m --- (-after 1221).  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Thomas Molisii comes" sent "filium suum" to Emperor Friedrich II in 1220, but that he took "roccam…Magenulfi" against the wishes of the emperor and left "comitissa uxore sua in rocca Boiani", adding that the latter fortress surrendered to the emperor "contra Thomam Celani et Milissi comitem" and that "uxorem suam comitissam" returned to "roccam Maienulfi" in 1221[594].  It is possible that she was the sister of Rainerio di Aversa, as suggested by the same source which records that "comes Thomas de Celano" escaped by night from "roccam…Magenulfi" and made his way to "castrum" held by "Raynerius de Aversa sororius eius", in 1222[595].  Tomaso & his wife had one child: 

a)         son (-after 1220).  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Thomas Molisii comes" sent "filium suum" to Emperor Friedrich II in 1220, but that he took "roccam…Magenulfi" against the wishes of the emperor and left "comitissa uxore sua in rocca Boiani"[596]

 

4.         KONRAD von Hohenlohe, son of HEINRICH von Hohenlohe & his first wife --- (-1249)Conte di Molise.  Emperor Friedrich II granted "comitatum Molisii" to "Conradus de Hoenloch" by charter dated Dec 1229[597].  Conte di Romagna.  "…Cunradus de Oenlo comes Romaniole…" witnessed the charter dated Apr 1230 under which Emperor Friedrich II confirmed the privileges of Kloster Tegernsee[598].  "…Conradus de Ollo comes Molisii…" witnessed the charter dated Jul 1230 under which Emperor Friedrich II confirmed the renunciation by Otto Duke of Merano to claims over Istria and Carniola[599].  "Co. de Holl…comes Romaniole" granted Rimini the protection of Ravenna by charter dated to [1234/35][600]

 

 

 

 

E.      CONTI di SANGRO

 

 

1.         MAINERIO .  Conte di Trivento.  m ---.  The name of Mainerio's wife is not known.  Mainerio & his wife had one child:

a)         TEODINOm ---.  The name of Teodino's wife is not known.  Teodino & his wife had one child: 

i)          SIMONE (-before Oct 1156).  Conte di Sangro.  Hugo Falcandus names "Simon of Sangro" among the leaders of the conspiracy against Guillaume I King of Sicily in [1156], records that he was summoned to court after the rebellion but died before he could be arrested[601]m ---.  The name of Simone's wife is not known.  Simone & his wife had one child:

(a)       MANFREDO .  He donated houses at Butera to the bishopric of Lipari for his father's soul by charter dated Dec 1158[602]

ii)         [TEODINO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.]   m ---.  The name of Teodino's wife is not known.  Teodino & his wife had two children: 

(a)       SIMONE (-1168).  Conte di Sangro.  Hugo Falcandus records that "the queen created eight counts in that one year [1166]" including "Simon of Sangro"[603].  Hugo Falcandus records the death in [1168] of "Count Simon de Sangre…his brother Richard was appointed to his position"[604].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Simonus filius comitis Todini" holding "in principatu Capuæ Castellum Sangri…Scheniam Fortem cum Rocca Sicca in Terra Burrellensi…et Alfidenam in Terra Burelli…et Roccam de Entremonte…et Roccam…et Collem Angelum in Alba…et Scamnum…et Fracturam…et Castrum…at Aversam Curiam…et Bugnaram…et Pilem in Terra Burrelli…in Ducatu…et Castellum Tassi" in "comitatu Simonis comitis de Sangro", with "milites XXXIII et augmentum milites LXVIII, inter feuda et augmentum milites C" and listing his feeholders[605]m ---.  The name of Simone´s wife is not known.  Simone & his wife had one child: 

(1)       IOSSELINO .  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Joczelinus filius eius" (immediately after the section which records the holding of "comes Simonus filius comitis Todini") holding "a Domino Rege in Penne Loretum…et Collem Corbinum…et Civitatem Sancti Angeli…et Spentarum…et…in Thete Gyssum" in "comitatu Simonis comitis de Sangro…de eadem Comestabulia comitis Boamundi", with "de proprio feudo…milites XXV et augmentum eius milites XXXVII, inter feudum et augmentum…milites LXII" and listing his feeholders[606]

(b)       RICHARD di SangroConte di SangroHugo Falcandus records the death in [1168] of "Count Simon de Sangre…his brother Richard was appointed to his position"[607]

 

 

1.         FILIPPO (-[1162]).  Conte di Sangro.  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Jonathas comes Consiæ et Gilbertus comes Gravinæ et Boamundus comes Monopelli et Rogerus comes Acerræ et Philippus comes de Sangro et Rogerius Tricarici comes" rebelled against "Mayonem Ammiratum", dated to 1160 from the context[608]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    COUNTIES in PUGLIA

 

 

The medieval counties in the present-day Italian region of Puglia [Apulia] have been identified as Andria, Conversano, Gravina, Lecce, Matera, Molfetta, Montescaglioso, and Principato.  The "Catalogus Baronum", compiled under the auspices of Guillaume II "le Bon" King of Sicily and so dated to [1168], divides its listing of the fiefs in the duchy of Apulia by constabularies of "Franfalii de Briticto…terræ Bari…comitatus Gravinæ…"[609]

 

 

 

A.      CONTI di ANDRIA, DUCA di ANDRIA

 

 

Andria is located near the Adriatic coast in the present-day Italian region of Puglia, south of Barletta and Trani.  Conti di Andria of Norman origin are recorded from the mid-11th century.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Andria…Minorbino…Sancto Arcangelo…Policore…Rocca…Colobrara…Castello Novo…Banciam" as the fees held from the count of Andria, together with the names of the corresponding feeholders[610].  This record does not name the count, suggesting that the title was in abeyance at the time, probably coinciding with the period which followed the expulsion of Conte Bertrand and the appointment of Ruggiero as count in 1168.  The title was granted to a branch of the Baux family by the Angevin kings of Sicily in the early 14th century. 

 

 

1.         RICCARDO (-after Jun 1063).  Conte di Andria.  "Robertus comes Lorotelli, Amicus inclitus comes, Riccardus Andrie comes, Goffredus comes Cupersani, Petrus comes de Lesena, Robertus comes filius Guillelmi Ybonis comitis" declared the restitution of property to the monastery of Banzi by charter dated Jun 1063[611]

 

 

2.         GOFFREDO (-after [1130]).  Conte di AndriaThe De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "Grimoaldus Barensium princeps, Gofridus comes Andrensis, Tancredus de Conversano atque Rogerius Orianensis comes…et Robertus Capuanorum princeps" supported the Pope in opposing the accession of Roger Count of Sicily in Apulia (in 1127)[612].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "comes Andrensis Gofridus" opposed Roger King of Sicily at Taranto, dated to [1130] from the context[613].  

 

3.         RICHARD de Lingèvres (-killed in battle 1155).  Conte di Andria.  He was killed fighting the Byzantines, after which his county remained vacant until it was granted to Bertrand di Gravina[614]

 

 

1.         BERTRAND, son of GILBERT du Perche Conte di Gravina & his wife --- (-after 1168).  Hugo Falcandus records that "the queen created eight counts in that one year [1166]" including "the count of Gravina's son Bertram"[615]Conte di Andria.  The Annales Casenses record that in 1168 "comes Gilbertus et Bertaraimus filius eius" were expelled from the kingdom and went to Jerusalem[616], the Romoaldi Annales specifying that he was "Berteraimo filio suo comite Andrie"[617].  Hugo Falcandus records the decision to expel "Count Gilbert de Gravina and his son Count Bertram from the realm" in [1168][618]

 

 

1.         GUERINm ---.  The name of Guérin's wife is not known.  Guérin & his wife had one child:

a)         RICCARDO (-killed 1122).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was killed in the peasant uprising of 1122.  m ---.  The name of Richard's wife is not known.  Richard & his wife had one child:

i)          RICCARDO (-1146 or after).  "Il signore di Trevico Riccardo, figlio del fu Riccardo" donated land at Acquara with the church of San Giovanni to the monastery of Montevergine by charter dated May 1136[619].  Signor di Trevico in Apulia.  m SABASTA, daughter of --- (-after May 1136).  "Il signore di Trevico Riccardo, figlio del fu Riccardo" donated land at Acquara with the church of San Giovanni to the monastery of Montevergine, and "la moglie di Riccardo…Sabasta" donated a mill, by charter dated May 1136[620].  Richard & his wife had one child:

(a)       RUGGIERO (-killed Santa Agatha 1190).  Hugo Falcandus names "Roger son of Richard" among the leaders of the conspiracy against Guillaume I King of Sicily in [1156][621].  Hugo Falcandus records that "the queen created eight counts in that one year [1166]" including "Roger son of Richard"[622]Conte di Alba 1166.  Conte di Andria 1168.  "Il conte Ruggiero di Andria…comestabile e giustiziere di Puglia e Terra di Lavoro" confirmed the usurpation of property "dal defunto conte Ruggiero di Avellino" by charter dated Jan 1184[623].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica refers to the rebellion of "Roggerius quidam Andrie comes…cum tempore memorati regis Guilielmi totius regni magister iustitiarius fuerit, et in Apulia plenum tunc dominium exerceret" in support of Emperor Heinrich II, that he held "rocca Sancte Agathe", where he was captured and killed by "Acerrarum comes"[624]m ---.  The name of Roger´s wife is not known.  Roger & his wife had one child: 

(1)       ROBERTO di Calaggio (-after Sep 1200).  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that King Tancred captured "roccam Sancte Agathe", which was held by "Robbertus de Calagio dicti comitis Andrie filius", and "aput Lariciam" captured "quondam Robbertum filium Ryzardi", in 1193[625].  "Il conte Roberto figlio del fu conte Ruggiero di Andria" donated "un casalino…nel castello di Flumeri alla Piazza Pagualda" to the abbey of Montevergine by charter dated Sep 1200[626]

 

2.         BARTOLOMEOConte di Andria.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Comes Bertheraymus Andriæ" directly holding "Andria…Minorbino…Sancto Arcangelo…Policore…Rocca…Colobrara" as fees in the county of Andria, with "milites XXXI et cum augmento milites LXXII"[627]

 

 

1.         GIACOPO (-after 1218).  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica refers to Pope Innocent III sending "Iacobum Andrie postea comitem, consobrinum suum" to oppose Markward who was defeated in Apulia in 1199[628]Conte di Andria.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Pelagius Albanensis episcopus" left Brindisi "cum Iacobo comite Andrie" sailing "in Syriam" in 1218[629]

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the following family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

1.         BERTRAND de Baux, son of BERTRAND de Baux Seigneur de Berre, Barone di Trogessana & his wife Berengère Mauvoisin de la Penne (-Naples 1351 bur Naples)Seigneur de Berre, Vicomte de Misson.  Conte di Andria e Montescaglioso.  Captain-General of Tuscany, Grand-Justiciar of Naples-Sicily.  He was appointed twice as bailli of Achaia by Catherine de Valois titular Empress of Constantinople[630]m firstly (before 24 Jan 1309) as her second husband, BEATRICE of Sicily, widow of AZZO [VIII] Signore d'Este e Ferrara, daughter of CHARLES [II] King of Sicily [Anjou] & his wife Maria of Hungary (1295-Andria 1335[631], bur Andria).  m secondly (1324) MARGUERITE d'Aulnay, daughter of ---.  Bertrand & his first wife had one child:

a)         MARIE de Baux (-Rhodes [Feb/Apr] 1347).  The Aymari Rivalli De Allobrogibus records the marriage of "Humbertus Delphinus" and "Mariam Bauciam comitis Montis Campi filiam, Roberti regis Siciliæ neptem"[632].  "Roberti…Hierusalem et Siciliæ Regis" granted revenue to "Dom. Humbertus Dalphini…nepos noster" in consideration of his marriage with "Domicella Maria nata…Bertrandi de Baucio Montis Caveosi comitis nepte nostra" by charter dated 26 Jul 1332[633].  The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis records that "Delphini Viennenses…iunior Humbertus" married "filiam sororis Roberti regis…[et] [comitis] Novellus"[634].  The testament of "Dom. Humb. Dalph. Vienn. Sedis Apst. Capitaneus Generalis" is dated 29 Jan 1347 at Rhodos provided a pension for "Dom. Mariæ de Baucio Dalph. Vienn…consorti meæ"[635].  Pope Clement VI sent letters of condolence to "Humberto Dalphino Vienn." on the death of "quondam Mariam conjugem tuam" dated 15 May 1347[636]m (after 26 Jul 1332) HUMBERT [II] de Viennois, son of JEAN [II] Comte d’Albon Dauphin de Viennois [la Tour du Pin] & his wife Béatrice of Hungary ([1312]-Clermont-en-Auvergne 22 May 1355, bur Paris Dominican convent).  He succeeded his brother in 1333 as Dauphin de Viennois

Bertrand & his second wife had five children:

b)         GUILLAUME de Baux .  Baron de Berre et de Misson.  1368

c)         FRANCESCO del Balzo ([1329/30]-1422).  Conte di Montescaglioso e Avellino.  Governor of Naples, created Duca di Andria in 1373. 

-        see below

d)         ISABELLE (-1379)m ANTONIO di Sanseverino Conte di Marsico, son of --- (-1384). 

e)         CATERINA m (1359) ONORATO Caetani Conte di Fondi ([1336]-1400).  Rector of Campania, he was dismissed by Pope Urban VI.  Excommunicated several times, he invited to his castle at Anagni the dissident cardinals supported by Jeanne I Queen of Sicily and personally crowned the anti-Pope Clement VI, triggering the Great Schism in the Catholic church[637]

f)          BLANCHE m JEAN d'Enghien Conte di Castro, son of GAUTHIER [III] Seigneur d'Enghien & his wife Isabeau de Brienne (-1380)

 

 

FRANCESCO del Balzo, son of BERTRAND de Baux Conte d'Andria e Montescaglioso & his second wife Marguerite d'Aulnay ([1329/30]-1422).  Conte di Montescaglioso e Avellino.  Governor of Naples, created Duca di Andria 1373 by his brother-in-law Louis II King of Sicily.  He rebelled against Queen Jeanne I, who confiscated his possessions 8 Apr 1374.  He exiled himself to Rome, later Avignon, but his position in Naples was restored to him by Charles III King of Sicily [Anjou][638]

m firstly (1350) LUISA Sanseverino, daughter of ---. 

m secondly (1352) as her second husband, MARGUERITE of Sicily-Taranto, divorced wife of EDWARD Balliol ex-King of Scotland, daughter of PHILIPPE of Sicily Principe di Taranto [Anjou-Capet] & his second wife Catherine de Valois titular Empress of Constantinople (-Naples in prison 1380, bur Naples San Domenico). 

m thirdly (8 Dec 1381) SVEVA Orsini, daughter of NICOLA Orsini Conte di Nola & his wife Giovanna de Sabran (-after 28 Jan 1398). 

Francesco & his second wife had two children:

1.         GIACOMO del Balzo (-Taranto 7 Jul 1383, bur Taranto, San Cataldo)Principe di Taranto.  He found refuge in Greece after his father was driven out of Naples in 1374 by Queen Jeanne I[639].  He succeeded his mother as titular Emperor of Constantinople, Prince of Achaia, Despot of Romania, Lord of Albania and Corfu.  He was unable to assume control over Achaia and Corfu as the barons declared themselves subjects of Jeanne I Queen of Sicily[640].  Under attack in Achaia by the Queen's forces, in 1380 he hired the Navarrese Company, under the commandership of Mahiot de Coquerel and Pedro Borgo de San Superán, which captured Corfu, Vostitza, and Zonklon (renamed Navarino)[641].  Under his testament, he named Louis de France Duc d'Anjou Duca di Calabria as his successor[642], although in practice the Navarrese Company was by then in control of Achaia[643]m (1382) as her second husband, AGNES di Durazzo, widow of CANSIGNORIO della Scala Signor di Verona, daughter of CHARLES di Durazzo Duke of Durazzo & his wife Marie of Sicily (1345-Naples 15 Jul 1388, bur Naples, Santa Chiara).  Her first cousin Charles III King of Sicily granted her Corfu as part of her dowry[644].  Jacques had two illegitimate children by an unknown mistress: 

a)         MADDALENA .  1383

b)         CATERINA .  1383

2.         ANTONIA (-23 Jan 1374, bur Messina)m ([17 Jan 1372/26 Nov 1373]) as his first wife, FEDERIGO II "il Simplo" King of Sicily, son of PIETRO II King of Sicily [Aragon] & his wife Elisabeth of Carinthia [Görz] (1 Sep 1341-Messina 27 Jul 1377). 

Francesco & his third wife had three children:

3.         GUGLIELMO (-1444).  He succeeded his father as Duca di Andria

-        see below

4.         BIANCHINO del Balzo

-        BARONI di SANTA CROCE.

5.         MARGHERITA del Balzo (1394-1469, bur Cercamp)m (May 1405) PIERRE de Luxembourg, son of JEAN de Luxembourg Seigneur de Beauvoir et de Richebourg & his wife Marguerite d´Enghien Ctss di Conversano et de Brienne, dame d'Enghien (1390-Rambures 31 Aug 1433, bur Cercamp).  He succeeded in 1430 as Comte de Saint-Pol. 

 

 

GUGLIELMO del Balzo, son of FRANCESCO del Balzo Duca d'Andria & his third wife Sveva Orsini (-[1444).  He succeeded his father as Duca di Andria

m MARIA Brunforta, daughter of ---. 

Guglielmo & his wife had two children: 

1.         GUGLIELMO del Balzo

2.         FRANCESCO (1410-1482 bur Andria).  He succeeded his father as Duca di Andria.  Grand Constable of the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily.  m SANCIA di Chiaromonte Contessa di Copertino, daughter of ---.  Francesco & his wife had two children: 

a)         PIETRO (-murdered 1487)Duca di Andria.  Principe di Altamura.  Grand Constable of the kingdom of Naples and Sicily.  He was strangled.  m MARIA DONATA Orsini del Balzo Dss di Venosa, daughter of GABRIELE Orsini del Balzo Duca di Venosa & his wife Giovanna [Ippolita] Caracciolo del Sole.  Pietro & his wife had four children: 

i)          FEDERIGO .  Conte di Acerra.  m (1477) COSTANZA d'Avalos, daughter of ---. 

ii)         ISOTTE (-1530).  Pss di Altamura.  m (Andria 1471) PIETRO de Guevara Marchese del Vasto

iii)        ANTONIA m GIANFRANCESCO Gonzaga Conte di Sabbionetta (-1498). 

iv)       ISABELLA (-in France 1533 or 1537)m (Andria 28 Nov 1486) as his second wife, FEDERIGO of Naples, Principe di Squilacce, Altamura e Taranto, son of FERRANTE I King of Naples [Aragón] & his first wife Isabelle Guilhem de Clermont [Isabella di Chiaromonte] Signora di Taranto (Naples 19 Apr 1452-in prison Plessis-lès-Tours 9 Nov 1504).  He succeeded his nephew in 1496 as FEDERIGO IV King of Naples.

Pietro had two illegitimate children by an unknown mistress: 

v)         BELTRAN .  1491. 

vi)        MEDEA .  1491. 

b)         AGILBERTO (-murdered 1487).  Duca di Nardo.  He was strangled.  m ANTONIA Sanseverino Ctsa di Castro e Ugento, daughter of ---.  Agilberto & his wife had ten children: 

i)          GIANPAOLO (-murdered 1487).  Conte d'Ugento.  He was strangled.  m FRANCESCA de Guevara, daughter of ---. 

ii)         GUGLIELMO (-after 1497).  Conte di Nola.  Conte di Nola. 

iii)        RAIMONDO .  Conte di Castro e d'Ugento.  m LAURA Colonna, daughter of ---.  Raimondo & his wife had one child: 

(a)       FRANCESCO (-Rome 1530).  Conte di Castro e d'Ugento.  m BRIZA Carafa, daughter of ---.  Francesco & his wife had one child: 

(1)       ANTONIA del Balzom --- Branciforte Marchese di Licodia Principe di Butera

iv)       ANTONIA .  Nun at Buda. 

v)        ELENAm RICHIZENZ Conte di Avellino

vi)       CATERINA [Isabella] .  m GIORDANO Colonna Duca di Marsi

vii)      ANTONIA (-young). 

viii)     SANCIA (-young). 

ix)       ISABELLA (-1498)m DJORDJE Stefanović, son of STEFAN Branković [Serbia] & his wife Angelina Araniti ([1462]-18 Jan 1516). 

x)        MARGHERITELLA m (1474) GIANFRANCESCO del Balzo Conte di Alessano

 

 

 

B.      CONTI di ASCOLI

 

 

Ascoli presumably refers to the town of Ascoli Satriano, near Foggia, in the present-day Italian region of Puglia.  Amatus records that, at the division of Italian territories agreed between the Normans at Melfi in 1042, Ascoli was granted to Guillaume d´Hauteville, who later became Duke of Apulia[645].  No reference has been found to a county or lordship of Ascoli after that date, until the appointment of Berthold Markgraf von Hohenburg as Conte di Ascoli in 1251. 

 

 

1.         BERTHOLD [III] von Vohburg, son of DIEPOLD [VII] Markgraf von Vohburg & his second wife Mechtild von Wasserburg (-[2 Feb 1256/Sep 1257]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Markgraf von Hohenburg.  "Fratres Perhtoldus et Diepoldus marchiones de Hohenburch" donated property to Kloster Altenburg by charter dated 9 Mar 1237[646].  He was created Conte di Ascoli in 1251.  Corrado I King of Sicily [Hohenstaufen] granted privileges to "A. (B.) marchio de Haimburg comes Ascoli…consanguineus" by undated charter dated to [1251/54][647].  King Corrado appointed him ambassador to the court at Nikaia with a view to negotiating the return of some members of the Lancia family who had sought refuge with their relative Empress Anna after the death of Emperor Friedrich II[648].  Grand Marshall of the kingdom of Sicily.  He was appointed regent of Sicily for Konradin King of Sicily in 1254, but was displaced by Manfred von Hohenstaufen.  The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that "Bertholdus Marchio de Honebruch et fratres" were excluded from a general pardon by the future Manfredo King of Sicily, dated to [late 1255/early 1256] from the context[649].  He died in prison[650]

 

 

 

C.      PRINCES of BARI

 

 

Grimoald "Alferanite" appointed himself as Prince of Bari, probably in 1118, in opposition to Roger II Count of Sicily.  His name suggests Lombard origin, but no information has been found about his parentage.  Bari remained autonomous until it was captured in 1131 by King Roger, who exiled Grimoald to Sicily.  Iaquinto is recorded as prince of Bari in 1139, but no subsequent reference has been found to any independent rulers in Bari. 

 

 

1.         PANDO (-after [840]).  Erchempert records "Pando" as leading of Bari [dated to [839/42] from the context][651]

 

 

1.         GRIMOALD "Alferanite" (-after Dec 1132).  Prince of Bari, early 1118.  The Romoaldi Annales record that "regina Constancia" was captured by "comite Alexandro et Grimoaldo Barense in Umenatia civitate" and taken to Bari in Aug, dated to 1119[652].  The Annales Ceccanenses record that "reginam Boamundi" was freed from Bari in 1120, after the intercession of Pope Calixtus II[653].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "Grimoaldus Barensium princeps, Gofridus comes Andrensis, Tancredus de Conversano atque Rogerius Orianensis comes…et Robertus Capuanorum princeps" supported the Pope in opposing the accession of Roger Count of Sicily in Apulia (in 1127)[654].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that Pope Honorius II invaded Apulia in 1127 with "Roberto Capuano principe, Raydulfo comite Ayrolæ cognato prædicti ducis, cum Conversanensibus, Grimoaldo principe Barensi" in an unsuccessful attempt to expel Duke Roger, adding that "dux Rogerius" made peace "cum prædictis baronibus et Roberto Capuano principe" after the Pope withdrew later in the same year[655].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "dominus Tancredus…cum domino Alexandro comite fratre suo et…domino Grimoaldo Barensi" made peace with Duke Roger 10 Aug [1129/30][656].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Tancredus" besieged Brindisi in Sep 1132 after King Roger had returned to Sicily and that "Barensis princeps Grimoaldus" helped him and eventually captured the citadel in Dec[657].  The Ignoti Monachi Chronica records that King Roger captured "Grimoaldum" after the capitulation of Bari and sent him to Sicily "cum uxore et filiis" in 1131[658]

 

2.         IAQUINTO (-after 1139).  It is not known whether Iaquinto was related to Grimoald "Alferanite", but the fact that they both had Lombard names suggests that there might be a connection.  Prince of Bari.  The Romoaldi Annales record the activities of "Iaquintum, qui se principem Barensium vocari faciebat" negotiated peace with Roger II King of Sicily at Bari, dated to Oct 1139[659]

 

 

 

D.      CONTI di CONVERSANO

 

 

Conversano is located in the present-day Italian region of Puglia, due south of Bari.  It is recorded as a county in the hands of Norman appointees from the mid-11th century.  Robert de Basunvilla Conte di Conversano was appointed Conte di Loritello by Guillaume I King of Sicily in 1154, and no later reference to him has been found as count of Conversano.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Grumum…in Terlitio…Vineolam…Toram" as the fees held from the count of Conversano, totalling "feuda…XXIV et medium", together with the names of the corresponding feeholders[660].  The source does not name the count, which suggests that the title had lapsed at that time.  Hugues de Brienne was appointed Conte di Lecce and Signore di Conversano by Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet].  For his family, see the Conti di Lecce (below, in this chapter). 

 

 

1.         --- .  The identity of the father of Godefroi Conte di Conversano is not known.  As noted below, it has been speculated that he was Armand de Mortain, father of Robert Conte di Montescaglioso.  m --- de Hauteville, daughter of TANCRED de Hauteville & his [first/second] wife [Moriella ---/Fressenda ---].  If Orderic Vitalis is correct in saying that "Geoffroy di Conversano" was nepos of Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia, his mother was probably the Duke's sister[661].  This is confirmed when Malaterra records that "Gaufridum de Conversano neptem suis [Roberti ducis]…filius…sororis suæ"[662].  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi names "Robertus de Scabioso Monte comes…Gosfredi frater, et ambo orti germana fuerant ducis"[663].  Guerrieri highlights that "Gosfredi" in this passage has been identified as Godefroi Conte di Conversano but that it is not possible to confirm whether this is correct[664].  If the speculation is right, this daughter was the same person as the wife of Armand Comte de Mortain.  One child: 

a)         GODEFROI [Geoffroy] (-[Sep] [Feb 1104/Apr 1107]). Malaterra names "Gaufridum de Conversano neptem suis [Roberti ducis]…filius…sororis suæ"[665].  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi names "Robertus de Scabioso Monte comes…Gosfredi frater, et ambo orti germana fuerant ducis"[666].  Guerrieri highlights that "Gosfredi" in this passage has been identified as Godefroi Conte di Conversano but that it is not possible to confirm that this is correct[667].  If the speculation is right, Godefroi was the same person as Godefroi, son of Armand Comte de Mortain & his wife Beatrix de Hauteville.  Conte di Conversano.  Lord of Nardò.  "Robertus comes Lorotelli, Amicus inclitus comes, Riccardus Andrie comes, Goffredus comes Cupersani, Petrus comes de Lesena, Robertus comes filius Guillelmi Ybonis comitis" declared the restitution of property to the monastery of Banzi by charter dated Jun 1063[668].  [The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records the death in Apr 1063 of "Gauffredus comes" and that "Goffridus filius eius" captured Taranto and "Castru Motule"[669].  "Gauffredus comes" in this source can probably be identified as Godefroi Conte di Loritello (see CENTRAL ITALY), who is not otherwise recorded as having a son named Godefroi.  It is possible therefore that the Chronicon Breve incorrectly records his parentage and that the reference to the younger Godefroi, as well as the succeeding passages in the same source, relate to Godefroi Conte di Conversano.  The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records "Goffridus comes" captured "Castanetum" in 1064[670].  The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records that "Goffridus comes" captured "Montem Pillosum" in Jun 1068, that "Hydrontum" was recaptured in Oct 1068, that "Goffridus comes" led a large fleet in attacking Brindisi in 1070, and captured Palermo in 1072[671].]  Protospatarius records "magnum homicidium factum…in civitate Brundusii" in Jan 1070 and that "Robertus dux" entered Brindisi in 1071[672].  Presumably Godefroi was appointed Lord of Brindisi after its capture, but the date of his appointment has not been confirmed in any of the primary sources so far consulted during the preparation of the present document.  According to Orderic Vitalis, he was nepos of Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia who called him to his deathbed in 1085[673].  "Goffridus…comes" donated land of S. Nicola to the abbot of Santa Maria di Nardò by charter dated May 1092, signed by "Sikelgaite comitisse, Roberti Cupersanensis…Rogerii vice comitis"[674].  "Goffridus…Brundusine civitatis dominator" donated property in the city of Brindisi to the abbess of Santa Maria veterana, in the presence of "Ursonis nostri vicecomitis", by charter dated Feb 1097[675].  "Goffridus…[co]me[s] dominator civitatis Neritoni…cum Sechelgayta comitissa uxore mea et cum filiis nostris [R]oberto et [A]lexandri[o]" donated the church of Santa Anastasia di Matino, near Gallipoli to the monastery of Santa Maria di Nardò by charter dated Jan 1099[676].  "Goffridus…comes, Brundusine civitatis dominator…et mea uxor domina Sichelgaita" donated the churches of the parishes of Santa Maria antica and San Andrea dell´isola, Brindisi to the church of San Leucio, Brindisi by charter dated Aug 1100[677].  "Goffridus…comes dominator civitatis Neritoni…cum Sechelgayta comitissa uxore mea et cum filiis nostris domino Roberto et Alexandro" donated the church of SS Trinità, Nardò and other churches to the monastery of Santa Maria by charter dated Feb 1104, signed by "Robertus infans, Alexander, Ugo vice come…"[678]Lupus Protospatarius records the death in Sep 1101 of "Goffridus comes" and that "Alexius filius eius" invaded Materia, although the charter quoted above, if correctly dated, shows that Godefroi was still alive in Feb 1104[679]m SICHELGAITA di Molise, daughter of RODULF de Moulins Conte di Boiano & his first wife Altruda di Guardia (-after Sep 1101).  "Goffridus…comes" donated land of S. Nicola to the abbot of Santa Maria di Nardò by charter dated May 1092, signed by "Sikelgaite comitisse, Roberti Cupersanensis…Rogerii vice comitis"[680].  "Sikelgaita filia Rao de Mulisi" is named with "son époux Geoffroy de Conversano" in a charter dated Oct 1093[681].  "Goffridus…[co]me[s] dominator civitatis Neritoni…cum Sechelgayta comitissa uxore mea et cum filiis nostris [R]oberto et [A]lexandri[o]" donated the church of Santa Anastasia di Matino, near Gallipoli to the monastery of Santa Maria di Nardò by charter dated Jan 1099[682].  "Goffridus…comes, Brundusine civitatis dominator…et mea uxor domina Sichelgaita" donated the churches of the parishes of Santa Maria antica and San Andrea dell´isola, Brindisi to the church of San Leucio, Brindisi by charter dated Aug 1100[683].  "Goffridus…comes dominator civitatis Neritoni…cum Sechelgayta comitissa uxore mea et cum filiis nostris domino Roberto et Alexandro" donated the church of SS Trinità, Nardò and other churches to the monastery of Santa Maria by charter dated Feb 1104, signed by "Robertus infans, Alexander, Ugo vice come…"[684].  "Sichelgaita comitissa, Goffredi comitis…quondam uxor…meique filii domini Tanchedi…comes" donated "il casale di Tuterano…il casale di Valerano, quello di Fenestrito" to the monastery of Santa Maria veterana di Brindisi by charter dated Apr 1107, signed by "Tanchredus comes---Constantia, Raimundi filius magni Raimundi…Sendi nepotis comitisse…"[685].  "Rogerius…Sicilie et Italie rex…Rogerii primi comitis heres et filius" confirmed past donations by "…comitis quoque Goffridi Cupersani et uxoris eius Sikelgaite comitisse" by charter dated 28 Sep 1133[686].  Godefroi & his wife had [eight] children: 

i)          ROBERT di Conversano (-[Feb 1104/Apr 1107]).  "Goffridus…comes" donated land of S. Nicola to the abbot of Santa Maria di Nardò by charter dated May 1092, signed by "Sikelgaite comitisse, Roberti Cupersanensis…Rogerii vice comitis"[687].  "Goffridus…[co]me[s] dominator civitatis Neritoni…cum Sechelgayta comitissa uxore mea et cum filiis nostris [R]oberto et [A]lexandri[o]" donated the church of Santa Anastasia di Matino, near Gallipoli to the monastery of Santa Maria di Nardò by charter dated Jan 1099[688].  "Goffridus…comes dominator civitatis Neritoni…cum Sechelgayta comitissa uxore mea et cum filiis nostris domino Roberto et Alexandro" donated the church of SS Trinità, Nardò and other churches to the monastery of Santa Maria by charter dated Feb 1104, signed by "Robertus infans, Alexander, Ugo vice come…"[689].  The charter dated Apr 1130, under which his brother "Tanchredus Cupersani…Brundusii comes" confirmed the donation "del casale di S. Donaci una volta dipendenti de sua madre" to the church of San Giovanni Battista, Brindisi, for the souls of "bone memorie domini Goffredi…comitis patris mei et domine Sichelgaite comitisse matris mee ac domini Roberti comitis fratris mei"[690], suggests that Robert briefly survived his father and succeeded as Conte di Conversano

ii)         ALESSANDRO (-after 1161).  "Goffridus…[co]me[s] dominator civitatis Neritoni…cum Sechelgayta comitissa uxore mea et cum filiis nostris [R]oberto et [A]lexandri[o]" donated the church of Santa Anastasia di Matino, near Gallipoli to the monastery of Santa Maria di Nardò by charter dated Jan 1099[691].  "Goffridus…comes dominator civitatis Neritoni…cum Sechelgayta comitissa uxore mea et cum filiis nostris domino Roberto et Alexandro" donated the church of SS Trinità, Nardò and other churches to the monastery of Santa Maria by charter dated Feb 1104, signed by "Robertus infans, Alexander, Ugo vice come…"[692]Lupus Protospatarius records the death in Sep 1101 of "Goffridus comes" and that "Alexius filius eius" invaded Materia, although the charter quoted above, if correctly dated, shows that Godefroi was still alive in Feb 1104[693]Conte di Conversano.  "Alexandro…comite Cupersani" donated the church of San Nicolò di Ciliano to the abbot of Santa Maria di Nardò by charter dated May 1119, signed by "dopni Alexandri Cupersani comitis, dopni Tancredi filii Cupersani comitis"[694].  The Romoaldi Annales record that "regina Constancia" was captured by "comite Alexandro et Grimoaldo Barense in Umenatia civitate" and taken to Bari in Aug, dated to 1119[695].  Bohémond II Prince of Antioch appointed as administrator of his Italian lands either the Pope or Alessandro Conte di Conversano[696] before sailing from Otranto for Palestine in Sep 1126.  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Boamundis juvenis" left for Antioch in Sep 1127 and appointed "comiti domino Alexandro consanguineo suo" as "vice sua" in "omnes civitates suas Apuliæ"[697].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "dominus Tancredus…cum domino Alexandro comite fratre suo et…domino Grimoaldo Barensi" made peace with Duke Roger 10 Aug [1129/30][698].  "Alexander Cupersanensis comes et Tanc Cupersani et Gauf Catenzarii comes et Robertus Gravini" signed a charter dated 22 Jun 1132 relating to the city of Bari[699].  He joined the barons opposing Roger II after his coronation as king of Sicily, but fled to Dalmatia in 1133[700].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Riccardus…de Claromonte" was killed at Bari in 1133 and that "Alexander…frater eius" retreated "in Romaniam"[701].  Hugo Falcandus names "Alexander of Conversano" among those responsible for the capture of Guillaume I King of Sicily in 1161[702], although it is not known whether this refers to the same person.  m ---.  The name of Alessandro's wife is not known.  Alessandro & his wife had two children: 

(a)       GEOFFROY (-after May 1133).  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Goffredus…domini Alexandri comitis filius et Riccardus Clarimontis dominus" defended Brindisi in 1133 against King Roger who had returned from Sicily in May 1133 to recapture the citadel[703]

(b)       ROBERT (-after 16 Oct 1133).  Roger II King of Sicily confirmed the possessions of the monastery of Santa Maria di Tercia by charter dated 16 Oct 1133, including property donated by "comite Alexandro et Roberto filio suo"[704]

iii)        TANCRED (-after 1133).  "Sichelgaita comitissa, Goffredi comitis…quondam uxor…meique filii domini Tanchedi…comes" donated "il casale di Tuterano…il casale di Valerano, quello di Fenestrito" to the monastery of Santa Maria veterana di Brindisi by charter dated Apr 1107, signed by "Tanchredus comes---Constantia, Raimundi filius magni Raimundi…Sendi nepotis comitisse…"[705]Conte di Conversano.  "Alexandro…comite Cupersani" donated the church of San Nicolò di Ciliano to the abbot of Santa Maria di Nardò by charter dated May 1119, signed by "dopni Alexandri Cupersani comitis, dopni Tancredi filii Cupersani comitis"[706].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "Grimoaldus Barensium princeps, Gofridus comes Andrensis, Tancredus de Conversano atque Rogerius Orianensis comes…et Robertus Capuanorum princeps" supported the Pope in opposing the accession of Roger Count of Sicily in Apulia (in 1127)[707].  "Tancredus Cupersani quondam filius Goffridi comitis…dominus castelli Riniani" donated property to "ecclesia beati Leonardi" by charter dated 1129[708].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "dominus Tancredus…cum domino Alexandro comite fratre suo et…domino Grimoaldo Barensi" made peace with Duke Roger 10 Aug [1129/30][709].  "Tanchredus Cupersani…Brundusii comes" confirmed the donation "del casale di S. Donaci una volta dipendenti de sua madre" to the church of San Giovanni Battista, Brindisi, for the souls of "bone memorie domini Goffredi…comitis patris mei et domine Sichelgaite comitisse matris mee ac domini Roberti comitis fratris mei", by charter dated Apr 1130[710].  "Alexander Cupersanensis comes et Tanc Cupersani et Gauf Catenzarii comes et Robertus Gravini" signed a charter dated 22 Jun 1132 relating to the city of Bari[711].  He joined the barons opposing Roger II after his coronation as King of Sicily.  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Tancredus" besieged Brindisi in Sep 1132 after King Roger had returned to Sicily[712].  He was besieged at Matera, escaped to Montepeloso, where he was captured in 1133 and taken to Sicily[713].  The Annales Casinenses record that "Roggerius rex" entered Apulia in 1133 and disinherited "comites Conversanenses et Andrensem" but does not name the counts[714]Guerrieri cites a work in which "la triste dine di Tancredi, la sua morte e la descrizione del suo sepulcro" are described[715]

iv)       [SILVESTRO di Conversano .  Guerrieri names "Silvestro", enemy "del celebre Maione", as another son of Godefroi Conte di Conversano, but he does not cite the corresponding primary source[716].  Chalandon says that he was named as son of Godefroi di Conversano by Capecaltro[717], but that there is no information about the parentage of the Silvestro who is named by Hugo Falcandus[718].] 

v)        RODOLPHE di Conversano (-after 1093).  Guerrieri records that "Rodolfo", son of Godefroi Conte di Conversano, is named in a charter of his father dated 1093, but he does not cite the corresponding primary source[719].  Chalandon cites a source[720].

vi)       GUILLAUME di Conversano (-after [1102]).  Orderic Vitalis records that, brother of Sibylle, he was captured by Robert de Bellême [near Exmes] in [1102][721].  Orderic Vitalis states that it was said that he dominated his brother-in-law Robert III Duke of Normandy[722]

vii)      RICHARD (-killed Bari 1133).  Signor di Chiaromonte.  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Goffredus…domini Alexandri comitis filius et Riccardus Clarimontis dominus" defended Brindisi in 1133 against King Roger who had returned from Sicily in May 1133 to recapture the citadel[723].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Riccardus…de Claromonte" was killed at Bari in 1133 and that "Alexander…frater eius" retreated "in Romaniam"[724]

viii)     SIBYLLE (-Rouen [Feb/Mar] or [21 Mar] 1103, bur Caen or Rouen Cathedral).  She is named by Orderic Vitalis, who also names her father and repeats that he was the nephew of Robert "Guiscard"[725].  Guillaume de Jumièges records that Robert married "Sibylle sœur de Guillaume comte de Conversano"[726].  Her husband married her on his return from Palestine, receiving an "immense sum" by way of dowry which he "lavished so profusely that in a few days he was penniless"[727].  She was poisoned and died "in Lent"[728].  The necrology of Saint-Nicaise de Meulan records the death "XII Kal Apr" of "Sibilla comitissa Normannie"[729], although if this refers to Sibylle de Conversano it is not clear why she was not called "ducissa".  It is unlikely to refer to her daughter-in-law Sibylle d'Anjou as she was Ctss of Flanders when she died.  m (Apulia 1100) ROBERT “Curthose” Duke of Normandy, son of WILLIAM I King of England & his wife Mathilde de Flandres (Normandy [1052/4]-Cardiff Castle 3/10/15 Feb 1135, bur Gloucester Cathedral).   

 

 

Robert [I] de Bassonville probably originated in the area of Caux, Normandy.  Three charters of the monastery of Saint-Victor-en-Caux refer to "Vassunvilla": Hugues Archbishop of Rouen confirmed donations to Saint-Victor-en-Caux, including property "in Vassunvilla" {Vassonville, commune du canton de Tôtes}, by charter dated 1137[730].  "Hugo de Mortuo mari" confirmed the donations to Saint-Victor-en-Caux by "patre meo Radulfo…ab avo meo Rogerio", and other past donations, by undated charter, witnessed by "…Renaldum de Vassumvilla…"[731].  "H. de Mortuomari" donated the church of Vatterville to Saint-Victor-en-Caux by charter dated to after 1179, witnessed by "…Reginaldo de Vassunvilla…"[732]

 

1.         ROBERT [I] de Bassonville [Basunvilla] "Chaperon" (-before Sep 1142).  Roger II King of Sicily invested him as Conte di Conversano in 1136.  m (1110) JUDITH of Sicily, daughter of ROGER I Count of Sicily & his second wife Eremburge de Mortain (-before 19 Oct 1136).  "Jullita filia comitis Rogerii cum consensus fratris mei Rogerii regis Sicilie ducatus Apulie et principatus Capue" founded a Cluniac abbey at Sciacca by charter, dated 1103 although this date appears incorrect in view of the title attributed to her brother which he only acquired in 1130[733].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified, although it is suggested by Ioannes Kinnamos who names "Bassavilla Rogerii Siciliæ tyranni ex sorore nepos"[734].  It also suggested by the Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna which records that "Robertus de Basavilla comes de Conversano consobrinus frater eiusdem regis" was present at the coronation of Guillaume I King of Sicily (in 1154)[735].  "Robert de Bassonville comte de Conversano" donated the church of San Martino di Molfetta to Cava by charter dated 19 Oct 1136 which names "feue Judith femme du comte et Robert leur fils"[736].  Robert & his wife had two children: 

a)         ROBERT [II] de Basunvilla (-15 Sep 1182)William of Tyre names him and specifies that he was the son of the "amita" of Guillaume I King of Sicily[737].  "Robert de Bassonville comte de Conversano" donated the church of San Martino di Molfetta to Cava by charter dated 19 Oct 1136 which names "feue Judith femme du comte et Robert leur fils"[738]Ioannes Kinnamos names "Bassavilla Rogerii Siciliæ tyranni ex sorore nepos"[739]He succeeded his father as Conte di Conversano.  "…Robertus comes Cupersani…" subscribed the charter dated Nov 1143 under which "Rogerus…rex Sicilie, ducatus Apulie et principatus Capue" assured Santa Maria a Capella, Naples of his protection[740].  The Romoaldi Annales name "Robbertus de Basavilla comes de Conversano consobrinos frater eiusdem regi" in [1154][741].   The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Robertus de Basavilla comes de Conversano consobrinus frater eiusdem regis" was present at the coronation of Guillaume I King of Sicily (in 1154), adding that the king granted him "comitatum de Lauritello" and sent him to Apulia with honours[742].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that, after the coronation of Guillaume I King of Sicily (in 1154), Pope Hadrian IV invaded "terra di Lavoro" with "Roberto Capuano principe et Andrea de Rupe-canina", and that parts of Apulia were conquered by "Roberto Capuano principe" and "comite Roberto", but that "comitem Robertum, Andream de Rupecanina" fled to join the Pope[743].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that Guillaume I King of Sicily sent "Riccardum de Saya" to suppress a rebellion by "comes Robertus", dated to [1160] from the context[744].  He was created Conte di Loritello by Guillaume I King of Sicily at Easter 1154: the Chronicon Casauriensis records that King Guillaume appointed "Robert de Bassonville Count of Loritello" "wishing to benefit his relatives"[745].  The Ignoti Monachi Chronica records that in the first year of the reign of Guillaume I King of Sicily, [1154/55], "Robertus, qui fuerat princeps Capuanus, Robertus comes de Lauritello consanguineus regis et comes Andreas nepos condam Raynulfi" by whom he had "filium Symonem, quem constituit principem Capue" invaded the kingdom "cum Grecorum exercitu" and subjugated "totam Apuliam et Terram Laboris"[746].  Hugo Falcandus names "Count Robert of Loritello…the king's maternal cousin" (although the reference to "maternal cousin" has not been elucidated) and records that he opposed chancellor Maio of Bari who plotted against him[747].  The Annales Casenses record that in 1155 "Robbertus comes Lorotelli" invaded the kingdom, took "totam Marinam" and sacked the castle of Bari, and that in 1156 Guillaume King of Sicily destroyed Bari but allowed "comitem Lorotelli et comitem Andream" to leave[748].  A short anonymous Chronicle of Cassino records that "Robertus comes Lorotelli" captured the kingdom in 1155[749].  The Annales Casenses record that in 1160 "comes Robbertus di Lorotello et comes Andreas" entered the kingdom[750].  "…Robertus de Loritello…" was among the subscribers to a charter dated 1060 under which "Robertus dux Italie, Apulie et Calabrie atque Sicilie" donated "castrum Aquebelle" to the monastery of La Trinità at Cava[751].  The Annales Ceccanenses record that "comes Robbertus" invaded "terram usque Tarrentum" in 1161[752].  Hugo Falcandus records that "Robert Count of Loritello had invaded most of the realm and got as far as Orgeolo…on the borders of Apulia and Calabria"[753].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records the feeholders "de comitatu Loritelli", but no "comes", which suggests that the title had lapsed at that time[754].  The Annales Ceccanenses and the Annales Casenses both record that in 1169 "comes Robbertus de Loretello" made peace with the king of Sicily[755].  The Chronicon Fossæ Novæ records that "comes Robertus de Loretello" made peace with the king in Sicily in Mar 1169[756]m as her second husband, ADELISA of Sicily, divorced wife of IOZZELINO Conte di Loreto, [illegitimate] daughter of ROGER II King of Sicily & his [mistress ---] (-after [1184/87]).  Chalandon states that Adelisa, daughter of King Roger II, married "Jocelin comte de Loreto"[757].  It is unlikely that Adelisa was the king´s daughter by his first marriage, as Romoald only refers to one daughter whose death he records young.  The chronology suggests that she could not have been born from her father´s second or third marriages.  It is likely therefore that Adelisa was illegitimate.  The primary source which confirms her name and two marriages has not yet been identified.  Ctss di Florenzia. 

b)         GUILLAUME de Basunvilla .  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Gulielmus Bassavillæ frater"[758]

 

 

 

E.      CONTI di GRAVINA

 

 

Gravina is located in the central part of the present-day Italian region of Puglia, west of Altamira.  It is recorded as a county from the early 12th century.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Gravina…Cannas…Spinazcola…Florentia…Montem Milionem…Bellum Montem…Caivanum et Sanctum Angelum…Titum…Laurentianum…Campum Majorem et Trefogiam, Marsicum Vetus" as the fees held from the count of Gravina, together with the names of the corresponding feeholders, but the count is not named[759].  This omission suggests that the document was written after the expulsion of Gilbert Conte di Gravina, dated to [1168]. 

 

 

1.         BONIFAZIOConte di Gravina, Marchesem ---.  The name of Bonifazio´s wife is not known.  Bonifazio & his wife had two children: 

a)         MANFREDO (-after Jan 1146).  Conte di Gravina, Marchese.  "Il marchese Manfredi signore di Forenza" donated a mill to "Guglielmo archipresbitero", with the consent "della moglie Filippa", by charter dated Jan 1146[760].  "Manfred marchio" is named at Gravina, and his son "Sylvestre marchio"[761]m FILIPPA, daughter of --- (-after 1168).  "Il marchese Manfredi signore di Forenza" donated a mill to "Guglielmo archipresbitero", with the consent "della moglie Filippa", by charter dated Jan 1146[762].  "Philippe marchionissa", wife of "Manfred marchio", is named in a charter at Conversano[763].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Philippi quondam Marchionissa Gravinæ" holding "in vita sua Florentiam" in the county of Gravina with "feudum IV militum et cum augmento…milites VIII"[764].  Manfredo & his wife had one child: 

i)          SILVESTRO .  "Manfred marchio" is named at Gravina, and his son "Sylvestre marchio"[765]Conte di Gravina, Marchese

b)         ALBERTOConte di Gravina, Marchese"Son oncle le comte Albert, fils…de Boniface…marchio" is named as the successor of "Sylvestre marchio" at Gravina[766]

 

 

1.         UGO Marchisiusm ---.  The name of Ugo´s wife is not known.  Ugo & his wife had two children: 

a)         MANFREDO Marchisius .  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Manfridus Marchisius filius Hugonis Marchisii et frater eius…Guillelmus" holding "de…Hugone [which appears to refer to "Hugonis filii Acti"] Luperiam et Calcabuczam" in the county of "comes Riccardus de Fundis", with "feudum III militum et augmentum eorum milites III"[767]

b)         GUGLIELMO .  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Manfridus Marchisius filius Hugonis Marchisii et frater eius…Guillelmus" holding "de…Hugone [which appears to refer to "Hugonis filii Acti"] Luperiam et Calcabuczam" in the county of "comes Riccardus de Fundis", with "feudum III militum et augmentum eorum milites III"[768]

 

 

GILBERT [du Perche], son of BERTRAND [du Perche] & his wife --- (-after 1168).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di Gravina.  The Annals of Romoald name "Gilbertus…comes Gravine, regine [Siciliæ] et cancellarii consanguineus"[769].  Hugo Falcandus names "the queen's blood relative Count Gilbert to whom the king had given the county of Gravina after he had recently summoned him from Spain" among the conspirators against chancellor Maio in [1156][770].  Hugo Falcandus records that "Gilbert Count of Gravina" was appointed captain of Apulia and the Terra di Lavoro with his son Bertram who had recently been granted the county of Andria[771].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Jonathas comes Consiæ et Gilbertus comes Gravinæ et Boamundus comes Monopelli et Rogerus comes Acerræ et Philippus comes de Sangro et Rogerius Tricarici comes" rebelled against "Mayonem Ammiratum", dated to 1160 from the context[772].  The Annales Ceccanenses record that, after "Cristianus cancellarius et comes Gonzolinus" entered "Maritimam et Campaniam" in 1165, "comes Gilibertus et Riccardus de Esaya" came into Campania with the army of the king of Sicily and Verulani capitulated to them[773]Conte di Loritello.  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Gilbertus comes Gravinæ, reginæ et cancellarii consanguineus…tunc capitaneus…totius Apuliæ" captured Messina, and was later granted "comitatum Loritelli"[774].  The Annales Casenses record that in 1168 "comes Gilbertus et Bertaraimus filius eius" were expelled from the kingdom and went to Jerusalem[775], the Romoaldi Annales specifying that he was "Gylbertus etiam comes Loritelli"[776].  Hugo Falcandus records the decision to expel "Count Gilbert de Gravina and his son Count Bertram from the realm" in [1168][777].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Gilbertus Gravinensis" holding "Cannas" with "feudum IX militum et cum augmento…milites XVIII", and "milites XX" from "demanium suum Gravinæ"[778].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Gilbertus…comes Loritelli cum Berteraimo filio suo comite Andriæ" were deprived of their lands and went to Jerusalem[779]

m ---.  The name of Gilbert's wife is not known. 

Gilbert & his wife had two children: 

1.         BERTRAND (-after 1168).  Hugo Falcandus records that "the queen created eight counts in that one year [1166]" including "the count of Gravina's son Bertram"[780]Conte d'Andria.  The Annales Casenses record that in 1168 "comes Gilbertus et Bertaraimus filius eius" were expelled from the kingdom and went to Jerusalem[781], the Romoaldi Annales specifying that he was "Berteraimo filio suo comite Andrie"[782].  Hugo Falcandus records the decision to expel "Count Gilbert de Gravina and his son Count Bertram from the realm" in [1168][783].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Gilbertus…comes Loritelli cum Berteraimo filio suo comite Andriæ" were deprived of their lands and went to Jerusalem[784]

2.         BARTOLOMEE .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

1.         ROBERTO di Gravina .  "Alexander Cupersanensis comes et Tanc Cupersani et Gauf Catenzarii comes et Robertus Gravini" signed a charter dated 22 Jun 1132 relating to the city of Bari[785]

 

2.         ALESSANDRO di Gravina (-after 1168).  Conte di GravinaWilliam of Tyre records that "comes Alexander de Gravina" arrived in Jerusalem in Summer 1168[786]

 

 

1.         RICHARD de Say, son of --- (-after 1168).  Royal constable, justiciar in Calabria 1157.  Hugo Falcandus records that "the queen created eight counts in that one year [1166]" including "Richard de Say"[787]Conte di Fondi 1166.  Conte di Gravina 1168.  m firstly --- de Parisio, daughter of ---.  Hugo Falcandus records that "Richard de Say arrived at Palermo…with his wife the sister of Bartholomew de Parisio [whom] he wished to divorce…in order to marry the niece of the archbishop of Capua, and that the divorce was granted on condition his wife remained unmarried"[788]m secondly THEODORA, daughter of ---.  Hugo Falcandus records that "Richard de Say arrived at Palermo…with his wife the sister of Bartholomew de Parisio [whom] he wished to divorce…in order to marry the niece of the archbishop of Capua, and that the divorce was granted on condition his wife remained unmarried"[789].  Theodora Ctss of Gravina is named in a charter dated Apr 1179[790]

 

 

 

F.      CONTI di LECCE

 

 

Lecce is located in the eastern part of the present-day Italian region of Puglia, near the Adriatic coast, south-east of Brindisi.  It is recorded as a county from the 1080s.  Goffredo [III] Conte di Lecce, who was also Conte di Montescaglioso, was blinded and imprisoned at Maio's behest after the rebellion against Guillaume I King of Sicily in [1156].  No record has been found about the county from that time until 1269, when it was awarded by Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] to Hugues de Brienne. 

 

 

1.         ACCIARDOm ---.  The name of Acciardo´s wife is not known.  Acciardo & his wife had four children: 

a)         GOFFREDO (-after Dec 1082).  Conte di Lecce"Goffridus comes de civitate Liccie pertinentia Apulia filius quondam Acciardi et Gunnora qui sumus vir et uxor, et Goffridus et Rainaldus et Robbertus et Sarlus…filii istorum" donated the churches of Santa Maria and San Niccolo di Lecce, for the souls of "…et Arualdi et Rainaldi et Ruggeri fratribus meis" to Cava by charter dated Dec 1082, in the presence of "domini Ruggeri comitis fili suprascripti domini nostri ducis et Radulfi comitis de Lauritello et Riccardi comitis de Mutule"[791]m GUNNORA, daughter of --- (-after Dec 1082).  "Goffridus comes de civitate Liccie pertinentia Apulia filius quondam Acciardi et Gunnora qui sumus vir et uxor, et Goffridus et Rainaldus et Robbertus et Sarlus…filii istorum" donated the churches of Santa Maria and San Niccolo di Lecce, for the souls of "…et Arualdi et Rainaldi et Ruggeri fratribus meis" to Cava by charter dated Dec 1082, in the presence of "domini Ruggeri comitis fili suprascripti domini nostri ducis et Radulfi comitis de Lauritello et Riccardi comitis de Mutule"[792].  Goffredo & his wife had five children: 

i)          GOFFREDO [II] (-after 1114).  "Goffridus comes de civitate Liccie pertinentia Apulia filius quondam Acciardi et Gunnora qui sumus vir et uxor, et Goffridus et Rainaldus et Robbertus et Sarlus…filii istorum" donated the churches of Santa Maria and San Niccolo di Lecce to Cava by charter dated Dec 1082[793]Conte di Lecce

-         see below

ii)         RAINALDO (-after Dec 1082).  "Goffridus comes de civitate Liccie pertinentia Apulia filius quondam Acciardi et Gunnora qui sumus vir et uxor, et Goffridus et Rainaldus et Robbertus et Sarlus…filii istorum" donated the churches of Santa Maria and San Niccolo di Lecce to Cava by charter dated Dec 1082[794]

iii)        ROBERTO (-after Dec 1082).  "Goffridus comes de civitate Liccie pertinentia Apulia filius quondam Acciardi et Gunnora qui sumus vir et uxor, et Goffridus et Rainaldus et Robbertus et Sarlus…filii istorum" donated the churches of Santa Maria and San Niccolo di Lecce to Cava by charter dated Dec 1082[795]

iv)       SERLO (-after Dec 1082).  "Goffridus comes de civitate Liccie pertinentia Apulia filius quondam Acciardi et Gunnora qui sumus vir et uxor, et Goffridus et Rainaldus et Robbertus et Sarlus…filii istorum" donated the churches of Santa Maria and San Niccolo di Lecce to Cava by charter dated Dec 1082[796]

v)        ALBERADA di Lecce .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m GUILLAUME Conte di Gesualdo e Lucera, illegitimate son of ROGER "Borsa/the Purse" Duke of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily & his mistress --- (-1112 or after). 

b)         ARNALDO .  "Goffridus comes de civitate Liccie pertinentia Apulia filius quondam Acciardi et Gunnora qui sumus vir et uxor…" donated the churches of Santa Maria and San Niccolo di Lecce, for the souls of "…et Arualdi et Rainaldi et Ruggeri fratribus meis" to Cava by charter dated Dec 1082[797]

c)         RINALDO .  "Goffridus comes de civitate Liccie pertinentia Apulia filius quondam Acciardi et Gunnora qui sumus vir et uxor…" donated the churches of Santa Maria and San Niccolo di Lecce, for the souls of "…et Arualdi et Rainaldi et Ruggeri fratribus meis" to Cava by charter dated Dec 1082[798]

d)         RUGGERO .  "Goffridus comes de civitate Liccie pertinentia Apulia filius quondam Acciardi et Gunnora qui sumus vir et uxor…" donated the churches of Santa Maria and San Niccolo di Lecce, for the souls of "…et Arualdi et Rainaldi et Ruggeri fratribus meis" to Cava by charter dated Dec 1082[799]

 

 

GOFFREDO [II], son of GOFFREDO [I] Conte di Lecce & his wife Gunnora --- (-after 1114).  "Goffridus comes de civitate Liccie pertinentia Apulia filius quondam Acciardi et Gunnora qui sumus vir et uxor, et Goffridus et Rainaldus et Robbertus et Sarlus…filii istorum" donated the churches of Santa Maria and San Niccolo di Lecce to Cava by charter dated Dec 1082[800]Conte di Lecce.  "Goffridus Hostunensis filius et heres Goffridi Accardi natus" donated the church of San Andrea Apostolo, Lecce to the abbot of Santa Maria di Banze by charter dated Jul 1092[801].  "Adalasia comitissa Siciliæ et Calabriæ et…comes Rogerius filius eius" donated property to the bishopric of Squillace on the advice of "ipsorum baronum…Roberti Borelli et Gosberti de Licia et Willelmi de Altavilla" by charter dated [Mar 25/31 Aug] 1107[802].  It is assumed that "Gosberti de Licia" in this document was intended to refer to "Goffridus de Licia".  "Goffridus…Lycii et Hostunii comes" donated a bell dedicated to the Assunzione di Maria to the bishop of Lecce by charter dated 1114[803]

m ---.  The name of Goffredo´s wife is not known. 

Goffredo [II] & his wife had four children: 

1.         ACCARDO (-after Mar 1137).  "Accardus dominator civitatis Hostunii" is named in a charter dated 1120[804]Conte di Lecce.  "Accardus…domini Goffredi bone memorie filius et Liciensis dominus" donated property to the monastery of S. Giovanni Evangelista "et sorori mee domini Agneti…abbatisse", for the souls of "…meeque uxoris domine Matilie…", by charter dated May 1133, witnessed by "Goffredus Litii [frater] Accardi, Goffredi filius Accardi…"[805].  "Accardus…dominator civitatis Licii" donated property to the monastery of S. Giovanni Evangelista "et…domine Guimarche abbatisse sorori mee" by charter dated Mar 1137, witnessed by "Goffredi filii Accardi…"[806]m MATILIA, daughter of --- (-after May 1133).  "Accardus…domini Goffredi bone memorie filius et Liciensis dominus" donated property to the monastery of S. Giovanni Evangelista "et sorori mee domini Agneti…abbatisse", for the souls of "…meeque uxoris domine Matilie…", by charter dated May 1133, witnessed by "Goffredus Litii [frater] Accardi, Goffredi filius Accardi…"[807].  Accardo & his wife had three children:

a)         GOFFREDO [III] (-8 Apr 1174, bur Palermo Cathedral)"Accardus…domini Goffredi bone memorie filius et Liciensis dominus" donated property to the monastery of S. Giovanni Evangelista by charter dated May 1133, witnessed by "Goffredus Litii [frater] Accardi, Goffredi filius Accardi…"[808].  "Accardus…dominator civitatis Licii" donated property to the monastery of S. Giovanni Evangelista "et…domine Guimarche abbatisse sorori mee" by charter dated Mar 1137, witnessed by "Goffredi filii Accardi…"[809]Conte di Montescaglioso.  Hugo Falcandus names "Godfrey…the Count of Montescaglioso", recording his presence in Palermo in [1155] and that Guillaume I King of Sicily confiscated Noto from him[810].  Hugo Falcandus records that "Count Godfrey" was blinded and imprisoned at Maio's behest after the rebellion against Guillaume I King of Sicily in [1156][811].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "terra comitis Tancredi filii domini ducis Rogerii" holding fees previously held by "comitis Goffridi Montis Caveosi, sicut dixit idem comes Goffridus" in the county of Lecce, with "feudum militum XX et cum augmento milites XL"[812].  

b)         --- di Lecce .  Guerrieri refers to "la leggenda assai curiosa degli amori segreti di Sibilla, unica figlia di Roberto conte di Lecce, succeduto a Goffredo figlio di Accardo, col primogenito del re Ruggiero" and adds that "oggi è dichiarata insostenible per la grande confusione di nomi, di fatti e di date, e per gli errori assai evidenti"[813]Chalandon states that legends surrounding King Tancred´s mother, in which she is variously called "Blanche, Béatrice et Sibille", were first fabricated in the mid-16th century[814].  Hugo Falcandus records that "Tancred and William, the sons of Duke Roger" were born "by a nobly born mother"[815].  Her correct parentage is confirmed by a charter dated May 1190 under which her son "Tancredus…rex Sicilie, ducatus Apulie" transferred Casale Surbo near Lecce to "Emma…abbatissa monasterii Sancti Iohannis monialium Liceii dilecte matertera…nostra"[816], which suggests that his mother was Emma´s sister and so the daughter of Accardo Conte di Lecce.  Mistress (before [1138]) of ROGER Duke of Apulia, son of ROGER II King of Sicily & his first wife Infanta doña Elvira de Castilla ([1121]-12 May 1148). 

c)         EMMA (-after May 1190).  Pope Alexander III confirmed protection over the monastery of San Giovanni, Lecce and "Emma abbatissa" referring to "bone memorie pater tuus Accardus…et…Agnete abbatissa sorore ipsius Accardi", at the request of "comitis Tancredi Licii", by bull dated 15 Jun 1178[817].  "Tancredus…rex Sicilie, ducatus Apulie, principatus Capue" transferred Casale Surbo near Lecce to "Emma…abbatissa monasterii Sancti Iohannis monialium Liceii dilecte matertera…nostra", by charter dated May 1190[818]

2.         GOFFREDO (-after May 1133).  "Accardus…domini Goffredi bone memorie filius et Liciensis dominus" donated property to the monastery of S. Giovanni Evangelista by charter dated May 1133, witnessed by "Goffredus Litii [frater] Accardi, Goffredi filius Accardi…"[819]

3.         AGNESE (-[May 1133/Mar 1137]).  "Accardus…domini Goffredi bone memorie filius et Liciensis dominus" donated property to the monastery of S. Giovanni Evangelista "et sorori mee domini Agneti…abbatisse", for the souls of "…meeque uxoris domine Matilie…", by charter dated May 1133, witnessed by "Goffredus Litii [frater] Accardi, Goffredi filius Accardi…"[820]

4.         GUIMARCA (-after Jul 1142).  "Accardus…dominator civitatis Licii" donated property to the monastery of S. Giovanni Evangelista "et…domine Guimarche abbatisse sorori mee" by charter dated Mar 1137, witnessed by "Goffredi filii Accardi…"[821].  "Rogerius…rex Sicilie ducatus Apulie et principatus Capue…" donated property to "Guimarca abbatissa sancti Iohannis de Lippio" by charter dated Jul 1142[822]

 

 

HUGUES de Brienne, son of GAUTHIER [IV] de Brienne Count of Jaffa & his wife Marie de Lusignan of Cyprus (-9 Aug 1296).  The Chronicle of Amadi names "Hughet" as son of "Conte Galtier, marito della sorella del re Henrico de Cypro"[823].  The Lignages d'Outremer names (in order) "Johan, Huge et Heimeri" as the three sons of "le conte Gautier de Brene" & his wife, stating that Jean and Amaury died young[824].  He fought in support of Charles I King of Sicily during the latter's campaign against Manfred King of Sicily and helped to defeat Konradin von Hohenstaufen at Tagliacozzo in 1268.  King Charles I confirmed his title Conte di Lecce in 1269.  In [1275], Hugues tried to assemble an army to enforce his claim to Cyprus, but by 1289 he was trying to sell his rights to the Cypriot throne to Alfonso III King of Aragon[825].  Signor di Conversano, Captain-General of Brindisi, Otranto and Apulia 1289.  He died from wounds received at the battle of Gagliano against Roger de Lloria, admiral of Aragon[826]

1.         GAUTHIER [V] de Brienne ([1278]-killed in battle Kephissos River, near Thebes 15 Mar 1312, his head bur Lecce Church of Santa Croce).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Gautier et Agnes" as the children of "Hugue…cuens de Brene" and his wife "Ysabeau la fille dou duc d'Athanes, qui avoit esté feme dou seignor de Karitaine"[827].  He succeeded his mother as Lord of ½ Karitaina and Thebes.  He succeeded his father as Conte di Lecce, Signore di Conversano.  He succeeded his first cousin (and uterine half-brother) in 1308 as GAUTHIER Duke of Athens, his accession being confirmed by the High Court of Achaia when it rejected the claim of his first cousin Eschiva Ibelin[828]

a)         GAUTHIER [VI] de Brienne (Lecce 1302-killed in battle Poitiers 19 Sep 1356, bur Abbaye de Beaulieu).  He succeeded his father in 1311 as Conte di Lecce e Conversano.  He was brought up at the court of Robert King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet].  He was sent by Charles of Sicily Duca di Calabria to take possession of Florence 17 May 1326.  He claimed the duchy of Athens, supported by his father-in-law who conferred on him the title "Vicar-General in Romania".  After landing in Epirus in 1331, he captured the island of Santa Mavra, the fortress of Vonitza and the city of Arta.  However, he had less success against the Catalans and returned to Italy in 1332[829].  He entered the service of the popolari party in Florence, was elected Captain of the War and Protector of the Town for life in 1342, but was expelled 26 Jul 1343 after his tyrannical behaviour provoked riots.  He entered the service of the king of France, was appointed Grand Connétable of France by King Jean II 9 May 1356 and died in the battle of Poitiers against the English[830].  He was succeeded by his nephew. 

b)         ISABEAU de Brienne (-1360).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "[il figlio]…[del] conte de Brenna" had one daughter who married "al signor d´Angloin" who the son "della figlia del conte di Fiandra"[831].  She claimed to succeed her brother in 1356 as Contessa di Lecce e di Conversano.  Dame de Ramerupt.  Her descendants claimed the duchy of Athens in opposition to the dukes of the house of Aragon.  This couple´s descendants claimed the titles Conte di Lecce and Conte di Conversano (see the document HAINAUT), the claims to which were later inherited by the Luxembourg family (see the document CHAMPAGNE NOBILITY).  m (contract Jan 1321) GAUTHIER [III] Seigneur d'Enghien, son of GAUTHIER [II] Seigneur d'Enghien & his wife Yolande de Flandre (5 Jun 1302-[16 Oct] 1345). 

2.         other children: BRIENNE

 

 

 

G.      CONTI di MATERA

 

 

Matera is located in the central part of the present-day Italian region of Puglia, south-east of Gravina.  It is recorded as a county from the mid-11th century, but the information so far obtained from primary sources is insufficient to reconstruct the comital family accurately.  No information has been found about the county of Matera after 1133. 

 

 

1.         ROBERT de Mortain, son of ARMAND de Mortain & his wife Beatrix de Hauteville ([1040/50]-27 Jul 1080).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of his being an adult when appointed to his countship in 1068.  Conte di Matera.  The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records that "Robertus comes" captured "Materam" in 1064[832]Conte di Montescaglioso 1068. 

 

 

1.         ROBERTOConte di Materam ---.  The name of Roberto's wife is not known.  Roberto & his wife had one child:

a)         ALESSANDRO (-after Sep 1110).  The Romoaldi Annales name "Alexander comes" when recording that he built "Miliolongum…castellum" in Sep 1110[833].  The Romoaldi Annales name "Alexandro consanguineo suo [=Boamundi iuvenis Antiochi]" when recording that the latter left his cities in Apulia to Alessandro when he left for Antioch[834], although it is not known whether this is the same person. 

 

 

2.         GOFFREDOm ---.  The name of Goffredo´s wife is not known.  Goffredo & his wife had one child: 

a)         GOFFREDO (-after 1133).  Conte di MateraThe Ignoti Monachi Chronica records that King Roger captured "comite Goffrido de Matera" and subjugated Apulia in 1131[835].  The Chronicle of Falco Beneventano records that "Giffredum filium Giffredi comitis" was lord of the city of Matera in 1133[836]

 

 

 

H.      CONTI di MOLFETTA

 

 

Molfetta is located on the Adriatic coast of the present-day Italian region of Puglia, midway between Trani and Bari.  It is recorded as a county from the mid-11th century, but no information has been found which relates to it after the early 12th century. 

 

 

1.         JOSCELIN di Molfettam ---. 

a)         daughter .  The daughter of Joscelin of Molfetta is named as wife of Amicus in a charter dated 25 Jun 1066[837]m AMICUS [II] di Lesina Conte di Molfetta, son of GAUTHIER Conte di Lesina & his wife --- (-1090 or after). 

 

2.         AMICUS [II] di Lesina, son of GAUTHIER Conte di Lesina & his wife --- (-1090 or after).  "Robertus comes Lorotelli, Amicus inclitus comes, Riccardus Andrie comes, Goffredus comes Cupersani, Petrus comes de Lesena, Robertus comes filius Guillelmi Ybonis comitis" declared the restitution of property to the monastery of Banzi by charter dated Jun 1063[838]Conte di Molfetta 1063/1090.  Amatus recounts that "Amicus son of Walter" was among the conspirators against Robert "Guiscard"[839], undated but the context suggests this was in the early 1060s.  "…Amici comitis" was among the subscribers of the charter dated Jun 1087 under which "Rogerius…dux ducis Robberti filius" donated property to the church of Bari[840]m --- di Molfetta, daughter of JOSCELIN of Molfetta & his wife ---.  The daughter of Joscelin of Molfetta is named as wife of Amicus in a charter dated 25 Jun 1066[841]

a)         GODEFREDO (-after 1105).  "Geoffroi comte, fils du comte Ami…dominator de Melfi et sébaste impériale" is named in a charter dated 1091[842].  Count of Molfetta 1089/1105.  Amatus recounts that "the son of Amicus" was among those taken hostage as the time of his father's rebellion against Robert "Guiscard"[843]

 

 

 

I.        CONTI di MONTESCAGLIOSO

 

 

Montescaglioso is located in the southern part of the present-day Italian region of Puglia, near the border with Basilicata region, south of Matera.  It is recorded as a county from the mid-11th century.  It is assumed that the county ceased to exist as such when Goffredo Conte di Montescaglioso, who was also Conte di Lecce, was blinded and imprisoned at Maio's behest after the rebellion against Guillaume I King of Sicily in [1156]. 

 

 

ARMAND de Mortain, son of ROBERT Comte d'Eu & his first wife Beatrix ---  .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

m as her first husband, BEATRIX de Hauteville, daughter of TANCRED de Hauteville & his [first wife Moriella ---] ([1005/10]-1101).  The Annals of Romoald state that Tancred had three daughters without naming them or stating by which marriage they were born[844].  Her marriage is suggested by the Gesta Roberti Wiscardi which names "Robertus de Scabioso Monte comes…Gosfredi frater, et ambo orti germana fuerant ducis"[845].  The chronology of her descendants strongly suggests that Beatrix must have been born in [1005/10] and therefore was one of her parents' older children.  The primary source which confirms her name and second marriage has not yet been identified.  Beatrix is shown as the daughter of Tancred by his first wife in Europäische Stammtafeln[846].  The basis for this is not known.  However, it appears more likely that she was the daughter of his second marriage if her estimated birth date range is correct, especially in light of the approximate date of birth of her brother Robert "Guiscard" in [1020].  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi names "Robertus de Scabioso Monte comes…Gosfredi frater, et ambo orti germana fuerant ducis"[847].  Guerrieri highlights that "Gosfredi" in this passage has been identified as Godefroi Conte di Conversano but that it is not possible to confirm whether this is correct[848].  If the speculation is right, Beatrix was the same person as the daughter of Tancred who is shown in the document SICILY COUNTS & KINGS as married to "--- [di Conversano]".  She married secondly Roger ---. 

Armand & his wife had two children: 

1.         ROBERT ([1020/25]-27 Jul 1080).  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi names "Robertus de Scabioso Monte comes…Gosfredi frater, et ambo orti germana fuerant ducis"[849].  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of the tight suggested chronology of this family, bearing in mind the expected birth date range of Robert's grandson.  Conte di Matera.  The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records that "Robertus comes" captured "Materam" in 1064[850]Conte di Montescaglioso.  "…Robertus de Monte Caveoso…" subscribed the charter dated 1053 (misdated) under which "Drogo…dux et magister Italie comesque Normannorum totius Apulie atque Calabrie" donated property for the soul of "fratris mei Guillelmi, Unfredi, Roberti"[851].  "…Robertus de Montescabioso…" was among the subscribers to a charter dated 1060 under which "Robertus dux Italie, Apulie et Calabrie atque Sicilie" donated "castrum Aquebelle" to the monastery of La Trinità at Cava[852].  "…Robertus de Monte Scabioso…" subscribed a charter dated Jun 1063 which declared the restitution of property to the monastery of Banzi[853]m AMELINA, daughter of BELGRANO Signor di Brindisi & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Robert & his wife had one child: 

a)         UNFREDO ([1040/45]-after 1093).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of the tight suggested chronology of this family, bearing in mind the expected birth date range of Unfredo's son.  Conte di Montescaglioso.  "Umfreda comes Montis Scaviosi" donated property to the monastery of "sancti Michahelis archangeli…in civitate vetera" by charter dated Mar 1085, subscribed by "…Gualterius, Goffredus filius domini Umfredus comes, domino Rao Machabeo, Asegatto"[854].  "Rogerius…Sicilie et Italie rex…Rogerii primi comitis heres et filius" confirmed past donations to the abbey of San Michele Arcangelo, Montescaglioso by (among others) "Emma comitissa civitatis Severiane sororis nostre et…Umfredi et Radulphi Machabei dominorum prefate civitatis Severiana…" by charter dated Aug 1146[855]m BEATRICE, daughter of --- (-after May 1099).  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated May 1099 under which her son "Radulfus Machabeus…Montis Scaviosi dominus" donated property, for the souls of "domini patris mei Umfredi et fratris mei Gosfredi et…Iordanis cognati mei…dominæ matris meæ Beatricis…et domine Judettæ socrus meæ…coniugis meæ dominæ Emmæ…Adeliciæ sororis meæ"[856].  Unfredo & his wife had five children:

i)          GODOFREDO (-killed in battle Dorylaeum, Asia Minor 1 Jul 1097).  "Umfreda comes Montis Scaviosi" donated property to the monastery of "sancti Michahelis archangeli…in civitate vetera" by charter dated Mar 1085, subscribed by "…Gualterius, Goffredus filius domini Umfredus comes, domino Rao Machabeo, Asegatto"[857].  "Vnfredus de Monte Scabioso" is recorded by Orderic Vitalis as one of those who left with Bohemond of Apulia on the First Crusade in 1097[858], but "Vnfredus" is presumably an error for "Godofredus" if the date of death of Godofredo´s father is correctly estimated as shown above.  Conte di Montescaglioso.  William of Tyre also names "Hunfredus de Monte Scabioso" among those who accompanied Bohemond on crusade[859].  Orderic Vitalis records the death of "Geoffroy of Montescaglioso" at the battle of Dorylaeum against the Turks[860].  Baudry also records the death of "Gaufridus de Monte Scabioso" at the battle of Dorylæum[861]

ii)         RODOLFO MACABEO ([1060/65]-[1115/19]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  "Umfreda comes Montis Scaviosi" donated property to the monastery of "sancti Michahelis archangeli…in civitate vetera" by charter dated Mar 1085, subscribed by "…Gualterius, Goffredus filius domini Umfredus comes, domino Rao Machabeo, Asegatto"[862]Conte di Montescaglioso.  "Radulfus Machabeus…Montis Scaviosi dominus" donated property, for the souls of "domini patris mei Umfredi et fratris mei Gosfredi et…Iordanis cognati mei…dominæ matris meæ Beatricis…et domine Judettæ socrus meæ…coniugis meæ dominæ Emmæ…Adeliciæ sororis meæ", by charter dated May 1099, subscribed by "Guidelmi filii Umfredi, Roberti fratris sui, Asgatti, Raul filii Askettini"[863].  Roger II King of Sicily confirmed donations to Santa Maria Pistacci by "dni Radlfi Machabi bone memorie quondam Montis Scabiosi…senioris" by charter dated 31 Aug 1133[864].  "Rogerius…Sicilie et Italie rex…Rogerii primi comitis heres et filius" confirmed past donations to the abbey of San Michele Arcangelo, Montescaglioso by (among others) "Emma comitissa civitatis Severiane sororis nostre et…Umfredi et Radulphi Machabei dominorum prefate civitatis Severiana…" by charter dated Aug 1146[865]m (4 Sep 1087) [as her second husband,] EMMA of Sicily, [repudiated wife of GUILLAUME [VI] Comte d'Auvergne], daughter of ROGER I Count of Sicily & his first wife Judith d'Evreux [Normandie] ([1063]-after Aug 1119).  "Radulfus Machabeus…Montis Scaviosi dominus" donated property, for the souls of "domini patris mei Umfredi et fratris mei Gosfredi et…Iordanis cognati mei…dominæ matris meæ Beatricis…et domine Judettæ socrus meæ…coniugis meæ dominæ Emmæ…Adeliciæ sororis meæ", by charter dated May 1099[866].  "Emma comitissa…civitatis Severiane" donated property, for the souls of "viri mei domini Radulfi Machabei nostrorum filiorum", by charter dated Sep 1110, subscribed by "Rogerius civitatis Severiane dominus et filii Rodulfi Machabei Emme comitisse, Emma comitisse comitis Rogerii filiæ…"[867].  "Emma comitissa Rogerii comitis filia civitatis Severiane domina" donated property to "monasterio sancti Michaelis archangeli", for "me et viri mei Randulfi Machabei nostrorum filiorum", by charter dated 1115, subscribed by "domini Rogerii Machabei prescripte comitisse filii, domine Adelicze iamdicte comitisse filie…"[868].  "Emma comitissa Rogerii comitis filia civitatis Severiane domina…cum filio meo domino Rogerio Machabeo" donated property to "sancte Trinitatis…domus hospitalis" by charter dated Jul 1119[869].  "Emma comitissa Rogerii comitis filia civitatis Severiane domina…cum filio meo domino Rogerio Machabeo" donated property to "domus hospitalis Sancti Iohannis Iherosolomitani" by charter dated Aug 1119[870].  "Rogerius…Sicilie et Italie rex…Rogerii primi comitis heres et filius" confirmed past donations to St Mary Josephat, Jerusalem by (among others) "dna Emma soror nostra uxor quondam Radulfi Machabei" by charter dated 11 Oct 1144[871].  Rodolfo Macabeo & his wife had three children: 

(a)       RUGGIERO MACABEO (-1124).  "Emma comitissa…civitatis Severiane" donated property, for the souls of "viri mei domini Radulfi Machabei nostrorum filiorum", by charter dated Sep 1110, subscribed by "Rogerius civitatis Severiane dominus et filii Rodulfi Machabei Emme comitisse, Emma comitisse comitis Rogerii filiæ…"[872].  "Emma comitissa Rogerii comitis filia civitatis Severiane domina" donated property to "monasterio sancti Michaelis archangeli", for "me et viri mei Randulfi Machabei nostrorum filiorum", by charter dated 1115, subscribed by "domini Rogerii Machabei prescripte comitisse filii, domine Adelicze iamdicte comitisse filie…"[873]Conte di Montescaglioso.  "Emma comitissa Rogerii comitis filia civitatis Severiane domina…cum filio meo domino Rogerio Machabeo" donated property to "sancte Trinitatis…domus hospitalis" by charter dated Jul 1119[874].  "Emma comitissa Rogerii comitis filia civitatis Severiane domina…cum filio meo domino Rogerio Machabeo" donated property to "domus hospitalis Sancti Iohannis Iherosolomitani" by charter dated Aug 1119[875]

(b)       ADELISIA (-after Jun 1140).  "Emma comitissa Rogerii comitis filia civitatis Severiane domina" donated property to "monasterio sancti Michaelis archangeli", for "me et viri mei Randulfi Machabei nostrorum filiorum", by charter dated 1115, subscribed by "domini Rogerii Machabei prescripte comitisse filii, domine Adelicze iamdicte comitisse filie…"[876].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  "Adelicia neptis domini Rogerii…regis" donated the church of San Pietro di Golisano to the bishop of Cefalù by charter dated Jun 1140, subscribed by "Adam Avenel filius domine Adelicie…"[877].  "Adelicia domini…regis Rogerii neptis" donated a mill to the church of Malvicino by charter dated 1156, subscribed by "Adam Avellus, Roberto de Sancto Iohanne…Rogerius de Roberto senescalcus…"[878].  William I King of Sicily confirmed a donation by "Adelicia" to the monastery of Santa Lucia in Adernò by charter dated to before May 1158[879]m (1119) RAINALD Avenel, son of --- (-[Nov 1132]). 

(c)       JUDITH .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  "Rogerius…Sicilie et Italie rex…Rogerii primi comitis heres et filius" confirmed past donations to the abbey of San Michele Arcangelo, Montescaglioso by (among others) "…Rogerii de Montibus unacum uxore eius Iudith dilecte neptis nostre" by charter dated Aug 1146[880]m (before 1144) RUGGIERO de Montibus

iii)        ADELINA (-after May 1099).  Her parentage, and possibly also her marriage, is confirmed by the charter dated May 1099 under which her son "Radulfus Machabeus…Montis Scaviosi dominus" donated property, for the souls of "domini patris mei Umfredi et fratris mei Gosfredi et…Iordanis cognati mei…dominæ matris meæ Beatricis…et domine Judettæ socrus meæ…coniugis meæ dominæ Emmæ…Adeliciæ sororis meæ"[881].  [m GIORDANO, son of ---.] 

iv)       GUGLIELMO .  "Radulfus Machabeus…Montis Scaviosi dominus" donated property by charter dated May 1099, subscribed by "Guidelmi filii Umfredi, Roberti fratris sui, Asgatti, Raul filii Askettini"[882].  1113. 

v)        ROBERTO .  "Radulfus Machabeus…Montis Scaviosi dominus" donated property by charter dated May 1099, subscribed by "Guidelmi filii Umfredi, Roberti fratris sui, Asgatti, Raul filii Askettini"[883].  1124.  Conte di Montescagliosom ---.  The name of Roberto's wife is not known.  Roberto & his wife had three children:

(a)       GUGLIELMO di Montescaglioso (-[1134/35]). m ---.  The name of Guglielmo's wife is not known.  Guglielmo & his wife had three children:

(1)       ROBERTO (-before 1167). 

(2)       SIBILLA .  1130. 

(3)       TOMMASO .  1130. 

(b)       ROBERTO .  1130. 

(c)       CLARICIA .  1130. 

2.         GODEFROI .  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi names "Robertus de Scabioso Monte comes…Gosfredi frater, et ambo orti germana fuerant ducis"[884].  Guerrieri highlights that "Gosfredi" in this passage has been identified as Godefroi Conte di Conversano but that it is not possible to confirm whether this is correct[885]

 

 

1.         GODOFREDO, son of ACCARDO Conte di Lecce & his wife --- (-8 Apr 1174, bur Palermo Cathedral).  "Accardus…domini Goffredi bone memorie filius et Liciensis dominus" donated property to the monastery of S. Giovanni Evangelista by charter dated May 1133, witnessed by "Goffredus Litii [frater] Accardi, Goffredi filius Accardi…"[886].  Hugo Falcandus names "Godfrey…the Count of Montescaglioso", recording his presence in Palermo in [1155] and that Guillaume I King of Sicily confiscated Noto from him[887].  Hugo Falcandus records that "Count Godfrey" was blinded and imprisoned at Maio's behest after the rebellion against Guillaume I King of Sicily in [1156][888].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "terra comitis Tancredi filii domini ducis Rogerii" holding fees previously held by "comitis Goffridi Montis Caveosi, sicut dixit idem comes Goffridus" in the county of Lecce, with "feudum militum XX et cum augmento milites XL"[889]

 

 

1.         ROBERTO di Montescaglioso .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m SIBILLA of Sicily, daughter of TANCRED King of Sicily & his wife Sibilla de Medania.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

 

I.        CONTI di TARANTO

 

 

The city of Taranto is on the southern coast of the present-day Italian region of Puglia.  The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records that Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia captured Taranto from the Byzantines in May 1060[890].  The Byzantines recaptured the city shortly afterwards, but the same source records that "Goffridus filius eius" (referring to "Gauffredus comes" whose death is recorded in Apr 1063, identified as Godfroi Conte di Loritello, brother of Robert "Guiscard") recaptured Taranto in 1063[891].  The city must have been placed in charge of Guillaume, whose death in 1064 is recorded in the Chronicon Breve Normannicum[892].  This Guillaume has not yet been identified.  The same source records that "Mabrica cum exercitu magno Græcorum" re-entered Brindisi and Taranto in 1067[893].  The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records that Duke Robert "Guiscard" re-entered Taranto in 1080[894]

 

 

1.         GUILLAUME (-Taranto 1064).  Conte di TarantoThe Chronicon Breve Normannicum records that "mortuus est in Tarento Guilielmus Comes eius" in 1064[895]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    OTHER NEAPOLITAN NOBILITY, UNALLOCATED

 

 

1.         THURSTAN "le Bègue" (-after 1022).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Stephano autem, Melo et Petro nepotibus præfati Melo" were granted "comitatum Cominensis" (by Emperor Heinrich II) together with "in auxilium Normannos, Giselbertum, Gosmannum, Stigandum, Torstainum balbum, Gualterium de Canosa et Ugonem Falluccam, cum aliis decem et octo", dated to [1022] from the context[896].  Chalandon identifies these Normans as "Gilbert, Osmond, Asclettin, Toustain le Bègue, Gautier de Canisy et Hugues Falluca"[897]

 

2.         GAUTHIER de Canisy (-after 1022).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Stephano autem, Melo et Petro nepotibus præfati Melo" were granted "comitatum Cominensis" (by Emperor Heinrich II) together with "in auxilium Normannos, Giselbertum, Gosmannum, Stigandum, Torstainum balbum, Gualterium de Canosa et Ugonem Falluccam, cum aliis decem et octo", dated to [1022] from the context[898].  Chalandon identifies these Normans as "Gilbert, Osmond, Asclettin, Toustain le Bègue, Gautier de Canisy et Hugues Falluca"[899]

 

3.         ARNOLIN (-after Feb 1042).  Lord of Lavello.  Amatus records that "the Normans divided among themselves" the lands at Melfi, following their victories against the Byzantines dated to 1041, and that “William received Ascoli; Drogo had Venosa; Arnolin had Lavello; Hugh Toutebove had Monopoli; Rodulf had Canne; Walter, Civitate; Peter, Trani; Rodulf son of Bebena, Sant´Arcangelo; Tristan, Montepeloso; Hervey, Grumento; Asclettin, Acerenza; and Rainfroi, Malarbine”, adding that “Prince Guaimar of Salerno…invested each one of them[900].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records the division of properties agreed at Melfi, dated to Feb 1042, as follows: "Guilelmo Asculum, Drogoni Venusiam, Arnolino Labellum, Ugoni Tutabovi Monopolim, Petro Tranum, Gualterio Civitatem, Rodulfo Cannim, Tristaino Montem pilosum, Herveo Grigentum, Asclittino Acerentiam, Rodulfo Sanctum Archangelum, Raimfrido Monerbinum"[901]

 

4.         HUGUES "Tuebœuf" (-after Feb 1042).  Lord of Monopoli.  Amatus records that "the Normans divided among themselves" the lands at Melfi, following their victories against the Byzantines dated to 1041, and that “William received Ascoli; Drogo had Venosa; Arnolin had Lavello; Hugh Toutebove had Monopoli; Rodulf had Canne; Walter, Civitate; Peter, Trani; Rodulf son of Bebena, Sant´Arcangelo; Tristan, Montepeloso; Hervey, Grumento; Asclettin, Acerenza; and Rainfroi, Malarbine”, adding that “Prince Guaimar of Salerno…invested each one of them[902].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records the division of properties agreed at Melfi, dated to Feb 1042, as follows: "Guilelmo Asculum, Drogoni Venusiam, Arnolino Labellum, Ugoni Tutabovi Monopolim, Petro Tranum, Gualterio Civitatem, Rodulfo Cannim, Tristaino Montem pilosum, Herveo Grigentum, Asclittino Acerentiam, Rodulfo Sanctum Archangelum, Raimfrido Monerbinum"[903]same person as…?  HUGUES (-after 17 Jun 1053).  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi records the presence of "Petrus et Galterus Amici insignes soboles, simul Aureolanus, Ubertus Muscaque, Ranaldus, comes Hugo, comesque Giraldius, Bovianensis comitis comitatu Radulfi" at the battle of Civitate, dated to 17 Jun 1053[904]

 

5.         TRISTAN (-after [1050]).  Lord of Montepeloso.  Amatus records that "the Normans divided among themselves" the lands at Melfi, following their victories against the Byzantines dated to 1041, and that “William received Ascoli; Drogo had Venosa; Arnolin had Lavello; Hugh Toutebove had Monopoli; Rodulf had Canne; Walter, Civitate; Peter, Trani; Rodulf son of Bebena, Sant´Arcangelo; Tristan, Montepeloso; Hervey, Grumento; Asclettin, Acerenza; and Rainfroi, Malarbine”, adding that “Prince Guaimar of Salerno…invested each one of them[905].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records the division of properties agreed at Melfi, dated to Feb 1042, as follows: "Guilelmo Asculum, Drogoni Venusiam, Arnolino Labellum, Ugoni Tutabovi Monopolim, Petro Tranum, Gualterio Civitatem, Rodulfo Cannim, Tristaino Montem pilosum, Herveo Grigentum, Asclittino Acerentiam, Rodulfo Sanctum Archangelum, Raimfrido Monerbinum"[906].  "…Tristainus cognatus comitis…" subscribed the charter dated 1053 (misdated) under which "Drogo…dux et magister Italie comesque Normannorum totius Apulie atque Calabrie" donated property for the soul of "fratris mei Guillelmi, Unfredi, Roberti"[907]

 

6.         BEBENAm ---.  Bebena & his wife had one child: 

a)         RODOLPHE (-after [1050]).  Amatus records that "the Normans divided among themselves" the lands at Melfi, following their victories against the Byzantines dated to 1041, and that “William received Ascoli; Drogo had Venosa; Arnolin had Lavello; Hugh Toutebove had Monopoli; Rodulf had Canne; Walter, Civitate; Peter, Trani; Rodulf son of Bebena, Sant´Arcangelo; Tristan, Montepeloso; Hervey, Grumento; Asclettin, Acerenza; and Rainfroi, Malarbine”, adding that “Prince Guaimar of Salerno…invested each one of them[908]Lord of Monte Sant´Angelo.  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records the division of properties agreed at Melfi, dated to Feb 1042, as follows: "Guilelmo Asculum, Drogoni Venusiam, Arnolino Labellum, Ugoni Tutabovi Monopolim, Petro Tranum, Gualterio Civitatem, Rodulfo Cannim, Tristaino Montem pilosum, Herveo Grigentum, Asclittino Acerentiam, Rodulfo Sanctum Archangelum, Raimfrido Monerbinum"[909].  "…Rodulfus cognatus comitis…" subscribed the charter dated 1053 (misdated) under which "Drogo…dux et magister Italie comesque Normannorum totius Apulie atque Calabrie" donated property for the soul of "fratris mei Guillelmi, Unfredi, Roberti"[910]

 

7.         HERVE (-after Feb 1042).  Lord of Frigento.  Amatus records that "the Normans divided among themselves" the lands at Melfi, following their victories against the Byzantines dated to 1041, and that “William received Ascoli; Drogo had Venosa; Arnolin had Lavello; Hugh Toutebove had Monopoli; Rodulf had Canne; Walter, Civitate; Peter, Trani; Rodulf son of Bebena, Sant´Arcangelo; Tristan, Montepeloso; Hervey, Grumento; Asclettin, Acerenza; and Rainfroi, Malarbine”, adding that “Prince Guaimar of Salerno…invested each one of them[911].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records the division of properties agreed at Melfi, dated to Feb 1042, as follows: "Guilelmo Asculum, Drogoni Venusiam, Arnolino Labellum, Ugoni Tutabovi Monopolim, Petro Tranum, Gualterio Civitatem, Rodulfo Cannim, Tristaino Montem pilosum, Herveo Grigentum, Asclittino Acerentiam, Rodulfo Sanctum Archangelum, Raimfrido Monerbinum"[912]

 

8.         RAINFROI (-after Feb 1042).  Lord of Minervino.  Amatus records that "the Normans divided among themselves" the lands at Melfi, following their victories against the Byzantines dated to 1041, and that “William received Ascoli; Drogo had Venosa; Arnolin had Lavello; Hugh Toutebove had Monopoli; Rodulf had Canne; Walter, Civitate; Peter, Trani; Rodulf son of Bebena, Sant´Arcangelo; Tristan, Montepeloso; Hervey, Grumento; Asclettin, Acerenza; and Rainfroi, Malarbine”, adding that “Prince Guaimar of Salerno…invested each one of them[913].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records the division of properties agreed at Melfi, dated to Feb 1042, as follows: "Guilelmo Asculum, Drogoni Venusiam, Arnolino Labellum, Ugoni Tutabovi Monopolim, Petro Tranum, Gualterio Civitatem, Rodulfo Cannim, Tristaino Montem pilosum, Herveo Grigentum, Asclittino Acerentiam, Rodulfo Sanctum Archangelum, Raimfrido Monerbinum"[914]

 

9.         GUILLAUME "Ybonis" .  m ---.  The name of Guillaume´s wife is not known.  Guillaume & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROBERT (-after Jun 1063).  "Robertus comes Lorotelli, Amicus inclitus comes, Riccardus Andrie comes, Goffredus comes Cupersani, Petrus comes de Lesena, Robertus comes filius Guillelmi Ybonis comitis" declared the restitution of property to the monastery of Banzi by charter dated Jun 1063[915]

 

 

1.         CONSTANTINm ---.  Constant & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROBERT (-after Dec 1081).  "Robertus comes…de genere Normannorum et filius Constanti…senior et dominatorem de civitate Devia" {Monte d´Elio, prov. Foggia} donated property to the church of Santa Maria iuxta mare by charter dated Mar 1054[916]Lord of Devia.  "Robertus Constantini filius" is named in a charter dated Dec 1081[917]

 

2.         RAOUL [I] de Devia m GAITA, daughter of ROBERTO di Lucera & his wife Gaitelgrima di Salerno.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated Mar 1104 under which "Devie Rao…cum…conjuge comitissa Gaita et cum filii mei" donated property to Santa Maria di Tremiti for the soul of "cognati fratrisque mee uxoris comitis Henrici"[918]

 

3.         RAOUL [II] de Devia .  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Raul de Devia" holding fees "[in] Deviam…de comitatu Loritelli", with "feudum II militum et cum augmento…milites IV"[919]

 

 

1.         HUBERT Muscaque (-after 17 Jun 1053).  The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi records the presence of "Petrus et Galterus Amici insignes soboles, simul Aureolanus, Ubertus Muscaque, Ranaldus, comes Hugo, comesque Giraldius, Bovianensis comitis comitatu Radulfi" at the battle of Civitate, dated to 17 Jun 1053[920]

 

 

1.         ALFAN .  Alfan was presumably the same person as one of the several Lombard counts of this name among the nobility of Salerno in the mid-11th century, see the document SOUTHERN ITALY (1).  m ---.  The name of Alfan´s wife is not known.  Alfan & his wife had one child: 

a)         ALFAN (-after 1095).  "Alfan comte de Nocera…fils du comte Alfan" is named in a charter dated 1095[921]Conte di Nocera

 

 

1.         GEOFFROY (-after 1083).  Conte di Satriano.  "Geoffroi…comte de Satriano" is named in a charter dated 1083[922]

 

 

1.         ROBERT de Avennes .  "…Robertus de Avenas…" subscribed the charter dated 1053 (misdated) under which "Drogo…dux et magister Italie comesque Normannorum totius Apulie atque Calabrie" donated property for the soul of "fratris mei Guillelmi, Unfredi, Roberti"[923].  "…Robertus de Avenas…" subscribed the charter dated 1060 under which "Robertus dux Italie, Apulie et Calabrie atque Sicilie" donated "castrum Aquebelle" to the monastery of La Trinità at Cava[924].  "…Robertus de Avenas…" subscribed the charter dated Jun 1063 under which "Robertus comes Lorotelli, Amicus inclitus comes, Riccardus Andrie comes, Goffredus comes Cupersani, Petrus comes de Lesena, Robertus comes filius Guillelmi Ybonis comitis" declared the restitution of property to the monastery of Banzi[925]

 

2.         ROBERT Avenel .  "Tancredus de Siracusa et Goffredus de Ragusia et Robert Avenelles et Radulfus de Belvaco" are named as present in a charter dated [Mar 25/31 Aug] 1107 under which "Adalasia comitissa Siciliæ et Calabriæ et…comes Rogerius filius eius" donated property to the bishopric of Squillace on the advice of "ipsorum baronum…Roberti Borelli et Gosberti de Licia et Willelmi de Altavilla"[926].  "…Robertus Avenellus…" witnessed a charter dated [Oct] 1116 by which "Rogerius Sicilie atque Calabrie comes" confirmed a judgment relating to Bagnara[927]

 

3.         RAINALD Avenel (-[Nov 1132])m (1119) ADELISIA, daughter of RODOLFO MACABEO Conte di Montescaglioso & his wife Emma of Sicily (-after 1156).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  "Adelicia neptis domini Rogerii…regis" donated the church of San Pietro di Golisano to the bishop of Cefalù by charter dated Jun 1140, subscribed by "Adam Avenel filius domine Adelicie…"[928].  "Adelicia domini…regis Rogerii neptis" donated a mill to the church of Malvicino by charter dated 1156, subscribed by "Adam Avellus, Roberto de Sancto Iohanne…Rogerius de Roberto senescalcus…"[929].  William I King of Sicily confirmed a donation by "Adelicia" to the monastery of Santa Lucia in Adernò by charter dated to before May 1158[930].  Rainald & his wife had two children: 

a)         ADAM Avenel (-after 1156).  "Adelicia neptis domini Rogerii…regis" donated the church of San Pietro di Golisano to the bishop of Cefalù by charter dated Jun 1140, subscribed by "Adam Avenel filius domine Adelicie…"[931].  "Adelicia domini…regis Rogerii neptis" donated a mill to the church of Malvicino by charter dated 1156, subscribed by "Adam Avellus, Roberto de Sancto Iohanne…Rogerius de Roberto senescalcus…"[932]

b)         MATILDA Avenel m RICCARDO di Aquila, son of RICCARDO di Aquila & his wife ---. 

 

 

1.         TANCRED di Siracusa .  "Tancredus de Siracusa et Goffredus de Ragusia et Robert Avenelles et Radulfus de Belvaco" are named as present in a charter dated [Mar 25/31 Aug] 1107 under which "Adalasia comitissa Siciliæ et Calabriæ et…comes Rogerius filius eius" donated property to the bishopric of Squillace on the advice of "ipsorum baronum…Roberti Borelli et Gosberti de Licia et Willelmi de Altavilla"[933]

 

2.         RAOUL de Beauvais .  "Tancredus de Siracusa et Goffredus de Ragusia et Robert Avenelles et Radulfus de Belvaco" are named as present in a charter dated [Mar 25/31 Aug] 1107 under which "Adalasia comitissa Siciliæ et Calabriæ et…comes Rogerius filius eius" donated property to the bishopric of Squillace on the advice of "ipsorum baronum…Roberti Borelli et Gosberti de Licia et Willelmi de Altavilla"[934]

 

3.         GUILLAUME de Hauteville .  "Adalasia comitissa Siciliæ et Calabriæ et…comes Rogerius filius eius" donated property to the bishopric of Squillace on the advice of "ipsorum baronum…Roberti Borelli et Gosberti de Licia et Willelmi de Altavilla" by charter dated [Mar 25/31 Aug] 1107[935]

 

4.         ROBERT Borell .  "Adalasia comitissa Siciliæ et Calabriæ et…comes Rogerius filius eius" donated property to the bishopric of Squillace on the advice of "ipsorum baronum…Roberti Borelli et Gosberti de Licia et Willelmi de Altavilla" by charter dated [Mar 25/31 Aug] 1107[936]

 

5.         RAYNALD de Tiron .  "…Rainaldus de Tiron" witnessed a charter dated [Oct] 1116 by which "Rogerius Sicilie atque Calabrie comes" confirmed a judgment relating to Bagnara[937]

 

 

1.         RAOUL de Thevillem ---.  The name of Raoul´s wife is not known.  Raoul & his wife had three children: 

a)         SIMONE di Tivilla [Theville] (-[1158/Feb 1159])"Simon de Theville fils de Raoul" donated the church of San Michele Arcangelo near castellum Bessantino to the prior of San Leonardo di Siponto, for the salvation of "son père Raoul, de son épouse Mabilia et de son fils Robert", by charter dated 1143[938].  The testament of "Simone de Sivilla", dated 1158, requested burial at Cava in return for the donation of the church of San Giovanni Battista in Gualdo, near Montella e Nusco, which he had founded in 1147, with the consent of "della moglie Saracena e del fratello Eudo"[939]m firstly ([1121/Feb 1122]) as her second husband, MABILIA di Giffoni, widow of ROBERTO di Eboli, daughter of GUAIMAR di Salerno Signore di Giffoni & his second wife Sichelgarda --- (-[Feb 1122/1143]).  "Robert seigneur d´Eboli" donated property to Cava abbey, for the souls of "Amabile…conjugis mee…Guaimarii…filiis nostris", by charter dated Sep 1105[940].  "Sichelgarda veuve de Gaimar I de Giffoni" donated property to Cava abbey, in the presence of "sa fille Mabilia [et] de l´époux de celle-ci Robert", by charter dated 1118, which names "son mundoald…Landulf de Baragiano, fils d´une fille du défunt Gaimar I de Giffoni"[941].  "Mabilia filia quondam Guaymarii qui fuit filius domini Guidonis filii domini Guaymarii principis…uxor Symonis Normanni qui dicitur de Tibilla" confirmed the donation to Cava abbey by her mother by charter dated Feb 1122[942]m secondly as her second husband, SARACENA, widow of ROBERTO Capumaza, daughter of --- (-after Apr 1164).  The testament of "Simone de Sivilla", dated 1158, requested burial at Cava in return for the donation of the church of San Giovanni Battista in Gualdo, near Montella e Nusco, which he had founded in 1147, with the consent of "della moglie Saracena e del fratello Eudo"[943].  "Domina Sarracena" donated property to Cava, for the souls of "quondam virorum eius Roberti Capumazæ…et Simonis de Tivilla", in the presence of  "domina Claritia filia ipsius dominæ Sarracenæ et Petro Caza", by charter dated Mar 1159[944].  Signora di Serino.  "Dominæ nostræ Saracenæ" is named as present in a charter dated Apr 1164 at castello Serino which confirmed a donation to Cava[945]

b)         EUDO di Tivilla (-after 1158).  The testament of "Simone de Sivilla", dated 1158, requested burial at Cava in return for the donation of the church of San Giovanni Battista in Gualdo, near Montella e Nusco, which he had founded in 1147, with the consent of "della moglie Saracena e del fratello Eudo"[946]

c)         GUGLIELMO di Tivilla (-1165).  "Guglielmo di Tivilla…dominatore di Nusco e di Montella" issued a charter dated Aug 1164[947].  m ---.  The name of Guglielmo´s wife is not known.  Guglielmo & his wife had one child: 

i)          FULCO di Tivilla .  The fief of Nusco was confiscated from "Fulco di Tivilla, il figlio di Guglielmo de Tivilla" because of his riotous behaviour[948]

 

 

1.         GIORDANO (-after 1122).  The Chronicle of Falco Beneventano records that "Landulphus…comestabulus" made peace with "comite Jordano" in 1113, and names "Jordanus comes" in 1114 and 1115[949].  The Chronicle of Falco Beneventano records that "Jordanis comitis…et comitis Rainulphi" joined in rebellion in 1119[950].  The Chronicle of Falco Beneventano records that "comes…Jordanus" rebelled again in 1122 and was disinherited[951]m ---.  The name of Giordano´s wife is not known.  Giordano & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROGER .  The Chronicle of Falco Beneventano records that "Rogerius comes, Jordani comitis filius", who was held in custody by "comitis Rainulphi", escaped and fled to Robert Prince of Capua in 1132[952]

 

2.         ADAM (-after 1135).  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that "comes Adam" led the attack on Naples, dated to [1134/35] from the context[953].  m (before [1134/35]) --- of Sicily, [illegitimate daughter of ROGER I King of Sicily & his mistress ---].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese which names "gener regis Adam" among the supporters of Roger King of Sicily, dated to [1134/35] from the context[954].  If "gener" in this passage can be correctly translated as son-in-law, Adam´s wife must have been one of the king´s older children, presumably illegitimate as no other record has been found that indicates that she was the daughter of Queen Elvira. 

 

3.         RICCARDO di Esaya .  The Annales Ceccanenses record that, after "Cristianus cancellarius et comes Gonzolinus" entered "Maritimam et Campaniam" in 1165, "comes Gilibertus et Riccardus de Esaya" came into Campania with the army of the king of Sicily and Verulani capitulated to them[955]

 

 

1.         RICCARDO di CaleniConte di CaleniThe Annales Casenses record that in 1190 "Roggerius Andreas et Richardus Caleni comites" supported "Tancredus comes Lici" and that in 1192 "Richardo comiti Caleni" transferred his support to Heinrich von Hohenstaufen[956]

 
 

1.         CRISTIANO .  The Annales Ceccanenses record that, after "Cristianus cancellarius et comes Gonzolinus" entered "Maritimam et Campaniam" in 1165, "comes Gilibertus et Riccardus de Esaya" came into Campania with the army of the king of Sicily and Verulani capitulated to them[957]

 

2.         GONZOLINO .  The Annales Ceccanenses record that, after "Cristianus cancellarius et comes Gonzolinus" entered "Maritimam et Campaniam" in 1165, "comes Gilibertus et Riccardus de Esaya" came into Campania with the army of the king of Sicily and Verulani capitulated to them[958]

 

3.         ALDUINO .  The Annales Ceccanenses record that in 1185 Guillaume King of Sicily appointed "Alduinem et comitem Riccardo de Cerra" as captains over his land army[959]

 

4.         BARTOLOMEO di Parisio (-after [1167]).  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Richardus comes de Mulisio, Bartholomaeus de Parisio, Joannes de Sinopoli" were captured and imprisoned[960]

 

5.         GIOVANNI di Sinopoli (-after [1167]).  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Richardus comes de Mulisio, Bartholomaeus de Parisio, Joannes de Sinopoli" were captured and imprisoned[961]

 

 

1.         ROBERTOConte di Abruzzi.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Robertus Aprutii" holding "a Domino Rege in Penne Acrium…in Aprutio Sanctum Flavianum…et Contraguerram…et Civitellam…et Campolum…et Auferanum…et in Asculo…Aquamvivam…in Asculo" and "in Tenimento Penne", with "feuda militum XLIV et augmentum eius…milites LXXXVI, inter feudum et augmentum…milites CXX" and in Penne "militum CXXXVII et medii et augmentum…milites CXLI…", and listing his feeholders in both places[962]

 

2.         RUGGIERO (-after Jan 1200).  Conte di Laviano.  "I monaci Ruggiero e Andrea…preposito e cellerario del monastero di Montevergine" sold property of the monastery to pay a debt due to "conte Ruggiero di Lavano" resulting "del forte contributo imposto dell´imperatore Enrico VI" by charter dated Jan 1200[963]

 

 

1.         RINALDO di Baratom ---.  The name of Rainaldo's wife is not known.  Rinaldo & his wife had two children: 

a)         RINALDO .  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "comes Raynaldus filius Raynaldi de Barato" held "Introduco" against Emperor Friedrich II and that "Bertoldus frater Raynaldi dicti ducis Spoleti" forced its surrender, in 1226[964]

 

 



[1] Catalogus Baronum Neapolitano in regno versantium ("Catalogus Baronum"), Re, G. del (ed.) (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Napoli), pp. 571-616. 

[2] Capasso, B. (1874) Historia diplomatica regni Siciliæ 1250-1266 (Naples), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, pp. 345-54. 

[3] His work on Italian counties is available at <http://www.df.unipi.it/~rossi/comites.html> (14 Aug 2007). 

[4] Ménager, L. A. ´Inventaire des familles normandes et franques émigrés en Italie méridionale et en Sicile (XIe-XIIe siècles)´, University of Bari (ed.) Roberto il Guiscardo e il suo tempo. Relazioni e comunicación nelle Prime Ciornate normando-sveve (Bari, maggio 1973) (1975, Rome), p. 295, quoting Holtzmann, W. Quellen und Forschungen 36 (1956) no. 1, p. 41. 

[5] Ménager ´Inventaire des familles normandes´ (1975), p. 295, quoting Holtzmann, W. Quellen und Forschungen 36 (1956) no. 1, p. 41. 

[6] Ménager ´Inventaire des familles normandes´ (1975), p. 295, quoting Holtzmann, W. Quellen und Forschungen 36 (1956) no. 2, p. 44. 

[7] Ménager ´Inventaire des familles normandes´ (1975), p. 296, quoting Guerrieri, G., no. XVI, p. 81. 

[8] Guerrieri, G. (1899) Il conte normanno Riccardo Siniscalco (1081-1115) e i monastery benedettini cavesi in terra d´Otranto (sec. XI-XIV) (Trani), Diplomi e documenti, XVI, p. 81. 

[9] Enzensberger, H. (ed.) (1996) Codex Diplomaticus Regni Siciliæ, Series I, Tomus III. Guillelmi I Regis Diplomata (Köln, Weimar, Wien) ("Guillelmi I. Regis Diplomata"), Addimentum ad Diplomata Latina Rogeri II Regis, 31A, p. 141. 

[10] Guerrieri (1899), Diplomi e documenti, XXVI, p. 106. 

[11] Ménager ´Inventaire des familles normandes´ (1975), p. 295, quoting Holtzmann, W. Quellen und Forschungen 36 (1956) no. 1, p. 41. 

[12] Ménager ´Inventaire des familles normandes´ (1975), p. 295, quoting Holtzmann, W. Quellen und Forschungen 36 (1956) no. 1, p. 41. 

[13] Guerrieri (1899), Diplomi e documenti, XXVII, p. 108. 

[14] Ménager ´Inventaire des familles normandes´ (1975), p. 295, quoting Holtzmann, W. Quellen und Forschungen 36 (1956) no. 1, p. 41. 

[15] Ménager ´Inventaire des familles normandes´ (1975), p. 295, quoting Holtzmann, W. Quellen und Forschungen 36 (1956) no. 2, p. 44. 

[16] Ménager ´Inventaire des familles normandes´ (1975), p. 296, quoting Holtzmann, W. Quellen und Forschungen 36 (1956) no. 5, p. 51. 

[17] Guillelmi I. Regis Diplomata, Addimentum ad Diplomata Latina Rogeri II Regis, 31A, p. 141. 

[18] Guerrieri (1899), Diplomi e documenti, XXVI, p. 106. 

[19] Guerrieri (1899), Diplomi e documenti, XXVII, p. 108. 

[20] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 423. 

[21] Guerrieri (1899), Diplomi e documenti, XXVI, p. 106. 

[22] Guerrieri (1899), Diplomi e documenti, XXVII, p. 108. 

[23] Cronica di Romualdo Guarna arcivescovo Salernitano (Chronicon Romualdi II archiepiscopi Salernitani) ("Romualdo Guarna"), Re, G. del (ed.) (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Napoli), 1133, p. 11. 

[24] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 423. 

[25] Guerrieri (1899), Diplomi e documenti, XXIII, p. 98. 

[26] Guerrieri (1899), Diplomi e documenti, XXIII, p. 95. 

[27] Guerrieri (1899), p. 20, citing Gittio A. G. Genealogie e notizie di parecchie famiglie e cose diverse, Biblioteca Brancacciana di Napoli, Sezione Manoscritti, Miscellanea IV, D. I, I. 

[28] Guerrieri (1899), Diplomi e documenti, XXVI, p. 106. 

[29] Guerrieri (1899), Diplomi e documenti, XXVII, p. 108. 

[30] Guerrieri (1899), p. 20, citing Gittio A. G. Genealogie e notizie di parecchie famiglie e cose diverse, Biblioteca Brancacciana di Napoli, Sezione Manoscritti, Miscellanea IV, D. I, I. 

[31] Catalogus Baronum, p. 587. 

[32] Houben, H. (trans. Loud, G. H. & Milburn, D.) (2002) Roger II of Sicily, A Ruler between East and West (Cambridge University Press), p. 22. 

[33] Brühl, C. R. (ed.) (1987) Codex Diplomaticus Regni Siciliæ, Series I, Tomus II/1. Rogerius II. Regis Diplomata Latina (Köln, Wien) ("Rogerius II. Regis Diplomata Latina"), 2, p. 4. 

[34] Chalandon, F. (1907) Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicile (Paris), Tome I, p. 352, citing Pirro, R. (1733) Sicilia sacra, 3rd edn. (Palermo), Tome I, p. 525. 

[35] Garufi, C. A. (1899) I documenti inediti dell´epoca Normanna in Sicilia, Parte Prima, Documenti per servire alla Storia di Sicilia, prima serie, diplomatica, Vol. XVIII (Palermo), XVI, p. 41. 

[36] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 352, citing Pirro (1733), Tome I, p. 525. 

[37] Garufi (1899) Parte Prima, XVI, p. 41. 

[38] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 352, citing Pirro (1733), Tome I, p. 525. 

[39] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 181, citing Pirro (1733), Tome I, p. 525. 

[40] Loud, G. A. and Wiedmann, T. (eds. and trans.) (1998) The History of the Tyrants of Sicily by Hugo Falcandus (Manchester UP) (“Hugo Falcandus”), 12, p. 84, footnote 55 specifying that he was the son of Godfrey of Ragusa and grandson of Roger I King of Sicily. 

[41] Catalogus Baronum, pp. 583-4. 

[42] Catalogus Baronum, p. 587. 

[43] Guillelmi I. Regis Diplomata, Appendix deperdita, 29, p. 116. 

[44] Hugo Falcandus 32, p. 157, footnote 164 specifying that he was restored to his father's county and was also Lord of Ragusa in Sicily. 

[45] Battaglia, G. (1895) I diplomi inediti relativi all´ordinamento della proprietà fondiaria in Sicilia sotto i Normanni e gli Svevi, Documenti per servire alla Storia di Sicilia, prima serie, diplomatica, Vol. XVI (Palermo), Tabulario del monasterio di Santa Maria di Malfinó detto anche di Santa Barbara ("Santa Maria di Malfinó"), 11, p. 9. 

[46] Santa Maria di Malfinó, Documenti Inediti, II, p. 163. 

[47] Santa Maria di Malfinó, 15, p. 10. 

[48] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 352, citing Pirro (1733), Tome I, p. 525. 

[49] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 349. 

[50] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 348. 

[51] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 347. 

[52] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, pp. 346-8. 

[53] Mas Latrie, R. de (ed.) (1891) Chroniques d'Amadi et de Strambaldi (Paris) (“Amadi”), p. 214. 

[54] Röhricht, R. (ed.) (1893) Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani (Oeniponti) (Supplement) 1442a, p. 99. 

[55] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, Re, G. del (ed.) (1868) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 2 (Naples), p. 193. 

[56] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, p. 157. 

[57] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, II, VIII, Re, G. del (ed.) (1868) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 2 (Naples), II, VI, p. 227. 

[58] Capasso (1874), 239, p. 120. 

[59] Tallone, A. (ed.) (1906) Regesto dei Marchesi di Saluzzo (1091-1340), Biblioteca della società storica subalpina, Vol. XVII (Pinerolo) ("Regesto dei Marchesi di Saluzzo"), 1, p. 1. 

[60] Rogerius II. Regis Diplomata Latina, 5, p. 13. 

[61] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 352, citing Pirro (1733), Tome I, p. 621 and Tome II, p. 933. 

[62] Alexandri Telesini Cœnobii Abbatis de Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis ("Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis)", Re, G. del (ed.) (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Napoli), III.XXVI, p. 141. 

[63] Guillelmi I. Regis Diplomata, 16, p. 44. 

[64] Hugo Falcandus 1 and 2, pp. 61 and 65, footnote 12 stating that he was the son of King Roger I's maternal uncle Henry Count of Paterno. 

[65] Hugo Falcandus, 20, p. 115.   

[66] Garufi, C. A. (1902) Catalogo del tabulario di Santa Maria Nuova in Monreale, Documenti per servire alla Storia di Sicilia, prima serie, diplomatica, Vol. XIX (Palermo), ("Santa Maria Nuova in Monreale"), L, p. 154. 

[67] Santa Maria di Malfinó, L, p. 154. 

[68] Santa Maria di Malfinó, L, p. 154. 

[69] Hugo Falcandus, p. 182 footnote 216. 

[70] Catalogus Baronum, pp. 583-4. 

[71] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 348. 

[72] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 350. 

[73] Stasser, T. (2008) Où sont les femmes? (Oxford), p. 164, quoting Archives of Cava, Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinità, Armarium B 22. 

[74] Stasser (2008), p. 164, quoting Archives of Cava, Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinità, Armarium B 22. 

[75] Hugo Falcandus, p. 129 footnote 116.   

[76] Annales Casenses 1193, MGH SS XIX, p. 316. 

[77] Hugo Falcandus, 52, p. 182.   

[78] Romualdo Guarna, p. 24. 

[79] Stasser (2008), p. 164, quoting Archives of Cava, Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinità, Armarium B 18. 

[80] Spinelli, A. (ed.) (1857) Regii Neapolitani archivi Monumenta edita ac illustrata (Naples) ("Regii Neapolitani Monumenta"), Vol. V, DXVIII, p. 295. 

[81] Regii Neapolitani Monumenta, Vol. V, DXVIII, p. 295. 

[82] Stasser (2008), p. 172, citing Archives of Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinita, Armarii Magni, Armarium D 43, and Carlone, C. (1984) Falsificazioni e falsari cavensi e vergininai del secolo XIII, Altavilla Silentine, pp. 32-33. 

[83] Stasser (2008), p. 172, citing Ménager ´Inventaire des familles normandes´ (1975), p. 270. 

[84] Stasser (2008), p. 164, quoting Archives of Cava, Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinità, Armarium B 18. 

[85] Stasser (2008), p. 164, quoting Archives of Cava, Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinità, Armarium B 22. 

[86] Regii Neapolitani Monumenta, Vol. V, DXVIII, p. 295. 

[87] Stasser (2008), p. 163, quoting Archives of Cava, Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinità, Armarium F 18. 

[88] Stasser (2008), p. 163, quoting Archives of Cava, Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinità, Armarium F 18. 

[89] Regii Neapolitani Monumenta, Vol. V, DXVIII, p. 295. 

[90] Regii Neapolitani Monumenta, Vol. V, DXXXI, p. 325. 

[91] Regii Neapolitani Monumenta, Vol. V, DXVIII, p. 295. 

[92] Regii Neapolitani Monumenta, Vol. V, DXVIII, p. 295. 

[93] Stasser (2008), p. 163, quoting Archives of Cava, Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinità, Armarium F 18. 

[94] Stasser (2008), p. 163, quoting Archives of Cava, Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinità, Armarium F 36. 

[95] Tropeano, P. M. (ed.) Codice Diplomatico Verginiano (Montevergine), Vol. I, 223, (extract in translation only) at Biblioteca Pubblica Statale con annesso Archivio del Monumento Nazionale de Montevergine, available at <http://www.montevergine.librari.beniculturali.it/index.php?it/170/1166-1169> (20 Nov 2009). 

[96] Hugo Falcandus, 24, p. 129, footnote 116 naming his future wife, father, first cousin Robert Count of Caserta, and descent from Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno.   

[97] Hugo Falcandus, 24, p. 129.   

[98] Catalogus Baronum, pp. 583-4. 

[99] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1204, MGH SS XIX, p. 339. 

[100] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1220, MGH SS XIX, p. 340. 

[101] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1223, MGH SS XIX, p. 343. 

[102] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, pp. 348-9. 

[103] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1204, MGH SS XIX, p. 339. 

[104] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 349. 

[105] Hugo Falcandus, 24, p. 129.   

[106] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 349. 

[107] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 348. 

[108] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 349. 

[109] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 348. 

[110] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 347. 

[111] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 348. 

[112] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, II, II, p. 223. 

[113] Diurnali di Matteo Spinelli di Giovinazzo, Re, G. del (ed.) (1868) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 2 (Naples), p. 633. 

[114] Diurnali di Matteo Spinelli di Giovinazzo, p. 641. 

[115] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, pp. 346-8. 

[116] Amadi, p. 214. 

[117] Röhricht (Supplement) 1442a, p. 99. 

[118] Diurnali di Matteo Spinelli di Giovinazzo, p. 636. 

[119] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, V, X, p. 313. 

[120] Diurnali di Matteo Spinelli di Giovinazzo, p. 633. 

[121] Diurnali di Matteo Spinelli di Giovinazzo, p. 633. 

[122] Buchon, J. A. (trans.) (1827) Chronique de Ramon Muntaner (Paris), Tome I, XVIII, p. 54. 

[123] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, II, II, p. 223. 

[124] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 346. 

[125] Catalogus Baronum, p. 574. 

[126] Rogerius II. Regis Diplomata Latina, 60, p. 170. 

[127] Hugo Falcandus, 52, p. 182.   

[128] Romualdo Guarna, p. 24. 

[129] Catalogus Baronum, p. 574. 

[130] Annales Ceccanenses 1188, MGH SS XIX, p. 288. 

[131] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1204, MGH SS XIX, p. 332. 

[132] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 498. 

[133] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 498. 

[134] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1223, MGH SS XIX, p. 343. 

[135] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 498. 

[136] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.41, MGH SS VII, p. 655. 

[137] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 66. 

[138] Dunbar, P. N. (trans.) Loud, G. A. (rev.) (2004) Amatus of Montecassino, The History of the Normans (Boydell) ("Amatus") II.34, p. 78. 

[139] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 297, citing Malaterra, IV, 9. 

[140] Amatus VII.3, p. 166. 

[141] Ménager, L. R. (ed.) (1980) Recueil des actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie 1046-1127, Tome I Les premiers ducs 1046-1087 (Bari) ("Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie") I, 51, p. 178. 

[142] Caspar, E. ´Die Chronik von Tres Tabernæ in Calabrien´, Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken, Band X (Rome, 1907), Chronica Trium Tabernarum, 14, p. 39. 

[143] Chronica Trium Tabernarum, 15, p. 40. 

[144] Chronica Trium Tabernarum, 14, p. 40. 

[145] Chronica Trium Tabernarum, 17, p. 41. 

[146] Rogerius II. Regis Diplomata Latina, 20, p. 54. 

[147] Hugo Falcandus, 24, pp. 127-8.   

[148] Garufi (1899) Parte Prima, XLII, p. 96. 

[149] Hugo Falcandus, 13, p. 86, footnote 61 naming her, her parents and her subsequent husband. 

[150] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 431. 

[151] Romualdo Guarna, p. 24. 

[152] Hugo Falcandus, 24, pp. 127-8.    

[153] Garufi (1899) Parte Prima, XLII, p. 96. 

[154] Hugo Falcandus 55, p. 214. 

[155] Hugo Falcandus, p. 215 footnote 272. 

[156] Catalogus Baronum, p. 589. 

[157] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, p. 148. 

[158] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, p. 181. 

[159] Capasso (1874), 2, p. 5. 

[160] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, p. 193. 

[161] Hugo Falcandus 1, p. 61. 

[162] Tancredi Regis Diplomata, 12, p. 30. 

[163] Tancredi Regis Diplomata, 12, p. 30. 

[164] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, p. 117. 

[165] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, pp. 161 and 193. 

[166] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, p. 194. 

[167] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, IV, XX, Re, G. del (ed.) (1868) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 2 (Naples), p. 292. 

[168] Hugo Falcandus 9, p. 75. 

[169] Hugo Falcandus 53, p. 192, footnote 224 specifying that he was the son of the former Count of Manopello who died in disgrace in [1156/57].   

[170] Hugo Falcandus 53, p. 192, footnote 224 specifying that he was the son of the former Count of Manopello who died in disgrace in [1156/57].   

[171] Catalogus Baronum, p. 580. 

[172] Capasso, B. (ed.) (1881) Monumenta ad Neapolitani Ducatus historiam pertinentia (Naples) ("Monumenta Neapolitani Ducatus"), Vol. II, Part 1 (1885), Regesta Neapolitana, 607, p. 367. 

[173] Hugo Falcandus 9, p. 75, footnote 51 naming his father and specifying the origin of the family. 

[174] Romualdo Guarna, p. 24. 

[175] Hugo Falcandus, 24, p. 129.   

[176] Hugo Falcandus 32, p. 157, footnote 162 specifying that he was created Count of Loreto formerly held by his father Rambotus and also naming his wife. 

[177] Catalogus Baronum, p. 580. 

[178] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 533 (extract in translation only). 

[179] Annales Ceccanenses 1185, MGH SS XIX, p. 287. 

[180] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 842 (extract in translation only). 

[181] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1847) Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi Benedicti Abbatis, The Chronicle of the reigns of Henry II and Richard I 1169-1192, known commonly under the name of Benedict of Peterborough (London) (“Benedict of Peterborough”) 2 1190, p. 141.   

[182] Annales Casenses 1190 and 1191, MGH SS XIX, pp. 314 and 315. 

[183] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1191, MGH SS XIX, p. 326. 

[184] Gaudenzi, A. (ed.) (1888) Ignoti monachi Cisterciensis S. Maria de Ferraria Chronica (Naples) ("Ignoti Monachi Chronica"), p. 32. 

[185] Annales Ceccanenses 1197, MGH SS XIX, p. 294. 

[186] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1190, MGH SS XIX, p. 324. 

[187] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 498. 

[188] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") Continuator (“WTC”) XXVII.XIV, p. 234. 

[189] Annales Argentinenses 1195, MGH SS XVII, p. 89. 

[190] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1191, MGH SS XIX, p. 326. 

[191] Annales Casenses 1193, MGH SS XIX, p. 316. 

[192] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1197, MGH SS XIX, p. 329. 

[193] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1199, MGH SS XIX, p. 331. 

[194] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1200, MGH SS XIX, p. 331. 

[195] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1201, MGH SS XIX, p. 332. 

[196] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 1276 (extract in translation only). 

[197] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1204, MGH SS XIX, p. 339. 

[198] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1221, MGH SS XIX, p. 340. 

[199] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1227, MGH SS XIX, p. 348. 

[200] Ignoti Monachi Chronica, p. 39. 

[201] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1232, MGH SS XIX, p. 365. 

[202] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1242, MGH SS XIX, p. 383. 

[203] Scandone, F. ´Margherita di Svevia figlia naturale di Federico II, contesta di Acerra´, Archivio storico per le province Napoletane, Anno XXXI, Fascicolo II (Naples, 1906), p. 300, citing Gaudenzi (ed.) Riccardo da S. Germano Chronicon (Giannini, 1888), p. 309, quoting Necrologio Capuano. 

[204] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1229, MGH SS XIX, pp. 351-2. 

[205] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), p. 300, citing Vinea, P. de Epistolæ, Lib. IV, 6, p. 534. 

[206] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), p. 301, citing Del Giudice Codice diplomatico Angioino, Tome II, p. 61. 

[207] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), p. 300, citing Berger Registres, Tome II, p. 223, doc. 5258. 

[208] Capasso (1874), 61, p. 33. 

[209] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), p. 301, citing Capasso Historia Diplomatica, p. 82. 

[210] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, p. 157. 

[211] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), p. 309, quoting Necrologio Capuano. 

[212] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), p. 298, citing Winkelmann Acta Imperii, Tome I, p. 698. 

[213] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), Documenti, I, p. 326. 

[214] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), Documenti, IV, p. 328. 

[215] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), Documenti, VI, p. 330. 

[216] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), Documenti, VII, p. 331. 

[217] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), Documenti, II, p. 326. 

[218] Capasso (1874), 61, p. 33. 

[219] Catalogus Baronum, p. 598. 

[220] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.25, MGH SS VII, p. 773. 

[221] Ignoti Monachi Chronica, p. 17. 

[222] Romoaldi Annales 1127, MGH SS XIX, p. 418. 

[223] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, I.VII, p. 92. 

[224] Romualdo Guarna, 1127, p. 6. 

[225] Romualdo Guarna, 1130, p. 8. 

[226] Romualdo Guarna, 1129, p. 8. 

[227] Falconis Beneventani Chronicon ("Falco Beneventano"), Re, G. del (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Naples), p. 207. 

[228] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, II.XXV, p. 110. 

[229] Romualdo Guarna, 1133, pp. 12-13. 

[230] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, III.XXVI, p. 141. 

[231] Annales Casinenses 1139, MGH SS XIX, p. 309. 

[232] Ignoti Monachi Chronica, p. 25. 

[233] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 423. 

[234] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, Preface, p. 88. 

[235] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, II.XIV, p. 106. 

[236] Falco Beneventano, p. 207. 

[237] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, II.XVI, p. 107. 

[238] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, II.XXV, p. 110. 

[239] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, II.XVI, p. 107. 

[240] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, II.XXV, p. 110. 

[241] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, III.XXVI, p. 141. 

[242] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, II.XIII, p. 105. 

[243] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, II.XV, p. 107. 

[244] Ignoti Monachi Chronica, p. 29. 

[245] Annales Casenses 1156, MGH SS XIX, p. 311. 

[246] Annales Ceccanenses 1158, MGH SS XIX, p. 284. 

[247] Annales Casenses 1160, MGH SS XIX, p. 311. 

[248] Hugo Falcandus 12, p. 84, footnote 54 specifying that he was nephew of Rainulf Count of Caiazzo. 

[249] Annales Ceccanenses 1161, MGH SS XIX, p. 285. 

[250] Annales Ceccanenses 1166, MGH SS XIX, p. 285. 

[251] Annales Casenses 1190, MGH SS XIX, p. 314. 

[252] Annales Ceccanenses 1160, MGH SS XIX, p. 285. 

[253] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1193, MGH SS XIX, p. 328. 

[254] Romoaldi Annales 1116, MGH SS XIX, p. 415. 

[255] Santa Maria di Malfinó, 1, p. 3. 

[256] Catalogus Baronum, p. 598. 

[257] Battaglia, G. (1895) I diplomi inediti relativi all´ordinamento della proprietà fondiaria in Sicilia sotto i Normanni e gli Svevi, Documenti per servire alla Storia di Sicilia, prima serie, diplomatica, Vol. XVI (Palermo), Tabulario della chiesa vescovile di Cefalù ("Cefalù"), XLII, p. 125. 

[258] Cefalù, XLII, p. 125. 

[259] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1202, MGH SS XIX, p. 332. 

[260] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 1276 (extract in translation only). 

[261] Porcelli (2007) Storia di Benevento nel libro su Apice, available at <http://www.abecommunication.com/news2.asp?ID=143> ("Porcelli (2007)"), 7. 

[262] Porcelli (2007), Cap. 3, 1. 

[263] Catalogus Baronum, p. 580. 

[264] Catalogus Baronum, p. 589. 

[265] Porcelli (2007), Cap. 4, 4. 

[266] Porcelli (2007), Cap. 4, 4. 

[267] Porcelli (2007), Cap. 4, 6. 

[268] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 346 (extract in translation only). 

[269] Catalogus Baronum, p. 589. 

[270] Porcelli (2007), Cap. 5, 5. 

[271] Porcelli (2007), Cap. 5, 8. 

[272] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 350. 

[273] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 350. 

[274] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, p. 198. 

[275] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 350. 

[276] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, II, V, p. 226. 

[277] Epistola fratres Conradi…Panormitana ad episcopum Cathanensem, sive Brevis Chronica 1027-1083, RIS I.2, p. 279. 

[278] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 350. 

[279] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 383, footnote 4. 

[280] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 382, footnote 2, citing Di Meo, A. (1795-1819) Annali critico-diplomatici del regno di Napoli della mezzana eta (Naples), Tome VIII, p. 308, Tome IX, p. 82, and Borgia, S. (1763-69) Memorie storiche della pontificia città di Benevento dal secolo VIII al XVIII divise in tre parti (Rome), Tome II, p. 378, Sancti Nicolai miracula Beneventi facta

[281] Falco Beneventano, p. 176. 

[282] Ignoti Monachi Chronica, p. 17. 

[283] Falco Beneventano, p. 193. 

[284] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, I.VII, p. 92. 

[285] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, I.X, p. 93. 

[286] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, III.VI, p. 138. 

[287] Falco Beneventano, p. 250. 

[288] Falco Beneventano, p. 250. 

[289] Catalogus Baronum, p. 582. 

[290] Tropeano, P. M. (ed.) Codice Diplomatico Verginiano (Montevergine), 474, (extract in translation only) at Biblioteca Pubblica Statale con annesso Archivio del Monumento Nazionale de Montevergine, available at <http://www.montevergine.librari.beniculturali.it/index.php?it/170/1166-1169> (20 Nov 2009).  

[291] Hugo Falcandus, p. 74 footnote 32. 

[292] Hugo Falcandus, 14 and 21, pp. 105 and 120, footnote 80 naming his wife, his parents and his maternal grandmother.   

[293] Hugo Falcandus 32, p. 157, footnote 162 specifying that he was created Count of Loreto formerly held by his father Rambotus and also names his wife. 

[294] Catalogus Baronum, p. 582. 

[295] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 569 (extract in translation only). 

[296] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 733 (extract in translation only). 

[297] Hugo Falcandus, 24, p. 129.   

[298] Porcelli (2007), Cap. 5, 4. 

[299] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 997 (extract in translation only). 

[300] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 997 (extract in translation only). 

[301] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 1091 (extract in translation only). 

[302] Molinier, A. (ed.) (1900) Correspondance administrative d'Alfonse de Poitiers (Paris) ("Alfonse de Poitou Correspondance") 557, p. 337. 

[303] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 504. 

[304] Barthélemy, L. (ed.) (1882) Inventaire chronologique des chartes de la famille de Baux ("Baux Chartes") 313, p. 88, citing Ch. orig. no. 3, avec sceau en cire de Barral, Fonds du Valentinois, Isère. 

[305] Baux Chartes 386, p. 111, citing Fonds de Valentinois, ch. no. 4, Isère. 

[306] State Archives, volume 104, page 59, fascicule 13.1.1, and Guichenon, S. (1780) Histoire généalogique de la royale maison de Savoie (Turin) ("Guichenon (Savoie)"), Tome IV, Preuves, p. 114. 

[307] Sturdza (1999), p. 504. 

[308] Sturdza (1999), p. 504. 

[309] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 652, and Amatus I.20-21, p. 51. 

[310] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. II, Book III, p. 57. 

[311] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 652. 

[312] Amatus I.42, p. 60. 

[313] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.56, MGH SS VII, p. 665, the date "1030" being added in the margin by the editor. 

[314] Amatus II.6, p. 65. 

[315] Amatus II.32, p. 77.  . 

[316] Amatus II.29, p. 76. 

[317] Amatus II.30, p. 76. 

[318] Amatus II.32, p. 77. 

[319] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 109, citing Necrologia sancti Benedicti Capuanum, in Pratilli (ed.) Peregrini Historia principum Langobardorum, Tome V, p. 70.

[320] Amatus I.42, p. 60. 

[321] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.56, MGH SS VII, p. 665, the date "1030" being added in the margin by the editor. 

[322] Amatus I.43, p. 60. 

[323] Amatus I.45, p. 61. 

[324] ES II 204. 

[325] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 652. 

[326] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book III, p. 59. 

[327] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.41, MGH SS VII, p. 655. 

[328] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 66. 

[329] Amatus II.31, p. 77. 

[330] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.66, MGH SS VII, p. 676. 

[331] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.67, MGH SS VII, p. 676. 

[332] Amatus II.32, p. 77. 

[333] Amatus II.45, p. 84. 

[334] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book III, p. 59. 

[335] Catalogus Principum Capuæ, MGH SS III, p. 210. 

[336] Amatus II.44, p. 84. 

[337] Amatus II.45, p. 84. 

[338] Amatus III.12, p. 90. 

[339] Amatus III.11, pp. 89-90. 

[340] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.67, MGH SS VII, p. 676. 

[341] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis III.29, MGH SS VII, p. 720. 

[342] Amatus VI.24, p. 160. 

[343] Amatus VII.5, p. 167, footnote 13 suggesting that this Richard was Richard Count of Monte Sant'Angelo, son of Robert. 

[344] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book IX, p. 37, the editor in footnote 1 identifying him with the son of Rainulf Conte di Caiazzo. 

[345] RHC, Historiens occidentaux I, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") (“WT”) II.XII, p. 70. 

[346] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.25, MGH SS VII, p. 773. 

[347] Amatus II.45, p. 85. 

[348] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 652. 

[349] Amatus I.20, pp. 50-1.  According to Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book III, p. 57, it was Gilbert's brother Osmond who killed the knight (see below). 

[350] Amatus I.21-23, pp. 51-2. 

[351] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.41, MGH SS VII, p. 655. 

[352] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 66. 

[353] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 652. 

[354] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book III, p. 57. 

[355] Guizot, M. (ed.) (1826) Histoire des ducs de Normandie, par Guillaume de Jumiège (Paris) (“WJ”), VII.30, p. 217. 

[356] Amatus, Book I, c.19 and c. 21. 

[357] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.41, MGH SS VII, p. 655. 

[358] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 66. 

[359] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book III, p. 57. 

[360] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 652. 

[361] France, J., Bulst, N. and Reynolds, P. (eds. and trans.) (1989) Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque, Rodulfus Glaber Opera (Oxford) III.3, pp. 97-101. 

[362] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 57.  

[363] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.67, MGH SS VII, p. 676. 

[364] Amatus II.36, p. 80, and II.44, p. 84. 

[365] Amatus II.34, p. 78. 

[366] Amatus II.39, p. 82. 

[367] Amatus III.2, p. 87. 

[368] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.66, MGH SS VII, p. 676 note r. 

[369] Amatus, p. 90 foonote 17, which does not cite the primary source reference. 

[370] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.66, MGH SS VII, p. 676 note r. 

[371] Amatus II.45, p. 85. 

[372] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, pp. 116-7, citing Di Meo, Tome VII, pp. 283 and 312. 

[373] Amatus III.11, pp. 89-90. 

[374] Jahn, W. (1989) Untersuchungen zur normannischer Herrschaft in Süditalien 1040-1100 (Frankfurt), pp. 322-30, cited in Amatus, p. 76. 

[375] Amatus III.36, p. 99, footnote 54 speculating that "daughter" must be an error for "widow". 

[376] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 58, p. 198. 

[377] Stasser (2008), p. 151, quoting Jahn, W. (1989) Untersuchungen zur normannischer Herrschaft in Süditalien 1040-1100 (Frankfurt), 7, p. 377. 

[378] Leccisotti, T. (ed.) Le Colonie cassinensi in Capitanata ii Gargano (Miscellanea Cassinense 15, 1938), pp. 29-37 nos. 1-3, cited in Amatus, p. 202 footnote 40. 

[379] Stasser (2008), p. 151, quoting Jahn (1989), 7, p. 377. 

[380] Gesta Roberti Wiscardi III, MGH SS IX, p. 276. 

[381] Stasser (2008), p. 407, quoting Archives of Cava, Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinità, Armarium B 27, and Petrucci, A. ´Nota di diplomatica normanna. II Enrico conte di Montesanangelo ed I suoi documenti´, Bulletino dell´istituto storico italiano per il medioevo e archivo Muratoriano 72 (1960), app. I, pp. 170-3. 

[382] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 61, p. 215. 

[383] Leccisotti, T. (ed.) Le Colonie cassinensi in Capitanata ii Gargano (Miscellanea Cassinense 15, 1938), pp. 29-37 nos. 1-3, cited in Amatus, p. 202 footnote 40. 

[384] Stasser (2008), p. 407, quoting Gattola, E. (1733) Historia abbatiæ Cassinensis (Venice), p. 412. 

[385] Stasser (2008), p. 407, quoting Archives of Cava, Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinità, Armarium B 27, and Petrucci (1960), app. I, pp. 170-3. 

[386] Stasser (2008), p. 407, quoting Archives of Cava, Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinità, Armarium B 27, and Petrucci (1960), app. I, pp. 170-3. 

[387] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.24, MGH SS VII, p. 773, footnote 13 specifying that "Heinricus erat f. Roberti comitis", citing Gall. Hist. p. 412. 

[388] Stasser (2008), p. 408, citing Fuiano, M. (1978) Economia rurale (Naples), no. 4, pp. 145-7. 

[389] Alexandri Telesini Cœnobii Abbatis de Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis ("Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis)", Re, G. del (ed.) (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Napoli), III, 32, p. 144. 

[390] Stasser (2008), p. 408. 

[391] Stasser (2008), p. 208, quoting Petrucci, A. (ed.) (1960) Codice diplomatico del monasterio benedettino di S. Maria di Tremiti (1005-1237) (Rome), no. 89, p. 261. 

[392] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.66, MGH SS VII, p. 676, and note r. 

[393] Amatus II.31, p. 77. 

[394] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.66, MGH SS VII, p. 676. 

[395] Amatus II.33, p. 78. 

[396] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.66, MGH SS VII, p. 676 note r. 

[397] Amatus II.36, pp. 80-1. 

[398] Stasser (2008), p. 246, quoting Gallo, A. (ed.) (1927) Codice diplomatico Normanno di Aversa (Naples), 49, p. 395. 

[399] Amatus III.34, p. 98, footnote 52 postulating that this was the Duke displaced by Guido, brother of Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno, not Guido himself. 

[400] Gesta Roberti Wiscardi IV, MGH SS IX, p. 290.  Amatus, p. 165 footnote 7, states that Herman was half-brother of Abelard, citing the Gesta Roberti, but this does not emerge from the text. 

[401] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.66, MGH SS VII, p. 676. 

[402] Gesta Roberti Wiscardi IV, MGH SS IX, p. 290.  Amatus, p. 165 footnote 7, states that Herman was half-brother of Abelard, citing the Gesta Roberti, but this does not emerge from the text. 

[403] Amatus V.4, p. 134. 

[404] Pontiari, E. (ed.) (1927-8) De rebus gestis Rogerii Calabriæ et Siciliæ comitis et Roberti Guiscardi ducis fratris eius (Bologna) (“Malaterra”), III.5, p. 60. 

[405] Amatus VII.2, p. 165. 

[406] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book IX, p. 37. 

[407] WT II.XII, p. 70. 

[408] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.66, MGH SS VII, p. 676 note r. 

[409] Catalogus Baronum, p. 580. 

[410] Catalogus Baronum, p. 594. 

[411] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 349. 

[412] Amatus III.11, pp. 89-90. 

[413] Gesta Roberti Wiscardi, MHG SS IX, II, p. 256. 

[414] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 9, p. 35. 

[415] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 12, p. 47. 

[416] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, Chronicon Monasterii Beneventani, p. 444. 

[417] Murray, A. V. (2000) The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: a dynastic history 1099-1125 (Prosopographica & Genealogica), p. 226. 

[418] Amatus III.11, pp. 89-90. 

[419] Malaterra, I.30, p. 22. 

[420] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis III.15, MGH SS VII, p. 707. 

[421] Malaterra, Book I, c. 30, Amatus  Book IV, c. 17, and William of Apulia Book 1, p. 41, although none of these sources specify the precise relationship.

[422] Stasser (2008), p. 163, citing Martin, J. M. (ed.) (1976) Les chartes de Troia.  Edition et étude critique des plus anciens documents conservés à l´Archivio Capitolare, I 1024-1266, Codice Diplomatico Pugliese, Vol 21 (Bari), no. 28. 

[423] Stasser (2008), p. 163, citing Spinelli, A. (ed.) (1861) Regii Neapolitani Archivii Monumenta edita ac illustrata (Naples) Vol. V, 521, p. 301. 

[424] Stasser (2008), p. 163, citing Inguanez, M. ´Diplomi inediti dei principi Normanni di Capua, conti di Aversa´, Miscellanea Cassinese, Vol. 3 (1926), no. 11. 

[425] Stasser (2008), p. 163, quoting Spinelli, A. (ed.) (1861) Regii Neapolitani Archivii Monumenta edita ac illustrata (Naples) Vol. V, 522, p. 304. 

[426] Spinelli, A. (ed.) (1861) Regii Neapolitani archivi Monumenta edita ac illustrata (Naples) ("Regii Neapolitani Monumenta"), Vol. VI, DLXXII, p. 38. 

[427] Regii Neapolitani Monumenta, Vol. VI, DLXXII, p. 38. 

[428] Stasser (2008), p. 165. 

[429] Stasser (2008), p. 163, quoting Archives of Cava, Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinità, Armarium F 36. 

[430] Regii Neapolitani Monumenta, Vol. VI, DLXXII, p. 38. 

[431] Stasser (2008), p. 163, quoting Archives of Cava, Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinità, Armarium F 36. 

[432] Hugo Falcandus 9, p. 75, footnote 51 naming his father and specifying the origin of the family. 

[433] Hugo Falcandus, 24, p. 129.   

[434] Hugo Falcandus 32, p. 157, footnote 162 specifying that he was created Count of Loreto formerly held by his father Rambotus and also naming his wife. 

[435] Catalogus Baronum, p. 580. 

[436] Catalogus Baronum, p. 594. 

[437] ES III 594. 

[438] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 1119 (extract in translation only). 

[439] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 349. 

[440] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 349. 

[441] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, pp. 349-50. 

[442] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 349. 

[443] Catalogus Baronum, pp. 579 and 598. 

[444] Piscicelli Taeggi, O. (ed.) (1887) Regestum Sancti Angeli ad Formas (Montecassino) ("Sancti Angeli ad Formas"), XLVII, p. 108. 

[445] Catalogus Baronum, pp. 579 and 598. 

[446] Catalogus Baronum, p. 616. 

[447] Catalogus Baronum, p. 611. 

[448] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 842 (extract in translation only). 

[449] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1192, MGH SS XIX, p. 327. 

[450] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1199, MGH SS XIX, p. 331. 

[451] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1199, MGH SS XIX, p. 331. 

[452] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1199, MGH SS XIX, p. 331. 

[453] Capasso (1874), 69, p. 37. 

[454] Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis 1246, MGH SS XXII, p. 540. 

[455] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1223, MGH SS XIX, p. 343. 

[456] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 313, citing Archives de Cava, E. 40, E, 46. 

[457] Hugo Falcandus 50, p. 176, footnote 199 naming his father and grandfather. 

[458] Malaterra, I.4, p. 9. 

[459] Amatus III.43, p. 101. 

[460] Malaterra, I.15, p. 16. 

[461] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 9, p. 35. 

[462] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 20, p. 89. 

[463] The marriage must have taken place after Guillaume's arrival in Italy. 

[464] Amatus IV.22, p. 118. 

[465] ES II 204 and 205. 

[466] Drell, J. H. (2002) Kinship & Conquest, Family strategies in the Principality of Salerno during the Norman period 1077-1194 (Cornell University Press), pp. 34 and 179. 

[467] Houben, H. (1995) Die Abtei Venosa und das Mönchtum im normannisch-staufischen Süditalien (Tübingen), cited in Amatus, p. 118 footnote 32. 

[468] Romoaldi Annales 1057, MGH SS XIX, p. 405. 

[469] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 23, p. 87. 

[470] Drell (2002), p. 179. 

[471] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 379. 

[472] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 379. 

[473] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 55, p. 187. 

[474] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, p. 187 footnote 1, citing Ménager, L. R. Les fondations monastiques, 24, p. 98. 

[475] Drell (2002), p. 179. 

[476] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, p. 187 footnote 1, citing Ménager, L. R. Les fondations monastiques, 24, p. 98. 

[477] Houben (2002), p. 180. 

[478] Rogerius II. Regis Diplomata Latina, 44, p. 123. 

[479] Houben (2002), p. 181. 

[480] Romualdo Guarna, p. 24. 

[481] Runciman, S. (1978) A History of the Crusades (Penguin), Vol. 2, p. 124.   

[482] Although this nickname is clearly misapplied due to confusion between Robert Guiscard's two brothers named Guillaume. 

[483] WT II.XIII, p. 90. 

[484] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book IX, p. 37. 

[485] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber III, Cap. XV and XVI, pp. 349-50. 

[486] Itinerario di la Gran Militia a la Pavese II.XI, p. 682. 

[487] ES II 204. 

[488] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2007) Vardan Areweltsi's Compilation of History (New Jersey) 65.  

[489] Matthew of Edessa, clxxxix, p. 260, cited in Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 47. 

[490] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 112-14. 

[491] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. IX, p. 694. 

[492] ES II 204. 

[493] WT II.XIII, p. 90. 

[494] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book IX, p. 37. 

[495] Houben (2002), p. 22. 

[496] Malaterra, III.28, p. 74. 

[497] Annales Casenses 1134 and 1135, MGH SS XIX, p. 309. 

[498] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 567, citing Archives de Cava, B. 17. 

[499] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 283, citing Archives de Cava, C. 2, and Muratori, L. (1738) Antiquitates Italicæ medii ævi (Milan), Tome V, p. 786. 

[500] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 567, citing Archives de Cava, B. 17. 

[501] Ménager ´Inventaire des familles normandes´ (1975), p. 285, quoting Scandone, F. Abellinum Feudale, II, 1, doc. LI, p. 114. 

[502] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 36, and p. 567 citing Archives of Cava, F. 37. 

[503] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 36, and p. 567 citing Archives of Cava, F. 37. 

[504] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 214 (extract in translation only). 

[505] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 245 (extract in translation only). 

[506] Catalogus Baronum, pp. 579 and 582. 

[507] Catalogus Baronum, pp. 579 and 582. 

[508] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 623 (extract in translation only). 

[509] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 623 (extract in translation only). 

[510] Amatus II.31, p. 77. 

[511] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.66, MGH SS VII, p. 676. 

[512] Gesta Roberti Wiscardi II, MGH SS IX, p. 254. 

[513] Gesta Roberti Wiscardi, MHG SS IX, II, p. 256. 

[514] Amatus IV.5, pp. 112-3. 

[515] Amatus IV.17, p. 116. 

[516] Amatus II.31, p. 77. 

[517] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.66, MGH SS VII, p. 676. 

[518] Amatus, p. 77 footnote 52. 

[519] Gesta Roberti Wiscardi, MHG SS IX, II, p. 256. 

[520] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 9, p. 35. 

[521] Recueil des Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 52, p. 181. 

[522] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 9, p. 35. 

[523] Chronicon Breve Nortmannicum, RIS V, p. 278. 

[524] Chronicon Breve Nortmannicum, RIS V, p. 278. 

[525] Recueil des Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, p. 181 footnote 4, citing Petrucci, A. (1960) Cod. Dipl. del monasterio benedittino di S Maria di Tremiti (Roma), no. 54, pp. 168-70, and no. 81, pp. 282-4. 

[526] Recueil des Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, p. 181 footnote 4, citing Petrucci, A. (1960) Cod. Dipl. del monasterio benedittino di S Maria di Tremiti (Roma), no. 54, pp. 168-70, and no. 81, pp. 282-4. 

[527] Lupus Protospatarius 1066, MGH SS V, p. 59. 

[528] Recueil des Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, p. 181 footnote 4, citing Petrucci, A. (1960) Cod. Dipl. del monasterio benedittino di S Maria di Tremiti (Roma), no. 54, pp. 168-70, and no. 81, pp. 282-4. 

[529] Recueil des Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, p. 181 footnote 4, citing Petrucci, A. (1960) Cod. Dipl. del monasterio benedittino di S Maria di Tremiti (Roma), no. 94, pp. 267-9. 

[530] Hugo Falcandus 9, p. 75. 

[531] Hugo Falcandus, 20, p. 115.   

[532] Catalogus Baronum, p. 581. 

[533] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Père de Chartres (Paris) ("Chartres Saint-Père"), Tome I, Liber Primus, 23, p. 146. 

[534] Chartres Saint-Père, Tome I, Liber Primus, 23, p. 146. 

[535] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 39, citing Archives of Cava, B. 21. 

[536] Chartres Saint-Père, Tome I, Liber Primus, 23, p. 146. 

[537] Gesta Roberti Wiscardi, MHG SS IX, II, p. 256. 

[538] Chartres Saint-Père, Tome I, Liber Primus, 23, p. 146. 

[539] Chartres Saint-Père, Tome I, Liber Primus, 23, p. 146. 

[540] Chartres Saint-Père, Tome I, Liber Primus, 23, p. 146. 

[541] Amatus VIII.12, p. 193. 

[542] Chartres Saint-Père, Tome I, Liber Primus, 23, p. 146. 

[543] Chartres Saint-Père, Tome I, Liber Primus, 23, p. 146. 

[544] Chartres Saint-Père, Tome I, Liber Primus, 23, p. 146. 

[545] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 39, citing Archives of Cava, B. 21. 

[546] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 39, citing Archives of Cava, B. 21. 

[547] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 39, citing Archives of Cava, B. 21. 

[548] Chartres Saint-Père, Tome I, Liber Primus, 23, p. 146. 

[549] Chartres Saint-Père, Tome I, Liber Primus, 23, p. 146. 

[550] Gesta Roberti Wiscardi, MHG SS IX, II, p. 256. 

[551] Stasser (2008), p. 95, quoting Tropeano, P. M. (1977) Codice diplomatico Verginiano (Montevergine), Tome I, 83, p. 331. 

[552] Stasser (2008), p. 95, quoting Gattola, E. (1734) Ad historiam abbatiæ Cassinensis accessiones (Venice), p. 207. 

[553] Gesta Roberti Wiscardi II, MGH SS IX, p. 257. 

[554] Stasser (2008), p. 95, quoting Gattola (1734), p. 207. 

[555] Stasser (2008), p. 95, quoting Tropeano, P. M. (1977) Codice diplomatico Verginiano (Montevergine), Tome I, 83, p. 331. 

[556] Stasser (2008), p. 95, quoting Gattola (1734), p. 207. 

[557] Sancti Angeli ad Formas, XVII, p. 37. 

[558] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.25, MGH SS VII, p. 773. 

[559] Annales Casenses 1098, MGH SS XIX, p. 308. 

[560] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.25, MGH SS VII, p. 773. 

[561] Annales Casenses 1135, MGH SS XIX, p. 309. 

[562] Hugo Falcandus, 13, p. 86. 

[563] Hugo Falcandus, p. 87 footnote 60. 

[564] Hugo Falcandus, p. 87 footnote 60. 

[565] Ignoti Monachi Chronica, p. 28. 

[566] Houben (2002), p. 36 footnote 10. 

[567] Stasser (2008), p. 95, quoting Gattola, E. (1734) Ad historiam abbatiæ Casinensis accessiones (Venice), p. 207. 

[568] Stasser (2008), p. 95, quoting Gattola (1734), p. 207. 

[569] Stasser (2008), p. 95, quoting Gattola (1734), p. 207. 

[570] Stasser (2008), p. 95, quoting Gattola (1734), p. 207. 

[571] Stasser (2008), p. 95, quoting Gattola (1734), p. 207. 

[572] Guerrieri, G. ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi (1092-1130)´, Archivio storico per le province Napoletane, Anno XXVI, Fascicolo II (Naples, 1901), Documenti, I, p. 295. 

[573] Stasser (2008), p. 95, quoting Jahn. (1989) Untersuchungen zur normannischen Herrschaft in Süditalien (1040-1100), Appendice no. 5. 

[574] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, I, p. 295. 

[575] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, IV, p. 301. 

[576] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, V, p. 303. 

[577] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, VI, p. 305. 

[578] Rogerius II. Regis Diplomata Latina, 29, p. 81. 

[579] Malaterra, III.31, p. 76. 

[580] Stasser (2008), p. 95, quoting Gattola (1734), p. 207. 

[581] Stasser (2008), p. 95, quoting Gattola (1734), p. 207. 

[582] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, VI, p. 305. 

[583] Hugo Falcandus, 32, p. 157, footnote 158 specifying that he was created Count of Molise, vacant since the death of Count Hugo. 

[584] Romualdo Guarna, p. 33. 

[585] Ignoti Monachi Chronica, p. 30. 

[586] Annales Casenses 1176, MGH SS XIX, p. 312. 

[587] Annales Casenses 1190, MGH SS XIX, p. 314. 

[588] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1193, MGH SS XIX, p. 327. 

[589] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1196, MGH SS XIX, pp. 328-9. 

[590] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1220, MGH SS XIX, p. 340. 

[591] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1221, MGH SS XIX, pp. 340-2. 

[592] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1222, MGH SS XIX, p. 342. 

[593] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1240, MGH SS XIX, p. 379. 

[594] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1220, MGH SS XIX, p. 340. 

[595] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1222, MGH SS XIX, p. 342. 

[596] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1220, MGH SS XIX, p. 340. 

[597] Weller, K. (ed.) (1899) Hohenlohisches Urkundenbuch, Band I (Stuttgart), 73, p. 50. 

[598] Hohenlohisches Urkundenbuch, Band I, 78, p. 52. 

[599] Hohenlohisches Urkundenbuch, Band I, 83, p. 54. 

[600] Hohenlohisches Urkundenbuch, Band I, 137, p. 79. 

[601] Hugo Falcandus 4 and 9, pp. 67 and 75. 

[602] Hugo Falcandus, p. 75 footnote 35. 

[603] Hugo Falcandus 32, p. 157. 

[604] Hugo Falcandus 53, p. 195. 

[605] Catalogus Baronum, p. 603. 

[606] Catalogus Baronum, p. 604. 

[607] Hugo Falcandus 53, p. 195. 

[608] Romualdo Guarna, p. 24. 

[609] Catalogus Baronum, pp. 571-. 

[610] Catalogus Baronum, p. 573. 

[611] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 9, p. 35. 

[612] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, I.X, p. 93. 

[613] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, II.XVIII, p. 108. 

[614] Hugo Falcandus, p. 149 footnote 144.   

[615] Hugo Falcandus, 32, p. 157. 

[616] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 437. 

[617] Annales Casenses 1168, MGH SS XIX, p. 312. 

[618] Hugo Falcandus 55, p. 214. 

[619] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 232 (extract in translation only). 

[620] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 232 (extract in translation only). 

[621] Hugo Falcandus 4, p. 67, footnote 25 giving the ancestry shown here. 

[622] Hugo Falcandus 32, p. 157, footnote 161 specifying that he was created Count of Alba and transferred to Andria in 1168. 

[623] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 733 (extract in translation only). 

[624] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1190, MGH SS XIX, p. 325. 

[625] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1192, MGH SS XIX, pp. 327-8. 

[626] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 1103 (extract in translation only). 

[627] Catalogus Baronum, p. 573. 

[628] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1199, MGH SS XIX, p. 331. 

[629] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1204, MGH SS XIX, p. 339. 

[630] Miller, W. (1908) The Latins in the Levant.  A History of Frankish Greece (1204-1566) (Cambridge and New York), p. 307. 

[631] Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 (Villeneuve d'Asq), p. 256.  According to ES III 750, she died [1320/21], which is consistent with her second husband's second marriage in 1324. 

[632] Terrebasse, A. de (ed.) (1844) Aymari Rivalli De Allobrogibus (Vienne) ("De Allobrogibus") VIII, p. 469. 

[633] Valbonnais, Marquis de (1722) Histoire de Dauphiné (Geneva), Tome II, I, p. 238. 

[634] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Matthias Nuewenburgensis, p. 216. 

[635] Valbonnais (1722), Tome II, CCXXXIX, p. 541. 

[636] Valbonnais (1722), Tome II, CCXLIII, p. 554. 

[637] Sturdza (1999), p. 510. 

[638] Sturdza (1999), p. 505. 

[639] Miller (1908), p. 307. 

[640] The claim of Queen Jeanne was through her third husband Infante don Jaime de Mallorca, who was the great grandson of Marguerite de Villehardouin of Achaia who had staked a dubious claim to Achaia on the death of her sister Isabelle in 1312, see Miller (1908), p. 253. 

[641] Sturdza (1999), p. 505, and Miller (1908), pp. 310-11. 

[642] Sturdza (1999), p. 505. 

[643] Miller (1908), p. 317. 

[644] Sturdza (1999), p. 505. 

[645] Amatus II.31, p. 77. 

[646] Burger, H. (ed.) (1865) Urkunden der Benedicter-Abtei zum heiligen Lambert in Altenburg, Nieder-Österreich, Fontes Rerum Austriacarum, Zweite Abteilung, Diplomatarium et Acta Band XXI (Wien) ("Altenburg St Lambert"), VII, p. 8. 

[647] Capasso (1874), 522, p. 323. 

[648] Gardner, A. (1912) The Lascarids of Nicæa, The Story of an Empire in Exile (Methuen, London), p. 178. 

[649] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, p. 192. 

[650] ES XVI 78. 

[651] Erchemperti Historia Langobardorum 15, MGH SS III, p. 246. 

[652] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 417. 

[653] Annales Ceccanenses 1120, MGH SS XIX, p. 282. 

[654] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, I.X, p. 93. 

[655] Romualdo Guarna, 1127, p. 6. 

[656] Romualdo Guarna, 1129, p. 8. 

[657] Romualdo Guarna, 1132, p. 10. 

[658] Ignoti Monachi Chronica, p. 18. 

[659] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 423. 

[660] Catalogus Baronum, p. 573. 

[661] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 33. 

[662] Malaterra, II.39, p. 48. 

[663] Gesta Roberti Wiscardi III, MGH SS IX, p. 276. 

[664] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), p. 285. 

[665] Malaterra, II.39, p. 48. 

[666] Gesta Roberti Wiscardi III, MGH SS IX, p. 276. 

[667] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), p. 285. 

[668] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 9, p. 35. 

[669] Chronicon Breve Nortmannicum, RIS V, p. 278. 

[670] Chronicon Breve Nortmannicum, RIS V, p. 278. 

[671] Chronicon Breve Nortmannicum, RIS V, p. 278. 

[672] Lupus Protospatarius 1070 and 1071, MGH SS V, p. 60. 

[673] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 33. 

[674] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, I, p. 295. 

[675] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, II, p. 298. 

[676] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, III, p. 299. 

[677] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, IV, p. 301. 

[678] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, V, p. 303. 

[679] Lupus Protospatarius 1101, MGH SS V, p. 63. 

[680] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, I, p. 295. 

[681] Stasser (2008), p. 95, quoting Jahn. (1989) Untersuchungen zur normannischen Herrschaft in Süditalien (1040-1100), Appendice no. 5. 

[682] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, III, p. 299. 

[683] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, IV, p. 301. 

[684] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, V, p. 303. 

[685] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, VI, p. 305. 

[686] Rogerius II. Regis Diplomata Latina, 29, p. 81. 

[687] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, I, p. 295. 

[688] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, III, p. 299. 

[689] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, V, p. 303. 

[690] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, IX, p. 312. 

[691] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, III, p. 299. 

[692] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, V, p. 303. 

[693] Lupus Protospatarius 1101, MGH SS V, p. 63. 

[694] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, VIII, p. 311. 

[695] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 417. 

[696] Houben (2002), p. 43, which cites the two contradictory sources concerning this appointment. 

[697] Romualdo Guarna, 1127, p. 7. 

[698] Romualdo Guarna, 1129, p. 8. 

[699] Rogerius II. Regis Diplomata Latina, 20, p. 54. 

[700] Houben (2002), p. 63. 

[701] Romualdo Guarna, 1133, p. 13. 

[702] Hugo Falcandus, 20, p. 115.   

[703] Romualdo Guarna, 1133, p. 11. 

[704] Guillelmi I. Regis Diplomata, Addimentum ad Diplomata Latina Rogeri II Regis, 31A, p. 141. 

[705] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, VI, p. 305. 

[706] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, VIII, p. 311. 

[707] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, I.X, p. 93. 

[708] Regii Neapolitani Monumenta, Vol. VI, DCV, p. 117. 

[709] Romualdo Guarna, 1129, p. 8. 

[710] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), Documenti, IX, p. 312. 

[711] Rogerius II. Regis Diplomata Latina, 20, p. 54. 

[712] Romualdo Guarna, 1132, p. 10. 

[713] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 435. 

[714] Annales Casinenses 1133, MGH SS XIX, p. 309. 

[715] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), p. 291, citing Bernardino Tafuri, G. (1848) Dell´origine, sito ed antichità della città di Nardò (Naples), Vol. I, pp. 374-5. 

[716] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), p. 289. 

[717] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 180, citing Capacelatro (1724) Istoria di Napoli (Naples), Tome I, p. 174. 

[718] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 180, citing Siragusa (ed.) (1897) Falcandus Historia rebus gentis in regno Siciliæ, Fonti per la Storia d´Italia (Rome), pp. 69, 70, 72, 183. 

[719] Guerrieri ´I conti normanni di Bardò e di Brindisi´ (1901), p. 289. 

[720] Chalandon (1907), Tome I, p. 181, citing Regii neapolitani archivii monumenta edita ac illustrata (Naples, 1857-61), Tome V, p. 185. 

[721] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 35. 

[722] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 63. 

[723] Romualdo Guarna, 1133, p. 11. 

[724] Romualdo Guarna, 1133, p. 13. 

[725] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 279. 

[726] WJ VIII.14, p. 262. 

[727] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989), 389, p. 340. 

[728] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 39.  According to Malmesbury, 389, p. 340, she died "by disease". 

[729] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Prieuré de Saint-Nicaise de Meulan, p. 239.       

[730] Robillard de Beaurepaire, C. de (ed.) ´Recueil de chartes concernant l´abbaye de Saint-Victor-en-Caux´, Mélanges, documents publiés et annotés par MM Ch. de Beaurepaire, Paul le Cacheux, A. Héron et Hipplyte Sauvage, 5ème série (Rouen, 1898) ("Caux Saint-Victor"), I, p. 363. 

[731] Caux Saint-Victor, II, p. 370. 

[732] Caux Saint-Victor, p. 412. 

[733] Houben (2002), p. 86. 

[734] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 2, p. 136. 

[735] Romualdo Guarna, p. 19. 

[736] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 182, citing Archives de Cava, G. 

[737] WT XVIII.II, p. 819. 

[738] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 182, citing Archives de Cava, G. 

[739] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 2, p. 136. 

[740] Rogerius II. Regis Diplomata Latina, 60, p. 170. 

[741] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 426. 

[742] Romualdo Guarna, p. 19. 

[743] Romualdo Guarna, p. 20. 

[744] Romualdo Guarna, p. 28. 

[745] Loud, G. A. (trans.) (2002) The Chronicle of St Clement, Casauria, by John Berard (extracts) (Leeds) ("Chronicon Casauriensis"), Book V, p. 38. 

[746] Ignoti Monachi Chronica, p. 29. 

[747] Hugo Falcandus 1 and 2, pp. 61 and 63-4. 

[748] Annales Casenses 1155 and 1156, MGH SS XIX, p. 311. 

[749] Anonymi monachi Cassinensis breve chronicon ("Cassinensis breve chronicon"), Re, G. del (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Naples), p. 468. 

[750] Annales Casenses 1160, MGH SS XIX, p. 311. 

[751] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 12, p. 47. 

[752] Annales Ceccanenses 1161, MGH SS XIX, p. 285. 

[753] Hugo Falcandus, 23, p. 126.   

[754] Catalogus Baronum, p. 581. 

[755] Annales Ceccanenses 1169, MGH SS XIX, p. 286, and Annales Casenses 1169, MGH SS XIX, p. 312. 

[756] Chronicon Fossæ Novæ auctore anonimo ("Chronicon Fossæ Novæ)", Re, G. del (ed.) (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Naples), p. 514. 

[757] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 106, citing Archivio di statò at Naples, Proces. di r. padr, 1069, fo. 14-16, cited in Bindi (1889) Monumenti storici ed artistici degle Abruzzi (Naples), p. 586. 

[758] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 2, p. 138. 

[759] Catalogus Baronum, pp. 572-3. 

[760] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 285 (extract in translation only). 

[761] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 569, citing Catalogus baronum, pp. 573 and 593, Archives of Cava H, 22 (1155) and H. 28 (1158), and Giudice, (1863) Codice diplomatico del regno Carlo I e II d´Angiò (Naples), Tome I, p. xxxv (1152). 

[762] Codice diplomatico Verginiano, Vol. I, 285 (extract in translation only). 

[763] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 569, citing Morea (ed.) Chartularium Cupersanense (Montecassino), Tome I, p. 190. 

[764] Catalogus Baronum, p. 573. 

[765] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 569, citing Catalogus baronum, pp. 573 and 593, Archives of Cava H, 22 (1155) and H. 28 (1158), and Giudice (1863), p. xxxv (1152). 

[766] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 569, citing Catalogus baronum, pp. 573 and 593, Archives of Cava H, 22 (1155) and H. 28 (1158), and Giudice (1863), p. xxxv (1152). 

[767] Catalogus Baronum, p. 591. 

[768] Catalogus Baronum, p. 591. 

[769] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 436. 

[770] Hugo Falcandus 9, p. 75. 

[771] Hugo Falcandus, 26, p. 149.   

[772] Romualdo Guarna, p. 24. 

[773] Annales Ceccanenses 1165, MGH SS XIX, p. 285. 

[774] Romualdo Guarna, pp. 32-3. 

[775] Annales Casenses 1168, MGH SS XIX, p. 312. 

[776] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 437. 

[777] Hugo Falcandus 55, p. 214. 

[778] Catalogus Baronum, p. 572. 

[779] Romualdo Guarna, p. 33. 

[780] Hugo Falcandus, 32, p. 157. 

[781] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 437. 

[782] Annales Casenses 1168, MGH SS XIX, p. 312. 

[783] Hugo Falcandus 55, p. 214. 

[784] Romualdo Guarna, p. 33. 

[785] Rogerius II. Regis Diplomata Latina, 20, p. 54. 

[786] WT XX.IV, p. 945. 

[787] Hugo Falcandus, 32, p. 157, footnote 160 specifying that he was made Count of Fondi and transferred to Gravina in 1168.   

[788] Hugo Falcandus 29, pp. 153-5.   

[789] Hugo Falcandus 29, pp. 153-5.