NORTHERN ITALY (1)

  v3.0 Updated 18 June 2014

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 3

Chapter 1.            COUNTIES in EMILIA ROMAGNA. 5

A.       CONTI di BOLOGNA.. 6

B.       CONTI di PARMA.. 9

C.      CONTI di PIACENZA.. 12

D.      DUKES of RAVENNA.. 16

E.       CONTI di REGGIO.. 20

F.       CONTI di SABBIONETTA.. 24

G.      OTHER COUNTS in EMILIO ROMAGNA.. 25

Chapter 2.            FRIULIA. 27

A.       DUKES of FRIULIA [569]-625. 28

B.       MARCHESI di FRIULIA, "UNRUOCHINGI" (family of UNRUOCH) 37

Chapter 3.            COUNTIES and FAMILIES in LIGURIA. 44

A.       CONTI di ACQUI 45

B.       CONTI di GENOVA.. 45

C.      CONTI di LUNI 45

D.      CONTI di VENTIMIGLIA.. 51

Chapter 4.            COUNTIES in LOMBARDIA. 54

A.       DUKES of BERGAMO, CONTI di BERGAMO.. 54

B.       DUKES of BRESCIA.. 59

C.      CONTI di CHIAVENNA.. 60

D.      CONTI di LODI 60

E.       CONTI di MILANO.. 62

F.       CONTI di PAVIA.. 63

F.       CONTI di SOSPIRO.. 65

G.      OTHER COUNTS in LOMBARDIA.. 67

Chapter 5.            COUNTIES in PIEMONTE and VAL d'AOSTA. 70

A.       CONTI d´ASTI 70

B.       CONTI d´AURIATE.. 72

C.      MARCHESI d'IVREA.. 73

D.      MARCHESI di MONFERRATO.. 85

E.       CONTI di POMBIA.. 86

F.       MARCHESI di SUSA.. 87

G.      MARCHESI di TORINO [TURIN] 94

H.      CONTI di VERCELLI 98

I.    OTHER COUNTS in PIEMONTE.. 100

Chapter 6.            SARDINIA and CORSICA. 101

A.       COUNTS in CORSICA and SARDINIA.. 101

Chapter 7.            COUNTIES in TOSCANA. 102

A.       MARCHESI of TUSCANY.. 102

B.       CONTI di AREZZO.. 115

C.      CONTI di CANEFRO.. 117

D.      CONTI di LUCCA.. 118

E.       MARCHESI e CONTI di MANTUA.. 120

F.       OTHER COUNTS in TUSCANY (GHERARDESCHI) 122

G.      OTHER COUNTS in TUSCANY.. 127

Chapter 8.            COUNTIES and FAMILIES in VENETO. 131

A.       MARCHESI d'ESTE.. 131

B.       CONTI di PADOVA e VICENZA.. 132

C.      CONTI di TREVISO.. 134

D.      CONTI di VERONA.. 136

E.       MARCHESI di VERONA.. 140

F.       OTHER COUNTS in VENETO.. 142

Chapter 9.             OTHER NORTHERN ITALIAN NOBLE FAMILIES, Unallocated. 144

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Italian nobles families in the 6th to 12th centuries are set out in three separate sets of documents, SOUTHERN ITALY (1) and (2), CENTRAL ITALY, and this document NORTHERN ITALY (1).  This geographic split in presenting the research on Italian nobility is justified by the divergent ways in which the noble families evolved in these three areas during the early medieval period, explained in part by the different outside influences to which each area was subject. 

 

In southern Italy, the Lombard duchies, notably Benevento and Naples, had three main adversaries:  the Byzantines whose colonies survived in the southern part of the Italian peninsula until well into the 11th century; the north African Muslims who conquered Sicily, Messina and Siracusa in the mid-9th century and raided the western coastal cities throughout the period; and from the 11th century onwards the Normans.  Geographical distance from the northern Italian kingdom's administrative centres of Pavia and Ravenna also enabled the southern principalities to evolve on autonomous lines.  In addition, the Papal territories in Central Italy represented a buffer between north and south, especially after the 756 Donation of Pepin under which Papal claims to many parts of central Italy were recognised by the Frankish invaders. 

 

In northern Italy, the nobility which is set out in the present document lived in the area roughly corresponding to the territory of the early medieval kingdom of Italy.  Geographical proximity enabled the central authority of the Lombard kingdom to maintain greater control, although the frequent rebellions by the Lombard nobility against King Agilulf during the last decade of the 6th century demonstrate that this was not straightforward.  The only Lombard dukedom in the north which controlled extensive territory was Friulia, which dated from the period immediately after the Lombard migration.  Friulia provided the first line of defence against frequent Avar invasions from neighbouring Pannonia to the east of northern Italy, and was later extended during the reign of Emperor Heinrich II to form the march of Carniola as protection against incursions into imperial territory from the kingdoms of Croatia and Hungary to the east.  Contemporary Lombard sources include isolated references to Lombard dukes in Bergamo, Brescia, Ticino, Trentino, Turin and Verona, but it is probable that they were local city administrators who controlled insufficient land to exercise any notable degree of local autonomy. 

 

The succession of short-lived reigns in the Lombard kingdom after the death of King Liutprand in 744 suggests a weakening of central authority in northern Italy.  However, it was the Carolingian Franks, not the local Lombard nobility, who were able to leverage this situation to their advantage.  The dukes of Friulia appear to have been the only strong regional nobility at the time, as shown by the choice of Duke Ratchis to succeed as Lombard king in 744 after the brief reign of King Hildebrand.  However, the main threat to the long-term survival of the Lombard monarchy was the continuing territorial rivalry between the Lombard kings and the papacy.  The end of Lombard rule in northern Italy was signalled when the Pope invited the Carolingian Franks to intervene in Italian affairs. 

 

When the Frankish kings assumed control over the Italian kingdom, the nobles who accompanied them established themselves as a powerful new element in the Italian aristocracy whose influence was to outlive the rule of their royal masters.  The first notable change of administration was in the duchy of Spoleto (see the document CENTRAL ITALY), where Charles I King of the Franks (later known as Emperor Charlemagne) installed the Frankish duke Winichis to replace the papal appointee.  Spoleto was later ruled by a succession of dukes of Frankish descent: the families of Suppo Count of Parma, Lambert who had previously been count in the Breton march in north-western France, and finally by the descendants of the Frankish count Hucbald.  Frankish nobles continued to arrive at the Carolingian court in northern Italy during the course of the following hundred years.  Notable examples were Bonifaz, a Frank from Bavaria who was installed as Count of Lucca in [812/13], Anschier, a count from Burgundy, who became Marchese of Ivrea in [898/902], and Roger, son of Arduin from Normandy, who was Count of Auriate from 905.  It is also possible that Aleram, recorded in northern Italy in the early 10th century and whose descendants later became Marchesi of Monferrato and Saluzzo (see the document MONFERRATO), was of Frankish origin, several counts with a similar name being recorded in Troyes in the 9th century. 

 

Otto I King of Germany's deposition of Berengario II King of Italy in 963 was followed by a further wave of immigrant nobles, this time from Germany, who were appointed by the Ottonian kings as local administrators in northern Italian cities such as Bergamo, Parma, Pavia, Sabbionetta, Treviso and Verona.  Diplomas issued by the Ottonian and Salian kings of Germany in relation to business in northern Italy mention numerous nobles with Germanic sounding names (for example, Bernhard, Maginfred, Otbert and Otto).  It has not yet been possible to link many of these individuals to other known noble families. 

 

There is one notable example of native Italian aristocracy, presumably of Lombard descent, in the early 10th century.  Sigefredo, whose name suggests a Germanic connection although he was resident in Italy before the arrival of the Ottonian kings, built the castle of Canossa in the plain of Po in [940].  His descendants amassed numerous properties in Tuscany, including the cities of Ferrara, Mantua and Lucca, and were installed as Marchesi of Tuscany from 1127.  The heiress of these vast properties was Countess Matilda, the most powerful Italian noble of her time and the strong supporter of the papacy in the investiture struggle with Emperor Heinrich IV in the late 11th century.  She donated all her properties to the church, which ensured that the conflicts between church and state continued long after her death in 1115. 

 

The nobility in northern Italy from approximately the 12th century onwards are shown in the companion document NORTHERN ITALY (2) and from the 14th century in NORTHERN ITALY (3). 

 

The counties set out in this document are grouped by present-day Italian region.  This is not especially satisfactory as it in no way reflects divisions which existed in medieval times.  Nevertheless, it is anticipated that it will prove helpful to future research.  I am grateful to Paolo Rossi's work in helping to establish the geographical allocation of these counties[1]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    COUNTIES in EMILIA ROMAGNA

 

 

The present-day Italian region of Emilia Romagna is located south of Lombardia and Veneto, and north of Toscana and Marche, in the central part of northern Italy.  Currently the region is divided administratively into the provinces of Piacenza, Parma, Reggio Emilia and Modena, in western Emilia, and Bologna, Ferrara, Ravenna, Forlì and Rimini in Romagna.  The medieval counties of Pallavicino, Modena, Parma, Piacenza and Reggio were located in Emilia, and Bologna and Ferrara in Romagna.  Other medieval counties identified in the region are Aucia, Cervia (Ficocle), Cesena, Comacchio, Correggio, Forlí, Forlimpopoli, Imola, Modigliana, Rimini, Sarsina and Valle Lamone, but no information has yet been located on their counts. 

 

 

 

A.      CONTI di BOLOGNA

 

 

ADALBERTO, son of BONIFAZIO Duke and Marchese of Spoleto & his wife Waldrada of Upper Burgundy ([945/55]-after [1011])Conte di Bologna.  "Adelbertus Comes et Bertilla…Comitissa" donated property to "monasterio…sancti Bartolomei Apostoli et beati Savini martiris", for the souls of "Domna Gualdrada…Comitissa…et Domno Teobaldo…Dux et Marchio, genitore et genitrice meis…et Bonifacii et Walfredi et Adelberti filiorum nostrorum", by charter dated 981[2]

m BERTILA, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 981 under which "Adelbertus Comes et Bertilla…Comitissa" donated property to "monasterio…sancti Bartolomei Apostoli et beati Savini martiris"[3]

Adalberto & his wife had four children: 

1.         BONIFAZIO ([970/75]-before 1012).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 981 under which "Adelbertus Comes et Bertilla…Comitissa" donated property to "monasterio…sancti Bartolomei Apostoli et beati Savini martiris", for the souls of "…et Bonifacii et Walfredi et Adelberti filiorum nostrorum"[4].  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of consistency with the birth date ranges estimated for his paternal ancestors.  Marchese of Tuscany 1004/1011.  He founded the abbey of Fonte Taona before 1007.  m ---.  The name of Bonifazio's wife is not known.  Bonifazio & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         UGO (-before 14 Jan 1056).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di Bologna.  He was installed [Jul/Nov 1037/Feb 1043] as Duke of Spoleto.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" gave judgment in a dispute between Johannes Abbot of St John Evangelist at Ravenna and the descendants of Rodulphus de Fizicone by charter dated 7 Apr 1047, named as present "Ugone marchione Camariensi, comite de Stazone, comite Ayraldo, comite Sicho filio quondam Guidonis comite"[5]m WILLA, daughter of --- (-after 1063).  "Domne Wille…Cometisse, relecta quondam Domni Hugo…Dux et Marchio et Ugo et Alberto etiam Bonefacio sicque Ubaldo germanis" donated a serf in Bologna by charter dated 14 Jan 1056[6].  Ugo & his wife had five children: 

i)          UGO (-[10 Dec 1091/1098]).  "Domne Wille…Cometisse, relecta quondam Domni Hugo…Dux et Marchio et Ugo et Alberto etiam Bonefacio sicque Ubaldo germanis" donated a serf in Bologna by charter dated 14 Jan 1056[7].  Conte.  m MATILDA, daughter of RAMBALDO [II] Conte di Treviso & his wife Matilda ---.  "Matilda Comitissa, filia quondam Regibaldi Comitis de Comitatu Tervisi, et conius Uchoni Comitis" confirmed a donation to "monasterio Sancti Prosperi…extra civitate Regi" by charter dated 10 Dec 1091, subscribed by "Ucho Comes"[8].  Boso Archbishop of Parma and "Albertus Comes et Ubertus frater eius, Comes quoque Walfredus et Berta uxor eius et Ermengarda neptis eorum, Matilda…coniux bone memorie Ugonis comitis et filii eorum" donated property to the monastery of San Prospero by charter dated to [1098], signed by "Berta coniux Gualfredi, Albertus filius eius"[9].  Ugo & his wife had one child: 

(a)       BEATRICE (-after 1099).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.    m ALBERTO d'Orso, son of --- (-after 1099). 

ii)         ALBERTO (-before 1085).  "Domne Wille…Cometisse, relecta quondam Domni Hugo…Dux et Marchio et Ugo et Alberto etiam Bonefacio sicque Ubaldo germanis" donated a serf in Bologna by charter dated 14 Jan 1056[10]Conte di Bolognam MATILDA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Alberto & his wife had two children: 

(a)       UBERTO (-after [1139]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di Bologna 1085/1116.  Conte di Casalecchio 1116.  m ---.  The name of Uberto's wife is not known.  Uberto & his wife had one child:

(1)       UGO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte 1139. 

(b)       ENRICO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  1085. 

iii)        BONIFAZIO (-after 14 Jan 1056).  "Domne Wille…Cometisse, relecta quondam Domni Hugo…Dux et Marchio et Ugo et Alberto etiam Bonefacio sicque Ubaldo germanis" donated a serf in Bologna by charter dated 14 Jan 1056[11]

iv)       UBALDO (-after 1097).  "Domne Wille…Cometisse, relecta quondam Domni Hugo…Dux et Marchio et Ugo et Alberto etiam Bonefacio sicque Ubaldo germanis" donated a serf in Bologna by charter dated 14 Jan 1056[12].  Conte.  m GIULITTA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. 

v)        ADELASIA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  [m GUIDO, brother of Archbishop GUIBERTO.] 

b)         UBALDO (-after 1030).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di Bologna

c)         [WILLA (-after 1061).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m BONNANO di Caprara, son of --- (-after 1061).] 

2.         WALFREDO ([972/78]-before [1041/43]).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 981 under which "Adelbertus Comes et Bertilla…Comitissa" donated property to "monasterio…sancti Bartolomei Apostoli et beati Savini martiris", for the souls of "…et Bonifacii et Walfredi et Adelberti filiorum nostrorum"[13].  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of consistency with the birth date ranges estimated for his paternal ancestors.  Conte di Bologna

3.         ADALBERTO ([975/80]-after [1011]).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 981 under which "Adelbertus Comes et Bertilla…Comitissa" donated property to "monasterio…sancti Bartolomei Apostoli et beati Savini martiris", for the souls of "…et Bonifacii et Walfredi et Adelberti filiorum nostrorum"[14].  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of consistency with the birth date ranges estimated for his paternal ancestors.  His youth at the time of the 981 charter is suggested by the fact that "Bonifacii et Walfredi germani" (presumably identified with the two older children of the donors) subscribed the document but that Adalberto did not.  Conte di Bologna

4.         ERMENGARDA (-after [1021]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (before 1015) ---, from the family of the dukes of Petrone. 

 

 

1.         WALFREDO (-[1098/24 Jan 1111]).  Boso Archbishop of Parma and "Albertus Comes et Ubertus frater eius, Comes quoque Walfredus et Berta uxor eius et Ermengarda neptis eorum, Matilda…coniux bone memorie Ugonis comitis et filii eorum" donated property to the monastery of San Prospero by charter dated to [1098], signed by "Berta coniux Gualfredi, Albertus filius eius"[15]m BERTA, daughter of GERARDO & his wife --- (-after 24 Jan 1111).  Boso Archbishop of Parma and "Albertus Comes et Ubertus frater eius, Comes quoque Walfredus et Berta uxor eius et Ermengarda neptis eorum, Matilda…coniux bone memorie Ugonis comitis et filii eorum" donated property to the monastery of San Prospero by charter dated to [1098], signed by "Berta coniux Gualfredi, Albertus filius eius"[16].  "Berta filia quondam Gerardi et relicta quondam Walfredi de Comitatu Trivixino" donated property to the monastery of San Prospero by charter dated 24 Jan 1111, signed by "iam dicte Berte et Alberti, mater et filius"[17].  Walfredo & his wife had one child: 

a)         ALBERTO (-after 24 Jan 1111).  Boso Archbishop of Parma and "Albertus Comes et Ubertus frater eius, Comes quoque Walfredus et Berta uxor eius et Ermengarda neptis eorum, Matilda…coniux bone memorie Ugonis comitis et filii eorum" donated property to the monastery of San Prospero by charter dated to [1098], signed by "Berta coniux Gualfredi, Albertus filius eius"[18].  "Berta filia quondam Gerardi et relicta quondam Walfredi de Comitatu Trivixino" donated property to the monastery of San Prospero by charter dated 24 Jan 1111, signed by "iam dicte Berte et Alberti, mater et filius"[19]

 

 

 

B.      CONTI di PARMA

 

 

Parma passed to Matilda Ctss of Tuscany in 1111.  The names of the podestà of Parma between 1165 and 1309 can be found in the Chronicon Parmense[20]

 

 

1.         --- .  m BERTA, daughter of --- (-before 20 Dec 920).  One child: 

a)         GUIFREDO (-after 20 Dec 920).  "Berengarius…rex" granted the right to hold a market near "finibus comitatus Ticinensis villa Figaria castellum" to "Ieronimus…Ticinensis ecclesie subdiaconus", at the request of "Vuifredi comitis…consiliarii nostri", by charter dated to [912/15][21]Conte di Parma.  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" confirmed the privileges of the canons of Parma, granted by "Berchta digne memorie comitissa et Vuifredus filius eius…comes", by charter dated 20 Dec 920[22]

 

2.         ATTOm ---.  The name of Atto´s wife is not known.  Atto & his wife had one child: 

a)         ATTO (-after 958).  Conte di Parma.  "Atto filio quondam…Attoni de Comitatu Parmense" received money from "Adalberto qui et Atto, consobrino meo, filio quondam Aigefredi de Comitatu Lucensi" in 958[23].  The exact relationship between Atto and Adalberto Atto Conte di Lucca has not yet been ascertained. 

 

3.         ALBERTO (-after 4 Oct 1015).  Conte di Parma.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property confiscated from "Alberti Parmensis filiorumque eius, Uuiberti et Sigefredi" to the convent of St Abundius at Como by charter dated 4 Oct 1015[24]m ---.  The name of Alberto's wife is not known.  Alberto & his wife had two children: 

a)         GUIBERTO (-after 4 Oct 1015).  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property confiscated from "Alberti Parmensis filiorumque eius, Uuiberti et Sigefredi" to the convent of St Abundius at Como by charter dated 4 Oct 1015[25]

b)         SIGIFREDO (-after 4 Oct 1015).  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property confiscated from "Alberti Parmensis filiorumque eius, Uuiberti et Sigefredi" to the convent of St Abundius at Como by charter dated 4 Oct 1015[26]

 

 

1.         GUIDOm ---.  The name of Guido's wife is not known.  Guido & his wife had one child: 

a)         BERNARDO (-1037 or after).  Conte di Parma.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the possession of "Neironem" by "Bernardo Parmensi comite" by charter dated 4 Oct 1015[27].  "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted the county of Parma to the church of Parma "post decessum Bernardi comitis Vuidonis filii, nisi forte de coniuge sua Ita filium habuerit masculinum" by charter dated 31 Dec 1029[28].  Count Bernardo was presumably no longer count, and was without male issue, before end May 1035, the date of the charter under which Emperor Konrad II confirmed the donation of the county of Parma to the same church although neither he nor his widow are named in the document[29].  Bernardo, however, died after 24 May 1037, as shown by the charter of the date of "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirming rights of the monastery of San Giovanni at Parma "ac petitione Bernardi quondam comitis nostri, nunc vero habitu et opere monachi…in eodem monasterio"[30].  The introduction to the former charter in the same compilation states that he became a monk at this, maybe before Apr 1034[31]m ITA, daughter of ---.  "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted the county of Parma to the church of Parma "post decessum Bernardi comitis Vuidonis filii, nisi forte de coniuge sua Ita filium habuerit masculinum" by charter dated 31 Dec 1029[32]

 

 

1.         ATTO (-before 2 Nov 1062).  m ---.  The name of Atto´s wife is not known.  Atto & his wife had one child: 

a)         ARDOINO (-after 2 Nov 1062).  Conte di Parma"Arduinus Comes de Comitatu Parmense et filius Attoni" donated property to the monastery of San Prospero, for the soul of "quondam Julite que fuit coniux mee", by charter dated 21 Aug 1054[33].  "Ardoinus comes comitatus Parmensis" donated property the cathedral of Reggio, for the souls of "…quondam Julitte que fuit jugalis mea", by charter dated 13 Mar 1058[34].  "Ardoinus Comes de Comitatu Parmense et filius quondam Attonis" donated property to the monastery of San Prospero by charter dated 2 Nov 1062, which names "quondam Julitte…jugale mea, seu filiis meis"[35]m GIULITTA, daughter of --- (-before 21 Aug 1054).  "Arduinus Comes de Comitatu Parmense et filius Attoni" donated property to the monastery of San Prospero, for the soul of "quondam Julite que fuit coniux mee", by charter dated 21 Aug 1054[36].  Ardoino & his wife had [two or more] children: 

i)          OBERTO [I] (-1096).  "Ubertus Comes filius quondam Arduini…Comitis de Comitatu Parmense" is named in a document dated 1095[37]Conte di Parmam ---.  The name of Oberto's wife is not known.  Oberto & his wife had two children: 

(a)       OBERTO [II] (-[1096]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di Parma

(b)       GIUDITTA (-after 1094).  "Albertus marchio filius quondam Alberti itemque marchionis et Jolicta comitissa jugalibus, filia Uberti comitis de comitatu Parmæ" donated property to the monastery of St Venerio, for the souls of "genitore meo Alberto marchio et Ugone germano meo", by charter dated 1050, signed by "domni Alberti Rufi et Julicte comitisse jugalibus"[38].  "Julitta comitissa atque Obertus marchio, mater et filius" donated property to the monastery of St Venerio, for the souls of "Alberti marchionis quondam viri…", by charter dated 1094[39]m ALBERTO detto Rufo, son of ALBERTO Marchese & his wife --- (-before 1094). 

ii)         other children .  "Ardoinus Comes de Comitatu Parmense et filius quondam Attonis" donated property to the monastery of San Prospero by charter dated 2 Nov 1062, which names "quondam Julitte…jugale mea, seu filiis meis"[40]

 

2.         GUIDO (-before 11 Apr 1092).  Conte di Parmam ADELASIA, daughter of UGO & his wife --- (-after 11 Apr 1092).  "Adelaxe filia Ugone Comes et relicta quondam Widonis de Comitato Parmensis" donated property to the monastery of San Prospero by charter dated 11 Apr 1092[41]

 

3.         OBERTO (-before 1081).  m ---.  The name of Oberto's wife is not known.  Oberto & his wife had two children: 

a)         ALBERTO di Parma (-[1101]).  Conte di ParmaMarchese "Heinricus…rex" confirmed the rights of Parma cathedral by charter dated 3 Dec 1081, among those listed as present being "Albertus marchio filius quondam Auberti marchionis, Boso comes, Gerardo filio quondam Ugonis comitis, Uberto comes de Suspiro"[42].  "Albertus marchio filio quondam Auberto marchionis" renounced his rights in Pizzo which was granted to Parma cathedral by charter dated 14 Dec 1081, among those listed as present being "domni Bosonis comitis de Sabloneta vassus et signifier episcopi Parmensis, et Anselmi comiti de Suspiro, et Vuidonis Gislardi et item Vuidonis Teudaldi et Gandulfi et Anselmi germanis"[43].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property to Pisa Cathedral by charter dated 23 May 1084 in the presence of "marchionis Alberti et Rainerii item marchionis et Ugonis comitis"[44]

b)         OBERTO di Parma (-1111).  Boso Archbishop of Parma and "Albertus Comes et Ubertus frater eius, Comes quoque Walfredus et Berta uxor eius et Ermengarda neptis eorum, Matilda…coniux bone memorie Ugonis comitis et filii eorum" donated property to the monastery of San Prospero by charter dated 1098, signed by "Berta coniux Gualfredi, Albertus filius eius"[45]Conte di Parma.  Albert of Aix names "Albertus comes…de Blandraz, Wido frater ipsius miles…Hugo de Montbeel, Otto filius sororis prædicti Alberti cognomine Altaspata, Wibertus comes civitatis Parmæ" as of the leaders of the Lombard contingent which left for Palestine in Sep 1100 as the second wave of the First Crusade in Sep, dated to 1100[46]m BERTA di Luni, daughter of Marchese OBERTO OBIZZO [I] Conte di Luni & his wife ---. 

c)         RAINERIO (-after 23 May 1084).  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property to Pisa Cathedral by charter dated 23 May 1084 in the presence of "marchionis Alberti et Rainerii item marchionis et Ugonis comitis"[47]

 

 

 

C.      CONTI di PIACENZA

 

 

1.         EVERARDO (-after Jan 895).  Conte [di Piacenza].  "Lanbertus cæsar imperator augustus" granted property "in comitatu et pago Placentino" to "fideli nostro Amalgiso", at the request of "Evurardus comes" and with the advice of "Sigefredi comitis", by charter dated Jan 895[48].  "Lantbertus…imperator augustus" granted property "in comitatu Terdonensi corticella una in Vicuciolo", at the request of "Heurardus…comes", to "cuidam vasso Heurardo", by charter dated 24 Nov 896[49]

 

 

1.         SIGIFREDO (-after 23 Jun 904).  Conte di Piacenza"Lanbertus cæsar imperator augustus" granted property "in comitatu et pago Placentino" to "fideli nostro Amalgiso", at the request of "Evurardus comes" and with the advice of "Sigefredi comitis", by charter dated Jan 895[50].  "Lanbertus…imperator augustus" confirmed property of the church of Piacenza at the request of "Sigifredus et Amadeus…comites" by charter dated Feb 895[51].  "Berengarius rex" donated property in "comitatu Mantuensi" to "fideli nostro…Aginoni vassallo Sigifredi…comitis nostri" by charter dated 29 Jul 896[52].  "Berengarius rex" donated property in "comitatu Placentino" to "fideli nostro…Vulferio", at the request of "Sigefredus comes", by charter dated 6 Jan 899[53].  "Berengarius rex" confirmed a donation of property in "comitatu Parmensi" to the church of S. Nicomede in Fontana Broccola, at the request of "Sigefredum comitem", by charter dated 6 Mar 899[54].  A charter dated Jan 903 records the presence of King Berengario and "Sigefredus comes palatii et comes ipsius comitis Placentinis..cum Everardus ipsius Placentiæ" at the judgment relating to the donation dated 30 Nov 891 by "Irmengarda…filia bone memorie domni Lodoici imperatoris" to the monastery of S. Sisto e Fabiano, witnessed by "Fulconi ex genere Francorum, Alberici ex genere Francorum, Rodini ex genere Francorum, Vuallaroni ex genere Francorum, Ratulfi ex genere Francorum"[55].  "Berengarius rex" donated "montem Cervarium" to the church of Reggio, at the request of "coniugis Berthilæ…Sigefredi…palatii comitis", by charter dated 4 Jan 904[56].  "Berengarius…rex" donated "curtem…Murgula…in territorio Bergomensi" to the church of S. Alessandro di Bergamo, at the request of "Sigefredum…palatii comitem…et Alkerium comitem", by charter dated 21 Feb 904[57].  "Berengarius…rex" donated "abbaciam…Massini…in comitatu Stacionensi" to the monastery of St Gallen, at the request of "Sigisfredi…palacii…comitis", by charter dated 1 Jun 904[58]

 

2.         WIFREDO (-after Sep 911).  Conte di Piacenza"Wifredus comes…comitato Placentino" gave judgment by charter dated Sep 911[59]

 

 

1.         GISELBERTO [I]  Comes palatii.  Ugo King of Italy confirmed privileges of the monastery of San Sisto at Placenza, in the presence of "Giselbertum…Comitem Palatii", by charter dated 3 Sep 926[60]m ROTRUD [Rosa], daughter of WALPERTUS & his wife Cristina --- (-after 29 Mar 945).  She became the mistress of Ugo King of Italy.  Liutprand names "Rozam, Walperti…filiam" as one of the concubines of King Ugo, specifying that she was given the nickname "Iunonem" by the people[61].  In an earlier passage, he names "Walperti…Rosam…gnatam suam" as wife of "Gilleberto comiti palatio", specifying that Walpert was one of the leading judges in Pavia[62] and that he was husband of Cristina[63]

 

 

1.         LANFRANCOComes palatiim ---.  The name of Lanfranco´s wife is not known.  Lanfranco & his wife had one child: 

a)         FRANCA (-after 6 Dec 955).  "Almericus…Marchio de civitate Mantua…cum Franca…jugali" appointed the bishopric of Ferrara as their heirs "Basilica Santa Maria…prope flumen Adice…[in Vangadicia]" under their testament dated 18 Jul 948, subscribed by "Opertus Comes…"[64], which suggests that the couple was childless.  "Almericus marchio et dux ex genere Francorum filius quondam item Amalrici comitis et marchionis et Franca filia bone memorie Lanfranci comes palatii jugalibus" donated property at Bagnoli to the monastery of S. Michele Arcangelo di Bronodolo by charter dated 30 Jan 954[65].  "Almericus --- idemque Amelrici et Francha…iugalibus" donated property at Adigetto to the church of S. Maria di Vangadizza by charter dated Aug 955[66].  "Francha Lanfranci et relicta…Almerici…ex natione…Langobardorum" donated property in Merlara, Altadura and Casale to the church of S. Maria di Vangadizza by charter dated 6 Dec 955[67].  A charter dated 6 Dec 954 (probably misdated from 955) records the foundation of "Basilica Santa Maria…prope flumen Adice…[in Vangadicia]" by "Domni Almerici olim Marchionis et Franca jugales" and a donation by "Francha" for the soul of "supradicti quondam Almerici…vir meus"[68]m AMALRICO, son of AMALRICO Marchese & his wife --- (-[Aug/6 Dec] 955). 

 

2.         RIPRANDOConte di Piacenzam ---.  The name of Riprando's wife is not known.  Riprando & his wife had three children: 

a)         LANFRANCO (-[25 Oct 976/15 Oct 981]).  Conte di PiacenzaComes palatii.  A charter dated 25 Oct 976 in Piacenza records the presence of "Lanfranko comite filio Riprandi atque comite" at a judgment[69]m ---.  The name of Lanfranco's wife is not known.  Lanfranco & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          GISELBERTO [II] (-before 10 Oct 1010)Conte di PiacenzaComes palatii.  A charter dated 15 Oct 981 in Piacenza confirms donations of "Giselbertus comes palacii filius quondam Lanfranci itemque comes palatii, et Alsinda iugalibus"[70]

-         CONTI di BERGAMO

ii)         [LANFRANCO (-after 26 May 988).  A charter dated 26 May 988 "in castro Munte Collere" confirmed a judgment by "Gislebertus comes palacii et comes…comitatu Bergomensis", in the presence of "Lanfrancus item comes", relating to a donation by "Gandulfus comes filius quondam Riprandi itemque comes…"[71].  The relationship, if any, between Giselberto and Lanfranco is not known, although their names suggest that they were closely related, maybe brothers.] 

b)         GANDOLFO (-after 26 May 988).  A charter dated 26 May 988 "in castro Munte Collere" confirmed the judgment by "Gislebertus comes palacii et comes…comitatu Bergomensis", in the presence of "Lanfrancus item comes", relating to a donation by "Gandulfus comes filius quondam Riprandi itemque comes [legem…Langobardorum] et Ermengarda [ex nacione…Salicha] iugalibus, filia bone memorie Wiberti…comes et item Riprandus seu item Wibertus iermanis filii ipsorum iugalium" to the church of Cremona, adding that Ermengarda confirmed the consent of "Ato filio suo qui ipsa Ermengarda de anterior vir suum abet, et Gandulfus abiatico suo seu Giselbertus nepus suum", signed by "Atoni et Gandulfi seu Giselberti, qui eadem Ermengarda ienetrix et avia seu amita suorum"[72]m as her second husband, ERMENGARDA, widow of ---, daughter of Conte WIBERTO & his wife --- (-after 29 Oct 1010).  A charter dated 26 May 988 "in castro Munte Collere" confirmed the donation by "Gandulfus comes filius quondam Riprandi itemque comes [legem…Langobardorum] et Ermengarda [ex nacione…Salicha] iugalibus, filia bone memorie Wiberti…comes…" to the church of Cremona, adding that Ermengarda confirmed the consent of "Ato filio suo qui ipsa Ermengarda de anterior vir suum abet, et Gandulfus abiatico suo seu Giselbertus nepus suum", signed by "Atoni et Gandulfi seu Giselberti, qui eadem Ermengarda ienetrix et avia seu amita suorum"[73].  "Ermengarda cometissa filia bone memorie Wiberti qui fuit comes…ex nacione mea lege vivere salica" sold "castrum…Ioianingo" to "Stephanus presbiter" by charter dated 29 Oct 1010[74].  Gandolfo & his wife had two children: 

i)          RIPRANDO (-after 4 Dec 1010).  A charter dated 26 May 988 "in castro Munte Collere" confirmed the donation by "Gandulfus comes filius quondam Riprandi itemque comes [legem…Langobardorum] et Ermengarda [ex nacione…Salicha] iugalibus, filia bone memorie Wiberti…comes et item Riprandus seu item Wibertus iermanis filii ipsorum iugalium" to the church of Cremona[75].  The testament of "Stephanus presbiter de loco Muntecollare et filius quondam Anzeverti", dated 4 Dec 1010, refers to the sale of "castro…Ioianingo" to him by "Ermengarda cometissa" and names "bone memorie Gandulfi et Riprandi seu Wiberti pater et filii…vir et filii ipsius Ermengarde comitisse…Gandulfi filius quondam item Riprandi""[76].  

ii)         WIBERTO (-after 4 Dec 1010).  A charter dated 26 May 988 "in castro Munte Collere" confirmed the donation by "Gandulfus comes filius quondam Riprandi itemque comes [legem…Langobardorum] et Ermengarda [ex nacione…Salicha] iugalibus, filia bone memorie Wiberti…comes et item Riprandus seu item Wibertus iermanis filii ipsorum iugalium" to the church of Cremona[77].  The testament of "Stephanus presbiter de loco Muntecollare et filius quondam Anzeverti", dated 4 Dec 1010, refers to the sale of "castro…Ioianingo" to him by "Ermengarda cometissa" and names "bone memorie Gandulfi et Riprandi seu Wiberti pater et filii…vir et filii ipsius Ermengarde comitisse…Gandulfi filius quondam item Riprandi""[78].  

c)         --- di Piacenza .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ODDONE [di Monferrato], son of ALERAMO Lord of the March of Monferrato & his first wife --- (-before 991). 

 

3.         RIPRANDO (-after 22 May 996).  Conte di Piacenza"Ardoinus Comes Palacii" passed judgment on "Walpertus Judex" in a dispute relating to the church of Cremona, in the presence of "Riprandus Comes…", by charter dated 22 May 996[79]

 

4.         LANFRANCO (-after 1009).  Conte di PiacenzaA charter dated 1009 records the confirmation of a sale of property in the presence of "Lanfrancus et Ugo comitibus Placentine"[80].  

5.         UGO (-after 1009).  Conte di PiacenzaA charter dated 1009 records the confirmation of a sale of property in the presence of "Lanfrancus et Ugo comitibus Placentine"[81].  

 

 

 

D.      DUKES of RAVENNA

 

 

1.         MARTIN, son of --- (-before Sep 896)Duke of Ravennam INGELRADA, daughter of HUCBALD & his wife Andaberta --- (-[8 Sep 896/27 Sep 899]).  "Ingelarda filia Apaldi Comitis Palatii" donated property to "Petro…Diacono…Ravennasis Ecclesiæ" by charter dated Sep 896 which names "quondam Martini…Duci…viri mei…ceteris filiis et filiabus meis"[82].  Martin & his wife had [five or more] children: 

a)         PIETRO (-after Sep 896).  "Ingelarda filia Apaldi Comitis Palatii" donated property to "Petro…Diacono…Ravennasis Ecclesiæ" by charter dated Sep 896 which names "quondam Martini…Duci…viri mei…ceteris filiis et filiabus meis"[83].  Deacon of Ravenna. 

b)         sons .  "Ingelarda filia Apaldi Comitis Palatii" donated property to "Petro…Diacono…Ravennasis Ecclesiæ" by charter dated Sep 896 which names "quondam Martini…Duci…viri mei…ceteris filiis et filiabus meis"[84]

c)         daughters .  "Ingelarda filia Apaldi Comitis Palatii" donated property to "Petro…Diacono…Ravennasis Ecclesiæ" by charter dated Sep 896 which names "quondam Martini…Duci…viri mei…ceteris filiis et filiabus meis"[85]

 

 

2.         SEVERO (-before 11 May 973).  m ---.  The name of Severo´s wife is not known.  Severo & his wife had one child: 

a)         PIETRO (-[11 May 973/9 Jan 977]).  Dux.  "Petrus…dux et comes fil. gd. Severi comitis" donated property to San Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, with the knowledge of "Acia…comitissima iugali", by charter dated 11 May 973, signed by "…Lambertus comes…Petrus fil. gd. Andreas ex genere ducum…E[nricus] fil. Romualdo dux…Romualdus fil. Sergius dux"[86]m ACIA, daughter of ---.  "Petrus…dux et comes fil. gd. Severi comitis" donated property to San Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, with the knowledge of "Acia…comitissima iugali", by charter dated 11 May 973[87]m ---.  The name of Pietro´s wife is not known.  Pietro & his wife had one child: 

i)          ANDREA (-after 9 Jan 977).  "…Andreas filio cd. Petrus consule…" signed the charter dated 9 Jan 977 under which "Martinus qui vocor Capasuto" donated property to San Apollinare Nuovo[88]

 

3.         ROMOALD .  Dux.  m ---.  The name of Romoald´s wife is not known.  Romoald & his wife had one child: 

a)         ENRICO (-after 16 Jul 983).  "Petrus…dux et comes fil. gd. Severi comitis" donated property to San Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, with the knowledge of "Acia…comitissima iugali", by charter dated 11 May 973, signed by "…Lambertus comes…Petrus fil. gd. Andreas ex genere ducum…E[nricus] fil. Romualdo dux…Romualdus fil. Sergius dux"[89].  "…Enrigo filio Romualdus dux…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[90]

 

4.         PAOLO (-after 16 Jul 983).  "Paulus diac--- ex genere ducum et Gerardus germanus eius…Petrus dux de Traversaria et Petrus item dux consanguineo suo et filiis eorum Iohanni et Amelricus seo Randoyno germanis ducibus, Rodaldus et Andreas germani magistri militibus et filii eorum Adelbertus et Sergius germanis ducibus, Iohannes consulis qui v. Rava…Petrus consul qui v. de Augusta…Mauricius et Petrus et Iohannis germanis consulibus, Geriardus consulis…Romualdus consul, Enrigo filio Romualdus dux…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[91]

5.         GERARDO (-after 16 Jul 983).  "Paulus diac--- ex genere ducum et Gerardus germanus eius…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[92]

 

 

1.         PIETRO (-after 16 Jul 983).  "…Petrus dux de Traversaria et Petrus item dux consanguineo suo et filiis eorum Iohanni et Amelricus seo Randoyno germanis ducibus…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[93]

2.         PIETRO (-after 16 Jul 983).  "…Petrus dux de Traversaria et Petrus item dux consanguineo suo et filiis eorum Iohanni et Amelricus seo Randoyno germanis ducibus…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[94]m ---.  The name of Pietro´s wife is not known.  Pietro & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         [GIOVANNI .  "…Petrus dux de Traversaria et Petrus item dux consanguineo suo et filiis eorum Iohanni et Amelricus seo Randoyno germanis ducibus…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[95].  The identity of the father of three brothers is unclear from this document.] 

b)         [AMALRICO .  "…Petrus dux de Traversaria et Petrus item dux consanguineo suo et filiis eorum Iohanni et Amelricus seo Randoyno germanis ducibus…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[96]

c)         [RANDOINO .  "…Petrus dux de Traversaria et Petrus item dux consanguineo suo et filiis eorum Iohanni et Amelricus seo Randoyno germanis ducibus…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[97]

 

 

1.         MAURITIO (-after 16 Jul 983).  "…Mauricius et Petrus et Iohannis germanis consulibus, Geriardus consulis…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[98]

2.         PIETRO (-after 16 Jul 983).  "…Mauricius et Petrus et Iohannis germanis consulibus, Geriardus consulis…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[99]

3.         GIOVANNI (-after 16 Jul 983).  "…Mauricius et Petrus et Iohannis germanis consulibus, Geriardus consulis…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[100]

 

4.         GERARDO (-after 16 Jul 983).  "…Mauricius et Petrus et Iohannis germanis consulibus, Geriardus consulis…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[101]

 

 

1.         SERGIO .  Dux.  m ---.  The name of Sergio´s wife is not known.  Sergio & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROMOALD (-after 11 May 973).  "Petrus…dux et comes fil. gd. Severi comitis" donated property to San Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, with the knowledge of "Acia…comitissima iugali", by charter dated 11 May 973, signed by "…Lambertus comes…Petrus fil. gd. Andreas ex genere ducum…E[nricus] fil. Romualdo dux…Romualdus fil. Sergius dux"[102].  

 

2.         RODOALD (-after 16 Jul 983).  "…Rodaldus et Andreas germani magistri militibus et filii eorum Adelbertus et Sergius germanis ducibus…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[103]m ---.  The name of Rodoald´s wife is not known.  Rodoald & his wife had one child: 

a)         ADALBERTO (-before 27 Aug 1013).  Duke of Ravenna.  "…Rodaldus et Andreas germani magistri militibus et filii eorum Adelbertus et Sergius germanis ducibus…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[104]m ---.  The name of Adalberto´s wife is not known.  Adalberto & his wife had one child: 

i)          PIETRO (-after 27 Aug 1013).  A charter dated 27 Aug 1013 at Ravenna records the presence of "Petrus filius quondam Adelberti ducis et Albertus filius quondam Sergii ducis…"[105]

3.         ANDREA (-after 16 Jul 983).  "…Andreas ex genere magistri militum…" signed the charter dated 14 --- 982 under which "Honestus cler…abb. mon. Ss. Marci et Marcelli seo Felic[ule]" donated property to San Apollinare Nuovo[106].  "…Rodaldus et Andreas germani magistri militibus et filii eorum Adelbertus et Sergius germanis ducibus…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[107]m ---.  The name of Andrea´s wife is not known.  Andrea & his wife had one child: 

a)         SERGIO (-before 27 Aug 1013).  Duke of Ravenna.  "…Rodaldus et Andreas germani magistri militibus et filii eorum Adelbertus et Sergius germanis ducibus…" issued a judgment relating to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 16 Jul 983[108].  A charter dated 27 Aug 1013 at Ravenna records the presence of "Petrus filius quondam Adelberti ducis et Albertus filius quondam Sergii ducis…"[109]m ---.  The name of Sergio´s wife is not known.  Sergio & his wife had one child: 

i)          ALBERTO (-after 27 Aug 1013).  A charter dated 27 Aug 1013 at Ravenna records the presence of "Petrus filius quondam Adelberti ducis et Albertus filius quondam Sergii ducis…"[110]

 

 

 

E.      CONTI di REGGIO

 

 

1.         ALBOINO (-after [902/13]).  Conte [di Reggio].  "Berengarius rex" permitted "nostro fideli Lupo" to build a castle "in villa Gurgo super fluvio Bondeno comitatu Regense", at the request of "Petrus…Regensis…episcopus et Alboinus comes", by charter dated to [902/13][111]

 

 

SIGIFREDO, son of --- .  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the arrival "in comitatu Lucensium" of "comes Sigifredus…cum tribus filiis…Sigifredus, Atto, Gerardus"[112].  A nobleman originating in the county of Lucca, he and his three sons installed themselves in Lombardy in [940] and built the castle of Canossa to the south-west of Reggio-Emilia overlooking the plain of Po[113]

m ---.  The name of Sigefredo's wife has not yet been identified. 

Sigefredo & his wife had four children: 

1.         SIGIFREDO-SIGESO (-after 972).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the arrival "in comitatu Lucensium" of "comes Sigifredus…cum tribus filiis…Sigifredus, Atto, Gerardus" and the marriage of "Sigifredus [iunior]" and "nobile domina…in episcopato civitatis Parme…Baratinam"[114].  In the county of Lucca 12 Oct 962.  In the city of Parma 3 Jan 969.  m BARATINA, daughter of --- from Parma.  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the marriage of "Sigifredus [iunior]" and "nobile domina…in episcopato civitatis Parme…Baratinam"[115].  Sigefredo & his wife had four children: 

a)         ALCHINDA (-after [973/75]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She sold the castle of Carcinato [14 Feb 973/975].  m UGO di Belusco, brother of ODALRICO Conte di Bergamo, son of ---. 

b)         SIGIFREDO (-1015 or after).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Bishop of Parma 981/1015. 

c)         RICHELDA (-after 1034).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m WIDO di Antesica, son of ADAM de Antesica & his wife ---. 

d)         BARATTO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Maybe ancestor of the family BARATTI in Parma[116]

2.         daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m WALINGO de Candia, son of ---. 

3.         ADALBERTO ATTO (-13 Feb after 975, bur Church of St Appollonius near Canossa[117]).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the arrival "in comitatu Lucensium" of "comes Sigifredus…cum tribus filiis…Sigifredus, Atto, Gerardus" and the building of "arcem Canosinam" by "comes Atto secundus frater" in May 915[118], although this date appears to be extremely early in light of the other known details of Atto's career.  Adelaide Queen of Italy, widow of Lothar King of Italy, took refuge in the castle of Canossa after escaping from imprisonment by Berengario d´Ivrea who installed himself as King of Italy after the death of her husband in 950.  "Atto filio quondam…Attoni de Comitatu Parmense" received money from "Adalberto qui et Atto, consobrino meo, filio quondam Aigefredi de Comitatu Lucensi" in 958[119].  Adalberto Atto offered her hand in marriage to Emperor Otto I, who obliged King Berengario to raise his siege of Canossa.  He was referred to as Count in a [958/61] document, and as Conte di Reggio e Modena in 20 Apr 962.  He was created Count of Mantua in 977[120].  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the death "Id Feb" of "Atto" and his burial "in arce Canusina"[121]m ILDEGARDE, daughter of --- (-11 Jan [982], bur Canossa).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "comitissam Ildegarda" as wife of "comes Atto", recording that she built "monasterium de Brixill", and her death "III Id Jan" and burial "in arce Canusina"[122].  Adalberto Atto & his wife had four children: 

a)         RODOLFO (-21 Jul [973/74], bur Canossa).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "Tedaldum marchionum…Gottifredus…Rodulfus" as the three sons of "comes Atto" & his wife[123].  He predeceased his father.  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the death "XXII Aug" of "Rodulfus" and his burial "in arce Canusina"[124]

b)         TEDALDO (-8 May [1012], bur Canossa).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "Tedaldum marchionum…Gottifredus…Rodulfus" as the three sons of "comes Atto" & his wife[125].  Referred to as Count in Dec 975.  Marchese.  Conte di Reggio.  "Teudaldus Marchio et Comes…Comitatu Regensis Comitatus" passed judgment in a property dispute, in the presence of "Bonefacius filio eidem Teudaldi Marchio…", by charter dated 30 Sep 1001[126].  After the death of Emperor Otto III in 1002, Marchese Tedaldo did not support Ardoino Marchese d'Ivrea who had himself crowned king of Italy.  After the latter was defeated by Emperor Heinrich II in 1004, Marchese Tedaldo swore allegiance to the emperor at Bergamo.  He acquired Ferrara, and founded the abbey of San Benedetto in Jun 1007 after the death of his wife[127].  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the death "VIII Id Mai" of "Tedaldus marchio" and his burial "in arce Canusina"[128]m GUILLIA [Willa], daughter of [129][TEUBALDO Marchese and Duke of Spoleto & his wife ---] (-30 Aug before 1007, bur Florence[130]).  She is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[131] as the possible daughter of Duke Teobaldo but the primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "comitissa Giuliam" as wife of "dux et marchio Tedaldus" and her death "penultime die Aug"[132].  The Poema de Vita Comitissæ Mathildis names "Guillia dicta Ducatrix" as the wife of "Tedaldi"[133], and it is supposed that the speculation concerning her Spoletan origin is based on this source.  Tedaldo & his wife had three children: 

i)          BONIFAZIO ([985]-San Martino all'Argine May 1052, bur Mantua Cathedral).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "Tedaldum episcopum urbis Aretine et Bonifacium…et Conradum" as the three sons of "dux et marchio Tedaldus" & his wife[134].  He was installed as BONIFAZIO Marchese of Tuscany in 1027. 

-         MARCHESI of TUSCANY

ii)         TEDALDO (-1036).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "Tedaldum episcopum urbis Aretine et Bonifacium…et Conradum" as the three sons of "dux et marchio Tedaldus" & his wife[135].  Bishop of Arezzo 1023. 

iii)        CORRADO (-Mantua 13 Jul 1021, bur Canossa).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "Tedaldum episcopum urbis Aretine et Bonifacium…et Conradum" as the three sons of "dux et marchio Tedaldus" & his wife[136].  He led a rebellion of certain vassals of his brother, on the promise of the hand of marriage of one of their daughters.  His troops were defeated in early summer 1021 at Coviolo, and Corrado later died from wounds received during the battle[137].  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the death "tercio Iulii" of "Conradus" and his burial "in arce Canusina"[138]

c)         PRANGARDA .  The primary source which confirms the name and origin of the wife of Marchese Manfredo has not yet been identified.  m (before 8 Mar 991) MANFREDO I Marchese of Turin, son of ARDOINO "Glabrio" Marchese of Turin & his wife --- (-[1000]).   

d)         GOFFREDO (-after [998]).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "Tedaldum marchionum…Gottifredus…Rodulfus" as the three sons of "comes Atto" & his wife, specifying that Goffredo was Bishop of Brescia[139].  Bishop of Brescia 970/[998].  Maybe Bishop of Lumi 981/88. 

4.         GERARDO (-before 10 Jun 998).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the arrival "in comitatu Lucensium" of "comes Sigifredus…cum tribus filiis…Sigifredus, Atto, Gerardus" and the marriage of "Gerardus" and "nobile domina…in episcopate civitatis Parme…Gibertinam"[140]m GIBERTINA, daughter of --- from Parma.  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the marriage of "Gerardus" and "nobile domina…in episcopate civitatis Parme…Gibertinam"[141].  Gerardo & his wife had two children: 

a)         BERARDO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  At Vestola 995. 

b)         ADALBERTO (-after 1015).  The primary source which confirms his parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  In the county of Parma 998/1015.  m ERMENGARDA, daughter of --- (-after 1007). 

 

 

1.         GUIDO (-before Apr 1073).  Conte di Reggiom ALDEGARDA, daughter of ---.  "Odo et Ardoino fratres et filii quondam Guidonis de comitatu Regiensi atque Aldegarda mater ipsorum" confirmed their father´s foundation in the cathedral of Reggio by charter dated 10 Apr 1073[142].  Guido & his wife had two children: 

a)         ODDONE .  "Odo et Ardoino fratres et filii quondam Guidonis de comitatu Regiensi atque Aldegarda mater ipsorum" confirmed their father´s foundation in the cathedral of Reggio by charter dated 10 Apr 1073[143]

b)         ARDOINO .  "Odo et Ardoino fratres et filii quondam Guidonis de comitatu Regiensi atque Aldegarda mater ipsorum" confirmed their father´s foundation in the cathedral of Reggio by charter dated 10 Apr 1073[144]

 

 

 

F.      CONTI di SABBIONETTA

 

 

1.         BOSO (-[14 Dec 1081/10 Dec 1091]).  "Heinricus…rex" confirmed the rights of Parma cathedral by charter dated 3 Dec 1081, among those listed as present being "Albertus marchio filius quondam Auberti marchionis, Boso comes, Gerardo filio quondam Ugonis comitis, Uberto comes de Suspiro"[145]Conte di Sabbionetta.  "Albertus marchio filiuo quondam Auberto marchionis" renounced his rights in Pizzo which was granted to Parma cathedral by charter dated 14 Dec 1081, among those listed as present being "domni Bosonis comitis de Sabloneta vassus et signifier episcopi Parmensis, et Anselmi comiti de Suspiro, et Vuidonis Gislardi et item Vuidonis Teudaldi et Gandulfi et Anselmi germanis"[146]m ---.  The name of Boso´s wife is not known.  Boso & his wife had one child: 

a)         UGO .  "Ucho Comes filius quondam Bosoni…Comitis de…Sabloneda" donated property to the monastery of San Prospero by charter dated 10 Dec 1091[147]

 

 

 

G.      OTHER COUNTS in EMILIO ROMAGNA

 

 

1.         ODALRICO (-after Oct 920).  A charter dated Apr 915 records a judgment at Pavia which confirmed possessions of the abbot of Bobbio Teodelassio, in the presence of "Odelricus vassus et missus domni regis…Radaldus…comes et marchio et Gotefredus advocatus"[148].  "Berengarius…rex" granted property "in…Plumbiensis commitatus…Peronate, Terdoblade, Cammari et Galiade" to "Leoni…Novariensis eclesie vicedomino", at the request of "Iohannes…Ticinensis…episcopus et Odelricus comes et marchio…palatii nostri", by charter dated to [911/15][149].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" granted property "curtem…Girpa…cum capella…de comitatu Veronensi" to "Ingelfredo…comiti", at the request of "Grimaldum…comitem…et Oldelricum…marchionem", by charter dated 916[150].  A charter dated Jan 918 records the presence of "Berengarius…imperator augustus…Odelricus…marchio et missus domni imperatoris…Ingelfredus comes istius comitatu…Grimaldus et Tiso comitibus…" at a hearing in Verona relating to the property of the monastery of Nonantola and quotes a document which names "domnus Anselmus comes comitatu Veronensis et filius bone memorie Vualdoni ex genere Francorum"[151].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" permitted "Rotgerio…Ticinensis eclesie diacono" to build near a public highway "infra civitatem Papiam", at the request of "Odelricum…marchionem", by charter dated 13 Nov 918[152].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" donated "curte…Sexpilas" to the church of Cremona, at the request of "Grimaldum…comitem…et Odelricum…marchionem", by charter dated 26 Dec 918[153].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" donated "situm in vico Gepuli adiacentem in Viginticolonno commitatu Bulgariensi" to "Ticinensis ecclesie diacono Rothkerio", at the request of "Odelricus…marchio", by charter dated 14 Oct 919[154].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" permitted the bishop of Novara to hold an annual market, at the request of "Grimaldus et Odelricus…marchiones", by charter dated 17 Nov 919[155].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" donated property for the support of canons at the abbey of S. Giovanni Battista in Monza, at the request of "Odelrici…marchionis…palacii…comitis", by charter dated 1 Jul 920[156].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" donated property "in comitatu Veronense" formerly belonging to "Vualfredi…comitis ad eundem comitatum" to "Hermenfredo…capellano subdiacono…Veronensis ecclesiæ", at the request of "Odelricum…marchionem et Guntari…comitem", by charter dated 4 Sep 920[157].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" granted rights to the church of Parma, at the request of "Grimaldum et Odelricum…comites", by charter dated Oct 920[158]

 

2.         RADOALDO (-after Apr 915).  "Lanbertus…imperator augustus" donated property "de comitatu Regiensi…in loco…Ripa Alta" to "Ingelberto…vicecomiti Parmensi", at the request of "genitrix nostra Ageltruda…imperatrix augusta…cum Liutaldo…vasso nostro…vasso…Radaldi…comitis atque summi consilarii nostri", by charter dated 6 Dec 895[159].  A charter dated Apr 915 records a judgment at Pavia which confirmed possessions of the abbot of Bobbio Teodelassio, in the presence of "Odelricus vassus et missus domni regis…Radaldus…comes et marchio et Gotefredus advocatus"[160]

 

3.         WIBERTO .  Conte.  m ---.  The name of Wiberto´s wife is not known.  Wiberto & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         ERMENGARDA (-after 29 Oct 1010).  A charter dated 26 May 988 "in castro Munte Collere" confirmed the donation by "Gandulfus comes filius quondam Riprandi itemque comes [legem…Langobardorum] et Ermengarda [ex nacione…Salicha] iugalibus, filia bone memorie Wiberti…comes…" to the church of Cremona, adding that Ermengarda confirmed the consent of "Ato filio suo qui ipsa Ermengarda de anterior vir suum abet, et Gandulfus abiatico suo seu Giselbertus nepus suum", signed by "Atoni et Gandulfi seu Giselberti, qui eadem Ermengarda ienetrix et avia seu amita suorum"[161].  "Ermengarda cometissa filia bone memorie Wiberti qui fuit comes…ex nacione mea lege vivere salica" sold "castrum…Ioianingo" to "Stephanus presbiter" by charter dated 29 Oct 1010[162].  m firstly ---, son of ---.  m secondly GANDOLFO, son of RIPRANDO Conte di Piacenza & his wife --- (-after 26 May 988). 

b)         --- .  It is not known whether Giselberto´s father or mother was the sibling of Ermengarda.  m ---.  One child: 

i)          GISELBERTO (-after 26 May 988).  A charter dated 26 May 988 confirmed the donation by "Gandulfus comes filius quondam Riprandi itemque comes [legem…Langobardorum] et Ermengarda [ex nacione…Salicha] iugalibus, filia bone memorie Wiberti…comes…" to the church of Cremona, adding that Ermengarda confirmed the consent of "Ato filio suo qui ipsa Ermengarda de anterior vir suum abet, et Gandulfus abiatico suo seu Giselbertus nepus suum", signed by "Atoni et Gandulfi seu Giselberti, qui eadem Ermengarda ienetrix et avia seu amita suorum"[163]

 

4.         --- .  m as her first husband, ERMENGARDA, daughter of WIBERTO & his wife --- (-after 26 May 988).  One child: 

a)         ATTO (-after 26 May 988).  A charter dated 26 May 988 confirmed the donation by "Gandulfus comes filius quondam Riprandi itemque comes [legem…Langobardorum] et Ermengarda [ex nacione…Salicha] iugalibus, filia bone memorie Wiberti…comes…" to the church of Cremona, adding that Ermengarda confirmed the consent of "Ato filio suo qui ipsa Ermengarda de anterior vir suum abet, et Gandulfus abiatico suo seu Giselbertus nepus suum", signed by "Atoni et Gandulfi seu Giselberti, qui eadem Ermengarda ienetrix et avia seu amita suorum"[164]m ---.  The name of Atto´s wife is not known.  Atto & his wife had one child: 

i)          GANDOLFO .  A charter dated 26 May 988 confirmed the donation by "Gandulfus comes filius quondam Riprandi itemque comes [legem…Langobardorum] et Ermengarda [ex nacione…Salicha] iugalibus, filia bone memorie Wiberti…comes…" to the church of Cremona, adding that Ermengarda confirmed the consent of "Ato filio suo qui ipsa Ermengarda de anterior vir suum abet, et Gandulfus abiatico suo seu Giselbertus nepus suum", signed by "Atoni et Gandulfi seu Giselberti, qui eadem Ermengarda ienetrix et avia seu amita suorum"[165]

 

5.         --- .  m RICHILDE, daughter of ---.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted property in Trecentulla confiscated from "Berengario et Hugone filiis Sigefredi comitis nostro imperio rebellantibus" to "Richilde comitisse" by charter dated 1016[166]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    FRIULIA

 

 

A.      DUKES of FRIULIA [569]-625

 

 

The present-day Italian regions of Friuli lies in north-eastern Italy, to the east of Veneto.  The peninsula of Istria, now split between the modern republics of Slovenia and Croatia, was previously part of Italian territory. 

 

The Lombard dukedom of Friulia was established at the time of the Lombard migration into Italy in [569].  Pressure from other so-called barbarian peoples to the east had provided an additional incentive for the Lombard departure from Pannonia.  The area of Friulia represented the first line of defence for the new Lombard homeland against such attacks and required strong local administration.  This requirement proved justified as early as the late 6th century, when the first of numerous successive Avar invasions is recorded in Lombard primary sources.  After the death in [641] of Grasulf, last duke of the line of Gisulf first duke of Friulia, twelve dukes are recorded in Friulia until the mid-8th century.  Among these, only three documented cases have been identified in which a duke was succeeded by a relative: Ado succeeded his brother Rodoald some time towards the end of the 8th century, and Ratchis and his brother Aistulf (who both later succeeded as kings of the Lombards) succeeded their father Pemmo in the mid-8th century.  While it is possible that some of these later dukes were related to each other, the relationships are not mentioned in the sources.  It is more probable that the appointment of unrelated dukes was a conscious policy of the Lombard kings to prevent the emergence of a competing dynastic force. 

 

The march of Friulia was reorganised in 828 into four counties, Carantania and Lower Pannonia in the north, and two others in the south whose names have not yet been identified.  All four counties were transferred from the Italian kingdom to the jurisdiction of the kingdom of the East Franks under the rule of King Ludwig II "der Deutsche"[167].  The march of Friulia ceased to exist during the reign of Berengario I King of Italy[168]

 

No record has been found of any rulers of Friulia between "Baldrico comite Foroiuliense" in 826 (see below) and the appointment of Eberhard, son of Unruoch, as duke of the march of Friulia, probably dated to the 840s.  There is a similar absence of information relating to any Friulian rulers after the death of Waltfred in 896 and the mention of Weriand count in Istria and Friulia in the first half of the 11th century.  For post-9th century rulers of Istria, including the march of Carniola and the duchy of Merano, see the document CARINTHIA. 

 

Other medieval counties identified in Friuli are Gorizia, Pisino, Porcia and Trieste.  See the document CARINTHIA for the counts of Gorizia (Görz in German).  No information has yet been found on the counts in the other three counties. 

 

 

 

GISULF, son of --- .  Shield-bearer of Alboin King of the Lombards, who installed him as duke in the region of Friuli after the Longobard migration into Italy in [569][169], in effect succeeding as GISULF I Duke of Friulia.  Paulus Diaconus records that King Alboin installed "Gisulfum…suum nepotem" as "ducem…[in] Foroiulanæ civitati"[170].  The Chronicle of Andreas Bergomatis records that Alboin conceded Friuli to "nepoti sui Gisolfi"[171].  The precise relationship between Gisulf and King Alboin is unknown and may have been more remote than implied by "nephew" if the word nepos if translated strictly in these passages. 

m ---.  The name of the wife of Duke Gisulf has not yet been identified. 

Duke Gisulf & his wife had two children: 

1.         GISULF (-killed in battle Friulia 610).  The primary source which confirms that Gisulf was the son of Duke Gisulf I has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father as GISULF II Duke of Friulia.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Gaidoaldus dux de Tridento et Gisulfus de Foroiuli" rebelled against Agilolf King of the Lombards but were pardoned[172].  His importance as ruler in Friulia is shown by Paulus Diaconus specifying that the installation of "Iohannes" as Patriarch of Aquileja was "cum consensu regis et Gisulfi ducis"[173].  Paulus Diaconus records that "rex Avarum" launched another invasion during which "Gisulfus Foroiulianis dux" was killed[174]m ROMILDA, daughter of ---.  Paulus Diaconus names "Romilda" as wife of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when he records her escape with her children after her husband was killed[175].  Duke Gisulf & his wife had eight children: 

a)         TASO (-executed Opitergium 625).  Paulus Diaconus names "Taso et Cacco iam adulescentes, Raduald…et Grimuald adhuc in puerili ætate" as the sons of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when recording their escape after their father was killed[176].  He succeeded his father in 610 as TASO Duke of Friulia.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Taso et Cacco filii eius" succeeded as dukes of Friulia after the death of their father[177]

b)         CACCO (-executed Opitergium 625).  Paulus Diaconus names "Taso et Cacco iam adulescentes, Raduald…et Grimuald adhuc in puerili ætate" as the sons of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when recording their escape after their father was killed[178].  He succeeded his father in 610 as CACCO Duke of Friulia.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Taso et Cacco filii eius" succeeded as dukes of Friulia after the death of their father[179]

c)         RADOALD (-[647/48]).  Paulus Diaconus names "Taso et Cacco iam adulescentes, Raduald…et Grimuald adhuc in puerili ætate" as the sons of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when recording their escape after their father was killed[180].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Radoald…et Grimoald" went to Benevento to join "Arichis Beneventanorum ducem"[181].  He fled to Benevento with his brother Romuald after the execution of their two older brothers.  He succeeded his relative Aion I in [641/42] as RADOALD Duke of Benevento

d)         GRIMOALD (-671, bur Ticinum, Basilica of St Ambrosius).  Paulus Diaconus names "Taso et Cacco iam adulescentes, Raduald…et Grimuald adhuc in puerili ætate" as the sons of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", when recording Grimoald's difficulty in escaping after the death of their father[182].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Radoald…et Grimoald" went to Benevento to join "Arichis Beneventanorum ducem"[183].  He fled to Benevento with his brother Radoald after the execution of their two older brothers.  He succeeded his brother in [647/48] as GRIMOALD I Duke of Benevento

-        DUKES of BENEVENTO

e)         APPA .  Paulus Diaconus names "una Appa alia Gaila…duarum vero nomina non retinemus" as the daughters of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", recording that one later married "Alamannorum regi, alia…Baioariorum principi", without specifying which[184].  [m --- [Duke of Alamannia] ---.  The identity of this Alamannian duke is not known, assuming that the report of Paulus Diaconus is accurate.] 

f)          GAILA .  Paulus Diaconus names "una Appa alia Gaila…duarum vero nomina non retinemus" as the daughters of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", recording that one later married "Alamannorum regi, alia…Baioariorum principi", without specifying which[185].  [m --- [Duke of Bavaria] ---.  The identity of this Bavarian duke has not yet been identified, assuming that the report of Paulus Diaconus is accurate.] 

g)         daughter .  Paulus Diaconus names "una Appa alia Gaila…duarum vero nomina non retinemus" as the daughters of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux"[186]

h)         daughter .  Paulus Diaconus names "una Appa alia Gaila…duarum vero nomina non retinemus" as the daughters of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux"[187]

2.         GRASULF (-[641]).  Paulus Diaconus names "Grasulfus, Gisulfi germanus" when recording that he was installed as "dux Foroiulanis"[188].  Paulus Diaconus records the death of "aput Foroiuli Grasulfo duce" and the accession of Ago, the passage being undated but immediately following the report of the death of Emperor Heraclius which is dated to 641[189].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Ago" succeeded on the death of "Grasulfo Foroiulanorum duce", and after the death of Ago, "Lupus"[190]

The precise relationship between Arichis and Duke Gisulf II has not yet been identified: 

3.         ARICHIS, son of --- .  Paulus Diaconus records the death of "Zottone Beneventanorum duce", specifying that "Arigis" was appointed to succeed as missus by King Agilulf, specifying that he was "consanguineus" of "Gisulfi Foroiulani ducis" (presumably referring to Duke Gisulf II) whose sons he had educated[191].  The precise relationship between Duke Gisulf and Arichis has not yet been identified.  According to the Chronicon Ducum Beneventi, Salerni, Capuæ et Neapolis, "Archis" was installed as ARICHIS I Duke of Benevento in [604/05] and ruled 50 years[192] but the period is exaggerated. 

-        DUKES of BENEVENTO

 

 

1.         AGODuke of Friulia.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Ago" succeeded on the death of "Grasulfo Foroiulanorum duce"[193]

 

1.         LUPUS (-killed in battle ----).  Duke of Friulia.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Lupus" succeeded as Duke of Friulia on the death of Ago, and was attacked by the khagan of the Avars and killed[194], but neither event can be dated from the primary sources so far consulted.  m ---.  The name and origin of Duke Lupus's wife are not known.  Duke Lupus & his wife had two children: 

a)         AMEFRIT (-Nemas ----).  Paulus Diaconus names "Amefrit, eius filius [Lupo]" when recording that he claimed the succession after his father was killed but was expelled by the army of King Grimoald, fled to the Slavs and died "aput Nemas castrum"[195]

b)         THEUDERADA (-after 690).  Paulus Diaconus records that "Grimualdus rex…suo filio Romualdo" married "Lupo duce…filiam eius Theuderadam" after her father's death[196].  "Theuderada" is named wife of Duke Romuald in the Benedicti Chronicon, but her origin is not given[197].  Romuald married her after her father, who had rebelled against King Grimoald, was killed.  She was regent in 690 during the minority of her son Duke Gisulf[198]m ([664]) ROMUALD, son of GRIMOALD I Duke of Benevento, King of the Lombards & his first wife --- (-687).  He succeeded his father in 671 as ROMUALD I Duke of Benevento

 

1.         WECHTARIDuke of Friulia.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Wechtari, qui fuit oriundus de Vincentina civitate" succeeded Amefrit in Friulia, and also suffered attacks by the Slavs[199], but neither event can be dated from the primary sources so far consulted. 

 

 

1.         LAUDARIDuke of Friulia.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Laudari" succeeded Wechtari as Duke of Friulia[200], but this event cannot be dated from the primary sources so far consulted. 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         RODOALDDuke of Friulia.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Rodoald" succeeded Laudari as Duke of Friulia[201], but this event cannot be dated from the primary sources so far consulted.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Ansfrit de castro Reunia" invaded Friulia and expelled Rodoald who fled to Ticino taking refuge with "Cunincpertum regem"[202]

2.         ADODuke of Friulia.  Paulus Diaconus names "Ado frater Rodoaldi" when recording that he succeeded in Friulia after Ansfrid's rebellion was crushed and ruled for one year and seven months[203], but this event can not be dated from the primary sources so far consulted.  Paulus Diaconus names "[Raginpertus] filius eius Aripert" when recording that, after his father died, he fought King Liutpert "cumque Ansprando et Atone et Tatzone necnon at Rotharit ac Faraone" at Ticino[204], although it is not known with certainty that "Ato" was the Duke of Friulia. 

 

1.         ANSFRID .  Paulus Diaconus records that "Ansfrit de castro Reunia" invaded Friulia, putting Rodoald to flight, rebelled against King Cunincpert but was captured in Verona, blinded and sent into exile[205].  These events cannot be dated from the primary sources so far consulted. 

 

 

1.         FERDULFDuke of Friulia.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Ferdulfus…qui de partibus Liguriæ extitit" succeeded Ado in Friulia, but was killed in battle fighting the Slavs[206].  These events cannot be dated from the primary sources so far consulted. 

 

1.         CORVOLUSDuke of Friulia.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Corvolus" succeeded Ferdulf in Friulia, but within a short time was expelled and blinded[207].  These events cannot be dated from the primary sources so far consulted. 

 

1.         BILLO .  Paulus Diaconus names "patre genitus [Pemmonis] Billone", stating that he had revolted at Bellunum, but thereafter went to Friulia where he lived peacefully[208]m ---.  The name of Billo's wife is not known.  Billo & his wife had one child: 

a)         PEMMO Duke of Friulia.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Pemmo" succeeded Corvolus in Friulia, specifying that "hic patre genitus Billone, qui de Belluno fuerat"[209].  He quarrelled with the patriarch Callistus, took him to the fort of Potium and threatened to throw him from a cliff into the sea, after which he was dismissed by King Liutprand[210].  These events cannot be dated from the primary sources so far consulted.  m RATPERGA, daughter of --- .  Supposedly plain-looking ["facie rusticana"], she is said to have urged her husband to take a prettier and more suitable wife when he became dux but he preferred a woman with his wife's character and virtues to physical beauty[211].  Duke Pemmo & his wife had three children: 

i)          RATCHIS (-after 757).  Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "Ratchis et Ratchait et Ahistulfum" as the three sons of Pemmo & his wife[212].  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Achis filius Pimon" when recording that he succeeded "Utprand" and ruled for five years[213].  King Liutprand appointed him Duke of Friulia, after the dismissal of his father, although Ratchis persuaded the king to accept his father back into favour[214].  He attacked the Slavs living in Carniola and also accompanied the king on his expedition against Spoleto and Benevento[215].  He was chosen as RATCHIS King of the Lombards when King Hildeprand was deposed in 744.  He succeeded his brother in 756 as RATCHIS Duke of Spoleto.  

-         KINGS of the LOMBARDS

ii)         RATCHAIT .  Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "Ratchis et Ratchait et Ahistulfum" as the three sons of Pemmo & his wife[216].  He was present when his brother Aistulf was narrowly prevented from killing King Liutprand[217]

iii)        AISTULF [Aistulfus] (-756).  Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "Ratchis et Ratchait et Ahistulfum" as the three sons of Pemmo & his wife[218].  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Aistulfus frater eius" when recording that he succeeded his brother "Achis" and ruled for eight years[219].  "Astulphus" is named brother of Ratchis in the Benedicti Chronicon, although their father is named as King Liutprand[220].  He tried to attack King Liutprand after the latter tried to arrest his supporters following the dismissal of his father[221].  He succeeded in 749 as AISTULF King of the Lombards.  He succeeded in 751 as AISTULF Duke of Spoleto

 

 

1.         MUNICHIS .  Paulus Diaconus records that "Munichis, qui pater post Petri Foroiulani et Ursi Cenetensis ducum" fought in the battle in which Duke Ferdulf was killed[222]m ---.  The name of Munichis's wife is not known.  Munichis & his wife had [two] children:

a)         PETRUS .  Paulus Diaconus names "Munichis, qui pater post Petri Foroiulani et Ursi Cenetensis ducum"[223]Duke of Friulia.  No other record has been found of this Duke of Friulia.  

b)         [URSUS .  Paulus Diaconus names "Munichis, qui pater post Petri Foroiulani et Ursi Cenetensis ducum"[224].  Duke of Cerreto Sanita (in Benevento).]  same person as…?  URSUS (-before 6 Mar 776).  "Ursoni bone memorie…Duci" is recorded as the father of "Johannes…Dux" in the latter´s charter dated 6 Mar 776 which records a donation to Nonantola monastery[225].  The co-identity with dux Ursus, son of Munichis, is not certain.  The precise territorial extent of the duchy ruled by Johannes cannot be ascertained from the text of the 776 charter, although the donation to Nonantola (near Modena in Tuscany) suggests that it was further north than the duchy of Benevento.  However, no other reference has yet been found to a second dux Ursus during this period, which suggests that the co-identity may be correct. 

-        see BENEVENTO

 

2.         HEIRICHUS (-killed in battle Tharsatica, Liburnia 799).  Duke of Friulia.  The Annales Laurissenses Continuatio records that "Heirichus dux Foroiulensis" sent men into Pannonia with "Wonomyro Sclavo" in 796[226].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Ehericum ducem Foroiuliensem, deinde…Pippinum filium regis" captured  the camp of "Hunorum…Hringum" in 796, specifying that "Cagan et Iugurro principibus Hunorum" were killed by their own people[227].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Ehericus dux Foroiuliensis" was killed in 799 "iuxta Tharsaticam Liburniæ civitatem"[228].  It is possible that "Heirichis/Ehericus" is a mistranscription for "Munichis". 

 

3.         HUNFRID [I] (-808 or after)Marchese in Istria 799.  Graf in Rätien 806/808. 

-        SWABIAN NOBILITY

 

 

1.         AIO (-after 811).  "Karolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" granted property "in territorio Foroiulense et Vicentino atque Veronense" to "Aioni Longobardo…fideli noster" by charter dated 2 Feb 799[229].  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the property of "fidelis nostri Haioni comitis" between his three sons "in territorio Foroiuliense…filio suo Alboino", "in fine Vincentina…antedictum Alboinum et Ingobertum" and "tertio…loco in territorio Veronense…tertio filio suo Agisclaf" by charter dated 7 Jul 809[230].  Einhard names "Haido episcopus Baslensus et Hugus comes Toronicus et Aio Langobardus de Foroiluii" as imperial missi who met the missi from Constantinople in 811[231].  The Annales Fuldenses record that the emperor sent "Haitonem Basilensem episcopus et Hug comitem Turonicum et Aio Langobardum de Aquileia" as missi to Constantinople in 811 to confirm the peace "cum Niceforo"[232].  None of these sources specify that Aio was Duke of Friulia.  However, no record has been found of any other duke between the death of Duke Hunfrid in 808 or after and the appointment of Duke Chadalhoh in [817/18].  m ---.  The name of Aio's wife is not known.  Aio & his wife had three children: 

a)         ALBUIN (-after 7 Jul 809).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the property of "fidelis nostri Haioni comitis" between his three sons "in territorio Foroiuliense…filio suo Alboino", "in fine Vincentina…antedictum Alboinum et Ingobertum" and "tertio…loco in territorio Veronense…tertio filio suo Agisclaf" by charter dated 7 Jul 809[233]

b)         INGOBERT (-after 7 Jul 809).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the property of "fidelis nostri Haioni comitis" between his three sons "in territorio Foroiuliense…filio suo Alboino", "in fine Vincentina…antedictum Alboinum et Ingobertum" and "tertio…loco in territorio Veronense…tertio filio suo Agisclaf" by charter dated 7 Jul 809[234]

c)         AGISCALF (-after 7 Jul 809).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the property of "fidelis nostri Haioni comitis" between his three sons "in territorio Foroiuliense…filio suo Alboino", "in fine Vincentina…antedictum Alboinum et Ingobertum" and "tertio…loco in territorio Veronense…tertio filio suo Agisclaf" by charter dated 7 Jul 809[235]

 

 

1.         CHADALHOH, son of BERTHOLD & his wife --- (-819).  "Chadaloh filius Perahtoldi comitis" donated property "in villa Wanga" to the monastery of St Gallen by charter dated 23 Oct 805[236].  "Uuago et Chadaloh filii Peratoldi comitis" donated properties to the monastery of St Gallen by charter dated 23 Oct 805[237].  Einhard's Annales name "Cadolah" as in charge of "Dalmationum" when recording the arrival of the imperial legate from Constantinople in 816[238].  "Chadaloh…comis" donated properties to the monastery of St Gallen by charter dated 17 Nov 817 directing "filius meus…Perahtoldus" to donate further properties "post discessum vero meum"[239].  Installed as Duke of Friulia [817/18].  Einhard's Annales name "Cadolaum comitem et marcæ Foroiuliensis præfectum" in 818[240].  Einhard's Annales record that "Cadolah dux Foroiuliensis" died in 819 after the army returned from Pannonia[241].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the death of "Cadolach dux Foroiuliensis" and the succession of "Baldricus"[242]

 

2.         BALDRIC (-after 827)Duke of Friulia.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the death of "Cadolach dux Foroiuliensis" and the succession of "Baldricus"[243].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Baldrico" expelled "Liudovitus"[244].  Einhard's Annales record that "Bertricum palatii comitem" sent "Baldricum et Geroldum comites" to fight the Avars in 826[245], in a later passage recording that "Baldricus dux Foroiuliensis" devastated the borders of "Pannoniæ superioris" with the Bulgarian army in 828[246].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Georgius quidam presbyter de Venetia, cum Baldrico comite Foroiuliense veniens, organum ydraulicum Aquisgrani fecit" in 826[247].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Baldrico duci Foroiulensi" was expelled [in 827] after which the dukedom was divided into four counties[248]

 

 

 

B.      MARCHESI di FRIULIA, "UNRUOCHINGI" (family of UNRUOCH)

 

 

EBERHARD, son of UNRUOCH & his wife Engeltrude --- ([805/10]-in Italy 16 Dec 866, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus).  His origin is stated in the poem by Sedulius addressed to "Everhardum comitem…Hunroci proles"[249].  His birth date is estimated on the basis of his marriage in [836].  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Walach…abbas et Rihhardus perfidus et Eberhardus fidelis" as legates of Lothar, son of Emperor Louis I, in Italy in May [836][250].  Eberhard stopped the invasion of the Slavs and received the March of Friulia from Emperor Lothaire I, becoming EBERHARD Duke of the March of Friulia.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "comes Everardus cognomento Radulfus" was made "dux Foroiulii" by Emperor Lothaire[251].  An agreement between Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks dated Jun 860 names "nobilis ac fidelibus laicis…Chuonradus, Evrardus, Adalardus, Arnustus, Warnarius, Liutfridus, Hruodolfus, Erkingarius, Gislebertus, Ratbodus, Arnulfus, Hugo, item Chuonradus, Liutharius, Berengarius, Matfridus, Boso, Sigeri, Hartmannus, Liuthardus, Richuinus, Wigricus, Hunfridus, Bernoldus, Hatto, Adalbertus, Burchardus, Christianus, Leutulfus, Hessi, Herimannus, item Hruodulfus, Sigehardus"[252].  The Annales Alamannicorum record "Eberhart" among those who swore allegiance in 864[253].  With his wife, he founded the abbey of St Calixtus at Cysoing, Flanders[254].  The Annales Xantenses record the death in 866 of "Everwinus gener Ludewici regis" in Italy[255].  Assuming that this refers to Eberhard, it is surprising that the text refers to "Ludewici regis" rather than "Ludewici imperatoris".  Eberhard's father-in-law is not known to have used the title king after his imperial coronation, although in a previous part of the same text the Annales refer to his mother-in-law as "Iuthit regina".  It is improbable that the Annales could refer to Louis "le Jeune" King of Italy (who was reigning in 866 and died in 875) as his daughters were probably under marriageable age at the time and in any case no other reference has been found to one of them marrying "Everwinus".  The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, dated “Hludovico Augusto anno regni eius XXIV” and witnessed by “Adalroch nepos noster”, which bequeathes property “in Langobardia et in Alamannia” to “primogenitus…noster Unroch”, property “cortem in Anaspio…præter Grecinam et cortem nostrum Hildiolam in Hasbannis…et…in pago Condustrim” to “secundus…Berengarius”, property “in Cisonio et Cansinium” to “tertius Adalardus”, property “Vitrei…Mesrucha…in Cisonio…et…in Sceleburd…quod Matridus…habuit” to “quartus Rodulfus”, and to “filiabus…nostris…Ingeldrud…Ermen et Mareshem, Judith…[in] Balgingam et cortem nostrum in pago Moila…Helisheim…Heilvinch…Hattrenheim et Luisinga et Wendesse et unum manum in Engerestheim”, and also lists a large number of books[256]

m ([836]) GISELA, daughter of Emperor LOUIS I "der Fromme/le Pieux" & his second wife Judith [Welf] ([819/822]-after 1 Jul 874, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum et Gislam" children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Iudith ymperatrice"[257].  Her marriage is deduced from a charter in which Gisela states that their eldest son Unruoch brought back the body of Eberhard from Italy[258].  It is also confirmed by the Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis which records that “Gisla” donated property to Cysoing abbey naming “Rex Karolus…germanus”, dated “XVII Kal Mai…in anno XXIX regnante Carolo Rege[259].  She founded the abbey of St Calixtus at Cysoing, Flanders, where she lived as a widow.  "Gisle" granted "le fisc de Somain en Ostrevant" to "filii…Adelarde" by charter dated 14 Apr 869, which names "rex Karolus meus…germanus…senioris mei dulcis memorie Evrardi…tres infantes meos Rodulfum…et Berengarium…et…Adelarde"[260].  The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records that “Gisla” donated property to Cysoing abbey for her burial next to “coniugis mei dulcis memoriæ Evrardi”, by charter dated 2 Apr 870 which names “filiæ meæ Ingiltrudis…filius meus Rodulfus”, and by charter dated “Kal Jul anno XXXV regnante Carolo Rege”, naming “filii mei Unroch…filiorum meorum Adalardo atque Rodulfo” and signed by “Odelrici Comitis[261].  "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][262]

Duke Eberhard & his wife had [eleven] children:

1.         EBERHARD ([837]-before 20 Jun 840).  The Epitaphio de filio Eberhardi comitis by Sedulius names "natus Eberhardi patrio cognomina dictus" and his mother Gisela[263]

2.         ENGELTRUDE ([837/40]-after [874]).  The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, which bequeathes property to “filiabus…nostris…Ingeldrud…Ermen et Mareshem…[264].  Eckhardt[265] suggests that Ingeltrudis was the wife of Heinrich dux [alte Babenberger] (who died in 886).  However, this appears difficult chronologically given that Heinrich's daughter Hedwig gave birth to her third child in 876.  The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records that “Gisla” donated property to Cysoing abbey for her burial next to “coniugis mei dulcis memoriæ Evrardi”, by charter dated 2 Apr 870 which names “filiæ meæ Ingiltrudis…filius meus Rodulfus[266].  "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][267]

3.         UNRUOCH ([840]-874 after 1 Jul).  The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, which bequeathes property “in Langobardia et in Alamannia” to “primogenitus…noster Unroch[268].  The Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon records that "Unhrich filio suo [=Ebherardo]" succeeded his father in 866 as UNRUOCH Marchese di Friulia[269].  "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][270]m AVA, daughter of [LIUTFRIED Signor di Monza, Lay abbot of Moutier-Grandval & his wife ---].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[271], the wife of Unruoch was the possible daughter of Liutfried [I].  This affiliation is suggested presumably only for onomastic reasons, her name being the same as that of her supposed paternal grandmother.  The primary source which confirms the name of Unruoch's wife has not yet been identified.  Unruoch & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [daughter .  The Annales Fuldenses record that the emperor's men invaded "monasterium puellarum in Brixia civitate" in 887 and abducted "filiam Unruochi comitis, propinquam imperatoris" and married her to "suoque nepoti"[272].  No other reference has so far been found to a daughter of Unruoch who died in 874.  However, it is chronologically improbable that the reference can relate to a daughter of the senior Count Unruoch, who was this Unruoch's paternal grandfather.  m ([887]) ---, nepos of Emperor KARL III "der Dicke", daughter of ---.] 

4.         RUDOLF (-1 May 892).  The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, which bequeathes property “Vitrei…Mesrucha…in Cisonio…et…in Sceleburd…quod Matridus…habuit” to “quartus Rodulfus[273].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "abbas Rodulfus" as son of "marchionis Evrardi"[274].  "Gisle" granted "le fisc de Somain en Ostrevant" to "filii…Adelarde" by charter dated 14 Apr 869, which names "rex Karolus meus…germanus…senioris mei dulcis memorie Evrardi…tres infantes meos Rodulfum…et Berengarium…et…Adelarde"[275].  "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][276].  Comte.  He was invested as lay Abbot of Cysoing and St Vaast at Arras by Carloman King of the West Franks in 883 and charged with the defence of the counties of Artois and Ternois.  After his death, his lands were seized by Baudouin II Count of Flanders[277].  The Annales Vedastini record the death "Non Ian 892" of "Rodulfus abba", that "castellani Egfridum comitem" was sent to announce the news to the king, and that in his absence "Balduinum a Flandris…per consilium Evreberti qui nimis fuerat versutissimus" seized the abbacy against the wishes of the king who had promised it to Egfrid[278]

5.         BERENGAR ([840/45]-murdered Verona 7 Apr 924).  The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, which bequeathes property “cortem in Anaspio…præter Grecinam et cortem nostrum Hildiolam in Hasbannis…et…in pago Condustrim” to “secundus…Berengarius[279].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Berengarius Foroiulensis, filius Everardi marchionis Italiæ"[280].  "Gisle" granted "le fisc de Somain en Ostrevant" to "filii…Adelarde" by charter dated 14 Apr 869, which names "rex Karolus meus…germanus…senioris mei dulcis memorie Evrardi…tres infantes meos Rodulfum…et Berengarium…et…Adelarde"[281].  "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][282].  He succeeded his brother in 874 as BERENGARIO I Marchese di Friulia.  The Gesta regum Francorum records "Berengarius…consanguineus imperator" being sent to expel "Wito comes Tuscianorum" in 883[283].  He was elected in 888 as BERENGARIO I King of Italy, supported principally by the German faction in Italy.  "Berengarius rex" confirmed grants of property to "Angilbergæ…imperatrici", at the request of "…Vualfredus…marchio", by charter dated 8 May 888[284].  He was defeated by Guido of Spoleto in 889.  He re-emerged as sole king in Italy in 898 after the death of Lambert of Spoleto.  Louis King of Provence was elected as king of Italy in 900, with support particularly from Anscario Marchese d'Ivrea.  Berengario defeated Louis twice, the second time conclusively in 905 when he had his rival blinded.  He was crowned Emperor BERENGAR at Rome in 916.  He allied himself with the Hungarians to defeat Rudolf II King of Upper Burgundy, who emerged as another rival candidate for the Italian throne, but was later forced back to Verona by Rudolf, and finally defeated by him at Firenzuola 29 Jul 923.  Berengario returned to Verona with the intention of calling for further help from the Hungarians, who meanwhile had burned Pavia.  He was murdered at Verona soon after.  m firstly ([880/3 Nov 890]) BERTILA di Spoleto, daughter of SUPPO II Duke of Spoleto & his wife --- (-executed before Dec 915).  "Berengarius rex" confirmed grants of property "Mercoriatico in territorio [comitatu] Regiensi" to "Iohanne presbiter", at the request of "Berchtilæ…coniugis et consortis regni nostri", by charter dated 3 Nov 890[285].  Berengario I King of Italy "conjugis nostreque Regni consortis Berchtile" granted property "in comitatu Veronense" to "Anselmo…Comite, nostroque Compatre et Consiliario" by charter dated 26 Jul 910[286].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  She was executed for alleged adultery.  m secondly (before Dec 915) ANNA, daughter of --- (-after May 930).  "Berengarius…rex" granted "mansum in villa Evurio…de comitatu Oxilense de corticella…Beura" to "fideli nostro…Hervino nepoti…Dagiberti episcopi", at the request of "Anna…coniuncx nostram", by charter dated to [915][287].  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 920 under which "Berengarius…Imperator Augustus" granted "curtem…de Prato Plano finibus Placentinis" to "Annæ…coniugi nostræ"[288].  King Berengario I & his first wife had three children: 

a)         daughter .  The primary source which confirms the origin of this daughter and her marriage has not yet been identified.  m (887) ---, nepos of LIUTWARD Bishop of Vercelli, daughter of ---. 

b)         GISELA ([880/85]-[910/15]).  Liutprand names "Gislam Berengarius filiam suam" as wife of "Adelbertus Eporegiæ civitatis marchio"[289].  "Berengarius rex" donated property to the church of Vercelli, at the request of "Adelberti…marchionis et…generi nostri et Grimaldi…comitis", by charter dated 26 Jan 913[290]m ([898/900]) as his first wife, ADALBERTO d´Ivrea, son of ANSCARIO I Marchese d'Ivrea & his wife [Volsia di Susa] (-[17 Jul 923/8 Oct 924]).  He succeeded his father [898/902] as ADALBERTO I Conte e Marchese d'Ivrea

c)         BERTA (-after 952).  "Berengarius rex" granted property "viam publicam in circuitu castelli…Sendali…comitatus Brixiensis in pago et fundo Temolina" to "Berchtam…monasterii Sanctæ Iulie abbatissam…filiam nostram" by charter dated 4 Mar 915[291].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" permitted "Berchtam…filiam nostrum…abbatissam" to build a castle "super ripam Ticini iuxta portum…Sclavaria" by charter dated 25 May 916[292].  Her parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 27 Aug 917 under which "Berengarius Imperator Augustus" confirmed the rights of Placentia monastery of which "Bertæ filie nostre" was abbess[293]

6.         ADALHARD (-after 1 Jul [874]).  The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, which bequeathes property “in Cisonio et Cansinium” to “tertius Adalardus[294].  Abbot of Cysoing.  "Gisle" granted "le fisc de Somain en Ostrevant" to "filii…Adelarde" by charter dated 14 Apr 869, which names "rex Karolus meus…germanus…senioris mei dulcis memorie Evrardi…tres infantes meos Rodulfum…et Berengarium…et…Adelarde"[295].  The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records that “Gisla” donated property to Cysoing abbey by charter dated “Kal Jul anno XXXV regnante Carolo Rege”, naming “filii mei Unroch…filiorum meorum Adalardo atque Rodulfo[296].  "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][297]

7.         ALPAIS (-young, bur Cysoing).  The primary source which confirms her existence has not yet been identified. 

8.         HEILWIG (-after 895).  The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, which bequeathes property to “filiabus…nostris…Heilvinch…Hattrenheim et Luisinga et Wendesse et unum manum in Engerestheim[298].  Her first marriage is confirmed by Flodoard´s Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ which names “Hucboldus...sororis...Rodulfi maritus[299].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Hucbaldus de Hainacq" as "huius [=abbas Rodulfus] sororius"[300].  The marriage appears to be corroborated by a later passage in the same source which records that "comes Rodulfus" (referring to Heilwig's grandson) was "nepos…ex sorore" of Louis IV King of France[301].  It appears chronologically unlikely for any of King Louis's sisters, whose dates of birth can be estimated to [908/17], to have been the mother of Raoul [II] who was killed in battle in 944, presumably when he was already adult.  It appears more likely that the family relationship was one generation further back, and that a member of the Unruochingi family, descended from the sister of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and who originated in the same area in northern France, would provide a good match.  Her second marriage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[302] but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  Another table in Europäische Stammtafeln only names the wife of Comte Roger as "Helvide" but does not give her origin[303].  "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][304]m firstly (before 874) HUCBALD Comte [d'Ostrevant], son of --- (-after 890).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Hucbaldus de Hainacq" as "huius [=abbas Rodulfus] sororius"[305]m secondly (after 890) ROGER [I] Comte de Laon, son of --- (-926). 

9.         GISELA (-Apr 863).  The necrology of Brixen records that "Domnus Eberardus Dux tradidit filiam suam Gisla"[306].  "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][307].  Nun at San Salvatore at Brescia. 

10.      JUDITH (-after [874]).  The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, which bequeathes property to “filiabus…nostris…Judith…[in] Balgingam et cortem nostrum in pago Moila…Helisheim…[308].  "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][309]

11.      [daughter .  Wegener[310] speculates that the wife of Arnulf Duke of Bavaria was the daughter of Eberhard Duke of the March of Friulia [Unruochingi], ostensibly for onomastic reasons on the basis of the transmission of the names Eberhard and Judith into the Luitpoldinger family, used first for Duke Arnulf's children.  If this is correct, she must have been the daughter Judith named in her parents´s testament.  However, from a chronological point of view, it is unlikely that the wife of Arnulf Duke of Bavaria was the daughter of Duke Eberhard.  The latter's children must have been born between [840] and [860], whereas Duke Arnulf's children were probably born between [910] and [930], suggesting that their mother was born in [880/90].  m ARNULF Graf im Nordgau, son of Markgraf LUITPOLD Graf in Carinthia & his wife Kunigunde [Ahalolfinger] (-14 Jul 937, bur Regensburg St Emmeran).  He was installed in 908 as ARNULF Duke of Bavaria.] 

 

 

1.         WALTFRED (-896).  Marchese of Friulia.  "Berengarius Rex" confirmed "Unroch consanguineus noster, filius quondam Supponi…Marchionis" in the possession of "curtes Felinam et Malliacum", at the request of "Waltfredi…Marchionis", by charter dated 890[311].  The Annales Fuldenses record that in 896, after the death of "Waltfredi, Foro Iulii marchionis, qui multum fideliter ad imperatorem Veronam contendo retinuit", King Berengar invaded this part of Italy[312].  No indication has so far been found of Waltfred's origin or when he was appointed. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    COUNTIES and FAMILIES in LIGURIA

 

 

The present-day Italian region of Liguria hugs the coast of north-west Italy centred on the city of Genoa, to the south of the region of Piemonte.  In addition to the counties shown below, Albenga, Liguria and Ventimiglia have been identified as medieval counties in this region but little information has yet emerged from the primary sources so far consulted about their counts.  The counts of Savona, also in Liguria, are set out in the document MONFERRATO. 

 

 

 

A.      CONTI di ACQUI

 

 

1.         GAIDALDO (-after 991).  Conte di Acqui.  "Anselmo Marchio filius bonæ memoriæ Aledrami itemque Marchio et Gisla comitissa jugalibus filiæ Adalberti, similique Marchioque Willielmus et Riprandus germanis filio bonæ memoriæ Oddoni…cum Domini Gaidaldi comes istius comitatus Aquensis" founded the monastery of Santo Quintini di Spigno by charter dated 991[313]

 

 

 

B.      CONTI di GENOVA

 

 

1.         ADEMAR [Hadumar] (-killed in battle Corsica 806).  Einhard records that "Hadumarus comes civitati Genuse" was killed during the campaign against the Moors in Corsica in 806[314]Count in Genoa.  The Annales Fuldenses also record that "Hadumar…civitate Genua præfectus" was killed fighting the Moors in 806[315]

 

 

 

C.      CONTI di LUNI

 

 

The Este family, having owned land throughout north and central Italy from the 10th century, established their residence at Este in the Padovano in the second half of the 12th century.  The family took over the interests of the Adelardi in Ferrara on the extinction of the latter.  They acquired Modena and Reggio in Emilia.  By 1500, its lands in Este itself had been surrendered to Venice[316].  The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

 

1.         ADALBERTO [I] .  Marchese in the March of Milano.  m ---.  The name of Adalberto's wife is not known.  Adalberto & his wife had one child: 

a)         OBERTO OBIZZO [I] (-before 975).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Marchese in the Eastern March 962.  Conte di Luni 951.  "Hotberti marchio comes palatii" approved a charter confirming the privileges of the church of Asti, by charter dated 27 Sep 962[317].  "Odbertus marchio et comes palacio" heard a lawsuit recorded in a charter dated 964[318]m ---.  The name of Oberto Obizzo's wife is not known.  Oberto Obizzo [I] & his wife had six children:

i)          ADALBERTO [II] .  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 975 under which "Adalbertus et Obertus germani Marchioni, filii bone memorie Oberti Marchionis et Comitis Palatio" granted rights to the bishop of Pisa[319]Marchesem ---.  The name of Adalberto's wife is not known.  Adalberto & his wife had two children:

(a)       OBERTO [III] (-before 996).  m ---.  The name of Oberto's wife is not known.  Oberto [III] & his wife had one child:

(1)       OBERTO [IV] .  same person as…?  OBERTO (-after 14 Feb 1004).  "Ubertus filius item Uberti Comes" reached agreement with the bishop of Cremona regarding a donation to "ecclesia Sancti Johannis…in urbe Ticinensi" by charter dated 14 Feb 1004[320]

(b)       ADALBERTO [III] (-1014).  "Adelbertus marchio filius bone memorie item Adelberti similiter marchio…ex natione lege mea lege vivere Longobardorum" donated property to the monastery of St Maria and St Venerio in Lunigiana by charter dated 1000[321]m ---.  The name of Adalberto's wife is not known.  Adalberto & his wife had one child:

(1)       OBERTO .  1084.  m ---.  The name of Oberto's wife is not known.  Oberto & his wife had one child:

a.         OBERTO Pallavicini (-1148)

-         PALLAVICINI

ii)         OBERTO [II] (-after 1013).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 975 under which "Adalbertus et Obertus germani Marchioni, filii bone memorie Oberti Marchionis et Comitis Palatio" granted rights to the bishop of Pisa[322]Conte di LuniMarchese

-         see below

iii)        ANSELMO

iv)        BERTA m OBERTO di Parma, son of GUIBERTO di Parma & his wife --- (-1111). 

v)         OBERTO OBIZZO [II] .  m PERENGARDA, daughter of ---.  Oberto Obizzo [II] & his wife had [one possible child]: 

(a)       ALBERTO (-after 1061).  "Albertus Marchio filius quondam Opitioni Marchionis" donated property to "Monasterio Sancti Michaeli Archangeli…Martuli" by charter dated 3 Feb 1061[323].    

vi)        ALBERTO (-[1024])

-         MARCHESI di PARODI

 

 

OBERTO [II], son of OBERTO OBIZZO [I] Conte di Luni & his wife --- (-after 1013).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 975 under which "Adalbertus et Obertus germani Marchioni, filii bone memorie Oberti Marchionis et Comitis Palatio" granted rights to the bishop of Pisa[324]Conte di LuniMarchese.  "Otbertus marchio filius quondam item Otberti itemque marchio" donated property to the Bishop of Luni  by charter dated 998[325]

m ---.  The name of Oberto´s wife is not known. 

Oberto [II] & his wife had six children: 

1.         ALBERTO AZZO [I] (-1029).  The Gesta Mediolanensium names (in order) "Ugonem, Azonem, Adelbertum et Obizonem" as four Italian marchesi, supporters of Ardoini d´Ivrea, captured by forces of Emperor Heinrich II, the date "1022" being inserted in the margin by the editor[326]Conte di Luni, Tortona, Genova and Milano.  Marchese.  "Azo et Ugo germanis et filii Uberti marchio" bought property from "Domninus diaconus…in burgo sancti Domnini et filius quondam Undulfi de loco Variano" by charter dated 1013[327].  A charter dated May 1013 records a decision "in iudicio…domnus Azo et Ugo germani marchiones et Thodello commes istius comitatus Pataviensis" relating to the ownership of property in Petriolo, signed by "Adelbertus qui Azo…Ugo marchio…"[328]m ADELA, daughter of OBERTO & his wife --- (-after 1012).  "Adela comitissa et conjus Azoni marchio" sold property to "Domninus diaconus de burgo sancti Domnini et filius quondam Undulfi de loco Variano", and confirmed donations by "Ugonem filium Atberti marchio seniori meo", by charter dated 1011[329].  "Adela comitissa conjus Azoni marchio, que professa sum ex natione mea legem vivere Salicha" donated property to the bishopric of Cremona, with the consent of "Azoni predictus, Otbertus genitor meus…cum notitia Lanfranchi comiti hujus comitatu Auciense", by charter dated 1012[330].  Alberto Azzo [I] & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         ALBERTO AZZO [II] ([996]-Vangadizza monastery 1097).  "Oldericus Maginfredus marchio f. quondam…Maginfredi marchionis et Berta comitissa jugales filia q. Obberti marchionis" sold property "in comitatu Parmensi, Placensiensi, Ticinensi, Tortonensi, Vercellensi, Aquensi, Astensi, Eporediensi, Torinensi, Oradiensi, Albensi, Avigenensi, Aberganensi, Vigintimiliensi" to "Sigifredo presbitero filio q. Adelgisi", with "notitia propinquorum parentum suorum, id est Adalberti marchionis germani sui et Alberti infantis nepotis sui", by charter dated 6 Jun 1021[331]He succeeded his father as Conte di LuniMarchese

-        MARCHESI d'ESTE

b)         [ADELASIA (-after 11 May 1055).  "Adila comitissa filia quondam Azonis Marchio et relicta quondam Anselmi itemque Marchio et Anselmus et Hugo germanis mater et filii prædicto quondam Anselmi…ex nativitate mea legem vivere Langobardorum…et nos…lege vivere Salica" donated property to the monastery of Santo Pietro di Saviliano by charter dated May 1055[332].  No other suitable "Azonis Marchio" has been identified who could have been Adelasia´s father except for Alberto Azzo [I] Conte di Luni.  "Adela comitisa…conius quondam Anselmi marchio…Ugo et Anselmus filii et mundoaldi mei" promised not to disturb the possessions of the monastery of San Marziano by charter dated 11 May 1055[333]m ANSELMO [II] Marchese, son of ANSELMO [I] Marchese & his wife Gisela --- (-before 7 May 1027).] 

2.         UGO (-26 Jan, after 1029).  The Gesta Mediolanensium names (in order) "Ugonem, Azonem, Adelbertum et Obizonem" as four Italian marchesi, supporters of Ardoini d´Ivrea, captured by forces of Emperor Heinrich II, the date "1022" being inserted in the margin by the editor[334].  "Azo et Ugo germanis et filii Uberti marchio" bought property from "Domninus diaconus…in burgo sancti Domnini et filius quondam Undulfi de loco Variano" by charter dated 1013[335].  A charter dated May 1013 records a decision "in iudicio…domnus Azo et Ugo germani marchiones et Thodello commes istius comitatus Pataviensis" relating to the ownership of property in Petriolo, signed by "Adelbertus qui Azo…Ugo marchio…"[336].  "Gerardus diaconus filius quondam Genesie" sold certain castles to "Ugo marchio filius bone memorie Oberto qui fuit item marchio" by charter dated 1029[337].  "Ugo marchio filius bo. mem. Oberti item marchio, ex genere Longobardorum" donated "decima de curte Portalbero" to Piacenza cathedral by charter dated 1029[338].  The necrology of Piacenza records the death "VII Kal Feb" of "Ugo marchio" and his donations[339].  "Rodulphus Normanus ex Francorum genere" donated property to the monastery of Vangadizza, for the soul of "Ugonis marchionis", by charter dated 1040[340]

3.         BERTA .  "Ardoinus…rex" confirmed the rights of the church of Como in the bridges and county of Chiavenna "quæ Hicila filia comitis Ottonis in villa Slopence in pago Ratenzgowe et in comitatu Adalberti comitis habuit" by charter dated 25 Mar 1002 which names "Berta regina nostra coniunx nostrique regni consors"[341].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  m ARDOINO Marchese d'Ivrea, son of DADO Marchese d'Ivrea & his wife [Bertrada ---] (-Fruttuaria Abbey 15 Dec 1015).  He was crowned ARDOINO King of Italy at Pavia 15 Feb 1002. 

4.         ADALBERTO [IV] (-after 1031).  The Gesta Mediolanensium names (in order) "Ugonem, Azonem, Adelbertum et Obizonem" as four Italian marchesi, supporters of Ardoini d´Ivrea, captured by forces of Emperor Heinrich II, the date "1022" being inserted in the margin by the editor[342].  "Oldericus Maginfredus marchio f. quondam…Maginfredi marchionis et Berta comitissa jugales filia q. Obberti marchionis" sold property "in comitatu Parmensi, Placensiensi, Ticinensi, Tortonensi, Vercellensi, Aquensi, Astensi, Eporediensi, Torinensi, Oradiensi, Albensi, Avigenensi, Aberganensi, Vigintimiliensi" to "Sigifredo presbitero filio q. Adelgisi", with "notitia propinquorum parentum suorum, id est Adalberti marchionis germani sui et Alberti infantis nepotis sui", by charter dated 6 Jun 1021[343].  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1029 under which "Alricus…Astensis Ecclesiæ Episcopus et Odelricus qui et Magenfridus…Marchio germanus et filii bone memorie itemque Magnifredi…Marchionis, et Berta…Comitissa, jugales, filia quondam Autberti…Marchionis" founded the monastery of Segusini Sancti Justi, which names "Adelberti Marchionis…Bertæ Comitissæ fratris"[344].  "Odelricus qui et Manfredus marchio f. quondam Manfredi marchionis et Berta comitissa jugales f. quondam Autberti marchionis" granted privileges "in comitatibus Taurinensi, Vercellensi, Iporiensi, Astensi, Albensi, Albiganensi, Vigintimiliensi, Parmensi, Placentinensi, Ticinensi, Aquensi" to the monastery of "S. Mariæ et Ss. Solutoris, Adventoris et Octavii braidam juxta Palatium" by charter dated 1031, signed by "Maginfredi march., Adalberti et Opizzoni utriusque marchionis qui Bertæ germane…Cuniberti et Wilelmi seu marchionis…"[345]same person as…?  ADALBERTO (-after 10 Jun 1033).  Marchese.  "Adalbertus marchio filius bonæ memoriæ Otberti itemque Marchio et Adeleyda jugalibus filia quondam Bosoni comitis quæ professa sum ex natione mea lege vivere Alamannorum, sed nunc pro ipso viro meo lege vivere…Longobardorum" founded the monastery of Santa Maria Castilione, in the presence of "domni Ugonis marchionis et comitis…comitatus Terdonensis", by charter dated 10 Jun 1033[346]m ADELASIA, daughter of BOSO & his wife --- (-after 10 Jun 1033).  "Adalbertus marchio filius bonæ memoriæ Otberti itemque Marchio et Adeleyda jugalibus filia quondam Bosoni comitis quæ professa sum ex natione mea lege vivere Alamannorum, sed nunc pro ipso viro meo lege vivere…Longobardorum" founded the monastery of Santa Maria Castilione, in the presence of "domni Ugonis marchionis et comitis…comitatus Terdonensis", by charter dated 10 Jun 1033[347]

5.         OBIZZO (-after 28 Jan 1060).  The Gesta Mediolanensium names (in order) "Ugonem, Azonem, Adelbertum et Obizonem" as four Italian marchesi, supporters of Ardoini d´Ivrea, captured by forces of Emperor Heinrich II, the date "1022" being inserted in the margin by the editor[348].  "Odelricus qui et Manfredus marchio f. quondam Manfredi marchionis et Berta comitissa jugales f. quondam Autberti marchionis" granted privileges "in comitatibus Taurinensi, Vercellensi, Iporiensi, Astensi, Albensi, Albiganensi, Vigintimiliensi, Parmensi, Placentinensi, Ticinensi, Aquensi" to the monastery of "S. Mariæ et Ss. Solutoris, Adventoris et Octavii braidam juxta Palatium" by charter dated 1031, signed by "Maginfredi march., Adalberti et Opizzoni utriusque marchionis qui Bertæ germane…Cuniberti et Wilelmi seu marchionis…"[349].  "Obertus, et Opizo…marchio filius bone memorie item Otberti qui fuit similiter marchio, et Albertus filius ipsius Opizoni" donated property to S. Giovanni di Viciolo by charter dated 1053[350].  The testament of "Obertus qui et Opizo marchio filius bone memorie Oberti…marchio", dated 28 Jan 1060, donates property for the soul of "quondam Ermengarde coniugis mee" and names "Albertus filius meus"[351]m ERMENGARDA, daughter of --- (-before 1060).  The testament of "Obertus qui et Opizo marchio filius bone memorie Oberti…marchio", dated 28 Jan 1060, donates property for the soul of "quondam Ermengarde coniugis mee" and names "Albertus filius meus"[352].  Obizzo & his wife had one child: 

a)         ALBERTO .  "Obertus, et Opizo…marchio filius bone memorie item Otberti qui fuit similiter marchio, et Albertus filius ipsius Opizoni" donated property to S. Giovanni di Viciolo by charter dated 1053[353].  The testament of "Obertus qui et Opizo marchio filius bone memorie Oberti…marchio", dated 28 Jan 1060, donates property for the soul of "quondam Ermengarde coniugis mee" and names "Albertus filius meus"[354]same person as…?  ADALBERTO (-after 30 Mar 1077).  "Adelbertum marchionem filium quondam Obizzonis, atque marchio, et Adeleida jugali filia Adelberti item marchionis, Opizo seu Oberto atque Amedeo, et filiis istorum" committed to the abbot of Bobbio to respect the property of the monastery of San Colombano by charter dated 30 Mar 1076[355].  "Adelbertus marchio filius quondam Opizzonis itemque marchio, et Adeleda jugalis filia Adelberti marchionis et Oppizo, atque Obertus seu Amedeo germani filii infrascriptorum jugalium" agreed to respect the property of the monastery of Bobbio by charter dated 30 Mar 1077[356]m ADELAIDA, daughter of ADALBERTO Marchese & his wife --- (-after 30 Mar 1077).  "Adelbertum marchionem filium quondam Obizzonis, atque marchio, et Adeleida jugali filia Adelberti item marchionis, Opizo seu Oberto atque Amedeo, et filiis istorum" committed to the abbot of Bobbio to respect the property of the monastery of San Colombano by charter dated 30 Mar 1076[357].  "Adelbertus marchio filius quondam Opizzonis itemque marchio, et Adeleda jugalis filia Adelberti marchionis et Oppizo, atque Obertus seu Amedeo germani filii infrascriptorum jugalium" agreed to respect the property of the monastery of Bobbio by charter dated 30 Mar 1077[358].  Adalberto & his wife had three children: 

i)          OBIZZO .  "Adelbertum marchionem filium quondam Obizzonis, atque marchio, et Adeleida jugali filia Adelberti item marchionis, Opizo seu Oberto atque Amedeo, et filiis istorum" committed to the abbot of Bobbio to respect the property of the monastery of San Colombano by charter dated 30 Mar 1076[359].  "Adelbertus marchio filius quondam Opizzonis itemque marchio, et Adeleda jugalis filia Adelberti marchionis et Oppizo, atque Obertus seu Amedeo germani filii infrascriptorum jugalium" agreed to respect the property of the monastery of Bobbio by charter dated 30 Mar 1077[360]

ii)         OBERTO (-[1097/1103]).  "Adelbertum marchionem filium quondam Obizzonis, atque marchio, et Adeleida jugali filia Adelberti item marchionis, Opizo seu Oberto atque Amedeo, et filiis istorum" committed to the abbot of Bobbio to respect the property of the monastery of San Colombano by charter dated 30 Mar 1076[361].  "Adelbertus marchio filius quondam Opizzonis itemque marchio, et Adeleda jugalis filia Adelberti marchionis et Oppizo, atque Obertus seu Amedeo germani filii infrascriptorum jugalium" agreed to respect the property of the monastery of Bobbio by charter dated 30 Mar 1077[362].  "Uberto filius Alberti marchionis" granted property to "Labinie filie Alberti comitis" by charter dated 29 Jul 1097[363]m ---.  The name of Oberto´s wife is not known.  Oberto & his wife had one child: 

(a)       UGO (-after 1103).  "Ugo marchio filius quondam Oberti marchionis" donated property to San Venerio in Lunigiana by charter dated 1103[364]

iii)        AMEDEO .  "Adelbertum marchionem filium quondam Obizzonis, atque marchio, et Adeleida jugali filia Adelberti item marchionis, Opizo seu Oberto atque Amedeo, et filiis istorum" committed to the abbot of Bobbio to respect the property of the monastery of San Colombano by charter dated 30 Mar 1076[365].  "Adelbertus marchio filius quondam Opizzonis itemque marchio, et Adeleda jugalis filia Adelberti marchionis et Oppizo, atque Obertus seu Amedeo germani filii infrascriptorum jugalium" agreed to respect the property of the monastery of Bobbio by charter dated 30 Mar 1077[366]

6.         BERTA ([997]-[29 Dec 1037/1040]).  "Heinricus…imperator" confirmed the property of the abbey of Fruttuaria, referring to property donated by "Manfredus marchio et Berta uxor eius et fratres eiusdem Manfredi, id est Alricus episcopus et Oddo comes, et Ardoinus consobrinus eorum", by charter dated 1014[367].  "Oldericus Maginfredus marchio f. quondam…Maginfredi marchionis et Berta comitissa jugales filia q. Obberti marchionis" sold property "in comitatu Parmensi, Placensiensi, Ticinensi, Tortonensi, Vercellensi, Aquensi, Astensi, Eporediensi, Torinensi, Oradiensi, Albensi, Avigenensi, Aberganensi, Vigintimiliensi" to "Sigifredo presbitero filio q. Adelgisi", with "notitia propinquorum parentum suorum, id est Adalberti marchionis germani sui et Alberti infantis nepotis sui", by charter dated 6 Jun 1021[368].  Her parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1029 under which "Alricus…Astensis Ecclesiæ Episcopus et Odelricus qui et Magenfridus…Marchio germanus et filii bone memorie itemque Magnifredi…Marchionis, et Berta…Comitissa, jugales, filia quondam Autberti…Marchionis" founded the monastery of Segusini Sancti Justi[369].  She inherited land in the counties of Tortone, Parma and Piacenza[370].  "Odelricus qui et Manfredus marchio f. quondam Manfredi marchionis et Berta comitissa jugales f. quondam Autberti marchionis" granted privileges "in comitatibus Taurinensi, Vercellensi, Iporiensi, Astensi, Albensi, Albiganensi, Vigintimiliensi, Parmensi, Placentinensi, Ticinensi, Aquensi" to the monastery of "S. Mariæ et Ss. Solutoris, Adventoris et Octavii braidam juxta Palatium" by charter dated 1031, signed by "Maginfredi march., Adalberti et Opizzoni utriusque marchionis qui Bertæ germane…Cuniberti et Wilelmi seu marchionis…"[371].  "Chuonradus Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed donations to the monastery of San Giusto at Susa made by "Mainfredus marchio nec non Berta comitissa", by charter dated 29 Dec 1037[372].  "Adaleida f. quondam Maginfredi marchionis et coniux Ermanni ducis et marchionis" donated property "in loco Porciana" to the monastery of San Stefano at Genoa by charter dated 4 Jul [1038], signed by "Bertæ comitissæ…"[373].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the possessions of the church at Asti by undated charter placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1091, which notes among others the donations by "marchio Manfredus et Berta comitissa et Alricus episcopus"[374]m ([1014]) MANFREDO UDALRICO Marchese di Susa and Turin, son of MANFREDO [I] Marchese of Turin & his wife Prangarda di Canossa (992-Turin 29 Oct 1034, bur Turin, cathedral of San Giovanni). 

 

 

The identity of the following family groups is uncertain, although it is probable that they were related to the same persons who are named above. 

 

1.         OBERTO .  Conte.  m ---.  Oberto & his wife had one child: 

a)         ADALBERTO (-after 4 Jul 1034).  "Adelbertus Comes filius quondam Uberti…Comes et Suphia jugalibus, filia Pachleurandi…Comes" and "Idemque Suphia…cum Domni Widoni…Comitatu Plumbiense" exchanged property with the abbot of Nonantolo by charter dated 4 Jul 1034[375]m SOPHIA, daughter of PACHLEURANDO & his wife --- (-after 4 Jul 1034).  "Adelbertus Comes filius quondam Uberti…Comes et Suphia jugalibus, filia Pachleurandi…Comes" and "Idemque Suphia…cum Domni Widoni…Comitatu Plumbiense" exchanged property with the abbot of Nonantolo by charter dated 4 Jul 1034[376]

 

2.         ADALBERTOMarchesem ---.  The name of Adalberto´s wife is not known.  Adalberto & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         ADALBERTO (-after 1077).  Marchese.  "Albertus marchio filius quondam item Alberti marchionis" donated property to the monastery of St Venerio, for the soul of "uxoris mee Gisle", by charter dated 1077[377]m GISELA, daughter of ---.  "Albertus marchio filius quondam item Alberti marchionis" donated property to the monastery of St Venerio, for the soul of "uxoris mee Gisle", by charter dated 1077[378]

b)         [OBERTO (-after 1059).  "Obertus…marchio filius quondam Alberti similiter marchionis" donated property to the monastery of St Venerio, for the soul of "uxoris mee Gisle", by charter dated 1059[379].] 

 

 

 

D.      CONTI di VENTIMIGLIA

 

 

1.         CORRADO [I] (-before 30 Jan 1038).  Conte di Vintimigliam ADELISIA, daughter of --- (-after 1041).  "Nos germani fratres et comites Vintimiliensis…Otto et Conradus…cum matre nostra Adalais et comitissa Armilina" donated "monasterium sancti Michaelis" to Lérins by charter dated 1041[380].  Conrad & his wife had two children: 

a)         OTTONE (-after Aug 1077).  "Nos germani fratres et comites Vintimiliensis…Otto et Conradus…cum matre nostra Adalais et comitissa Armilina" donated "monasterium sancti Michaelis" to Lérins by charter dated 1041[381]Conte di Vintimiglia.  "Otho et Chonradus germani comites Vintimiliensis filii quondam item Chonradis comitis…ex natione nostra lege vivere romana" donated the church of San Michele to the monastery of San Onorato by charter dated 21 Dec 1063[382].  "Otto et Conradus iermani comites filii quondam item Conradi comitis et Donella iugalis infrascripti Ottonis comitis et filia Alberti marchionis…ex nacione nostra lege viventes romana" donated property to the church of San Michele by charter dated Aug 1077[383].  [m firstly ARMILINA, daughter of --- (-after 1041).  "Nos germani fratres et comites Vintimiliensis…Otto et Conradus…cum matre nostra Adalais et comitissa Armilina" donated "monasterium sancti Michaelis" to Lérins by charter dated 1041[384].  The relationship between "comitissa Armilina" and the donors is not specified in the document.  However, it is likely that she was the wife of Otto, especially as Corrado´s wife is named in another source (see below).]  m [secondly] DONELLA, daughter of Marchese ALBERTO & his wife --- (-after Aug 1077).  "Otto et Conradus iermani comites filii quondam item Conradi comitis et Donella iugalis infrascripti Ottonis comitis et filia Alberti marchionis…ex nacione nostra lege viventes romana" donated property to the church of San Michele by charter dated Aug 1077[385].  Ottone & his [first/second] wife had [two] children: 

i)          OBERTO (-after 1140).  Conte di Vintimiglia"Obertus Vigint. comes" donated property "in Vigintimilio et in comitatu" to "civitas com. Januæ" by charter dated 6 Aug 1140[386].  A charter dated 1140 records the agreement between the people of Genoa and "marchiones filios Bonefacii…Manfredum et Hugonem et Anselmum et Henricum et Ottonem", promising not to make war secretly with "Oberto comite Vintimillii et filiis eius" with the permission of Genoa[387]m ---.  Oberto & his wife had children: 

(a)       --- .  A charter dated 1140 records the agreement between the people of Genoa and "marchiones filios Bonefacii…Manfredum et Hugonem et Anselmum et Henricum et Ottonem", promising not to make war secretly with "Oberto comite Vintimillii et filiis eius" with the permission of Genoa[388]

ii)         [ISTOFREDO Spedaldo (-after 6 Oct 1079).  "Spedaldus filius q. domini comitis…mea lege vivere romana" donated property "mea…per divisionis…in comitatu Ventimiliense in loco et fundo Sobolcaro" to the church of San Michele, for the souls of "filiis meis qui deffuncti sunt", by charter dated Aug 1077, signed by "Jstofredus qui et Spedaldus"[389].  The document does not name the donor´s father but, as Conte Corrado [II] was recorded after that date, it is assumed that he was the son of Conte Ottone.] 

b)         CORRADO [II] (-after 19 Mar 1082).  "Conradus comes filius quondam bone memorie Conradi itemque comes…ex nacione mea lege vivere romana…cum meis filiis filiabus" swore allegiance to "Conradus episcopus sancte Ianuensis ecclesie" by charter dated 30 Jan 1038[390].  "Nos germani fratres et comites Vintimiliensis…Otto et Conradus…cum matre nostra Adalais et comitissa Armilina" donated "monasterium sancti Michaelis" to Lérins by charter dated 1041[391]Conte di Vintimiglia.  "Otho et Chonradus germani comites Vintimiliensis filii quondam item Chonradis comitis…ex natione nostra lege vivere romana" donated the church of San Michele to the monastery of San Onorato by charter dated 21 Dec 1063[392].  "Otto et Conradus iermani comites filii quondam item Conradi comitis et Donella iugalis infrascripti Ottonis comitis et filia Alberti marchionis…ex nacione nostra lege viventes romana" donated property to the church of San Michele by charter dated Aug 1077[393].  "Conradus filius quondam Conradi comitis et Odila jugalis filia Laugerii" donated "ecclesiam sancti Martini…in comitatu Vintimigliense in valle Carnolense" to Lérins by charter dated 19 Mar 1082 signed "in curte propria predicti comitis de castro Vintimilie"[394]m ODILE, daughter of LAUGIER & his wife Odile --- (-after 19 Mar 1082).  "Conradus filius quondam Conradi comitis et Odila jugalis filia Laugerii" donated "ecclesiam sancti Martini…in comitatu Vintimigliense in valle Carnolense" to Lérins by charter dated 19 Mar 1082 signed "in curte propria predicti comitis de castro Vintimilie"[395].  Corrado [II] & his wife had one child: 

i)          CORRADO [III] .  Conte di Vintimiglia

 

 

1.         GUGLIELMO BERENGERIO (-after [1110]).  A charter dated to [1110/24] records the presence of "duorum comitum Vintimillii, et Guillelmi Berengarii et Poncii, fratris sui" when "Ugo Guillelmus" donated part of "castelli Arluci" to Lérins[396]

2.         PONTIO (-after [1110]).  A charter dated to [1110/24] records the presence of "duorum comitum Vintimillii, et Guillelmi Berengarii et Poncii, fratris sui" at a donation to Lérins[397]

 

 

1.         GUIDO GuerraConte di Ventimiglia"Guido Guerra comes Vintimilliensis" donated "Roccabrunam" to "communi Januæ", represented by "Oberto Spinule", by charter dated 30 Aug 1157[398]

 

 

2.         OTTONEConte di Ventimiglia.  A charter dated 24 Feb 1177 records an agreement between "dominum Otonem commitem Vintimilii" and "dominum Laugerium abbatem sancti Honorati"[399]

-        CONTI di VENTIMIGLIA, SEIGNEURS de ROQUEBRUNE[400]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    COUNTIES in LOMBARDIA

 

 

The present-day Italian region of Lombardia lies to the east of Piemonte centred on Milan, north of the region of Emilia.  Other medieval counties identified in the Lombardia region are: Bellinzona, Bulgaria, Chiavenna, Como, Cremona, Lecco, Maccagno, Mantova, Martesana, Martinengo, Seprio, Stazzona and Viadana, but no information has yet been found on their counts. 

 

 

 

A.      DUKES of BERGAMO, CONTI di BERGAMO

 

 

The primary sources so far consulted reveal little about the Lombard dukedom of Bergamo, other than the names of one duke in the late 6th century and another in the late 7th/early 8th century.  It is not known whether these individuals were part of a single dynasty. 

 

The names of the later counts of Bergamo shown below (Giselbert, Maginfred…) indicate Germanic origin, although Wickham suggests that the family of the Gisalbertingi of Bergamo were Lombards[401].  It is more probable that they formed part of the team of foreign administrators imported into northern Italy by the German emperors of the Ottonian dynasty and their successors to impose their control in the area.  

 

 

1.         GAIDULF (-after [596]).  Duke of Bergamo.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Gaidulfus…Pergamensis dux" rebelled after the accession of Agilulf King of the Lombards (dated to [590]) in the town of Bergamo, was imprisoned "in insula Comacina" before escaping back to Bergamo, but was pardoned by the king[402].  Paulus Diaconus states that "Gaidulfum…Pergamensem ducem" died after being spared a second time, implying a natural death following a subsequent rebellion[403].  The latter passage is included after the report of the death of Childebert II King of the Franks, dated to 596.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum compresses the two rebellions into one when it states that "Acquo" killed "duces revelles suos, Zangrolf de Verona, Mimulf de insula Sancti Iuliani et Gaidulf de Bergamum"[404]

 

 

1.         ROTHARI (-murdered Torino 702 or after).  Duke of Bergamo.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Raginpertus dux Taurinensium quem quondam rex Godipertus" defeated the regent Ansprand and "Rotharit Bergamensium ducem" at Novaria in [700][405].  Paulus Diaconus records that Aripert fought King Liutpert "cumque Ansprando et Atone et Tatzone necnon at Rotharit ac Faraone" at Ticino, and that "Rotharit dux" returned to Bergamo and seized the kingdom, before being captured by King Aripert and sent in exile to Torino where he was killed[406]

 

 

1.         AMBROSIO (-894 or after).  Conte di Bergamo.  The Annales Fuldenses record the rebellion in 894 in "Pergamum civitate…cum comite Widonis Ambrosio"[407]

 

 

1.         ODALRICOConte di Bergamo

2.         UGO di Belusco m ALCHINDA, daughter of SIGIFREDO-SIGESO & his wife Baratina --- (-after [973/75]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not so far been identified.  She sold the castle of Carcinato [14 Feb 973/975]. 

 

 

1.         ATTO (-after 1014).  [Conte di Bergamo].  "Henricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the donation by "Atto comes et Ferlinda sua coniux" of "Lemmenem cum omnibus castellis sibi…Briuio et Lauello" to the bishopric of Bergamo, by charter dated 1014[408], which suggests that he was count in the area of Bergamo.  m FERLINDA, daughter of ---.  "Henricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the donation by "Atto comes et Ferlinda sua coniux" of "Lemmenem cum omnibus castellis sibi…Briuio et Lauello" to the bishopric of Bergamo, by charter dated 1014[409]

 

 

GISELBERTO, son of LANFRANCO Conte di Piacenza & his wife --- (-before 10 Oct 1010).  A charter dated 15 Oct 981 in Piacenza confirms donations of "Giselbertus comes palacii filius quondam Lanfranci itemque comes palatii, et Alsinda iugalibus"[410]Conte di Bergamo.  Imperial conte palatino in Pavia. 

m ALSINDA, daughter of ARDOINO "Glabrio" Marchese of Turin & his wife ---.  A charter dated 15 Oct 981 in Piacenza confirms donations of "Giselbertus comes palacii filius quondam Lanfranci itemque comes palatii, et Alsinda iugalibus"[411].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not so far been identified. 

Giselberto [II] & his wife had [four] children: 

1.         LANFRANCO (-[Mar 1017/4 May 1025]).  Comes Palatii.  A charter dated 3 Nov 1001 records a judgment relating to a grant by Emperor Otto III to "Vuerihen comiti" in a session at which "Fulco comes, Egelre comes, Lanfrancus comes, comites Vicentino atque Patavino Uualferam et Ceisulf comitibus…" were present[412].  "Lanfrancus Comes Palacii, qui eadem Richylda germana mea interrogavi" and "Maginfredus Comes, qui eadem Richilda germana mea interrogavi" subscribed a charter dated Mar 1017 under which "Bonifacius Marchio…Richelda coniuge…filia Giselberti…Comes Palacii" donated property to the monastery of St Silvestro de Nonantula, in which Richilda also names "Lanfrancus et Maginfredus germanis meis"[413]m ---.  The name of Lanfranco´s wife is not known.  Lanfranco & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         ARDOINO (-after 23 Dec 1039).  "Ilderadus filius quondam Agini qui et Otto de loco Comatio…ex nacione mea lege vivere Rubuariorum et Rolenda filia quondam Lanfranci comitis iugalibus…ex nacione mea lege vivere Langobardorum" donated numerous properties including "in comitatu Bergamense…[et] in comitatu Mantuanense…[et] in comitatu Raixana" the monastery of San Vito, Lodi, in the presence of "Arduini comes", by charter dated 23 Dec 1039, signed by "Arduinus comes germanus eidem Rolende, Alexandri germano eidem Rolende…"[414]

b)         ALESSANDRO [Lanfranco] (-after 24 May 1044).  "Ilderadus filius quondam Agini qui et Otto de loco Comatio…ex nacione mea lege vivere Rubuariorum et Rolenda filia quondam Lanfranci comitis iugalibus…ex nacione mea lege vivere Langobardorum" donated numerous properties including "in comitatu Bergamense…[et] in comitatu Mantuanense…[et] in comitatu Raixana" the monastery of San Vito, Lodi, in the presence of "Arduini comes", by charter dated 23 Dec 1039, signed by "Arduinus comes germanus eidem Rolende, Alexandri germano eidem Rolende…"[415].  "Ariprandus missus domini Enrici rex" confirmed the validity of charters issued by "Rolinda filia quondam Lanfranci qui fuit comes…cum Alexander qui et Lanfrancus germanium et tutorem suum" by charter dated 24 May 1044[416]

c)         ROLENDA (-[24 May 1044/29 Jul 1050]).  "Petrus presbiter abitator in loco Casale qui dicitur Gausari et filius quondam Dominici" sold property "medietatem de…rebus…in loco et fundo Codonio…[et] Palazo…Pignani et…Spino" to "Ilderadus filius quondam Angi qui et Otto de loco Comazo…Rolinda puella sponsa sua filia quondam Lanfranchi qui fuit comes spalacii" by charter dated 4 May 1025, her husband assigning the same properties to his wife by charter dated 5 May 1025[417].  "Ilderadus filius quondam Agini qui et Otto de loco Comatio…ex nacione mea lege vivere Rubuariorum et Rolenda filia quondam Lanfranci comitis iugalibus…ex nacione mea lege vivere Langobardorum" donated numerous properties including "in comitatu Bergamense…[et] in comitatu Mantuanense…[et] in comitatu Raixana" the monastery of San Vito, Lodi, in the presence of "Arduini comes", by charter dated 23 Dec 1039, signed by "Arduinus comes germanus eidem Rolende, Alexandri germano eidem Rolende…"[418].  "Ariprandus missus domini Enrici rex" confirmed the validity of charters issued by "Rolinda filia quondam Lanfranci qui fuit comes…cum Alexander qui et Lanfrancus germanium et tutorem suum" by charter dated 24 May 1044[419]m ILDERADO da Comazzo, son of AGNIO [Otto] da Comazzo & his wife --- (-[23 Dec 1039/24 May 1044]).  "Ilderadus filius quondam Angi qui et Otto de loco Comacio" sold property "medietatem de…rebus…in loco et fundo Codonio…[et] Palazo…Pignani et…Spino" to "Petrus presbiter abitator in loco Casale qui dicitur Gausari et filius quondam Dominici", in the presence of "Ottoni comes sacri palacii et comes uius comutati Ticinense in loco Coniolo", by charter dated 4 May 1025[420].  "Lanfrancus filius quondam Ilderati que fuit de loco Comacio" donated property to the bishopric of Lodi by charter dated 29 Jul 1050[421].  "Ilderadus filius quondam item Ilderadi qui fuit de loco Comazo et Imilia iugalibus filia Petri" donated property to the bishopric of Lodi, in the presence of "Petrus et Adellardus adquo Teudaldus pater et filii genitor et germanis meis", by charter dated 8 Apr 1051[422]

d)         [ANSELDA .  "Rihardus filius bone memorie item Rihardi et Anselda iugalibus filia quondam Lanfranci…comes…ipsa Anselda per natione mea lege vivere langobardorum" donated property to the monastery of Santi Filino e Granciniano, in the presence of "comni Rudulfi comes…comitatus Sepriensis", by charter dated 2 Nov 1023[423].  It is not certain that Anselda´s father was the same Conte Lanfranco who is named above, but the chronology appears to be acceptable.  m RICCARDO, son of RICCARDO & his wife ---.] 

2.         MAGINFREDO (-after Mar 1017).  "Lanfrancus Comes Palacii, qui eadem Richylda germana mea interrogavi" and "Maginfredus Comes, qui eadem Richilda germana mea interrogavi" subscribed a charter dated Mar 1017 under which "Bonifacius Marchio…Richelda coniuge…filia Giselberti…Comes Palacii" donated property to the monastery of St Silvestro de Nonantula, in which Richilda also names "Lanfrancus et Maginfredus germanis meis"[424]

3.         RICHILDA (-after Feb 1036, bur Nogara fortress, near Mantua).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "comitissam Richildam" as the wife of "Bonifacium" but does not give her origin[425].  Her parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 3 Sep 1019 by which "Bonefacius Marchio filius quondam Teotaldi…Marchio et Richilda jugalibus filia quondam Giselberti Comitis" donated property to the bishopric of Cremona[426].  "Bonefazius Marchio et Dux Tusciæ et Richida jugales" exchanged property with "Ingonem Episcopus" by charter dated 21 May 1033 which names "Manfredo et Opezo nepotibus meis"[427]m ([1010]) as his first wife, Marchese BONIFAZIO, Signor di Canossa, son of Marchese TEDALDO & his wife Guillia [Willa] --- ([985]-San Martino all'Argine May 1052, bur Mantua Cathedral). 

4.         [---.  It is probable that the father of Maginfredo and Obizzo was the same person as either Lanfranco or Maginfredo named above but the primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified.  m ---.]  Two children: 

a)         MAGINFREDO (-after 21 May 1033).  "Bonefazius Marchio et Dux Tusciæ et Richida jugales" exchanged property with "Ingonem Episcopus" by charter dated 21 May 1033 which names "Manfredo et Opezo nepotibus meis"[428]m ---.  The name of Maginfredo's wife is not known.  Maginfredo & his wife had one child:   

i)          GISELBERTO [III] (-before Jan 1088).  "Gislebertus comes comitatus Pergamensis et filius quondam Maginfredi qui fuit comes…ex natione…Longobardorum" made a donation to Cluny dated 19 May 1079[429]Conte di Bergamo.  A settlement of a dispute over property "in comitatu Pergamensi…loco Palusco" between different monasteries at Bergamo is confirmed by charter dated 6 Nov 1082, in the presence of "Gislebertus et Arialdus atque Reginerius comites Pergamenses"[430].  m MATILDA, daughter of --- (-before 19 May 1079).  "Gislebertus comes comitatus Pergamensis" made a donation to Cluny dated 19 May 1079 for the soul of "Mattildis coniugisque mea"[431].  "Mattildis coniugis mee" is named in the donation to Cluny by "Giselbertus comes comitatus Pergamensis" dated 29 Mar 1081[432]

b)         OBIZZO (-after 21 May 1033).  "Bonefazius Marchio et Dux Tusciæ et Richida jugales" exchanged property with "Ingonem Episcopus" by charter dated 21 May 1033 which names "Manfredo et Opezo nepotibus meis"[433]

 

 

The exact relationship between Giselberto [III] and the following three individuals has no so far been corroborated:

1.         ARIALDO (-after Jan 1088).  Conte di Bergamo.  A settlement of a dispute over property "in comitatu Pergamensi…loco Palusco" between different monasteries at Bergamo is confirmed by charter dated 6 Nov 1082, in the presence of "Gislebertus et Arialdus atque Reginerius comites Pergamenses"[434].  Judgment was given, in the presence of "Conradus…rex", in a claim by the canons of Bergamo cathedral against the convents of Holy Trinity and St Alexander at Bergamo by charter dated Jan 1088, in the presence of "Ugone et Maginfredo marchionibus atque Arialdo et Raginerio seu Ugone comitibus"[435]

2.         RAINERIO (-after Jan 1088).  Conte di Bergamo.  A settlement of a dispute over property "in comitatu Pergamensi…loco Palusco" between different monasteries at Bergamo is confirmed by charter dated 6 Nov 1082, in the presence of "Gislebertus et Arialdus atque Reginerius comites Pergamenses"[436].  Judgment was given, in the presence of "Conradus…rex", in a claim by the canons of Bergamo cathedral against the convents of Holy Trinity and St Alexander at Bergamo by charter dated Jan 1088, in the presence of "Ugone et Maginfredo marchionibus atque Arialdo et Raginerio seu Ugone comitibus"[437]

3.         UGO (-after Jan 1088).  Judgment was given, in the presence of "Conradus…rex", in a claim by the canons of Bergamo cathedral against the convents of Holy Trinity and St Alexander at Bergamo by charter dated Jan 1088, in the presence of "Ugone et Maginfredo marchionibus atque Arialdo et Raginerio seu Ugone comitibus"[438]

 

 

 

B.      DUKES of BRESCIA

 

 

1.         GAIDOALDDuke of Bresciam ---.  The name of Gaidoald's wife is not known.  Gaidoald & his wife had one child: 

a)         RANIGUNDA .  Paulus Diaconus records that Duke Romoald had "aliam coniugem…Ranigundam filiam Gaidualdi Brexiani ducis"[439]m as his second wife, ROMUALD II Duke of Benevento, son of GISULF Duke of Benevento & his wife ([690]-731). 

 

 

 

C.      CONTI di CHIAVENNA

 

 

1.         AMIZO (-before 8 Oct 995).  Conte di Chiavenna.  "Otto…rex" donated property "in castello Clauenna" previously owned by "Amizo comes" to the church of Chur by charter dated 8 Oct 995[440].  "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed a grant to the church of Chur by "Amizo comes" of property in Chiavenna by charter dated 19 Sep 1030[441]

 

 

 

D.      CONTI di LODI

 

 

1.         MANFREDO [I] [Melanfredo] (-after Jun 892).  Conte di Lodi"Uuido imperator augustus" confirmed earlier donations to the monastery of San Pietro di Lodi Vecchio, at the request of "Melanfredi…eiusdem loci comitis…et sacri Palatii nostri comitis", by charter dated Jun 892[442]

 

 

[Four] brothers.  The chronology suggests that they were the sons of Manfredo [I] Conte di Lodi, but this relationship cannot be confirmed: 

1.         ALBERICO (-after [935]).  The bishop of Lodi granted "terra di Turrignani et…de Cerretu plano et…prato de Staciano" to "domnum Albricum qui comes vocabatur et Aledramme fratrem eius et Manfredum et Aledramme filius eius et Ubertus", in the presence of "Odonis infantis et Albrici eius fratris et Ariberti fratrisque eius et Albrici maioris Amizonis…domni senioris Aldeprandi", by charter dated to [935][443]m ---.  The name of Alberico´s wife is not known.  Alberico & his wife had [three children]: 

a)         [ODO .  The bishop of Lodi granted "terra di Turrignani et…de Cerretu plano et…prato de Staciano" to "domnum Albricum qui comes vocabatur et Aledramme fratrem eius et Manfredum et Aledramme filius eius et Ubertus", in the presence of "Odonis infantis et Albrici eius fratris et Ariberti fratrisque eius et Albrici maioris Amizonis…domni senioris Aldeprandi", by charter dated to [935][444].  The document does not specify that "Odonis infantis" and his two brothers were the sons of Alberico.  However, there appears no other reasonable explanation for the presence at the grant of three minors.]  

b)         [ALBERICO .  The bishop of Lodi granted "terra di Turrignani et…de Cerretu plano et…prato de Staciano" to "domnum Albricum qui comes vocabatur et Aledramme fratrem eius et Manfredum et Aledramme filius eius et Ubertus", in the presence of "Odonis infantis et Albrici eius fratris et Ariberti fratrisque eius et Albrici maioris Amizonis…domni senioris Aldeprandi", by charter dated to [935][445].  The document does not specify that "Odonis infantis" and his two brothers were the sons of Alberico.  However, there appears no other reasonable explanation for the presence at the grant of three minors.] 

c)         [ALERAMO .  The bishop of Lodi granted "terra di Turrignani et…de Cerretu plano et…prato de Staciano" to "domnum Albricum qui comes vocabatur et Aledramme fratrem eius et Manfredum et Aledramme filius eius et Ubertus", in the presence of "Odonis infantis et Albrici eius fratris et Ariberti fratrisque eius et Albrici maioris Amizonis…domni senioris Aldeprandi", by charter dated to [935][446].  The document does not specify that "Odonis infantis" and his two brothers were the sons of Alberico.  However, there appears no other reasonable explanation for the presence at the grant of three minors.]

2.         ALERAMO (-after [935]).  The bishop of Lodi granted "terra di Turrignani et…de Cerretu plano et…prato de Staciano" to "domnum Albricum qui comes vocabatur et Aledramme fratrem eius et Manfredum et Aledramme filius eius et Ubertus", in the presence of "Odonis infantis et Albrici eius fratris et Ariberti fratrisque eius et Albrici maioris Amizonis…domni senioris Aldeprandi", by charter dated to [935][447]

3.         [MANFREDO [II] (-after [935]).  The bishop of Lodi granted "terra di Turrignani et…de Cerretu plano et…prato de Staciano" to "domnum Albricum qui comes vocabatur et Aledramme fratrem eius et Manfredum et Aledramme filius eius et Ubertus", in the presence of "Odonis infantis et Albrici eius fratris et Ariberti fratrisque eius et Albrici maioris Amizonis…domni senioris Aldeprandi", by charter dated to [935][448].  The document does not specify that Manfredo and Uberto were brothers of Alberico.  However, while Alberico´s brother Aleramo is described as "fratrem eius" in the singular, the passage when read as a whole suggests that this phrase should impliedly refer to Manfredo and Uberto as well.]  m ---.  The name of Manfredo´s wife is not known.  Manfredo & his wife had one child: 

a)         ALERAMO (-after [935]).  The bishop of Lodi granted "terra di Turrignani et…de Cerretu plano et…prato de Staciano" to "domnum Albricum qui comes vocabatur et Aledramme fratrem eius et Manfredum et Aledramme filius eius et Ubertus", in the presence of "Odonis infantis et Albrici eius fratris et Ariberti fratrisque eius et Albrici maioris Amizonis…domni senioris Aldeprandi", by charter dated to [935][449]

4.         [UBERTO (-after [935]).  The bishop of Lodi granted "terra di Turrignani et…de Cerretu plano et…prato de Staciano" to "domnum Albricum qui comes vocabatur et Aledramme fratrem eius et Manfredum et Aledramme filius eius et Ubertus", in the presence of "Odonis infantis et Albrici eius fratris et Ariberti fratrisque eius et Albrici maioris Amizonis…domni senioris Aldeprandi", by charter dated to [935][450].  The document does not specify that Manfredo and Uberto were brothers of Alberico.  However, while Alberico´s brother Aleramo is described as "fratrem eius" in the singular, the passage when read as a whole suggests that this phrase should impliedly refer to Manfredo and Uberto as well.] 

 

5.         BENZO (-after 5 Aug 1000).  "Otto…rex" gave property "in Laudensi comitatu" to "Benzone ipsius comitatus comiti" by an undated charter, in the compilation with charters dated 996[451].  A charter dated 5 Aug 1000 records a hearing "in Laudensi comitatu" and before "Benzone ipsius comitatu comiti" concerning a dispute between the bishop of Lodi and "Rogerius filius quondam Rumaldi in loco Bariano"[452]

 

 

 

E.      CONTI di MILANO

 

 

Little information has been found on the early medieval counts of Milan.  The name "Maginfred" suggests that they were of Frankish origin. 

 

 

1.         MAGINFREDO [Manfredo] (-killed 896).  "Vuido…imperator augustus" donated property to the church of S. Vigilio in Rocca Grimalda at the request of [her son] "Manfredus…comes" by charter dated 14 May 891[453].  "Maginfredus comes palacii et comes ipsius comitati Mediolanensis" confirmed an exchange of property involving the monastery of Santo Ambrosio by charter dated Aug 892[454].  The Annales Fuldenses records that "Maginfridus comes Mediolanensis" was killed by "Lantberto filio Widonis" in 896[455]m ---.  The name of Maginfredo's wife is not known.  Maginfredo & his wife had two children: 

a)         son .  The Annales Fuldenses records that the son and son-in-law of "Maginfridus comes Mediolanensis" were blinded by "Lantberto filio Widonis" in 896[456]

b)         daughter .  m ---.  The Annales Fuldenses records that the son and son-in-law of "Maginfridus comes Mediolanensis" were blinded by "Lantberto filio Widonis" in 896[457]

 

 

 

F.      CONTI di PAVIA

 

 

1.         TEUDOINO (-after Nov 982).  Conte di PaviaA charter dated Nov 982 in Pavia records a judgment of "Petrus episcopus…Ticinensi episcopio…cum…Teudinus comes"[458]

 

2.         BERNARDO (-[976/14 Oct 1001])Conte di Pavia.  He is referred to as deceased in the 14 Oct 1001 document which names his wife.  m ([950]) as her second husband, ROTLIND, widow of Count ELISARDIUS, illegitimate daughter of UGO King of Italy & his mistress Rotrud --- ([930]-after 14 Oct 1001).  "Rolend cometissa filia bone memorie domni Ugoni regis diacconus sancta Ticinensis ecclesie filius bone memorie Bernardi comiti, mater et filii" are named in a 14 Oct 1001 document confirming their renunciation of a claim to the cloister of the Holy Saviour and St Felix of Pavia, which also names "Otto protosparius et comes palacii seu comes…Adelbertus et Mainfredus marchionibus, Wibertus comes filius bone memorie Dadoni itemque comes…Otbertus filius quondam Aponi…Umfredus vasalli Ferlende cometisse" and the unnamed children of "Rolend cometissa"[459].  Bernardo & his wife had [three or more] children: 

a)         UBERTO (-after 14 Oct 1001).  "Rolend cometissa filia bone memorie domni Ugoni regis diacconus sancta Ticinensis ecclesie filius bone memorie Bernardi comiti, mater et filii" are named in a 14 Oct 1001 document confirming their renunciation of a claim to the cloister of the Holy Saviour and St Felix of Pavia[460]

b)         other children (-after 14 Oct 1001).  "Rolend cometissa filia bone memorie domni Ugoni regis diacconus sancta Ticinensis ecclesie filius bone memorie Bernardi comiti, mater et filii" are named in a 14 Oct 1001 document confirming their renunciation of a claim to the cloister of the Holy Saviour and St Felix of Pavia, which also refers to the unnamed children of "Rolend cometissa"[461].  It is assumed that these children would have been born from her second marriage as her first marriage was of short duration. 

 

 

3.         ILDEBRANDO .  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property "que Gebehardus comes in beneficium habuit, in comitatu Piligrimi et in pago Matihgowe" to the church at Pavia by charter dated 1014, naming "Ubertum comitem filium Hildeprandi, Otbertum marchionem et filios eius et Albertum nepotem illius" as previous owners[462]m ---.  The name of Ildebrando's wife is not known.  Ildebrando & his wife had one child: 

a)         UBERTO (-after 1014).  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property "que Gebehardus comes in beneficium habuit, in comitatu Piligrimi et in pago Matihgowe" to the church at Pavia by charter dated 1014, naming "Ubertum comitem filium Hildeprandi, Otbertum marchionem et filios eius et Albertum nepotem illius" as previous owners[463]

4.         [--- .  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         ALBERTO (-after 1014).  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property "que Gebehardus comes in beneficium habuit, in comitatu Piligrimi et in pago Matihgowe" to the church at Pavia by charter dated 1014, naming "Ubertum comitem filium Hildeprandi, Otbertum marchionem et filios eius et Albertum nepotem illius" as previous owners[464]

 

 

1.         OTTO (-after 28 Aug 1018).  Conte di Pavia.  Imperial Conte Palatino, protospatharios.  As "Otto, protospatharios and count palatine and count of this county", he chaired the court session at Pavia in 1001, in the presence of Emperor Otto III, in which Countess Rotlind and her son renounced their claim to the cloister of the Holy Saviour and St Felix of Pavia[465]Conte di Ticino.  "Einricus…imperator" acting through "domnus Otto comes palacii et comes uius comitatu Ticinensi" with "…Otbertus et Anselmus germanis marchionibus…" confirmed the property of the convent of San Salvator at Pavia, naming "Berengarius presbiter et Ugo comes germanis, filii bone memorie Sigefredi qui fuit similiter comes", by charter dated 7 May 1014[466].  A charter dated 28 Aug 1018 records a donation by "Rainardus filius quondam Attoni et Roza jugalibus filia quondam Oddoni" to "Episcopio sancte Motinensis Ecclesie" at the court of "Domni Ottoni Comiti Palacii et Comes istius Comitatu Ticinensi"[467]

2.         [PETER .  Bishop of Como.  Archchancellor of Emperor Otto III, and later of Ardoino King of italy.  He was the brother or uncle of Count Otto[468].] 

 

 

 

F.      CONTI di SOSPIRO

 

 

1.         GUIFREDO (-after 11 Aug 1010).  Conte di Sospiro"Elena cometissa filia bone memorie Oberti et conius [Bernardi comitis]…ex natione mea lege vivere langobardorum" donated a sixth part of property "in comitatu Cremonense in…Sexpile…et…Robore" to the church of Cremona, "cum noticia domni Wifredi com[itis de comi]tatu Sepriensi", by charter dated 11 Aug 1010, subscribed by "Bernardus comes, Wifredi comes…"[469].  

 

2.         BERNARDO (-after 11 Aug 1010).  Conte di Sospirom ELENA, daughter of OBERTO & his wife … (-after 11 Aug 1010).  "Elena cometissa filia bone memorie Oberti et conius [Bernardi comitis]…ex natione mea lege vivere langobardorum" donated a sixth part of property "in comitatu Cremonense in…Sexpile…et…Robore" to the church of Cremona, "cum noticia domni Wifredi com[itis de comi]tatu Sepriensi", by charter dated 11 Aug 1010, subscribed by "Bernardus comes, Wifredi comes…"[470].  Bernardo & his wife had two children: 

a)         BERNARDO (-after 5 Apr 1093).  Conte di Sospiro"Bernardi comitis f. q. Bernardi comitis et Bertæ f. q. Ugonis comitis iugalium, lege saliha" donated property "in castro…Piscariole" to the church of Cremona by charter dated 28 Oct 1079[471].  "Bernardus comes f. q. Bernardi comitis et Berta f. q. Ugonis iugales, nac et lege salicha" donated property "in Casale Romani" to the monastery of Santo Giovanni, Cremona by charter dated 8 Jul 1085[472].  "Bernardus comes f. q. Bernardi comitis et Berta comitissa iugales, lege salicha" donated part of property "in castro Piscariolo" to the monastery of Santo Giovanni, Cremona by charter dated 5 Apr 1093[473].  m BERTA, daughter of Conte UGO & his wife --- (-after 5 Apr 1093).  "Bernardi comitis f. q. Bernardi comitis et Bertæ f. q. Ugonis comitis iugalium, lege saliha" donated property "in castro…Piscariole" to the church of Cremona by charter dated 28 Oct 1079[474].  "Bernardus comes f. q. Bernardi comitis et Berta f. q. Ugonis iugales, nac et lege salicha" donated property "in Casale Romani" to the monastery of Santo Giovanni, Cremona by charter dated 8 Jul 1085[475].  "Bernardus comes f. q. Bernardi comitis et Berta comitissa iugales, lege salicha" donated part of property "in castro Piscariolo" to the monastery of Santo Giovanni, Cremona by charter dated 5 Apr 1093[476].  

b)         ITA (-after 25 Sep 1080).  "Ita relicta Ribaldi de loco Dovaria et filia quondam Bernardi comitis de loco Sespile…lege saliha" donated property "in loco et fundi Durmanni" to the church of Cremona by charter dated 25 Sep 1080[477].  m RIBALDO di Dovaria, son of --- (-before 25 Sep 1080). 

 

 

1.         UBERTO (-after 3 Dec 1081).  Conte di Sospiro"Heinricus…rex" confirmed the rights of Parma cathedral by charter dated 3 Dec 1081, among those listed as present being "Albertus marchio filius quondam Auberti marchionis, Boso comes, Gerardo filio quondam Ugonis comitis, Uberto comes de Suspiro"[478]

 

2.         ANSELMO (-after 3 Dec 1081).  Conte di Sospiro"Albertus marchio filiuo quondam Auberto marchionis" renounced his rights in Pizzo which was granted to Parma cathedral by charter dated 14 Dec 1081, among those listed as present being "domni Bosonis comitis de Sabloneta vassus et signifier episcopi Parmensis, et Anselmi comiti de Suspiro, et Vuidonis Gislardi et item Vuidonis Teudaldi et Gandulfi et Anselmi germanis"[479]

 

3.         ANSELMO (-before 17 Mar 1152).  m ---.  The name of Anselmo´s wife is not known.  Anselmo & his wife had two children: 

a)         GUARNERIO (-after 7 Dec 1182).  Conte di SospiroA charter dated 17 Mar 1152 records judgment in a dispute between the bishop of Cremona and "comites de Suspiro…Bernardum de Abianco, Guarnerium f. q. Anselmi et Obertum f Mabeloce"[480].  "Comite Guarnerio" granted property at Perezano, with the consent of "Guidonis filii sui", by charter dated 7 Dec 1182 which records that "comes Guarnerius promittit, Baxafoliam fratrem suum ratam habituram hanc venditionem"[481]m ---.  The name of Guarnerio´s wife is not known.  Guarnerio & his wife had one child: 

i)          GUIDO .  "Comite Guarnerio" granted property at Perezano, with the consent of "Guidonis filii sui", by charter dated 7 Dec 1182 which records that "comes Guarnerius promittit, Baxafoliam fratrem suum ratam habituram hanc venditionem"[482]

b)         BASSAFOLIA (-after 7 Dec 1182).  "Comite Guarnerio" granted property at Perezano, with the consent of "Guidonis filii sui", by charter dated 7 Dec 1182 which records that "comes Guarnerius promittit, Baxafoliam fratrem suum ratam habituram hanc venditionem"[483]

 

 

1.         UBALDOm ---.  Ubaldo & his wife had one child: 

a)         OBERTO (-after 2 Feb 1132).  Conte di Sospiro"Ubertus comes de Suspiro f. q. Ubaldi comitis" donated property "in curte Suspiri" to the hospital outside Cremona by charter dated 2 Feb 1132[484].  

 

2.         BERNARDO di Abianco (-after 17 Mar 1152).  Conte di Sospiro.  A charter dated 17 Mar 1152 records judgment in a dispute between the bishop of Cremona and "comites de Suspiro…Bernardum de Abianco, Guarnerium f. q. Anselmi et Obertum f Mabeloce"[485].  

 

3.         MABELOCE (-after 17 Mar 1152).  m ---.  The name of Mabeloce´s wife is not known.  Mabeloce & his wife had one child: 

a)         OBERTO (-after 17 Mar 1152).  Conte di SospiroA charter dated 17 Mar 1152 records judgment in a dispute between the bishop of Cremona and "comites de Suspiro…Bernardum de Abianco, Guarnerium f. q. Anselmi et Obertum f Mabeloce"[486].  

 

 

 

G.      OTHER COUNTS in LOMBARDIA

 

 

1.         ALKERIO (-after 21 Feb 904).  "Berengarius rex" donated property in "de comitatu Veronense…in villa…Runco" to "presbitero eclesiæ Sancti Proculi…Boniperto", at the request of "Alkerius…comes", by charter dated 30 Nov 896[487].  "Berengarius…rex" donated "curtem…Murgula…in territorio Bergomensi" to the church of S. Alessandro di Bergamo, at the request of "Sigefredum…palatii comitem…et Alkerium comitem", by charter dated 21 Feb 904[488]

 

2.         ERMENULFO (-after 2 Dec 894).  "Berengarius rex" confirmed possessions "in Cornaledo…ex comitatu Stazionensi" [Stazona/Angera] of the church of San Ambrosio, at the request of "Ermenulfum nostræ militiæ comitem", by charter dated 2 Dec 894[489].  "Berengarius rex" granted serfs to "Ermenulfi…fideli nostro" by charter dated 15 Feb 898[490]

 

3.         LOTHAR (-after 1014).  "Henricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" took under his protection Kloster San Salvator at Settimo founded by "Lotharius comes" by charter dated 1014[491]

 

4.         MAGINFREDO di Mosezzo (-[955/58]).  Conte di Lovello.  m firstly ---.  The name of Maginfredo´s first wife is not known.  m secondly as her first husband, GUNTILDA di Auriate, daughter of RUGGERO [II] Conte d´Auriate & his wife --- (-after 3 Sep 962).  Her parentage and second marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 2 Sep 962 which records that "Hegelricus ex genere francorum" sold his share of property "in fundo Musicio et…fundo Vicolongo" {Mesozzo} to "Guntildæ filiæ quondam Rotgerii comitis et conjugis Amedei f. quondam Anscarii marchionis"[492].  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.  A charter dated 4 Sep 962 records the judgment issued by "Adalberti comitis Plumbiensis et Rolandi missi dominici" in a dispute between "Guntildam f. quondam Rotgerii comitis et conjugis Amedei vassi imperatoris" and "Egelrico filio Maginfredi comitis" relating to the sale of "castri Mosicii"[493].  She married secondly ([Apr 959/3 Sep 962]) Amedeo d´Ivrea.  Maginfredo & his first wife had one child: 

a)         EGELRICO (-after 4 Sep 962).  A charter dated 4 Sep 962 records the judgment issued by "Adalberti comitis Plumbiensis et Rolandi missi dominici" in a dispute between "Guntildam f. quondam Rotgerii comitis et conjugis Amedei vassi imperatoris" and "Egelrico filio Maginfredi comitis" relating to the sale of "castri Mosicii"[494]

 

5.         MAGINFREDOm ---.  The name of Maginfredo's wife is not known.  Maginfredo & his wife had one child: 

a)         FRODO .  The Chronicon Novaliciense names "filius [Magafredi] nomine Frodoinum"[495]

 

6.         MAGINFREDO (-after Jan 1088).  Marchese.  Judgment was given, in the presence of "Conradus…rex", in a claim by the canons of Bergamo cathedral against the convents of Holy Trinity and St Alexander at Bergamo by charter dated Jan 1088, in the presence of "Ugone et Maginfredo marchionibus atque Arialdo et Raginerio seu Ugone comitibus"[496]

 

7.         MAGINFREDO (-after 1095).  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" took St Peter, Padua under his protection at the request of "Burchardi marchionis, Maginfredi comitis" by charter dated 1095[497]

 

8.         SIGIFREDO (-before 7 May 1014).  m ---.  The name of Sigifredo's wife is not known.  Sigifredo & his wife had two children: 

a)         UGO (-after 4 Oct 1015).  "Einricus…imperator" acting through "domnus Otto comes palacii et comes eius comitatu Ticinensi" with "…Otbertus et Anselmus germanis marchionibus…" confirmed the property of the convent of San Salvator at Pavia, naming "Berengarius presbiter et Ugo comes germanis, filii bone memorie Sigefredi qui fuit similiter comes", by charter dated 7 May 1014[498].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted property "villa Barzanorum" which was "hereditas et proprietas filiorum comitis Sigifredi, Berengarii et Ugonis" to the church of Como by charter dated 4 Oct 1015[499]

b)         BERENGARIO (-after 4 Oct 1015).  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted property "villa Barzanorum" which was "hereditas et proprietas filiorum comitis Sigifredi, Berengarii et Ugonis" to the church of Como by charter dated 4 Oct 1015[500].  Priest. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    COUNTIES in PIEMONTE and VAL d'AOSTA

 

 

The present-day Italian region of Piemonte lies in the north-west of Italy centred on Torino, north of the region of Liguria on the coast and west of Lombardia.  The region of Val d'Aosta is situated to the north-west of Piemonte.  The two regions are adjacent to present-day Switzerland and the French county of Savoie.  Control over Piemonte gradually transferred to the family of the comtes de Savoie.  In the mid-11th century, Oddon Comte de Maurienne inherited large parts of north-west Italy by his marriage to Adelaida, heiress of Susa.  However, after Adelaida died in 1091, her husband's family were unable to maintain their control over her inheritance.  However, in 1207 Philipp King of Germany granted Chieri and Testona in Piemonte to Thomas I Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie, who also later acquired Carignano, Pinerolo, Moncalieri, Vigone, Albenga and Savona, all in Piemonte.  Thomas's son, Amédée IV Comte de Savoie, was nominated Imperial Vicar in northern Italy and is recorded in primary sources as "Marchese in Italia".  Emperor Friedrich II recognised Amédée's rights over Torino in 1248.  Comte Amédée appointed his brother Thomas as Conte [Marchese] del Piemonte in 1247, but reserved for himself the sovereignty over the territory.  Piemonte was inherited by Thomas's older son, Thomas, who acquired Pinerolo in 1274, and Torino, Collegno, Grugliasco and Pianezza in 1280 (see the document SAVOIE for him and his descendants). 

 

 

 

A.      CONTI d´ASTI

 

 

As can be seen below, isolated references to counts in Asti have been found in primary sources during an approximately 50 year period from the late 9th to early 10th centuries.  The absence of further references, and the absence of any reference to appointed consules in Asti, suggests that the bishop of Asti assumed unchallenged temporal jurisdiction in the city after the early 940s.  

 

 

1.         ODALRICO (-after Nov 887).  Conte d´Asti"Odolricus…comes de civitate Hastensi" required the bishops of Torino and Savona to return property usurped from the bishop of Asti by charter dated Nov 887, signed by "Odolrico et Anterio filio suo…"[501].  m ---.  The name of Odalrico´s wife is not known.  Odalrico & his wife had one child: 

a)         ANTERIO .  "Odolricus…comes de civitate Hastensi" required the bishops of Torino and Savona to return property usurped from the bishop of Asti by charter dated Nov 887, signed by "Odolrico et Anterio filio suo…"[502].  

 

2.         LIUDFREDO (-after Mar 905).  Conte [d´Asti].  "Liudfredi comitis…Oberti vicecomitis…" signed the charter dated Mar 905 under which the bishop of Asti donated property, and confirmed previous donations, to the church of Asti[503].  

 

3.         GOTEFREDO (-after 4 Aug 910).  Conte [d´Asti].  A charter dated 4 Aug 910 records the exchange of property between the bishop of Asti and "Walbertus qui et…Poljano, vassus Gutefredi comes ex genere francorum"[504].  

 

 

1.         GAUSBERT (-before 940).  m ---.  The name of Gausbert´s wife is not known.  Gausbert & his wife had one child: 

a)         UBERTO (-[14 Mar 940/11 Nov 941]).  Conte d´Asti"Rodulphus…rex" granted "castellum vetus…in Asta" to "fideli nostro…Oberto" by charter dated 5 Dec 924[505].  "Ubertus comes…comitati Astensis" confirmed an exchange of property between the bishop of Asti and the archdeacon of Asti by charter dated 14 Mar 940[506].  "Adalbertus presbiter filius quondam Uperti" bequeathed property to the church of Santa Maria di Asti, reserving the usufruct to "Ubertus comes Astensis filius quondam Gausberti ex genere Francorum" by charter dated 11 Nov 941[507].  m ---.  The name of Uberto´s wife is not known.  Uberto & his wife had one child: 

i)          ADALBERTO (-after Jun 948).  "Adalbertus presbiter filius quondam Uperti" bequeathed property to the church of Santa Maria di Asti, reserving the usufruct to "Ubertus comes Astensis filius quondam Gausberti ex genere Francorum" by charter dated 11 Nov 941[508].  The bishop of Asti exchanged property with "Adhelbertus filius quondam Odberti qui fuit comes Astense" by charter dated Jun 948[509].  

 

 

 

B.      CONTI d´AURIATE

 

 

1.         RODOLFO (-905 or before)Conte d´Auriatem as her first husband, ---.  She married secondly Roger, who succeeded in 905 as Conte d´Auriate.  According to the Chronicon Novaliciense, Roger, when he succeeded as Conte d´Auriate, married his predecessor's widow who was the mother of his two sons[510]

 

 

1.         ARDUIN, son of --- .  A Frankish knight from Normandy.  m ---.  The name of Arduin's wife has not yet been identified.  Arduin & his wife had two children:

a)         ARDUIN .  The Chronicon Novaliciense names "Rogerius et Arduinus" as brothers when recording their emigration to Italy and Roger's accession as Conte d´Auriate[511].  He left France for Italy in 888 with his brother Roger, with Guido Duke of Spoleto, and became the vassal of Rodolfo Conte d´Auriate. 

b)         ROGER (-after 935).  The Chronicon Novaliciense names "Rogerius et Arduinus" as brothers when recording their emigration to Italy and Roger's accession as Conte d´Auriate[512].  He left France for Italy in 888 with his brother Arduin with Guido Duke of Spoleto.  He became the vassal of Rodolfo Conte d´Auriate, was adopted by him and named as his heir.  He succeeded in 905 as Conte d´Auriatem ([905]) as her second husband, ---, widow of RODOLFO Conte d´Auriate, daughter of ---.  According to the Chronicon Novaliciense, Roger, when he succeeded as Conte d´Auriate, married his predecessor's widow who was the mother of his two sons[513]

i)          ARDOINO [II] "Glabrio/the Bald" (-after 4 Apr 976).  The Chronicon Novaliciense names "Rogerium et Arduinum" as sons of Conte Roger[514].  He succeeded his father as Conte d´Auriate.  He was appointed regent of the March of Turin in 941 by Hugo King of Italy.  He conquered Albenga, Alba and Ventimiglia, and is referred to with the title Marchese [of Turin] from 962. 

-         MARCHESI of TURIN

ii)         RUGGERO [II] (-13 Nov 950).  The Chronicon Novaliciense names "Rogerium et Arduinum" as sons of Conte Roger[515].  Conte d´Auriate.  m ---.  The name of Roger's wife has not yet been identified.  Roger & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GUNTILDA (-after 3 Sep 962).  Her parentage and second marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 2 Sep 962 which records that "Hegelricus ex genere francorum" sold his share of property "in fundo Musicio et…fundo Vicolongo" {Mesozzo} to "Guntildæ filiæ quondam Rotgerii comitis et conjugis Amedei f. quondam Anscarii marchionis"[516].  A charter dated 4 Sep 962 records the judgment issued by "Adalberti comitis Plumbiensis et Rolandi missi dominici" in a dispute between "Guntildam f. quondam Rotgerii comitis et conjugis Amedei vassi imperatoris" and "Egelrico filio Maginfredi comitis" relating to the sale of "castri Mosicii"[517].  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.  m firstly [as his second wife,] MAGINFREDO di Mosezzo Conte di Lovello, son of ---.  941/55.  m secondly ([Apr 959/3 Sep 962]) AMEDEO d´Ivrea, son of ANSCARIO Marchese d'Ivrea & his wife ---. 

 

 

 

C.      MARCHESI d'IVREA

 

 

This family, originating in Burgundy, crossed the Alps to settle in Italy when the two brothers Anschier and Guy accompanied Guido Duke of Spoleto (whom they had sponsored as king of France in opposition to Emperor Charles III "le Gros") back to Italy after the election of Eudes as French king in 888.  After seventy years of rises and declines of fortune as Marchesi of Ivrea and kings of Italy, Adalberto d´Ivrea, associate King of Italy 951-962, was expelled by Emperor Otto I and eventually found refuge back in Burgundy, where his son became Comte de Mâcon and founded the prolific dynasty of the counts of Burgundy (see the document BURGUNDY KINGDOM NOBILITY). 

 

 

ANSCHIER, son of AMEDEE & his wife --- (-[1 Dec 898/Mar 902]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Comte d’Oscheret 877-888.  Counsellor of Boson King of Burgundy and Provence.  Together with his brother and Foulques Archbishop of Reims, he invited Guido II Duke of Spoleto to become king of France in opposition to Emperor Charles III “le Gros” who had delivered Burgundy to the Vikings after his accession in 884.  He accompanied Guido back to Italy after the election of Eudes King of Burgundy as King of France in 888.  In Italy, he continued as counsellor to Guido di Spoleto, took part in the campaigns against Arnulf King of Germany who invaded Italy in 894 and 896, and was installed as ANSCARIO I Marchese d´Ivrea [896].  "Lantbertus…imperator augustus" confirmed the privileges granted to the monastery of Bobbio by "marchio noster atque…comes Anscharius" by charter dated 25 Jul 896[518].  Chief counsellor of Berengario I King of Italy 898. 

m ---.  The name of Marchese Anscario's wife has not yet been identified. 

Marchese Anscario & his wife had one child:    

1.         ADALBERTO d´Ivrea (-[17 Jul 923/8 Oct 924]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father [898/902] as ADALBERTO I Conte e Marchese d'Ivrea.  He rebelled against Berengario I King of Italy in 896, supporting the rival candidate Louis III King of Provence as King of Italy.  After the defeat of the latter in 905, Adalberto was exiled across the Alps back to Burgundy.  "Berengarius rex" donated property to the church of Vercelli, at the request of "Adelberti…marchionis et…generi nostri et Grimaldi…comitis", by charter dated 26 Jan 913[519].  "Berengarius rex" granted property "in comitatu Laumellino…curte…Cario" to "Autberto vicecomiti", at the request of "Adalbertum…marchionem…generum nostrum atque Grimaldum…comitem", by charter dated to [913][520].  He rebelled a second time against Berengario in alliance with Lambert Archbishop of Milan, this time in support of Rudolf II King of Burgundy-Transjurania, another rival candidate as King.  Initially defeated, he and Rudolf finally defeated Berengario at Firenzuola 29 Jul 923.  m firstly ([898/900]) GISELA di Friulia, daughter of BERENGARIO I Marchese di Friulia, King of Italy [Unruochingi] & his wife Bertila di Spoleto ([880/885]-[13 Jun 910/26 Jan 913]).  Liutprand names "Gislam Berengarius filiam suam" as wife of "Adelbertus Eporegiæ civitatis marchio"[521]m secondly ([911/14]) ERMENGARDE of Tuscany, daughter of ADALBERTO Marchese of Tuscany Conte di Canossa & his wife Bertha of Lotharingia [Carolingian] (-29 Feb [after 932]).  "Hermengarda, Adelberti Tuscie marchionis et Bertæ filia" is named widow of "Adelberto Eporegiæ civitatis marchione"[522].  Consilaria of Rudolf King of Upper Burgundy in 924.  Marchese Adalberto & his first wife had one child:

a)         BERENGARIO d´Ivrea ([900]-Bamberg 6 Jul 966).  Liutprand names Berengar as son of "Adelberto Eporegiæ civitatis marchione [et]…Gisla Berengarii regis filia"[523].  He succeeded his father in [923/24] as BERENGARIO II Marchese d'Ivrea.  He was forced to flee Ivrea by Ugo King of Italy [940], who abolished the March of Ivrea.  He was proclaimed BERENGARIO II King of Italy by a general diet at Pavia 15 Dec 950.   

-        see below

Marchese Adalberto & his second wife had two children:

b)         ANSCARIO d´Ivrea (-murdered [940/41]).  Anscario is named as brother of Berengar by Liutprand, who specifies that he was born "ex Adelberto Hermengarda regis Hugonis soror"[524].  He was installed by Ugo King of Italy in [923/24] as ANSCARIO Marchese and Duke of Spoleto e Camerino.  "Brunengo filius quondam Ioanni de loco Calsiano" sold property in Assegiano to "Anscherius marchioni filius quondam Adalberti…marchioni" by charter dated May 933[525].  Ugo King of Italy sent an armed force to attack Anscario whom he accused of plotting against him.  Anscario was defeated, killed by Saribono, and his body thrown into a ravine.  After his death, the duchy of Spoleto passed as a reward to his assassin, and then to Hubert, illegitimate son of King Ugo & Wandelmoda [Anscario's possible half-sister].  m ---.  

i)          AMEDEO d´Ivrea .  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 2 Sep 962 which records that "Hegelricus ex genere francorum" sold his share of property "in fundo Musicio et…fundo Vicolongo" {Mesozzo} to "Guntildæ filiæ quondam Rotgerii comitis et conjugis Amedei f. quondam Anscarii marchionis"[526].  [Signor] di Mosezzo 962, de iure uxorism ([Apr 959/3 Sep 962]) as her second husband, GUNTILDA di Auriate, widow of MAGINFREDO di Mosezzo Conte di Lovello, daughter of RUGGIERO II Conte d´Auriate & his wife ---.   Her parentage and second marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 2 Sep 962 which records that "Hegelricus ex genere francorum" sold his share of property "in fundo Musicio et…fundo Vicolongo" {Mesozzo} to "Guntildæ filiæ quondam Rotgerii comitis et conjugis Amedei f. quondam Anscarii marchionis"[527].  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.  Amedeo & his wife had one child: 

(a)       BERENGARIO di Mosezzo (-before 19 Oct 1022).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  [Signor] di Mosezzo.  m CHRISTINA, daughter of AMALBERTO --- & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage and parentage has not yet been identified.  1022.  As a widow she became a nun and gave ½ Mosezzo to the Choir-lords of Novara.  Berengario & his wife had two children: 

(1)       BERENGARIO di Mosezzo .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  1022.  m ICHILDA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage and parentage has not yet been identified.  Berengario & his wife had descendants[528].

(2)       GUNTILDA di Mosezzo .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

c)         ADALBERTO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di Pombia [962].  m ---.  The name of Adalberto's wife is not known.  Adalberto & his wife had [two possible children]: 

i)          [DADO (-980).  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[529], Dado was a possible son of Adalberto, but the basis for this speculation is not known.  No primary source which confirms his parentage has so far been identified.  Chaume states that he was the son of Berengario II King of Italy[530].] 

-         see below

ii)         [ADALBERTO .  "Ardoinus rex" donated property to the church of S. Siro di Pavia, for the souls of "patris nostri Doddonis et…patrui nostri domini Adalberti", by charter dated 1 Apr 1014[531].] 

 

 

DADO, son of [ADALBERTO d´Ivrea Conte di Pombia & his wife ---] (-980[532]).  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[533], Dado was a possible son of Adalberto, but the basis for this speculation is not known.  No primary source which confirms his parentage has so far been identified.  Chaume states that he was the son of Berengario II King of Italy[534].  Count of Milan 967.  He was confirmed as DADO Marchese d'Ivrea by Emperor Otto I[535].  Conte di Pombia 973-1001. 

m ---.  The name of Dado's wife has not yet been identified. 

Dado & his wife had three children: 

1.         GUIBERTO (-after 1014).  "Rolend cometissa filia bone memorie domni Ugoni regis diacconus sancta Ticinensis ecclesie filius bone memorie Bernardi comiti, mater et filii" are named in a 14 Oct 1001 document confirming their renunciation of a claim to the cloister of the Holy Saviour and St Felix of Pavia, which also names "Otto protosparius et comes palacii seu comes…Adelbertus et Mainfredus marchionibus, Wibertus comes filius bone memorie Dadoni itemque comes…Otbertus filius quondam Aponi…Umfredus vasalli Ferlende cometisse" and the unnamed children of "Rolend cometissa"[536].  Conte di Pombia 1001-14. 

-        CONTI di POMBIA, CONTI di BIANDRATE

2.         ARDOINO (-Fruttuaria Abbey 15 Dec 1015[537]).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 1 Nov 1000 under which "Otto…rex" granted rights to the bishopric of Vercelli which names "Ardoini filii Dodonis…Ardicinus filius Ardoini marchionis"[538].    ARDOINO Marchese d'Ivrea 996.  He was excommunicated and his possessions confiscated by order of a council at Rome in 999 for his alleged part in the murder of Pietro Bishop of Vercelli 17 Mar 997.  He claimed the vacant throne of Italy after the death of Emperor Otto III 23/24 Jan 1002, and was crowned ARDOINO King of Italy at Pavia 15 Feb 1002.  Heinrich II King of Germany challenged this, entered Trento in Spring 1004 to claim the throne himself and defeated Ardoino.  Heinrich was crowned King of Italy at Pavia 14 Apr 1004, but left the country after destroying the town of Pavia in reprisal for a revolt which broke out there.  Ardoino reigned as legitimate king, until Heinrich's return to Italy in Autumn 1013 when Ardoino took refuge in one of his castles.  After one attempt at resistance, Heinrich II forced Ardoino into exile as a monk at Fruttuaria Abbey in the mountains, of which he was one of the co-founders.  "Ardoinus rex" donated property to the church of S. Siro di Pavia, for the souls of "patris nostri Doddonis et…patrui nostri domini Adalberti", by charter dated 1 Apr 1014[539].  Thietmar records the death of "Arduin king only in name" on 30 Oct at the monastery where he had become a monk[540]m (before 1000) BERTA d'Este, daughter of [OBERTO II] Conte di Luni Marchese di Liguria Occidentale & his wife ---.  "Ardoinus…rex" confirmed the rights of the church of Como in the bridges and county of Chiavenna "quæ Hicila filia comitis Ottonis in villa Slopence in pago Ratenzgowe et in comitatu Adalberti comitis habuit" by charter dated 25 Mar 1002 which names "Berta regina nostra coniunx nostrique regni consors"[541].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Marchese Ardoino & his wife had three children: 

a)         OTTO d´Ivrea .  "Ottho comes filius…domini Ardoini regis" donated property to the church of St Sirio de Pavia, and confirmed a donation by "dominus Ardicinus…frater", by charter dated 1009, signed by "Berengarii comitis et Wiberti comitis"[542].  Conte 1015/1026.  m ---.  The name of Otto's wife has not yet been identified.  Otto & his wife had one possible child: 

i)          [ARDOINO (-after 1040).  "Heinricus…rex" confirmed the donation of "Ugo marchio…atque…Arduinus marchio filius Otonis" to the monastery of San Michele della Chiusa by an undated charter, placed in the compilation with charters dated 1040[543].  It is not certain that this refers to a son of Otto, son of Ardoino, but the name Ardoino suggests a close connection with this family.] 

b)         ARDICINO d´Ivrea .  "Otto…rex" granted rights to the bishopric of Vercelli by charter dated 1 Nov 1000 which names "Ardoini filii Dodonis…Ardicinus filius Ardoini marchionis"[544].    "Ottho comes filius…domini Ardoini regis" donated property to the church of St Sirio de Pavia, and confirmed a donation by "dominus Ardicinus…frater", by charter dated 1009, signed by "Berengarii comitis et Wiberti comitis"[545]Conte d'Ivrea 1029.  m ---.  The name of Ardicino's wife has not yet been identified.  Ardicino & his wife had two children: 

i)          ARDOINO d´Ivrea (-before 10 Apr 1090).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte d'Ivream ---.  The name of Ardoino's wife has not yet been identified.  Ardoino & his wife had [one possible] child:

(a)       [ERIPRANDO (-after 10 Apr 1090).  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the privileges and properties of St Zeno, Verona by charter dated 17 Jun 1084 which includes a record of donations by "Arduinus comes et filius eius Eriprandus"[546].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the donation of property to St Zeno, Verona by "bone memorie Arduinus et filius eius Eriprandus" by charter dated 10 Apr 1090[547].  It is not certain that these two documents refer to Ardoino Conte d'Ivrea but no other Conte Ardoino has so far been identified during this period. 

ii)         AMEDEO d´Ivrea (-before 1097).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte d'Ivrea.  Ancestor of the Conti di Castellamonte, Aglie, Brosso, Rivarolo e Front. 

c)         GUIBERTO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte d'Ivrea 1015/26 and 1029. 

3.         AMEDEO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di Pombia.  997. 

4.         OTTO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m ---. 

 

 

The following small family sub-group were relatives of Otto-Guillaume Comte de Mâcon, according to Rodolfus Glaber (see below).  The exact relationship has not yet been identified but it is probable that the connection is through Perinza, described as from a noble Lombard family, although there is no indication about the identity of her parents.  Chronologically, Perinza was probably born too early to have been the daughter of one of the half-brothers of Berengario II King of Italy (see above).  The fact that Rodolfus Glaber does not specify a relationship with Ardoino King of Italy, the presumed grandson of King Berengario's younger half-brother, may also be significant.  This suggests that the relationship may have been through Comte Otto-Guillaume's paternal grandmother, the first wife of King Berengario, who was a member of the Unruochingi.  Although the precise origin of the latter family is unknown, they were Franks from Germany who emigrated to Lombardy.  This raises an alternative possibility that the relationship may have been through Guillaume's father's family, assuming that there was a connection through Swabia.  In any case, the term propinquus, used by Rodolfus Glaber to describe the relationship, is especially imprecise, probably translatable as "kinsman", and suggests a more remote relationship than would be implied by (for example) nepos, consobrinus or even consanguineus

1.         PERINZA ([930/38]-1 Nov before 1014).  Rodolfus Glaber's life of St William names the wife of Robert, mother of Robert, "ex Langobardorum nobilioribus…Perinzam"[548].  Her birth date range is estimated from the birth date of her third son.  She predeceased her husband, apparently when her son Guillaume was still a youth[549]m ROBERT [550][di Canavese-Volpiano], son of VIBO (from Swabia) & his wife ---.  Rodolfus Glaber's life of St William names his father Robert and his paternal grandfather Vibo, specifying that he was "a man distinguished for his knightly skill" and a Swabian who left his native province for Italy[551].  Robert was in the fortress of San Giulio, with his wife and children, where the wife of Berengario II ex-king of Italy and his wife had taken refuge after the invasion of Italy by Emperor Otto II in 962[552].  Robert & his wife had three children: 

a)         NITHARD .  Comte.  Brother of Guillaume Abbé de Dijon[553]

b)         GEOFFROY .  Comte.  Brother of Guillaume Abbé de Dijon[554]

c)         GUILLAUME (Fortress of San Giulio, Novara [962]-1 Jan 1031).  Rodolfus Glaber specifies that Guillaume, son of Robert & his wife Perinza, was born in the fortress of San Giulio during its siege by Emperor Otto II in [963], specifying in a later passage that "comite…Burgundie Willelmo" was "affinitate propinquus" of Guillaume[555].   Rodulfus Glaber specifies that Guillaume inherited "an estate formerly called Volpiano" from his parents where he built a monastery, later changing the name to Fruttuaria[556].  Monk at Cluny, he was appointed abbot of Saint-Bénigne de Dijon[557]

 

 

BERENGARIO d´Ivrea, son of ADALBERTO I Conte e Marchese d'Ivrea & his first wife Gisela di Friulia ([900]-in prison Bamberg 6 Jul 966, bur Regensburg).  Liutprand names Berengar as son of "Adelberto Eporegiæ civitatis marchione [et]…Gisla Berengarii regis filia"[558].  He took part in the battle of Firenzuola against his maternal grandfather.  He succeeded his father in [923/24] as BERENGARIO II Marchese d'Ivrea.  In [940], he was forced to flee Ivrea by Ugo King of Italy who abolished the March of Ivrea.  He was invited to the court of King Ugo, who intended to blind him, but was warned by Ugo's son Lothar and made his escape.   He found refuge with Hermann Duke of Swabia, and later settled at the court of Otto I King of Germany.  After returning to Italy in 945, he defeated King Ugo who was declared deposed by a diet at Milan, although Berengario allowed him to retain the title of king and himself assumed the title summus consiliarius[559].  He was proclaimed BERENGARIO II King of Italy by a general diet at Pavia 15 Dec 950, after the death of Lothar King of Italy.  However, King Otto invaded Italy, on the pretext of King Berengario's mistreatment of Adelais, the wife of his predecessor King Lothar, and himself took the title King of Italy at Pavia 23 Sep 951.  Having submitted to Otto, Berengario proposed himself as viceroy in Italy, which was accepted by the council of Augsburg Aug 952.  Berengario reasserted his independence.  Otto sent his son Liudolf to reimpose order, but the latter died there of fever in 957.  After several further years of tyrannical rule, Otto invaded Italy again in Aug 961 in response to requests for his intervention from Pope John XII and Hubert [de Provence] Duke of Spoleto, one of Berengario's main vassals.  He forced Berengario's retreat to the fortress of San Giulio near Montefeltro in 962.  He finally captured Berengario in 963, and took him as a prisoner to Bamberg, where he died soon after[560].  The necrology of Fulda records the death "966 2 Non Aug" of "Berenger rex"[561]Regino records the death of Berengario and his burial at Regensburg[562]

m ([930/31]) WILLA d’Arles, daughter of BOSO Comte d’Avignon Marchese of Tuscany & his wife Willa --- ([910]-Bamberg after 966).  "Bertam, Willam, Richildam et Gislam" are named (in order) as the four daughters of Boso and Willa by Liutprand[563].  Willa is named "rex Hugo neptim suam…ex Willa uxore sua Boso Tusciæ provinciæ marchio regis frater" by Liutprand when he records her marriage to Berengario[564].  She ordered the imprisonment of Adelheid, widow of her husband's predecessor Lothar [de Provence] King of Italy.  She retreated with her husband to the fortress of San Giulio in the face of Otto King of Germany's invasion, but was captured and taken to Bamberg with Berengario.  Regino records that Willa became a nun after her husband died before he was buried[565]

Berengario & his wife had [seven] children: 

1.         ADALBERTO d´Ivrea ([932/936]-Autun 30 Apr 971[566])Liudprand names "Adalbertus" as son of "Berengarius"[567].  His father installed him in 951 as ADALBERTO associate-King of Italy.  When Otto I King of Germany invaded Italy in 962, Adalberto retreated with his brother Guido to fortresses near Lakes Como and Garda.  Conspiring with Pope John XII, he entered Rome in Oct 963 but was put to flight by Emperor Otto in the following month, along with Pope John whom Otto deposed for his betrayal.  Adalberto wandered the Mediterranean for three years unsuccessfully attempting to find support, and eventually retired to lands in the valley of the Saône.  m (before [960/62]) as her first husband, GERBERGE, daughter of --- & his wife Adélaïde [de Bourgogne] ([945]-11 Dec [986/991]).  Her name and her two marriages are confirmed by the Chronicle of Saint-Bénigne, interpolated into the Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines, which names "Guilelmum Ottonem et eius matrem Gerbergam" when recording that her son was adopted by his mother's second husband "dux Burgundie Henricus"[568].  Her birth date is estimated from the estimated birth date of her son in [960/62].  The Vita of Hugues Comte de Chalon refers to his (unnamed) sister as having married the Duke of Burgundy[569].  Chronologically, this refers most probably to Duke Henri who died in 1002, although the original of this document has not yet been consulted to check whether the wording supports this conclusion.  Gerberge's origin has not yet been corroborated in the other primary sources so far consulted.  The Vita appears to indicate that she was Gerberge, daughter of Lambert Comte de Chalon, but this raises several problems if it is correct.  Firstly, on the death without direct heirs in 1039 of her supposed brother Hugues Comte de Chalon, the county was inherited by the comparatively obscure children of his younger sister Mathilde, apparently ignoring the superior claims of Gerberge's own numerous descendants, among whom were the powerful counts palatine of Burgundy who, one would have thought, would not have missed the opportunity of acquiring another county.  Rodulfus Glaber does record that "Hugo filius Lanberti Cabilonensis comitisepiscopus Autissioderi" was an opponent of "Willemus, Henrici ducis priuignus, Adalberti Longobardorum ducis filius"[570], which could explain why Bishop Hugues favoured his nephew by his younger sister to succeed to his county.  Nevertheless, after the bishop's death, his past opposition to Comte Otto-Guillaume may have provided an excuse for his son to intervene in the Chalon succession if he had a legitimate claim.  Secondly, considering the likely birth date of her son, Gerberge's first marriage must have taken place while her husband and father-in-law were still reigning kings of Italy.  They were under continuous pressure from Otto I King of Germany and it is likely that Adalberto's marriage could have brought additional political support.  It is not clear how the relatively obscure count of Chalon could have provided this.  Thirdly, after the death in 978 of Lambert Comte de Chalon, and his widow's second marriage to Geoffroy I Comte d'Anjou, no record has been found in the primary sources so far consulted of Henri Duke of Burgundy intervening to prevent Comte Geoffroy taking control of the county of Chalon, which would have been the likely course of action if his wife was the deceased count's oldest child.  Fourthly, Gerberge's estimated birth date creates serious chronological problems if she was the daughter of Lambert's only known wife Adelais.  In conclusion, considerable doubt therefore appears to subsist on this origin of Gerberge, although no alternative can as yet be proposed if we are to respect the wording of the Vita.  She married secondly Henri Duke of Burgundy [Capet].  The necrology of Auxerre cathedral records the death 11 Dec of "Gerberga comitissa uxor Henrici ducis"[571].  Adalberto & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         GUGLIELMO d´Ivrea ([960/62]-Dijon 21 Sep 1026)Rodulfus Glaber names "Willemus, Henrici ducis priuignus, Adalberti Longobardorum ducis filius" and records that, as a boy, he was secretly stolen from the land of the Lombards and restored to his mother with no small cunning by a certain monk[572].  "Einricus…imperator" confirmed the property of the abbey of Fruttuaria, referring to property donated by "Otto qui et Vuillielmus comes filius Adalberti nepos Berengarii regis", by charter dated 1014[573].  It is assumed from this that he was imprisoned as a child by Emperor Otto I in Italy after his father and paternal grandfather were deposed as kings of Italy.  The Chronicle of Saint-Bénigne, interpolated into the Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines, names "Guilelmum Ottonem et eius matrem Gerbergam" when recording that he was adopted by his mother's second husband "dux Burgundie Henricus"[574].  He adopted the name OTHON-GUILLAUME.  He succeeded as OTHON [I] Comte de Mâcon, by right of his first wife.   

-        COMTES de MÂCON

b)         [WILLIBIRG.  Jackman suggests[575] that the mother of Hunfried canon at Strasbourg was the daughter of Adalberto associate King of Italy.  He bases this on onomastic reasons, in particular the importation of the Ivrean name Berengar into the family of Liutold and the use of "Willa" among the ancestors of Adalbert King of Italy.  However, another origin is suggested by the necrology of Zwiefalten which records the death "XIV Kal Dec" of "Unruoch proavus Liutoldi comitis"[576].  If this great grandfather were the father of Willibirg, it may also explain how the name Berenger entered the family, assuming Unruoch was related to the Unruochingi Counts of Friulia.  m LIUTOLD Graf im Sundgau, son of KONRAD Duke of Swabia [Konradiner] & his wife Richlint of Germany.] 

2.         GUIDO d´Ivrea ([940]-killed in battle on the Po 25 Jun 965).  The Gesta Mediolanensium names (in order) "Widone, Adelberto et Conone" as sons of King Berengario (although Adalberto was presumably the oldest son as his father installed him as associated king), specifying that "Widone" was killed soon after his father's capture[577]Marchese d'Ivrea (957-62).  He conquered Spoleto and Camerino in 959.  When Otto I King of Germany invaded in 962, Guido retreated with his brother Adalberto to fortresses near Lakes Como and Garda.  "Otto…imperator augustus" gave property "in comitatu Motinense seu Boloniense" previously held by "Uuidoni quondam marchioni seu Conrado qui et Cono…filiis Berengarii seu Uuille ipsius Berengarii uxoris eorumque matris" to Guido Bishop of Modena by charter dated 12 Sep 963[578].  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "25 Jun" of "Vuido filius Berengaris regis"[579]

3.         CORRADO CONO d´Ivrea (-[998/1001]).  The Gesta Mediolanensium names (in order) "Widone, Adelberto et Conone" as sons of King Berengario, specifying that "Conone" made peace with the emperor[580].  Marchese of Milan [957-61].  "Otto…imperator augustus" gave property "in comitatu Motinense seu Boloniense" previously held by "Uuidoni quondam marchioni seu Conrado qui et Cono…filiis Berengarii seu Uuille ipsius Berengarii uxoris eorumque matris" to Guido Bishop of Modena by charter dated 12 Sep 963[581].  He abandoned his brother Adalberto, recognising the authority of the emperor, and was installed in [965] as CORRADO Marchese d'Ivrea.  "Corado qui et Cona marchio, f. bonæ memoriæ Berengarii regis, et Yhilda filia Ardoini marchionis, jugales" donated property to the church of Vercelli by charter dated 1 Oct 987[582].  "Conradus marchio, Berengarii regis filius et Richilda uxor" donated property to the church of Milan by charter dated 989[583]m (before 1 Oct 987) RICHILDA, daughter of ARDOINO "Glabrio" Marchese of Turin & his wife --- (-after 989).  "Corado qui et Cona marchio, f. bonæ memoriæ Berengarii regis, et Yhilda filia Ardoini marchionis, jugales" donated property to the church of Vercelli by charter dated 1 Oct 987[584].  "Conradus marchio, Berengarii regis filius et Richilda uxor" donated property to the church of Milan by charter dated 989[585]

4.         GISLA d´Ivrea .  "Gislam [et]…Girbergam" are named as daughters of Berengar and Willa by Liutprand[586].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Nun, living 965.  [587][m RAMBOLDO [II], son of [RAMBOLDO [I] & his wife ---] (-before 1040).  According to the Almanach de Gotha, Ramboldo I was ancestor of the family Collalto[588].  According to Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, he was sent to Treviso by Otto I King of Germany 14 Nov 944[589].  Ancestors of the Conti di Treviso e Collalto.] 

5.         GILBERGA d´Ivrea (945-).  "Gislam [et]…Girbergam" are named as daughters of Berengar and Willa by Liutprand[590].  "Berengarius et Adelbertus filius eius…Reges" confirmed a donation to the abbey of Grazano by "Aledramus Marchio filius Gulielmi Comitis et Gilberga filius D. Berengarii Regis, et Anselmus seu Oddo germani lege viventes Salica", for the soul of "quondam Gulielmi qui fuit filius et filiaster atque germanus noster", by charter dated Aug 951[591].  The dating of this charter is dubious, assuming that Gilberga´s date of birth is correct as shown above.  m (before Aug 961) as his second wife, ALERAMO Signor del Marchio del Monferrato, son of Conte GUGLIELMO [Monferrato] & his wife --- (-[967/91]).  

6.         ROZALA [Suzanne] d´Ivrea ([950/960]-13 Dec 1003 or 7 Feb 1004, bur Gent, church of the Abbey de Saint-Pierre du Mont-Blandin)Regino records that two of the daughters (unnamed) of ex-King Berengario were brought up in the imperial palace by the empress after being brought to Germany[592].  One of these two daughters was presumably Rozala, bearing in mind that the emperor arranged her marriage.  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "filiam Berengeri regis Langobardorum, Ruzelam quæ et Susanna" as wife of Comte Arnoul[593].  The Annales Elnonenses Minores record the marriage [undated between 950 and 968] of "Arnulfus iunior" and "filiam Beregeri regis Susannam"[594].  Her marriage was presumably arranged by Emperor Otto to increase his influence in Flanders at a time when Lothaire IV King of the West Franks was asserting his own control over the county.  According to Nicholas, Count Arnoul II married Rozala d´Ivrea when he reached the age of majority in 976[595], but the source on which this is based has not been located.  "Baldwinus marchysus cum matre sua Susanna" donated "villam Aflingehem…jacentem in pago Tornacinse" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, after the death of "Arnulfi marchysi", by charter dated 1 Apr 988, signed by "…Waldberto advocato, Theoderico comite, Arnulfo comite, Artoldo comite, Baldwino comite, item Arnulfo comite…"[596].  The Vita Sancti Bertulfi names "Rozala filia…Berengarii Regis Italiæ", specifying that "post mortem Arnulfi [Balduini filius] principis, Roberto Regi Francorum nupsit et Susanna dicta"[597].  Kerrebrouck, presumably basing his supposition on this passage from the Vita Sancti Bertulfi, says that she adopted the name Suzanne on her second marriage[598], but the sources quoted above show that she was referred to by this name earlier.  Hugues "Capet" King of France arranged her second marriage to his son and heir, apparently as a reward for Flemish help when he seized power in 987[599].  She was given Montreuil-sur-Mer by the county of Flanders as her dowry on her second marriage.  Richer records that King Robert repudiated his wife "Susannam…genere Italicam eo quod anus esset" but refused to allow her to retake her castle at Montreuil, whereupon she constructed another nearby[600].  She returned to Flanders after she was repudiated by her second husband, and became one of the principal advisers of her son Count Baldwin IV.  France retained Montreuil-sur-Mer.  "Susanna regina cum filio suo Baldwino" donated "alodem suum…Atingehem…et in Testereph" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "filie sue Mathildis", by charter dated 26 Jun 995[601].  "Susanna regina…cum filio suo Baldwino" donated "alodem suum…in pago Flandrensi…in Holtawa…in Fresnere…in Clemeskirca…in Jatbeka…in Sclefteta…" to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 1 Jun 1003[602].  The Annales Elnonenses Minores records the death in 1003 of "Susanna regina"[603].  The Memorial of "regina Susanna" records her death "VII Feb"[604]m firstly ([968][605]) ARNOUL II “le Jeune” Count of Flanders, son of BAUDOUIN III joint Count of Flanders & his wife Mechtild of Saxony [Billung] ([961/62]-30 Mar 987, bur Ghent).  m secondly (988 before 1 Apr, repudiated [991/92]) as his first wife, ROBERT Associate-King of France, son of HUGUES Capet King of France & his wife Adelais d’Aquitaine (Orléans ([27 Mar] 972-Château de Melun 20 Jul 1031, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  He succeeded his father in 996 as ROBERT II "le Pieux" King of France

7.         [BERTA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Abbess of San Sisto at Piacenza 952.] 

 

 

 

D.      MARCHESI di MONFERRATO

 

 

1.         ADELARDO (-after 19 Sep 913).  Marchese.  "Berengarius…rex" donated various properties including "Ticinensis capellam…Sancti Victoris…[et] in Monteferrato…et in comitatu Terdonensi…[et] in comitatu Aquensi" to the church of S. Giovanni Domnarum di Pavia, at the request of "Adelardum…marchionem", by charter dated 23 Jun 909[606].  "Berengarius rex" granted property "in Valle et Sisilla", confiscated from "Adelardus et suus homo Ingelbertus qui etiam Plantardus", to "Meingauso fideli nostro", at the request of "Grimaldi…comitis", by charter dated 19 Sep 913[607]

 

2.         ALERAMO, son of --- (-after 934).  Comes in Acqui.  "Hugo et Lotharius…reges" granted "cortem…Auriola adiacente in comitatu Aquense" to "fideli nostro Alledramo comitem" by charter dated 934[608].  His name suggests a family relationship with the Marchesi di Monferrato. 

 

3.         GUGLIELMO, son of ---.  Comes.  Maybe of Frankish origin.  961/967.  m ---.  The name of Guglielmo's wife is not known.  Guglielmo & his wife had one child: 

a)         ALERAMO (-[967/91]).  "Hugo et Lotharius…Reges" granted property "Forum…supra fluvium Tanari in comitatu Aquensi…et Villa…Roncho" to "fideli nostro Aledramo comiti" by charter dated 6 Feb 938[609].  "Berengarius et Adelbertus filius eius…Reges" confirmed a donation to the abbey of Grazano by "Aledramus Marchio filius Gulielmi Comitis et Gilberga filius D. Berengarii Regis, et Anselmus seu Oddo germani lege viventes Salica" by charter dated Aug 951[610].  Emperor Otto I granted land to Marchese Alleramo by charter dated 23 Mar 967[611]m firstly ---.  m secondly (before Jul 961) GILBERGA d´Ivrea, daughter of BERENGARIO II King of Italy [Ivrea] & his wife Willa d'Arles (945-).  "Gislam [et]…Girbergam" are named as daughters of Berengar and Willa by Liutprand[612].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Aleramo & his first wife had three children:

-        MARCHESI di MONFERRATO, MARCHESI di SALUZZO

 

 

 

E.      CONTI di POMBIA

 

 

The following family grouping of the counts of Biandrate has been copied from Europäische Stammtafeln but, unless otherwise stated below, the parentage and marriages of the members of the family have not yet been confirmed in the primary sources. 

 

 

GUIBERTO, son of DADO Marchese d'Ivrea, Conte di Pombia & his wife [Bertrada ---] (-after 1014).  Conte di Pombia 1001-14. 

m ---. 

Guiberto & his wife had four children: 

1.         GUIDO (-before 1040).  Conte di Pombia before [1025].  "Adelbertus Comes filius quondam Uberti…Comes et Suphia jugalibus, filia Pachleurandi…Comes" and "Idemque Suphia…cum Domni Widoni…Comitatu Plumbiense" exchanged property with the abbot of Nonantolo by charter dated 4 Jul 1034[613]m ---.  The name of Guido's wife is not known.  Guido & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [AMEDEO (-before 15 Sep 1094).  Conte di Pombia and Canavese.  m ---.  The name of Amedeo's wife is not known.  Amedeo & his wife had [one possible child]:

i)          UBERTO .  Conte di Canavese.  1094. 

2.         RIPRANDO di Pombia .  Priest in Pavia.

3.         GUIBERTO (-before 4 Jul 1034).  Conte.  Priest in Pavia.  m ---.  Guiberto & his wife had two children: 

a)         GUIDO (-1083 or before).  Conte di Pombia before 1070.  Conte di Biandrate 1070.  1083.  m ---.  Guido & his wife had [three children]: 

-        [CONTI di BIANDRATE]. 

b)         OTTOConte di Pombia e Biandrate.  same person as…?  OTTO (-before 11 Jan 1087).  The charter cited below suggests that the following brothers were closely related to Guido, the donor, who would have been their first cousin if the reconstruction shown here is correct.  If this is right, the donations may have been made shortly after the death of their father.  m ---.  Otto & his wife had [five] children: 

i)          UBERTO (-after 11 Jan 1087).  "Ubertus, Albertus, Lanfrancus, Obozo comites germani filii quondam Ottonis item comitis" confirmed donations of property by "Widonis comitis" to Cluny by charter dated 11 Jan 1087[614]

ii)         ALBERTO (-after 11 Jan 1087).  "Ubertus, Albertus, Lanfrancus, Obozo comites germani filii quondam Ottonis item comitis" confirmed donations of property by "Widonis comitis" to Cluny by charter dated 11 Jan 1087[615]

iii)        LANFRANCO (-after 11 Jan 1087).  "Ubertus, Albertus, Lanfrancus, Obozo comites germani filii quondam Ottonis item comitis" confirmed donations of property by "Widonis comitis" to Cluny by charter dated 11 Jan 1087[616]

iv)       OBIZZO (-after 11 Jan 1087).  "Ubertus, Albertus, Lanfrancus, Obozo comites germani filii quondam Ottonis item comitis" confirmed donations of property by "Widonis comitis" to Cluny by charter dated 11 Jan 1087[617]

v)        [EMILIA (-after 1095).  "Emmilia filia q. Ottonis comitis de Blandrata […ex natione mea lege vivere Salica] et uxor Gisulphi…del Bulgaro…" donated property by charter dated 1095[618]m GISOLFO Signore di Bolgaro, son of --- (-after 1095).] 

4.         [daughterm RICCARDO Conte di Val d'Ossola e Valdesia.  1015.] 

 

 

 

F.      MARCHESI di SUSA

 

 

MANFREDO UDALRICO, son of MANFREDO I Marchese of Turin & his wife Prangarda di Canossa (992-Turin 29 Oct 1034, bur Turin, cathedral of San Giovanni).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1029 under which "Alricus…Astensis Ecclesiæ Episcopus et Odelricus qui et Magenfridus…Marchio germanus et filii bone memorie itemque Magnifredi…Marchionis, et Berta…Comitissa, jugales, filia quondam Autberti…Marchionis" founded the monastery of Segusini Sancti Justi[619].  He succeeded his father in [1000] as MANFREDO UDALRICO Marchese di Susa and Turin.  "Otto…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the possessions of "Odelrico marchioni qui Mainfredus nominatur" and granted him immunities by charter dated 31 Jul 1001 on the petition of "Hugonis marchionis"[620].  "Alrici Episcopi et Olderico qui et Magnifredi Marchio germani" sold "castro…Lesegno" to "Ayfredus præsbiter filius quondam Rodulphi" by charter dated 1013[621].  "Oldericus Maginfredus marchio f. quondam…Maginfredi marchionis et Berta comitissa jugales filia q. Obberti marchionis" sold property "in comitatu Parmensi, Placensiensi, Ticinensi, Tortonensi, Vercellensi, Aquensi, Astensi, Eporediensi, Torinensi, Oradiensi, Albensi, Avigenensi, Aberganensi, Vigintimiliensi" to "Sigifredo presbitero filio q. Adelgisi", with "notitia propinquorum Tarentum suorum, id est Adalberti marchionis germani sui et Alberti infantis nepotis sui", by charter dated 6 Jun 1021[622].  He opposed the election of Konrad II King of Germany in 1024 and invited Guillaume Duke of Aquitaine to take the Italian crown[623].  "Odelricus Maginfredus marchio et Berta comitidssa" founded the monastery of Segusini Sancti Justi, for the souls of "Ardoini avii, filiorum et filiarum Oldelrici et Bertæ, Adelberti marchionis patris Bertæ, et filiorum eius, Oddonis, Attonis, Vuidonis fratrum, Ardoini et Oddonis patruorum et Ardoini consobrini", by charter dated 9 Jul 1029[624].  "Odelricus qui et Manfredus marchio f. quondam Manfredi marchionis et Berta comitissa jugales f. quondam Autberti marchionis" granted privileges "in comitatibus Taurinensi, Vercellensi, Iporiensi, Astensi, Albensi, Albiganensi, Vigintimiliensi, Parmensi, Placentinensi, Ticinensi, Aquensi" to the monastery of "S. Mariæ et Ss. Solutoris, Adventoris et Octavii braidam juxta Palatium" by charter dated 1031, signed by "Maginfredi march., Adalberti et Opizzoni utriusque marchionis qui Bertæ germane…Cuniberti et Wilelmi seu marchionis…"[625].  The necrology of the monastery of Saints Solutori, Adventori and Octavio in Turin records the death "IV Kal Nov" of "Manfredus marchio"[626]

m (1014) BERTA degli Obertenghi [d'Este] daughter of Marchese OBERTO & his wife --- ([997]-[29 Dec 1037/1040]).  "Heinricus…imperator" confirmed the property of the abbey of Fruttuaria, referring to property donated by "Manfredus marchio et Berta uxor eius et fratres eiusdem Manfredi, id est Alricus episcopus et Oddo comes, et Ardoinus consobrinus eorum", by charter dated 1014[627].  Her parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1029 under which "Alricus…Astensis Ecclesiæ Episcopus et Odelricus qui et Magenfridus…Marchio germanus et filii bone memorie itemque Magnifredi…Marchionis, et Berta…Comitissa, jugales, filia quondam Autberti…Marchionis" founded the monastery of Segusini Sancti Justi[628].  She inherited land in the counties of Tortone, Parma and Piacenza[629].  "Oldericus Maginfredus marchio f. quondam…Maginfredi marchionis et Berta comitissa jugales filia q. Obberti marchionis" sold property "in comitatu Parmensi, Placensiensi, Ticinensi, Tortonensi, Vercellensi, Aquensi, Astensi, Eporediensi, Torinensi, Oradiensi, Albensi, Avigenensi, Aberganensi, Vigintimiliensi" to "Sigifredo presbitero filio q. Adelgisi", with "notitia propinquorum Tarentum suorum, id est Adalberti marchionis germani sui et Alberti infantis nepotis sui", by charter dated 6 Jun 1021[630].  "Odelricus qui et Manfredus marchio f. quondam Manfredi marchionis et Berta comitissa jugales f. quondam Autberti marchionis" granted privileges "in comitatibus Taurinensi, Vercellensi, Iporiensi, Astensi, Albensi, Albiganensi, Vigintimiliensi, Parmensi, Placentinensi, Ticinensi, Aquensi" to the monastery of "S. Mariæ et Ss. Solutoris, Adventoris et Octavii braidam juxta Palatium" by charter dated 1031, signed by "Maginfredi march., Adalberti et Opizzoni utriusque marchionis qui Bertæ germane…Cuniberti et Wilelmi seu marchionis…"[631].  "Chuonradus Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed donations to the monastery of San Giusto at Susa made by "Mainfredus marchio nec non Berta comitissa", by charter dated 29 Dec 1037[632].  "Adaleida f. quondam Maginfredi marchionis et coniux Ermanni ducis et marchionis" donated property "in loco Porciana" to the monastery of San Stefano at Genoa by charter dated 4 Jul [1038], signed by "Bertæ comitissæ…"[633].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the possessions of the church at Asti by undated charter placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1091, which notes among others the donations by "marchio Manfredus et Berta comitissa et Alricus episcopus"[634]

Marchese Manfredo Udalrico & his wife had [four] children: 

1.         ADELAIDA di Susa (Turin 1020-Canischio in Canavese 27 Dec 1091, bur Turin, cathedral of San Giovanni).  She succeeded her father in 1034 as Marchesa di Susa, heiress of Auriate, Turin, Ivrea and Aosta.  Her first marriage is confirmed by Herimannus who records that "Hermannus quoque dux Alamanniæ" was granted "marcham soceri sui Maginfredi in Italia" by the emperor in 1034[635].  "Adaleida f. quondam Maginfredi marchionis et coniux Ermanni ducis et marchionis" donated property "in loco Porciana" to the monastery of San Stefano at Genoa by charter dated 4 Jul [1038], signed by "Bertæ comitissæ…"[636].  "Heynricus marchio filius quondam Uuilielmi similique marchioni et Adalagide cometisse jugales filia bone memorie Odolrici qui et Maginfredi similique marchionis" donated churches to the church of Torino by charter dated 29 Jan 1042[637].  Her second marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 1043 under which "Henricus marchio filius quondam Wilielmi similiter marchioni et Adalena comitissa jugales filia quondam bo. me. Oldrici…Maginfredi…marchioni" donated property to San Antonino[638].  "Adalania comitissa filia quondam Odolricus…Magenfridi et conjux Enricus" donated property to Santa Maria di Cavorre by charter dated 1043[639].  Rivaz, in his compiled index of Burgundian charters. notes a charter dated 1043 under which "Henri marquis de Monferrat et Adelaide de Susa son épouse" donated the church of Santa Agata, Susa to the monastery of Saint-Antonin[640].  "Domnus Henricus marchio filius quondam Vuilielmi…marchio et domna Adeleita cometissa iugales, filia quondam Odelrici qui et Magnifredi…marchionis" donated property to Pinerolo by charter dated 14 Mar [1044][641].  Her third marriage is confirmed by the Annalista Saxo which names "Adelheidis que soror erat comitis qui agnominatus est de Monte Bardonis in Italia et Immule seu Irmingardis" as wife of "Ottonis marchionis de Italia"[642].  She was regent for her son in 1060 after the death of her husband, playing a significant role in support of Heinrich IV King of Germany, her son-in-law, in his disputes with the Papacy.  "Dominus Petrus Marchio filius quond. bonæ memoriæ Oddonis marchionis…cum domina Adheleida comitissa matre sua" signed a charter dated 31 Jul 1064[643].  "Adelegida…comitissa" donated property to Pinerolo, for the souls of "domni Manfredi marchionis genitoris mei et Adalrici episcopi Barbani mei et Bertæ genetricis meæ et…domni Odonis marchionis viri mei", by charter dated 8 Sep 1064, signed by "Petri, Amedei, Vitelmi qui Bruno vicecomes vocatur…Henrici qui vocatur Marchio…"[644].  "Adalaxia cometissa filia quondam Maginfredus marchio" donated property to Pinerolo by charter dated 23 Jul 1075[645].  She mediated with Pope Gregory VII when King Heinrich submitted to him at Canossa in 1077, and received in return the town of Bugey for the house of Savoy[646].  "Domna Adelaida comitissa filia…cum filiis suis Petro et Amedeo" donated property to Novalesa, for the soul of "mariti sui Oddonis", by charter dated 16 Jul 1078[647].  "Adalegida cometissa filia Maginfredi marchionis et relicta quond. Oddonis idemque marchionis" donated property to the monastery at Taurini, in the presence of "domne Agnetis comitissæ, filiæ Wilelmi comitis et relictæ quondam Petri marchionis", for the souls of "Maginfredi patris, Adalrici Astensis episcopi patrui, Berthæ matris et Petri marchionis filii predictæ comitissæ Adalegidæ", by charter dated 4 Jul 1079[648].  The necrology of Schaffhausen records the death "XIV Kal Jan" of "Adelheida Taurinensis comitissa"[649].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the possessions of the church at Asti by undated charter placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1093, which notes among others property in "comitatum [Astensi]…habuit et tenuit Adheledis comitissa"[650]m firstly (1035) HERMANN IV Duke of Swabia, son of ERNST I Duke of Swabia [Babenberg] & his wife Gisela of Swabia ([1015]-28 Jul 1038).  He was the stepson of Emperor Konrad II who arranged his marriage with Adelaida who was a powerful heiress in Northern Italy[651]m secondly (Jan 1042) ENRICO Marchese di Monferrato, son of Marchese GUGLIELMO & his wife Waza --- (-[14 Mar 1044/1045]).  m thirdly ([1046]) ODDON de Maurienne, son of HUMBERT Comte de Maurienne & his second wife Auxilia --- ([1017]-1 Mar 1060, bur Turin, cathedral of San Giovanni).  Marchese di Susa [1046], in right of his wife.  Comte de Chablais. 

2.         [son (-before 1034).  The Annalista Saxo refers to "Adelheidis que soror erat comitis qui agnominatus est de Monte Bardonis in Italia et Immule seu Irmingardis" but it is possible that "soror" was an error for "filia"[652].  No other reference has been found to this person.  Conte di Mombardone.] 

3.         ERMENGARDA [Aemilia/Immula] di Susa (-19 Jan 1078)The Annalista Saxo names "Emilias vel Immula seu Irmingardis" as wife of Otto von Schweinfurt and sister of "Adelas [uxor] Ottoni marchioni de Italia"[653].  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.  "Imilia filia quondam Magnifredi marchionis" donated property to the monastery of Caraman by charter dated 24 Feb 1074[654].  "Immilla comitissa filia quondam Maginfredi marchionis" donated property to Pinerolo by charter dated 27 Aug 1074[655].  "Imilia que Ermengarda comitissa et filia quondam Maginfredi marchionis" donated property "in loco Musinasco" to Cavour by charter dated 6 Mar 1075[656].  "Immilia ducissa vocata filia quondam Adelrico Magnifredi marchionis" donated property to "ecclesiæ basilicæ S. Petri in Muxinasco" by charter dated 8 Sep 1077, signed by "Immillæ, Vuilielmi et Widonis marchionis, seu Amadei de loco Serra Longa, Bruno vicecom"[657].  "Immilla ducissa vocata filia condam Odlerici que Maginfredo…marchio" donated property to the church of San Pietro at Musinasco by charter dated 3 Dec 1077, signed by "Vuilielmi et Vuindoni marchionis, Amedei de loco Serra longa…Bruno vicecomes…"[658].  The necrology of Torino Sant´Andreo records the death "XIV Kal Feb" of "Ymille cometisse et marchionisse"[659]m firstly (1036) OTTO von Schweinfurt, son of HEINRICH von Schweinfurt, Markgraf auf dem Nordgau & his wife Gerberga im Grabfeld (-28 Sep 1057).  He succeeded in 1048 as OTTO Duke of Swabia.  m secondly (1058) EKBERT I Graf von Braunschweig, Markgraf von Meissen, son of LIUDOLF Graf im Derlingau, Markgraf von Friesland & his wife Gertrud von Egisheim (-11 Jan 1068). 

4.         BERTA di Susa (-after 22 Apr 1065).  "Berta comitissa filia quondam Maginfredi et item Maginfredus et Anselmus, Bonifacius, Oto clericus germani et filii quondam Toto itemque marchionis, mater et filii" donated property to the monastery of San Silo near Genoa by charter dated 31 Aug 1064[660].  Heiress of Vasto and Busco.  "Berta comitissa et Manfredus, Bonifacius et Anselmus marchiones et Henricus et Oto germani, mater et filii" donated property to the church of Santa Maria "de episcopatu Astensi" by charter dated 22 Apr 1065[661]m ODDONE di Savona Marchese della Liguria Occidentale, son of Marchese ANSELMO [II] & his wife Adelasia --- (-[before 31 Aug 1064]). 

 

 

ODDON de Maurienne, son of HUMBERT Comte de Maurienne & his wife Auxilia --- ([1017]-1 Mar 1060, bur Turin, cathedral of San Giovanni).  "Comte Humbert de Savoie" donated property to the canons of St Jean by charter dated 1040 with the consent of "Amé, Burcard, Aymon et Oddon ses enfans et par le Marquis Pierre fils de dit Oddon et Adelaide de Suse"[662]Marchese di Susa in [1046], by right of his wife, her territories extending between the Alps and the River Po (including Auriate, Turino, Ivrea and Aosta) and to the Mediterranean between Ventimiglia and Albenga, and including control of the Alpine passes of Mont-Cenis and Saint-Bernard[663].  "Odo marchio" subscribed the charter of his presumed nephew dated [1046][664].  He succeeded his brother in [1051] as ODDON Comte de Maurienne et de Chablais.  The importance of the family's role in contemporary European politics is demonstrated by the marriage of Comte Oddon's daughter to the future king of Germany. 

m ([1046]) as her third husband, ADELAIDA di Susa, Marchesa di Susa, widow firstly of HERMANN IV Duke of Swabia and secondly of ENRICO Marchese di Monferrato, daughter of UDALRICO MANFREDO Marchese di Susa & his wife Berta degli Obertenghi (Turin 1020-Canischio in Canavese 27 Dec 1091, bur Turin, cathedral of San Giovanni).  The Annalista Saxo names "Adelheidis que soror erat comitis qui agnominatus est de Monte Bardonis in Italia et Immule seu Irmingardis" as wife of "Ottonis marchionis de Italia"[665].  Rivaz, in his compiled index of Burgundian charters. notes a charter dated 1043 under which "Henri marquis de Monferrat et Adelaide de Susa son épouse" donated the church of Santa Agata, Susa to the monastery of Saint-Antonin[666].  She was regent for her son in 1060 after the death of her husband, playing a significant role in support of Heinrich IV King of Germany, her son-in-law, in his disputes with the papacy.  Adelaida mediated with Pope Gregory VII when King Heinrich submitted to him at Canossa in 1077, and received in return the town of Bugey for the house of Savoy[667].  The necrology of Schaffhausen records the death "XIV Kal Jan" of "Adelheida Taurinensis comitissa"[668]

Comte Oddon & his wife had five children:

1.         PIERRE de Savoie ([1047/49]-killed 9 Aug 1078).  "Comte Humbert de Savoie" donated property to the canons of St Jean by charter dated 1040 with the consent of "Amé, Burcard, Aymon et Oddon ses enfans et par le Marquis Pierre fils de dit Oddon et Adelaide de Suse"[669].  He succeeded his father in 1060 as PIERRE I Comte de Savoie, Aosta, Maurienne et Chablais, Marchese di Susa, under the regency of his mother until 1064, when he was "Marchese in Italy". 

a)         AGNES de Savoie ([1066/70]-after 1110).  Her birth date is estimated from the marriage date of her parents, her mother's estimated birth date, and the fact that Agnes herself gave birth to three children before her husband died in 1091. She became a nun after her husband died.  She was still alive in 1100[670].  Rivaz, in his compiled index of Burgundian charters. notes a charter dated 1110 under which Pope Pascal II confirmed a donation by "Agnes de Savoie, fille de Pierre de Savoie marquis d'Italie" to the monastery of Saint-Benigne de Fruttuaria[671]m (Turin May 1080) FRIEDRICH Graf, Herr von Lützelburg, son of LOUIS de Mousson châtelain de Montbéliard & his wife Sophia of Upper Lotharingia heiress of Bar (-29 Jun 1091, bur [Canossa]).  He was a powerful lord in Swabia who supported Rudolf von Rheinfelden as anti-king of Germany.  He arrived in Italy and was installed in [1079/May 1080] as Marchese di Susa by his [future] wife's paternal grandmother[672], the installation presumably taking place after the death in Jan 1080 of his wife's uncle Amédée II Comte de Savoie who had succeeded his older brother as Marchese di Susa in 1078.  . 

b)         other children: SAVOIE

2.         AMEDEE de Savoie ([1048/50]-26 Jan 1080, bur Saint-Jean de Maurienne).  His parentage is proved by the Annals of Lambert which record that Heinrich IV King of Germany was in "Cinis" [Mont-Cénis] in Italy at Christmas 1077 to meet "socrum suam filiumque eius Amedeum"[673], the latter being the king's brother-in-law.  He succeeded his brother in 1078 as AMEDEE II Comte de Savoie, Marchese di Susa

a)         HUMBERT de Savoie ([1072]- Moûtiers 19 Oct 1103, bur Moûtiers).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father in 1080 as HUMBERT II "le Renforcé" Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie, under the regency of his paternal grandmother.  On her death in 1091, he lost much of her territories, retaining only the valley of Susa[674]

-        SAVOIE.  

b)         other children: SAVOIE

3.         other children: SAVOIE

 

 

 

G.      MARCHESI di TORINO [TURIN]

 

 

ARDOINO [II] "Glabrio/the Bald", son of ROGER Conte d´Auriate & his wife --- (-after 4 Apr 976).  The Chronicon Novaliciense names "Rogerium et Arduinum" as sons of Conte Roger[675].  He succeeded his father [after 935] as Conte d´Auriate.  He expelled the Saracens from the Susa valley and captured Turin, where he established his residence.  He was appointed regent of the March of Turin in 941 by Hugo King of Italy.  He conquered Albenga, Alba and Ventimiglia, and is referred to with the title Marchese [of Turin] from 962. 

m ---.  The name of Ardoino's wife has not yet been identified.  The Necrologio S Andreæ Taurinensis records the death "XIII Kal Feb" of "Vmille cometisse et monache"[676].  There is no indication who this may have been.  However, the name suggests a connection with "Aemilia/Immula" di Susa (see below), the origin of whose name is unknown but could be explained if "Vmille" senior had been her paternal great-grandmother.  The Necrologio S Andreæ Taurinensis also records the death of "Oddoni marchionis", younger son of Ardoino "Glabrio", on "XIV Kal Feb".  He is the only other lay noble whose death is recorded in this necrology, which also suggests a close family connection between the two. 

Marchese Ardoino & his wife had five children: 

1.         ALSINDA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  A charter dated 15 Oct 981 in Piacenza confirms donations of "Giselbertus comes palacii filius quondam Lanfranci itemque comes palatii, et Alsinda iugalibus"[677]m GISELBERTO Conte di Bergamo, son of LANFRANCO Conte di Piacenza & his wife --- (-before 10 Oct 1010).  He was appointed imperial conte palatino in Pavia. 

2.         RICHILDA (-after 989).  "Corado qui et Cona marchio, f. bonæ memoriæ Berengarii regis, et Yhilda filia Ardoini marchionis, jugales" donated property to the church of Vercelli by charter dated 1 Oct 987[678].  "Conradus marchio, Berengarii regis filius et Richilda uxor" donated property to the church of Milan by charter dated 989[679]m (before 1 Oct 987) CORRADO CONO Marchese d'Ivrea, son of BERENGARIO King of Italy & his wife Willa d'Arles (-[998/1001]). 

3.         MANFREDO [Maginfredo] (-[1000]).  The Chronicon Novaliciense names "Maginfredum" as son of "Arduinem"[680].  He succeeded in 977 as MANFREDO I Marchese of Turin, Conte d´Auriate, and Marchese of Susa-Piemonte. 

-        see below

4.         ARDOINO (-after 1029).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 9 Jul 1029 under which "Odelricus Maginfredus marchio et Berta comitidssa" founded the monastery of Segusini Sancti Justi, for the souls of "Ardoini avii, filiorum et filiarum Oldelrici et Bertæ, Adelberti marchionis patris Bertæ, et filiorum eius, Oddonis, Attonis, Vuidonis fratrum, Ardoini et Oddonis patruorum et Ardoini consobrini"[681].  "Ardoinus Comes Palacii" passed judgment on "Walpertus Judex" in a dispute relating to the church of Cremona, in the presence of "Riprandus Comes…", by charter dated 22 May 996[682].  The identity of Ardoino who was Conte Palatini is not clear.  It would appear that he was not the same person as Ardoino Marchese of Ivrea (later king of Italy), who already held that title in 996.  The best candidates would be Ardoino, son of Marchese Ardoino [II], or his nephew Ardoino son of Otto (see below). 

5.         OTTO (-19 Jan after 998).  "Odo comes filius bonæ memoriæ Arduini…marchio" confirmed a donation to the church of San Ambrosio Milan by charter dated 17 Apr 996 at the court of "Ottone marchione Veronensi"[683].  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 9 Jul 1029 under which "Odelricus Maginfredus marchio et Berta comitidssa" founded the monastery of Segusini Sancti Justi, for the souls of "Ardoini avii, filiorum et filiarum Oldelrici et Bertæ, Adelberti marchionis patris Bertæ, et filiorum eius, Oddonis, Attonis, Vuidonis fratrum, Ardoini et Oddonis patruorum et Ardoini consobrini"[684].  The death of "Otto Marchio" is recorded in the Necrologio Novaliciensi on "XIV Kal Feb"[685]m ---.  The name of Otto's wife has not yet been identified.  Otto & his wife had one child: 

a)         ARDOINO (-after [1014]).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 9 Jul 1029 under which "Odelricus Maginfredus marchio et Berta comitidssa" founded the monastery of Segusini Sancti Justi, for the souls of "Ardoini avii, filiorum et filiarum Oldelrici et Bertæ, Adelberti marchionis patris Bertæ, et filiorum eius, Oddonis, Attonis, Vuidonis fratrum, Ardoini et Oddonis patruorum et Ardoini consobrini"[686].  Marchese, in Montaldo nell'Astigliano.  "Heinricus…imperator" confirmed the property of the abbey of Fruttuaria, referring to property donated by "Manfredus marchio et Berta uxor eius et fratres eiusdem Manfredi, id est Alricus episcopus et Oddo comes, et Ardoinus consobrinus eorum", by charter dated 1014[687]m ---.  The name of Ardoino's wife has not yet been identified.  Ardoino & his wife had two children: 

i)          BOSO .  "Chuonradus…rex" confirmed the property of "Bosoni seu Widonis fratribus, Arduini marchionis filiis" by an undated charter, grouped in the compilation with charters dated 1026[688].  At the castle of Susa [1026]. 

ii)         WIDO (-before 1040).  "Chuonradus…rex" confirmed the property of "Bosoni seu Widonis fratribus, Arduini marchionis filiis" by an undated charter, grouped in the compilation with charters dated 1026[689]Marchese at the castle of Susa [1026].  m ---.  The name of Wido's wife has not yet been identified.  Wido & his wife had two children: 

-         MARCHESI di ROMAGNANO

 

 

MANFREDO [Maginfredo], son of ARDOINO "Glabrio" Marchese of Turin & his wife --- (-[1000]).  The Chronicon Novaliciense names "Maginfredum" as son of "Arduinem"[690].  He succeeded in 977 as MANFREDO I Marchese of Turin, Conte d´Auriate, and Marchese of Susa-Piemonte.  His territories were bordered by the Alps in the west, and included the Po River valley and the Ligurian coast.  He oversaw the development of Pavia as a commercial centre and controlled the land route from Genoa to Marseille[691]

m (before 8 Mar 991) PRANGARDA di Canossa, daughter of ADALBERTO ATTO [II] Conte di Canossa & his wife Ildegarda ---.  The primary source which confirms the name and origin of the wife of Marchese Manfredo has not yet been identified. 

Marchese Manfredo & his wife had six children: 

1.         MANFREDO UDALRICO (992-Turin 29 Oct 1034, bur Turin, cathedral of San Giovanni).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1029 under which "Alricus…Astensis Ecclesiæ Episcopus et Odelricus qui et Magenfridus…Marchio germanus et filii bone memorie itemque Magnifredi…Marchionis, et Berta…Comitissa, jugales, filia quondam Autberti…Marchionis" founded the monastery of Segusini Sancti Justi[692].  He succeeded his father in [1000] as MANFREDO UDALRICO Marchese di Susa and Turin

-        MARCHESI di SUSA

2.         ADALRICO (-killed in battle Campo Malo 7 Dec 1036).  The Gesta Mediolanensium names "Olderico frater Mainfredi marchionis", specifying that Emperor Heinrich II appointed him Bishop of Asti[693].  He was appointed Bishop of Asti in 1008, until 1034.  "Alrici Episcopi et Olderico qui et Magnifredi Marchio germani" sold "castro…Lesegno" to "Ayfredus præsbiter filius quondam Rodulphi" by charter dated 1013[694].  "Alricus…Astensis Ecclesiæ Episcopus et Odelricus qui et Magenfridus…Marchio germanus et filii bone memorie itemque Magnifredi…Marchionis, et Berta…Comitissa, jugales, filia quondam Autberti…Marchionis" founded the monastery of Segusini Sancti Justi by charter dated 1029[695].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the possessions of the church at Asti by undated charter placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1091, which notes among others the donations by "marchio Manfredus et Berta comitissa et Alricus episcopus"[696]

3.         ODO (-after 1029).  Marchese.  "Heinricus…imperator" confirmed the property of the abbey of Fruttuaria, referring to property donated by "Manfredus marchio et Berta uxor eius et fratres eiusdem Manfredi, id est Alricus episcopus et Oddo comes, et Ardoinus consobrinus eorum", by charter dated 1014[697].  "Odo marchio filius quondam Maginfredi…marchionis" donated property to the monastery of San Pietro Taurino by charter dated 1016[698].  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1029 under which "Alricus…Astensis Ecclesiæ Episcopus et Odelricus qui et Magenfridus…Marchio germanus et filii bone memorie itemque Magnifredi…Marchionis, et Berta…Comitissa, jugales, filia quondam Autberti…Marchionis" founded the monastery of Segusini Sancti Justi, which names "Oddonis, Athonis, Ugonis, Widonis fratrum nostrorum"[699]

4.         UGO (-after 1029).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1029 under which "Alricus…Astensis Ecclesiæ Episcopus et Odelricus qui et Magenfridus…Marchio germanus et filii bone memorie itemque Magnifredi…Marchionis, et Berta…Comitissa, jugales, filia quondam Autberti…Marchionis" founded the monastery of Segusini Sancti Justi, which names "Oddonis, Athonis, Ugonis, Widonis fratrum nostrorum"[700].  Marchese. 

5.         ATTO (-after 1029).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1029 under which "Alricus…Astensis Ecclesiæ Episcopus et Odelricus qui et Magenfridus…Marchio germanus et filii bone memorie itemque Magnifredi…Marchionis, et Berta…Comitissa, jugales, filia quondam Autberti…Marchionis" founded the monastery of Segusini Sancti Justi, which names "Oddonis, Athonis, Ugonis, Widonis fratrum nostrorum"[701]

6.         WIDO (-after 1029).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1029 under which "Alricus…Astensis Ecclesiæ Episcopus et Odelricus qui et Magenfridus…Marchio germanus et filii bone memorie itemque Magnifredi…Marchionis, et Berta…Comitissa, jugales, filia quondam Autberti…Marchionis" founded the monastery of Segusini Sancti Justi, which names "Oddonis, Athonis, Ugonis, Widonis fratrum nostrorum"[702].  Marchese.  m ---.  The name of Wido's wife is not known.  Wido & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [PRANGARDA .  She is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[703] as the possible daughter of Marchese Wido but the primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  1029.  m OBIZZO di Biandrate Conte di Vercelli (-before 1029).] 

 

 

 

H.      CONTI di VERCELLI

 

 

1.         GRIMALDO (-after 28 Jul 922).  Conte [de Vercelli].  "Berengarius rex" allowed the bishop of Como to hold a market, at the request of "Grimaldum…comitem", by charter dated 15 Aug 911[704].  "Berengarius rex" confirmed possessions of the church of Novara, at the request of "Grimaldum…comitem", by charter dated 19 Aug 911[705].  "Berengarius rex" donated property to the church of Vercelli, at the request of "Adelberti…marchionis et…generi nostri et Grimaldi…comitis", by charter dated 26 Jan 913[706].  "Berengarius rex" donated property at Verona to "Iohanni clerico", at the request of "Grimaldus…comes", by charter dated 25 May 913[707].  "Berengarius rex" granted property "in Valle et Sisilla", confiscated from "Adelardus et suus homo Ingelbertus qui etiam Plantardus", to "Meingauso fideli nostro", at the request of "Grimaldi…comitis", by charter dated 19 Sep 913[708].  "Berengarius rex" granted property "in comitatu Laumellino…curte…Cario" to "Autberto vicecomiti", at the request of "Adalbertum…marchionem…generum nostrum atque Grimaldum…comitem", by charter dated to [913][709].  "Berengarius…rex" granted property "curtem…Runco…de comitatu Laudensi…iuxta fluvium…Brembio non longe a fluvio Lambro" to "Grimaldo…comiti", at the request of "Berchtilam…coniugem…et Odonem…fidelum nostrum", by charter dated to [911/15][710].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" granted "Brixiensis comitatus…pars curtis Sexpilax" [Sospiro] to the church of Cremona, at the request of "Iohannes…Cremonensis ecclesie episcopus…et Grimaldum…comitem…consciliarium nostrum", by charter dated 1 Sep 916[711].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" granted property "curtem…Girpa…cum capella…de comitatu Veronensi" to "Ingelfredo…comiti", at the request of "Grimaldum…comitem…et Oldelricum…marchionem", by charter dated 916[712].  A charter dated Jan 918 records the presence of "Berengarius…imperator augustus…Odelricus…marchio et missus domni imperatoris…Ingelfredus comes istius comitatu…Grimaldus et Tiso comitibus…" at a hearing in Verona relating to the property of the monastery of Nonantola and quotes a document which names "domnus Anselmus comes comitatu Veronensis et filius bone memorie Vualdoni ex genere Francorum"[713].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" donated "curte…Sexpilas" to the church of Cremona, at the request of "Grimaldum…comitem…et Odelricum…marchionem", by charter dated 26 Dec 918[714]Marchese.  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" permitted the bishop of Novara to hold an annual market, at the request of "Grimaldus et Odelricus…marchiones", by charter dated 17 Nov 919[715].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" granted rights to the church of Parma, at the request of "Grimaldum et Odelricum…comites", by charter dated Oct 920[716].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" granted the abbey of S. Cristina in Pavia to the church of S. Antonino and S. Giustina at Parma, at the request of "Grimaldum…comitem", by charter dated 20 Dec 920[717].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" granted the castle of Pozzuolo "in comitatu Foroiuliano" to the patriarch of Aquileia, at the request of "Grimaldum…marchionem", by charter dated 3 Oct 921[718].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" permitted the church of Aquileia to fortify the castle of Savorgnano, at the request of "Grimaldum…marchionem", by charter dated 25 Mar 922[719].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" granted "cortem Musestre…in comitatu Tervisiense cum silva de Valda" to "Hinoni qui et Azoni clerico", at the request of "Grimaldum…marchionem et Ubertum…comitem", by charter dated 28 Jul 922[720]

 

 

1.         AIMONE (-before 22 Oct 988).  Conti di Vercelli.  "Otto…imperator augustus" gave property "in Vercellensi commitatu…Andurni et Molinaria" to "Aimoni commiti" by charter dated 30 Dec 962[721]m ---.  The name of Aimone's wife is not known.  Aimone & his wife had one child: 

a)         MAGINFREDO (-after 22 Oct 988).  Conti di Vercelli.  "Otto…rex" confirmed rights to property "in comitatu Vercellensi…Andurni, Molinaria, Gaullauco, Mutiano, Ponderano, Cisidola, Canderio, Truerio" to "Mainfredo filio condam Aimonis" by charter dated 22 Oct 988[722]

 

 

 

I.        OTHER COUNTS in PIEMONTE

 

 

1.         GUIDO (-before 1027).  Conte [di Focario] (near Alessandria).  m ---.  The name of Guido´s wife is not known.  Guido & his wife had one child: 

a)         GUGLIELMO (-after 1 Oct 1027)Conte [di Focario] (near Alessandria).  "Gullielmus comes filius Guidi quondam etiam comitis et Aicha…comitissa jugales, filia quondam D. Henrici Regis" donated property to "monasterio…Grassani" by charter dated 1 Oct 1027 "in castro Focario"[723]m AISHA, [illegitimate] daughter of [HEINRICH II King of Germany & his mistress ---] (-after 1 Oct 1027).  "Gullielmus comes filius Guidi quondam etiam comitis et Aicha…comitissa jugales, filia quondam D. Henrici Regis" donated property to "monasterio…Grassani" by charter dated 1 Oct 1027 "in castro Focario"[724].  The only "Henrici Regis" who was "quondam" in 1027 was Emperor Heinrich II, King of Germany and King of Italy.  No other record has been found of him having any children, either legitimate or illegitimate.  In addition, if he was Guglielmo´s father-in-law it is unclear why he would not have been called "Henrici imperatoris" in the document, as he had been crowned emperor in 1014, unless the reference was to his kingship of Italy.  Unless this information is corroborated by other sources which might emerge, it is suggested that it should be treated with considerable caution. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    SARDINIA and CORSICA

 

 

A.      COUNTS in CORSICA and SARDINIA

 

 

Einhard records that "Burchardus" defeated the Moors in Corsica with his ships in 807[725].  The Annales Fuldenses record that the emperor sent "Burchardum comitem stabuli sui" with a fleet to defend Corsica against the Moors[726].  Einhard records that the Moors conquered first Sardinia  and later Corsica in 810[727].  The Moors were expelled from Sardinia in [1017] by the Pisans who divided the island into four "judicata", Cagliari, Arborea, Gallura and Torres, each ruled by a "judex" or judge (see the document NORTHERN ITALY (2) for these later rulers of Sardinia). 

 

 

1.         BONIFAZIO [II], son of BONIFAZIO [I] Count at Lucca & his wife --- (-after 838).  Einhard's Annales record that "Bonifacius comes", who had been granted jurisdiction over Corsica, travelled around Sardinia with "fratre Berchario nec non et aliis quibusdam comitibus de Tuscia" to Africa and arrived at "Uticam atque Kartaginem" in 828[728].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Bonifacius comes", whom the emperor had installed as "Corsicæ præfectus", captured the island of Sardinia "cum fratre Berhardo" [in 828/30][729].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Bonifatius comes et Donatus itidem comes et Adrebaldus Flaviniacensis monasterii abbas" as missi [in 838][730]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    COUNTIES in TOSCANA

 

 

A.      MARCHESI of TUSCANY

 

 

The present-day Italian region of Toscana lies south of the region of Emilia.  In addition to the counties shown below, the following medieval counties have also been identified in the region but no information has so far been found on their counts: Cadolingi, Capraia, Chiusi, Firenze, Forcoli, Lucardo, Pisa, Pistoia, Pontormo, Populonia, Prato, Roselle, Siena, Sovana and Volterra. 

 

A Lombard governor of Tuscany is recorded in the early 7th century, but Tuscany did not develop as a unit until the early 9th century[731]

 

 

1.         TASO (-murdered Ravenna [635/36]).  Fredegar records that "Taso, Lombard governor of Tuscany" rebelled against Ariowalt King of the Lombards after the latter's accession in 625[732].  According to Fredegar, he was killed in Ravenna on the orders of King Ariowalt[733].  The same source records that King Ariowalt died "just afterwards", appearing to date the murder of Taso to [635/36]. 

 

 

.

ADALBERTO, son of BONIFAZIO [II] & his wife --- (-886).  He succeeded his father as Conte at Lucca, and in 846 became ADALBERT I Marchese of Tuscany.  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Lantbertus Witonis filius et Adalbertus Bonifacii filius" entered Rome in 878 and captured Pope John[734]

m firstly ANONSUARA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. 

m secondly (before 863) ROTHILDIS of Spoleto, daughter of GUIDO II Duke of Spoleto & his wife --- (-after 27 May 884).  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by the charter dated 27 May 889 under which "Vuido…rex" donated property to the bishop of Fiesole at the request of [her son] "Adalbertus…nepos noster et marchio"[735].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. 

Adalberto & his second wife had three children: 

1.         ADALBERTO (-[10/19] Sep 915, bur Lucca Cathedral).  His parentage is indicated by the charter dated 27 May 889 under which "Vuido…rex" donated property to the bishop of Fiesole at the request of [her son] "Adalbertus…nepos noster et marchio"[736].  The Gesta regum Francorum confirms that he was the brother of Bonifazio when it names "Adalbertus fraterque eius Bonifacius, Hildibrandus quoque et Gerhardus" as the "primores itaque marchenses qui fuerunt Italici regis" in 894[737].  He succeeded his father in [884/89] as ADALBERTO II Conte e Duca di Lucca Marchese of Tuscany.  He supported Guido Duke of Spoleto after his coronation as King of Italy in 889, recognised Emperor Lambert, but subsequently supported Berengario Marchese di Friulia.  "Vuido…imperator augustus" confirmed donations "in comitatu Florentino" at the request of "Adalbertus…nepos noster et marchio" by charter dated 24 Nov 891[738].  The Gesta regum Francorum names "Adalbertus fraterque eius Bonifacius, Hildibrandus quoque et Gerhardus" as the "primores itaque marchenses qui fuerunt Italici regis" in 894[739].  The Annales Fuldenses record the same names in 894[740].  He helped Louis King of Provence in his election as emperor[741].  The epitaph of "Adelberti ducis" records his death "Kal Sep"[742]m ([895/98]) as her second husband, BERTA of Lotharingia, widow of THEOTBALD [Thibaut] Comte d’Arles, illegitimate daughter of LOTHAIRE II King of Lotharingia & his mistress Waldrada --- ([863]-8 Mar 925, bur Lucca, Santa Maria).  "Hugo comes et marchio" names "patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthe…" in a donation by charter dated 924[743].  "Berte" is also named as mother of "Hugo rex" in the latter's donation to Cluny for the souls of his parents dated 8 Mar 934[744].  Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by the Annales Bertiniani which name "Hugonem Lotharii iunioris filium" and “sororium illius Theutbaldum” in 880[745].  Her origin and second marriage are confirmed by the epitaph of "Comitissæ…Bertha" specifies that she was "uxor Adalberti Ducis Italiæ…regalis generi…filia Lotharii" and records her death in 925[746].  Liudprand provides the proof that Berta, who married Marchese Adalberto, was the widow of Theotbald when he names "Berta matre regis Hugonis", specifying that she was previously married to Adalberto, when recording her death[747].  She was regent of Tuscany after the death of her second husband in 915.  Adalberto & his wife had three children: 

a)         GUIDO (-930).  Liudprand names "Wido" as son of "Adelbertus Tuscorum marchio" and of Berta[748].  He succeeded his father in 915 as GUIDO Marchese of Tuscany, Conte di Lucca, as a minor.  He was imprisoned in Mantua 916-[920].  m ([923/24]) as her second husband, MAROZIA, widow of ALBERICO Marchese di Spoleto, daughter of TEOFILACTO Senator of Rome & his wife Theodora --- (-in prison [932/37]).  Liudprand names "Marotiam et Theodora" as the two daughters of Theodora[749].  The wife of "Albericus marchio" is referred to as "Theophilacti filia" in the Benedicti Chronicon, although not named[750].  Liudprand names "Maroziam scortum Romanam" as wife of Guido[751], and in a later passage names "Marozia, scortum impudens satis" when recording her marriage to King Ugo after the death of her second husband[752].  She married thirdly ([932]) as his third wife, Ugo King of Italy.  The Memorial of "Maroza" states that she died "Jan VII indic IX"[753].  Marchese Guido & his wife had [three] children: 

i)          THEODORA [Berta] .  She is named as daughter of Marchese Guido & his wife in Europäische Stammtafeln[754], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. 

ii)         BERTA (-after 14 Jan 945).  A charter dated 14 Jan 945, reproduced in a notarial transcript dated 1301, records a donation to the monastery of SS Andrea e Gregorio "Clivuscauri" and names "Albericus…princeps atque omnium Romanorum senator atque Sergius…episcopus sancte Nepesine ecclesie, nec non et Constantinus illustris vir atque Bertha nobilissima puella uterine, et germani fratres Marozze quondam Romanorum senatricis filii, nec non et Marozza seu Stephania nobilissima femina, germane sorores et consobrine eorum Theodore quondam Romanorum senatricis filie", subscribed by (in order) "Alberic, Marozza, Stephania, Bertha, Sergius, Constantine"[755].  

iii)        other children.  Europäische Stammtafeln refers to other unnamed children of Marchese Guido & his wife[756], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. 

b)         LAMBERT (-after 938).  Liudprand names Lambert as brother of Guido[757].  He succeeded in 931 as LAMBERT Marchese of Tuscany.  He was deposed and blinded in 931 by Ugo King of Italy, who installed his brother Boso as Marchese of Tuscany until 936 when he was in turn deposed in favour of King Ugo's illegitimate son. 

c)         ERMENGARDE (-29 Feb [after 932]).  "Hermengarda, Adelberti Tuscie marchionis et Bertæ filia" is named widow of "Adelberto Eporegiæ civitatis marchione"[758].  Consilaria of Rudolf King of Upper Burgundy in 924.  m ([911/14]) as his second wife, ADALBERT Marchese d'Ivrea, son of ANSCARIO I Marchese d'Ivrea & his wife [Volsia di Susa] (-[17 Jul 923/8 Oct 924]). 

2.         BONIFAZIO (-after 894).  The Gesta regum Francorum names "Adalbertus fraterque eius Bonifacius, Hildibrandus quoque et Gerhardus" as the "primores itaque marchenses qui fuerunt Italici regis" in 894[759].  The Annales Fuldenses record the same names in 894[760]

3.         REGINSINDA .  The necrology of Brixen records that "Adelbertus comes tradidit filiam suam Reginsindam"[761].  Nun of St Odilia at Brescia[762]

 

 

1.         HUGUES, son of THEOTBALD Comte d'Arles & his wife Berta of Lotharingia [Carolingian]  ([880]-10 Apr 947).  "Hugo comes et marchio" names "patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthe…" in a donation by charter dated 924[763].  Comte de Vienne.  He was elected as UGO King of Italy in 926.  The events of his reign are recorded in Liutprand of Cremona's Antapodosis[764].  In 931, he deposed his uterine half-brother Lambert Marchese of Tuscany, acquiring the march of Tuscany which he granted to his brother Boso whom he replaced in 936 by his own illegitimate son[765].   

-        KINGS of ITALY

King Ugo had one illegitimate child by WANDELMODA

a)         UBERTO ([920/25]-[15 Sep 967/Mar 970]).  Liudprand names "Hubertum" as son of King Ugo by Wandelmoda[766].  He was installed by his father as UBERTO Marchese of Tuscany in 937.  

 -        see below.   

2.         BOSO ([885]-after 936).  Boso is named as brother of King Ugo by Liutprand[767].  Comte d'Avignon et Vaisin 911-931.  Comte d'Arles 926-931.  He was installed by his brother as BOSO Marchese di Tuscany in 931 after Lambert Marchese of Tuscany was deposed and blinded.  Boso was deposed in 936 by his brother who installed his own illegitimate son Hubert as Marchese of Tuscany. 

-        see PROVENCE.   

 

 

UBERTO, illegitimate son of UGO King of Italy & his mistress Wandalmodis --- ([920/25]-[15 Sep 967/Mar 970]).  Liudprand names "Hubertum" as son of King Ugo by Wandelmoda[768].  He was installed by his father as UBERTO Marchese of Tuscany in 937.  Conte palatino 941-945.  He succeeded as UBERTO Duke and Marchese of Spoleto and Camerino [942/43]-early 945, succeeding Saribono who had murdered Anchario d´Ivrea, previously Duka e Marchese di Spoleto.  As one of the chief vassals of Berengario d´Ivrea, Viceroy of Italy, he joined Pope John XII in requesting the intervention of Otto I King of Germany to curb Berengario's excesses.  Hubert was expelled from Tuscany after 13 Feb 962, but later reinstated.  Founder of the Badia at Florence. 

m ([945]) WILLA di Spoleto, daughter of BONIFAZIO Duke and Marchese of Spoleto & his wife Waldrada of Upper Burgundy.  She founded the abbey of Florence after her husband died[769].  "Otto…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted immunities to the convent of San Ponziano at Lucca founded by "matrona Wuillia mater Hugonis marchionis" by an undated charter, with other charters dated 998 in the compilation[770]

Marchese Uberto & his wife had two children: 

1.         UGO (after 950-Pistoia 21 Dec 1001, bur Abbey of Florence).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 27 Dec 996 under which "Ugo marcho lege…Salica filio bone memorie Uberti…marchio et Saligo" donated property in Merlara, Montagnana and Lendinara to the church of S. Maria di Vangadizza[771].  He succeeded his father in [967/970] as UGO Duke and Marchese of Tuscany.  Marchese e Duke of Spoleto e Camerino 986/87-996 after Jun.  He made numerous generous donations to various religious foundations towards the end of his life, many of which are only recorded in much later charters.  “Hugo…marchio filio Bm Humberti…marchio…et uxor mea Julitta” donated property to the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem by charter dated 29 Oct 993, subscribed by “Teudici comitis filius quondam Girardi, et Guido, Rozo comes, Venerandus vicecomes de Monte-Miare[772].  "Otto…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted property "in pago Pisensi in villa Riguli" to "Ciolhoni" by charter dated 22 Sep 1001 on the request of "ducis et marchionis Hugonis"[773].  "Chunradus…rex" confirms the foundation of the abbey of San Genarro at Capolona by "Hugo marchio et consanguinea nostra coniux eius Iudiht" by charter dated 1026[774].  "Heinricus…rex" confirmed the donation of "Ugo marchio…atque…Arduinus marchio filius Otonis" to the monastery of San Michele della Chiusa by an undated charter, placed in the compilation with charters dated 1040[775].  Judgment was given, in the presence of "Conradus…rex", in a claim by the canons of Bergamo cathedral against the convents of Holy Trinity and St Alexander at Bergamo by charter dated Jan 1088, in the presence of "Ugone et Maginfredo marchionibus atque Arialdo et Raginerio seu Ugone comitibus"[776].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the rights of St Maria, Pomposa in property "quod Ugo marchio filius Huberti dedit" at the request of "marchionis Warnerii atque…marchionis Burchardi" by charter dated 7 Oct 1095[777].  After his death legends evolved concerning the events of his life and his moral qualities, and celestial apparitions were reported around his tomb, all commemorated in a history written in the 17th century[778]m (before 29 Oct 993) JUDITH, daughter of ---.  “Hugo…marchio filio Bm Humberti…marchio…et uxor mea Julitta” donated property to the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem by charter dated 29 Oct 993, subscribed by “Teudici comitis filius quondam Girardi, et Guido, Rozo comes, Venerandus vicecomes de Monte-Miare[779].  "Chunradus…rex" confirms the foundation of the abbey of San Genarro at Capolona by "Hugo marchio et consanguinea nostra coniux eius Iudiht" by charter dated 1026[780].  Marchese Ugo & his wife had one child: 

a)         WILLA (-).  She founded the convent of San Michele at Quiesa, near Pisa.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed possession by "Arnoldo comiti et Canefro dicitur" of property "in comitatu Gamundensi seu Forensi" from "Petro quondam cardinali qui et Canefro dictus est, filius Ruberti quondam comitis seu Villæ filiæ Ugonis quondam marchionis eorumque matris" by charter dated 12 Sep 1091[781].  This charter is marked spurious in the collection but there seems no reason to doubt the genealogical accuracy of its contents, the fabrication presumably being created by Conte Arnaldo to confirm his de facto possession of the properties.  The words describing the affiliation of Arnaldo and Pietro suggest that they were uterine brothers as conte Roberto is named only as father of Pietro.  "Willa mulier Arduini qui Ardicio nominator, filia quondam Hugoni…Marchio" donated property to Pisa by charter dated 24 Jan 1019[782]m firstly ROBERTO Conte di Canefro, son of ---.  m secondly (before 24 Jan 1019) ARDOINO Ardicio [Conte di Versiglia].  1025/38. 

2.         WALDRADA (-after 976).  The Chronicon Venetum names "Hugonis marchionis sororem Hwalderada" when recording her marriage to Pietro[783].  She brought lands in Friuli, the March of Treviso, Adria and the Ferrarese to Venice as her dowry.  She escaped when her husband and child were murdered.  She sought refuge at the German Imperial court from where she claimed the return of her dowry from Venice, for which she was given full financial compensation from the proceeds of a tithe levied on all Venetians.  m as his second wife, PIETRO Candiano, son of PIETRO Candiano [III] Doge of Venice & his wife --- (-murdered 11 Aug 976, bur Sant' Ilario).  He was elected Doge of Venice in 959 in succession to his father. 

 
 

1.         RANIERI (-after 1027).  He was installed as Marchese of Tuscany.  "Raginerius Marchio et dux Tuscanus" gave judgment in a property dispute by charter dated 1016[784].  The emperor deprived him of his marquisate in 1027, installing Bonifazio di Canossa as Marchese of Tuscany in his place[785]m ---.  The name of Ranieri´s wife is not known.  Ranieri & his wife had two children: 

a)         UGO (-after Dec 1046).  A charter dated Dec 1046 "in…comitatu Arentino" in the presence of "Ugo filius Raginerii quondam marchionis…"[786]same person as…?  UGUICCIO [Ugo] .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Duke, Marchesem ---.  The name of Uguicio´s wife is not known.  Uguicio & his wife had two children: 

i)          RANIERI (-after Oct 1066).  "Rainerii filii Ugicionis Ducis et Marchionis…" is named as present in a charter dated 1059 by which "Gottifredus Dux et Marchio" issued judgment on a claim[787].  "Raineri f. qd. Ugoni marchio" donated property "in comitato Artino infra plebe S. Marie scito Clio in…Piino" to Camaldoli by charter dated Oct 1066[788]m ---.  The name of Ranieri´s wife is not known.  Ranieri & his wife had one child: 

(a)       RANIERI .  1090. 

ii)         ENRICO (-after Oct 1066).  "Einrigo f. qd. Ugoni qui fuit marchio" donated "suam portionem de eccl. S. Savini…in comitato Artino infra plebe S. Marie scito Clio in…Colle S. Savini" to Camaldoli by charter dated Oct 1066[789]m SOPHIA, daughter of ---.  "Heinricus…rex" confirmed the property rights of Arezzo cathedral by charter dated 10 Jul 1081, listing among the properties a donation by "Sophia uxor Heinrici filii Ugicionis marchionis"[790].  No indication has been found of the date of this donation and hence the date when Enrico and his wife lived. 

 

2.         GUIDO di Monte Santa Maria (-before 2 Jul 1159).  Marchesem ---.  The name of Guido´s wife is not known.  Guido & his wife had one child: 

a)         DIONISIA (-after 2 Jul 1159).  "Comes Tedicius gd. Trainelli et Donnisia iugalis eius f. qd. Guidonis marchionis" sold "tertiam partem castelli de Strido et…in Felagrano, Petramanita, Terenthano, Valiano" to the bishop of Volterra by charter dated 2 Jul 1159 at Biserno, signed by "Comitis Gerardi…Lampretti vicecomitis qd. Truffi…"[791]m TEDICO [V] Conte degli Gherardeschi, son of Conte [UGO] Trainello & his wife --- (-after 2 Jul 1159). 

 

 

BONIFAZIO di Canossa, son of Marchese TEDALDO & his wife Guillia [Willa] --- ([985]-San Martino all'Argine 7 May 1052, bur Mantua Cathedral).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "Tedaldum episcopum urbis Aretine et Bonifacium…et Conradum" as the three sons of "dux et marchio Tedaldus" & his wife[792].  "Teudaldus Marchio et Comes…Comitatu Regensis Comitatus" passed judgment in a property dispute, in the presence of "Bonefacius filio eidem Teudaldi Marchio…", by charter dated 30 Sep 1001[793].  After succeeding his father after [1012], he established his main residence at Mantua.  As a symbol of his power, he kept a lion attached to a column outside the palatium which he constructed.  He recognised the authority of Konrad II King of Germany as soon as he arrived in Italy following his election to succeed Emperor Heinrich II in 1024.  Bonifazio travelled south with the king towards Rome, for his coronation as emperor, helping him besiege and capture Lucca which was defended by Ranieri Marchese of Tuscany.  The emperor deprived Ranieri of the marquisate and installed Bonifazio as BONIFAZIO Marchese of Tuscany.  In 1037, Bonifazio helped Emperor Konrad capture Pavia from rebels.  He also supported Heinrich III King of Germany in his struggles with the papacy, leading to his coronation in Rome in 1046.  The emperor, however, felt threatened by the power wielded by Marchese Bonifazio in Italy and unsuccessfully attempted to capture him.  The Annales Pisani of Bernardo Marangoni record the death "pridie Non Mai" in 1054 of "Bonifatius marchio"[794].  Bonifazio was ambushed while hunting near Mantua and killed[795]

m firstly ([1010]) RICHILDA di Bergamo, daughter of GISELBERTO [II] Conte Palatino, Conte di Bergamo & his wife Anselda of Turin (-after Feb 1036, bur Nogara fortress, near Mantua).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "comitissam Richildam" as the wife of "Bonifacium" but does not give her origin[796].  Her parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 3 Sep 1019 by which "Bonefacius Marchio filius quondam Teotaldi…Marchio et Richilda jugalibus filia quondam Giselberti Comitis" donated property to the bishopric of Cremona[797].  "Bonefazius Marchio et Dux Tusciæ et Richida jugales" exchanged property with "Ingonem Episcopus" by charter dated 21 May 1033 which names "Manfredo et Opezo nepotibus meis"[798]

m secondly (Marengo 1037 after Jun) as her first husband, BEATRIX of Upper Lotharingia, daughter of FREDERIC II Duke [of Upper Lotharingia] & his wife Mathilde of Swabia ([1019]-18 Apr 1076, bur Pisa Cathedral).  The Chronicon Sancti Michælis, monasterii in pago Virdunensi names "duabus puellulis Sophia et Beatrice" as daughters of the son of "duce Theodorico", specifying that the Empress was their amita who adopted them after their father died[799].  The Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium names (in order) "Beatrix…et Sophia" daughters of "iunior Frederici", specifying that Beatrice married "Bonefacio Italiæ marchioni"[800].  She entered into her share of the succession of her brother in [1037] as Dame du château de Briey, heiress of the lordships of Stenay, Mouzay, Juvigny, Longlier and Orval, the northern part of her family's ancestral lands[801].  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "comitissam Beatricam…de Gallia…filia comitis Frederic, mater…domina Matilda" as wife of "Bonifacius"[802].  She married secondly ([Mantua] mid-1054) as his second wife, Godefroi "le Barbu" Comte de Verdun, ex-Duke of Upper Lotharingia, who was appointed Duke of Lower Lotharingia in 1065.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the second marriage of "Bonifacius…relictam Beatricem" with "Godefridus…cognomento Barbatus", specifying (incorrectly) that she was daughter of "Sigifridi de Brie filii ducis Theoderici"[803].  Regent of Tuscany 1054-1056.  Having retired to Verdun with her husband in early 1069 due to his deteriorating health, she returned to Italy after his death and associated her daughter in the government of her Italian estates[804].  The Notæ de Beatrice ducissi Tusciæ et Gisla records the death "1076 XIV Kal Mai" of "Tuscie ductrix Italieque Beatrix"[805].  The Annales Pisani of Bernardo Marangoni record the death "IV Kal May" in 1077 of "comitissa Beatrix"[806]

Marchese Bonifazio & his first wife had one child:

1.         daughter (b and d 1014).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

Marchese Bonifazio & his second wife had three children:

2.         FEDERICO (-1053, bur [Abbey of Santa Maria de Felonica]).  His mother was near the abbey of Santa María de Felonica when she made a foundation 17 Dec 1053 for the souls of her late husband, son and daughter[807]

3.         BEATRICE (-1053 before 17 Dec).  Her mother's foundation 17 Dec 1053 names her late daughter772

4.         MATILDA ([Mantua] 1046-Bondeno de' Roncovi 24 Jul 1115, bur monastery of San Benedetto di Polirone, transferred 1633 to St Peter's Rome).  The Annalista Saxo names "Machtildis filia Beatricis ex Bonifacio marchione de Langobardia" when recording her two marriages[808].  Her first marriage was arranged at the same time as her mother's second marriage[809].  She is recorded as wife of Godefroi in his donation in [1069] to the abbey of Saint-Hubert des Ardennes[810].  She separated from her husband and returned to Tuscany in early 1070, although Godefroi requested her return[811].  Her mother associated Matilda in the government of their Italian estates after their return to Italy[812].  Her marital difficulties were not helped by her husband's alliance with Heinrich IV King of Germany, husband and wife therefore supporting different sides in the deepening dispute between Church and Empire.  Matilda took sole possession of her territories on the death of her mother in 1076, titling herself "dux et marchesa" in 1078 and 1099 but more frequently Ctss of Tuscany[813].  She became one of the strongest supporters of Pope Gregory VII, and acted as intermediary with King Heinrich when the latter visited Italy in 1077 with a view to seeking reconciliation with the Pope, the meeting between Pope and King taking place at the castle of Canossa.  In 1081, Ctss Matilda donated all her estates to the church, which granted them back to her as a fief for life, and sent the major part of her personal treasure to the Pope[814].  King Heinrich IV confiscated Ctss Matilda's properties in Lotharingia (inherited from her mother) and occupied Metz in 1085, awarding the lordships of Stenay and Mouzay to Thierry Bishop of Verdun as a reward for his support[815].  Matilda's second marriage was arranged by Pope Urban II and Welf I Duke of Bavaria in order to strengthen the opposition to Emperor Heinrich IV[816].  The Chronicon of Bernold records the marriage in 1089 of "dux Mathildis filia Bonifacii marchionis, sed vidua Gotefridi ducis" and "Welfoni duci filio Welfonis ducis"[817].  Ctss Matilda attempted to capture the emperor during the latter's journey to Italy in early 1091 but the plan failed because of the betrayal of Ugo d'Este (who was the half-brother of Matilda's father-in-law)[818].  Emperor Heinrich was then able to pursue her troops which he defeated at Tresenta, in the region of Padua, in 1091[819].  He followed up by besieging the castle of Monteveglio in 1092, but retired to Verona after being defeated at Maddona della Battaglia near Canossa[820].  She recovered possession of all the territories she had lost when Emperor Heinrich returned to Germany in 1097 except for Mantua, and returned to Tuscany in mid-1098[821].  She confirmed her earlier donation of her lands to the church 17 Nov 1102, the text of the charter being engraved on a marble slab in one of churches in Rome[822].  Emperor Heinrich V granted her the title "vice-reine" at Bianello 6 May 1111[823], together with the government of Liguria (which corresponded to the ecclesiastical province of Milan), and annulled the confiscation of her assets decreed by his father in 1081.  The city of Mantua conceded to her in Oct 1114[824].  The Annales Cremonenses record the death in 1115 of "comitissa Matildis"[825].  The Cronica of Sicardi Bishop of Cremona records the death in 1115 of "comitissa Matildis" and her burial "aput ecclesiam sancti Benedicti inter Padum et Lironem quam Teutaldus avus construxerat et Bonifacius pater eius ampliaverat"[826]m firstly (betrothed 1055, Verdun [May] 1069[827]) GODEFROI of Lotharingia, son of GODEFROI II "le Barbu" Comte de Verdun, ex-Duke of Upper Lotharingia & his first wife Doda --- ([1025/40]-murdered Vlaardingen, near Antwerp 26 Feb 1076, bur Verdun Cathedral).  The Gesta Mediolanensium names "dux Gotefredus Gotofredi filius" when recording his death and that Matilda was his widow[828].  He succeeded in as GODEFROI III "le Bossu" Duke of Lower Lotharingia.  He rejoined his wife in Tuscany in late 1072, returning alone to Lotharingia in 1073[829].  He provided troops for Heinrich IV King of Germany in the latter's struggle against the Saxons in 1074, to the displeasure of Pope Gregory VII.  Duke Godefroi's name appears in the list of the nobles who purportedly deposed the Pope at Worms 24 Jan 1076.  He also volunteered to lead the army to Rome to expel the Pope.  He died from stab wounds after being surprised by an unknown assassin supposedly hired by Robert Count of Flanders[830]m secondly (in secret mid-1089, separated 1095[831]) WELF of Bavaria, son of WELF I (IV) Duke of Bavaria & his second wife Judith de Flandre ([1073]-Burg Kaufering 24 Sep 1120, bur Weingarten).  He bore the title "dux et marchese" in a 27 Jun 1090 document at Mantua in which he is named before his wife[832].  He returned to Bavaria after separating from his wife in 1095[833].  He succeeded his father in 1101 as WELF II Duke of Bavaria.  Ctss Matilda & her first husband had one child: 

a)         BEATRIX ([1070/71]-before 29 Aug 1071).  Her supposed maternal grandmother "Beatrix comitissa ac ducatrix filia bon. mem. Federici ducis…ex natione mea lege vivere Saliga" donated property, for the souls of "Bonifacii marchionis atque ducis quodam viri mei…et…Matildæ filiæ meæ et…Gatefridi ducis quodam viri mei et…quodam Beatricis neptis meæ", to "monasterio…Frassinorum", by charter dated 29 Aug 1071[834].  Poull assumes that "Beatricis neptis meæ" was the niece of the donor, the daughter of her nephew Frederic de Mousson, Herr von Lützelburg[835], but this is not possible considering the date of his only known marriage.  It is assumed therefore that "neptis" should be interpreted as meaning granddaughter in this case. 

Ctss Matilda had one adopted son:

b)         conte GUIDO Guerra, son of conte GUIDO & his wife --- .  The son of one of her main supporters in Florence, Matilda Ctss of Tuscany adopted him [20 Jun/Nov] 1099][836]

 
 

1.         BONIFAZIO, son of ADALBERTO Conte di Bologna & his wife Bertila --- (-before 1012).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Marchese of Tuscany 1004/1011.  He founded the abbey of Fonte Taona before 1007. 

 

 

2.         RABODOMarchese of Tuscany.  "Domnus Rabodo Marchio Tuscie" confirmed property holdings by charter dated 1117[837]

 

 

Two siblings, parents not known: 

1.         CORRADO (-after 5 Sep 1129).  Duke of Ravenna.  Marchese of Tuscany.  "Chonradus…Tuscie marchio" guaranteed the protection of the monasteries of S. Salvatore and S. Lorenzo by charter dated 1124, witnessed by "Fredericus nepos marchionis…"[838].  "Conradus Ravennatum Dux et Tuscie Preses ac Marchio" confirmed a donation by charter dated 5 Sep 1129[839]

2.         --- .  m ---.  One child: 

a)         FEDERIGO (-after 1124).  "Chonradus…Tuscie marchio" guaranteed the protection of the monasteries of S. Salvatore and S. Lorenzo by charter dated 1124, witnessed by "Fredericus nepos marchionis…"[840]

 

 

3.         RAMPERTO (-after 26 Nov 1131).  Marchese of Tuscany.  "Ramprettus…Tuscie Preses et Marchio" donated property to the monastery of Santo Pontio di Lucca by charter dated 26 Nov 1131[841]

 
 

1.         ENGELBERT [III] von Sponheim, son of ENGELBERT I Duke of Carinthia [Sponheim] & his wife Uta von Passau (-6 Oct 1173).  The Fundatio Monasterii Baumburgensis names "Bernhardus dux Charintie, Eingelpertus marchio Ystrie, Hartwicus postea Ratisponensis episcopus et comes Rapoto de Chregeburc" as the four sons of "Eingelperto duci de Chraieburc" & his wife Uta[842].  He succeeded his father in 1124 as ENGELBERT II Marchese of Istria, when his father succeeded as Duke of Carinthia.  Marchese of Tuscany [1135/37].  The Annales Florentini record that "Ingilbertus marchio" entered Florence "XVI Kal Jul" in 1135[843].  The Annales Pisani of Bernardo Marangoni record that "Ingilbertum Tuscie marchionem" was defeated in 1137 "apud Ficiechum" by "Lucenses"[844].  The document dated 17 Sep 1156 which established the duchy of Austria is witnessed by "…marchio Engielbertus de Hystria…"[845].  The necrology of Salzburg St Rudpert records the death "II Non Oct" of "Engelbertus marchio de Chreiburch"[846].  The necrology of Baumburg records the death "II Non Oct" of "Engelbertus marchio fr n et fundator"[847].  The necrology of Seonense records the death "II Non Oct" of "Engilbertus marchio" and his donation[848]

 

 

1.         WELF [VI], son of HEINRICH "dem Schwarzen" Duke of Bavaria [Welf] & his wife Wulfhild of Saxony [Billung] ([16 Dec 1114/15 Dec 1116]-Memmingen 14/15 Dec 1191, bur Steingaden).  The Annalista Saxo names "Heinricum inclitum ducem Saxonie et Bawarie et Welfonem et quatuor filias" as the children of Duke Heinrich and his wife Wulfhild[849].  In 1152, Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany invested Welf as Duke of Spoleto and Marchese of Tuscany, and with Sardinia and the lands formerly held by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, as a means of acquiring Welf support after his election[850].  Vogt von Zwiefalten 1152.  Von Ravensburg 1152.  Short of money, Welf gradually returned his Italian lands to Emperor Friedrich I, and from 1173 ceased to use his Italian titles.  Welf VI also agreed to make Emperor Friedrich his successor in the Welf lands around Ravensburg[851].  The necrology of Raitenbuch records the death "XIX Kal Jan" of "dux Guelfo VI fundator monasterii Staingadensis"[852].  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "XVIII Kal Jan" of "Welfo dux, Welfonum ultimus filius Heinrici ducis"[853]

 

 

 

B.      CONTI di AREZZO

 

 

The succession of counts in the county of Arezzo is unclear.  Constantino Bishop of Arezzo is recorded as "episcopus et comes" in charters in the cartulary of the monastery of Camaldoli, located near the town of Arezzo, in the mid-11th century.  In a charter dated 1079, he is named as bishop only with "Ugo comes", suggesting that ownership of the county had passed out of ecclesiastical hands.  However, "Sivulfredus ep. et comes Ar." is named in a charter dated Aug 1099[854].  In the meantime, counts named Guido and Alberto, whose relationship if any to Conte Ugo has not been traced, are also named in the Camaldoli cartulary.  It should be noted that none of these counts is referred to in the documentation as "Conte di Arezzo". 

 

 

1.         ALBERICOm ---.  The name of Alberto´s wife is not known.  Alberto & his wife had one child: 

a)         UGO (-[4 Dec 1079/15 Jul 1086]).  Conte [di Arezzo].  A charter dated 1079 records that "Ugo comes olim Alberici comitis" donated property "in…Murro comitatus Hesii"[855].  A charter dated 4 Dec 1079 records a legal hearing before "Constantinus Ar. ep. et Ugo comes", with "…Vualfredus comite…Ugone vicecomite…" relating to Camaldoli[856]

 

 

2.         ALBERTOm ---.  The name of Alberto´s wife is not known.  Alberto & his wife had one child: 

a)         GUIDO [I] (-after Apr 1055).  "Guido comes f. qd. Alberti" donated "eccl. et mon. S. Marie in…Aprognano" to Camaldoli by charter dated Apr 1055[857]Conte [di Arezzo].  m ---.  The name of Guido´s wife is not known.  Guido & his wife had three children: 

i)          GUIDO [II] (-after 15 Jul 1086).  "Vuido comes f. b. m. Vuidonis olim comitis et Hermellina coniux eius f. Alberti" donated "eccl….Petri apostolic sita prope castellum q. v. Luco" to Camaldoli, with the consent of "Tegrimi et Vuidonis suorum ff", by charter dated 15 Jul 1086 "prope castellum…Cerrito"[858]Conte [di Arezzo].  "Comes Guido f. olim comitis Guidonis et Ermelina comitissa" donated "terre…in territorio S. Marie in Partina in l…Soci…iuxta…castri et terram Cam." to Camaldoli by undated charter, dated to the end-11th century[859]m ERMELINA, daughter of ALBERTO & his wife --- (-after 15 Jul 1086).  "Vuido comes f. b. m. Vuidonis olim comitis et Hermellina coniux eius f. Alberti" donated "eccl….Petri apostolic sita prope castellum q. v. Luco" to Camaldoli, with the consent of "Tegrimi et Vuidonis suorum ff", by charter dated 15 Jul 1086 "prope castellum…Cerrito"[860].  "Comes Guido f. olim comitis Guidonis et Ermelina comitissa" donated "terre…in territorio S. Marie in Partina in l…Soci…iuxta…castri et terram Cam." to Camaldoli by undated charter, dated to the end-11th century[861].  Guido [II] & his wife had two children: 

(a)       TEGRIMO (-after 15 Jul 1086).  "Vuido comes f. b. m. Vuidonis olim comitis et Hermellina coniux eius f. Alberti" donated "eccl….Petri apostolic sita prope castellum q. v. Luco" to Camaldoli, with the consent of "Tegrimi et Vuidonis suorum ff", by charter dated 15 Jul 1086 "prope castellum…Cerrito"[862]

(b)       GUIDO (-after 15 Jul 1086).  "Vuido comes f. b. m. Vuidonis olim comitis et Hermellina coniux eius f. Alberti" donated "eccl….Petri apostolic sita prope castellum q. v. Luco" to Camaldoli, with the consent of "Tegrimi et Vuidonis suorum ff", by charter dated 15 Jul 1086 "prope castellum…Cerrito"[863]

ii)         ALBERTO (-after Aug 1099).  "A[lberto] inclito comiti U[go] germanus eius" issued a charter relating to Camaldoli dated to [1099][864]Conte [di Arezzo].  "Albertus comes f. Quidonis q.d. comitis" donated churches "in valle Petronis…[et] S. Michaelis Arhagneli in…Pupline…[et] in Gaviserre" to Camaldoli by charter dated Aug 1099[865]

iii)        ADELASIA (-after Feb 1047).  A charter dated Feb 1047 records an agreement between the abbot of Pratalia monastery and "Boso f. Bentii et Adalasia mulier q. fuit coniux Ugoni fratris ipsius Bosi, filia Vuidoni comitis" regarding an exchange of property[866]m UGO, son of BENTIO & his wife --- (-before Feb 1047). 

 

 

 

C.      CONTI di CANEFRO

 

 

The precise location of the county of "Canefro" has not been found but the donations by the family quoted below suggest that it must have been near Pisa in Toscana.  The origin of the family of the counts of Canefro is not known.  However, the name "Arnold" suggests that they may have been Bavarian or Carinthian.  If this is correct, they presumably formed part of the team of foreign administrators imported into northern Italy by the Ottonian emperors and their successors to maintain local control.   

 

 

1.         ROBERTO Contem as her first husband, WILLA, daughter of UGO Duke and Marchese of Tuscany & his wife Judith ---.  She founded the convent of San Michele at Quiesa, near Pisa.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed possession by "Arnoldo comiti et Canefro dicitur" of property "in comitatu Gamundensi seu Forensi" from "Petro quondam cardinali qui et Canefro dictus est, filius Ruberti quondam comitis seu Villæ filiæ Ugonis quondam marchionis eorumque matris" by charter dated 12 Sep 1091[867].  This charter is marked spurious in the collection but there seems no reason to doubt the genealogical accuracy of its contents, the fabrication presumably being created by Conte Arnaldo to confirm his de facto possession of the properties.  The words describing the affiliation of Arnaldo and Pietro suggest that they were uterine brothers as conte Roberto is named only as father of Pietro.  She married secondly (before 24 Jan 1019) Ardoino Ardicio [Conte di Versiglia].  Roberto & his wife had one child: 

a)         PIETRO (-before 12 Sep 1091).  Cardinal.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed possession by "Arnoldo comiti et Canefro dicitur" of property "in comitatu Gamundensi seu Forensi" from "Petro quondam cardinali qui et Canefro dictus est, filius Ruberti quondam comitis seu Villæ filiæ Ugonis quondam marchionis eorumque matris" by charter dated 12 Sep 1091[868].  This charter is marked spurious in the collection but there appears no reason to doubt the genealogical accuracy of its contents, the fabrication presumably being created by Conte Arnaldo to confirm his de facto possession of the properties.  The words describing the affiliation of Arnaldo and Pietro suggests that they were uterine brothers as conte Roberto is named only as father of Pietro. 

 

 

2.         ARDOINO Ardicio  .  [Conte di Versiglia].  1025/38.  m (before 24 Jan 1019) as her second husband, WILLA, widow of Conte ROBERTO, daughter of UGO Duke and Marchese of Tuscany & his wife Judith ---.  "Willa mulier Arduini qui Ardicio nominator, filia quondam Hugoni…Marchio" donated property to Pisa by charter dated 24 Jan 1019[869].  Ardoino & his wife had one child: 

a)         ARNALDO (-after 12 Sep 1091).  Conte di Canefro.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed possession by "Arnoldo comiti et Canefro dicitur" of property "in comitatu Gamundensi seu Forensi" from "Petro quondam cardinali qui et Canefro dictus est, filius Ruberti quondam comitis seu Villæ filiæ Ugonis quondam marchionis eorumque matris" by charter dated 12 Sep 1091[870].  This charter is marked spurious in the collection but there is no reason to doubt the genealogical accuracy of its contents, the fabrication presumably being created by Conte Arnaldo to confirm his de facto possession of the properties.  The words describing the affiliation of Arnaldo and Pietro suggests that they were uterine brothers as conte Roberto is named only as father of Pietro. 

 

 

 

D.      CONTI di LUCCA

 

 

BONIFACE [I], son of --- (-before 5 Oct 823).  A Frank from Bavaria.  His Bavarian origin is confirmed by the charter dated 5 Oct 823 which confirms the election of his daughter "Richilda…abbatissa filia b. m. Bonifacio comiti natio Baivarorum" as abbess of the monastery of SS Benedetto e Scolastica at Lucca[871]Count at Lucca 812/13.  He controlled most of the countships in the Arno valley. 

m ---.  The name of Boniface's wife has not yet been identified. 

Boniface & his wife had three children: 

1.         BONIFAZIO [II] (-after 838).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 5 Oct 823 which confirms the election of his sister "Richilda…abbatissa filia b. m. Bonifacio comiti natio Baivarorum" as abbess of the monastery of SS Benedetto e Scolastica at Lucca, signed by "Bonifacii comitis germanus supradicte abbatisse…"[872].  He succeeded his father as Count at Lucca.  He was appointed Count of Corsica.  He was "entrusted with the defence of Corsica", and raided Africa with a fleet in 828 against the Arabs[873].  Einhard's Annales record that "Bonifacius comes", who had been granted jurisdiction over Corsica, travelled around Sardinia with "fratre Berchario nec non et aliis quibusdam comitibus de Tuscia" to Africa and arrived at "Uticam atque Kartaginem" in 828[874].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Bonifacius comes", whom the emperor had installed as "Corsicæ præfectus", captured the island of Sardinia "cum fratre Berhardo" [in 828/30][875].  The Annales Bertiniani name "Ratholdus…episcopus, Bonifacius comes, Pippinus consanguineus imperatoris" as supporters of Emperor Louis I in 834[876].  He supported Emperor Louis I in 833, was dispossessed by the emperor's son Lothar, and retired to his lands in southern France[877].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Bonifatius comes et Donatus itidem comes et Adrebaldus Flaviniacensis monasterii abbas" as missi [in 838][878]m ---.  The name of Bonifazio's wife has not yet been identified.  Bonifazio & his wife had two children: 

a)         BERARDO (-after 888).  The primary source which confirms the parentage of Berardo has not yet been identified.  Conte.  He was with his brother Adalberto in Rome in 855[879]

b)         ADALBERTO (-after 27 May 884).  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Lantbertus Witonis filius et Adalbertus Bonifacii filius" entered Rome in 878 and captured Pope John[880].  He succeeded his father as Conte at Lucca, and in 846 became ADALBERTO I Marchese of Tuscany

-        MARCHESI of TUSCANY

2.         BERARDO [Berchar] .  Einhard's Annales record that "Bonifacius comes", who had been granted jurisdiction over Corsica, travelled around Sardinia with "fratre Berchario nec non et aliis quibusdam comitibus de Tuscia" to Africa and arrived at "Uticam atque Kartaginem" in 828[881].  The Royal Frankish annals record an unnamed brother of "Count Boniface" raiding Africa with him in 828[882].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Bonifacius comes", whom the emperor had installed as "Corsicæ præfectus", captured the island of Sardinia "cum fratre Berhardo" [in 828/30][883]

3.         RICHILDA (-after 5 Oct 823).  A charter dated 5 Oct 823 confirms the election of "Richilda…abbatissa filia b. m. Bonifacio comiti natio Baivarorum" as abbess of the monastery of SS Benedetto e Scolastica at Lucca, signed by "Bonifacii comitis germanus supradicte abbatisse…"[884]

 

 

1.         RANIERI (-after 1032).  Marchese di Lucca.  The Annales Sangallenses record that Konrad II King of Germany subjugated Italy in 1032, only Lucca resisting him under "Reginhero marchione"[885]

 

 

 

E.      MARCHESI e CONTI di MANTUA

 

 

1.         ADALBERTODux.  A charter of his great-grandson "Almericus marchio et dux ex genere Francorum filius quondam item Amalrici comitis et marchionis et Franca filia bone memorie Lanfranci comes palatii jugalibus" dated 30 Jan 954 names "Adelberti ducis bisavii mei…"[886]m ---.  The name of Adalberto's wife is not known.  Adalberto & his wife had one child: 

a)         [ENGELBURGA .  It is not clear from the following charter whether it was Engelburga or her husband who was the child of dux Adalberto.  A charter of her grandson "Almericus marchio et dux ex genere Francorum filius quondam item Amalrici comitis et marchionis et Franca filia bone memorie Lanfranci comes palatii jugalibus" dated 30 Jan 954 records a donation by "pater meus bone memorie Amelricus marchio" to the monastery of S. Silvestro di Nonatula for the soul of "Ingelburge avie mee"[887]m ---.]  One child: 

i)          AMALRICOMarchese [di Mantua].  m ---.  The name of Amalrico's wife is not known.  Amalrico & his wife had one child: 

(a)       AMALRICO (-[Aug/6 Dec] 955)Marchese di Mantua.  "Almericus…Marchio de civitate Mantua…cum Franca…jugali" appointed the bishopric of Ferrara as their heirs "Basilica Santa Maria…prope flumen Adice…[in Vangadicia]" under their testament dated 18 Jul 948, subscribed by "Opertus Comes…"[888], which suggests that the couple was childless.  "Amelricus…et Francha…jugalibus" founded "Basilica Santa Maria…prope flumen Adice…[in Vangadicia]" by charter dated Aug 952[889].  "Almericus marchio et dux ex genere Francorum filius quondam item Amalrici comitis et marchionis et Franca filia bone memorie Lanfranci comes palatii jugalibus" donated property at Bagnoli to the monastery of S. Michele Arcangelo di Bronodolo by charter dated 30 Jan 954, which names "Adelberti ducis bisavii mei…", a donation by "pater meus bone memorie Amelricus marchio" to the monastery of S. Silvestro di Nonatula for the soul of "Ingelburge avie mee"[890].  "Almericus --- idemque Amelrici et Francha…iugalibus" donated property at Adigetto to the church of S. Maria di Vangadizza by charter dated Aug 955[891].  A charter dated 6 Dec 954 (probably misdated from 955) records the foundation of "Basilica Santa Maria…prope flumen Adice…[in Vangadicia]" by "Domni Almerici olim Marchionis et Franca jugales" and a donation by "Francha" for the soul of "supradicti quondam Almerici…vir meus"[892]m FRANCA, daughter of LANFRANCO & his wife --- (-after 6 Dec 955).  "Almericus…Marchio de civitate Mantua…cum Franca…jugali" appointed the bishopric of Ferrara as their heirs "Basilica Santa Maria…prope flumen Adice…[in Vangadicia]" under their testament dated 18 Jul 948, subscribed by "Opertus Comes…"[893], which suggests that the couple was childless.  "Almericus marchio et dux ex genere Francorum filius quondam item Amalrici comitis et marchionis et Franca filia bone memorie Lanfranci comes palatii jugalibus" donated property at Bagnoli to the monastery of S. Michele Arcangelo di Bronodolo by charter dated 30 Jan 954[894].  "Almericus --- idemque Amelrici et Francha…iugalibus" donated property at Adigetto to the church of S. Maria di Vangadizza by charter dated Aug 955[895].  "Francha Lanfranci et relicta…Almerici…ex natione…Langobardorum" donated property in Merlara, Altadura and Casale to the church of S. Maria di Vangadizza by charter dated 6 Dec 955[896].  A charter dated 6 Dec 954 (probably misdated from 955) records the foundation of "Basilica Santa Maria…prope flumen Adice…[in Vangadicia]" by "Domni Almerici olim Marchionis et Franca jugales" and a donation by "Francha" for the soul of "supradicti quondam Almerici…vir meus"[897]

 

 

1.         ADALBERTO ATTO, son of SIGIFREDO & his wife --- (-13 Feb after 975, bur Church of St Appollonius near Canossa[898]).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the arrival "in comitatu Lucensium" of "comes Sigifredus…cum tribus filiis…Sigifredus, Atto, Gerardus" and the building of "arcem Canosinam" by "comes Atto secundus frater" in May 915[899], although this date appears to be extremely early in light of the other known details of Atto's career.  Adelaide Queen of Italy, widow of Lothar King of Italy, took refuge in the castle of Canossa after escaping from imprisonment by Berengario d´Ivrea who installed himself as King of Italy after the death of her husband in 950.  "Atto filio quondam…Attoni de Comitatu Parmense" received money from "Adalberto qui et Atto, consobrino meo, filio quondam Aigefredi de Comitatu Lucensi" in 958[900].  Adalberto Atto offered her hand in marriage to Emperor Otto I, who obliged King Berengario to raise his siege of Canossa.  He was referred to as Count in a [958/61] document, and as Conte di Reggio e Modena in 20 Apr 962.  He was created Count of Mantua in 977[901].  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the death "Id Feb" of "Atto" and his burial "in arce Canusina"[902]

 

 

 

F.      OTHER COUNTS in TUSCANY (GHERARDESCHI)

 

 

1.         GERARDO (-after 894).  The Gesta regum Francorum names "Adalbertus fraterque eius Bonifacius, Hildibrandus quoque et Gerhardus" as the "primores itaque marchenses qui fuerunt Italici regis" in 894[903]

 

2.         GERARDO [I] [della Gherardesca] (-before 29 Oct 993).  m ---.  The name of Gerardo´s wife is not known.  Gerardo & his wife had three children: 

a)         TEUDICO (-after 29 Oct 993).  “Hugo…marchio filio Bm Humberti…marchio…et uxor mea Julitta” donated property to the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem by charter dated 29 Oct 993, subscribed by “Teudici comitis filius quondam Girardi, et Guido, Rozo comes, Venerandus vicecomes de Monte-Miare[904]

b)         GERARDO [II] (-[1004/14]).  "Gerardus comes f. Gerardi qui fuit comes et Guilla uxor" founded "monasterium s. Marie intus castrum de Serena" by charter dated 1004 at Serena[905].  "Henricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the foundation of the convent of Santa Maria at Serena by "Gerardo et Guilla uxore sua" by charter dated 1014, which refers to "ipse Gerardus bone memorie"[906]m GUILLA, daughter of --- (-after 1014).  "Gerardus comes f. Gerardi qui fuit comes et Guilla uxor" founded "monasterium s. Marie intus castrum de Serena" by charter dated 1004 at Serena[907].  "Henricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the foundation of the convent of Santa Maria at Serena by "Gerardo et Guilla uxore sua" by charter dated 1014, which refers to "ipse Gerardus bone memorie"[908]

c)         RODOLFO (-before 992).  m ---.  The name of Rodolfo´s wife is not known.  Rodolfo & his wife had one child: 

i)          TEUPERTO [Teutio] (-after 30 Mar 992).  A charter dated 30 Mar 992 refers to property of "Teuperto qui Teutio voc. f. b. m. Rodulfi comes"[909]

 

3.         RANIERI (-before 8 Jul 1028).  m ---.  The name of Rodolfo´s wife is not known.  Rodolfo & his wife had one child: 

a)         GUIDO [I] della Gherardesca (-after 8 Jul 1028).  "Uuido f. b. m. Raineri comes" reached agreement with "Raineri et Fraolmi f. b. m. Alberichi" concerning property "in loco…Camporobiani et Sordecio…et in castellione Molezana…et in comitatus et territuriis Lucense, Pisense, Voloterrense, Popoloniense, Rosellense, Clusense, Pistoriense, Florentino, Fesulense" by charter dated 8 Jul 1028[910]

 

4.         TEUDICO .  Conte.  m ---.  The name of Teudico´s wife is not known.  Teudico & his wife had two children: 

a)         GUIDO [II] della Gherardesca (-after 28 Oct 1056).  "Hugo et Teudici gg filii b. m. item Teudicii" confirmed receiving a silver seal from the bishop of Lucca, and promised help against "Widone filio b. m. Teudici qui fuit comes barbano nostro et…Adelcita filia b. m. Rainerii de Sasso…et…eorum filios…et Rainerii de filio b. m. Tegrimi, de loco de castello…Porcari…infra comitatu Rosellense", by charter dated 20 Aug 1051[911].  "Widus comes…[et] Gerardus nepos eius" donated property to "ecclesie s. Agathe prope castello de Guardistallo" by charter dated 28 Oct 1056 at Guardistallo[912]m ADALCITA, daughter of RANIERI & his wife --- (-after 20 Aug 1051).  "Hugo et Teudici gg filii b. m. item Teudicii" confirmed receiving a silver seal from the bishop of Lucca, and promised help against "Widone filio b. m. Teudici qui fuit comes barbano nostro et…Adelcita filia b. m. Rainerii de Sasso…et…eorum filios…et Rainerii de filio b. m. Tegrimi, de loco de castello…Porcari…infra comitatu Rosellense", by charter dated 20 Aug 1051[913].  Guido [II] & his wife had one child: 

i)          GUIDO [III] (-after 15 May 1069).  "Domine Beatrix uxor Domni Gottefridi Dux et Marchio…Wido comes filio b. m. item Widi qui fuit similiter comes, Ildebrandi et Alberti comitibus germani filii b. m. Morecti…" are named as present in a charter dated 8 Jul 1068 which relates to the church of Lucca[914].  "Domine Beatricis comitisse…Guidonis comitis filii b. m. --- Guidonis…" are named as present in a charter dated 11 Jul 1068 under which "domnus Anselmus [error for Alexander]…Papa et Lucensis Episcopus" appointed a proxy for the church of Lucca[915].  "Uuido comes f. qd. Uuidi comes" donated his part of "eccl. s. Marie in Passile" to "ecclesie s. Agathe prope castello de Guardistallo" by charter dated 15 May 1069 at Molezzano[916]m ---.  The name of Guido´s wife is not known.  Guido & his wife had one child: 

(a)       UGO [Ugolino] (-after 23 Jul 1109).  "Gualandus qui Maluscomes vocor f. qd. Rainerii" donated "med. de omnibus rebus meis que mihi pertinent ex patre, matre, per divisionem a Rainerio gg. meo et uxore sua Dina" to "ecclesie s. Marie Vult.", at the request of "Dina", by charter dated 23 Jul 1109 at Pava, signed by "Gualandi Malicomitis, Gualandi qd Saraceni avunculi Malicomitis, Ugolin qd Guidonis comitis…"[917]

b)         --- .  m ---.  One child: 

i)          GERARDO [III] (-after 28 Oct 1056).  "Widus comes…[et] Gerardus nepos eius" donated property to "ecclesie s. Agathe prope castello de Guardistallo" by charter dated 28 Oct 1056 at Guardistallo[918]

c)         TEUDICO (-before 20 Aug 1051).  m ---.  The name of Teudico´s wife is not known.  Teudico & his wife had two children: 

i)          UGO .  "Hugo et Teudici gg filii b. m. item Teudicii" confirmed receiving a silver seal from the bishop of Lucca, and promised help against "Widone filio b. m. Teudici qui fuit comes barbano nostro et…Adelcita filia b. m. Rainerii de Sasso…et…eorum filios…et Rainerii de filio b. m. Tegrimi, de loco de castello…Porcari…infra comitatu Rosellense", by charter dated 20 Aug 1051[919]

ii)         TEUDICO .  "Hugo et Teudici gg filii b. m. item Teudicii" confirmed receiving a silver seal from the bishop of Lucca, and promised help against "Widone filio b. m. Teudici qui fuit comes barbano nostro et…Adelcita filia b. m. Rainerii de Sasso…et…eorum filios…et Rainerii de filio b. m. Tegrimi, de loco de castello…Porcari…infra comitatu Rosellense", by charter dated 20 Aug 1051[920]

 

5.         RODOLFO (-before 4 May 1080).  m ---.  The name of Rodolfo´s wife is not known.  Rodolfo & his wife had one child: 

a)         UGO (-after 4 May 1080).  "Ugo comes filio b. m. Rodulfi qui fuit similiter comes et Juletta jugales et filia b. m. Wilelmi qui fuit marchio" made commitments regarding "castello…Suvereto" to the bishop of Lucca by charter dated 4 May 1080[921]m GIULITTA, daughter of Marchese GUGLIELMO & his wife --- (-after 4 May 1080).  "Ugo comes filio b. m. Rodulfi qui fuit similiter comes et Juletta jugales et filia b. m. Wilelmi qui fuit marchio" made commitments regarding "castello…Suvereto" to the bishop of Lucca by charter dated 4 May 1080[922].  It is not certain that "Wilelmi…marchio" in this document was the same person as Guglielmo [I] Marchese di Monferrato, but no other Marchese Guglielmo has been identified at that time. 

 

6.         MORECTO (-before 8 Jul 1068).  m ---.  The name of Morecto´s wife is not known.  Morecto & his wife had two children:

a)         ILDEBRANDO (-after 8 Jul 1068).  "Domine Beatrix uxor Domni Gottefridi Dux et Marchio…Wido comes filio b. m. item Widi qui fuit similiter comes, Ildebrandi et Alberti comitibus germani filii b. m. Morecti…" are named as present in a charter dated 8 Jul 1068 which relates to the church of Lucca[923]

b)         ALBERTO (-after 8 Jul 1068).  "Domine Beatrix uxor Domni Gottefridi Dux et Marchio…Wido comes filio b. m. item Widi qui fuit similiter comes, Ildebrandi et Alberti comitibus germani filii b. m. Morecti…" are named as present in a charter dated 8 Jul 1068 which relates to the church of Lucca[924]

 

7.         UGOm ---.  The name of Ugo´s wife is not known.  Ugo & his wife had one child:

a)         TEUDICO (-before 19 Aug 1109).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 19 Aug 1109 under which his son "Ugo comes filio b. m. Teudici comitis" donated "medietatem de duobus castellis meis…Barbialla…Scopeto…juxta fluvium…Ebula" to the bishop of Lucca, naming "Ugo comes avus meus"[925]m ---.  The name of Teudico´s wife is not known.  Teudico & his wife had one child:

i)          UGO (-after 19 Aug 1109).  "Ugo comes filio b. m. Teudici comitis" donated "medietatem de duobus castellis meis…Barbialla…Scopeto…juxta fluvium…Ebula" to the bishop of Lucca by charter dated 19 Aug 1109 which names "Ugo comes avus meus"[926]

 

8.         GUIDO (-before 2 Aug 1118).  m ---.  The name of Guido´s wife is not known.  Guido & his wife had two children: 

a)         UGO (-after 6 Jun 1102).  "Hugo et Raineri germani comites filii b. m. Guidonis qui fuit similiter comes et Jena mulier supti Hugonis et filia Gerardi" confirmed the donation of "tertiam portionem de castello…Capannole" to the church of Lucca by charter dated 6 Jun 1102[927]

b)         RANIERI (-after 21 Aug 1144).  "Hugo et Raineri germani comites filii b. m. Guidonis qui fuit similiter comes et Jena mulier supti Hugonis et filia Gerardi" confirmed the donation of "tertiam portionem de castello…Capannole" to the church of Lucca by charter dated 6 Jun 1102[928].  "Rainerius comes filius b. m. Guidi" donated "castello de…Rio Cavo" to the bishop of Lucca by charter dated 2 Aug 1118[929].  "Rainerius comes qd Guidi filius" donated "castrum de Colcarelli" to the bishop of Lucca by charter dated 21 Aug 1144 "in Valle Arni in loco…Paltignano"[930]

 

 

9.         UGO (-before 2 Mar 1106).  m ---.  The name of Ugo´s wife is not known.  Ugo & his wife had one child: 

a)         UGO (-after 1 Feb 1109).  "Ugo comes f. b. m. Ugonis et Cicilia iugalis f. Arduini" donated property to "eccl. s. Marie in Morrone ubi Gerardus residet" by charter dated 2 Mar 1106 at "Riparota territurio Voluterano", signed by "Ugo f Gerardi…"[931].  "Ugo comes f. b. m. Ugicionis comitis" donated property "in villa Negotiana…voc. Collina…" to "monasterio s. Marie de Morrona" by charter dated 19 Feb 1107 at Pescia[932].  "Ugo comes f. qd. Uguicionis comitis" sold "medietatem mee portionis de caste[llo et curte de Morro]na" to "ecclesie [s. Marie], s. Benedicti prope Morrona" by charter dated 1 Feb 1109 at Puliciano, signed by "Gerardi f. qd Ugonis, Rogerii f. Iohannis, Ugonis f. istius Gerardi"[933].  A charter dated 26 Jan 1115 records the last wishes of "Ugo comes f. qd. Ugonis…comitis" and the sale of his property "in ep. Volit. in castris Catignano…Riparotta, Arsicile, Cambasi…" to the bishop of Volterra[934].  m CECILIA, daughter of ARDOINO & his wife --- (-after 2 Mar 1106).  "Ugo comes f. b. m. Ugonis et Cicilia iugalis f. Arduini" donated property to "eccl. s. Marie in Morrone ubi Gerardus residet" by charter dated 2 Mar 1106 at "Riparota territurio Voluterano"[935]

 

 

 

G.      OTHER COUNTS in TUSCANY

 

 

1.         AMEDEO (-after 4 Mar 897).  "Lanbertus…imperator augustus" confirmed property of the church of Piacenza at the request of "Sigifredus et Amadeus…comites" by charter dated Feb 895[936].  A charter dated 4 Mar 897 records a hearing in Florence before "Amedeus comes palatii…cum Adelberto Marchio…Teuditus vicecomes ipsius civitate" regarding a claim concerning the church of Lucca[937]

 

2.         ARDINGO (-before 19 Apr 1073).  m ---.  The name of Ardingo´s wife is not known.  Ardingo & his wife had one child: 

a)         BERNARDO (-after 19 Apr 1073).  A charter dated 19 Apr 1073 "in comitato Arretino in villa…Atagerra" records a judgment in the presence of "Ildebrando comes filius quondam item Ildibrandi et Raineri et Ugicione germanis filii predicti Eldi Ildibrandi comes…", involving "Willa comitissa relita bone memorie Rainieri et filia quondam item Rainieri cum filiis suis…Bernardo comes fillius quondam Ardingi…comes et Ugo filius quondam Supi tutori eorum"[938]

 

3.         ALLODux.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the possessions of the convent of St Salvator and St Julia at Brescia by charter dated 9 Nov 1085, including the monastery at Lucca built by "Allo dux"[939].  No indication has been found of the date of this construction and hence when Allo was alive. 

 

4.         CORRADOm ERMENGARDA, daughter of ---.  Corrado & his wife had one child: 

a)         CADOLO (-before Aug 982).  Stasser states that he is named as count in 953[940].  A charter of Emperor Otto I confirmed the privileges of the Bishop of Reggio by charter dated 9 Aug 964, in the presence of "Otberto marchio et comes palacii…[Rampr]andus, [Adelbertus Rai]nerius, Rodulfus, Bernardus, Cadu[lus Arn]ulfo comitibus…"[941]m firstly BERTA, daughter of ---.  m secondly ([953/64]) GEMMA, daughter of --- (-after Oct 1006).  Gemma, widow of Cadolo, is named in a charter dated Aug 982[942].  Stasser suggests that she was Gemma di Capua, was the daughter of Landulf IV Prince of Capua and Benevento & his wife ---[943].  Cadolo & his second wife had three children: 

i)          LOTARIO (-after 1028).  m (before 996) ADELASIA, daughter of GUGLIELMO & his wife --- (-after 1027).  She is named as wife of Lotario by Stasser who states that she was named in documents dated 996 and 1027[944].  Lotario & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GUGLIELMO "Bulgarello" (-after 1060).  "Wiglielmo comes qui Bulgarello vocatur filio bone memorie Lotharii…comes" returned property to the bishop of Volterra by charter dated 1060[945]

ii)         WILLA (-after Nov 988).  Stasser states that she is named in a charter dated Nov 988 and that her husband was probably from the Ardenghesci family[946]m Conte RAINIERI, son of ---. 

iii)        GEMMA (-after 1016).  "Gemma comitissa f. qd. Cadalo" donated property "sito Biblena in casale Valle" to Camaldoli by charter dated May 1016[947]m ---. 

 

5.         ERIPRANDO (-before 9 Oct 862).  m ---.  The name of Ildebrando´s wife is not known.  Ildeprando & his wife had two children: 

a)         ILDEBRANDO (-after 3 Feb 899).  "Hildeprandus…comes filio b. m Heriprandi" exchanged property with "Hieremias…Sancte Lucan ecclesie…episcopus germano meo" by charter dated 9 Oct 862[948].  "Ildebrando…comes filio b. m Eribrandi" donated property "in loco Regio" to the church of Lucca by charter dated 3 Sep 879[949].  The Gesta regum Francorum names "Adalbertus fraterque eius Bonifacius, Hildibrandus quoque et Gerhardus" as the "primores itaque marchenses qui fuerunt Italici regis" in 894[950].  A charter dated 3 Feb 899 records an exchange of property with the bishop of Lucca next to "terra Ildeprandis comitis"[951]

b)         GEREMIA (-after 9 Oct 862).  Bishop of Lucca.  "Hildeprandus…comes filio b. m Heriprandi" exchanged property with "Hieremias…Sancte Lucan ecclesie…episcopus germano meo" by charter dated 9 Oct 862[952]

 

6.         GUIDO (-before 1 May 1158).  m ---.  The name of Guido´s wife is not known.  Guido & his wife had one child: 

a)         GUIDOMarchese.  "Wido marchio filio gd. Guidonis marchionis" donated property "de Oliveto…in ripa castri de Lonçano…per Ildebrandinum vicecomitem meum" to San Apollinare Nuovo by charter dated 1 May 1158[953]

 

7.         PACHLEURANDOm ---.  The name of Pachleurando´s wife is not known.  Pachleurando & his wife had one child: 

a)         SOPHIA (-after 4 Jul 1034).  "Adelbertus Comes filius quondam Uberti…Comes et Suphia jugalibus, filia Pachleurandi…Comes" and "Idemque Suphia…cum Domni Widoni…Comitatu Plumbiense" exchanged property with the abbot of Nonantolo by charter dated 4 Jul 1034[954]m ADALBERTO, son of OBERTO Conte & his wife --- (-after 4 Jul 1034). 

 

8.         RANIERI (-before 19 Apr 1073).  m ---.  The name of Ranieri´s wife is not known.  Ranieri & his wife had one child: 

a)         WILLA (-after 19 Apr 1073).  A charter dated 19 Apr 1073 "in comitato Arretino in villa…Atagerra" records a judgment in the presence of "Ildebrando comes filius quondam item Ildibrandi et Raineri et Ugicione germanis filii predicti Eldi Ildibrandi comes…", involving "Willa comitissa relita bone memorie Rainieri et filia quondam item Rainieri cum filiis suis…Bernardo comes fillius quondam Ardingi…comes et Ugo filius quondam Supi tutori eorum"[955]m RANIERI, son of --- (-before 19 Apr 1073). 

 

9.         RANIERI (-before 19 Apr 1073)m WILLA, daughter of RANIERI & his wife --- (-after 19 Apr 1073).  A charter dated 19 Apr 1073 "in comitato Arretino in villa…Atagerra" records a judgment in the presence of "Ildebrando comes filius quondam item Ildibrandi et Raineri et Ugicione germanis filii predicti Eldi Ildibrandi comes…", involving "Willa comitissa relita bone memorie Rainieri et filia quondam item Rainieri cum filiis suis…Bernardo comes fillius quondam Ardingi…comes et Ugo filius quondam Supi tutori eorum"[956]

 

10.      RODOLFO [I] Aldobrandeschi .  This family has been studied by Rossetti[957]m ---.  The name of Rodolfo´s wife is not known.  Rodolfo [I] & his wife had one child: 

a)         RODOLFO [II] Aldobrandeschi (-before 988)m WILLA di Capua, daughter of LANDOLF IV Prince of Capua and Benevento & his wife [Maria di Gaeta/Euanthia ---] (-after Oct 1007).  "Guillia filia bone memorie Landulfi et relicta bone memorie Rodolfi comes" donated property by charter dated Aug 988[958].  "Guillia filia bone memorie Landulfi que fuit princeps Beneventanorum" donated property by charter dated Oct 1007[959].  Rodolfo [II] & his wife had three children: 

i)          RANIERI

ii)         ILDEBRANDO

iii)        BERTA (-after Sep 1001).  m TEUDICO Conte dei´Gherardeschi, son of --- (-before Sep 1001). 

 

11.      ROZO (-after 29 Oct 993).  “Hugo…marchio filio Bm Humberti…marchio…et uxor mea Julitta” donated property to the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem by charter dated 29 Oct 993, subscribed by “Teudici comitis filius quondam Girardi, et Guido, Rozo comes, Venerandus vicecomes de Monte-Miare[960]

 

12.      UBERTOm ---.  The name of Uberto´s wife is not known.  Uberto & his wife had three children: 

a)         BONIFAZIO .  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1147 which records a dispute relating to "curtem de Cereta", granted by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany to "comitisse Richilde, filie Alberti tercii, uxoris comitis Bonifacii et matris marchionis Alberti" who died without heirs, and was claimed by "quidam comites, abiatici comitis quondam Uberti et sobrini predicti marchionis Alberti", the document naming "Enricum comitum filium ipsius Uberti comitis…Bonifacii comitis fratris sui…"[961]m RICHILDA, daughter of ALBERTO & his wife ---.  A charter dated 1147 records a dispute relating to "curtem de Cereta", granted by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany to "comitisse Richilde, filie Alberti tercii, uxoris comitis Bonifacii et matris marchionis Alberti"[962].  Bonifazio & his wife had two children: 

i)          ALBERTO (-before 1147).  Marchese.  A charter dated 1147 records a dispute relating to "curtem de Cereta", granted by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany to "comitisse Richilde, filie Alberti tercii, uxoris comitis Bonifacii et matris marchionis Alberti" who died without heirs, claimed by "quidam comites, abiatici comitis quondam Uberti et sobrini predicti marchionis Alberti"[963].  Marchese. 

b)         ENRICO .  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1147 which records a dispute relating to "curtem de Cereta", granted by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany to "comitisse Richilde, filie Alberti tercii, uxoris comitis Bonifacii et matris marchionis Alberti" who died without heirs, and was claimed by "quidam comites, abiatici comitis quondam Uberti et sobrini predicti marchionis Alberti", the document naming "Enricum comitum filium ipsius Uberti comitis…Bonifacii comitis fratris sui…"[964]

c)         --- .  His/her parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1147 which records a dispute relating to "curtem de Cereta", granted by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany to "comitisse Richilde, filie Alberti tercii, uxoris comitis Bonifacii et matris marchionis Alberti" who died without heirs, and was claimed by "quidam comites, abiatici comitis quondam Uberti et sobrini predicti marchionis Alberti", the document naming "Enricum comitum filium ipsius Uberti comitis…Bonifacii comitis fratris sui…"[965]m ---.  Children: 

i)          --- . 

 

13.      UGO (-before 1081).  m ---.  The name of Ugo's wife is not known.  Ugo & his wife had one child:

a)         GERARDO (-after 3 Dec 1081).  "Heinricus…rex" confirmed the rights of Parma cathedral by charter dated 3 Dec 1081, among those listed as present being "Albertus marchio filius quondam Auberti marchionis, Boso comes, Gerardo filio quondam Ugonis comitis, Uberto comes de Suspiro"[966]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    COUNTIES and FAMILIES in VENETO

 

 

The present-day Italian region of Veneto lies in north-eastern Italy, to the east of the region of Lombardia.  In addition to the counties shown below, Belluno, Ceneala, Garda, and Saccisica have been identified as medieval counties in the Veneto region but no information has so far been found concerning their counts.  The Doges of Venice are set out in the separate document VENICE. 

 

 

 

A.      MARCHESI d'ESTE

 

 

The Este family, having owned land throughout north and central Italy from the 10th century, established their residence at Este in the Padovano in the second half of the 12th century.  The family took over the interests of the Adelardi in Ferrara on the extinction of the latter.  They acquired Modena and Reggio in Emilia.  By 1500, its lands in Este itself had been surrendered to Venice[967].  As their descendants were so numerous, they are shown in the separate document MODENA, FERRARA. 

 

 

1.         ALBERTO AZZO [II], son of ALBERTO Azzo [I] Conte di Luni & his wife --- ([996]-Vangadizza monastery 1097, after 13 Apr).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  "Oldericus Maginfredus marchio f. quondam…Maginfredi marchionis et Berta comitissa jugales filia q. Obberti marchionis" sold property "in comitatu Parmensi, Placensiensi, Ticinensi, Tortonensi, Vercellensi, Aquensi, Astensi, Eporediensi, Torinensi, Oradiensi, Albensi, Avigenensi, Aberganensi, Vigintimiliensi" to "Sigifredo presbitero filio q. Adelgisi", with "notitia propinquorum parentum suorum, id est Adalberti marchionis germani sui et Alberti infantis nepotis sui", by charter dated 6 Jun 1021[968].  He succeeded his father as Conte di LuniMarchese.  "Albertus qui Azo marchio vocatur…professus…lege Langobardorum" donated property "in comitatu Patavensis" to the monastery of Santa Maria in Vangadizza "in comitato Vicentino adque in comitato Patavino" to "Gaxdia puella…filia et germana nostra" by charter dated 26 Sep 1075[969]

-        MARCHESI d'ESTE

 

 

 

B.      CONTI di PADOVA e VICENZA

 

 

1.         WOLFRAM (-after 3 Nov 1001).  Conte di Padova e VicenzaA charter dated 3 Nov 1001 records a judgment relating to a grant by Emperor Otto III to "Vuerihen comiti" in a session at which "Fulco comes, Egelre comes, Lanfrancus comes, comites Vicentino atque Patavino Uualferam et Ceisulf comitibus…" were present[970]

 

2.         CEISULF (-after 3 Nov 1001).  Conte di Padova e VicenzaA charter dated 3 Nov 1001 records a judgment relating to a grant by Emperor Otto III to "Vuerihen comiti" in a session at which "Fulco comes, Egelre comes, Lanfrancus comes, comites Vicentino atque Patavino Uualferam et Ceisulf comitibus…" were present[971]

 

3.         TODELLO (-after May 1013).  Conte di PadovaA charter dated May 1013 records a decision "in iudicio…domnus Azo et Ugo germani marchiones et Thodello commes istius comitatus Pataviensis" relating to the ownership of property in Petriolo, signed by "Adelbertus qui Azo…Ugo marchio…"[972]

 

 

1.         UGO (-before 25 Jan 1015).  Conte di Padova e Vicenzam IMMILIA, daughter of --- (-after 25 Jan 1015).  "Inmilia erelicta quondam Ugonis comitis et Ubertus comis et Mainfridus filius quondam Ugo…comitis germanis filiis et mundoaldis meis…ex nacio…Longobardorum" donated property "in comitatu Tervisiano…in isola…Fogolana" to "Inmilda…filia mea et coniux Dominici filius quondam Petroni duci de finibus Veneciarum" by charter dated 25 Jan 1015[973].  Ugo & his wife had three children: 

a)         UBERTO (-after Mar 1016).  Conte di Padova e Vicenza.  "Inmilia erelicta quondam Ugonis comitis et Ubertus comis et Mainfridus filius quondam Ugo…comitis germanis filiis et mundoaldis meis…ex nacio…Longobardorum" donated property "in comitatu Tervisiano…in isola…Fogolana" to "Inmilda…filia mea et coniux Dominici filius quondam Petroni duci de finibus Veneciarum" by charter dated 25 Jan 1015[974].  "Ubertus comes et Mainfredus germani filii quondam Ugonis comitis de comitatu Vicentino atque Patavino…ex nacione…Longobardorum habitatores in Castro novo" donated property in Valle di S. Martino to the monastery of S. Zaccaria di Venezia by charter dated Mar 1016[975]

b)         MANFREDO (-after 14 Aug 1069).  "Inmilia erelicta quondam Ugonis comitis et Ubertus comis et Mainfridus filius quondam Ugo…comitis germanis filiis et mundoaldis meis…ex nacio…Longobardorum" donated property "in comitatu Tervisiano…in isola…Fogolana" to "Inmilda…filia mea et coniux Dominici filius quondam Petroni duci de finibus Veneciarum" by charter dated 25 Jan 1015[976].  "Ubertus comes et Mainfredus germani filii quondam Ugonis comitis de comitatu Vicentino atque Patavino…ex nacione…Longobardorum habitatores in Castro novo" donated property in Valle di S. Martino to the monastery of S. Zaccaria di Venezia by charter dated Mar 1016[977]

i)          [UGO (-before 14 Aug 1069).  It is assumed from the charter quoted below that Ugo, father of Alberto, was the son of Manfredo.  This appears consistent with the chronology of the documentation relating to this family, although the word nepos could presumably be interpreted in this document as indicating a more remote relationship than grandson.]  m ---.  The name of Ugo´s wife is not known.  Ugo & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ALBERTO .  "Albertus comes filius q. Ugoni et nepos Manfredi comes…ex natione…Longobardorum" donated property in Concadalbero to the monastery of S. Michele arcangelo near Adige by charter dated 14 Aug 1069[978]

c)         IMMILIA .  "Inmilia erelicta quondam Ugonis comitis et Ubertus comis et Mainfridus filius quondam Ugo…comitis germanis filiis et mundoaldis meis…ex nacio…Longobardorum" donated property "in comitatu Tervisiano…in isola…Fogolana" to "Inmilda…filia mea et coniux Dominici filius quondam Petroni duci de finibus Veneciarum" by charter dated 25 Jan 1015[979].  Her second marriage is confirmed by the charter dated Dec 1061 under which her daughter "Entesema filia Dominici Ursoyoli uxor Dominici Roso" granted property at Conche and Chioggia inherited from "Melda mater mea filia quondam Ungoni comes uxor Artuycho" to "Petro Ursoyolo fratri meo"[980]m firstly (before 25 Jan 1015) DOMENICO Orseolo, son of PIETRO Orseolo Doge of Venice & his wife Maria --- (-after 1032).  m secondly ARDUCCIO, son of ---. 

 

 

2.         UBERTO (-after 8 Nov 1066).  Conte di VicenzaA charter dated 8 Nov 1066 records a judgment in the court of "domnus Hubertus comes…comitatu Vicentino et Wiperto comes et missus domni Bertaldi duci"[981]

 

 

 

C.      CONTI di TREVISO

 

 

1.         RAMBALDO [I] (-after 11 Aug 1038).  Conte di Treviso.  "Otto…rex" granted property "in comitatu Tarvisino…Caubio, Resiano, Tu---, Anzado, Fouene, Seurano" as founder of "cœnobio Burghurst" to "Raimbaldus comes Tarvisii" [Treviso] by an undated charter, placed in the compilation among other charters dated 991[982].  "Otto…rex" gave property "in vico autem qui Mons calvus dicitur…iuxta fluvium Glauram" and other properties to "Reginbaldum nostrum honorabilem" by charter dated 14 Nov 994[983].  "Otto tercius…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the property rights of "Raimbaldo nostro fideli Tarvisiensi comiti" by charter dated 1000[984].  "Raimbaldus comes…comitatu Tervisianense…cum eo Walpertus Wyllelmus commitibus" are named in a charter dated 18 Jan 1017 under which "Adelpeyro dux istius marchia Carentanorum" confirmed the property of the monastery of S. Zaccaria di Venezia[985].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the rights of Kloster San Zeno at Verona in property donated by "Ragimbaldus comes et Iohannes nepos eius" by charter dated 6 Dec 1021, naming among those present "Ugo marchio, Lanfrancus, Bernardus, Tado comitibus"[986].  "Chonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" gave judgment in a claim by "Adalpero dux de Carinthia…cum comite Wecellino advocato suo" relating to the church of Aquileja by charter dated 19 May 1027, which names as present "Ugo marchio, Agizardus comes et Popo comes et Arduinus comes, Megenardus comes, Orckcerio comes, Ioannes comes, Magifredus comes et Regimboldus comes"[987].  "Advihc comitissam relictam…bone memorie Ingelperti comitis et Ingelpertum comitem filium ipsorum Ingelperti comitis Tervisii" sold land at Fossolovara, Fiesso, Perarolo and Peraga to the monastery of S. Ilario by charter dated 6 Oct 1028, signed by "Henrici ducis, comitis Rambaldi, comitis Alberti filii Valfredi, comitis Ugonis filii Manfredi de Montebello…"[988].  "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the rights and property of "quatinus Raimbaldo nostro fideli Taruisionensis comiti eiusque filiis Raimbaldo et Iohanni" by charter dated 11 Aug 1038[989]m ---.  The identity of Rambaldo's wife has not yet been identified.  Raimbaldo & his wife had two children: 

a)         RAMBALDO [II] (-after 31 Jul 1081).  "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the rights and property of "quatinus Raimbaldo nostro fideli Taruisionensis comiti eiusque filiis Raimbaldo et Iohanni" by charter dated 11 Aug 1038[990]Conte di Treviso.  "Heinricus quartus…rex" confirmed "Ragimbaldo Tarvisiensi comiti nostro" in possession of the counties of "Tarvisiensi, Pataviensi, Vicentino, Cenetensi" by charter dated 1077[991].  It is possible that this refers to the son of Count Raimbaldo [I].  However, the fifty year time gap since the last reference to the latter suggests that the 1077 reference may have been to his grandson.  "Rambaldus Comes, filius Rambaldi Comitis de Civitate Tarvisii et Magthilda filia Burgundi Marchionis, conjugales" donated property to "monasterio ecclesie sancti Eustachii…in…Montelli…Narvisia" by charter dated 31 Jul 1081[992]m MATILDA, daughter of Marchese BURGUNDO & his wife --- (-after 31 Jul 1081).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated 31 Jul 1081 under which "Rambaldus Comes, filius Rambaldi Comitis de Civitate Tarvisii et Magthilda filia Burgundi Marchionis, conjugales" donated property to "monasterio ecclesie sancti Eustachii…in…Montelli…Narvisia"[993].  Rambaldo [II] & his wife had one child: 

i)          MATILDA (-after [1098]).  "Matilda Comitissa, filia quondam Regibaldi Comitis de Comitatu Tervisi, et conius Uchoni Comitis" confirmed a donation to "monasterio Sancti Prosperi…extra civitate Regi" by charter dated 10 Dec 1091, subscribed by "Ucho Comes"[994].  Boso Archbishop of Parma and "Albertus Comes et Ubertus frater eius, Comes quoque Walfredus et Berta uxor eius et Ermengarda neptis eorum, Matilda…coniux bone memorie Ugonis comitis et filii eorum" donated property to the monastery of San Prospero by charter dated to [1098], signed by "Berta coniux Gualfredi, Albertus filius eius"[995]m UGO, son of UGO Conte di Bologna & his wife Willa --- (-[10 Dec 1091/1098]). 

b)         GIOVANNI (-after 11 Aug 1038).  "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the rights and property of "quatinus Raimbaldo nostro fideli Taruisionensis comiti eiusque filiis Raimbaldo et Iohanni" by charter dated 11 Aug 1038[996]

 

 

1.         ENGELBERT (-before 1028).  Conte di Trevisom HEDWIG, daughter of --- (-after 6 Oct 1028).  "Advihc comitissam relictam…bone memorie Ingelperti comitis et Ingelpertum comitem filium ipsorum Ingelperti comitis Tervisii" sold land at Fossolovara, Fiesso, Perarolo and Peraga to the monastery of S. Ilario by charter dated 6 Oct 1028, signed by "Henrici ducis, comitis Rambaldi, comitis Alberti filii Valfredi, comitis Ugonis filii Manfredi de Montebello…"[997].  Engelbert & his wife had one child: 

a)         ENGELBERT .  "Advihc comitissam relictam…bone memorie Ingelperti comitis et Ingelpertum comitem filium ipsorum Ingelperti comitis Tervisii" sold land at Fossolovara, Fiesso, Perarolo and Peraga to the monastery of S. Ilario by charter dated 6 Oct 1028[998]

 

 

 

D.      CONTI di VERONA

 

 

1.         ADEMARO (-after Apr 806).  Conte di Verona"Ademari comes et Rataldus episcopus" confirmed possessions of the abbot of San Zeno "finibus Veronensis" by charter dated Apr 806[999]

 

2.         BERNARDO (-after 856).  Conte di VeronaA charter dated 856 records a dispute involving "Bernardi Comiti…[et] Adelburga coniunge mea" relating to a dispute concerning property in Verona[1000]m ADELBURGA, daughter of ---.  A charter dated 856 records a dispute involving "Bernardi Comiti…[et] Adelburga coniunge mea" relating to a dispute concerning property in Verona[1001]

 

3.         WALDOm ---.  The name of Waldo´s wife is not known.  Waldo & his wife had one child: 

a)         ANSELMO (-[28 Oct 911/Apr 913]).  Conte di Verona.  "Berengarius rex" confirmed donations to the monastery of S. Zeno of property "in civitate Verona" by "Anselmo comite" and by "Ingelfredo", by charter dated 23 Aug 901[1002].  "Berengarius…rex" donated "terrolam…infra civitatem Gardensem…Veronensi comitatu" to the church of S. Zeno, at the request of "Anselmum…comitem", by charter dated 4 Apr 904[1003].  Berengario I King of Italy "conjugis nostreque regni consortis Berchtile" granted property "in comitatu Veronense" to "Anselmo…comite nostroque compatre et consiliario" by charter dated 26 Jul 910[1004].  "Anselmus Comes Comitatu Veronense" bequeathed all his property to the monastery of Nonantula "in comitatu Motinense", stating that he was childless, by testament dated Dec 910, subscribed by "Helie vicecomitis et alius Helie nepotis eius et Bernardi item nepotis eius ex Francorum genere…"[1005].  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Sep 911 under which "Anselmus…Comes Comitatu Veronense et filius bone memorie Waldoriensis Francorum genere" donated property to the monastery of Nonantula "in comitatu Motinense"[1006].  "Berengarius rex" confirmed the donation to the monastery of Nonantola by "Anselmus comes Veronensis", by charter dated 28 Oct 911[1007].  A charter dated Apr 913 records a judgment at Verona, "ad casa qui fuit bone memorie Vualfredi comiti", in the presence of "Berengarius…rex…Ingelfredus comes ipsius comitatu…cum Odelricus vassus…" relating to the castle of Nogara, donated to the monastery of Nonatola by "quondam Anselmus comes" 31 Aug 908[1008].  A charter dated Jan 918 records the presence of "Berengarius…imperator augustus…Odelricus…marchio et missus domni imperatoris…Ingelfredus comes istius comitatu…Grimaldus et Tiso comitibus…" at a hearing in Verona relating to the property of the monastery of Nonantola and quotes a document which names "domnus Anselmus comes comitatu Veronensis et filius bone memorie Vualdoni ex genere Francorum"[1009]

 

4.         GRIMOALDO (-before 914).  m ---.  The name of Grimoaldo´s wife is not known.  Grimoaldo & his wife had [three] children:

a)         INGELFREDO (-after Jan 918).  "Berengarius rex" confirmed possessions of the bishop of Mantua, at the request of "Ingelfredum comitem", by charter dated 21 Nov 894[1010].  "Berengarius rex" confirmed donations to the monastery of S. Zeno of property "in civitate Verona" by "Anselmo comite" and by "Ingelfredo", by charter dated 23 Aug 901[1011].  "Berengarius rex" permitted the bishop of Reggio-Emilia to build a castle at Vicolongo, at the request of "Ingelfredum…fidelem nostrum", by charter dated 911[1012].  A charter dated Apr 913 records a judgment at Verona, "ad casa qui fuit bone memorie Vualfredi comiti", in the presence of "Berengarius…rex…Ingelfredus comes ipsius comitatu…cum Odelricus vassus…" relating to the castle of Nogara, donated to the monastery of Nonatola by "quondam Anselmus comes" 31 Aug 908[1013]Conte di Verona.  "Ingelfredus…comes comitatu Veronense et filius bone memorie Grimaldo ex Alemannorum genere…et Aitengo filio meo" donated property to the monastery of S. Zaccaria at Venice by charter dated 914[1014].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" granted property "curtem…Girpa…cum capella…de comitatu Veronensi" to "Ingelfredo…comiti", at the request of "Grimaldum…comitem…et Oldelricum…marchionem", by charter dated 916[1015].  A charter dated Jan 918 records the presence of "Berengarius…imperator augustus…Odelricus…marchio et missus domni imperatoris…Ingelfredus comes istius comitatu…Grimaldus et Tiso comitibus…" at a hearing in Verona relating to the property of the monastery of Nonantola and quotes a document which names "domnus Anselmus comes comitatu Veronensis et filius bone memorie Vualdoni ex genere Francorum"[1016]m ---.  The name of Ingelfredo´s wife is not known.  Ingelfredo & his wife had one child: 

i)          AITENGO .  "Ingelfredus…comes comitatu Veronense et filius bone memorie Grimaldo ex Alemannorum genere…et Aitengo filio meo" donated property to the monastery of S. Zaccaria at Venice by charter dated 914[1017]

ii)         [ROTPERTA .  The necrology of Brixen records that "Grimoaldus comes tradidit filias suas Rotperta et Regimberga"[1018].  Nun at Brixen.] 

iii)        [REGIMBERGA .  The necrology of Brixen records that "Grimoaldus comes tradidit filias suas Rotperta et Regimberga"[1019].  Nun at Brixen.] 

 

5.         GANDOLFO (-after 978).  Conte di Verona"Gandulfus Comes Veronensis" subscribed a charter dated 978 under which the bishop of Pavia confirmed the church´s properties[1020]

 

6.         UBERTO (-[9 May 1072/28 Mar 1076]).  Conte di Verona"Ubertus comes de comitatu Veronensi…" witnessed the charter of the bishop of Vicenza dated 1068[1021].  "Uberto comes et Ugo filio eius…ex nacione…Langobardorum" donated property at Fontanafredda, Valnogaredo, Zovone and Pernumia "in comitato Vicentino adque in comitato Patavino" to "Gaxdia puella…filia et germana nostra" by charter dated 9 May 1072[1022]m ---.  The name of Ugo´s wife is not known.  Ugo & his wife had three children: 

a)         UGO [Ugozino] .  "Uberto comes et Ugo filio eius…ex nacione…Langobardorum" donated property at Fontanafredda, Valnogaredo, Zovone and Pernumia "in comitato Vicentino adque in comitato Patavino" to "Gaxdia puella…filia et germana nostra" by charter dated 9 May 1072[1023].  "Ugicion comes comitatu Vicentino et filii quondam Uberti…comite" sold property "in comitato Vicencie…et in comitatu Patavensi" to "Uberti clirico sancte sedis Vicentine ecclesie germano meo" by charter dated 28 Mar 1076[1024]

b)         GASDIA .  "Uberto comes et Ugo filio eius…ex nacione…Langobardorum" donated property at Fontanafredda, Valnogaredo, Zovone and Pernumia "in comitato Vicentino adque in comitato Patavino" to "Gaxdia puella…filia et germana nostra" by charter dated 9 May 1072[1025]

c)         UBERTO .  "Ugicion comes comitatu Vicentino et filii quondam Uberti…comite" sold property "in comitato Vicencie…et in comitatu Patavensi" to "Uberti clirico sancte sedis Vicentine ecclesie germano meo" by charter dated 28 Mar 1076[1026]

 

7.         BONIFAZIO (-after 10 Oct 1073).  Conte di Verona.  "Dominus Bonefacius Comes…Comitatus Veronensis" passed judgment by charter dated 10 Oct 1073 confirming a grant of property "Episcopo sancte Motinensis Ecclesie" at the court of "Domni Ottoni Comiti Palacii et Comes istius Comitatu Ticinensi"[1027]

 

 

 

E.      MARCHESI di VERONA

 

 

The influence of the dukes of Carinthia was strong in the Veneto region of north-eastern Italy in the 11th century.  It is uncertain how much of the territory actually formed part of the duchy.  The March of Verona is first referred to in 1047. 

 

 

1.         WELF [III], son of WELF [II] Graf von Altdorf [Welf] & his wife Irmtrud [Imiza] im Moselgau [Wigeriche] (-Burg Bodman 13 Nov 1055).  The Historia Welforum names "filiam Chunizam…et filium…Guelfum" as the children of "Guelfo…Roudolfi filius", specifying that Welf acquired "ducatum Carinthiorum et marchiam Veronensem"[1028].  He was installed as WELF I Duke of Carinthia and Marchese di Verona in 1047.  He conspired with Konrad de Luxembourg Duke of Bavaria to depose Emperor Heinrich III King of Germany.  The plot was discovered and Welf was deposed as Duke of Carinthia in 1055[1029]

 

 

1.         BERTHOLD, son of BEZZELIN von Villingen Graf in der Ortenau [Zähringen] & his wife [Liutgard ---] (-Limburg 5/6 Nov 1078, bur Hirsau).  The Genealogia Zaringorum names "Berchtoldus Cum-barba" as son of "Bezelinus comes", specifying that he was buried at Hirsau[1030].  He was promised the duchy of Swabia by the emperor.  He was installed in 1061 as BERTHOLD I "the Bearded" Duke of Carinthia.  The Annales of Berthold record that "Berhtoldus comes Suevigena" was appointed Duke of Carinthia in 1061 after the death of "Chounradus…Carantanis ducis"[1031].  He never obtained actual possession of the duchy[1032], and was deposed in 1077.  The Casus Monasterii Petrihusensis records that "Bertolfum quoque de Zaringin" was deprived of the dukedom of Carinthia which was given to "Liutoldo Genuensi"[1033]Marchese di Verona 1066.  Graf im Breisgau until 1077.  He founded Kloster Weilheim unter Teck before 1073.  He was one of the principal adversaries of Emperor Heinrich IV in the investiture dispute[1034]

a)         HERMANN ([1045/48]-Cluny 26 Apr 1074).  The Genealogia Zaringorum names "Berchtoldus" as son of "Berchtoldus Cum-barba", and "Hermannus" as brother of "Berchtoldus [et] Gebehardo", specifying that Hermann was appointed "in marchionem" but abandoned his post to become a monk at Cluny[1035].  Wegener cites a charter dated 1050 witnessed by Hermann and his father[1036].  Graf von Limburg bei Weilheim 1064.  Graf im Breisgau.  He was installed as Marchese di Verona.  "Hesso" placed property "in pago Brisgoacensi sive Archaim...in manum Hermanni marchionis marchie Veronensis" to donate “capellam...Rimesengen” to Cluny by charter dated to 1072 or before[1037].  The Annals of Berthold record that "Herimannus marchio, filius ducis Bertholdi, adolescens adhuc" left all his possessions, his wife and only son in 1073 to become a monk at Cluny[1038].  The Chronicon of Bernold records the death "1074 VII Kal Mai" of "Heremannus marchio, filius Bertaldi ducis", commenting that "adhuc adolescens" he had left his wife and only son to become a monk at Cluny[1039]

-        SWABIAN NOBILITY

b)         other children: see SWABIAN NOBILITY

 

 

1.         LIUTOLD of Carinthia, son of MARKWARD [IV] von Eppenstein & his wife Liutbirg --- (-12 May 1090).  The Casuum Sancti Galli names "domino Marcuardo et filio suo Lutoldo duce" when recording that King Heinrich IV appointed the latter as duke of Carinthia in 1077[1040].  He was installed as LIUTOLD Duke of Carinthia in 1077.  "Heinricus…rex" granted property "villam unam Lunzanicham…quod Ludovicus comes habebat" to the church of Aquileia at the request of "ducis etiam Liutoldi, marchionum quoque Wilielmi…Sigehardi patriarche comitatum Fori Iulii" by charter dated 1077[1041].  "Heinricus…rex" granted "comitatum Histrie" and "marchiam Carniole" to the church of Aquileia at the request of "ducibus autem Writizlao Boemie ac Liudolfo Carintie, Cuonone quoque palatino comite et Tieboldo marchione" by two charters dated 11 Jun 1077[1042]Marchese of Verona 1078.  "Domnus Liuctaldus dux" confirmed the possessions of the monastery of S. Pietro di Vicenza by charter dated 12 May 1078[1043].  "Dux Liutoldus" donated property to Brixen by charter dated to [1085/90][1044].  "Domnus Liutaldo dux" confirmed that the bishop of Padua owned certain property by charter dated 13 Oct 1079[1045].  The Bernoldi Chronicon records the death of "Liutoldus dux Carinthiorum inopinata" and referring to his repudiation of his wife to marry another[1046].  The necrology of St Lambert records the death "IV Id May" of "Liutoldus dux"[1047]

 

 

2.         MILO (-after Jun 1095).  Marchese.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the properties of St Zacharius and St Pancratius, Venice by charter dated Jun 1095, which records among others the donations by "marchio Milo…monasterio in Veronensi comitatu…Ingelfredus comes et Ildeburga comitissa…in villa Petrollio"[1048]

 

 

 

F.      OTHER COUNTS in VENETO

 

 

1.         GUGLIELMO (-after 18 Jan 1017).  "Raimbaldus comes…comitatu Tervisianense…cum eo Walpertus Wyllelmus commitibus" are named in a charter dated 18 Jan 1017 under which "Adelpeyro dux istius marchia Carentanorum" confirmed the property of the monastery of S. Zaccaria di Venezia[1049]

 

2.         GUNTARDO [Guntaro] (-after 4 Sep 920).  A charter dated to [906/10] records the presence of "Berengarius rex…Guntardus et Dido comitibus…"[1050].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" donated property "in comitatu Veronense" formerly belonging to "Vualfredi…comitis ad eundem comitatum" to "Hermenfredo…capellano subdiacono…Veronensis ecclesiæ", at the request of "Odelricum…marchionem et Guntari…comitem", by charter dated 4 Sep 920[1051]

 

3.         INGELFREDOm ILDEBURGA, daughter of ---.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the properties of St Zacharius and St Pancratius, Venice by charter dated Jun 1095, which records among others the donations by "marchio Milo…monasterio in Veronensi comitatu…Ingelfredus comes et Ildeburga comitissa…in villa Petrollio"[1052].  No indication has been found of the date of this donation and, consequently, of the date when Ingelfredo and his wife lived. 

 

4.         TISO (-after Jan 918).  A charter dated Jan 918 records the presence of "Berengarius…imperator augustus…Odelricus…marchio et missus domni imperatoris…Ingelfredus comes istius comitatu…Grimaldus et Tiso comitibus…" at a hearing in Verona relating to the property of the monastery of Nonantola and quotes a document which names "domnus Anselmus comes comitatu Veronensis et filius bone memorie Vualdoni ex genere Francorum"[1053].  m ---.  The name of Tiso´s wife is not known.  Tiso & his wife had one child: 

a)         SUAMILTA .  The necrology of Brixen records that "Tiso comes tradidit filiam suam Suamilta"[1054].  Nun at Brixen. 

 

5.         UBERTO (-after 28 Jul 922).  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" granted "cortem Musestre…in comitatu Tervisiense cum silva de Valda" to "Hinoni qui et Azoni clerico", at the request of "Grimaldum…marchionem et Ubertum…comitem", by charter dated 28 Jul 922[1055]

 

6.         WALFREDO (-[12 May 890/Apr 913]).  "Berengarius rex" confirmed grants of property to "Angilbergæ…imperatrici", at the request of "…Vualfredus…marchio", by charter dated 8 May 888[1056].  "Berengarius rex" granted property in Verona to "Attoni fideli nostro", on the advice of "Vualtfredum…comitem summumque consiliarum nostrum", by charter dated 10 Sep 888[1057].  "Berengarius rex" confirmed grants of property "in comitatu Parmense in gastaldiato Bismantino" to "Unroch consanguineus noster filius quondam Supponi…marcionis", at the request of "…Vualtfredi…marchionis", by charter dated 12 May 890[1058].  A charter dated Apr 913 records a judgment at Verona, "ad casa qui fuit bone memorie Vualfredi comiti", in the presence of "Berengarius…rex…Ingelfredus comes ipsius comitatu…cum Odelricus vassus…" relating to the castle of Nogara, donated to the monastery of Nonatola by "quondam Anselmus comes" 31 Aug 908[1059].  "Berengarius…imperator augustus" donated property "in comitatu Veronense" formerly belonging to "Vualfredi…comitis ad eundem comitatum" to "Hermenfredo…capellano subdiacono…Veronensis ecclesiæ", at the request of "Odelricum…marchionem et Guntari…comitem", by charter dated 4 Sep 920[1060]

 

7.         WALPERTO (-after 18 Jan 1017).  "Raimbaldus comes…comitatu Tervisianense…cum eo Walpertus Wyllelmus commitibus" are named in a charter dated 18 Jan 1017 under which "Adelpeyro dux istius marchia Carentanorum" confirmed the property of the monastery of S. Zaccaria di Venezia[1061]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    OTHER NORTHERN ITALIAN NOBLE FAMILIES, Unallocated

 

 

 

1.         DIDO .  A charter dated to [906/10] records the presence of "Berengarius rex…Guntardus et Dido comitibus…"[1062]

 

2.         EGELRE [?] (-after 3 Nov 1001).  A charter dated 3 Nov 1001 records a judgment relating to a grant by Emperor Otto III to "Vuerihen comiti" in a session at which "Fulco comes, Egelre comes, Lanfrancus comes, comites Vicentino atque Patavino Uualferam et Ceisulf comitibus…" were present[1063]

 

3.         FULCO (-after 3 Nov 1001).  A charter dated 3 Nov 1001 records a judgment relating to a grant by Emperor Otto III to "Vuerihen comiti" in a session at which "Fulco comes, Egelre comes, Lanfrancus comes, comites Vicentino atque Patavino Uualferam et Ceisulf comitibus…" were present[1064]

 

4.         OBERTOm ---.  The name of Oberto's wife is not known.  Oberto & his wife had one child:

a)         BERTA .  "Einricus…imperator" confirmed the property of the abbey of Fruttuaria, referring to property donated by "Otberto qui fuit filius Girardi et nepos Otberti comitis…cuius filia fuit Berta uxor Girardi", by charter dated 1014[1065]m GERARDO, son of ---.  Gerardo & his wife had one child: 

i)          OBERTO .  "Einricus…imperator" confirmed the property of the abbey of Fruttuaria, referring to property donated by "Otberto qui fuit filius Girardi et nepos Otberti comitis", by charter dated 1014[1066]

 

 



[1] His work on Italian counties is available at <http://www.df.unipi.it/~rossi/comites.html> (14 Aug 2007). 

[2] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 468. 

[3] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 468. 

[4] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 468. 

[5] D H III 192, p. 242. 

[6] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome II, p. 718. 

[7] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome II, p. 718. 

[8] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 487. 

[9] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 712. 

[10] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome II, p. 718. 

[11] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome II, p. 718. 

[12] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome II, p. 718. 

[13] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 468. 

[14] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 468. 

[15] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 712. 

[16] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 712. 

[17] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 724. 

[18] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 712. 

[19] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 724. 

[20] Chronicon Parmense, RIS IX, cols. 761-880. 

[21] Schiaparelli, L. (ed.) (1903) I diplomi di Berengario I, Fonti per la Storia d´Italia (Rome) ("Berengario I Diplomi"), CVI, p. 273. 

[22] Berengario I Diplomi, CXXXIV, p. 344. 

[23] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 725, quoting Bacchinio Appendice Historiæ Padolironensis

[24] D H II 337, p. 428. 

[25] D H II 337, p. 428. 

[26] D H II 337, p. 428. 

[27] D H II 338, p. 429. 

[28] D K II 143, p. 193. 

[29] D K II 218, p. 298. 

[30] D K II 243, p. 334. 

[31] MGH Diplomata IV, p. 298, citing "Bresslau Jahrb. 2, 243, N. 2". 

[32] D K II 143, p. 193. 

[33] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 716. 

[34] Muratori, L. A. (1777) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome XI, col. 355. 

[35] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 718. 

[36] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 716. 

[37] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 722, quoting Bullario Casinensi Tom. 2 Constitution 119. 

[38] Muratori, L. A. (1717) Delle Antichità Estensi ed Italiane, Parte I (Modena) ("Muratori (Este)"), Parte I, p. 230. 

[39] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 234. 

[40] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 718. 

[41] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 722. 

[42] D H IV 340, p. 448. 

[43] D H IV 341, p. 450. 

[44] D H IV 359, p. 477. 

[45] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 712. 

[46] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber VIII, Cap. I, p. 559. 

[47] D H IV 359, p. 477. 

[48] Schiaparelli, L. (ed.) (1906) I diplomi di Guido e di Lamberto, Fonti per la Storia d´Italia (Rome) ("Guido e Lamberti Diplomi"), I, p. 72. 

[49] Guido e Lamberti Diplomi, VII, p. 88. 

[50] Guido e Lamberti Diplomi, I, p. 72. 

[51] Guido e Lamberti Diplomi, II, p. 73. 

[52] Berengario I Diplomi, XV, p. 49. 

[53] Berengario I Diplomi, XXV, p. 75. 

[54] Berengario I Diplomi, XXVI, p. 77. 

[55] Berengario I Diplomi, XXXVII, p. 107. 

[56] Berengario I Diplomi, XLII, p. 122.  

[57] Berengario I Diplomi, XLIII, p. 124. 

[58] Berengario I Diplomi, XLV, p. 130. 

[59] Ficker, J. (1874) Forschungen zur Reichs- und Rechtsgechichte Italiens (Innsbruck), Band IV, 20, p. 25. 

[60] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 696. 

[61] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.13, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[62] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.39, MGH SS III, p. 311. 

[63] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.39, MGH SS III, p. 312. 

[64] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 314. 

[65] Gloria, A. (ed.) (1877) Codice Diplomatico Padovano al secolo sesto a tutto l´undecimo (Venice) ("Codice Diplomatico Padovano"), 42, p. 61. 

[66] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 43, p. 65. 

[67] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 43, p. 65. 

[68] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 234. 

[69] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 29, p. 38. 

[70] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 31, p. 42. 

[71] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 34, p. 47. 

[72] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 34, p. 47. 

[73] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 34, p. 47. 

[74] Astegiano, L. (ed.) (1895) Codice Diplomatico Cremonense, Vol. I 715-1334, Monumenta Historiæ Patriæ, Series II, Tome XXI (Aosta) ("Cremona"), Vol. I, 13, p. 48. 

[75] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 34, p. 47. 

[76] Cremona, Vol. I, 14, p. 49. 

[77] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 34, p. 47. 

[78] Cremona, Vol. I, 14, p. 49. 

[79] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 646. 

[80] Cremona, Vol. I, 10, p. 45. 

[81] Cremona, Vol. I, 10, p. 45. 

[82] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 266. 

[83] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 266. 

[84] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 266. 

[85] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 266. 

[86] Federici, V. (ed.) (1907) Regesto di S. Apollinare Nuovo, Regesta Chartarum Italiæ (Rome) ("San Apollinare Nuovo"), 2, p. 5. 

[87] San Apollinare Nuovo, 2, p. 5. 

[88] San Apollinare Nuovo, 3, p. 14. 

[89] Federici, V. (ed.) (1907) Regesto di S. Apollinare Nuovo, Regesta Chartarum Italiæ (Rome) ("San Apollinare Nuovo"), 2, p. 5. 

[90] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[91] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[92] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[93] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[94] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[95] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[96] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[97] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[98] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[99] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[100] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[101] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[102] Federici, V. (ed.) (1907) Regesto di S. Apollinare Nuovo, Regesta Chartarum Italiæ (Rome) ("San Apollinare Nuovo"), 2, p. 5. 

[103] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[104] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[105] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 43, p. 64. 

[106] San Apollinare Nuovo, 5, p. 19. 

[107] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[108] San Apollinare Nuovo, 9, p. 24. 

[109] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 43, p. 64. 

[110] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 43, p. 64. 

[111] Berengario I Diplomi, XCIV, p. 249. 

[112] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVI, MGH SS XXXI, p. 431. 

[113] Poull, G. (1994) La Maison souveraine et ducale de Bar (Presses Universitaires de Nancy), p. 33. 

[114] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVI, MGH SS XXXI, p. 431. 

[115] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVI, MGH SS XXXI, p. 431. 

[116] ES III 591. 

[117] The poem Matilde e I Canossa, by Donizone, verses 407-416 and 590, cited in Poull (1994), p. 33. 

[118] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVII, MGH SS XXXI, p. 431. 

[119] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 725, quoting Bacchinio Appendice Historiæ Padolironensis

[120] Poull (1994), p. 33. 

[121] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLX, MGH SS XXXI, p. 434. 

[122] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVII & CLX, MGH SS XXXI, pp. 431 and 434. 

[123] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVII, MGH SS XXXI, p. 431. 

[124] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLX, MGH SS XXXI, p. 434. 

[125] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVII, MGH SS XXXI, p. 431. 

[126] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 688. 

[127] Poull (1994), pp. 33-4. 

[128] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLX, MGH SS XXXI, p. 434. 

[129] ES III 591 and 592. 

[130] Matilde e I Canossa, verse 452, quoted in Poull (1994), p. 34. 

[131] ES III 592. 

[132] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLX, MGH SS XXXI, p. 435. 

[133] Poema de Vita Comitissæ Mathildis, Liber I, Cap. IV, RIS V, p. 350. 

[134] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVIIII, MGH SS XXXI, p. 434. 

[135] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVIIII, MGH SS XXXI, p. 434. 

[136] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVIIII, MGH SS XXXI, p. 434. 

[137] Matilde e I Canossa, verses 451-470, cited in Poull (1994), pp. 34-5. 

[138] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLX, MGH SS XXXI, p. 434. 

[139] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVII, MGH SS XXXI, p. 431. 

[140] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVI, MGH SS XXXI, p. 431. 

[141] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVI, MGH SS XXXI, p. 431. 

[142] Muratori, L. A. (1777) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome XI, col. 361. 

[143] Muratori, L. A. (1777) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome XI, col. 361. 

[144] Muratori, L. A. (1777) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome XI, col. 361. 

[145] D H IV 340, p. 448. 

[146] D H IV 341, p. 450. 

[147] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 710. 

[148] Berengario I Diplomi, XCVIII, p. 256. 

[149] Berengario I Diplomi, CII, p. 266. 

[150] Berengario I Diplomi, CXIV, p. 294. 

[151] Berengario I Diplomi, CXVII, p. 302. 

[152] Berengario I Diplomi, CXIX, p. 311. 

[153] Berengario I Diplomi, CXXI, p. 315. 

[154] Berengario I Diplomi, CXXII, p. 318. 

[155] Berengario I Diplomi, CXXIII, p. 319. 

[156] Berengario I Diplomi, CXXV, p. 326. 

[157] Berengario I Diplomi, CXXVI, p. 328. 

[158] Berengario I Diplomi, CXXXI, p. 338. 

[159] Guido e Lamberti Diplomi, III, p. 76. 

[160] Berengario I Diplomi, XCVIII, p. 256. 

[161] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 34, p. 47. 

[162] Cremona, Vol. I, 13, p. 48. 

[163] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 34, p. 47. 

[164] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 34, p. 47. 

[165] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 34, p. 47. 

[166] D H II 349, p. 447. 

[167] Reuter, T. (1991) Germany in the early middle ages c.800-1056 (Longman), p. 79. 

[168] Wickham, C. (1981) Early Medieval Italy, Central Power and Local Society 400-1000 (Macmillan, London), p. 178. 

[169] Christie, N. (1998) The Lombards (Blackwell, Oxford), pp. 76-7. 

[170] Pauli Historia Langobardorum II.9, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 77. 

[171] Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon 1, MGH SS III, p. 232. 

[172] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 125. 

[173] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.33, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 127. 

[174] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128. 

[175] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128. 

[176] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128. 

[177] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.38, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 132. 

[178] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128. 

[179] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.38, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 132. 

[180] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128. 

[181] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.39, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 133. 

[182] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 128. 

[183] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.39, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 133. 

[184] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 129. 

[185] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 129. 

[186] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 129. 

[187] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 129. 

[188] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.39, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 133. 

[189] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.50, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 137. 

[190] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.17, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 151. 

[191] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.18, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 122. 

[192] Chronicon Ducum Beneventi, Salerni, Capuæ et Neapolis, MGH SS III, p. 211. 

[193] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.17, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 151. 

[194] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.17 and 19, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 151. 

[195] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.22, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 152. 

[196] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.25, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 153. 

[197] Benedicti Chronicon 13, MGH SS III, p. 701. 

[198] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.2, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 164. 

[199] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.23, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 152. 

[200] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.24, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 153. 

[201] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.24, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 153. 

[202] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.3, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 165. 

[203] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.3, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 165. 

[204] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.19, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 171. 

[205] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.3, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 165. 

[206] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.24, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 172-3.  

[207] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.25, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 173-4. 

[208] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.26, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 174. 

[209] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.26, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 174. 

[210] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 182. 

[211] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.26, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 174. 

[212] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.26, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 174. 

[213] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[214] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 182. 

[215] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.52 and 56, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 183 and 185. 

[216] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.26, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 174. 

[217] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 183. 

[218] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.26, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 174. 

[219] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[220] Benedicti Chronicon 15 and 16, MGH SS III, p. 702. 

[221] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 183. 

[222] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.24, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 172. 

[223] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.24, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 172. 

[224] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.24, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 172. 

[225] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 360. 

[226] Annales Laurissenses Continuatio usque ad a. 829 Auctore Einhardo 796, MGH SS I, p. 182. 

[227] Annales Fuldenses 796, MGH SS I, p. 351. 

[228] Annales Fuldenses 799, MGH SS I, p. 352. 

[229] D Kar. 1, 187, p. 251. 

[230] D Kar. 1, 209, p. 279. 

[231] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[232] Annales Fuldenses 811 MGH SS I, p. 355. 

[233] D Kar. 1, 209, p. 279. 

[234] D Kar. 1, 209, p. 279. 

[235] D Kar. 1, 209, p. 279. 

[236] Wirtembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band I c 700-1137 (Stuttgart, 1849, reprint 1972) ("Württembergisches Urkundenbuch") I, 59, p. 62. 

[237] Württembergisches Urkundenbuch I, 60, p. 63. 

[238] Einhardi Annales 817, MGH SS I, p. 203. 

[239] Württembergisches Urkundenbuch I, 80, p. 91. 

[240] Einhardi Annales 818, MGH SS I, p. 205. 

[241] Einhardi Annales 819, MGH SS I, p. 206. 

[242] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 624. 

[243] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 624. 

[244] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 625. 

[245] Einhardi Annales 826, MGH SS I, p. 214. 

[246] Einhardi Annales 828, MGH SS I, p. 217. 

[247] Annales Fuldenses 826, MGH SS I, p. 359. 

[248] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 42, MGH SS II, p. 631. 

[249] Sedulii Scotti Carmina II 67, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini III, pp. 220-1. 

[250] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris, Codice, MGH SS II, p. 603. 

[251] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 854, MGH SS XXIII, p. 736. 

[252] Adnuntatio domni Karoli, MGH LL 1, p. 469. 

[253] Annales Alamannicorum continuation Sangallensis prima 864, MGH SS I, p. 50, alternative text quoted in footnote 1. 

[254] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), pp. 256-7. 

[255] Annales Xantenses 866, MGH SS II, p. 231. 

[256] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, p. 876, and Cysoing, I, p. 1. 

[257] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[258] Coussemaker, I. de (ed.) (1886) Cartulaire de l´abbaye de Cysoing et de ses dépendances (Lille) ("Cysoing"), V, p. 10. 

[259] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, p. 878. 

[260] Cysoing III, p. 7. 

[261] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, pp. 878 and 879, and Cysoing IV and V, pp. 8 and 10. 

[262] Cysoing VI, p. 11. 

[263] Sedulii Scotti Carmina II 37, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini III, p. 201. 

[264] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, p. 876. 

[265] Eckhardt, K. A. (1963) Genealogische Funde zur allgemeinen Geschichte (Witzenhausen), pp. 49-51, cited in Settipani, p. 418 footnote 110. 

[266] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, p. 879, and Cysoing IV, p. 8. 

[267] Cysoing VI, p. 11. 

[268] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, p. 876. 

[269] Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon 13, MGH SS III, p. 235. 

[270] Cysoing VI, p. 11. 

[271] ES I.2 200A. 

[272] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quarta, auctore anonymo 887, MGH SS I, p. 404. 

[273] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, p. 876. 

[274] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 893, MGH SS XXIII, p. 748. 

[275] Cysoing III, p. 7. 

[276] Cysoing VI, p. 11. 

[277] McKitterick, R. (1983) Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987 (Longman, London and New York), p. 250. 

[278] Annales Vedastini 892, MGH SS II, p. 527.  . 

[279] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, p. 876. 

[280] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis I.61, MGH SS VII, p. 623. 

[281] Cysoing III, p. 7.  

[282] Cysoing VI, p. 11. 

[283] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum, pars quinta 883, MGH SS I, p. 398. 

[284] Berengario I Diplomi, IV, p. 25. 

[285] Berengario I Diplomi, X, p. 37. 

[286] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 446. 

[287] Berengario I Diplomi, CVII, p. 275. 

[288] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 220. 

[289] Liutprandi Antapodosis I.33, p. 294. 

[290] Berengario I Diplomi, LXXXVII, p. 232. 

[291] Berengario I Diplomi, XCVI, p. 253. 

[292] Berengario I Diplomi, CX, p. 281. 

[293] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 624. 

[294] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, p. 876. 

[295] Cysoing III, p. 7. 

[296] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, p. 878. 

[297] Cysoing VI, p. 11. 

[298] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, p. 876. 

[299] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ, Liber IV, I, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 371.

[300] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 893, MGH SS XXIII, p. 748. 

[301] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 943, MGH SS XXIII, p. 763. 

[302] ES II 188B. 

[303] ES III 729 B. 

[304] Cysoing VI, p. 11. 

[305] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 893, MGH SS XXIII, p. 748. 

[306] Muratori, L. A. (1778) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome XIV, col. 106. 

[307] Cysoing VI, p. 11. 

[308] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, p. 876. 

[309] Cysoing VI, p. 11. 

[310] Wegener, W. (1965/67) Genealogischen Tafeln zur mitteleuropäischen Geschichte (Verlag Degener), p. 72, and ES I 9.  She is not mentioned in ES II 188A or Rösch, S. (1977) Caroli Magni Progenies (Verlag Degener & Co, Neustadt an der Aisch). 

[311] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 474. 

[312] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 896, MGH SS I, p. 412. 

[313] Moriondus, J. B. (1789) Monumenta Aquensia (Turin), Pars I, col. 9. 

[314] Einhardi Annales 806, MGH SS I, p. 193. 

[315] Annales Fuldenses 806, MGH SS I, p. 353. 

[316] Dean, T. (1988) Land and Power in Late Medieval Ferrara: The Rule of the Este 1350-1450 (Cambridge UP), pp. 13-14. 

[317] Gabotto, F. (ed.) ´Le più antiche carte dello archivio capitulare di Asti, Vol. I´, Biblioteca della società storica subalpina, Vol. XXVIII (Pinerolo, 1904) ("Asti Capitolare (antiche carte)"), LXXXVI, p. 166. 

[318] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 139. 

[319] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 632. 

[320] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome V, p. 58. 

[321] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 228. 

[322] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 632. 

[323] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 496. 

[324] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 632. 

[325] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 132. 

[326] Arnulfi Gesta, Archiepiscoporum Mediolanensium I.18, MGH SS VIII, p. 11, footnote 64 specifying that they were sons of "Oberti [II] march. Mediolanensis, Astensium progenitoris".  

[327] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 123. 

[328] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 92, p. 123. 

[329] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 119. 

[330] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 121. 

[331] Carutti, D. (1889) Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, marchionum in Italia (Turin) ("Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ"), L, p. 17. 

[332] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars I, col. 33. 

[333] Tortona Capitolare, XXI, p. 34. 

[334] Arnulfi Gesta, Archiepiscoporum Mediolanensium I.18, MGH SS VIII, p. 11, footnote 64 specifying that they were sons of "Oberti [II] march. Mediolanensis, Astensium progenitoris".  

[335] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 123. 

[336] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 92, p. 123. 

[337] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 90. 

[338] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 91. 

[339] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 96. 

[340] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 95. 

[341] D Arduin 3, p. 702. 

[342] Arnulfi Gesta, Archiepiscoporum Mediolanensium I.18, MGH SS VIII, p. 11, footnote 64 specifying that they were sons of "Oberti [II] march. Mediolanensis, Astensium progenitoris".  

[343] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, L, p. 17. 

[344] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 580. 

[345] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, LXXXVIII, p. 31. 

[346] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars II, col. 300. 

[347] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars II, col. 300. 

[348] Arnulfi Gesta, Archiepiscoporum Mediolanensium I.18, MGH SS VIII, p. 11, footnote 64 specifying that they were sons of "Oberti [II] march. Mediolanensis, Astensium progenitoris".  

[349] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, LXXXVIII, p. 31. 

[350] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 247. 

[351] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 179, p. 211. 

[352] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 179, p. 211. 

[353] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 247. 

[354] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 179, p. 211. 

[355] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 249. 

[356] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 250. 

[357] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 249. 

[358] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 250. 

[359] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 249. 

[360] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 250. 

[361] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 249. 

[362] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 250. 

[363] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 251. 

[364] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 253. 

[365] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 249. 

[366] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 250. 

[367] D H II 305, p. 379. 

[368] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, L, p. 17. 

[369] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 580. 

[370] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Contribution à l'histoire de l'attitude des royaumes pirénéens dans la querelle des investitures: de l'origine de Berthe, reine d'Aragon et de Navarre', Estudios Genealógicos, Heráldicos y Nobiliarios, en honor de Vicente de Cadenas y Vicent (Hidalguía, Madrid, 1978), Vol. 2, pp. 375-402, 401. 

[371] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, LXXXVIII, p. 31. 

[372] D K II 254, p. 349. 

[373] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, CXVII, p. 41. 

[374] D H IV 427, p. 572. 

[375] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 492. 

[376] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 492. 

[377] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 241. 

[378] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 241. 

[379] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 243. 

[380] Moris, H. & Blanc, E. (eds.) (1883) Cartulaire de l´abbaye de Lérins, 1ère partie (Paris) ("Lérins"), CLXVII, p. 162. 

[381] Lérins, CLXVII, p. 162. 

[382] Cais di Pierlas, E. (1884) I Conti di Ventimiglia, il priorato di San Michele ed il Principato di Seborga (Torino), V, p. 104. 

[383] Cais di Pierlas (1884), VIII, p. 108. 

[384] Lérins, CLXVII, p. 162. 

[385] Cais di Pierlas (1884), VIII, p. 108. 

[386] Cais di Pierlas (1884), XIV, p. 115. 

[387] Tallone, A. (ed.) (1906) Regesto dei Marchesi di Saluzzo (1091-1340), Biblioteca della società storica subalpina, Vol. XVII (Pinerolo) ("Regesto dei Marchesi di Saluzzo"), 21, p. 7. 

[388] Regesto dei Marchesi di Saluzzo, 21, p. 7. 

[389] Cais di Pierlas (1884), IX, p. 110. 

[390] Cais di Pierlas (1884), III, p. 102. 

[391] Lérins, CLXVII, p. 162. 

[392] Cais di Pierlas (1884), V, p. 104. 

[393] Cais di Pierlas (1884), VIII, p. 108. 

[394] Lérins, CLXVI, p. 161. 

[395] Lérins, CLXVI, p. 161. 

[396] Lérins, XVI, p. 14. 

[397] Lérins, XVI, p. 14. 

[398] Cais di Pierlas (1884), XVIII, p. 119.  

[399] Cais di Pierlas (1884), XXI, p. 121. 

[400] ES III 760. 

[401] Wickham (1981), p. 181. 

[402] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.3, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 117. 

[403] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.13, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 121. 

[404] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[405] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.18, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 171. 

[406] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.19 and 20, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 171. 

[407] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 894, MGH SS I, p. 409. 

[408] D H II 293, p. 359. 

[409] D H II 293, p. 359. 

[410] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 31, p. 42. 

[411] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 31, p. 42. 

[412] Krain Urkundenbuch, Band I, 12a, p. 18. 

[413] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 220. 

[414] Vignati, C. (ed.) (1879) Codice Diplomatico Laudense (Milan) ("Codice Diplomatico Laudense"), Part 1 Laus Pompeia, 32, p. 46. 

[415] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 32, p. 46. 

[416] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 34, p. 52. 

[417] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 34B and C, pp. 53 and 55. 

[418] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 32, p. 46. 

[419] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 34, p. 52. 

[420] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 34A, p. 52. 

[421] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 36, p. 60. 

[422] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 37, p. 61. 

[423] Historiæ Patriæ Monumenta, Tome I, CCLVI, col. 439. 

[424] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 220. 

[425] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVIIII, MGH SS XXXI, p. 434. 

[426] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 508. 

[427] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 12. 

[428] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 12. 

[429] Bernard, A. and Bruel, A. (eds.) (1878) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny ( Paris) Tome IV, 3536, p. 657. 

[430] D H IV 347, p. 459. 

[431] Cluny Tome IV, 3536, p. 657. 

[432] Cluny Tome IV, 3581, p. 716. 

[433] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 12. 

[434] D H IV 347, p. 459. 

[435] MGH Diplomata VI.2, Urkunde König Konrads 1, p. 671. 

[436] D H IV 347, p. 459. 

[437] MGH Diplomata VI.2, Urkunde König Konrads 1, p. 671. 

[438] MGH Diplomata VI.2, Urkunde König Konrads 1, p. 671. 

[439] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.50, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 182. 

[440] D O III 175, p. 585. 

[441] D K II 153, p. 205. 

[442] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 7, p. 13. 

[443] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 11, p. 17. 

[444] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 11, p. 17. 

[445] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 11, p. 17. 

[446] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 11, p. 17. 

[447] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 11, p. 17. 

[448] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 11, p. 17. 

[449] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 11, p. 17. 

[450] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 11, p. 17. 

[451] D O III 195, p. 604. 

[452] Codice Diplomatico Laudense, Part 1, 26, p. 40. 

[453] Guido e Lamberti Diplomi, VIII, p. 18. 

[454] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 17, p. 21. 

[455] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 896, MGH SS I, p. 412. 

[456] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 896, MGH SS I, p. 412. 

[457] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 896, MGH SS I, p. 412. 

[458] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 33, p. 46. 

[459] D O III 411, p. 843. 

[460] D O III 411, p. 843. 

[461] D O III 411, p. 843. 

[462] D H II 321, p. 402. 

[463] D H II 321, p. 402. 

[464] D H II 321, p. 402. 

[465] D O III 411. 

[466] D H II 299, p. 369. 

[467] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 652. 

[468] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press), p. 240 footnote 21, citing Pauler, R. (1982) Das Regnum Italiæ in ottonischer Zeit. Markgrafen, Grafen, und Bischöfe als politische Kräfte (Tübingen), pp. 46 and 159-60. 

[469] Cremona, Vol. I, 12, p. 46. 

[470] Cremona, Vol. I, 12, p. 46. 

[471] Cremona, Vol. I, 181, p. 88. 

[472] Cremona, Vol. I, 171, p. 86. 

[473] Cremona, Vol. I, 193, p. 90. 

[474] Cremona, Vol. I, 169, p. 86. 

[475] Cremona, Vol. I, 171, p. 86. 

[476] Cremona, Vol. I, 193, p. 90. 

[477] Cremona, Vol. I, 171, p. 86. 

[478] D H IV 340, p. 448. 

[479] D H IV 341, p. 450. 

[480] Cremona, Vol. I, 158, p. 119. 

[481] Cremona, Vol. I, 382, p. 155. 

[482] Cremona, Vol. I, 382, p. 155. 

[483] Cremona, Vol. I, 382, p. 155. 

[484] Cremona, Vol. I, 87, p. 108. 

[485] Cremona, Vol. I, 158, p. 119. 

[486] Cremona, Vol. I, 158, p. 119. 

[487] Berengario I Diplomi, XVI, p. 51. 

[488] Berengario I Diplomi, XLIII, p. 124. 

[489] Berengario I Diplomi, XIII, p. 46. 

[490] Berengario I Diplomi, XIX, p. 58. 

[491] D H II 295, p. 361. 

[492] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, VIII, p. 4. 

[493] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, IX, p. 4. 

[494] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, IX, p. 4. 

[495] Chronicon Novaliciense III.2, MGH SS VII, p. 98, the preceding paragraph specifying that his father lived at the time of "Pipini ducis", and the subsequent paragraph 4 including "773" in the margin.   

[496] MGH Diplomata VI.2, Urkunde König Konrads 1, p. 671. 

[497] D H IV 447, p. 603. 

[498] D H II 299, p. 369. 

[499] D H II 336, p. 426. 

[500] D H II 336, p. 426. 

[501] Asti Capitolare (antiche carte), XX, p. 28. 

[502] Asti Capitolare (antiche carte), XX, p. 28. 

[503] Asti Capitolare (antiche carte), XXXVII, p. 59. 

[504] Asti Capitolare (antiche carte), XLII, p. 68. 

[505] Historiæ Patriæ Monumenta, Tome I, col. 123. 

[506] Asti Capitolare (antiche carte), LV, p. 96. 

[507] Asti Capitolare (antiche carte), LVII, p. 104. 

[508] Asti Capitolare (antiche carte), LVII, p. 104. 

[509] Asti Capitolare (antiche carte), LXIV, p. 116. 

[510] Chronicon Novaliciense V.8, MGH SS VII, p. 112. 

[511] Chronicon Novaliciense V.8, MGH SS VII, p. 112. 

[512] Chronicon Novaliciense V.8, MGH SS VII, p. 112. 

[513] Chronicon Novaliciense V.8, MGH SS VII, p. 112. 

[514] Chronicon Novaliciense V.8, MGH SS VII, p. 112. 

[515] Chronicon Novaliciense V.8, MGH SS VII, p. 112. 

[516] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, VIII, p. 4. 

[517] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, IX, p. 4. 

[518] Guido e Lamberti Diplomi, V, p. 80. 

[519] Berengario I Diplomi, LXXXVII, p. 232. 

[520] Berengario I Diplomi, XCIII, p. 247. 

[521] Liutprandi Antapodosis I.33, MGH SS III, p. 294. 

[522] Liutprandi Antapodosis III.7, MGH SS III, p. 304. 

[523] Liudprandi Antapodosis V.4, MGH SS III, p. 328. 

[524] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.7, MGH SS III, p. 317. 

[525] Asti Capitolare (antiche carte), LI, p. 89. 

[526] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, VIII, p. 4. 

[527] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, VIII, p. 4. 

[528] Referred to in ES II 59 neu, but no details are given. 

[529] ES II 59 neu. 

[530] Chaume, M. Les origines du duché de Bourgogne, cited in Le Hête, T. (1995) Les Comtes Palatins de Bourgogne et leur descendance agnatique, p. 27 footnote 21. 

[531] Carutti, D. (1888) Il conte Umberto I e il re Ardoino (Rome), Documenti del libro secundi, VI, p. 296. 

[532] No date of death in ES II 59 neu, this date is from Le Hête (1995), p. 27 footnote 21. 

[533] ES II 59 neu. 

[534] Chaume, M. Les origines du duché de Bourgogne, cited in Le Hête (1995), p. 27 footnote 21. 

[535] Le Hête (1995), p. 27 footnote 21. 

[536] D O III 411, p. 843. 

[537] 2 Mar 1018, according to Le Hête (1995), p. 27 footnote 21. 

[538] D O III 383, p. 811. 

[539] Carutti (1888), Documenti del libro secundi, VI, p. 296. 

[540] Thietmar 7.24, p. 323, footnote 48 correcting the date to 14 Dec and naming the abbey of St Benedict at Fruttuaria. 

[541] D Arduin 3, p. 702. 

[542] Bibliotheca Sebusiana, Centuria II, III, p. 187. 

[543] D H III 14, p. 18. 

[544] D O III 383, p. 811. 

[545] Bibliotheca Sebusiana, Centuria II, III, p. 187. 

[546] D H IV 363, p. 484. 

[547] D H IV 413, p. 549. 

[548] France, J., Bulst, N. and Reynolds, P. (eds. and trans.) (1989) Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque, Rodulfus Glaber Opera (Oxford), Vita Domni Willelmi Abbatis I, p. 257. 

[549] Rodulfi Glabri, Vita Domni Willelmi Abbatis III, p. 261. 

[550] ES II 59 Neu. 

[551] Rodulfi Glabri, Vita Domni Willelmi Abbatis I, pp. 255-7. 

[552] Rodulfi Glabri, Vita Domni Willelmi Abbatis I, p. 257. 

[553] Chronicle of Saint-Bénigne de Dijon, pp. 154-5, cited in Bouchard, C. B. (1987) Sword, Miter, and Cloister: Nobility and the Church in Burgundy 980-1198 (Cornell University Press), p. 425. 

[554] Chronicle of Saint-Bénigne de Dijon, pp. 154-5, cited in Bouchard (1987), p. 425. 

[555] Rodulfi Glabri, Vita Domni Willelmi Abbatis I, p. 257, and VI, p. 271. 

[556] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.16, p. 123. 

[557] Chronicle of Saint-Bénigne de Dijon, pp. 130-49, cited in Bouchard (1987), p. 425. 

[558] Liudprandi Antapodosis V.4, MGH SS III, p. 328. 

[559] Wickham (1981), p. 179. 

[560] Thietmar 2.13, p. 101. 

[561] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[562] Reginonis Chronicon 966, MGH SS I, p. 628. 

[563] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.10, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[564] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.7, MGH SS III, p. 317. 

[565] Reginonis Chronicon 966, MGH SS I, p. 628. 

[566] This date is given by Szabolcs de Vajay, Annales de Bourgogne, tome 34, 1962 Jul-Sep no 135.  Other authors place Adalberto's death [972/75], without more precision. 

[567] Regum Italiæ et Imperatorum Catalogi, ex codice Ambrosiano O. 53, MGH SS III, p. 216. 

[568] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1002, MGH SS XXIII, p. 778. 

[569] Bouchard (1987), p. 267. 

[570] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.6, p. 107. 

[571] L'abbé Lebeuf (1855) Mémoires concernant l'histoire civile et ecclésiastique d'Auxerre et de son ancient diocese (Auxerre) (“Histoire d´Auxerre”), Tome IV, p. 21. 

[572] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.6, pp. 105-7. 

[573] D H II 305, p. 379. 

[574] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1002, MGH SS XXIII, p. 778. 

[575] Jackman, D. C. (1997) Criticism and Critique, sidelights on the Konradiner (Oxford Unit for Prosopographical Research), pp. 84-5. 

[576] Necrologium Zwifaltense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 240. 

[577] Arnulfi Gesta, Archiepiscoporum Mediolanensium I.7, MGH SS VIII, p. 8, citing "Ann Einsidl 965" in footnote 52.   . 

[578] D O I 260, p. 370.   

[579] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[580] Arnulfi Gesta, Archiepiscoporum Mediolanensium I.7, MGH SS VIII, p. 8.  His death date "30 Sep 987" and his wife "Ychilde f Ardoini marchionis" are given in footnote 53 (citing Eusebio Vercell, Provana Studj critici, p. 331). 

[581] D O I 260, p. 370.   

[582] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, XVI, p. 6. 

[583] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, XVII, p. 6. 

[584] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, XVI, p. 6. 

[585] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, XVII, p. 6. 

[586] Liudprandi Antapodosis V.32, MGH SS III, p. 336. 

[587] Preradovich, Nikolaus von (1950) Die Abstammung einiger steirischer Bürger von Karl dem Großen (unpublished manuscript), cited in Rösch, p. 137.  

[588] Almanach de Gotha (1931, Gotha, Justus Perthes), article 'Collalto', p. 450. 

[589] Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser Band X (1978, Starke Verlag, Limburg a.d.Lahn), p. 463. 

[590] Liudprandi Antapodosis V.32, MGH SS III, p. 336. 

[591] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars II, col. 292. 

[592] Reginonis Chronicon 965, MGH SS I, p. 627. 

[593] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[594] Annales Elnonenses Minores [950-968], MGH SS V, p. 19. 

[595] Nicholas, p. 44. 

[596] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 96, p. 92. 

[597] Vita Sancti Bertulfi Abbatis Renticensis, RCGF 10, p. 365. 

[598] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 60 footnote 32. 

[599] Nicholas (1992), p. 45. 

[600] Guadet, J. (ed.) (1845) Richeri Historiarum (Paris) IV.LXXXVII, p. 270. 

[601] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 102, p. 96. 

[602] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 107, p. 101. 

[603] Annales Elnonenses Minores 1003, MGH SS V, p. 19. 

[604] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 299. 

[605] ES II 5, and Rösch, p. 167. 

[606] Berengario I Diplomi, LXIX, p. 185. 

[607] Berengario I Diplomi, XCI, p. 244. 

[608] Historiæ Patriæ Monumenta, Tome I, LXXXIV, col. 138. 

[609] Moriondus, J. B. (1790) Monumenta Aquensia (Turin), Pars II, col. 291. 

[610] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars II, col. 292. 

[611] The Inventory of the State Archives of Turin, consulted at <http://ww2.multix.it/asto/asp/inventari.asp> (2 Feb 2006) ("State Archives"), volume 25, page 1, fascicule 1. 

[612] Liudprandi Antapodos is V.32, MGH SS III, p. 336. 

[613] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 492. 

[614] Cluny Tome IV, 3616, p. 777. 

[615] Cluny Tome IV, 3616, p. 777. 

[616] Cluny Tome IV, 3616, p. 777. 

[617] Cluny Tome IV, 3616, p. 777. 

[618] Baron F. de Gingins-la-Sarraz (ed.) (1847) Documents pour servir à l'histoire des Comtes de Biandrate (Turin) ("Biandrate"), Appendice A, p. 58. 

[619] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 580. 

[620] D O III 408, p. 841. 

[621] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars I, col. 20. 

[622] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, L, p. 17. 

[623] Trillmich, pp. 350-9. 

[624] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, LXXVI, p. 27. 

[625] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, LXXXVIII, p. 31. 

[626] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, CI, p. 35. 

[627] D H II 305, p. 379. 

[628] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 580. 

[629] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Contribution à l'histoire de l'attitude des royaumes pirénéens dans la querelle des investitures: de l'origine de Berthe, reine d'Aragon et de Navarre', Estudios Genealógicos, Heráldicos y Nobiliarios, en honor de Vicente de Cadenas y Vicent (Hidalguía, Madrid, 1978), Vol. 2, pp. 375-402, 401. 

[630] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, L, p. 17. 

[631] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, LXXXVIII, p. 31. 

[632] D K II 254, p. 349. 

[633] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, CXVII, p. 41. 

[634] D H IV 427, p. 572. 

[635] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1034, MHG SS V, p. 122. 

[636] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, CXVII, p. 41. 

[637] Collino, G. (ed.) (1908) Le carte della prevostura d´Oulx (Pinerolo) ("Oulx"), I, p. 1. 

[638] Carutti, D. (1888) Il conte Umberto I e il re Ardoino (Rome), p. 142, no citation reference. 

[639] Carutti (1888), p. 142, no citation reference. 

[640] Chevalier, U. (ed.) (1875) Diplomatique de Bourgogne par Pierre de Rivaz (Paris) ("Rivaz") LXXIX, p. 37, citing Hist. Patriæ Monum., Ch. t. I, p. 550. 

[641] Cipolla, C. (ed.) ´Il gruppo dei diplomi Adelaidini in favore dell´abbazia di Pinerolo´, Biblioteca della società storica subalpina, Vol. II (Pinerolo, 1899) ("Pinerolo (Diplomi Adelaidini)"), I, p. 315. 

[642] Annalista Saxo 1067. 

[643] Wurstenberger, L. (1858) Peter der Zweite Graf von Savoyen, Markgraf in Italien, sein Haus und seine Lande (Bern, Zurich), Vol. IV, 16, p. 5. 

[644] Pinerolo (Diplomi Adelaidini), II, p. 318. 

[645] Pinerolo (Diplomi Adelaidini), IV, p. 334. 

[646] Marie José (1956) La Maison de Savoie, Les Origines, Le Comte Vert, Le Comte Rouge (Paris, Albin Michel), (1956), p. 33. 

[647] Carutti (1888), p. 142, no citation reference. 

[648] Wurstenberger (1858), Vol. IV, 18, p. 5. 

[649] Necrologium Scafhusen ses, Bernoldi Chronicon Introduction, MGH SS V, p. 393. 

[650] D H IV 427, p. 572. 

[651] Trillmich, pp. 350-9. 

[652] Annalista Saxo 1067. 

[653] Annalista Saxo 1036. 

[654] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, CLXXVII, p. 63. 

[655] Pinerolo (Diplomi Adelaidini), III, p. 332. 

[656] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ (supplemento), XX, p. 14, quoting Cartario Della Abazia di Cavour (1900), p. 32. 

[657] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, CLXXXV, p. 66. 

[658] Pinerolo (Diplomi Adelaidini), VI, p. 339. 

[659] Cipolla, C. (ed.) (1898) Monumenta Novaliciensia vetustiora, Vol. I (Rome), Torino Sant´Andreo Necrologio, p. 318. 

[660] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, CLXIV, p. 59. 

[661] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, CLXV, p. 59. 

[662] State Archives, volume 9.1, page 1, fascicule 1.1. 

[663] Marie-José (1956), pp. 32-3. 

[664] Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-André-le-Bas de Vienne, Collection de cartularies dauphinois Tome I  (Vienne, 1869) ("Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas"), 212, p. 155. 

[665] Annalista Saxo 1067. 

[666] Rivaz LXXIX, p. 37, citing Hist. Patriæ Monum., Ch. t. I, p. 550. 

[667] Marie-José (1956), p. 33. 

[668] Necrologium Scafhusen ses, Bernoldi Chronicon Introduction, MGH SS V, p. 393. 

[669] State Archives, volume 9.1, page 1, fascicule 1.1. 

[670] De Foras, Amédée Armorial et nobiliaire de Savoie, t. V, p. 433, ad. VI, 1, cited in Szabolcs de Vajay 'Berthe, reine d'Aragon', p. 391 footnote 51. 

[671] Rivaz CXLI, p. 48, citing Guichenon, Histoire de Savoie, pr., p. 24. 

[672] Poull (1994), p. 73.   

[673] Lamberti Annales 1077, MGH SS V, p. 255. 

[674] Marie-José (1956), p. 33. 

[675] Chronicon Novaliciense V.8, MGH SS VII, p. 112. 

[676] Necrologio S Andreæ Taurinensis, MGH SS VII, p. 131.  

[677] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 31, p. 42. 

[678] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, XVI, p. 6. 

[679] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, XVII, p. 6. 

[680] Chronicon Novaliciense V.8, MGH SS VII, p. 112. 

[681] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, LXXVI, p. 27. 

[682] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 646. 

[683] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, XIX, p. 7. 

[684] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, LXXVI, p. 27. 

[685] Necrologio Novaliciensi, MGH SS VII, p. 130.  

[686] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, LXXVI, p. 27. 

[687] D H II 305, p. 379. 

[688] D K II 67, p. 83. 

[689] D K II 67, p. 83. 

[690] Chronicon Novaliciense V.8, MGH SS VII, p. 112. 

[691] Trillmich, Werner Kaiser Konrad II und seine Zeit, p. 348. 

[692] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 580. 

[693] Arnulfi Gesta, Archiepiscoporum Mediolanensium I.18, MGH SS VIII, p. 11, footnote 64 specifying that they were sons of "Oberti II march. Mediolanensis, Astensium progenitoris".  

[694] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars I, col. 20. 

[695] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 580. 

[696] D H IV 427, p. 572. 

[697] D H II 305, p. 379. 

[698] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, XLII, p. 14. 

[699] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 580. 

[700] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 580. 

[701] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 580. 

[702] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 580. 

[703] ES III 593. 

[704] Berengario I Diplomi, LXXVII, p. 210. 

[705] Berengario I Diplomi, LXXVIII, p. 212. 

[706] Berengario I Diplomi, LXXXVII, p. 232. 

[707] Berengario I Diplomi, LXXXIX, p. 240. 

[708] Berengario I Diplomi, XCI, p. 244. 

[709] Berengario I Diplomi, XCIII, p. 247. 

[710] Berengario I Diplomi, CIV, p. 269. 

[711] Berengario I Diplomi, CXII, p. 285. 

[712] Berengario I Diplomi, CXIV, p. 294. 

[713] Berengario I Diplomi, CXVII, p. 302. 

[714] Berengario I Diplomi, CXXI, p. 315. 

[715] Berengario I Diplomi, CXXIII, p. 319. 

[716] Berengario I Diplomi, CXXXI, p. 338. 

[717] Berengario I Diplomi, CXXXII, p. 340. 

[718] Berengario I Diplomi, CXXXVI, p. 348. 

[719] Berengario I Diplomi, CXXXVII, p. 351. 

[720] Berengario I Diplomi, CXXXVIII, p. 354. 

[721] D O I 251, p. 359.   

[722] D O III 50, p. 452. 

[723] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars I, col. 24. 

[724] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars I, col. 24. 

[725] Einhardi Annales 807, MGH SS I, p. 194. 

[726] Annales Fuldenses 807, MGH SS I, p. 354. 

[727] Einhardi Annales 810, MGH SS I, p. 197. 

[728] Einhardi Annales 828, MGH SS I, p. 217. 

[729] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 43, MGH SS II, p. 632. 

[730] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 59, MGH SS II, p. 644. 

[731] Wickham (1981), p. 58. 

[732] Fredegar, IV, 50. 

[733] Fredegar, IV, 69. 

[734] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 878, MGH SS I, p. 392. 

[735] Guido e Lamberti Diplomi, I, p. 3. 

[736] Guido e Lamberti Diplomi, I, p. 3. 

[737] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum, pars quinta 894, MGH SS I, p. 409. 

[738] Guido e Lamberti Diplomi, XII, p. 32. 

[739] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum, pars quinta 894, MGH SS I, p. 409. 

[740] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 894, MGH SS I, p. 409. 

[741] Settipani (1993), p. 274. 

[742] Epitaphia Lunense II, MGH Poetæ latini IV, p. 1007. 

[743] Diplomata Hugonis Comitis Provinciæ et Regis Italiæ I, RHGF IX, p. 689. 

[744] Cluny Tome I, 417, p. 403. 

[745] Annales Bertiniani III 880. 

[746] RHGF IX, p. 105. 

[747] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.18, MGH SS III, p. 306. 

[748] Liudprandi Antapodosis II.55 and III.18, MGH SS III, pp. 298 and 306

[749] Liudprandi Antapodosis II.48, MGH SS II, p. 297. 

[750] Benedicti Chronicon 29, MGH SS III, p. 714. 

[751] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.40, MGH SS III, p. 312. 

[752] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.41, MGH SS III, p. 312. 

[753] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 343. 

[754] ES III 590. 

[755] Poole, R. L. (1917) Benedict IX and Gregory VI, Proceedings of the British Academy Vol. VIII (London), p. 34, quoting Marini, G. (1805) I Papiri Diplomatici, C, p. 155". 

[756] ES III 590. 

[757] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.38, MGH SS III, pp. 310-1. 

[758] Liutprandi Antapodosis III.7, p. 304. 

[759] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum, pars quinta 894, MGH SS I, p. 409. 

[760] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 894, MGH SS I, p. 409. 

[761] Muratori, L. A. (1778) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome XIV, col. 106. 

[762] ES III 590. 

[763] Diplomata Hugonis Comitis Provinciæ et Regis Italiæ I, RHGF IX, p. 689. 

[764] Wickham (1981), p. 178. 

[765] Wickham (1981), p. 179. 

[766] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.20, MGH SS III, p. 306. 

[767] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.46, MGH SS III, p. 313. 

[768] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.20, MGH SS III, p. 306. 

[769] Menéndez-Pidal de Navascués, F. 'La bella insegna, una leyenda herádica en la Divina Comedia', Estudios Genealógicos y Heráldicos (Asociación Española de Estudios Genealógicos y Heráldicos, Madrid, 1985), p. 10. 

[770] D O III 269, p. 686. 

[771] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 76, p. 109. 

[772] Veterum Scriptorum I, p. 347. 

[773] D O III 410, p. 843. 

[774] D K II 63, p. 76. 

[775] D H III 14, p. 18. 

[776] MGH Diplomata VI.2, Urkunde König Konrads 1, p. 671. 

[777] D H IV 450, p. 606. 

[778] D. Plácido Puccinelli (1643) Historia d'Ugo, principe della Toscana (Venice), cited in Menéndez-Pidal de Navascués, F. 'La bella insegna', pp. 10-11. 

[779] Veterum Scriptorum I, p. 347. 

[780] D K II 63, p. 76. 

[781] D H IV 425, p. 570. 

[782] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome II, p. 724. 

[783] Iohannis Diaconi, Chronicon Venetum MGH SS VII, p. 25. 

[784] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 512. 

[785] Poull (1994), p. 35. 

[786] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 62, p. 85. 

[787] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 514. 

[788] Schiaparelli, L. & Baldasseroni, F. (eds.) (1907) Regesto di Camaldoli, Regesta Chartarum Italiæ (Rome) ("Camaldoli"), Vol. I, 342, p. 138. 

[789] Camaldoli, Vol. I, 343, p. 138. 

[790] D H IV 335, p. 439. 

[791] Schneider, F. (ed.) (1907) Regestum Volaterranum, Regesta Chartarum Italiæ (Rome) ("Volterra") 185, p. 63. 

[792] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLVIIII, MGH SS XXXI, p. 434. 

[793] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 688. 

[794] Bernardi Marangonis Annales Pisani, MGH SS XIX, p. 238.