ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON NOBILITY

 v2.1 Updated 15 April 2013

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.            DEVON. 3

Chapter 2.            EAST ANGLIA. 4

Chapter 3.            ESSEX. 4

Chapter 4.            MERCIA. 4

A.       FAMILY of ÆTHELRED "Mucel" 4

B.       FAMILY of ÆTHELRED EALDORMAN of MERCIA.. 4

C.      FAMILY of WULFRIC "Spott" 4

D.      FAMILY of ÆLFHERE and ÆLFHEAH.. 4

E.       FAMILY of EADRIC "Streona" EALDORMAN of MERCIA.. 4

F.       FAMILY of LEOFWINE EALDORMAN of MERCIA, later EARLS of MERCIA.. 4

G.      HEREWARD the WAKE.. 4

Chapter 5.            NORTHUMBRIA. 4

Chapter 6.            WESSEX. 4

Chapter 7.            WILTSHIRE. 4

Chapter 8.            FAMILY of EADGIFU, third wife of EDWARD KING of WESSEX. 4

Chapter 9.            UNCONNECTED NOBILITY, ANGLO-SAXON ORIGIN. 4

A.       LATE 8th CENTURY, EARLY 9th CENTURY.. 4

B.       SECOND QUARTER 9th CENTURY.. 4

C.      THIRD QUARTER 9th CENTURY.. 4

D.      LAST QUARTER 9th CENTURY.. 4

E.       FIRST QUARTER 10th CENTURY.. 4

F.       SECOND QUARTER 10th CENTURY.. 4

G.      THIRD QUARTER 10th CENTURY.. 4

H.      FOURTH QUARTER 10th CENTURY.. 4

I.    FIRST QUARTER 11th CENTURY.. 4

Chapter 10.           UNCONNECTED NOBILITY, DANISH ORIGIN. 4

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Reconstruction of the families of, and relationships between, 8th to 11th century Anglo-Saxon nobility of non-royal lineage presents considerable challenges.  Charters from the Anglo-Saxon period include many names, particularly in witness lists, but rarely specify relationships.  The information is supplemented by available chronicles, but the result is still far from complete. 

 

Before the late 8th century, very few names of Anglo-Saxon noblemen, who were unrelated to the royal families, emerge from the primary sources.  The earliest grant of property (land in Worcestershire) which is recorded in a surviving charter to an Anglo-Saxon nobleman was made in 736 by Ethelbald King of Mercia to "Cyneberht comes"[1].  Cyneberht is named as subscriber in three other charters dated until 749[2], but otherwise has not yet been identified. 

 

The ealdormen of Mercia, Northumbria and, at a later date, Wessex enjoyed considerable administrative authority in the territories which they controlled.  In the cases of Mercia and Northumbria, the primary sources suggest that the local ealdorman acted as the king's regent.  However, the extent to which the appointment was hereditary within the same family is unclear.  In the case of Northumbria, the ealdormanship settled in the family of Waltheof from the mid-10th century until after the Norman conquest, although it is possible that each appointment was confirmed by the king after the death of each office-holder.  As far as Mercia is concerned, it is not possible to confirm a family relationship between the 10th century ealdormen, until the position settled with the family of Leofwine in the early 11th century. 

 

Ealdorman are also recorded in Devonshire, East Anglia, Essex and Wiltshire at different times between the mid-9th and early 11th centuries.  It is uncertain whether these individuals enjoyed delegated administrative responsibility over these counties or whether they were powerful local landowners whose title would more accurately be described as ealdormen "in" the county rather than "of" the county.  As with the case of Mercia, the available information is insufficient to assess whether all the ealdormen "rulers" recorded in each such county were members of the same family. 

 

The vast majority of Anglo-Saxon ealdormen cannot be linked to a specific geographical area.  They are shown in Chapters 9 and 10 of the present document.  It appears that, at any one time between the early 9th and early 11th centuries, there were no more than a dozen or so different nobles who are named in contemporary documentation with the title "dux" or ealdorman.  This suggests a close-knit community of "first tier" nobility in Anglo-Saxon England, probably closely related to each other, similar to the situation in post-conquest England.  Unfortunately, the lack of documentary evidence makes it difficult to prove that this was the case. 

 

Information from a large proportion of available charters has been analysed in the preparation of the present document.  Those which are generally regarded as spurious were excluded from the analysis.  Charters and testaments are cited in the present document by updated "Sawyer" ["S"] numbers, produced by Dr Susan Kelly, and used as the search tool on The New Regesta Regum Anglorum website[3].  The on-line Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England ("PASE") has also been consulted[4]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    DEVON

 

 

1.         CEORL (-after 851).  Ealdorman of Devon.  Asser names "Ceorl earl of Devon" recording that he fought "against the pagans at…Wicgambeorg" in 851[5]

 

 

1.         ÆTHELRED (-[end Sep/early Oct] 899).  Ealdorman "in" Devon.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of "Æthelred ealdorman in Devon four weeks before king Alfred"[6].  It is not known whether the "in", as opposed to "of", which is specified in this source is significant. 

 

 

1.         ÆLFGAR (-in Devonshire 962, bur Wilton).  "Ælfgar dux" subscribed charters of King Eadred in 945, 946, 951 and of King Eadwig in 956[7]Ealdorman ["in"] Devon.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death in 962 of "Ælfgar the king's kinsman…in Devonshire" and his burial at Wilton[8].  The will of "Ælfgar" dated to [946/51] bequeaths estates at Cockfield, Ditton, Lavenham and Baythorn to "my daughter Æthelflæd", estates at Eleigh to "my younger daughter [unnamed] for her life and after her death to Brihtnoth", an estate at Heybridge to "Ælfwold" (no relationship with the testator specified), land "which Aeulf held" to "Æthelgar" (no relationship with the testator specified), and a reference to the soul of "Æthelweard" (no relationship with the testator specified)[9]m ---.  The name of Ælfgar's wife is not known.  Ælfgar & his wife had two children: 

a)         ÆTHELFLÆD (Damerham, Wiltshire ----Shaftesbury Abbey [after 975/91], bur Shaftesbury Abbey).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "Æthelflæd of Damerham, daughter of ealdorman Ælfgar" as queen of King Edmund in 946[10].  "Eadmundus rex" granted "Æthelflæd regina sua" lands in Hampshire and Dorset by charter dated 943[11].  The will of "Ælfgar" dated to [946/51] bequeaths estates at Cockfield, Ditton, Lavenham and Baythorn to "my daughter Æthelflæd", although it does not specify that she had been the queen of King Edmund[12].  She became a nun at Shaftesbury Abbey.  The will of "Æthelflæd" dated to [962/91], probably after 975, bequeathed numerous estates to "ealdorman Brihtnoth and my sister", "ten hides at Wickford to my kinsman Sibriht" and an "estate at Waldingfield to my kinswoman Crawe"[13].  [The will of "Ælflæd", dated to [1000/02], includes a reference to masses for the soul of her (unnamed) sister[14].  It is not certain whether this bequest refers to Ælflæd´s known sister Æthelflæd (see above) or to another otherwise unknown sister.  The other documentation quoted in this section suggests that there were only two sisters.]  m firstly ([946]) as his second wife, EDMUND King of Wessex, son of EDWARD King of Wessex & his third wife Eadgifu --- (921-murdered Pucklechurch, Gloucestershire 26 May 946, bur Glastonbury Abbey[15]). 

b)         ÆLFLÆD (-after [1000/02]).  The will of "Ælfgar" dated to [946/51] bequeaths estates at Eleigh to "my younger daughter [unnamed] for her life and after her death to Brihtnoth", clarifying that the latter was the beneficiary's husband by stating "if they should have children, then I grant it to them"[16].  The issue is clarified by the will of "Æthelflæd" dated to [962/91], probably after 975, which bequeathed numerous estates to "ealdorman Brihtnoth and my sister" [also unnamed][17].  The will of "Ælflæd" dated to [1000/02] refers to "my lord", presumably her husband, recording his burial at St Eormenhild, Ely.  The will also refers to "woodland at Totham which my father granted to Mersea", a bequest to "ealdorman Æthelmær my [lord's kinsman]…the estate at Lawling" and a reference to masses for her sister's soul.  The identity of the testator as the widow of Byrhtnoth and sister of Æthelflæd is supported by a reference to property occupied by "Crawe my kinswoman", who is also named in the will of Ælflæd´s sister Æthelflæd (see above)[18]m ([946/51] or before) BYRHTNOTH, son of --- (-killed in battle Maldon, Essex Aug 991, bur St Eormenhild, Ely). 

 

 

Two family sub-groups related to Ealdorman Ælfgar, the exact relationships are not known: 

Two brothers: 

1.         SIBERHT .  The will of "Æthelflæd" dated to [962/91], probably after 975, bequeathed "ten hides at Wickford to my kinsman Sibriht" and an "estate at Waldingfield to my kinswoman Crawe" but does not specify the relationship between the testator and the beneficiaries more precisely[19]

2.         ÆTHELRIC .  The "Battle of Maldon" records "Æthelric brother of Siberht" as having fought in the battle[20]

 

3.         CRAWE (-after [1000/02]).  The will of "Æthelflæd" dated to [962/91], probably after 975, bequeathed "ten hides at Wickford to my kinsman Sibriht" and an "estate at Waldingfield to my kinswoman Crawe" but does not specify the relationship between the testator and the beneficiaries more precisely[21].  The will of "Ælflæd" dated to [1000/02] refers to property occupied by "Crawe my kinswoman"[22]

 

 

1.         ORDMÆR (-[963/71]).  Ealdorman of Devon.  In the primary sources so far consulted while preparing the present document, Ordmær is only named as the father of Æthelflæd.  No source has yet been found which names him in his personal capacity.  It is probable that he was appointed as Ealdorman of Devon in [962/64] after the death of Ealdorman Ælfgar, probably by King Edgar and maybe around the same time as the king´s marriage to his daughter.  He presumably died soon afterwards as Ordgar, whose death as Ealdorman of Devon is recorded in 971, is recorded as "dux" (no territorial epithet) from 964 (see below).  m EALDA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Ordmær & his wife had one child: 

a)         ÆTHELFLÆD (bur Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire).  Simeon of Durham names "Egelfled the Fair daughter of duke Ordmer" as the mother of King Eadgar's son "Eadward"[23].  Roger of Hoveden names her "Egelfleda" and names her father[24].  Florence of Worcester records that "Ægelfleda Candida, cognomento Eneda, Ordmæri ducis filia" was the mother of King Eadgar´s son "Eadwardum, postea regem et martyrem"[25].  This union of King Edgar may have been less formal than implied by marriage.  This is suggested by the contrast between the epithets applied to the king's sons in a charter subscribed by two of them dated 966: Edward (presumably born from the king's union with Æthelflæd) described as "Eadweard eodem rege clito procreatus", while Edmund (presumably born from the king's second marriage) was "Edmundus clito legitimus prefati regis filius"[26].  She was surnamed "Eneda" according to Florence of Worcester[27]m ([963], maybe repudiated[28]) as his first [wife], EDGAR "the Peaceable" King of England, son of EDMUND King of Wessex & his first wife Ælfgifu --- (943-Winchester 8 Jul 975, bur Glastonbury Abbey). 

 

 

1.         ORDGAR (-971, bur Exeter).  The root "Ord-" in his name suggests a family relationship with Ordmær: maybe they were brothers.  Ealdorman of Devon.  "Ordgar dux" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated between 964 and 970[29], one charter dated 966 specifying that he was "Ordgarus dux Domnoniæ"[30].  Simeon of Durham records the death in 971 of "Ordgar duke of Devonshire the father-in-law of King Eadgar" and his burial at Exeter[31].  His death in 971 is recorded by Roger of Hoveden[32]m ---.  The name of Ordgar's wife is not known.  Ordgar & his wife had two children: 

a)         ORDULF (-after 1004).  A document which narrates the foundation of Tavistock Monastery names “Ordulphus…filius…Ordgari[33].  "Ordulf comes" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred II dated 1004[34]

b)         ÆLFTHRYTH (Lydford Castle, Devon ([945]-Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire [999/1002], bur Wherwell Abbey).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the marriage in 965 of King Edgar and Ælfthryth, stating that she was the daughter of ealdorman Ordgar[35].  Simeon of Durham records the marriage of King Eadgar and "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire after the death of her husband Elfwold…duke of the East Angles" in 964[36].  Roger of Hoveden names her, her father and her first husband, when recording her second marriage[37].  Geoffrey Gaimar records a lengthy account of King Edgar having sent "Edelwoth" to woo "Estrueth la fille Orgar" on his behalf, and Æthelwold having married her without the king´s knowledge[38].  King Edgar granted land in Buckinghamshire to "Ælfgifu que mihi afinitate mundialis cruoris coniuncta" in 966[39].  "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated between 964 and 974[40].  William of Malmesbury recounts that King Edgar killed Ælfthryth's first husband to enable him to marry her[41].  She was crowned with her husband in 973, apparently the first recorded instance of the coronation of a queen in England.  It was alleged that she was involved in the plot to kill her stepson so her own son could succeed as king[42].  "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II between 979 and 983[43], and "Ælfthryth regis mater" between 981 and 999[44].  She became a nun at Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire in [985].  Her son King Æthelred II granted privileges to Wherwell Abbey in 1002 for the benefit of her soul[45]m firstly [as his second wife,] ÆTHELWOLD Ealdorman of the East Angles, son of --- (-before 964).  The Vita Oswaldi names Æthelwald as husband of Ælfthryth[46]m secondly ([965]) as his second wife, EDGAR "the Peaceable" King of England, son of EDMUND King of Wessex & his first wife Ælfgifu --- (943-Winchester 8 Jul 975, bur Glastonbury Abbey). 

 

 

1.         ÆTHELMÆR (-after 1014).  Ealdorman of Devon.  Simeon of Durham names "Ethelmar earl of Devonshire" in 1014[47]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    EAST ANGLIA

 

 

ÆTHELSTAN, son of ÆTHELFRITH & his wife Æthelgyth (-956 or after).  "Æthelfritho, eius filius Ethelstanus dux" gave Wrington, given to his father by King Edward, to Glastonbury[48].  "Æthelstan dux" subscribed charters of Kings Athelstan and Edmund between 931 and 970[49].  Between 943 and 956, there were two subscribers "Æthelstan dux" in several charters[50], suggesting that there may have been two individuals of the same name during this period.  The Chronicon Rameseiensis names "Æthelstan Halfkyng, quod est semirex"[51].  although Florence of Worcester does not name the parents of these brothers[52].  Ealdorman Æthelwold under his will dated [946/47] bequeathed land at Broadwater, Sussex and South Newton, Wiltshire to his brother Athelstan[53]

m ÆLFWYNN, daughter of --- (-8 Jul 983, bur Chateris, Cambridgeshire).  The Chronicon Rameseiensis records that "Æthelstan Halfkyng, quod est semirex" married "Alfwen" adding that she was later the nurse of King Eadgar and that she later donated "villam de Westona" to the monastery[54].  The Genealogia Comitis Ailwini names “Alfwen” as wife of “Æthelstani Regis quidam dux Orientalium Anglorum, Æthelstanus halfkineg id est”, and in a later passage her death in 983, her donation of “Weston” to the monastery, and her burial “apud Chateriz[55].  A manuscript relating to Chateris Monastery records that it was founded by “Alwen, le mere Aylwyn[56].  The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “VIII Id Jul” of “Alfwen soror nostra, mater Ailwini ducis, comitissa, quæ dedit Westune[57]

Æthelstan & his wife had [six] children: 

1.         ÆTHELWOLD (-before 964, bur Ramsey, Huntingdonshire).  The Chronicon Rameseiensis names "primus Æthelwoldus, secundus Alfwoldus, tertius Athelsinus, quartus Æthelwynus" as the four sons of "Æthelstan Halfkyng, quod est semirex"[58].  The Vita Oswaldi names Æthelstan as father of Æthelwine, Ælfwald, Æthelwald and Æthelwig[59].  Florence of Worcester names him and his three brothers without naming their parents[60]Ealdorman of East Anglia 956.  "Æthelwold dux" subscribed charters of Kings Edmund, Eadwig, and Edgar dated between 940 and 961[61].  In a charter of King Æthelred II, "Æthelwold" is recorded as the previous holder of land at Wylye, Wiltshire which the king then granted to Ælfgar, minister[62], although it is not certain that this was the same person.  Simeon of Durham records the marriage of King Eadgar and "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire after the death of her husband Elfwold…duke of the East Angles" in 964[63].  The Genealogia Comitis Ailwini records the death in 971 of “Ethelwoldus comes, frater Ailwini” and his burial at Ramsey[64], although this date is inconsistent with his widow´s remarriage as shown below.  [m firstly ---.  There is no proof that Æthelwold had an earlier marriage.  However, Ælfthryth must have considerably younger than her husband, who was already active in the administration of the country in 940, the earliest date when his name appears in subscription lists of charters, which makes an earlier marriage probable.]  m [secondly] as her first husband, ÆLFTHRYTH, daughter of Ealdorman ORDGAR of Devon (Lydford Castle, Devon ([945]-Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire [999/1002], bur Wherwell Abbey).  The Vita Oswaldi names Æthelwald as husband of Ælfthryth[65].  She married secondly ([965]) as his second wife, "the Peaceable" Edgar King of England.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the marriage in 965 of King Edgar and Ælfthryth, stating that she was the daughter of ealdorman Ordgar[66].  Simeon of Durham records the marriage of King Eadgar and "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire after the death of her husband Elfwold…duke of the East Angles" in 964[67].  Roger of Hoveden names her, her father and her first husband, when recording her second marriage[68].  Geoffrey Gaimar records a lengthy account of King Edgar having sent "Edelwoth" to woo "Estrueth la fille Orgar" on his behalf, and Æthelwold having married her without the king´s knowledge[69].  King Edgar granted land in Buckinghamshire to "Ælfgifu que mihi afinitate mundialis cruoris coniuncta" in 966[70].  "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated between 964 and 974[71].  William of Malmesbury recounts that King Edgar killed Ælfthryth's first husband to enable him to marry her[72].  She was crowned queen with her husband in 973, which was the first instance of the coronation of a queen in England.  It was alleged that she was involved in the plot to kill her stepson so her own son could succeed as King[73].  "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II between 979 and 983[74], and "Ælfthryth regis mater" between 981 and 999[75].  She became a nun at Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire in [985].  Her son King Æthelred II granted privileges to Wherwell Abbey in 1002 for the benefit of her soul[76]

2.         ÆLFWOLD (-14 Apr 990, bur Ramsey, Huntingdonshire).  The Chronicon Rameseiensis names "primus Æthelwoldus, secundus Alfwoldus, tertius Athelsinus, quartus Æthelwynus" as the four sons of "Æthelstan Halfkyng, quod est semirex"[77].  The Vita Oswaldi names Æthelstan as father of Æthelwine, Ælfwald, Æthelwald and Æthelwig[78].  Florence of Worcester names him and his three brothers without naming their parents[79].  Florence of Worcester names him and his three brothers[80].  Florence of Worcester records Ælfwold as "germanus" of Æthelwine, as well as his opposition to the expulsion of the monks from the Mercian monasteries in 975[81].  The Chronicon Rameseiensis records that "dux Ailwinus et eius frater Alfwoldus" defended the monasteries of East Anglia[82].  The Genealogia Comitis Ailwini records the death in 990 of “Alfwoldus comes, frater Ailwini”, his donation of “Hotton et Witton, Rippon cum Wenigton, Bithern cum Elinton”, and his burial at Ramsey[83].  The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “XVIII Kal Mai” of “Ailwoldus comes frater Ailwini ducis, qui dedit Hocton et Withon[84]m ÆTHELFLEDA, daughter of --- (-997, bur Ramsey, Huntingdonshire).  The Chronicon Rameseiensis records that "Alfild" confirmed donations made by "vir meus Alfwoldus comes frater Ailwyni Aldermanni" and records that "Ædnotho filio filiæ meæ" was punished for mocking St Ivo[85].  The Genealogia Comitis Ailwini records the death in 997 of “Ethelfleda comitissa uxor Ethelwoldi fratris Ailwini” and her burial at Ramsey[86].  The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “VI Id Sep” of “Ailflid comitissa, uxor Oswaldi fratris Ailwini ducis, quæ dedit Welinctune, et Weninctune, et Bitherne, et Riptun[87].  It is suggested that these inconsistent entries should be interpreted as indicating that Æthelfleda was the wife of Ælfwold, but this is not beyond doubt.  At any rate, it is incompatible with other primary source data for her to have been the wife of Æthelwold, Æthelwine´s first brother (see above).  Ælfwold & his wife had one child: 

a)         daughter .  m ---.  One child: 

i)          ÆDNOTH .  The Chronicon Rameseiensis records that "Alfild" confirmed donations made by "vir meus Alfwoldus comes frater Ailwyni Aldermanni" and records that "Ædnotho filio filiæ meæ" was punished for mocking St Ivo[88]

3.         ÆTHELSINE (-13 Oct 987, bur Ramsey, Huntingdonshire).  The Chronicon Rameseiensis names "primus Æthelwoldus, secundus Alfwoldus, tertius Athelsinus, quartus Æthelwynus" as the four sons of "Æthelstan Halfkyng, quod est semirex"[89].  Florence of Worcester names him and his three brothers[90].  The Genealogia Comitis Ailwini records the death in 987 of “Ethelsinus frater Ailwini” and his burial at Ramsey[91].  The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “III Id Oct” of “Ailsinus frater Æthelwini ducis[92]

4.         ÆTHELWINE (-24 Apr [992/93], bur Ramsey, Huntingdonshire[93]).  The Chronicon Rameseiensis names "primus Æthelwoldus, secundus Alfwoldus, tertius Athelsinus, quartus Æthelwynus" as the four sons of "Æthelstan Halfkyng, quod est semirex"[94].  The Vita Oswaldi names Æthelstan as father of Æthelwine, Ælfwald, Æthelwald and Æthelwig[95].  Florence of Worcester names him and his three brothers[96].  Ealdorman of East Anglia.  "Æthelwine dux" subscribed charters for Kings Edgar, Edward and Æthelred II dated between 964 and 988[97].  The Genealogia Comitis Ailwini records that “sanctus Oswaldus et dux Ailwinus” constructed Ramsey Monastery in 969[98].  Florence of Worcester records that he opposed the expulsion of the monks from the Mercian monasteries founded by King Edgar after the king died in 975 and defended the monasteries[99].  The Chronicon Rameseiensis records that "dux Ailwinus et eius frater Alfwoldus" defended the monasteries of East Anglia[100].  The list of sureties for estates of Peterborough Abbey records that "Æthelsige the earl's uncle" was one of the sureties for gift by "Earl Æthelwine and Abbot Ealdulf"[101].  The Genealogia Comitis Ailwini records the death in 993 of “comes Ailwinus[102].  The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “VIII Kal Mai” of “Ailwinus comes fundator Ramesiensis monasterii[103].  Florence of Worcester states that he "excelled his brothers in meekness, piety, goodness and justice"[104]m firstly ÆTHELFLEDA, daughter of --- (-11 Oct 977).  The Chronicon Rameseiensis records donations by "dux Ailwinus pater filiæ maritatæ", including land inherited from "pater Æthefledæ uxoris suæ"[105].  The Genealogia Comitis Ailwini records the death in 977 of “Ethelfleda comitissa uxor Ailwini prima” and her donation of “Saltreiam[106].  The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “V Id Oct” of “Ethelfleda uxor Ailwini ducis prima, quæ dedit Stivecle[107]m secondly ÆTHELGIFU, daughter of --- (-985).  The Chronicon Rameseiensis records donations by "Athelgiva comitissa"[108].  The Genealogia Comitis Ailwini records the death in 985 of “Ethelgiva uxor Ailwini secunda[109]m thirdly WULFGIFU, daughter of --- (-24 Aug 994, bur Ramsey).  The Chronicon Rameseiensis records the donations made by "tertia…uxor comitis Wlfgiva"[110].  The Genealogia Comitis Ailwini records the death in 994 of “Wlgiva com uxor Ailwini tertia”, her donation of “Brancester”, and her burial at Ramsey[111].  The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “IX Kal Sep” of “Wulgifa comitissa, uxor Ailwini ducis tertia…quæ dedit Brancestre[112].  Æthelwine & his --- wife had two children: 

a)         EDWIN .  The Vita Oswaldi names Edwin as son of Æthelwine[113]

b)         ÆTHELWEARD (-killed in battle Ashingdon 19 Oct 1016[114]).  The Vita Oswaldi names Æthelweard as son of Æthelwine[115].  Florence of Worcester records that he was one of those who advised King Æthelred II to pay tribute to the Danes in 991[116].  Simeon of Durham names "duke Ethelward son of Ethelwine duke of the East Angles" among those killed in 1016 in the final battle between King Edmund II and Knud of Denmark[117].  The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “XIV Kal Nov” of “Ethelwardus filius Æthelwini ducis…interfect[us] a Danis quando Cnut venit in Angliam[118]

5.         ÆTHELWIG .  The Vita Oswaldi names Æthelstan as father of Æthelwine, Ælfwald, Æthelwald and Æthelwig[119]

6.         [ÆLFNOTH .  King Æthelred granted land at Ardley, Oxfordshire, forfeited by three brothers Ælfnoth, Ælfric and Æthelwine, to Æthelwig miles by charter dated 995[120].  It is not known whether this was the same family as that of Æthelwold ealdorman of East Anglia] 

 

 

1.         ULFCYTEL "Snillingr/the Valliant" (-killed in battle Ashingdon Oct 1016[121])Ealdorman of East Anglia.  Florence of Worcester records that, after being surprised by the forces of Svend King of Denmark which landed at Norwich, he made peace with the invader.  The same source records that, after the Danes broke the treaty, Ulfcytel forced them to retreat to their ships[122].  Henry of Huntingdon states that he was defeated by the Danes outside Thetford in 1004[123].  Simeon of Durham records that "Ulfketel duke of the East Angles" made peace with "Suane king of the Danes" in 1004[124].  According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, he was defeated by the Danes in East Anglia 18 May 1009[125].  Florence of Worcester states that he was defeated by the Danes 5 May 1010 at Ringmere after their landing near Ipswich[126].  Simeon of Durham names "Ulfketel duke of the East Angles" among those killed in 1016 in the final battle between King Edmund II and Knud of Denmark[127]m WULFHILD, daughter of ÆTHELRED II King of England & his first wife Ælflæd ---.  The Jomsvikinga Saga records that "Ulfkell Snillingr" married "Ulfhildi dottur Adalrada konungs"[128]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    ESSEX

 

 

 

1.         BEORHTWULF (-[894/96]).  Ealdorman of Essex.  "Berhtwulf comes" was granted land in Dorset by King Alfred under a charter dated 891[129].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "Beorhtwulf ealdorman in Essex" among those who died "during those three years"[130]

 

 

2.         BEORHTNOTH [Byrhtnoth] (-killed in battle Maldon, Essex 10 Aug 991, bur Ely St Eormenhild)Ealdorman of Essex 956.  "Byrhtnoth dux" subscribed charters of Kings Edgar, Edward and Æthelred II dated between 958 and 988[131].  According to a charter of King Æthelred II dated 1005, which confirms rights to Eynsham Abbey, ealdorman Beorhtnoth at an earlier (unspecified) date bequeathed land at Mickleton, Gloucestershire to Ealdorman Æthelmær, son of Ealdorman Æthelweard[132].  This suggests that Beorhtnoth was related to Æthelmær, although this is not stated in the charter.  This appears to be confirmed by the will of Ælflæd, Beorhtnoth's widow, which describes Æthelmær as her husband's kinsman.  "Briothnothus comes vir religiosus" opposed the expulsion of the monks from the Mercian monasteries founded by King Edgar after the king died in 975[133].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that ealdorman Beorhtnoth was killed in battle by the Danes at Maldon on 10 Aug 991[134].  Simeon of Durham records that "Brithnod…duke of the East Saxons" was killed in 991 fighting the Danes[135].  Florence of Worcester records that he was killed fighting the Danes near Maldon in 991[136].  The will of Ælflæd dated to [1000/02] refers to "my lord", presumably her husband, recording his burial at St Eormenhild, Ely[137]m ÆLFLÆD, daughter of ÆLFGAR & his wife --- (-after [975]).  The will of Ælfgar dated to [946/51] bequeaths estates at Eleigh to "my younger daughter for her life and after her death to Brihtnoth", clarifying that the latter was the beneficiary's wife by stating "if they should have children, then I grant it to them"[138].  The issue is clarified by the will of Æthelflæd dated to [962/91], probably after 975, which bequeathed numerous estates to "ealdorman Brihtnoth and my sister"[139].  The will of Ælflæd dated to [1000/02] refers to "my lord", presumably her husband, recording his burial at St Eormenhild, Ely.  The will also refers to "woodland at Totham which my father granted to Mersea", a bequest to "ealdorman Æthelmær my [lord's kinsman]…the estate at Lawling" and a reference to masses for her sister's soul.  The identity of the testator as the widow of Beorhtnoth and sister of Æthelflæd is supported by a reference to property occupied by "Crawe my kinswoman"[140], Crawe also being named in the will of Æthelflæd.  Byrhtnoth & his wife had one child: 

a)         daughter (after [946/51]-).  Her marriage is proved by a 12th century list of obituaries at Ely[141].  Her birth date is established by the will of her maternal grandfather dated to [946/51], which implies that his daughter Ælflæd was childless at that date[142]m OSWIG, son of --- (-killed in battle Ringmere 5 May 1010). 

 

 

[Brother and sister], relatives of Beorhtnoth, the exact relationship has not been established. 

1.         ÆTHELFLÆD (-after 1002, maybe after 1012).  It is likely that Æthelflæd, mother of ealdorman Æthelmær, was related to Byrhtnoth Ealdorman of Essex as her son was described as Beorhtnoth's kinsman in the will of Ælflæd, Beorhtnoth's widow.  The absence of references to any relationship between Beorhtnoth and Æthelmær's paternal relatives suggests that the family relationship was probably on his mother's side.  It is possible that Æthelflæd was the same person as Æthelflæd, sister of Leofsige, whose property in Huntingdonshire was forfeited for helping her exiled brother, as recounted in a charter dated 1012 under which King Æthelred II granted the same to Godwin Bishop of Rochester[143]m (before [Sep 959]) ÆTHELWEARD, son of EADRIC & his wife [Ælfgifu ---] ([940/45]-1004). 

2.         [LEOFSIGE (-after 1002).  His relationship with this family is indicated by the charter dated 1012 which records that property in Huntingdonshire belonging to Æthelflæd, sister of Leofsige, was forfeited for helping her exiled brother[144], although it is not known with certainty that Æthelflæd named in this charter was the same person as Æthelflæd wife of Æthelweard.  "Leofsige dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated between 994 and 1001[145], the charter dated 996 specifying that he was "Leofsige Orientalium-Saxonum dux"[146].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that King Æthelred II sent ealdorman Leofsige to negotiate with the Danes in 1002, but that he slew Æfic the king's high-reeve and was banished from the realm[147].  The charter dated 1012 which names his sister Æthelflæd[148] confirms his exile.] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    MERCIA

 

 

 

A.      FAMILY of ÆTHELRED "Mucel"

 

 

1.         ÆTHELRED "Mucel" (-885 or after).  "Mucel dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred I dated 868[149]Ealdorman of the Gainas in Merciam EADBURGA, daughter of [150][CENWULF King of Mercia & his wife Elfrida].  Asser records that Alfred's mother-in-law "Edburga of the royal line of Mercia…was a venerable lady and after the decease of her husband, she remained many years a widow, even till her own death"[151].  According to Weir[152], she was perhaps the daughter of Cenwulf King of Mercia.  The primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified, and the chronology is not favourable considering King Cenwulf's death in 821.  Æthelred & his wife had two children: 

a)         ÆTHELWULF (-903).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death in 903 of "ealdorman Æthelwulf the brother of Ealswith, the mother of King Edward"[153].  Ealdorman. 

b)         EALHSWITH ([848/53]-904).  Asser records the marriage in 868 of Alfred and "a noble Mercian lady, daughter of Athelred surnamed Mucil earl of the Gaini…[and] Edburga of the royal line of Mercia"[154].  Roger of Hoveden records the names of her parents, specifying that her mother was related to the kings of Mercia[155].  Her birth date is estimated from her having given birth to her first child in 869.  "Ealhswith mater regis" subscribed a charter of King Edward dated 901[156].  She founded the convent of St Mary's at Winchester, and became a nun there after her husband died.  m (868) ALFRED of Wessex, son of ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex & his [first] wife Osburga (Wantage, Berkshire 849[157]-26 Oct 899, bur Winchester Cathedral, transferred to Hyde Abbey, Winchester, later called the New Minster).  He succeeded in 871 as ALFRED King of Wessex

 

 

 

B.      FAMILY of ÆTHELRED EALDORMAN of MERCIA

 

 

1.         ÆTHELRED (-912)Ealdorman of Mercia, ruling in the part of Mercia not ruled by the Danes, from [883] when he appears for the first time in a charter.  Alfred King of Wessex was his overlord.  He presided over the Mercian council and led the Mercian armies.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 885 "king Alfred occupied London…and he then entrusted the city to ealdorman Æthelred to rule"[158].  "Æthelred dux" subscribed a charter of King Alfred dated 892[159].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 893 "ealdorman Æthelred and ealdorman Æthelhelm and ealdorman Æthelnoth" besieged and later defeated the Danes "at Buttington on Severn shore"[160] [Buttington, near Welshpool, Montgomeryshire], consolidating English gains to the east and extending the authority of Wessex.  "Æthelredus principes Merciorum", "Æthelred" and "Æthelredus dux et dominator Merciorum" subscribed charters of King Edward dated [900/04] and [903/04][161].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death in 912 of "Æthelred ealdorman of Mercia"[162]m ([end 889]) ÆTHELFLÆD, daughter of ALFRED King of Wessex & his wife Ealhswith ([869]-Tamworth 12 Jun 918, bur Gloucester Cathedral).  Asser names (in order) "Ethelfled the eldest…Edward…Ethelgiva…Ethelwitha and Ethelwerd" as the children of King Alfred & his wife, specifying that Ethelfled was married to "Ethered earl of Mercia"[163].  "Egelfledam Merciorum dominam" is named by Roger of Hoveden first in his list of King Alfred's daughters by Queen Ealhswith[164].  "Æthelflæd conjux" subscribed a charter of "Æthelred dux et patricius gentis Merciorum" granting land in Oxfordshire to the bishopric of Worcester dated 887[165].  "Æthelflæd" also subscribed the joint charter of King Alfred and "Æthelred subregulus et patricius Merciorum" dated 889[166], the charter of "Æthered" dated 901, and three charters of King Edward dated 903 and 904, in the last of which her name is listed immediately after her husband's and before "Æthelswitha regina"[167].  Known as the "Lady of the Mercians", she effectively governed Mercia after her husband's death "save only London and Oxford"[168].  Florence of Worcester records that she carried out a plan of fortress building to protect Mercia from the Danes, at Bridgenorth in 912, Tamworth and Stafford in 913, Eddisbury Hill in Cheshire and Warwick in 914, and Chirbury and Runcorn in 915[169].  Her Mercian troops played a decisive part in her brother's offensive against the Danes in the Midlands in 917, conquering Derby and Tempsford where they killed the Danish king of the East Angles, and Leicester in early 918[170].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death in 918 of Æthelflæd "12 days before midsummer at Tamworth in the eighth year of her rule over Mercia as its rightful lord" and her burial at Gloucester St Peter's church[171].  Æthelred & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         [ÆTHELSTAN ([890/92]-[903/04]).  "Æthelstan dux filius Etheredi" subscribed the joint charter of King Edward and "Æthelred" dated [903/04], named immediately after "Æthelflæd" and before "Æthelred dux et dominator Merciorum" (assumed to be identified with the co-grantor) in the list of subscribers[172].  It is unlikely that this is a transcription error for "Æthelstan son of King Edward" as it seems improbable that even the most incompetent scribe would make a mistake in the name of the king.  The positioning of his name in the list of subscribers indicates a close relationship with Æthelflæd and her husband Æthelred.  His position before his supposed father may indicate seniority due to his blood relationship with the monarch.  There seems no reason not to propose that Æthelstan may have been this couple's son, unrecorded in other sources, who died soon after the date of the charter.] 

b)         ÆLFWYNN (-after 919).  She is named as her parents' only daughter by Roger of Hoveden[173].  After her mother's death, she was left in nominal authority in Mercia by her uncle King Edward "the Elder", until he had her removed from Mercia to Wessex in early Dec 919[174].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Ælfwynn, daughter of Æthelred lord of the Mercians, was deprived of all authority in Mercia and taken to Wessex three weeks before Christmas[175]

 

 

 

C.      FAMILY of WULFRIC "Spott"

 

 

1.         EALHHELM (-951 or after).  "Ælhhelm dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelstan dated 931[176], and "Ealhelm dux" charters of Kings Edmund and Eadred dated between 940 and 951[177]Ealdorman of Merciam ---.  The name of Ealhhelm's wife is not known.  Ealhhelm & his wife had one child:

a)         ÆLFRIC .  His parentage is confirmed by the epic of Maldon which names a Mercian Ælfwine, son of Ælfric, son of Ealhelm Ealdorman of Mercia and records his death in the battle[178]m ---.  The name of Ælfric's wife is not known.  Ælfric & his wife had two children:

i)          ÆLFWINE (-killed in battle Maldon 991, bur Burton).  "Alwine dux" subscribed a charter of King Edgar dated 966[179] and one of King Æthelred II dated 984[180], although the time difference suggests that they may have been two different individuals.  "Ælfwine dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred II dated 982[181].  The epic of Maldon names a Mercian Ælfwine, son of Ælfric, son of Ealhelm Ealdorman of Mercia and records his death in the battle[182].  The Historia Fundatoris of Burton Monastery records its foundation by “Consul ac comes Merciorum dominus Wulfricus Spott regali propinquus prosapiæ” and that "fratre suo duce Alwino et comite Morkero cæterisque cognatis eius" were buried there[183]

ii)         WULFRIC "Spott" (-killed in battle Ipswich 22 Oct 1010, bur Burton).  The Historia Fundatoris of Burton Monastery records its foundation by “Consul ac comes Merciorum dominus Wulfricus Spott regali propinquus prosapiæ” in 1004, adding that “eius conjux domina Elswitha” was buried there and that he was killed six years later "apud Gipiswich a Danis in bello…XI Kal Nov 1010" and was also buried in the monastery, where "fratre suo duce Alwino et comite Morkero cæterisque cognatis eius" were also buried[184].  The Annals of Burton record the foundation of the monastery in 1004 by “nobilis…Wlfricus cognomento Spot[185].  The will of "Wulfric", dated to [1002/04], bequeathes property (among other bequests) to "…minre goddehter Morkares & Aldgythe…land æt Strættune"[186].  [Florence of Worcester names "Wlfricus Leofwini filius" among those killed at the battle of Ringmere near Ipswich 9 Apr, dated to 1010[187].   According to Freeman, Wulfric son of Leofwin was the same person as Wulfric "Spot" who founded Burton monastery[188].  However, the reconstruction of the supposed family of Wulfric "Spot" shows that it is likely that his father was Ælfric.  The date of the battle in which Wulfric "Spot" was killed, according to the Historia Fundatoris of Burton monastery is different from the date of the battle of Ringmere as recorded by Florence of Worcester.  Is it possible that the two reports are referring to different battles in which two different individuals were killed?]  m ELSWITHA, daughter of --- (-bur Burton).  The Historia Fundatoris of Burton Monastery records its foundation by “Consul ac comes Merciorum dominus Wulfricus Spott regali propinquus prosapiæ” in 1004, adding that “eius conjux domina Elswitha” was buried there[189]

(a)       daughter .  The will of "Wulfric", dated to [1002/04], bequeathes property to "…minre earman dehter…landes æt Elleforda &…æt Aclea", with Ælfhelm appointed her guardian[190]

 

 

The following family group must have been closely related to Wulfric "Spott" as Ælfhelm and his two sons are beneficiaries under Wulfric´s will dated to [1002/04] (see above).  Maybe Ælfhelm was Wulfric´s brother. 

 

1.         ÆLFHELM (-murdered [1005/06]).  Member of a prominent Mercian family[191].  A 988 charter of King Æthelred II, relating among other areas to land at Wylye, Wiltshire, referred to the terrain having been owned previously by "Æthelwold and his brother Ælfhelm"[192].  However, there is no indication that this may have been the same person particularly as the timing is earlier than the other references found to Ealdorman Ælfhelm.  [Ealdorman of Northumbria.]  "Ælfhelm dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II between 993 and 1005[193].  These relate to land in Berkshire, Devonshire, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Kent, Oxfordshire, Warwickshire, Wiltshire, which does not suggest that his influence was restricted to a particular area, although among the various documents he was described as "Ælfhelm Northanhumbrensium Provinciarum dux" in a 997 charter (which related to land in Wiltshire)[194].  The will of "Wulfric", dated to [1002/04], bequeathes property (among other bequests) to "Ælfhelme & Wulfage…landa betwux Ribbel & Maerse…Ufegeate…landes æt Northtune…minre goddehter Morkares & Aldgythe…land æt Strættune"[195].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "ealdorman Ælfhelm was slain" in 1006[196].  Florence of Worcester states that he was murdered by Godwin "Port-Hund" at the instigation of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor"[197].  m WULFRUN of Northampton, daughter of ---.  Florence of Worcester names her "the noble lady Wulfruna"[198].   Ælfhelm & his wife had three children: 

a)         WULFHEAG (-after 1006).  The will of "Wulfric", dated to [1002/04], bequeathes property (among other bequests) to "Ælfhelme & Wulfage…landa betwux Ribbel & Maerse…Ufegeate…landes æt Northtune…"[199].  Florence of Worcester records that, with his brother, he was blinded by order of King Æthelred II in 1006 at Corsham[200]

b)         UFGEAT (-after 1006).  The will of "Wulfric", dated to [1002/04], bequeathes property (among other bequests) to "Ælfhelme & Wulfage…landa betwux Ribbel & Maerse…Ufegeate…landes æt Northtune…"[201].  Florence of Worcester records that, with his brother, he was blinded by order of King Æthelred II in 1006 at Corsham[202]

c)         ÆLFGIFU (Alfifa) Ælfhelmsdotter "of Northampton" (-after [1040]).  Roger of Wendover names "Algiva, Elfelmi comitis filia" as first wife of "regis Cnutonis" and mother of "duos…filios Suanum…et Haroldum"[203].  She was known as ALFIFA in Denmark and Norway.  King Knud took her as a "temporary wife"[204], but the "marriage" was not recognised by the church.  According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Harold claimed that he was the son of King Canute by "Ælfgifu of Northampton, although it was not true", another passage commenting that "many thought this [claim] quite incredible"[205].  She continued to behave as Queen in the north of England after King Canute married Emma.  King Canute appointed her co-regent in Norway in 1030 for their son Svend.  Morkinskinna records that “Álfifa” accompanied her son Svend back to Denmark after he was overthrown as king of Norway (in 1035)[206]Morkinskinna records that “Álfifa” tried unsuccessfully to poison Magnus King of Norway but killed “King Hordaknútr” instead (dated to 1042), and that “she vanished instantly so that she could not be punished”, stating that this took place “in the sixth year of King Magnus´s reign[207]Morkinskinna records that “Álfífa” tricked “a powerful duke named Otto south in Saxony”, when visiting “Norway and arrived in Vik”, into thinking that “her daughter…not King Sveinn´s sister by the same father” was Ulfhild, sister of Magnus King of Norway[208].  The paragraph refers to Ordulf Duke of Saxony who later married Ulfhild, their marriage being dated to Nov 1042.  This is the only reference so far identified to this supposed daughter.  However, it seems surprising that Ælfgifu would have been present in Norway and have been in a position to welcome foreign visitors, given that her son by King Canute had been overthrown as king of Norway by King Magnus.  All passages in Morkinskinna which refer to “Álfífa” treat her with disdain as the archetypal wicked queen figure, suggesting that they should all be treated with caution.  Weir gives her date of death as “1044?” without any basis for her conjecture[209].  Roger of Wendover records that death "Algiva, Elfelmi comitis filia", first wife of "regis Cnutonis", died in 1018[210], but this date is incompatible with the other sources quoted above.  [m] [firstly] (before [1015]) [as his first/temporary wife,] KNUT of England, son of SVEND I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark & his first wife Šwiętosława [Gunhild] of Poland ([995]-Shaftesbury, Dorset 12 Nov 1035, bur Winchester Cathedral).  He was accepted as CANUTE King of England in 1016, and succeeded his brother in 1018 as KNUD I "den Storre/the Great" King of Denmark.  [m [secondly] ---.]  Ælfgifu had one possible child by her supposed second marriage]: 

i)          [daughter (-after 1042).  Morkinskinna records that “Álfífa” tricked “a powerful duke named Otto south in Saxony”, when visiting “Norway and arrived in Vik”, into thinking that “her daughter…not King Sveinn´s sister by the same father” was Ulfhild, sister of Magnus King of Norway[211].  The paragraph refers to Ordulf Duke of Saxony who later married Ulfhild, their marriage being dated to Nov 1042.  This is the only reference so far identified to this supposed daughter.  However, it seems surprising that Ælfgifu would have been present in Norway and welcomed foreign visitors given that her son by King Canute had been overthrown as king of Norway by King Magnus.  All passages in Morkinskinna which refer to “Álfífa” treat her with disdain as the archetypal wicked queen figure, suggesting that they should all be treated with caution.] 

 

 

The following family group was related to Wulfric "Spott", according to the Historia Fundatoris of Burton Monastery, quoted below, and Wulfric´s will dated to [1002/04] (see above). 

 

1.         ARNGRIMm ---.  The name of Arngrim's wife is not known.  Arngrim & his wife had two children:

a)         SIGEFERTH (-murdered Oxford summer 1015).  Simeon of Durham records that "Sigeferth and Morkar the sons of Earngrim" were killed in 1015 on the orders of "duke Edric Streona" and that the king took possession of their estates[212].  Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made a bequest to "Sigeferth, an estate at Hockliffe"[213].  With his brother, he was one of the leading thegns of the northern Danelaw.  He was murdered on the orders of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" Ealdorman of Mercia[214]m as her first husband, ÆLDGYTH, daughter of ---.  After her husband was killed, she was arrested, but abducted against the wishes of King Æthelred II by his son Edmund, later Edmund "Ironsides" King of England, whom she married as her second husband.  Simeon of Durham records that Edmund married "Algitha widow of Sigeferth" in 1015[215]

b)         MORCAR (-murdered Oxford summer 1015, bur Burton).  King Æthelred II granted land in Derbyshire to "Morcar minister" under a charter dated 1009[216].  With his brother, he was one of the leading thegns of the northern Danelaw.  Simeon of Durham records that "Sigeferth and Morkar the sons of Earngrim" were killed in 1015 on the orders of "duke Edric Streona" and that the king took possession of their estates[217].  The Historia Fundatoris of Burton Monastery records its foundation by “Consul ac comes Merciorum dominus Wulfricus Spott regali propinquus prosapiæ” in 1004, adding that "…comite Morkero cæterisque cognatis eius" were buried there[218]m (before [1002/04]) EALDGYTH, daughter of ÆLFTHRYTH & his wife ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by the will of "Wulfric", dated to [1002/04], which bequeathes property (among other bequests) to "…minre goddehter Morkares & Aldgythe…land æt Strættune"[219].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Morcar & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          daughter .  The will of "Wulfric", dated to [1002/04], bequeathes property (among other bequests) to "…minre goddehter Morkares & Aldgythe…land æt Strættune"[220].  It is possible that this daughter was the same person as Morcar´s daughter Ælfgifu who is named below. 

ii)         ÆLFGIFU.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m as his first wife, ÆLFGAR Earl of Mercia, son of LEOFRIC Earl of Mercia & his wife Godgifu --- (-1062). 

 

 

 

D.      FAMILY of ÆLFHERE and ÆLFHEAH

 

 

Five children, parents not known.  As discussed below, the sources indicate that they may have been the children of Eadgifu, third wife of Edward "the Elder King of Wessex, by a second husband whose name is not known:

1.         ÆLFHERE (-983).  "Ælfhere dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelstan in 931 and 939 (two), and of King Edmund in 940, in all but one case his name being listed first after members of the royal family in the lists of subscribers presumably indicating his relative seniority at court[221].  The gap in timing between these charters and those between 955 and 983 subscribed by "Ælfhere dux" associated with Kings Eadwig, Edgar and Æthelred II suggests that they may refer to different individuals.  "Ælfhere ex parentela regis" subscribed a 955 charter of King Eadwig[222], the date being just prior to the first of the second set of appearances of "Ælfhere dux" which indicates that the two may be the same person.  The precise relationship with the king is unknown.  However, the most likely possibility is through the king's mother, third wife of King Edward.  This 955 charter was subscribed by "Ælfheah frater eius [of King Eadwig]" which also suggests a relationship between Ælfhere and Ælfheah (possibly supported by the similarity between the two names).  This relationship is clarified by the will of Ælfheah ealdorman, dated to [968/71], which bequeaths estates at Faringdon and Aldbourn to "my brother Ælfhere [and]…to his son Godwine the estate at Tudington"[223]Ealdorman of Mercia 956.  "Ælfhere dux" subscribed charters of Kings Eadwig, Edgar, and Æthelred II dated between 956 and 983[224].  He was also probably "Alchere dux" who subscribed a charter dated 981[225] as this is not one which was subscribed by Ælfhere.  If this is correct, he may also have been "Ælhere comes" who was the grantee of land in Olney, Buckinghamshire from King Æthelred dated 979[226].  The geographic distribution is broad, including land in Berkshire, Cornwall, Devon, Hampshire, Oxfordshire, Somerset, Sussex, Wiltshire and Yorkshire, suggesting that Ælfhere's influence was not limited to any particular region.  Florence of Worcester records that he expelled the monks from the Mercian monasteries founded by King Edgar after the king died in 975[227].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that he arranged the disinterment and transfer of the body of King Edward "the Martyr" from Wareham to Shaftesbury[228].  Simeon of Durham records the death in 983 of "Elfer duke of the Mercians a relative of Eadgar king of the Angles" and the succession of "his son Alfric" to the earldom[229].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death in 983 of ealdorman Ælfhere and that "Ælfric succeeded to the same ealdormanry", although without specifying the relationship between the two[230]m ---.  The name of Ælfhere's wife is not known.  Ælfhere & his wife had two children:

a)         ÆLFRIC (-killed in battle Ashingdon Oct 1016[231]).  Ealdorman of Mercia 983.  Simeon of Durham records the death in 983 of "Elfer duke of the Mercians a relative of Eadgar king of the Angles" and the succession of "his son Alfric" to the earldom[232].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death in 983 of ealdorman Ælfhere and states that "Ælfric succeeded to the same ealdormanry", although without specifying the relationship between the two[233].  "Ælfric dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated between 983 and 1014[234].  Of these, three (dated 983 and 984) were subscribed twice by "Ælfric dux"[235] suggesting that there were two different ealdormen of this name at the time, although this seems unlikely.  The geographical coverage included Berkshire, Hampshire, Kent, Oxfordshire, Somerset, Staffordshire, Warwickshire and Wiltshire, indicating broadly based influence throughout the country as was the case with his father, although he was described as "Ælfric Wentaniensium Provinciarum dux" in a charter dated 997[236].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that ealdorman Ælfric was banished in 985[237], although the period of disgrace and absence must have been short as he subscribed charters dated both 986 and 987 (unless there were two ealdormen with the same name as suggested above)[238].  Simeon of Durham records that "Alfric duke of the Mercians son of duke Alfer" was expelled from England in 986[239].  Florence of Worcester records that he was one of those who advised King Æthelred II to pay tribute to the Danes in 991[240], and that he betrayed King Æthelred's naval preparations to the Danes in 992[241].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that he was in command of the English army sent to meet Svend of Denmark in Wiltshire in 1003 but feigned sickness to avoid combat, commenting that he was "up to his old tricks"[242].  Simeon of Durham names "duke Alfric" among those killed in 1016 in the final battle between King Edmund II and Knud of Denmark[243]m ---.  The name of Ælfric's wife is not known.  Ælfric & his wife had one child:

i)          ÆLFGAR (-after 1004).  "Ælfgar dux" subscribed a 987 charter of King Aethelred II[244].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that King Æthelred ordered Ælfgar, son of ealdorman Ælfric, to be blinded in 993[245].  "Ælfgar comes" subscribed a 1004 charter of King Aethelred II[246]

b)         EADWIG (-killed in battle Ringmere 5 May 1010).  Florence of Worcester names him as brother of Ælfric "before-mentioned", stating that he was killed by the Danes after they landed near Ipswich[247].  Simeon of Durham names "Edwy the brother of Elfic" among those killed in battle by the Danes "in East Anglia…Ringmere"[248]

2.         ÆLFHEAH (-[971/72]).  "Ælfheah frater eius" and "Ælfheah propinquus" subscribed charters of King Eadwig in 955 and 956, both relating to land in Wiltshire[249].  There is no other evidence that King Eadwig had a full or half-brother on his father's side of this name.  The alternative possibilities are that Ælfheah was his uterine brother, his brother-in-law, or adoptive brother (although "propinquus" does not suggest an adoptive relationship).  Ealdorman of Hampshire 957.  "Ælfheah dux" subscribed charters of King Edgar between 959 and 970, charters which mainly related to grants of land in Berkshire, Hampshire, Somerset, Sussex and Wiltshire[250].  "Alfheal dux" subscribed King Edgar's 963 charter relating to land in Yorkshire[251], the geographical distance from the land to which the other charters relate suggesting that this might have been a different person although no other references to a "dux" of this name have been identified in other contemporary charters.  He is assumed to be "Elfegus Southamptoniensis dux" who subscribed a 966 charter of King Edgar[252].  King Edgar granted land in Dulwich, Surrey to "Ælfheah comes et Ælfswith uxori sui" in 967[253].  The will of Ælfheah ealdorman dated to [968/71] bequeaths estates at Faringdon and Aldbourn to "his brother Ælfhere.  And to his son Godwine the estate at Tudington", Purton "to Ælfweard and Wycombe to his kinsman [mege] Æthelweard and Froxfield to his sister's son Ælfwine", all other estates "to my wife Ælfswith…after her death to our son Ælfweard if he is still alive, if he is not, my brothers to succeed to it"[254]m firstly ---.  Godwin's mother was presumably not Ælfswith as Godwin is referred to in his father's will as "his son" (meaning Ælfheah's) in contrast to Ælfweard who is referred to in the will as "our son" (meaning the son of Ælfheah and Ælfswith).  m secondly ÆLFSWITH, daughter of ---.  King Edward granted land at Batcombe, Somerset dated 940 to "Elswithe meo propinquo .. et fideli ministro", which it has been suggested means Ælfheah the king's kinsman and Ælfswith his wife[255].  King Edgar granted land in Dulwich, Surrey to "Ælfheah comes et Ælfswith uxori sui" in 967253.  The will of Ælfheah ealdorman dated to [968/71] bequeaths any unspecified estates "to my wife Ælfswith…after her death to our son Ælfweard if he is still alive, if he is not, my brothers to succeed to it"[256].  Ælfheah & his first wife had one child: 

a)         GODWIN .  The will of Ælfheah ealdorman dated to [968/71] bequeaths estates at Faringdon and Aldbourn to "his brother Ælfhere.  And to his son Godwine the estate at Tudington"[257].  Godwin's mother was presumably not Ælfswith as he is referred to as "his son" (meaning Ælfheah's) in contrast to Ælfweard who is referred to in the will as "our son" (meaning the son of Ælfheah and Ælfswith). 

Ælfheah & his second wife had one child: 

b)         ÆLFWEARD .  The will of Ælfheah ealdorman dated to [968/71] bequeaths any unspecified estates "to my wife Ælfswith…after her death to our son Ælfweard if he is still alive, if he is not, my brothers to succeed to it"[258]

3.         ÆLFWEARD .  The Chronicle of Evesham names Ælfweard brother of Ælfheah[259].  The will of Ælfheah ealdorman dated to [968/71] bequeaths Purton "to Ælfweard…"[260].  The will does not specify the relationship between the testator and Ælfweard.  It could either by Ælfweard, son of Ælfheah, who is named elsewhere in the will or Ælfweard, named in the Chronicle of Evesham as the brother of Ælfheah.  It is clear from the will that Ælfheah had more than one brother alive at the date it was written as the text specifies that "my brothers are to succeed" to estates left to Ælfheah's son Ælfweard if the latter died.  However, it is more likely that both references in the will to "Ælfweard" refer to the same individual as they are not qualified in any way, for instance by "my brother" or "my son". 

4.         sister .  m ---. 

a)         ÆLFWINE .  The will of Ælfheah ealdorman dated to [968/71] bequeaths "…Froxfield to his sister's son Ælfwine"[261]

5.         [ÆLFRIC .  "Ælfric adoptivus parens" was grantee of land at Hanney, Berkshire under a 956 charter of King Eadwig[262].  It is not clear what this term means, but it is possible that he was another uterine brother of the king.] 

 

 

Relative of the brothers Ælfhere and Ælfheah, the exact relationship is not known: 

1.         ÆTHELWEARD .  The will of Ælfheah ealdorman dated to [968/71] bequeaths "…Wycombe to his kinsman [mege] Æthelweard…"[263]

 

 

 

E.      FAMILY of EADRIC "Streona" EALDORMAN of MERCIA

 

 

ÆTHELRIC .  Florence of Worcester names (in order) Eadric "Streona", Beorhtric, Ælfric, Goda, Æthelwine, Æthelweard and Æthelmær as the seven sons of Æthelric[264].  Kelly suggests that the name of the father "Æthelric" was a mistranscription for Æthelweard, whom he suggests was the same person as the chronicler, an alleged descendant of King Æthelred I[265], but this is not consistent with Florence of Worcester describing his son Eadric as a "man of low origin"[266]

m ---.  The name of Æthelric's wife is not known. 

Æthelric & his wife had seven children:

1.         EADRIC "Streona/the Acquisitor" (-murdered London 25 Dec 1017).  Florence of Worcester records that King Æthelred appointed "Edricum…Ægelrici filium…hominem humili quidem genere" as "ducem", dated to [1007], adding that he was "callentem ingenio, suavem eloquio…tum invidia atque perfidia, tum superbia et crudelitate"[267].  He was one of the principal advisers of King Æthelred II from [1006], acquiring a position of considerable power but also a reputation for treachery.  Henry of Huntingdon records that he was made Ealdorman of Mercia in 1007[268].  "Eadric dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II between 1007 and 1015[269].  He changed sides several times during 1014/1016, wavering between Edmund "Ironsides" or Canute, presumably depending on who had the upper hand at the time, but finally abandoned Edmund's cause at the battle of Ashingdon.  Simeon of Durham records that King Canute granted Mercia to "duke Edric" in 1017[270].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that King Canute appointed Eadric as Ealdorman of Mercia in 1017, but had him murdered later in the same year[271].  According to Florence of Worcester, his body "was thrown over the city walls and left unburied"[272]m firstly ---.  No information has been found concerning Eadric's first wife, but this first marriage is indicated by the reference to a son of Eadric being adult in 1016 (see below).  m secondly (1009) [as her first husband,] EADGYTH, daughter of ÆTHELRED II "Unræd" King of England & his first wife Ælflæd --- (-after 11 Nov 1021).  Roger of Hoveden names her as the daughter of King Æthelred when recording her first marriage[273].  Florence of Worcester records that she was banished from England with her second husband 11 Nov 1021[274].  [It is suggested that Eadgyth married secondly Thorkell "Havi/the Tall".  There appears to be no primary source proof corroborating her supposed second marriage.  Florence of Worcester records that King Canute expelled "Turkillum…comitem cum uxore sua Edgitha" from England 11 Nov, dated to 1021[275].   Presumably Thorkill married her after joining forces with Æthelred II King of England.  Freeman says that "I suspect that it was Eadric´s widow whom Thurkill married. At the same time I cannot lay my hand on any authority for Thurkill´s wife being a daughter of Æthelred; but it is very likely and such a connection would account for Cnut´s jealousy of him"[276].  However, this would place the marriage to after 25 Dec 1017, when Eadric "Streona" was murdered, during the reign of King Canute who would most likely have arranged or approved the marriage, suggesting that it is illogical to suggest that the marriage would have been the basis for "Cnut´s jealousy".]  Eadric & his first wife had [one] child:

a)         [son .  According to Henry of Huntingdon, King Edmund "Ironsides" was murdered by the son of Eadric Streona[277].] 

2.         BEORHTRIC (-murdered 1017).  Florence of Worcester names "Brihtricus, Ælfricus, Goda, Ægelwinus, Ægelwardus, Ægelmærus, pater Wlnothi, patris West-Saxonum ducis Godwini" as the brothers of "Edricum…Ægelrici filium…ducem"[278].  Roger of Hoveden names him as brother of Eadric Streona, calling him "homo lubricus, ambitiosus et superbus"[279].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "Beorhtric the brother of the ealdorman Eadric" denounced "Wulfnoth a nobleman of Sussex" to the king in [1008] for unspecified crimes, after which Wulfnoth fled the country only to return to burn the king´s ships[280].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "Beorhtric son of Ælfheah of Devon" as among those killed in 1017[281]

3.         ÆLFRIC .  Florence of Worcester names "Brihtricus, Ælfricus, Goda, Ægelwinus, Ægelwardus, Ægelmærus, pater Wlnothi, patris West-Saxonum ducis Godwini" as the brothers of "Edricum…Ægelrici filium…ducem"[282].  Florence of Worcester names "Ælfrici fratris Edrici Streonæ" when recording his son's rebellion against King William in [1067][283]m ---.  The name of Ælfric's wife is not known.  Ælfric & his wife had one child:

a)         EADRIC "Silvaticus/the Forester" or "Guilda/the Wild" (-after 1072).  Florence of Worcester records that "Edricus cognomento Silvaticus filius Ælfrici fratris Edrici Streonæ" rebelled against King William in [1067] and that his land was overrun[284].  The same source records that "Edricus cognomento Silvaticus" was reconciled with King William in [1070][285], and that he attended the king on an expedition to Scotland in 1072[286].  Orderic Vitalis records that “Edwinus et Morcarus filii Ælfgari comitis...Coxo comes...Siwardus et Aldredus filii Ædelgari pronepotes regis, Edricus...cognomento Guilda id est sylvaticus nepos Edrici pestiferi ducis cognomento Streone id est adquisitoris” made peace with William I King of England, dated to 1067[287].    

4.         GODA .  Florence of Worcester names "Brihtricus, Ælfricus, Goda, Ægelwinus, Ægelwardus, Ægelmærus, pater Wlnothi, patris West-Saxonum ducis Godwini" as the brothers of "Edricum…Ægelrici filium…ducem"[288]

5.         ÆTHELWINE .  Florence of Worcester names "Brihtricus, Ælfricus, Goda, Ægelwinus, Ægelwardus, Ægelmærus, pater Wlnothi, patris West-Saxonum ducis Godwini" as the brothers of "Edricum…Ægelrici filium…ducem"[289]

6.         ÆTHELWARD .  Florence of Worcester names "Brihtricus, Ælfricus, Goda, Ægelwinus, Ægelwardus, Ægelmærus, pater Wlnothi, patris West-Saxonum ducis Godwini" as the brothers of "Edricum…Ægelrici filium…ducem"[290]

7.         ÆTHELMERE .  Florence of Worcester names "Brihtricus, Ælfricus, Goda, Ægelwinus, Ægelwardus, Ægelmærus, pater Wlnothi, patris West-Saxonum ducis Godwini" as the brothers of "Edricum…Ægelrici filium…ducem"[291]m ---.  The name of Æthelmere's wife is not known.  Æthelmere & his wife had [one child]: 

a)         [WULFNOTH .  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "Beorhtric the brother of the ealdorman Eadric" denounced "Wulfnoth a nobleman of Sussex" to the king in [1008] for unspecified crimes, after which Wulfnoth fled the country only to return, take 20 ships from the king´s fleet, and ravage the south coast and burn the rest of the king´s navy, one manuscript naming him "quendam nobilem virum…Wlnothum (patrem Godwini ducis)"[292].  Florence of Worcester names "Brihtricus, Ælfricus, Goda, Ægelwinus, Ægelwardus, Ægelmærus, pater Wlnothi, patris West-Saxonum ducis Godwini" as the brothers of "Edricum…Ægelrici filium…ducem", and within a few lines in the same paragraph repeats the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle´s report about "Brihtric" accusing "Suth-Saxonicum ministrum Wlnothum" of treachery[293].   This text, and the one quoted above from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, are contradictory, when read together, in suggesting that Wulfnoth, accused by Beorhtric, was the same person as Beorhtric´s nephew.  Freeman argues cogently that Florence did not intend to identify Wulfnoth, the supposed nephew of Eadric, with Wulfnoth, the alleged traitor, arguing along similar lines to what has just been said[294].  He highlights that Florence does not make this connection in his two passages, although the one closely follows the other and it seems surprising that such a link would have been omitted if it had existed.  In addition, from a chronological point of view, it is unlikely that Godwin was the grandson of the brother of Eadric "Streona", who died in 1017 and about whom there is no indication that he was very old at that time.  The chronology suggests, rather, that Eadric "Streona" and Godwin´s father would have been contemporaries.  Another interesting fact is that Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made a bequest to "Godwine, Wulfnoth's son, the estate at Compton which his father possessed", listed second among the bequests to non-members of the royal family[295].  The wording of the bequest is consistent with the land in question having been confiscated, and such confiscation would have followed if Earl Godwin´s father had been the Wulfnoth Child who was accused of treachery.  Freeman highlights that Domesday Book records the two places ini Sussex called Compton as having been held, respectively, by King Harold II (Earl Godwin´s son) and a tenant of Earl Godwin[296].  This strongly suggests that the beneficiary under Ætheling Æthelstan´s will was Earl Godwin, and that he was the son of Wulfnoth Child, the alleged traitor.  In conclusion, it appears unlikely that Florence of Worcester was correct in stating that Godwin´s father was Eadric "Streona"´s nephew.  However, it is unclear whether Wulfnoth, son of Æthelmere, did exist as a historical person, who was not the father of Earl Godwin.] 

 

 

 

F.      FAMILY of LEOFWINE EALDORMAN of MERCIA, later EARLS of MERCIA

 

 

The following supposed ancestry of Leofwine Ealdorman of Mercia is taken from the Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery[297].  Most of the details have not been confirmed in other primary sources.  It should be noted that the chronology is extended.  Freeman dates this document to no earlier than the reign of King John[298].  This alleged ancestry should be treated with considerable caution. 

 

 

1.         LEOFRIC (-before [757]).  The Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery names “Leofricus comes Leicestriæ, tempore Ethelbaldi regis Merciorum” (716-757)[299]m ---.  The name of Leofric´s wife is not known.  Leofric & his wife had [one child]: 

a)         [ÆLFGAR (-before 839, bur Croyland Abbey, Lincolnshire).  The Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery records that “Algarum…comes Lincoln, dictus…Egga” was the son of “Leofricus comes Leicestriæ, tempore Ethelbaldi regis Merciorum”, lived “tempore Offæ, Kenulfi et Withlafi regum” (757-839), and was buried in Croyland abbey[300].]  m ---.  The name of Alfgar´s wife is not known.  Alfgar & his wife had [one child]: 

i)          [ÆLFGAR (-killed in battle Strekingham, Kesteven [before 874], bur Croyland Abbey, Lincolnshire.  The Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery records that “Algarus secundus” was the son of “Algarus primus” and lived “tempore Bernulfi et Burredi regum Merciorum” (823-874), was killed by the Danes “Ungar et Ubba” at “Kesteven apud Strekingham” and was buried at Croyland abbey[301].]  m ---.  The name of Alfgar´s wife is not known.  Alfgar & his wife had [one child]: 

(a)       [LEOFRIC (-before [924]).  The Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery records that “Leofricus secundus” was the son of “Algarus secundus” and lived “tempore Alfredi et Edwardi primi” (871-924)[302].]  m ---.  The name of Leofric´s wife is not known.  Leofric & his wife had [one child]: 

(1)       [LEOFWINE (-1023).  The Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery records that “Leofwinus” was the son of “Leofricus secundus” and lived “tempore Ethelstani, Edmundi, Edredi, et Edgari regum Angliæ” (924-975)[303].  "Leofwine propinquus regis" subscribed a charter of King Eadwig dated 955[304].  The precise family connection with the king is not known.  If this is the same Leofwine who was an ealdorman under Kings Edward and Æthelred II, he may have been sent as a child to the court of King Eadwig.  If this was the case, it would explain the time lapse before his next appearance in charters.  It is also possible that Leofwine was related to the brothers Ælfhere and Ælfheah, which would explain the transmission of the ealdormanship of Mercia between the two families.] 

-         see below

 

 

LEOFWINE, son of [LEOFRIC & his wife ---] (-1023).  [The Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery records that “Leofwinus” was the son of “Leofricus secundus” and lived “tempore Ethelstani, Edmundi, Edredi, et Edgari regum Angliæ” (924-975)[305].  "Leofwine propinquus regis" subscribed a charter of King Eadwig dated 955[306].  The precise family connection with the king is not known.  If this is the same Leofwine who was an ealdorman under Kings Edward and Æthelred II, he may have been sent as a child to the court of King Eadwig.  If this was the case, it would explain the time lapse before his next appearance in charters.  It is also possible that Leofwine was related to the brothers Ælfhere and Ælfheah, which would explain the transmission of the ealdormanship of Mercia between the two families.]  "Leofwine dux" subscribed charters of King Edward in 976 and 977, and of King Æthelred II dated between 994 and 1015[307], the charter dated 997 specifying that he was "Leofwine Wicciarium-Provinciarum dux"[308].  Ealdorman of the Hwicce in Mercia.  King Æthelred II granted "Leofwine dux" land in Warwickshire under a charter dated 998[309].  It is possible that Leofwine was appointed Ealdorman of Mercia after the death of Eadric "Streona" in 1017, but this is not confirmed by any primary source. 

m ---.  The name of Leofwine's wife is not known. 

Leofwine & his wife had four children:

1.         WULFRIC (-killed in battle Ringmere 5 May 1010).  Florence of Worcester names "Wlfricus Leofwini filius" among those killed at the battle of Ringmere near Ipswich[310].   Roger of Hoveden names Wulfric as son of Leofwine when recording his death fighting the Danes[311].  Simeon of Durham names "Wlfric the son of Leofwin" among those killed in battle by the Danes "in East Anglia…Ringmere"[312].  According to Freeman, Wulfric son of Leofwin was the same person as Wulfric "Spot" who founded Burton monastery[313].  However, the reconstruction of the supposed family of Wulfric "Spot" shows it is likely that his father was Ælfric (see above).  The date of the battle in which Wulfric "Spot" was killed, according to the Historia Fundatoris of Burton monastery is different from the date of the battle of Ringmere as recorded by Florence of Worcester.  Is it possible that the two reports are referring to different battles in which two different individuals were killed? 

2.         NORTHMAN (-murdered 1017[314]).  The Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery names “Leofricum postea comitem, et Edwinum occisum per Walenses, et Normannum occisum cum Edrico duce Merciorum per Cnutonem regem” as sons of “Leofwinus comes Leicestriæ[315].  "Northman dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred II dated 994[316].  Florence of Worcester records that "Norman son of Leofwin the ealdorman" was killed on the orders of King Canute at the same time as Eadric "Streona"[317]Ealdorman of Mercia.  Simeon of Durham records that "(though guiltless) duke Northman the son of duke Leofwin, the brother of earl Leofric" was among those killed at the same time as Eadric "Streona" in 1017[318].  ”Leofricus comes…et conjux mea Godgyve” donated property to Evesham Monastery by undated charter which names “frater meus Normannus[319]

3.         LEOFRIC (-30 Oct 1057, bur Coventry).  The Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery names “Leofricum postea comitem, et Edwinum occisum per Walenses, et Normannum occisum cum Edrico duce Merciorum per Cnutonem regem” as sons of “Leofwinus comes Leicestriæ[320].  Simeon of Durham records that King Canute appointed "Leofric" as Ealdorman [Earl] of Mercia after his brother Northman was killed in 1017[321], although this was apparently during the lifetime of their father. 

-        see below

4.         EADWIN (-killed in battle Rhyd-y-Groes 1039).  The Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery names “Leofricum postea comitem, et Edwinum occisum per Walenses, et Normannum occisum cum Edrico duce Merciorum per Cnutonem regem” as sons of “Leofwinus comes Leicestriæ[322].  "Edwin the ealdorman's son" is recorded as present in a record of a lawsuit in Herefordshire dated [1016/35][323].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that he was killed by the Welsh[324]

 

 

LEOFRIC, son of LEOFWINE Ealdorman [of the Hwicce] in Mercia & his wife --- (-Bromley 30 Oct 1057, bur Coventry[325]).  The Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery names “Leofricum postea comitem, et Edwinum occisum per Walenses, et Normannum occisum cum Edrico duce Merciorum per Cnutonem regem” as sons of “Leofwinus comes Leicestriæ[326].  This "comitis Radulfi…Scalre" has not otherwise been identified nor any possible relationship with Leofric.  Simeon of Durham records that King Canute appointed "Leofric" as Ealdorman [Earl] of Mercia after his brother Northman was killed in 1017[327], although this was apparently during the lifetime of their father.  He and his wife founded the abbey of Coventry in 1043[328].  “Leofricus comes” founded the monastery of Coventry by undated charter[329].  ”Leofricus comes…et conjux mea Godgyve” donated property to Evesham Monastery by undated charter which names “frater meus Normannus[330]

m GODGIFU, sister of THOROLD de Bukenhale, Sheriff of Lincolnshire, daughter of --- (-after [1054/57]).  She is named as wife of Earl Leofric by Florence of Worcester, who specifies that she and her husband founded monasteries at Leominster, Wenlock, Chester and Stowe[331].  The Annals of Peterborough record that “Thoroldus vicecomes et frater germanus Godivæ comitissæ Leycestriæ” founded Spalding Monastery in 1052[332].  Her family origin is also indicated by the undated charter under which “Thoroldus de Bukenhale…vicecomiti” donated Spalding monastery to Croyland abbey which names “domino meo Leofrico comite Leicestriæ et…comitissa sua domina Godiva sorore mea…et cognati mei comitis Algari primogeniti et hæredis eorum[333].  The De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis names "Aediva trinepta Oslaci ducis" as wife of "Lefricus de Brunne, nepos comitis Radulfi cognominati Scalre", when recording that they were parents of "Herwardus"[334].  "Oslaci ducis" could be "Oslac" recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as "earl [of Northumbria]" in 966[335], but any precise relationship has not been identified.  ”Leofricus comes…et conjux mea Godgyve” donated property to Evesham Monastery by undated charter which names “frater meus Normannus[336].  Godgifu wife of Leofric granted property to St Mary's, Stow by charter dated [1054/57][337].  Orderic Vitalis records that “Elfgarus comes” had founded “Coventrense cœnobium” and that “Godiova...comitissa” donated “omnem thesaurum suum” to the church[338].  She was the Lady Godiva of legend. 

Leofric & his wife had one child: 

1.         ÆLFGAR (-[1062]).  The Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery names “Algarus tertius” as son of “Leofricus tertius[339].  Florence of Worcester records that he was created Earl of the East Angles in 1053, in succession to Harold, son of Godwin, who had succeeded his father as Earl of Wessex[340].  Florence of Worcester also records that Ælfgar was banished in 1055 by King Edward "without any just cause of offence"[341].  He went to Ireland, then to Wales where he allied himself with Gruffydd ap Llywellyn King of Gwynedd and Powys, and invaded England, sacking Hereford in Oct 1055[342].  He was reinstated in 1056 when Gruffydd accepted Edward's overlordship.  Florence of Worcester records that Ælfgar was appointed to succeed his father in 1057 as Earl of Mercia[343], the earldom of the East Angles passing to Gyrth, son of Godwin.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 1057 he was banished again[344], but Florence of Worcester states that he forced his restoration in 1058 with the help of Gruffydd and a Norwegian fleet[345].  His death removed from the scene the only potential challenger to Harold Earl of Wessex.  Orderic Vitalis records that “Elfgarus comes” had founded “Coventrense cœnobium” and that “Godiova...comitissa” donated “omnem thesaurum suum” to the church[346]m firstly ÆLFGIFU, daughter of MORCAR & his wife Ealdgyth ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m secondly ([1058]) --- of Gwynedd, daughter of GRUFFYDD ap Llywellyn Prince of Gwynedd and Powys & his first wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Earl Ælfgar & his first wife had three children: 

a)         EDWIN (-killed 1071).  Orderic Vitalis names “Eduinum, Morcarum et unam filiam...Aldit” as the children of “Elfgarus comes” and “Godiova...comitissa” [error, see above][347].  The Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery names “Edwinum et Morcar postea comites” as sons of “Algarus tertius[348].  He succeeded his father in 1062 as Earl of Mercia.  With support from his brother, he expelled Tostig, son of Godwin, from Lindsay in 1066.  John of Worcester records that they at first supported the claim of Edgar Atheling to succeed Harold II as King of England after the battle of Hastings, but soon withdrew their armies and swore allegiance to King William I at Berkhamsted[349].  Orderic Vitalis records that, after King Harold was killed, “Stigandus Cantuarensis archiepiscopus et præclari comites Eduinus et Morcarus aliique primates Anglorum” who were not present at “Senlacio bello” established “Edgarum Clitonem filium Eduardi regis Hunorum, filii Edmundi Irneside” as king, but renouncing Edgar (“Edgarum abrogantes”) they and Edgar made peace with Guillaume II Duke of Normandy[350].  Orderic Vitalis records that “Edwinus et Morcarus filii Ælfgari comitis...Coxo comes...Siwardus et Aldredus filii Ædelgari pronepotes regis, Edricus...cognomento Guilda id est sylvaticus nepos Edrici pestiferi ducis cognomento Streone id est adquisitoris” made peace with William I King of England, dated to 1067[351].  Florence of Worcester records that "…comites Edwinum et Morkarum…" went with King William to Normandy 21 Feb [1067][352].  Orderic Vitalis records that “Stigandum archipræsulem, Edgarum Adelinum Eduardi regis consobrinum et tres...comites: Eduinum, Morcarum et Guallevum, Egelnodum quoque Cantuariensem satrapam” accompanied King William to Normandy, dated to 1067 from the context[353].  They rebelled against William in 1068, leaving court for Yorkshire, but were soon brought to submission: Orderic Vitalis records that “juvenes Eduinus et Morcarus filii Elfgari comitis” rebelled against King William in 1068, triggered because the king had promised “filiam suam” in marriage to Edwin but reneged on the promise, recording in a later passage their capitulation[354].  Orderic Vitalis records that King William besieged “comitem Morcarum” in “Eliensi insula”, but captured him and imprisoned him for life under the guardianship of “Rogerii oppidani Belmontis”, whereupon “juvenis Eduinus comes” sought help for six months from “Scotis et Guallis vel Anglis” but was betrayed by three servants and killed, dated to 1071[355].  Florence of Worcester records that "comites Edwinus et Morkarus" rebelled against King William in [1071], and that Edwin was killed[356]

b)         MORCAR (-after 1087).  Orderic Vitalis names “Eduinum, Morcarum et unam filiam...Aldit” as the children of “Elfgarus comes” and “Godiova...comitissa” [error, see above][357].  The Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery names “Edwinum et Morcar postea comites” as sons of “Algarus tertius[358].  Snorre names “Earl Morukare”, although stating that he was the son of “Earl Gudin Ulfnadson” and “Earl Ulf´s sister Gyda[359].  He was chosen by the Northumbrians as Earl of Northumbria in 1065 to replace Tostig, son of Godwin Earl of Wessex.  With support from his brother, he expelled Tostig, son of Godwin, from Lindsay in 1066.  John of Worcester records that they at first supported the claim of Edgar Atheling to succeed Harold II as King of England after the battle of Hastings, but soon withdrew their armies and swore allegiance to King William I at Berkhamsted[360].  Orderic Vitalis records that, after King Harold was killed, “Stigandus Cantuarensis archiepiscopus et præclari comites Eduinus et Morcarus aliique primates Anglorum” who were not present at “Senlacio bello” established “Edgarum Clitonem filium Eduardi regis Hunorum, filii Edmundi Irneside” as king, but renouncing Edgar (“Edgarum abrogantes”) they and Edgar made peace with Guillaume II Duke of Normandy[361].  Orderic Vitalis records that “Edwinus et Morcarus filii Ælfgari comitis...Coxo comes...Siwardus et Aldredus filii Ædelgari pronepotes regis, Edricus...cognomento Guilda id est sylvaticus nepos Edrici pestiferi ducis cognomento Streone id est adquisitoris” made peace with William I King of England, dated to 1067[362].  Florence of Worcester records that "…comites Edwinum et Morkarum…" went with King William to Normandy 21 Feb [1067][363].  Orderic Vitalis records that “Stigandum archipræsulem, Edgarum Adelinum Eduardi regis consobrinum et tres...comites: Eduinum, Morcarum et Guallevum, Egelnodum quoque Cantuariensem satrapam” accompanied King William to Normandy, dated to 1067 from the context[364].  They rebelled against William in 1068, leaving court for Yorkshire, but were soon brought to submission: Orderic Vitalis records that “juvenes Eduinus et Morcarus filii Elfgari comitis” rebelled against King William in 1068, triggered because the king had promised “filiam suam” in marriage to Edwin but reneged on the promise, recording in a later passage their capitulation[365].  Orderic Vitalis records that King William besieged “comitem Morcarum” in “Eliensi insula”, but captured him and imprisoned him for life under the guardianship of “Rogerii oppidani Belmontis”, dated to 1071[366].  Orderic Vitalis states that Morcar joined the resistance at Ely in 1071[367], but surrendered to the king.  Florence of Worcester records that "comites Edwinus et Morkarus" rebelled against King William in [1071], and that "Morkarus…et Siwardus cognomento Barn" took refuge in Ely[368].  Florence of Worcester records that "comites Morkarum et Rogerum, Siwardum cognomento Barn, et Wlnothum regis Haroldi germanum" were released by King William on his deathbed in 1087[369].  He was taken to England by King William II but placed in confinement again in Winchester. 

c)         EALDGYTH.  Florence of Worcester´s genealogies name "regina Aldgitha, comitis Ælfgari filia" as mother of King Harold´s son "Haroldum"[370].  Orderic Vitalis records that "Edwinus…et Morcarus comites, filii Algari…Edgivam sororem eorum" married firstly "Gritfridi…regis Guallorum" and secondly "Heraldo"[371].  In a later passage, the same source names her “Aldit[372].  Her parentage and marriage to King Harold are confirmed by Florence of Worcester who records that "earls Edwin and Morcar…sent off their sister Queen Elgitha to Chester" after the battle of Hastings[373].  There is no source which pinpoints the date of Ealdgyth´s second marriage.  Freeman suggests that the absence of any reference to his queen in the sources which record the circumstances of Harold´s accession and coronation may indicate that his marriage took place afterwards[374].  If Harold's son Ulf was legitimate, the marriage would have taken place in the earlier part of the date range which is shown above.  m firstly as his second wife, GRUFFYDD ap Llywellyn Prince of Gwynedd and Powys, son of LLYWELLYN ap Seisyll King of Gwynedd & his wife Angharad of Gwynedd (-killed Snowdonia 5 Aug 1063).  m secondly ([1064/early 1066]) HAROLD Earl of Wessex, son of GODWIN Earl of Wessex & his wife Gytha of Denmark ([1022/25]-killed in battle Hastings 14 Oct 1066, bur [Waltham Abbey]).  He succeeded in 1066 as HAROLD II King of England

 

 

 

G.      HEREWARD the WAKE

 

 

The reconstruction shown below is based partly on Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland which records many supposed details of the life and rebellion of Hereward[375].  The background to this so-called "Pseudo-Ingulph" is fully explained in the introduction to Riley´s edition.  Freeman suggests that "the story in the false Ingulf is not to be wholly cast aside, as it may contain some genuine Crowland tradition"[376].  Round is more dismissive[377].  The background to Ingulph´s Chronicle and its continuations has more recently been discussed by Roffe[378] and by Edwards[379].  Corroboration for parts of the story in Ingulph, and in the similarly dubious De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis, can be found in other more reliable sources, which indicates that Hereward was certainly a historical figure. 

 

 

[Two brothers]: 

1.         [LEOFRIC of Bourne (-[1066/67]).  The De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis names "Lefricus de Brunne, nepos comitis Radulfi cognominati Scalre" [Ralph the Staller?], when recording that he was father of "Herwardus"[380].  Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records "the lord of Brunne and of the adjoining marshes Leofric…kinsman of Radulph the great earl of Hereford, who had married Goda, the sister of king Edward"[381]m EADGYTH, daughter of ---.  The De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis names "Herwardus" as son of "Lefricus de Brunne, nepos comitis Radulfi cognominati Scalre" and his wife "Aediva trinepta Oslaci ducis", being the "Hereward the Wake" of semi-legend[382].  Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland names "Ediva…granddaughter in the fifth degreee of the mighty duke Oslac, who formerly lived in the time of king Edgar" as wife of "lord of Brunne…Leofric"[383].]  Leofric & his wife had [one child]: 

a)         [HEREWARD (-bur [Croyland]).  The De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis names "Herwardus" as son of "Lefricus de Brunne, nepos comitis Radulfi cognominati Scalre" and his wife "Aediva trinepta Oslaci ducis", being the "Hereward the Wake" of semi-legend[384].  Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland names "Heward" as son of "lord of Brunne…Leofric" and his wife, adding that he was outlawed for his violent exploits by King Edward "the Confessor", "first…to Northumbria, then to Cornwall, thence to Ireland, and afterwards to Flanders"[385].  Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records that "Hewardended his days in peace, and was very recently…buried in our monastery by the side of his wife"[386].  Freeman suggests that "the story in the false Ingulf is not to be wholly cast aside, as it may contain some genuine Crowland tradition"[387].  Florence of Worcester records that Earls Edwin and Morcar took refuge in "Ely insulam" where "Herewardus" was in rebellion and defeated the Normans, dated to [1071][388].  The Liber Eliensis records the same event in similar words, adding that "Herewardus" inflicted defeats on the Normans, dated to [1069][389].  The Chronicon Angliæ Petriburgense records that "Herewardus le Wake" led the resistance in Ely[390].  [m firstly TURFRIDA, daughter of --- (-bur [Croyland]).  The De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis records that "Herwardus" married "Turfrida", adding in a later passage that she became a nun "in Cruland" after she was repudiated[391].  Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records that "Hewardin Flanders married a damsel of noble birth, Turfrida" and "by her had an only daughter"[392].  Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records that "Turfrida" entered "our monastery of Croyland, at the hands of Wulketul the lord abbot" as a nun after returning to England, and "died recently hardly four summers since, and lies buried in our monastery"[393].]  [m secondly as her second husband, [ÆLFTHRYTH], widow of DOLFIN, daughter of ---.  The De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis records that "Herwardus" married secondly "uxor Dolfini comitis"[394].  Geoffrey Gaimar records that Hereward married "Alftrued"[395].]  [Hereward & his first wife had one child]: 

i)          [daughter ([1064/70]-).  Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records that "Hewardin Flanders married a damsel of noble birth, Turfrida" and "by her had an only daughter, who is now surviving and living in our neighbourhood…married to a…knight…Hugh Evermue…lord of the vill of Depyng" to whom she brought "her patrimonial estate of Brunne"[396]m HUGH de Evermou, son of ---.  The Descriptio militum de Abbatia de Burgo records "Hugo de Euremou" holding land in Lincolnshire from "abbatia de Burch" for "ii militibus"[397].  Hugh & his wife had [one child]: 

(a)       [EMMA .  Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records that "Richard de Rulos" married "the daughter and heiress of Hugh de Evermue, lord of Brunne and Depyng"[398].  Round dismisses this alleged parentage and marriage as chronologically impossible, although his explanation of the chronological difficulties does not appear to be correct[399].  Nevertheless, as noted above, Ingulph´s Chronicle is, in any case, of dubious authority.  Domesday Descendants cites a charter which names Richard de Rollo´s wife as Emma and suggests that she was one of the daughters of "the Breton Enison Musard" who held a fief in the honour of Richmond, later recorded as held by Richard[400]m RICHARD de Rollos, son of --- (-after 1130).] 

2.         [BRAND (-1069).  Abbot of Peterborough.  Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records the death of "Brand abbat of Burgh" and his replacement by "Thorold, a foreigner" which prompted Hereward to attack the abbey and expel the new abbot[401].  The Chronicon Angliæ Petriburgense records the death in 1069 of "Brando abbas Burgi, patruus…Herewardi le Wake", the appointment of Turold as abbot and the sacking of the abbey by Hereward[402].  The word "patruus" indicates paternal uncle if construed strictly, but this is not beyond doubt.] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    NORTHUMBRIA

 

 

 

1.         OSWULF, son of --- (-after 954).  "Osulf dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelstan in 934 (four) and 937[403].  Simeon of Durham records that "Earl Osulf" received the earldom of the Northumbrians in 953[404].  King Eadred installed him in 954 as Earl of Northumbria, after the expulsion of King Erik "Blodøks/Blood-axe".  Simeon of Durham in a later passage records that King Eadred appointed "Earl Osulf" who administered Northumbria "on the north side of the Tyne"[405].  He ruled the English lands north of the river Tees from Bamburgh[406]

 

2.         OSLAC, son of --- (-after 972).  Earl of Northumbria.  Simeon of Durham records that King Eadred appointed "Earl Osulf" who administered Northumbria "on the north side of the Tyne" while "Oslac" ruled "York and its territories"[407].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "Oslac became earl [of Northumbria]" in 966[408].  "Oslac dux" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated from 963 to 974[409].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "ealdorman Oslac" among those who were present at an agreement in 972 which confirms the property of the monastery of Medeshamstede[410].  

 

 

1.         WALTHEOFEarl of Northumbria.  Simeon of Durham records that "the elder Walthef" succeeded Oswulf and Oslac in Northumbria[411].  "Wæltheof dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred II dated 994[412]m ---.  The name of Waltheof's wife is not known.  Waltheof & his wife had two children:

a)         UHTRED (-murdered 1016).  Simeon of Durham records that "his son Uchtred" succeeded "the elder Walthef" in Northumbria, stating that he was killed by "a powerful Dane Thurbrand surnamed Hold with the consent of Cnut"[413]Earl of Northumbria

-        see below

b)         EADULF Cudel (-after 1016).  Simeon of Durham records that "his brother Eadulf Cutel" succeeded in Northumbria after "Uchtred" was murdered[414].  Roger of Hoveden names him as brother of Uhtred, whom he succeeded as Earl of Northumbria, installed by King Canute[415].  Simeon of Durham's Account of the Siege of Durham names "his brother Eadulf surnamed Cudel, a lazy and cowardly fellow", when recording his succession as earl after his brother's murder and his transfer of Lothian to Scotland[416]

 

 

UHTRED, son of WALTHEOF Earl of Northumbria & his wife --- (-murdered 1016).  Simeon of Durham records that "his son Uchtred" succeeded "the elder Walthef" in Northumbria, stating that he was killed by "a powerful Dane Thurbrand surnamed Hold with the consent of Cnut"[417]Earl of Northumbria.  Inquisitions by "David…Cumbrensis regionis princeps", dated 1124, concerning land owned by the church of Glasgow, refer to donations by "Uchtred filius Waldef…"[418].  "Uhtred dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated 1009 to 1015[419].  He defeated a Scottish army which had besieged Durham in 1006.  After the invasion of Svend King of Denmark in 1013, Earl Uhtred submitted to him[420].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that he was murdered on the orders of Eadric "Streona"[421].  Stenton refers to "northern sources of the Norman age" which show that the chief agent of the murder was Thurbrand, who was in turn killed by Uhtred's son Ealdred[422], presumably referring to Simeon of Durham quoted above.  King Canute appointed Erik Haakonson Jarl in Norway as Earl of Northumbria after Uhtred's death. 

m firstly (repudiated) as her first husband, ECGFRIDA, daughter of ALDUN Bishop of Durham & his wife --- (----, bur Durham).  Simeon of Durham's Account of the Siege of Durham records the marriage of "Cospatric's son…Ucthred" (although from the context "Cospatric" appears to be an error for "Waltheof") and "Bishop Aldun…his daughter…Ecgfrida" and her repudiation by her husband, following which Uhtred married "the daughter of a rich citizen…Styr the son of Ulf…Sigen"[423].  Simeon of Durham's Account of the Siege of Durham records Ecgfrida's second marriage to "a certain thane in Yorkshire…Kilvert the son of Ligulf" and "their daughter Sigrida…wife of Arkil the son of Ecgfrid" whose son was "Cospatric…[who married] the daughter of Dolfin the son of Tolfin, by whom he begot Cospatric who of late ought to have fought with Waltheof the son of Eilaf", her repudiation by her second husband, her taking the veil, and her burial at Durham[424]

m secondly SIGEN, daughter of STYR Ulfsson & his wife ---.  Simeon of Durham's Account of the Siege of Durham records the marriage of "Cospatric's son…Ucthred" (although from the context "Cospatric" appears to be an error for "Waltheof") and "the daughter of a rich citizen…Styr the son of Ulf…Sigen"[425]

m thirdly ([1009/16]) ÆLFGIFU, daughter of ÆTHELRED II King of England & his first wife Ælflæd ---.  Simeon of Durham's Account of the Siege of Durham records the third marriage of "Cospatric's son…Ucthred" (although from the context "Cospatric" appears to be an error for "Waltheof") and "king Ethelred…his…daughter Elfgiva"[426].  She is named as daughter of King Æthelred by Roger of Hoveden, when he records her marriage[427].  Her marriage date is estimated on the assumption that it is unlikely that she would have been married before her older sister Eadgyth. 

Earl Uhtred & his [second] wife had three children:

1.         EALDRED (-murdered Risewood 1039).  Simeon of Durham names "Aldred, Eadulf and Cospatric" as the three sons of "Uchtred", stating that "Aldred" succeeded his paternal uncle Eadulf Cudel in Northumbria[428].  He is named as son of Uhtred by Roger of Hoveden, first of the three sons he lists[429].  He succeeded his paternal uncle as Earl of Northumbria.  Simeon of Durham records that Ealdred killed "the murderer Thurebrand" to avenge his father, made peace with "Carl the son of Thurebrand", but the latter killed "Aldred" in "the wood called Risewood"[430]m ---.  The name of Ealdred's wife is not known.  Ealdred & his wife had five children:

a)         ÆLFLED .  Simeon of Durham names "Elfleda daughter of Earl Aldred" as wife of Siward and mother of Waltheof[431].  She is named daughter of Ealdred by Roger of Hoveden, who also records her marriage[432].  Simeon of Durham's Account of the Siege of Durham records that "Earl Aldred was the father of five daughters, three of whom bore the same name Ælfleda, the fourth…Aldgitha and the fifth Etheldritha", specifying that "one of these Ælfledas married earl Siward by whom she became the mother of Waltheof"[433]m SIWARD, son of --- (-York 26 Mar 1055).  He was recognised as Earl of Northumbria in 1041, in succession to his wife's uncle. 

b)         ÆLFLED .  Simeon of Durham's Account of the Siege of Durham records that "Earl Aldred was the father of five daughters, three of whom bore the same name Ælfleda, the fourth…Aldgitha and the fifth Etheldritha"[434]

c)         ÆLFLED .  Simeon of Durham's Account of the Siege of Durham records that "Earl Aldred was the father of five daughters, three of whom bore the same name Ælfleda, the fourth…Aldgitha and the fifth Etheldritha"[435]

d)         ÆLDGYTH .  Simeon of Durham names "Algitha daughter of earl Aldred" as wife of "Ligulf", when recording the latter's murder[436].  Roger of Hoveden names her and her father, as well as her husband and two sons[437].  Simeon of Durham's Account of the Siege of Durham records that "Earl Aldred was the father of five daughters, three of whom bore the same name Ælfleda, the fourth…Aldgitha and the fifth Etheldritha"[438]m LIULF, son of --- (-murdered 1080).  Simeon of Durham records that "Ligulf a noble and good thane" was murdered[439].  Resident of Durham, he was friends with Walcher and was murdered by Gilbert sheriff of Northumberland[440].  Liulf & his wife had two children: 

i)          UHTRED .  Simeon of Durham names "Uchthred and Morckar" as the two sons of "Ligulf" & his wife[441]m ---.  The name of Uhtred's wife is not known.  Uhtred & his wife had [one possible child]:

(a)       [LIULF .  "…Lyulf filio Uchtredi…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk[442].  While no proof has been found that Liulf was the son of Uhtred, son of Liulf, this is probable because of the common use of the unusual name "Liulf".] 

ii)         MORCAR .  Simeon of Durham names "Uchthred and Morckar" as the two sons of "Ligulf" & his wife, stating that Morcar was educated by the monks of Jarrow[443]

e)         ETHELDREDA .  Simeon of Durham's Account of the Siege of Durham records that "Earl Aldred was the father of five daughters, three of whom bore the same name Ælfleda, the fourth…Aldgitha and the fifth Etheldritha"[444].  Simeon of Durham's Account of the Siege of Durham records the marriage of "Etheldritha, one of the five daughters of earl Aldred" and "a certain thane of Yorkshire called Orm the son of Gamel"[445]m ORM, son of GAMEL & his wife ---.  Orm & his wife had one child: 

i)          ECGFRIDA .  Simeon of Durham's Account of the Siege of Durham names "Ecgfrida" as the daughter of "Etheldritha, one of the five daughters of earl Aldred" and "…Orm the son of Gamel", recording that she married "Eilsi of Tees…who took possession of Bermetun and Skirningheim by hereditary right" by whom she was mother of "Waltheof and his two brothers and Eda their sister"[446]m EILSI, son of ---. 

2.         EADWULF (-murdered 1041).  Simeon of Durham names "Aldred, Eadulf and Cospatric" as the three sons of "Uchtred"[447]Earl of Northumbria.  Simeon of Durham records that Eadwulf succeeded in Northumbria after his brother Ealdred was murdered but that he was "put to death by Siward"[448].  Named son of Uhtred by Roger of Hoveden, second of the three sons he lists, specifying that he succeeded his brother as Earl of Northumbria[449].  He was betrayed and murdered on the orders of King Harthacnut[450]m as her second husband, SIGRIDA, [widow] of ARKIL (son of Fridegist), daughter of KILVERT & his wife Ecgfrida.  Simeon of Durham's Account of the Siege of Durham records that "Sigrida, the daughter of Kilvert and of Ecgfrida, the daughter of bishop Aldun" (first wife of Eadwulf's father Uhtred) married "Arkil the son of Fridegist, and earl Eadulf, and Arkil the son of Ecgfrith"[451].  Eadwulf & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         OSWULF (-murdered 1069).  Earl of Northumbria.  Simeon of Durham records that Earl Morcar handed over the earldom "beyond the Tyne" to "the young Osulf son of…earl Eadulf", but that William I King of England appointed "Copsi who was on the side of earl Tosti" who was beheaded by Oswulf "in the fifth week of his charge of the earldom IV Id Mar at Newburn"[452].  Named son of Eadwulf by Roger of Hoveden, who specifies that he was appointed by King William I to succeed Morcar as Earl of Northumbria[453].  Simeon of Durham records that Oswulf was killed by a robber[454]

b)         [HALDEN .  Inquisitions by "David…Cumbrensis regionis princeps", dated 1124, concerning land owned by the church of Glasgow refer to donations by "…Halden filius Eadulf"[455].  It is not known whether this refers to an otherwise unknown son of Eadwulf, son of Uhtred.] 

3.         GOSPATRICK .  Simeon of Durham names "Aldred, Eadulf and Cospatric" as the three sons of "Uchtred", stating that "the third…did not attain the rank of the earldom" but that he had "a son…Uchtred whose son was Eadulf surnamed Rus who afterwards appeared as the leader of those who murdered bishop Walcher"[456].  He is named as son of Uhtred by Roger of Hoveden, third of the three sons he lists, specifying that he ruled in no county[457]m ---.  The name of Gospatrick's wife is not known.  Gospatrick & his wife had one child:

a)         UHTRED .  Simeon of Durham names "Aldred, Eadulf and Cospatric" as the three sons of "Uchtred", stating that "the third…did not attain the rank of the earldom" but that he had "a son…Uchtred…"[458]m ---.  The name of Uhtred's wife is not known.  Uhtred & his wife had one child:

i)          EADWULF (-murdered ----, bur Jedburgh).  Simeon of Durham names "Aldred, Eadulf and Cospatric" as the three sons of "Uchtred", stating that "the third…did not attain the rank of the earldom" but that he had "a son…Uchtred whose son was Eadulf surnamed Rus who afterwards appeared as the leader of those who murdered bishop Walcher" and was himself killed "by a woman and was buried in the church of Geddewerde" [Jedburgh][459]

Earl Uhtred & his third wife had [two children]:

4.         EALDGYTH [Ælfgifu] (1016 or before-).  Simeon of Durham names "Algiva daughter of earl Uchtred [and] of Algiva daughter of king Agelred" when recording that her father arranged her marriage to "Maldred the son of Crinan"[460], although her father was long since dead when she married.  She is named as daughter of Uhtred and Elgiva by Roger of Hoveden, who also names her husband and his father[461]m ([before 1040]) MALDRED Lord of Allerdale, Regent of Strathclyde, son of CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl [Scotland] & his wife Bethoc of Scotland Lady of Atholl (-[killed in battle 1045]). 

5.         [daughter (1016 or before-).  Her parentage has not been confirmed by primary sources.  However, her husband is named as the father of Siward and Ealdred by Orderic Vitalis (see below), the brothers being described as "pronepotes" of King Edward "the Confessor".  Assuming this relationship is correctly translated as great-nephew, their father would have been either the king's nephew or married to the king's niece.  If Æthelgar had been the king's blood relation, it is likely that he would have been referred to in other contemporary sources which appears not to have been the case.  It is therefore more probable that it was Æthelgar's wife who was related to the king, a relationship through Ælfgifu daughter of King Æthelred II being the most likely possibility given the lack of information on descendants of any of the other daughters of King Æthelred.]  m ÆTHELGAR, son of --- (-before 1066).  It is assumed that he had recently predeceased his sons in early 1067 when they "made peace with [King] William" (see below).  If Æthelgar had been alive at the time, he would presumably have "made peace" himself and had been recorded by Orderic Vitalis.  If he had been long dead, it is unlikely that he would have been specifically named as father of the two brothers.  Æthelgar & his wife had two children: 

a)         SIWARD (-after 1069).  Orderic Vitalis records that “Edwinus et Morcarus filii Ælfgari comitis...Coxo comes...Siwardus et Aldredus filii Ædelgari pronepotes regis, Edricus...cognomento Guilda id est sylvaticus nepos Edrici pestiferi ducis cognomento Streone id est adquisitoris” made peace with William I King of England, dated to 1067[462].  There is no further indication about their precise relationship to the king.  Presumably they were grandsons of one of his half-sisters.  The name Ealdred suggests a connection with the family of the Earls of Northumbria, while Siward suggests a Danish connection.  Orderic Vitalis records that “Suenus rex Danorum” sent a fleet led by “duos...filios suos et Osbernum fratrem suum” to attack England, that they were repulsed at Dover, Sandwich and Ipswich, and at Norwich by “Radulfus de Guader”, that they were joined by “Adelinus, Guallevus, Siguardus” but defeated on the Humber, entered York headed by “Guallevus...Gaius Patricius, Marius Suenus, Elnocinus, Archillus et quatuor filii Karoli” but were eventually expelled, dated to 1069[463]

b)         EALDRED (-after 1067).  Orderic Vitalis records that “Edwinus et Morcarus filii Ælfgari comitis...Coxo comes...Siwardus et Aldredus filii Ædelgari pronepotes regis, Edricus...cognomento Guilda id est sylvaticus nepos Edrici pestiferi ducis cognomento Streone id est adquisitoris” made peace with William I King of England, dated to 1067[464]

 

 

[Two] siblings: 

1.         BJORN Bearsson .  The Vita et Passio Waldevi Comitis records “Ursus” as father of “Spratlingus” who was father of “Ulsius”, father of “Beorn cognomento Beresune…filius ursi…Dacus natione[465].  Freeman calls this "the mythical history of Siward"[466]m ---.  The name of Bjorn's wife is not known.  Bjorn & his wife had [two] children:

a)         SIWARD (-York 26 Mar 1055, bur Galmanho Monastery [=York St Mary's][467]).  The Vita et Passio Waldevi Comitis names “Siuuardus” as son of “Beorn cognomento Beresune…filius ursi…Dacus natione[468].  A Dane, he may have come to England with the invasion of Knud of Denmark in 1015.  He was recognised as Earl of Northumbria after the murder of his wife's uncle in 1041[469].  The Annales Dunelmenses record that "comes Siward" invaded Scotland with a large army in 1046 and briefly expelled "rege Macbeod", the king recovering his realm when Siward withdrew[470].  He actively supported Edward "the Confessor" King of England against Earl Godwin and his sons in 1051.  Florence of Worcester records that "dux Northhymbrorum Siwardus"  defeated "rege Scottorum Macbeotha" in battle, dated to 1054, and installed "Malcolmum regis Cumbrorum filium" in his place[471].  The Annales Dunelmenses record that "Siwardus" put "Macbeth" to flight in 1054 and installed "Malcolmum rege" in the following year[472]m ÆLFLED, daughter of EALDRED Earl of Northumbria & his [first/second] wife ---.   Simeon of Durham names "Elfleda daughter of Earl Aldred" as wife of Siward and mother of Waltheof[473].  Siward & his wife had two children: 

i)          OSBEORN (-killed in battle 27 Jul 1054).  The primary source which confirms his name has not yet been identified.  He was killed fighting King Macbeth of Scotland with his father.  Florence of Worcester records that "dux Northhymbrorum Siwardus"  defeated "rege Scottorum Macbeotha" in battle, dated to 1054, but that "suus filius" was killed in the battle[474]

ii)         WALTHEOF (-executed St Giles's Hill, Winchester 31 May 1076, bur Crowland Abbey465).  Florence of Worcester records that "Waltheofum Siwardi ducis filius" went with King William to Normandy 21 Feb [1067][475].  Orderic Vitalis records that “Stigandum archipræsulem, Edgarum Adelinum Eduardi regis consobrinum et tres...comites: Eduinum, Morcarum et Guallevum, Egelnodum quoque Cantuariensem satrapam” accompanied King William to Normandy, dated to 1067 from the context[476].  Orderic Vitalis records that “Suenus rex Danorum” sent a fleet led by “duos...filios suos et Osbernum fratrem suum” to attack England, that they were repulsed at Dover, Sandwich and Ipswich, and at Norwich by “Radulfus de Guader”, that they were joined by “Adelinus, Guallevus, Siguardus” but defeated on the Humber, entered York headed by “Guallevus...Gaius Patricius, Marius Suenus, Elnocinus, Archillus et quatuor filii Karoli” but were eventually expelled, dated to 1069, a later passage adding that “Guallevus præsens et Gaius Patricius absens” made peace with King William at the river Tees[477].  Simeon of Durham records that "Waltheu the son of earl Siward…by Elfleda daughter of Earl Aldred" was installed as Earl of Northumberland after the earldom was confiscated from Gospatrick [in 1072][478].  His parentage is recorded by Roger of Hoveden[479].  Matthew of Paris specifies that he was the son of Siward, of Danish origin[480].  Earl of Huntingdonshire and Northamptonshire [1065]. 

-         EARLS of HUNTINGDON

2.         [--- .  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         [SIBYLLA] .  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that the mother of Malcolm and Donald Bane, Duncan´s sons, was "the cousin of Earl Siward"[481].  This information is not included in any earlier source and should be considered dubious.  In one earlier king list, King Malcolm III's mother is named "Suthen"[482]m ([1030]) DUNCAN King of Strathclyde, son of CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl & his wife Bethoc of the Scots ([1001]-killed in battle either Bothganowan/Pitgaveny, near Elgin, or Burghead 14 Aug 1040, bur Isle of Iona).  He succeeded in 1034 as DUNCAN I King of Scotland.] 

 

 

1.         SIWARD .  His name suggests a relationship with the family of the Anglo-Saxon earls of Northumbria.  The passage from Orderic Vitalis which is quoted below indicates that Siward, father of Edward, was “tribunus Merciorum” under “Eduardo rege”.  It is assumed that the latter was King Edward “the Confessor” which, if correct, indicates that the phrase “qui sub Eduardo rege tribunus Merciorum fuit” must apply to Siward and not to his son Edward.  However, the chronological problems are not thereby solved.  If Siward held office during King Edward´s reign, it seems improbable that his son was still active in 1130.  In particular, it seems unlikely that Siward was the same person as Siward Earl of Northumbria (who died in 1055, see above).  A more likely possibility is that he was Siward, son of Æthelgar, who is recorded until 1069 (see above) and also the great-nephew of King Edward, which would explain the “consobrinus” relationship between Edward, named and below, and King David of Scotland who was the son of another great-niece of King Edward.  m ---.  The name of Siward´s wife is not known.  Siward & his wife had one child: 

a)         EDWARD (-after 1130).  Orderic Vitalis records that in 1130 “Aragois comes Morafiæ cum Melcolfo” invaded Scotland with an army which was defeated by “Eduardus Siwardi filius, qui sub Eduardo rege tribunus Merciorum fuit, princeps militiæ, et consobrinus David regis[483]

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    WESSEX

 

 

There is no certain information concerning the ancestry of Wulfnoth, father of Godwin Earl of Wessex.  The Vita Ædwardi mentions nothing about Earl Godwin's origins.  Alfred Anscombe suggested in 1913 that Wulfnoth, and his supposed brother Æthelnoth Archbishop of Canterbury, were descended from Æthelred I King of Wessex[484].  He based this on a study of the transmission of estates in Sussex, especially Compton in Westbourne Hundred, through supposed members of the same family.  Florence of Worcester records that Earl Godwin was the great-nephew of Eadric "Streona" Earl of Mercia, but this seems unlikely from a chronological point of view as discussed further below.  At the other end of the scale, Earl Godwin is the son of a cowherd according to one 12th century source[485].  An obscure origin seems unlikely given Earl Godwin's swift rise to power during the reign of King Canute.  However, it seems equally unlikely that King Harold II would not have publicised a noble descent, if he had one, to demonstrate his suitability to accede to the throne in early 1066.  Given the importance of name roots in Anglo-Saxon England, it may also be significant, as Frank Barlow points out, that neither the root "Wulf-" in the name "Wulfnoth" nor any name resembling "Godwin" is found among any of the supposed descendants of King Æthelred I[486]

 

 

1.         WULFNOTH "Child" (-after 1009).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "Beorhtric the brother of the ealdorman Eadric" denounced "Wulfnoth a nobleman of Sussex" to the king in [1008] for unspecified crimes, after which Wulfnoth fled the country only to return, take 20 ships from the king´s fleet, and ravage the south coast and burn the rest of the king´s navy, one manuscript naming him "quendam nobilem virum…Wlnothum (patrem Godwini ducis)"[487]same person as…?  WULFNOTH (-before 25 Jun 1014).  Florence of Worcester names "Brihtricus, Ælfricus, Goda, Ægelwinus, Ægelwardus, Ægelmærus, pater Wlnothi, patris West-Saxonum ducis Godwini" as the brothers of "Edricum…Ægelrici filium…ducem", and within a few lines in the same paragraph repeats the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle´s report about "Brihtric" accusing "Suth-Saxonicum ministrum Wlnothum" of treachery[488].   This text, and the one quoted above from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, are contradictory, when read together, in suggesting that Wulfnoth, accused by Beorhtric, was the same person as Beorhtric´s nephew.  Freeman argues cogently that Florence did not intend to identify Wulfnoth, the supposed nephew of Eadric, with Wulfnoth, the alleged traitor, arguing along similar lines to what has just been said[489].  He highlights that Florence does not make this connection in his two passages, although the one closely follows the other and it seems surprising that such a link would have been omitted if it had existed.  In addition, from a chronological point of view, it is unlikely that Godwin was the grandson of the brother of Eadric "Streona", who died in 1017 and about whom there is no indication that he was very old at that time.  The chronology suggests, rather, that Eadric "Streona" and Godwin´s father would have been contemporaries.  Another interesting fact is that Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made a bequest to "Godwine, Wulfnoth's son, the estate at Compton which his father possessed", listed second among the bequests to non-members of the royal family[490].  The wording of the bequest is consistent with the land in question having been confiscated, and such confiscation would have followed if Earl Godwin´s father had been the Wulfnoth Child who was accused of treachery.  Freeman highlights that Domesday Book records the two places ini Sussex called Compton as having been held, respectively, by King Harold II (Earl Godwin´s son) and a tenant of Earl Godwin[491].  This strongly suggests that the beneficiary under Ætheling Æthelstan´s will was Earl Godwin, and that he was the son of Wulfnoth Child, the alleged traitor.  In conclusion, it appears unlikely that Florence of Worcester was correct in stating that Godwin´s father was Eadric "Streona"´s nephew.  Florence of Worcester names "Brihtricus, Ælfricus, Goda, Ægelwinus, Ægelwardus, Ægelmærus, pater Wlnothi, patris West-Saxonum ducis Godwini" as the brothers of "Edricum…Ægelrici filium…ducem"[492].   According to Freeman, Florence did not intend to identify this Wulfnoth with "Wulfnoth Child the South-Saxon"[493].  Kelly suggests that the name of the father "Æthelric" was a mistranscription for Æthelweard, whom he suggests was the same person as the chronicler, an alleged descendants of King Æthelred I[494].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "Beorhtric the brother of the ealdorman Eadric" denounced "Wulfnoth a nobleman of Sussex" to the king in [1008] for unspecified crimes, after which Wulfnoth fled the country only to return, take 20 ships from the king´s fleet, and ravage the south coast and burn the rest of the king´s navy, one manuscript naming him "quendam nobilem virum…Wlnothum (patrem Godwini ducis)"[495].  It was presumably some time during the course of his banishment and rebellion that Wulfnoth forfeited the land at Compton which was later restored to his son.  His date of death is estimated from the will of Æthelstan, eldest son of King Æthelred II, under which Wulfnoth's son Godwin received his late father's property at Compton, Sussex.  m ---.  The name of Wulfnoth's wife is not known.  Wulfnoth & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         GODWIN ([993]-Winchester 15 Apr 1053, bur Winchester Old Minster).  According to Florence of Worcester, Earl Godwin was son of Wulfnoth[496].   He was installed as Earl in 1018 by King Canute. 

-        see below

b)         [ÆLFWIG (-killed in battle Hastings 14 Oct 1066).  Barlow mentions a "confused and doubtful" later tradition that he was Earl Godwin's brother[497].  Dugdale says that "Alwy…the brother of Earl Godwin" was abbot of New Minster Winchester, but he does not cite the corresponding primary source[498].  The Annales de Hyda name "Alwyus" as abbot in 1035, "Alwyus frater Godwyni comitis" as abbot in 1063 and record that "Alwyus" was killed in 1066[499].  Abbot of New Minster, Winchester 1063.] 

 

 

1.         ÆTHELMÆR m ---.  The name of Æthelmær´s wife is not known.  Æthelmær & his wife had one child: 

a)         ÆTHELNOTH (-1038[500]).  According to Florence of Worcester, he was the son of Æthelmær.  Monk, dean at Christ Church, Canterbury, he was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1020, consecrated at Rome by Pope Benedict 7 Oct 1022[501]

 

 

1.         ÆTHELRIC (-after 1070).  A relative of Earl Godwin according to Barlow[502], although the precise relationship is not known.  Candidate for the archbishopric of Canterbury in 1050, the disputed appointment triggered Earl Godwin's dispute with King Edward and his temporary exile.  Maybe appointed Bishop of Selsey in 1058, deposed by Archbishop Lanfranc in 1070.   

 

 

GODWIN, son of WULFNOTH & his wife --- ([993]-Winchester 15 Apr 1053, bur Winchester Old Minster[503]).  His parentage is confirmed by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which records that "Beorhtric the brother of the ealdorman Eadric" denounced "Wulfnoth a nobleman of Sussex" to the king in [1008] for unspecified crimes, after which Wulfnoth fled the country only to return, take 20 ships from the king´s fleet, and ravage the south coast and burn the rest of the king´s navy, one manuscript naming him "quendam nobilem virum…Wlnothum (patrem Godwini ducis)"[504].  Florence of Worcester names "Brihtricus, Ælfricus, Goda, Ægelwinus, Ægelwardus, Ægelmærus, pater Wlnothi, patris West-Saxonum ducis Godwini" as the brothers of "Edricum…Ægelrici filium…ducem", and within a few lines in the same paragraph repeats the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle´s report about "Brihtric" accusing "Suth-Saxonicum ministrum Wlnothum" of treachery[505].   The two texts just quoted are contradictory, when read together, in suggesting that Wulfnoth, accused by Beorhtric, was the same person as Beorhtric´s nephew.  Freeman argues cogently that Florence did not intend to identify Wulfnoth, the supposed nephew of Eadric, with Wulfnoth, the alleged traitor, arguing along similar lines to what has just been said[506].  He highlights that Florence does not make this connection in his two passages, although the one closely follows the other and it seems surprising that such a link would have been omitted if it had existed.  In addition, from a chronological point of view, it is unlikely that Godwin was the grandson of the brother of Eadric "Streona", who died in 1017 and about whom there is no indication that he was very old at that time.  The chronology suggests, rather, that Eadric "Streona" and Godwin´s father would have been contemporaries.  Another interesting fact is that Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made a bequest to "Godwine, Wulfnoth's son, the estate at Compton which his father possessed", listed second among the bequests to non-members of the royal family[507].  The wording of the bequest is consistent with the land in question having been confiscated, and such confiscation would have followed if Earl Godwin´s father had been the Wulfnoth Child who was accused of treachery.  Freeman highlights that Domesday Book records the two places ini Sussex called Compton as having been held, respectively, by King Harold II (Earl Godwin´s son) and a tenant of Earl Godwin[508].  This strongly suggests that the beneficiary under Ætheling Æthelstan´s will was Earl Godwin, and that he was the son of Wulfnoth Child, the alleged traitor.  In conclusion, it appears unlikely that Florence of Worcester was correct in stating that Godwin´s father was Eadric "Streona"´s nephew.  Godwin was installed as Earl in 1018 by King Canute, and as bajulus[509] over almost the whole kingdom[510].  He heads the lists of witnesses to all the king's lay charters after 1023[511], indicating an unrivalled position of power.  The earliest reference to Godwin in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is in 1036 when he is recorded as supporting Queen Emma in opposing the accession of King Harold I[512]Earl of Wessex.  Godwin was probably installed as earl of Wessex in [1040/41] by King Harthacnut, as there appear to be no earlier sources which refer to his territory.  Florence of Worcester records that King Harthacnut ordered "Godwinum West-Saxonum…comites" and others to burn Worcester, dated to 1041[513].   Godwin appears to have played a major role in the accession and acceptance in England of King Edward "the Confessor" in 1042, and in 1045 married his daughter to the king.  However, his relations with the king became tense following a dispute over the appointment of a new archbishop of Canterbury in 1050.  In 1051, Earl Godwin refused the king's order to punish an affray at Canterbury, in which one of the men of Eustache Comte de Boulogne was killed.  The dispute escalated, and 1 Sep 1051 Godwin and his two older sons made a show of force to the king near Tetbury.  Earls Leofric and Siward rallied to the king's support, and battle was avoided.  Godwin and his family were given five days' safe conduct to leave the country by the King's Council held on 8 Sep 1051[514].  He fled with his wife and sons Svein, Tostig and Gyrth to Bruges.  Godwin returned with an army in Sep 1052, joined forces with his son Harold who returned from Ireland, and sailed into London.  The family gathered popular support and was fully reinstated[515].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Earl Godwin died soon after, three days after suffering a stroke[516].  Florence of Worcester records his death and burial at Winchester[517]

m (1019) GYTHA, daughter of THORGILS Sprakling [THRUGILS Sprakaleg] & his wife --- (-St Omer after 1069).  She is named by Florence of Worcester[518].  Her origin is deduced from Ulf Jarl of Denmark being described as the uncle of her son Svein by Florence of Worcester[519]Morkinskinna names “Gytha, the daughter of Thorgils sprakaleggr and the sister of Jarl Úlfr” as the wife of “Godwin[520].  Adam of Bremen records that "Wolf sororem" married "duci Gudvino", and was mother of "ducis Suein, Tostin et Haroldum [genuit parricidas]"[521], although this last reference is unexplained.  She was living in Exeter when King William I attacked it in 1068.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that she took refuge at Flat Holme, an island in the Bristol Channel[522].  Orderic Vitalis records that, after the rebellion of [her grandsons] the sons of King Harold, “Gisa Goduini uxor, Heraldi genitrix” secretly took a great treasure (“ingentem gazam clanculum”) and crossed “in Galliam[523].  Florence of Worcester records that "Gytha…comitissa…mater Haroldi regis Anglorum ac soror Suani regis Danorum" fled to Flanders, in a passage dealing with events in early 1068[524].  She became a nun at Saint-Omer. 

Godwin & his wife had ten children: 

1.         EADGYTH ([1020/22]-Winchester 18 Dec 1075, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 1045 "king Edward took to wife Edith the daughter of Earl Godwin, ten days before Candlemas"[525].  She was educated in Wilton nunnery.  Florence of Worcester records that her husband repudiated her in 1051 when he sent the rest of her family into exile and sent her "in disgrace with only a single handmaid" to Wherwell Abbey[526].  She was brought back to court when her father was restored the following year[527].  She commissioned the Vita Ædwardi Regis from a foreign clerk, probably from Saint-Omer, setting out the history of her family.  She continued to live around Winchester after the Norman conquest, and appears to have been treated well by King William I[528].  Florence of Worcester records the death "XIV Kal Jan" in [1074] of "Edgitha regis Haroldi germana quondam Anglorum regina" at Winchester and her burial at Westminster[529]m (23 Jan 1045) EDWARD "the Confessor" King of England, son of ÆTHELRED II King of England & his second wife Emma of Normandy ([1005]-Palace of Westminster 5 Jan 1066, bur Westminster Abbey). 

2.         SVEIN ([1021/23]-Constantinople[530] 29 Sep 1052).  Florence of Worcester specifies that Svein was the eldest son of "earl Godwin and Githa"[531].  Orderic Vitalis names “Suenum, Tosticum, Heraldum, Guorth, Elgarum, Leofvinum et Wlnodum” as the seven sons of “Githa Goduini comitis relicta[532].  He was created Earl in Berkshire, Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, Oxfordshire and Somerset in 1043 by King Edward "the Confessor".  He led an expedition into South Wales in 1046, allied with Gruffydd ap Llywellyn King of Gwynedd in North Wales.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that he seduced Eadgifu Abbess of Leominster on his way back[533], for which he was outlawed by King Edward, who divided his earldom between his brother Harold and his cousin Bjørn Ulfsen.  The Chronicle records that Svein fled to Bruges in 1047, then to Denmark the year after[534].  He returned to England in 1049, murdered his cousin Bjørn Ulfsen, and was exiled again in 1049 by an assembly of the whole army at Sandwich, this time taking refuge with Baudouin IV Count of Flanders[535].  After his father secured his recall in [1050], he was pardoned and partially reinstated[536].  After joining his father's threatened armed rebellion against the king in 1051, he was outlawed yet again and fled with his parents to Bruges.  According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, he died while returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem[537], before the family's restoration.  According to Florence of Worcester[538], Svein died "in Lycia from illness brought on by the severity of the cold".  Svein is not mentioned in the Vita Ædwardi, commissioned by his sister Queen Eadgyth, presumably because his dissolute life was considered best forgotten.  Svein had one illegitimate child, maybe by EADGIFU Abbess of Leominster, whom he was refused permission to marry. 

a)         HAAKON ([1046/47]-after 1065).  "Hacun filius Suani filii sui [Godwini]" was sent as a hostage to Normandy in 1051, possibly after Duke Guillaume II's visit to England[539].  Eadmer of Canterbury records that he was freed and returned to England with his uncle Harold in [1064/65][540]

3.         HAROLD ([1022/25]-killed in battle Hastings 14 Oct 1066, bur [Waltham Abbey]).  His parentage is confirmed in several places in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle[541].  Orderic Vitalis names “Suenum, Tosticum, Heraldum, Guorth, Elgarum, Leofvinum et Wlnodum” as the seven sons of “Githa Goduini comitis relicta[542].  He was created Earl of the East Angles, Essex, Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire in 1044 by King Edward "the Confessor".  King Edward granted him part of the earldom of his brother Svein, after the latter was outlawed following his seduction of the abbess of Leominster.  After joining his father's threatened armed rebellion against the king in 1051, he fled to Ireland with his brother Leofwine[543].  He returned from Ireland the following year and joined forces with his father[544].  Harold was appointed to succeed his father as Earl of Wessex in 1053, his own earldom of the East Angles passing to Ælfgar son of Leofric Earl of Mercia[545].  He succeeded as HAROLD II King of England and was crowned 6 Jan 1066. 

-        KINGS of ENGLAND

4.         TOSTIG ([1025/30]-killed in battle Stamford Bridge 25 Sep 1066).  Orderic Vitalis names “Suenum, Tosticum, Heraldum, Guorth, Elgarum, Leofvinum et Wlnodum” as the seven sons of “Githa Goduini comitis relicta[546].  After joining his father's threatened armed rebellion against the king in 1051, Tostig fled to Bruges with his parents, although he returned the following year.  He was created Earl of Northumbria in 1055 to succeed Earl Siward[547].  Northumbria rebelled against him in Oct 1065, after several years of Scottish raids which Tostig had failed to halt.  In his place, the thegns of Yorkshire elected Morcar, younger brother of Edwin Earl of Mercia, as Earl of Northumbria.  King Edward attempted unsuccessfully to crush the rebellion on Tostig's behalf, but Tostig was forced to flee to Flanders with his wife in Dec 1065[548].  Baudouin V Count of Flanders installed him as castellan of Saint-Omer[549].  Returning to England in search of revenge, he was repulsed from landing at Sandwich in Kent in May 1066, ravaged Norfolk and then sailed to the Humber where he was defeated by Edwin Earl of Mercia.  Tostig sailed to Scotland, where he joined forces with Harald III "Hardråde" King of Norway who had recently arrived to invade England.  Morkinskinna records that Tostig first sailed to Denmark to seek report from King Svend II, and then to Norway to King Harald III, sending “Gunnhildr´s son Guthormr” to offer Northumbria to the king in return for his help[550].  After defeating the Northumbrians at Gate Fulford near York 20 Sep 1066, their combined army was defeated by King Harold's forces at Stamford Bridge 25 Sep 1066, where both he and the Norwegian king were killed[551]m (before Sep 1051) as her first husband, JUDITH de Flandre, daughter of BAUDOUIN IV Count of Flanders & his second wife [Eléonore] de Normandie ([1033]-[5] Mar 1094, bur St Martin Monastery).  The Annalista Saxo names "Iudhita…amita Rodberti comitis de Flandria ex cognatione beati Ethmundi regis" as husband of "Haroldi" (in error for Tostig) but correctly names her second husband "Welphus filius Azzonis marchionis Italorum"[552].  The Genealogia Welforum names "filiam comitis Flandrie, reginam Anglie, Iuditam nomine" as wife of Welf[553].  Florence of Worcester says that Judith was "daughter of Baldwin Count of Flanders" but does not specify which Count Baldwin nor is this clear from the context[554].  According to the Vita Ædwardi Regis, she was the sister of Count Baudouin V[555].  Alberic de Trois Fontaines asserts that Judith was one of the children of Baudouin V Count of Flanders and his wife Adela de France[556], but there are other clear errors in his listing of this couple's children so the statement should be viewed with caution.  Judith is also listed as the daughter of Count Baudouin V (after Mathilde) in a manuscript whose attribution to Orderic Vitalis is disputed, which also shows her first marriage[557].  The date of her first marriage is confirmed by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which records that "earl Godwine" fled after the Council of 9 Sep 1051 "with Tostig and his wife who was a kinswoman of Baldwin of Bruges"[558].  Judith moved to Denmark after her first husband was killed.  "Dux Gewelfo eiusque…uxor Iudita" donated property to Kloster Weingarten, with the consent of "filiorum suorum Gwelfonis et Heinrici", dated 12 Mar 1094[559].  The Chronicon of Bernold records the death "1094 IV Non Mar" of "Iuditha uxor ducis Welfonis Baioariæ" and her burial "apud monasterium…Sancti Martini" built by her husband[560].  The necrology of Raitenbuch records the death "III Non Mar" of "Iudinta regina Anglie, filia marchionis de Este uxor Welfonis nostri fundatoris"[561], exaggerating her status resulting from her first marriage and confusing her paternity.  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "III Non Mar" of "Judita dux regina Anglie"[562], also exaggerating her status resulting from her first marriage.  Tostig & his wife had [--- children]:

a)         infant children .  According to the Vita Ædwardi Regis, the children of Tostig and Judith were "unweaned" when their father died[563]

Tostig had [three] [probably illegitimate] children: 

b)         SKULI "kongsfostre" .  Snorre names "Skule, a son of Earl Toste, who since has been called the king's foster-son, and his brother Ketil Krok…of high family in England" when recording that they accompanied Olav King of Norway[564], the context suggesting that he and his brother were at least young adults at the time.  If this is correct, they must have been their father's illegitimate sons and were not the "unweaned" children referred to above.  Morkinskinna records that “Skúli, the son of Jarl Tostig Godwinson, and Ketill krókr from Hálogaland came to Norway” with Olaf III King of Norway after the failed invasion of England in 1066[565].  Morkinskinna records that “not long after King Haraldr´s fall Skúli went west to England to ask for the return of King Haraldr´s body” which was “readily granted to him[566]. 

-        NORWEGIAN NOBILITY

c)          [KETIL "krókr" .  Snorre names "Skule, a son of Earl Toste, who since has been called the king's foster-son, and his brother Ketil Krok…of high family in England" when recording that they accompanied Olav King of Norway[567], the context suggesting that he and his brother were at least young adults at the time.  If this is correct, they must have been their father's illegitimate sons and were not the "unweaned" children referred to above.  Morkinskinna records that “Skúli, the son of Jarl Tostig Godwinson, and Ketill krókr from Hálogaland came to Norway” with Olav III King of Norway after the failed invasion of England in 1066, without specifying any relationship between Skuli and Ketil[568].  One possibility is that Ketil was the uterine brother of Skuli and not the son of Tostig.  Morkinskinna records that King Olav III “arranged a good marriage for Ketil and appointed him a district chieftain in the north”, adding that “many distinguished men are descended from Ketil[569].  m ---.  Morkinskinna records that Olav III King of Norway “arranged a good marriage for Ketil[570].  The name of Ketil´s wife is not known.] 

d)          [OLAV (-1066 or after).  Simeon of Durham names "Tosti's son Olave and earl from the isle of Orkney named Paul" in 1066[571].  The reference to this son named Olav has not been corroborated in other sources so far consulted.] 

5.         GYRTH ([1032]-killed in battle Hastings 14 Oct 1066[572]).  Orderic Vitalis names “Suenum, Tosticum, Heraldum, Guorth, Elgarum, Leofvinum et Wlnodum” as the seven sons of “Githa Goduini comitis relicta[573].  Florence of Worcester records that he fled with his parents to Bruges in 1051, after the family's disgrace[574].  He was appointed Earl of the East Angles in 1057, in succession to Earl Ælfgar who had succeeded his father as Earl of Mercia.  After Gyrth's death, his lands were given to Ralph "the Staller" by William I King of England. 

6.         [ÆLFGAR (-Reims ----).  Orderic Vitalis names “Suenum, Tosticum, Heraldum, Guorth, Elgarum, Leofvinum et Wlnodum” as the seven sons of “Githa Goduini comitis relicta”, adding that Ælfgar “peregrinus et monachus” died at Reims (“in vera confessione prior Remis”)[575].  He is not named among Earl Godwin's sons by Florence of Worcester[576] and no other reference to him has so far been found.]. 

7.         LEOFWINE (-killed in battle Hastings 14 Oct 1066).  Orderic Vitalis names “Suenum, Tosticum, Heraldum, Guorth, Elgarum, Leofvinum et Wlnodum” as the seven sons of “Githa Goduini comitis relicta[577].  Florence of Worcester records that he fled to Ireland with his brother Harold in 1051, after the family's disgrace[578].  He was appointed Earl of Kent and Essex in 1057.  After his death, the county of Kent was awarded to Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, half-brother of William I King of England. 

8.         WULFNOTH ([1036/46][579]-[Salisbury] Feb [1094][580]).  Orderic Vitalis names “Suenum, Tosticum, Heraldum, Guorth, Elgarum, Leofvinum et Wlnodum” as the seven sons of “Githa Goduini comitis relicta”, adding that Wulfnoth died “Salesberiæ venerabiliter[581].  Eadmer records that "Wulfnothus itaque filius Godwini" was sent as a hostage to Normandy with his nephew Haakon in 1051[582], possibly after Duke Guillaume II's visit to England but presumably before Sep of that year as he is not named among the sons of Godwin who fled England on the family's disgrace.  A different slant is placed on events by Guillaume of Jumièges who records that “Edwardus Anglorum rex” had sent “Rodbertum Cantuariorum archipræsulem” to Normandy to recognise Duke Guillaume as his heir, that the king sent “Heraldum” as his representative to finalise the affair, that Harold landed at Ponthieu and was captured by “Widonis Abbatisvillæ comitis”, from whom Duke Guillaume rescued him and brought him back to Normandy where he swore allegiance to the duke, who retained “adolescentem Vulnotem fratrem eius” as hostage[583].  Florence of Worcester records that "comites Morkarum et Rogerum, Siwardum cognomento Barn, et Wlnothum regis Haroldi germanum" were released by King William on his deathbed in 1087[584].  He was taken to England by King William II but placed in confinement again in Winchester. 

9.         GUNHILD (-Bruges 24 Aug 1087).  Freeman states that "Gunnilla filia comitis Godwini" is named in Domesday[585].  There is no indication where Gunhild may fit in the order of Godwin´s children.  Having taken a vow of chastity, she went to Saint-Omer in Flanders after 1066, then Bruges before moving to Denmark.  She returned to Bruges before she died[586]

10.      ÆLFGIFU (-before Jan 1066[587]).  Freeman states that "homo Alvevæ soror Heraldi comitis" is named in Domesday[588].  During the period of captivity of her brother Harold at the court of Guillaume II Duke of Normandy, Harold promised one of his sisters in marriage to one of Duke Guillaume's nobles[589], most probably Ælfgifu. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    WILTSHIRE

 

 

1.         ÆTHELHELM (-[12] Jun 897).  "Æthelhel[m] dux" subscribed an undated charter of King Alfred, named first in the list of subscribers before the king's nephew and son[590]Ealdorman of Wiltshire.  "Ethelhelm comes Wiltunensium" carried the alms of Alfred King of Wessex to Rome in 887[591].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in [886/87] "ealdorman Æthelhelm took the alms of the West Saxons and of king Alfred to Rome"[592].  King Alfred granted "Æthelhelm comes" land at North Newnton, Wiltshire by charter dated 892[593].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 893 "ealdorman Æthelred and ealdorman Æthelhelm and ealdorman Æthelnoth" besieged and later defeated the Danes "at Buttington on Severn shore"[594].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death in 897 "nine nights before midsummer" of "Æthelhelm ealdorman of Wiltshire"[595]m ÆLSWITHA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   Æthelhelm & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         ÆLFLÆD (-920, bur Winchester Cathedral[596]).  The Book of Hyde names "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda" as first wife of King Eadweard[597].  Roger of Wendover calls her "secunda regina sua…Alfleda, Elfelmi comitis filia"[598].  "Elffled coniux regis" subscribed a 901 charter of King Edward[599]m (901 or before) as his second wife, EDWARD "the Elder" King of Wessex, son of ALFRED King of Wessex & his wife Ealhswith ([872]-Farndon-on-Dee near Chester 17 Jul 924, bur Winchester Cathedral). 

b)         [OSFERTH (-934 or after).  "Offerd propinquus regis" subscribed a charter of King Edward dated 909[600], named in the list of subscribers immediately after "Ælfweard filius regis", although there is no indication what his precise relationship with the royal family might have been.  Among the king's paternal family there appear no families descended from King Æthelwulf, in either the male or female line, to whom Osferth could belong, with the exception of possible children of the sons of King Æthelred I who would presumably have still been in disgrace in 909, only about five years after the rebellion of Æthelwold.  It is therefore more likely that Osferth was related to the royal family by marriage.  The most likely possibility is relationship through King Edward's second wife.  Nothing is known of the family of Ealhswith, wife of King Alfred, but "propinquus" implies a connection closer than first cousin.  "Osferth/Offerth dux" subscribed charters of King Edward dated 909 and 921, and of King Æthelstan dated 928 to 934, in the majority of which he is named first in the list of subscribers[601].] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    FAMILY of EADGIFU, third wife of EDWARD KING of WESSEX

 

 

1.         SIGEHELM (-killed in battle before 959).  Lord of Meopham, Cooling and Lenham in Kent.  m ---.  The name of Sigehelm's wife is not known.  Sigehelm & his wife had one child: 

a)         EADGIFU (-26 Aug 968, bur Canterbury Cathedral).  Eadgifu recited her title to land at Cooling by charter dated 959 which names her father Sigelm and records that he was killed in battle[602].  "Eadgifu regis mater" subscribed charters of Kings Edmund and Eadred between 940 and 953[603].  King Eadred granted land in Berkshire to "Aedgyfu regis mater" in 945[604].  King Eadred granted land at Felpham, Sussex to "Eadgifu famula dei matri mee" by charter dated 953[605].  She appears to have supported her grandson Edgar against Eadwig in 957, the latter depriving her of her property.  "Eadgifu hil ealdan moder/predicti regis aua" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated [959/63] and 966[606]m (920) as his third wife, EDWARD "the Elder" King of Wessex, son of ALFRED King of Wessex & his wife Ealhswith ([872]-Farndon-on-Dee near Chester 17 Jul 924, bur Winchester Cathedral). 

 

 

Possible relative, the precise relationship is not known: 

1.         BRYHTHELM (-after 960).  Bishop of Winchester.  King Edgar granted property at Bishopstoke, Hampshire to "Brithhelm bishop mihique consanguinitatis nexu copulato" by charter dated 960[607].  Although the precise relationship between the king and the bishop is not known, it is most likely that it was through the king's mother. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    UNCONNECTED NOBILITY, ANGLO-SAXON ORIGIN

 

 

The following details were extracted from known charters, listing all individuals with Anglo-Saxon sounding names who are given noble epithets such as "princeps", "dux" or "ealdorman" in the documents.  Those with Danish sounding names are listed in Chapter 10.  The people listed are overwhelmingly male as references to women in the charters are infrequent.  The individuals are set out in approximately chronological order, broken down into sub-groups by periods of about 20/25 years.  It is recognised that many of the same people may have been recorded in other charters without any qualifying noble title.  However, it is difficult to draw meaningful conclusions from analysis of unqualified names considering their number and the inevitable latent duplication. 

 

While the sub-grouping by time period is inevitably approximate, it is noteworthy that, during any given sub-period, there were no more than a dozen or so different nobles who are named in the documentation.  This suggests a close-knit community of "first tier" nobility in Anglo-Saxon England, probably closely related to each other, similar to the situation in post-conquest England.  Unfortunately, the paucity of documentary evidence makes it difficult to prove that this was the case. 

 

Except where otherwise shown, it has not been possible to connect these persons with other known Anglo-Saxon families.  An attempt was made to analyse the root elements of the names (for example "Æthel-" and "-wulf") to see if any pattern emerged from which conclusions could be drawn concerning relationships.  It was hoped to demonstrate how name elements were passed down through families.  However, the lack of known information on precise family relationships prevented the results from being meaningful.  Even in the case of the 10th and 11th century royal family of Wessex, about which more information is available than for any non-royal Anglo-Saxon family, it was unusual to be able to name all four grandparents of any individual and no example was found where all eight great-grandparents of a named person were identifiable with certainty. 

 

 

 

A.      LATE 8th CENTURY, EARLY 9th CENTURY

 

 

1.         ÆTHELHEARD (-1 Aug 794).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on 1 Aug in 794 of "ealdorman Æthelheard"[608]

 

2.         ÆTHELMUND (-killed in battle Kempsford 802).  Ealdorman of the Hwicce.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 800 "ealdorman Æthelmund rode from the Hwicce over [the Thames] at Kempsford, and was met by ealdorman Weohstan with the men of Wiltshire…and both the ealdorman were slain there"[609]

 

3.         HEAHBERHT (-807).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of "ealdorman Heahberht"[610]

 

4.         WOR (-after 801).  "Wor princeps" subscribed a charter of Beorhtric King of Wessex dated 801[611]

 

5.         WULFSTAN [Weohstan] (-killed in battle Kempsford 802).  "Wiohstan princeps" subscribed a charter of Beorhtric King of Wessex dated 801[612].  Ealdorman [of Wiltshire], he defeated Æthelmund Ealdorman of the Hwicce in 802, although both leaders were killed in the battle[613]m ALBURGA, daughter of [ALHMUND of Northumbria & his wife ---] ([785 or after]-Wilton [810], bur Wilton).  A manuscript which recounts the founding of Wilton Monastery names “Elburga, filia Alqmundi martyris, filii Alrudi regis Northumbrorum” and her husband “Wulstani comitis de Ellendinia[614].  If Alburga´s mother is correctly identified in the same source as the mother of Ecgberht King of Wessex, her parents must have married after 784 when her mother´s supposed first husband is recorded in other sources, which places Alburga´s birth in 785 at the earliest.  This would mean that Alburga was very young when she married.  Nun at Wilton after her husband died. 

 

6.         WIGFRETH (-after 801).  "Wigfreth princeps" subscribed a charter of Beorhtric King of Wessex dated 801[615]

 

7.         WEOHTBRORD (-after 801).  "Wiohtbrord princeps" subscribed a charter of Beorhtric King of Wessex dated 801[616]

 

8.         ÆSE (-after 801).  "Æse princeps" subscribed a charter of Beorhtric King of Wessex dated 801[617]

 

9.         LULLA (-after 801).  "Beorhtric rex" granted land at Crux Easton, Hampshire to "Lulla princeps" by charter dated 801, subscribed by (in order) "Wor princeps", "Wiohstan princeps", "Wigfreth princeps" and "Wiohtbrord princeps", "Æse princeps" and "Ealhmund princeps"[618]

 

10.      BURHHELM (-killed in battle 824).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 824 "two ealdormen Burhhelm and Muca were slain"[619]

 

11.      MUCA (-killed in battle 824).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 824 "two ealdormen Burhhelm and Muca were slain"[620]

 

 

 

B.      SECOND QUARTER 9th CENTURY

 

 

1.         WULFHEARD (-840).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 825 "Egbert king of Wessex…sent his son Æthelwulf…and Wulfheard his ealdorman to Kent with a great force" where they expelled King Baldred[621].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 840 "ealdorman Wulfheard fought at Southampton…and the same year Wulfheard passed away"[622]

 

2.         ÆTHELHELM (-killed in battle Portland 840).  Ealdorman [of Dorset].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 840 "ealdorman Æthelhelm fought against a Danish host at Portland with the men of Dorset…but the Danes…slew the ealdorman"[623]

 

3.         DUDDA (-836).  "Dudda dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelwulf dated [833/39][624].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 836 "Dudda and Osmod two ealdorman passed away"[625]

 

4.         OSMOD (-836).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 836 "Dudda and Osmod two ealdorman passed away"[626]

 

5.         HEREBERHT (-killed in battle Romney Marsh 841).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 841 "ealdorman Hereberht was slain by the heathen and many with him among the people of Romney Marsh"[627]

 

6.         EANWULF (-after 864).  Ealdorman [of Somerset].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 848 "ealdorman Eanwulf and the men of Somerset…and ealdorman Osric with the men of Dorset" defeated the Danes "at the mouth of the Parret"[628].  "Eanwulf dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelberht dated 864[629]

 

7.         EALHHERE (-killed in battle Thanet 853).  "Alhere/Ealhere dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelwulf dated between 841 and 850, the last of which was the grant of land at Rochester by King Æthelwulf to "Ealhere princeps"[630].  He and Æthelstan under-King of Kent defeated a Danish force at sea off Sandwich in [851][631].  Asser records that "king Athelstan, son of king Æthelwulf, and earl Ealhere slew a large army of pagans in Kent at…Sandwich" in 851, and that "earl Ealhere with the men of Kent" fought more pagans "in the island…Tenet" in 853 where Ealhhere was killed[632]

 

8.         ÆTHELWULF (-killed in battle Reading 870).  Ealdorman [of Berkshire].  "Æthelwulf dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelwulf dated 841 and 842[633].  "Æthelwulf princeps" was granted land at Wittenham, Berkshire by King Æthelred by charter dated 862[634], although the date is anachronistic as Æthelred did not succeed as king until 866.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 860 "ealdorman Osric with the men of Hampshire and ealdorman Æthelwulf with the men of Berkshire" put the host to flight[635].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 870 "ealdorman Æthelwulf opposed [the host] at Englefield…and won the victory" but that four days later he was killed in battle at Reading[636]m WULFTHRYTH, daughter of --- (-after 855).  Alhwine Bishop of Worcester granted a lease of land at Cutsdean, Gloucestershire to Æthelwulf dux and Wulfthryth his wife by charted dated 855[637]

 

9.         ÆTHELHEARD (-after 852).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 852 "ealdorman Æthelheard, ealdorman Hunberht" were parties to a transaction involving an estate at Sempringham[638]

 

10.      HUNBERHT (-after 852).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 852 "ealdorman Æthelheard, ealdorman Hunberht" were parties to a transaction involving an estate at Sempringham[639]

 

 

 

C.      THIRD QUARTER 9th CENTURY

 

 

1.         EADWULF (-after 868).  "Eadwulf dux" subscribed two charters of Kings Æthelwulf and Æthelred I dated 850 and 868[640]

 

2.         ÆTHELRIC (-after 855).  "Æthelric dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelwulf dated 855[641]

 

3.         LULLEDE (-after 855).  "Lullede dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelwulf dated 855[642]

 

4.         OSRIC (-after 860).  Ealdorman [of Dorset/Hampshire].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 848 "ealdorman Eanwulf and the men of Somerset…and ealdorman Osric with the men of Dorset" defeated the Danes "at the mouth of the Parret"[643].  "Osric dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelbald dated 860[644].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 860 "ealdorman Osric with the men of Hampshire and ealdorman Æthelwulf with the men of Berkshire" put the host to flight[645]

 

4.         ÆTHELMOD (-[882/84]).  "Æthelmod dux" subscribed charters of Kings Æthelwulf, Æthelberht and Alfred between 855 and 882[646].  In the last of these he is listed first among the subscribers, presumably indicating his seniority.  m CYNETHRYTH, daughter of ---.  "Eadweald son of Oshere and Cynethryth widow of Æthelmod aldorman" reached agreement concerning land at Chart in Kent by charter dated [867/70], which recites that the land in question was bequeathed to Osberht, "his [Æthelmod] brother's son" if he survived Cynethryth and states that "there is no-one nearer kin to Æthelmod than Eadweald whose mother was his brother's daughter"[647]

5.         brother .  m ---.  Two children: 

a)         OSBERHT .  "Eadweald son of Oshere and Cynethryth widow of Æthelmod aldorman" reached agreement concerning land at Chart in Kent by charter dated [867/70], which recites that the land in question was bequeathed to Osberht, "his [Æthelmod] brother's son" if he survived Cynethryth and states that "there is no-one nearer kin to Æthelmod than Eadweald whose mother was his brother's daughter"[648]

b)         daughter .  m OSHERE, son of ---.  One child: 

i)          EADWEALD .  "Eadweald son of Oshere and Cynethryth widow of Æthelmod aldorman" reached agreement concerning land at Chart in Kent by charter dated [867/70], which recites that the land in question was bequeathed to Osberht, "his [Æthelmod] brother's son" if he survived Cynethryth and states that "there is no-one nearer kin to Æthelmod than Eadweald whose mother was his brother's daughter"[649]

 

6.         WULFHERE (-[869/71]).  "Wulfhere dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelred I dated 862 (in which he is listed first subscriber, even before the king's brother Alfred) and 868 (two)[650].  Wulfhere was evidently a nobleman of unusual importance at King Æthelred's court:  in the charter of 862 and one of the 868 charters, Wulfhere is listed first among all subscribers, in the case of the former even before the king's brother Alfred.  In the second 868 charter, he is listed second among the subscribers after "Wulfthryth regina".  King Æthelred I granted "Wulfhere princeps" land at Winterbourne, Wiltshire by charter dated 869[651].  Not named in any later charter, it is assumed that he died soon after.  m ---.  The name of Wulfhere's wife is not known.  Wulfhere & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [WULFTHRYTH ([848/53]-).  "Wulfthryth regina" subscribed one of the two charters of King Æthelred I dated 868[652], which suggests that she married during that year.  Her birth date range is estimated from her having given birth to two known children before the death of her husband in 871. Her parentage is not known.  However, the importance of Ealdorman Wulfhere's position at the court of King Æthelred I is shown by the position of his name among subscribers to the king's charters: he was first subscriber, even before the king's brother Alfred, in a charter dated 862, and second subscriber, after the queen, in a charter dated 868[653].  It is tempting therefore to speculate that Æthelred's queen was the daughter of Wulfhere, especially with the common use of the root "Wulf-" in their names.  m ([868]) ÆTHELRED I King of Wessex, son of ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex & his [second] wife Osburga ---  ([840]-[15/22] Apr 871, bur Wimborne Minster, Dorset).] 

 

7.         EALDRED (-868 or after).  "Aldred dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred I dated 862[654], although this date is anachronistic as Æthelred did not succeed as king until 866.  He may be the same person as "Eadred dux" who subscribed charters of Kings Æthelwulf, Æthelberht and Æthelred I dated 855, 863 and 868[655]

 

8.         DRIHTWALD (-868 or after).  "Drytweald/Drihtwald dux" subscribed charters of Kings Æthelberht and Æthelred I dated 863 and 868[656]

 

9.         ÆLFSTAN (-after [870]).  "Ælfstan dux" subscribed charters of Kings Æthelberht and Æthelred I dated between 862 and 868[657].  "Ælfstan ealdorman" was also the grantee of land at Cheselbourne, Dorset under a charter of King Æthelred dated 869 or 870[658]

 

10.      WIGSTAN (-after 868).  "Wigstan dux" subscribed two charters of King Æthelred I dated 868[659]

 

11.      CUTHRED (-after [871/77]).  Ealhferth Bishop of Winchester granted a lease of land at Easton, Winchester to Cuthred dux and his wife Wulfthryth by charter dated [871/77][660]m WULFTHRYTH, daughter of ---. 

 

Two possible brothers: 

12.      ---.  One child: 

a)         ÆLFRED (-after [871/88]).  The will of Ealdorman [dux] Alfred probably dated [879/88] makes bequests (in order) to "my wife Waerburh and Ealhthryth the child of us both, my son Æthelwold, my kinsman Brihtsige, my kinsman Sigewulf, my kinsman Eadred"[661]m firstly ---.  m secondly WAERBURH, daughter of ---.  "Ælfred aldorman and Werburg my wife" declared that they had ransomed books from the Danish army and wished to donate them to Christ Church, Canterbury, by undated charter[662].  Ælfred & his first wife had one child: 

i)          ÆTHELWOLD (-after [879/88]).  Ealdorman Alfred names Æthelwold as his son in his will probably dated [879/88]. 

Ælfred & his second wife had one child: 

ii)         EALHTHRYTH (-after [879/88]).  Ealdorman Alfred names Ealhthryth as his daughter by his wife Waerburh in his will probably dated [879/88]. 

13.      [--- .  m ---.] 

It is not known how the following three individuals were related to Ealdorman Ælfred, or to each other, but presumably the relationship to Ælfred was more distant than brothers as otherwise they would have been described as such in his [879/88] will.  The "Sige-" element of the name suggests a family relationship with the kings of Essex. 

a)         BYRHTSIGE (-after [879/88]).  Ealdorman Alfred names Brihtsige as his kinsman in his will probably dated [879/88]. 

b)         SIGEWULF (-killed in battle 905).  Ealdorman Alfred names Sigewulf as his kinsman in his will probably dated [879/88].  "Sigulf dux" subscribed King Alfred's charter dated 898, and a charter of King Edward dated 901[663], although it is not known with certainty that this was the same person.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records "ealdorman Sigewulf" among those killed fighting the Danes in 905 as well as "Sigeberht son of Sigewulf"[664]m ---.  The name of Sigewulf's wife is not known.  Sigewulf & his wife had one child: 

i)          SIGEBERHT (-killed in battle 905).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records "ealdorman Sigewulf" among those killed fighting the Danes in 905 as well as "Sigeberht son of Sigewulf"[665]

c)         EADRED (-after [879/88]).  Ealdorman Alfred names Eadred as his kinsman in his will probably dated [879/88]. 

 

 

 

D.      LAST QUARTER 9th CENTURY

 

 

1.         BUCCA [Beocca] (-after 888).  "Bucca dux" subscribed a charter of King Alfred concerning land in Somerset dated 882[666].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 888 "ealdorman Beocca and queen Æthelswith who was king Alfred's sister took the alms of the West Saxons and of king Alfred to Rome"[667]

 

2.         GARULF (-after 882).  "Garulf dux" subscribed a charter of King Alfred concerning land in Somerset dated 882[668]

 

3.         ÆLHHELM (-after 884).  "Alhhelm ealdorman" and "Alchelmus dux" subscribed two charters of "Æthelred Merciorum gentis ducatum gubernans" dated 884[669]

 

4.         ÆTHULF (-after 884).  "Æthulf ealdorman/Æthulfus dux" subscribed two charters of "Æthelred Merciorum gentis ducatum gubernans" dated 884[670]

 

5.         EADWALD (-after 884).  "Eadwaldus dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred I dated 884, named first in the list of subscribers[671]

 

6.         ÆTHELNOTH (-after 893).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 893 "ealdorman Æthelred and ealdorman Æthelhelm and ealdorman Æthelnoth" besieged and later defeated the Danes "at Buttington on Severn shore"[672]

 

7.         CEOLMUND (-[894/96]).  Ealdorman in Kent.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "Ceolmund ealdorman in Kent" among those who died "during those three years"[673]

 

8.         WULFRED (-[894/96]).  "Wulfred dux" subscribed charters of King Alfred dated 882 and 892[674].  Ealdorman in Hampshire.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "Wulfred ealdorman in Hampshire" among those who died "during those three years"[675]

 

9.         SIGEHELM (-killed in battle 905).  King Alfred granted "Sighelm dux" land at Farleigh, Kent by charter dated 898[676].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "ealdorman Sigehelm" in 905[677]

 

10.      WULFLAF (-898 or after).  "Wulflaf dux" subscribed charters of King Alfred dated 882 and 898[678]

 

11.      BEORNOTH (-after 884).  "Beornath ealdorman" subscribed a charter of "Æthelred Merciorum gentis ducatum gubernans" dated 884. 

 

12.      BEORHTWULF (-after 909).  "Beorhtulf comes" subscribed two charters of King Edward dated 903 and 909[679]

 

13.      BEORSTAN (-after 901).  "Beorstan dux" subscribed a charter of King Edward dated 901[680]

 

14.      WULFSIGE (-after 903).  "Wulfsige dux" subscribed charters of King Edmund dated 901 and 903[681].  "Pulfsie dux" subscribed a charter of King Edward dated 909[682], although this unauthentic sounding first name suggests a copyist's error, "Wulfsige" being the nearest equivalent. 

 

15.      ORDULF (-909 or after).  "Ordlaf/Ordulf dux" subscribed charters of King Alfred dated 882 and 898, and King Edward dated between 900 and 909[683]

 

16.      HÆHFERTH (-after 901).  "Hæhferth dux" subscribed a charter of King Edward dated 901[684]

 

17.      ÆLFRED (-after 901).  "Ælfred dux" subscribed two charters of King Edward dated 900 and 901[685]

 

 

 

E.      FIRST QUARTER 10th CENTURY

 

 

1.         ÆTHELFRITH (-904 or after).  According to Anscombe[686], Æthelfrith was the son of Æthelhelm, supposed son of Æthelred I King of England.  However, this is unlikely from a chronological point of view.  Any grandsons of King Æthelred could not have been born before [890] at the earliest, while Ealdorman Æthelfrith was active in 901, even in 884 if the subscriptions of charters of that date refer to the same person.  "Æthelferth ealdorman/dux/comes" and "Æthelfrith dux" subscribed two charters of Æthelred Ealdorman of Mercia in 884 and four charters of King Edward dated between 901 and 904[687].  "Æthelfrith dux" was also granted land at Wrington, Somerset by King Edward under a charter dated 903[688]m ÆTHELGYTH, daughter of ÆTHELWULF & his wife ---.  King Edward renewed the charter of a grant by Athulf to Æthelgyth his daughter of land at Monks Risborough, Buckinghamshire, by charter dated 903[689].  As "Æthelgyth 1" she is shown in PASE as the mother of Æthelstan Half-King but the source on which this relationship is based is not specified.  Æthelfrith & his wife had five children: 

a)         ÆTHELSTAN (-956 or after).  "Æthelfritho, eius filius Ethelstanus dux" gave Wrington, given to his father by King Edward, to Glastonbury[690]

-        EALDORMEN of EAST ANGLIA

b)         ÆTHELWOLD (-after [946/47]).  Ealdorman Æthelwold under his will dated [946/47] bequeathed land at Æscesdune, Berkshire, Cheam, Surrey and Washington, Sussex to his brother Eadric, land at Broadwater, Sussex and South Newton, Wiltshire to his brother Æthelstan, land at Carcel to his brother's son Ælfsige, and land at Cleran to the son of his brother Ælfstan[691]

c)         ÆLFSTAN (-934 or after).  "Ælfstan dux" subscribed charters of Kings Edward and Æthelstan dated between 901 and 934[692].  "Æhlstan dux" subscribed a 921 charter of King Edward[693], presumably the same person as Ælfstan.  m ---.  The name of Ælfstan's wife is not known.  Ælfstan & his wife had one child: 

i)          son .  Ealdorman Æthelwold under his will dated [946/47] bequeathed land at Cleran to the son of his brother Ælfstan[694]

d)         son .  m ---.  One child: 

i)          ÆLFSIGE (-after [946/47]).  Ealdorman Æthelwold under his will dated [946/47] bequeathed land at Carcel to his brother's son Ælfsige[695]same person as…? ÆLFSIGE .  Archbishop of Canterbury. 

e)         EADRIC ([920/25]-).  Ealdorman Æthelwold under his will dated [946/47] bequeathed land at Æscesdune, Berkshire, Cheam, Surrey and Washington, Sussex to his brother Eadric[696].  Ealdorman, 925-949.  "Eadric dux" subscribed charters of Kings Edmund and Eadred dated between 943 and 946[697].  King Edmund granted land at Almer, Dorset to "Eadric comes" under a charter dated 943[698].   

 

2.         ORDGAR (-926 or after).  "Ordgar dux" subscribed charters of King Edward dated between 900 and 909, and "Ordgar princeps" those of King Æthelstan in 925 and 926[699]

 

3.         ÆLFHEAH (-909 or after).  "Ælfheah dux" subscribed charters of King Edward dated between 901 and 909[700]

 

4.         OSWULF (-909 or after).  "Osulf dux" subscribed charters of King Edward from 901 to 909[701]

 

5.         EALDRED (-932 or after).  "Aldred dux" subscribed charters of Kings Edward and Æthelstan dated 921 and 931[702].  "Ædelred dux" susbscribed a charter of King Æthelstan dated 932[703].  "Ealdred dux" subscribed two charters of King Æthelstan dated 931 and 932[704].  This may be the same person as "Ælfred/Elfred dux" who subscribed two charters of King Æthelstan in 930 and 931[705]

 

 

 

F.      SECOND QUARTER 10th CENTURY

 

 

1.         ÆLFWOLD (-944 or after).  "Ælfwald/Ælfwold dux" subscribed charters of Kings Edward, Æthelstan and Edmund dated between 903 and 944[706].  He may also have been "Ælwald princeps", "Ælwald dux" and "Alwold dux" who subscribed charters of King Æthelstan dated between 925 and [935/38][707].  He enjoyed a certain level of seniority among the ealdorman:  in these charters he was named directly after "Æthelswintha regina" in 904 and, in all but one other, either first in the list of subscribers or second after Osferth and Ordgar. 

 

2.         UHTRED (-958 or after).  "Uhtred dux" subscribed charters of Kings Edward and Æthelstan dated from 921 to 944 and of King Edgar dated 958[708]

 

3.         WULFGAR (-946 or after).  "Wulfgar dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelstan from 926 to 939, and for Kings Edmund and Eadred from 940 to 946[709]

 

4.         ÆSCBERHT (-934 or after).  "Æscbriht/Æscberht/Ecsbyrth dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelstan dated between 930 and 934[710].  He is assumed to be the same person as "Oscbyrht dux" who subscribed one of the king's charters in 931[711]

 

5.         ÆTHELWEARD (-after 931).  "Æthelwerd dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelstan dated 931[712]

 

6.         ÆTHELSTAN (-970 or after).  "Æthelstan dux" subscribed charters of Kings Athelstan, Edmund between 931 and 970[713].  Between 943 and 956, there were two subscribers "Æthelstan dux" in several charters[714], suggesting that there may have been two individuals of the same name during this period. 

 

7.         ÆTHELMUND (-964 or after).  "Æthelmund dux" subscribed charters of Kings Æthelstan, Edmund, Eadred, Eadwig dated between 931 and 964[715]

 

8.         ÆLRED (-958 or after).  "Ælred dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelstan dated 930[716].  "Ayered dux" subscribed a charter of King Edgar dated 958[717], the name sounding like "Ælred" but the timespan between the two entries suggesting that this may have been a different individual. 

 

9.         WULFSTAN (-after 939).  "Wulfstan dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelstan dated 939[718]

 

10.      EADMUND (-963 or after).  "Eadmund dux" subscribed charters of King Edmund, Eadred, Eadwig and Edgar dated between [943/46] and 963[719]

 

 

 

G.      THIRD QUARTER 10th CENTURY

 

 

1.         BEORHTFERTH (-958 or after).  "Byrhtferth dux" subscribed charters of Kings Eadred and Eadwig in 953, 955 and 956 (four)[720]

 

2.         ÆTHELSIGE (-956 or after).  "Æthelsige dux" subscribed charters of Kings Eadred and Eadwig dated between 953 and 956[721].  "Æthelsige dux" also subscribed a charter of King Æthelred II dated 987[722], but the gap in time between this and the previous charters suggests that this was a different person. 

 

3.         ÆTHULF (-after 956).  "Athulf dux" subscribed a charter of King Eadred dated 956[723]

 

4.         OSGARD (-975 or after).  "Ascured dux" subscribed a charter of King Edgar dated 958[724].  He may be the same person as "Osgar dux" who subscribed a charter of King Edgar dated 970[725].  "Osward propinquus" was granted land at South Stoke, Sussex by King Edgar by charter dated 975[726]

 

5.         CYTELBEAM (-after 963).  "Cytelbeam dux" subscribed a charter of King Edgar dated 963[727]

 

6.         ÆLFSTAN (-after 963).  "Ælfstan dux" subscribed a 963 charter of King Edgar[728], but the time lapse between this and the earlier charters subscribed by "Ælfstan dux" suggests that there were two individuals of the same name. 

 

7.         ÆTHELINE (-after 963).  "Ædelyne/Atheline dux" subscribed two charters of King Edgar dated 963[729]

 

8.         ÆTHELGAR (-after 966).  "Æthelgar dux" subscribed a charter of King Edgar dated 966[730]

 

9.         ÆLFERF (-after 958).  "Elferf dux" subscribed a 958 charter of King Edgar[731], but this may be a transcription error for Ælfhere. 

 

10.      ÆLFSIGE (-956 or after).  "Ælfsige dux" subscribed charters of Kings Eadred and Eadwig in 955 and 956[732].  "Ælfsige dux" also subscribed a 987 charter of King Æthelred II, although the timespan after the earlier charters suggests that this was a different person or alternatively that the name transcription in the charter dated 987 was incorrect[733]

 

11.      EADWULF (-970 or after).  "Eadwulf dux" subscribed two charters of King Edgar dated 968 and 970[734]

 

 

 

H.      FOURTH QUARTER 10th CENTURY

 

 

Five possible brothers and sisters, parents not known.  Anscombe suggests that they were the children of Eadric, son of Æthelwold (see Part E above)[735]

1.         ÆTHELWEARD ([940/45]-1004).  The will of "Ælfgifu" dated to [966/75] devises estates at Mongewell and Berkhampstead to "Ælfweard and Æthelweard and Ælfwaru"[736].  The will clarifies in a later passage that Ælfwaru was Ælfgifu's sister.  It is therefore assumed that the first two named were her brothers although no relationship is specified.  "Æthelweard dux" subscribed charters of Kings Edward and Æthelred II dated between 976 and1004[737].  He is probably "Æthweard dux" who subscribed King Æthelred's charter dated 987 (which is not also subscribed by Æthelweard)[738].  King Edward granted "Æthelweard comes" lands in Cornwall under charter dated 977[739].  In a charter dated 997, he subscribes as "Æthelweard Occidentalium Provinciarum dux"[740].  His Chronicle[741], tracing English history from its origins until the reign of King Edgar, written some time between 975 and 998, was dedicated to Matilda Abbess of Essen, great granddaughter of Edward "the Elder" King of Wessex.  m (before [Sep 959]) ÆTHELFLÆD --- (-after 1002, maybe after 1012).  It is likely that Æthelflæd was related to Byrhtnoth Ealdorman of Essex as her son Æthelmær was described as Byrhtnoth's kinsman in the will of Ælflæd, Byrhtnoth's widow.  The absence of references to any relationship between Byrhtnoth and Æthelmær's paternal relatives suggests that the family relationship was probably on his mother's side.  The will of "Ælfgifu" dated to [966/75] grants "to my brother's wife Æthelflæd the headband which I have lent her"[742].  A document records the manumission of a woman by Æthelflæd wife of Ealdorman Æthelweard, dated 1002 or after[743].  Æthelweard & his wife had one child: 

a)         ÆTHELMÆR (-[after 1014]).  "Æthelmær satrap of King Æthelred and son of Æthelweard" founded Cerne Abbey by charter dated 987[744].  The will of Ælflæd dated to [1000/02] bequeaths property to "ealdorman Æthelmær my [lord's kinsman]…the estate at Lawling"[745], indicating a family relationship between Æthelmær and Byrhtnoth Ealdorman of Essex (see Chapter 3, above).  He is named as son of Æthelweard in a charter of King Æthelred II dated 1005 which confirms rights to Eynsham Abbey and specifies that Æthelmær was bequeathed land at Esher, Surrey by his father[746].  His relationship with Byrhtnoth is corroborated by the same charter which states that Byrhtnoth had an earlier date bequeathed land at Mickleton, Gloucestershire to Ealdorman Æthelmær, son of Ealdorman Æthelweard724.  He founded the monastery at Cerne in Dorset in 987 with his father, and Eynsham abbey after [999][747].  "Æthelmær dux" subscribed charters of Kings Edward and Æthelred II dated between 977 and 1014[748].  King Æthelred also granted land at Clyffe Pypard, Wiltshire to "Æthelmær dux"[749].  It is possible that he is the same person as "Æthelmær son of Æthelweard" referred to in a charter of King Æthelred dated 1005 as having previously bequeathed land at Esher, Surrey.  He surrendered to Svend King of Denmark in 1013 with 'the thegns from the west'[750]m ---.  The name of Æthelmær's wife is not known.  Æthelmær & his wife had one child: 

i)          ÆTHELWEARD (-murdered 1017).  Simeon of Durham records that "(though guiltless)…Ethelward son of duke Agelmar" was among those killed at the same time as Eadric "Streona" in 1017[751].  Son of ealdorman Æthelmær "the Stout", he was killed on the orders of King Canute at the same time as Eadric "Streona"[752]

2.         ÆLFWEARD (-after 987).  The will of "Ælfgifu" dated to [966/75] devises estates at Mongewell and Berkhampstead to "Ælfweard and Æthelweard and Ælfwaru"[753].  The will clarifies in a later passage that Ælfwaru was Ælfgifu's sister.  It is therefore assumed that the first two named were her brothers although no relationship is specified.  "Athelwerd fraterque meus Ælfwerd ministri" subscribed a charter dated 974[754].  "Ælfwaerd dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred II dated 987, also signed by "Æthelweard dux"[755]

3.         ÆLFGIFU (-[966/75] or after).  The will of "Ælfgifu" dated to [966/75] devises estates at Mongewell and Berkhampstead to "Ælfweard and Æthelweard and Ælfwaru", grants to "my sister Ælfwaru…all that I have lent her", and "to my brother's wife Æthelflæd the headband which I have lent her"[756]same person as…?  ÆLFGIFU (-Gloucester [Sep 959]).  There is no direct proof that Ælfgifu whose will is dated to [966/75] was the same person as the wife of King Eadwig but this looks likely.  Ælfgifu and her husband were separated on grounds of consanguinity by Oda Archbishop of Canterbury[757], but the precise relationship has not been found.  Weir dates the death of Ælfgifu to [Sep 959][758] but the source on which this is based is not known and the date is inconsistent with the dating of the will.  m ([955], separated 957) EADWIG King of England, son of EADMUND King of Wessex & his first wife Ælfgifu ([940]-1 Oct 959). 

4.         ÆLFWARU (-after [966/75]).  The will of "Ælfgifu" dated to [966/75] grants to "my sister Ælfwaru…all that I have lent her"[759]

5.         [---.  m ---.] 

a)         WULFWYNE (-after 1005).  "Wulfwyn Æthelmær's kinswoman" is named in King Æthelred II's grant of confirmations to Eynsham Abbey dated 1005[760]

 

 

1.         WIRHMOD (-after 975).  "Wirhmod dux" subscribed a charter of King Edgar dated 975[761]

 

2.         EADWINE (-982 or after).  "Eadwine dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated between 979 and 982[762]

 

 

1.         ÆTHELBERHT (-after 981).  "Æthelbriht dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred II dated 981[763]same person as…?  ÆGELBERHT .  Florence of Worcester names "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred´s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum"[764].  However, this is the only example found of the use of "Ægel-" as a name root.  It is therefore possible that the text represents an error for Æthelberhti".  m ---.  The name of Ægelberht´s wife is not known.  Ægelberht & his wife had [one child]: 

a)         [ÆLFGIVA .  The information about the parentage of the first "wife" of King Æthelred is contradictory.  According to Florence of Worcester´s genealogies, she was Ælfgiva, daughter of Ealdorman "Ægelberht", as he names "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred´s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum"[765].  (It should be noted in passing that this is the only example of the root "Ægel-" being found in an Anglo-Saxon name; it is therefore possible that "Ægelberhti" represents a transcription error, maybe for "Æthelberhti".)  On the other hand, Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx records that she was ---, daughter of Thored Ealdorman of York, naming "filia Torethi…comitis" as the mother of "Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"][766].  The Estoire de Seint Aedward le Rei, written in [1245], must have used Ailred as its source as it states that the first wife of King Æthelred II was the daughter of "Count Torin"[767].  Roger of Wendover is unspecific, noting that "rex Ethelredus" married "cujusdam ducis filiam" by whom he fathered "filium…Eadmundum", although in a later passage he says that King Eadmund had "matrem quondam ignobilem fœminam"[768].  No trace of King Æthelred´s first wife has been found in any other contemporary document.  In charters dated 996, King Æthelred's mother countersigns "Ælfthryth regina", but there is no mention of the king's wife.  This suggests that Ælfgiva (if indeed that was her name) was an "unofficial" wife, having a similar status to Æthelflæd, first "wife" of King Eadgar, King Æthelred´s father.  The will of her son ætheling Æthelstan, dated [1014], refers to "the soul of Ælfthryth my grandmother who brought me up" but makes no mention of his mother[769], which suggests that she played little part in his early life.  This seems suprising if she was in fact the mother of all King Æthelred's children who were not born to his known wife Emma, as is generally reported in most secondary sources.  There must therefore be some doubt whether [Ælfgiva] was the king's only wife or concubine before his marriage to Emma de Normandie.  As noted in the document ANGLO-SAXON KINGS, it is even possible that the unnamed daughter of Ealdorman Thored (referred to by Ailred of Rievaulx) was not the same person as Ælfgiva (named by Florence of Worcester) and that they were both "married" to King Æthelred, either at the same time or one after the other.  If this is correct, the sources are contradictory regarding the identity of the mother of King Eadmund "Ironsides".  m ([980/85]) as his first [wife], ÆTHELRED II King of England, son of EDGAR "the Peacable" King of England & his second wife Ælfthryth ([966]-London 23 Apr 1016, bur Old St Paul's Cathedral). 

 

 

1.         ÆLFSIGE (-987 or after).  "Ælfsige dux" subscribed a 987 charter of King Æthelred II[770]

 

2.         ÆTHELSIGE (-987 or after).  "Æthelsige dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred II dated 987[771]

 

3.         GODWIN (-killed in battle Ashingdon Oct 1016[772]).  "Godwine dux/Godwyne comes" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated 982 and 1004[773].  Simeon of Durham names "duke Godwin" among those killed in 1016 in the final battle between King Edmund II and Knud of Denmark[774]

 

4.         LEOFRIC (-987 or after).  "Leofric dux" subscribed two charters of King Æthelred II dated 985 and 987 (twice)[775]

 

5.         SIRIC (-after 985).  "Siric dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred II dated 985[776]

 

6.         ORDBRYHT (-987 or after).  "Ordbryht dux" subscribed three charters of King Æthelred II dated 985, 986 and 987[777]

 

7.         WULFSIGE (-after 987).  "Wulfsige dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred II dated 987[778]

 

8.         WULFGET (-after 996)  "Wlfget dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred II dated 996[779]

 

 

 

I.        FIRST QUARTER 11th CENTURY

 

 

1.         ORDMERE (-after 1004).  "Ordmere comes" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred II dated 1004[780]

 

2.         OSWIG (-killed in battle Ringmere 5 May 1010).  Simeon of Durham names "the noble minister Oswy with his sons" among those killed in battle by the Danes "in East Anglia…Ringmere"[781].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "Oswy and his son" among those killed fighting the Danes in Cambridgeshire in 1010[782]m ---, daughter of BYRHTNOTH Ealdorman of East Anglia & [his wife Ælflæd] (after [946/51]-).  Her marriage is proved by a 12th century list of obituaries at Ely[783].  Her birth date is established by the will of her maternal grandfather dated to [946/51], which implies that his daughter Ælflæd was childless at that date[784].  Oswig & his wife had [two or more] children: 

a)         sons (-killed in battle Ringmere 5 May 1010).  Simeon of Durham names "the noble minister Oswy with his sons" among those killed in battle by the Danes "in East Anglia…Ringmere"[785].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "Oswy and his son" among those killed fighting the Danes in Cambridgeshire in 1010[786]

 

3.         GODRIC (-after 1015).  "Godric dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated 1014 and 1015[787]

 

4.         ÆLFMÆR (-after 1014).  Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made a bequest to "Ælfmær the estate of Hambledon", listed first among the bequests to non-members of the royal family[788], which presumably indicates Ælfmær's importance at court at the time.  The will also names "Ælfmær, Ælfric's son" who was to be "witness" in judging how much money should be repaid in connection with another bequest and includes a bequest to "my seneschal Ælfmær".  It is likely that there were three different people named Ælfmær, the reference to the father of one and the position of seneschal of the other being inserted to distinguish him them from the first.  Kelly suggests that the first "Ælfmær", whom he says is otherwise unknown, was in fact "Æthelmær", father of Wulfnoth father of Earl Godwin, the last named owning Hambledon at a later date, but this seems difficult to sustain from a chronological point of view. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10.  UNCONNECTED NOBILITY, DANISH ORIGIN

 

 

From the charter evidence, nobility of Danish origin took an active part in the administration of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, on an equal basis with their native counterparts at times during the 10th century.  These Danish names occur in the documentation during three distinct periods: between 928 and 937, between 957 and 963, and between 979 and 994. 

 

The first charter which includes a noble with an obviously Danish sounding name as subscriber is dated 928, when "Guthrum dux" appears for the first time signing after the two more traditionally English names Osferth and Ælfwold[789].  King Æthelstan's charter dated 930 featured "Urum dux", "Grim dux", "Stircer dux" and "Regenwold dux", listed in that order after six Anglo-Saxon noblemen[790].  These, and other obviously Scandinavian-origin names, are repeated in other charters of King Æthelstan dated between 930 and 937, more details of the subscriptions being shown below.  The charters in question dealt with land in Devon, Hampshire, Lancashire, Sussex and Wiltshire, demonstrating that the influence of the Scandinavian nobles was not limited to the Danelaw lands of the north and east. 

 

Names of noblemen with Danish-origin names are rarely found in the charters of Kings Edmund, Eadred and Eadwig:  "Scula dux" provides an isolated example from King Edmund's charter dated 943[791].  After the accession of King Edgar in 957, the Scandinavian names reappear, with "Urm dux", "Gunner dux", "Urin dux", "Sunner dux", "Leod dux", "Halfden dux" and "Morcar dux" interspersed with Anglo-Saxon subscribers in a charter dated 958 dealing with land in Hampshire[792].  These and similar names are repeated in charters dated 959 and 963, all three of which deal with land in Yorkshire[793].  After this, no more Danish names are found among the noble subscribers until 979 when "Thored dux" is named in a charter of King Æthelred II concerning land in Buckinghamshire[794].  These are followed by mentions of nobles with Danish sounding names in charters of 983, 985 and 994, after which the names are solely Anglo-Saxon once more. 

 

 

1.         GUTHRUM (-937 or after).  "Guthrum dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelstan dated between 928 and 937[795]

 

2.         FRÆNA (-after 930).  "Fræna dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelstan dated 930[796]

 

3.         GRIM (-after 930).  "Grim dux" subscribed two charters of King Æthelstan dated 930[797]

 

4.         HADDER (-934 or after).  "Had/Hatel/Hadder dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelstan dated 931, 932 and 934, relating to land in Hampshire and Lancashire[798]

 

5.         INWÆR (-after 934).  "Imper/Inwær/Inhwær dux" subscribed three charters of King Æthelstan dated between [930] and 934[799]

 

6.         ORM (-958 or after).  "Urum/Urm dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelstan dated from 930 to 937, and one charter of King Edgar dated 958[800]

 

7.         REGNWALD (-after 934).  "Regenwold/Regnwald/Reinwald dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelstan dated from 930 to 934[801]

 

8.         STYRCÆR (-after 930).  "Stircer/Styrcær dux" subscribed two charters of King Æthelstan dated 930[802]

 

9.         SKULE (-943 or after).  "Scule/Scula dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelstan dated from 931 to 937 and one charter of King Edmund dated 943[803]

 

10.      DURRE (-after 931).  "Durum/Durre dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelstan in 931 and one of King Edgar in 963[804], although the timespan between the two suggests that there may have been two different individuals with this name. 

 

11.      TIESBERD (-after 932).  "Tiesberd dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelstan dated 932[805]

 

12.      HALFDAN (-958 or after).  "Hælfdan/Halfdene dux" subscribed charters of Kings Æthelstan and Edgar dated 934 (three) and 958[806]

 

13.      HAWERD (-after 931).  "Hawerd dux" subscribed a charter of King Æthelstan dated 931[807]

 

14.      THURFERTH (-after 934).  "Thureferth/Durhferd/Durferth dux" subscribed four charters of King Æthelstan dated between 930 and 934[808]

 

15.      ODDA (-943 or after).  "Oda/Odda dux" subscribed charters of Kings Æthelstan and Edmund dated 939 and 943[809]

 

16.      LEOD (-after 959).  "Leod dux" subscribed two charters of King Edgar dated 958 and 959[810]

 

17.      GUNNER (-963 or after).  "Gunner/Gunar dux" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated 958 and 963, relating to land at Orton, Huntingdonshire and in Yorkshire respectively[811].  King Edgar granted "Gunner dux" land at Newbald, Yorkshire under a charter dated 963[812]m ---.  The name of Gunner´s wife is not known.  Gunner & his wife had one child: 

a)         THORED (-after 966).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "Thored son of Gunner" ravaged Westmoreland in 966[813]same person as…?  THORED (-992 or after).  "Thoreth/Thorod/Horeth/Thured dux" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated from 979 to 985[814].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "earl Thored" was among those "instructed to try to entrap the host somewhere out to sea" in 991[815].  Freeman speculates that Thored was "earl" of the part of Northumbria which was previously called Deira, maybe Yorkshire, the territory being different from Northumbria which Ælfric "ealdorman" ruled around the same time[816]m HILDA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   Thored & his wife had one child: 

i)          [ÆLFGIVA] .  The information about the parentage of the first "wife" of King Æthelred is contradictory.  According to Florence of Worcester´s genealogies, she was Ælfgiva, daughter of Ealdorman "Ægelberht", as he names "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred´s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum"[817].  (It should be noted in passing that this is the only example of the root "Ægel-" being found in an Anglo-Saxon name; it is therefore possible that "Ægelberhti" represents a transcription error, maybe for "Æthelberhti".)  On the other hand, Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx refers to "filia Torethi…comitis" as the mother of "Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"][818].  The Estoire de Seint Aedward le Rei, written in [1245], must have used Ailred as its source as it states that the first wife of King Æthelred II was the daughter of "Count Torin"[819].  Roger of Wendover is unspecific, noting that "rex Ethelredus" married "cujusdam ducis filiam" by whom he fathered "filium…Eadmundum", although in a later passage he says that King Eadmund had "matrem quondam ignobilem fœminam"[820].  No trace of King Æthelred´s first wife has been found in any other contemporary document.  In charters dated 996, King Æthelred's mother countersigns "Ælfthryth regina", but there is no mention of the king's wife.  This suggests that Ælfgiva (if indeed that was her name) was an "unofficial" wife, having a similar status to Æthelflæd, first "wife" of King Eadgar, King Æthelred´s father.  The will of her son ætheling Æthelstan, dated [1014], refers to "the soul of Ælfthryth my grandmother who brought me up" but makes no mention of his mother[821], which suggests that she played little part in his early life.  This seems suprising if she was in fact the mother of all King Æthelred's children who were not born to his known wife Emma, as is generally reported in most secondary sources.  There must therefore be some doubt whether [Ælfgiva] was the king's only wife or concubine before his marriage to Emma de Normandie.  As noted in the document ANGLO-SAXON KINGS, it is even possible that the unnamed daughter of Ealdorman Thored (referred to by Ailred of Rievaulx) was not the same person as Ælfgiva (named by Florence of Worcester) and that they were both "married" to King Æthelred, either at the same time or one after the other.  If this is correct, the sources are contradictory regarding the identity of the mother of King Eadmund "Ironsides".  m ([980/85]) as his first [wife], ÆTHELRED II King of England, son of EDGAR "the Peacable" King of England & his second wife Ælfthryth ([966]-London 23 Apr 1016, bur Old St Paul's Cathedral). 

 

18.      MORCAR (-after 958).  "Morcar dux" subscribed a charter of King Edgar dated 958[822]

 

19.      SUNNER (-after 958).  "Sunner dux" subscribed a charter of King Edgar dated 958[823]

 

20.      URIN (-after 958).  "Urin dux" subscribed a charter of King Edgar dated 958[824]

 

21.      OSCYTEL (-after 959).  "Oskytel dux" subscribed a charter of King Edgar dated 959[825]

 

 



[1] S 89 (Ethelbald King of Mercia). 

[2] PASE "Cyneberht 3". 

[3] Miller, S. (2001) The New Regesta Regum Anglorum, consulted at <http://www.trin.cam.ac.uk/chartwww/NewRegReg.html> (Dec 2004). 

[4] Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England ("PASE") (King´s College London and University of Cambridge, 2005-10), available at <http://www.pase.ac.uk/index.html> (Jan 2011).  

[5] Giles, J. A. (trans.) (2000) Asser, Annals of the Reign of Alfred the Great (In parentheses Publications, Cambridge, Ontario) ("Asser"), p. 3. 

[6] Garmonsway, G. N. (trans) (1972) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Dent), A, 901 [899]. 

[7] S 517, S 519, S 558 (King Eadred) and S 593 (King Eadwig). 

[8] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 962. 

[9] S 1483. 

[10] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D 946. 

[11] S 513. 

[12] S 1483. 

[13] S 1494. 

[14] S 1486. 

[15] Forester, T. (trans.) (1854) The Chronicles of Florence of Worcester with two continuations (London), 946, p. 99. 

[16] S 1483. 

[17] S 1494. 

[18] S 1486. 

[19] S 1494. 

[20] Scragg, D. (ed.) (1991) The Battle of Maldon (Oxford), p. 30, l. 282, cited in PASE "Siberht 2" (original not yet consulted). 

[21] S 1494. 

[22] S 1486. 

[23] Stevenson, J. (trans.) (1855) The Historical Works of Simeon of Durham (London) (“Simeon of Durham”), p. 506. 

[24] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1868) Chronica, Magistri Rogeri de Houedene (Longman, London) ("Roger of Hoveden") I, p. 62. 

[25] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon (London) (“Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon”), Vol. I, p. 140. 

[26] S 746. 

[27] Florence of Worcester, 964, p. 103. 

[28] Weir, A. (2002) Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (Pimlico), p. 20. 

[29] S 724, S 737, S 741, S 746, S 758, S 766 and S 779. 

[30] S 741. 

[31] Simeon of Durham, p. 507. 

[32] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 63. 

[33] Dugdale Monasticon II, Tavistock Monastery, Devon, II, Ex Cartulario de Tavistok, p. 494.   

[34] S 909. 

[35] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 965. 

[36] Simeon of Durham, p. 506. 

[37] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62. 

[38] Wright, T. (ed.) (1850) The Anglo-Norman Metrical Chronicle of Geoffrey Gaimar (London), lines 3621-3911, pp. 123-33. 

[39] S 703. 

[40] S 725, S 746, S 766, S 779 and S 789. 

[41] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989) II, 157, p. 140. 

[42] Malmesbury II, 162, p. 143. 

[43] S 835, S 840 and S 843.  

[44] S 838, S 845, S 877, S 878, S 891 and S 896. 

[45] S 904. 

[46] Raine, J. (ed.) (1879) Vita Oswaldi archiepiscopi Eboracensis (London), pp. 399-475, iii.14, cited in PASE "Ælfthryth 8". 

[47] Simeon of Durham, p. 519. 

[48] Early index of Glastonbury charters, quoted in Kelly, p. 66. 

[49] S 414, S 417, S 407, S 425, S 428, S 434, S 449, S 446, S 461, S 465, S 470, S 486, S 488 (twice), S 516, A 491, S 503 (twice), S 519 (twice), S 558, S 570 (twice), S 564, S 582 (twice), S 571, S 583 (twice), S 584, S 585, S 593 (twice), S 597 (twice), S 666, S 663 (twice), S 674, S 679, S 681, S 811, S 683, S 694, S 696, S 712, S 724, S 725, S 729, S 737, S 758, S 766, S 777 and S 779. 

[50] S 488, S 503, S 519, S 570, S 582, S 583, S 593, S 597, S 663. 

[51] Macray, W. D. (ed.) (1886) Chronicon Abbatiæ Rameseiensis (London) ("Chronicon Rameseiensis"), 4, p. 11. 

[52] Florence of Worcester, 992, p. 109. 

[53] S 1504. 

[54] Chronicon Rameseiensis, 4, p. 11. 

[55] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, II, Genealogia Comitis Ailwini, p. 554.   

[56] Dugdale Monasticon II, Chateris Monastery, Cambridgeshire, II, In Evidences de Chateriz per Johannem Stivecle, p. 616.   

[57] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.   

[58] Chronicon Rameseiensis, 4, p. 12. 

[59] Raine, J. (ed.) (1879) Vita Oswaldi archiepiscopi Eboracensis (London), pp. 399-475, iii.14 and iv.13, cited in PASE "Æthelwine 2". 

[60] Florence of Worcester, 992, p. 109. 

[61] S 465, S 470, S 486, S 488, S 491, S 503, S 584, S 585, S 593, S 674, S 681, S 811, S 683, S 694 and S 696. 

[62] S 868. 

[63] Simeon of Durham, p. 506. 

[64] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, II, Genealogia Comitis Ailwini, p. 555.   

[65] Raine, J. (ed.) (1879) Vita Oswaldi archiepiscopi Eboracensis (London), pp. 399-475, iii.14, cited in PASE "Ælfthryth 8". 

[66] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 965. 

[67] Simeon of Durham, p. 506. 

[68] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62. 

[69] Geoffrey Gaimar, lines 3621-3911, pp. 123-33. 

[70] S 703. 

[71] S 725, S 746, S 766, S 779 and S 789. 

[72] Malmesbury II, 157, p. 140. 

[73] Malmesbury II, 162, p. 143. 

[74] S 835, S 840 and S 843.  

[75] S 838, S 845, S 877, S 878, S 891 and S 896. 

[76] S 904. 

[77] Chronicon Rameseiensis, 4, p. 12. 

[78] Vita Oswaldi archiepiscopi Eboracensis, pp. 399-475, iii.14 and iv.13, cited in PASE "Æthelwine 2". 

[79] Florence of Worcester, 992, p. 109. 

[80] Florence of Worcester, 992, p. 109. 

[81] Florence of Worcester, 975, p. 106, and Roger of Hoveden I, p. 65. 

[82] Chronicon Rameseiensis, [XXXVIII], p. 72. 

[83] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, II, Genealogia Comitis Ailwini, p. 555.   

[84] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.   

[85] Chronicon Rameseiensis, 35, p. 63. 

[86] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, II, Genealogia Comitis Ailwini, p. 555.   

[87] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.   

[88] Chronicon Rameseiensis, 35, p. 63. 

[89] Chronicon Rameseiensis, 4, p. 12. 

[90] Florence of Worcester, 992, p. 109. 

[91] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, II, Genealogia Comitis Ailwini, p. 555.   

[92] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.   

[93] Florence of Worcester, 992, p. 109. 

[94] Chronicon Rameseiensis, 4, p. 12. 

[95] Vita Oswaldi archiepiscopi Eboracensis, pp. 399-475, iii.14 and iv.13, cited in PASE "Æthelwine 2". 

[96] Florence of Worcester, 992, p. 109. 

[97] S 724, S 725, S 729, S 732, S 737, S 746, S 758, S 766, S 779, S 789, S 794, S 799, S 804 (King Edgar), S. 830, S 831, S 832 (King Edward), S 834, S 836, S 838, S 840, S 843, S 845, S 846, S 852, S 857, S 858, S 860, S861, S 862, S865, S 867 and S 868 (King Æthelred II). 

[98] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, II, Genealogia Comitis Ailwini, p. 555.   

[99] Florence of Worcester, 975, p. 106, and Roger of Hoveden I, p. 65. 

[100] Chronicon Rameseiensis, [XXXVIII], p. 72. 

[101] S 1448a. 

[102] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, II, Genealogia Comitis Ailwini, p. 555.   

[103] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.   

[104] Florence of Worcester, 992, p. 109. 

[105] Chronicon Rameseiensis, 28, p. 52. 

[106] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, II, Genealogia Comitis Ailwini, p. 555.   

[107] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.   

[108] Chronicon Rameseiensis, 32, p. 58. 

[109] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, II, Genealogia Comitis Ailwini, p. 555.   

[110] Chronicon Rameseiensis, 128, p. 192. 

[111] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, II, Genealogia Comitis Ailwini, p. 555.   

[112] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.   

[113] Raine, J. (ed.) (1879) Vita Oswaldi archiepiscopi Eboracensis (London), pp. 399-475, v.14, cited in PASE "Æthelwine 2". 

[114] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle C, 1016. 

[115] Raine, J. (ed.) (1879) Vita Oswaldi archiepiscopi Eboracensis (London), pp. 399-475, v.14, cited in PASE "Æthelwine 2". 

[116] Florence of Worcester, 991, p. 109. 

[117] Simeon of Durham, p. 524. 

[118] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.   

[119] Vita Oswaldi archiepiscopi Eboracensis, pp. 399-475, iii.14 and iv.13, cited in PASE "Æthelwine 2". 

[120] S 883. 

[121] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1016, and Florence of Worcester, 1016, p. 130. 

[122] Florence of Worcester, 1003, p. 115. 

[123] Greenway, D. (ed.) (2002) Henry of Huntingdon: The History of the English People 1000-1154 (Oxford UP) ("Henry of Huntingdon"), II, 3, p. 7. 

[124] Simeon of Durham, p. 514. 

[125] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1010, and Henry of Huntingdon, II, 6, p. 9. 

[126] Florence of Worcester, 1010, p. 118. 

[127] Simeon of Durham, p. 524. 

[128] Freeman, E. A. (1877) The History of the Norman Conquest of England, its causes and its results 3rd Edn. (Oxford), Vol. I, Appendix, Note HH, p. 654, quoting Jomsvikinga Saga, c. 51, Johnstone, p. 101, presumably Johnstone, J. (1786) Antiquitates Celto-Scandicæ, sive Series rerum gestarum inter nationes [Google Book, no preview]. 

[129] S 347. 

[130] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 897 [896]. 

[131] S 674, S 679, S 681, S 811, S 694, S 712, S 725, S 729, S 732, S 737, S 741, S 746, S 758, S 766, S 777, S 779, S 789, S 794, S 799 (all King Edgar), S 831, S 832 (King Edward), S 834, S 836 S 838, S 840, S 843, S 845, S 846, s 850, S 857, S 858, S 860, S 861, S 862, S 865, S 867 and S 868(King Æthelred). 

[132] S 911. 

[133] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 65. 

[134] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 993 [991]. 

[135] Simeon of Durham, p. 510. 

[136] Florence of Worcester, 991, p. 109. 

[137] S 1486. 

[138] S 1483. 

[139] S 1494.  

[140] S 1486. 

[141] Dickins, B. 'The Day of Byrhtnoth's Death and other obits from a Twelfth-Century Ely Kalendar', 6 LSE, p. 15, cited in Garmonsway, G. N. (trans.) (1972) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (London), p. 140 footnote 2. 

[142] S 1483. 

[143] S 926. 

[144] S 926. 

[145] S 881, S 877, S 878, S 889, S 891, S 893, S 896, S 897, S 898 and S 899. 

[146] S 891. 

[147] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, pp. 133-4. 

[148] S 926. 

[149] S 340. 

[150] Weir (2002), p. 9. 

[151] Asser, p. 11. 

[152] Weir (2002), p. 9. 

[153] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D 903. 

[154] Asser, p. 11. 

[155] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 38.  According to Weir (2002), p. 9, Eadburh was perhaps the daughter of Cenwulf King of Mercia, although the basis of this hypothesis is not clear. 

[156] S 363. 

[157] Asser, Part I. 

[158] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 886 [885]. 

[159] S 348. 

[160] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 894 [893]. 

[161] S 361, S 367 and S 371. 

[162] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 912 [911], C, 911, D, 912, A and D recording that "king Edward took over London and Oxford…". 

[163] Asser, p. 25. 

[164] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 41. 

[165] S 217. 

[166] S 346. 

[167] S 221, S 367, S 371 and S 361. 

[168] Dl 912, p. 89. 

[169] Florence of Worcester, 913, 914, 915 and 916, pp. 89-92. 

[170] Florence of Worcester, 918 and 919, pp. 92-4.  Florence of Worcester's chronology of Æthelflæd's exploits appears to be one year late in each case, assuming her death in 918 is correct. 

[171] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 918. 

[172] S 371. 

[173] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 52. 

[174] Florence of Worcester, 920, p. 95. 

[175] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 919. 

[176] S 414. 

[177] S 465, S 470, S 486, S 487, S 488, S 491, S 503, S 517, S 519 and S 558. 

[178] Kelly, D. H. 'The House of Æthelred', Brook, L. L. (ed.) (1989) Studies in Genealogy and Family History in tribute to Charles Evans on the occasion of his eightieth birthday (Utah), p. 76. 

[179] S 741. 

[180] S 850. 

[181] S 840. 

[182] Kelly, D. H. 'The House of Æthelred', Brook, L. L. (ed.) (1989) Studies in Genealogy and Family History in tribute to Charles Evans on the occasion of his eightieth birthday (Utah), p. 76. 

[183] Dugdale Monasticon III, Burton Monastery XXII, Historia Fundatoris et Abbatum, p. 47.   

[184] Dugdale Monasticon III, Burton Monastery XXII, Historia Fundatoris et Abbatum, p. 47.   

[185] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1864) Annales Monastici Vol. I, Annales de Margan, Annales de Theokesberia, Annales de Burton (London), Annales de Burton, p. 183. 

[186] S 1536. 

[187] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 162. 

[188] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, Appendix, Note OO, p. 671.

[189] Dugdale Monasticon III, Burton Monastery XXII, Historia Fundatoris et Abbatum, p. 47.   

[190] S 1536. 

[191] Barlow (2002), p. 28. 

[192] S 868. 

[193] S 876, S 881, S 877, S 889, S 891, S 892, S 893, S 896, S 897, S 898, S 899, S 900, S 901, S 902, S 904, S 906, S 910, S 911 and S 912. 

[194] S 891. 

[195] S 1536. 

[196] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1006. 

[197] Florence of Worcester, 1006, p. 115. 

[198] Florence of Worcester, 1035, p. 140. 

[199] S 1536. 

[200] Florence of Worcester, 1006, p. 116. 

[201] S 1536. 

[202] Florence of Worcester, 1006, p. 116. 

[203] Coxe, H. O. (ed.) (1841) Rogeri de Wendover Chronica sive Flores historiarum (London) ("Roger of Wendover"), Vol. I, p. 462. 

[204] Stenton (2001), p. 397. 

[205] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C and D, 1035, E, 1036. 

[206] Andersson, T. M. and Gade, K. E. (trans.) (2000) Morkinskinna (Cornell), 2, p. 100. 

[207] Morkinskinna, 4, p. 111. 

[208] Morkinskinna, 5, p. 116. 

[209] Weir (2002), p. 30. 

[210] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 462. 

[211] Morkinskinna, 5, p. 116. 

[212] Simeon of Durham, p. 520. 

[213] EHD, 129, pp. 593-6. 

[214] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1015. 

[215] Simeon of Durham, p. 521. 

[216] S 922. 

[217] Simeon of Durham, p. 520. 

[218] Dugdale Monasticon III, Burton Monastery XXII, Historia Fundatoris et Abbatum, p. 47.   

[219] S 1536. 

[220] S 1536. 

[221] S 414, S 446, S 449, S 461 and S 470. 

[222] S 582. 

[223] S 1485. 

[224] S 583, S 584, S 585, S 593, S 597, S 663 (all King Eadwig), S 674, S 681, S 811, S 694, S 696, S 712, S 716, S 724, S 725, S 729, S 732, S 737, S 741, S 746, S 758, S 777, S 779, S 789, S 794, S 799, S 802, S 804 (all King Edgar), S 830, S 831, S 832 (King Edward), S 834, S 836, S 840 and S 846 (King Æthelred). 

[225] S 838. 

[226] S 838. 

[227] Florence of Worcester, 975, p. 106, and Roger of Hoveden I, p. 64. 

[228] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 980. 

[229] Simeon of Durham, p. 509. 

[230] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C and E, 980. 

[231] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1016, and Florence of Worcester, 1016, p. 130. 

[232] Simeon of Durham, p. 509. 

[233] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C and E, 980. 

[234] S 843, S 845, S 846, S 850, S 852, S 857, S 858, S 860, S 861, S 865, S 867, S 868, S 876, S 881, S 877, S 878, S 891, S 892, S 893, S 895, S 896, S 897, S 898, S 899, S 900, S 901, S 902, S 903, S 904, S 906, S 909, S 910, S 911, S 912, S 915, S 916, S 918, S 921, S 922, S 926, S 927, S 931, S 931b and S 933. 

[235] S 843, S 845 and S 852. 

[236] S 891. 

[237] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 980. 

[238] S 861, S 865 and S 867. 

[239] Simeon of Durham, p. 510. 

[240] Florence of Worcester, 991, p. 109. 

[241] Florence of Worcester, 992, p. 110. 

[242] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E and F, 1003. 

[243] Simeon of Durham, p. 524. 

[244] S 865. 

[245] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 993. 

[246] S 909. 

[247] Florence of Worcester, 1010, p. 118. 

[248] Simeon of Durham, p. 516. 

[249] S 582 and S 585. 

[250] S 811, S 683, S 694, S 696, S 724, S 725, S 729, S 732, S 737, S 966, S 758, S 766, and S 779. 

[251] S 712. 

[252] S 741. 

[253] S 747. 

[254] S 1485. 

[255] S 462. 

[256] S 1485. 

[257] S 1485. 

[258] S 1485. 

[259] Macray, W. D. (ed.) (1883) Chronicon Abbatiæ de Evesham (Rolls Series 29, London), p. 78, cited in Kelly, p. 77. 

[260] S 1485. 

[261] S 1485. 

[262] S 597. 

[263] S 1485. 

[264] Florence of Worcester, 1007, p. 116. 

[265] Kelly, D. H. 'The House of Æthelred', Brook, L. L. (ed.) (1989) Studies in Genealogy and Family History in tribute to Charles Evans on the occasion of his eightieth birthday (Utah), p. 72. 

[266] Florence of Worcester, 1007, p. 116. 

[267] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, pp. 159-60. 

[268] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 4, p. 8. 

[269] S 915, S 922, S 926, S 927, S 931, S 931b, S 933 and S 934. 

[270] Simeon of Durham, p. 526. 

[271] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1017. 

[272] Florence of Worcester, 1017, p. 134. 

[273] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 72. 

[274] Florence of Worcester, 1021, p. 135. 

[275] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 183. 

[276] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, Appendix, Note NN, p. 670.

[277] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 14, p. 15.   

[278] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 160. 

[279] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 73. 

[280] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1009. 

[281] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1017. 

[282] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 160. 

[283] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 1. 

[284] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 1. 

[285] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 7. 

[286] Florence of Worcester, 1072, p. 177. 

[287] Le Prévost, A. (1845) Orderici Vitalis Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ (Paris) ("Orderic Vitalis (Prévost)"), Vol. II, Liber IV, I, p. 166. 

[288] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 160. 

[289] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 160. 

[290] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 160. 

[291] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 160.  

[292] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1009, and F quoted in footnote 4, p. 138. 

[293] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 160. 

[294] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, Appendix, Note MM, p. 663, and Note ZZ, pp. 721-24.

[295] EHD, 129, pp. 593-6. 

[296] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, Appendix, Note ZZ, p. 724.

[297] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.   

[298] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, Appendix, Note CCC, p. 738.

[299] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.    

[300] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.   

[301] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.   

[302] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.    

[303] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.   

[304] S 582. 

[305] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.   

[306] S 582. 

[307] S 830, S 832 (both King Edward), S 881, S 877, S 878, S 891, S 892, S 893, S 896, S 897, S 898, S 899, S 900, S 901, S 904, S 906, S 909 (twice), S 910, S 911, S 912, S 915, S 916, S 918, S 921, S 922, S 926, S 927, S 931, S 931b, S 933 and S 934. 

[308] S 997. 

[309] S 892. 

[310] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 162. 

[311] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 74, and Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1010. 

[312] Simeon of Durham, p. 516. 

[313] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, Appendix, Note OO, p. 671.

[314] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1017. 

[315] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.   

[316] S 881. 

[317] Florence of Worcester, 1017, p. 134. 

[318] Simeon of Durham, p. 527. 

[319] Dugdale Monasticon II, Evesham Monastery, Worcestershire VIII, p. 18.   

[320] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.   

[321] Simeon of Durham, p. 527. 

[322] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.   

[323] Whitelock, D. (ed.) (1979) English Historical Documents Vol. I, 2nd edn. (Eyre Methuen, London) ("EHD"), 135, pp. 602-3. 

[324] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1039. 

[325] Florence of Worcester, 1057, p. 159. 

[326] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.   

[327] Simeon of Durham, p. 527. 

[328] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. II, p. 216 footnote 1. 

[329] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery II, p. 190.   

[330] Dugdale Monasticon II, Evesham Monastery, Worcestershire VIII, p. 18.   

[331] Florence of Worcester, 1057, p. 159. 

[332] Dugdale Monasticon III, Spalding Monastery, Lincolnshire, I, p. 215.   

[333] Dugdale Monasticon II, Croyland Monastery, Lincolnshire LXXVII, p. 119.   

[334] De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis 2, p. App. 48. 

[335] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 966. 

[336] Dugdale Monasticon II, Evesham Monastery, Worcestershire VIII, p. 18.   

[337] S 1233. 

[338] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 183. 

[339] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.   

[340] Florence of Worcester, 1053, p. 155.  

[341] Florence of Worcester, 1055, p. 156. 

[342] Florence of Worcester, 1055, p. 157. 

[343] Florence of Worcester, 1057, p. 159. 

[344] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1058. 

[345] Florence of Worcester, 1058, p. 160. 

[346] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 183. 

[347] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 183. 

[348] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.   

[349] Darlington, Reginald R. & McGurk, Patrick editors, trans. Jennifer Bray and Patrick McGurk (1995) The Chronicle of John of Worcester, Vol II: The Annals from 450 to 1066 (Oxford: Clarendon Press), 1066. 

[350] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, XIV, p. 154. 

[351] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, I, p. 166. 

[352] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus II (London) (“Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon”), p. 1. 

[353] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, I, p. 167. 

[354] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, pp. 182 and 184. 

[355] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, VII, p. 216. 

[356] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 9. 

[357] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 183. 

[358] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.    

[359] Laing, S. (trans.) (1907) Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings Snorre (Norroena Society, London), Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part IV, 162, available at Online Medieval and Classical Library Release 15b, <http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Heimskringla/> (24 Jan 2003). 

[360] Chronicle of John of Worcester, 1066. 

[361] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, XIV, p. 154. 

[362] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, I, p. 166. 

[363] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 1. 

[364] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, I, p. 167. 

[365] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, pp. 182 and 184. 

[366] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, VII, pp. 215-6. 

[367] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. 2, Book IV, p. 259. 

[368] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 9. 

[369] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 20. 

[370] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, Genealogia regum West-Saxonum, p. 276. 

[371] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, p. 119. 

[372] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 183. 

[373] Florence of Worcester, p. 170. 

[374] Freeman, E. A. (1875) The History of the Norman Conquest of England, its causes and its results 2nd Edn. (Oxford), Vol. III, Appendix, Note K, p. 638.

[375] Riley, H. (ed.) (1854) Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland (London) (“Ingulph's Chronicle”), pp. 134-6, 143 and 156. 

[376] Freeman (1876), Vol. IV, 2nd Edn., Appendix MM, p. 826.

[377] Round, J. H. (1909) Feudal England (London), The Knights of Peterborough, pp. 159-66. 

[378] Roffe, D. ´The Historia Croylandensis: A Plea for Reassessment´, English Historical Review (Feb 1995), pp. 93-108. 

[379] Edwards, J. G. ´The Second Continuation of the Crowland Chronicle: was it written in Ten Days?´, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, Vol. XXXIX, no. 100 (Nov 1966), pp. 117-29. 

[380] Wright, T. (ed.) (1850) The Anglo-Norman Metrical Chronicle of Geoffrey Gaimar (London), Appendix 3 De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis 2, p. App. 48. 

[381] Riley, H. (ed.) (1854) Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland (London) (“Ingulph's Chronicle”), p. 134. 

[382] De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis 2, p. App. 48. 

[383] Ingulph's Chronicle, p. 134. 

[384] De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis 2, p. App. 48. 

[385] Ingulph's Chronicle, p. 135. 

[386] Ingulph's Chronicle, p. 136. 

[387] Freeman (1876), Vol. IV, 2nd Edn., Appendix MM, p. 826.

[388] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 9. 

[389] Liber Eliensis, Vol. I (London, 1848), Liber II, 102, pp. 224-5. 

[390] Giles, J. A. (ed.) (1845) Chronicon Angliæ Petriburgense (London), 1071, p. 56. 

[391] De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis 10 and 31, pp. App. 62 and 102. 

[392] Ingulph's Chronicle, p. 136. 

[393] Ingulph's Chronicle, p. 136. 

[394] De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis 31, p. App. 102. 

[395] Geoffrey Gaimar, line 5599, p. 194. 

[396] Ingulph's Chronicle, p. 136. 

[397] Stapleton, T. (ed.) (1849) Chronicon Petroburgense (London), Appendix, Descriptio militum de Abbatia de Burgo, p. 174. 

[398] Ingulph's Chronicle, p. 156. 

[399] Round, J. H. (1909) Feudal England (London), The Knights of Peterborough, p. 166. 

[400] Domesday Descendants, pp. 668-9, citing Clay (1936) Early Yorkshire Charters, Vol. V, no 186.  . 

[401] Ingulph's Chronicle, p. 143. 

[402] Chronicon Angliæ Petriburgense, 1069, p. 55. 

[403] S 407, S 425, S 428 and S 434. 

[404] Simeon of Durham, p. 493. 

[405] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[406] Described as "High-reeve at Bamburgh" in 949, Stenton, F. M. (2001) Anglo-Saxon England 3rd edn (Oxford UP), p. 363. 

[407] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[408] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 966. 

[409] S 716, S 732, S 741, S 766, S 777, S 779, S 789, S 794 and S 799. 

[410] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 963. 

[411] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[412] S 881. 

[413] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[414] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[415] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 57. 

[416] Simeon of Durham, p. 767. 

[417] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[418] Lawrie, A. C. (1905) Early Scottish Charters, Prior to A.D. 1153 (Maclehose) L, p. 46. 

[419] S 921, S 922, S 926, S 931, S 931b, S 933 and S 934. 

[420] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1013. 

[421] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1016. 

[422] Stenton (2001), p. 390. 

[423] Simeon of Durham, p. 765. 

[424] Simeon of Durham, p. 766. 

[425] Simeon of Durham, p. 765. 

[426] Simeon of Durham, p. 766. 

[427] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 59. 

[428] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[429] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 57. 

[430] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[431] Simeon of Durham, p. 558. 

[432] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 59. 

[433] Simeon of Durham, p. 767. 

[434] Simeon of Durham, p. 767. 

[435] Simeon of Durham, p. 767. 

[436] Simeon of Durham, p. 564. 

[437] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 134. 

[438] Simeon of Durham, p. 767. 

[439] Simeon of Durham, p. 564. 

[440] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 134. 

[441] Simeon of Durham, p. 564. 

[442] Early Scottish Charters XXXV, p. 26. 

[443] Simeon of Durham, p. 564. 

[444] Simeon of Durham, p. 767. 

[445] Simeon of Durham, p. 768. 

[446] Simeon of Durham, p. 768. 

[447] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[448] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[449] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 57. 

[450] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1041. 

[451] Simeon of Durham, p. 768. 

[452] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[453] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 58. 

[454] Simeon of Durham, p. 558. 

[455] Early Scottish Charters L, p. 46. 

[456] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[457] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 57. 

[458] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[459] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[460] Simeon of Durham, p. 558. 

[461] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 59. 

[462] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, I, p. 166. 

[463] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, V, pp. 190-3. 

[464] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, I, p. 166. 

[465] Michel, F. (ed.) (1836) Chroniques Anglo-Normandes, Tome II (Rouen), Vita et Passio Waldevi Comitis, p. 104.   

[466] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, Appendix, Note WWW, p. 791.

[467] Florence of Worcester, 1055, p. 156. 

[468] Michel, F. (ed.) (1836) Chroniques Anglo-Normandes, Tome II (Rouen), Vita et Passio Waldevi Comitis, p. 105.   

[469] Complete Peerage, IX 702 (Northumberland). 

[470] Annales Dunelmenses 1046, MGH SS XIX, p. 508. 

[471] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 212. 

[472] Annales Dunelmenses 1054, MGH SS XIX, p. 508. 

[473] Simeon of Durham, p. 558. 

[474] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 212. 

[475] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 1. 

[476] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, I, p. 167. 

[477] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, V, pp. 190-3 and 197. 

[478] Simeon of Durham, p. 558. 

[479] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 59. 

[480] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (London) (“MP”), Vol. II, p. 19. 

[481] John of Fordun, Book IV, XLIV, p. 179. 

[482] Duncan, p. 37. 

[483] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XXII, p. 403. 

[484] A. Anscombe, 'The pedigree of Earl Godwin', Trans. R. Hist. Soc., 3rd ser., vii (1913), pp 129-50.  This was followed up by Lundie W. Barlow, 'The antecedents of Earl Godwine of Wessex', New England Historical and Genealogical Register, lxi (1957), pp. 30-38. 

[485] De Nugis Curialium, which recounts unsubstantiated anecdotes concerning Godwin, see Barlow (2002), p. 23. 

[486] Barlow (2002), p. 18. 

[487] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1009, and F quoted in footnote 4, p. 138. 

[488] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 160. 

[489] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, Appendix, Note MM, p. 663, and Note ZZ, pp. 721-24.

[490] EHD, 129, pp. 593-6. 

[491] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, Appendix, Note ZZ, p. 724.

[492] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 160. 

[493] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, Appendix, Note MM, p. 663.

[494] Kelley, p. 72. 

[495] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1009, and F quoted in footnote 4, p. 138. 

[496] Florence of Worcester, 1007, p. 116. 

[497] Barlow (2002), p. 18. 

[498] Dugdale Monasticon II, Hyde Monastery, Hampshire, Introduction, p. 428.   

[499] Freeman (1877), Vol. II, Appendix, Note TT, p. 705.

[500] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, D and E, 1038. 

[501] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1020 and 1022. 

[502] Barlow (2002), p. 40. 

[503] Florence of Worcester, 1053, p. 155. 

[504] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1009, and F quoted in footnote 4, p. 138. 

[505] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 160. 

[506] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, Appendix, Note MM, p. 663, and Note ZZ, pp. 721-24.

[507] EHD, 129, pp. 593-6. 

[508] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, Appendix, Note ZZ, p. 724.

[509] Barlow (2002), p. 27, compares this position, unequated with any established office, with the chief justiciarship of the Angevin Kings of England. 

[510] Vita Ædwardi, pp. 10-11. 

[511] Barlow (2002), p. 28. 

[512] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, F, 1036. 

[513] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 195. 

[514] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1052 [1051], and E 1048 [1051]. 

[515] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C and D, 1052. 

[516] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1053. 

[517] Florence of Worcester, 1053, p. 155. 

[518] Florence of Worcester, 1049, 1051 and 1067, pp. 148, 152 and 172, the last reference calling her sister of Svend King of Denmark. 

[519] Florence of Worcester, 1049, p. 148. 

[520] Morkinskinna, 49, p. 261. 

[521] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.52, MGH SS VII, p. 325. 

[522] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D 1068. 

[523] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, V, p. 190. 

[524] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 2. 

[525] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1045. 

[526] Florence of Worcester, 1051, p. 152. 

[527] Florence of Worcester, 1052, p. 154. 

[528] Barlow (2002), p. 115. 

[529] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 10. 

[530] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1052.   

[531] Florence of Worcester, 1049 and 1051, pp. 148 and 151. 

[532] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, XIV, p. 152. 

[533] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1046.

[534] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1045 [1047]. 

[535] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, D, 1049, and E, 1046 [1049]. 

[536] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1050, and E, 1047 [1050].

[537] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1052. 

[538] Florence of Worcester, 1052, p. 154. 

[539] Eadmer, p. 6, and Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1051. 

[540] Eadmer of Canterbury History of Recent Events in England, Houts, E. van (ed. and trans.) (2000) The Normans in Europe (Manchester University Press), p. 147.   

[541] For example, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1049 and 1051. 

[542] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, XIV, p. 152. 

[543] Florence of Worcester, 1051, p. 152. 

[544] Florence of Worcester, 1052, p. 153. 

[545] Florence of Worcester, 1053, p. 155. 

[546] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, XIV, p. 152. 

[547] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1055, and Florence of Worcester, 1055, p. 156. 

[548] Florence of Worcester, 1065, p. 167. 

[549] Barlow (2002), p. 84. 

[550] Morkinskinna, 49, pp. 262-3. 

[551] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1066. 

[552] Annalista Saxo 1066. 

[553] Genealogia Welforum 9, MGH SS XIII, p. 734. 

[554] Florence of Worcester, 1051, p. 152. 

[555] Barlow (1992), p. 38. 

[556] Alberic de Trois Fontaines Chronica, MGH SS 23, p. 792. 

[557] Chibnall, Vol. IV, Appendix I, p. 350. 

[558] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1052 [1051]. 

[559] Wirtembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band IV (Stuttgart, 1883) ("Württembergisches Urkundenbuch"), Anhang, Zwei Weingartner Codices, I, p. VIII. 

[560] Bernoldi Chronicon 1094, MGH SS V, p. 457. 

[561] Necrologium Raitenbuchense, Freising Necrologies, p. 105. 

[562] Necrologium Weingartense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 221. 

[563] Barlow (1992), p. 38. 

[564] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[565] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[566] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[567] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[568] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[569] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[570] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[571] Simeon of Durham, p. 546. 

[572] His death is recorded in the Bayeux tapestry. 

[573] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, XIV, p. 152. 

[574] Florence of Worcester, 1051, p. 152. 

[575] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, XIV, p. 152. 

[576] Florence of Worcester, 1051, p. 152. 

[577] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, XIV, p. 152. 

[578] Florence of Worcester, 1051, p. 152. 

[579] Birth date range estimated based on the reference in Florence of Worcester, 1087, p. 185, to Wulfnoth having been kept in prison from his childhood. 

[580] Barlow (2002), p. 118. 

[581] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, XIV, p. 152. 

[582] Eadmer, p. 6. 

[583] Willelmi Gemmetensis monachi Historiæ Normannorum, Du Chesne, A. (1619) Historiæ Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui (Paris) (“Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619)”), Liber VII, XXXI, p. 285. 

[584] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 20. 

[585] Freeman (1877), Vol. II, Appendix, Note F, p. 569, quoting "the Exon Domesday, pp. 96, 99".

[586] Barlow (2002), p. 120. 

[587] Eadmer of Canterbury History of Recent Events in England, Houts (2000), p. 149, reports that King Harold replied to Duke Guillaume's request for his sister in early 1066 by saying that she had died. 

[588] Freeman (1877), Vol. II, Appendix, Note F, p. 569, quoting Domesday, 144b.

[589] Eadmer of Canterbury History of Recent Events in England, Houts (2000), p. 148, where she is not named.   

[590] S 356. 

[591] Asser, Part II, and Roger of Hoveden I, p. 49. 

[592] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 887 [886-7]. 

[593] S 348. 

[594] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 894 [893]. 

[595] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 898 [897]. 

[596] According to Malmesbury II, 126, p. 110, Ælfleda was buried at Wilton Abbey. 

[597] Rerum Britannicarum medii ævi scriptores (1866) Liber Monasterii de Hyda 455-1023 (London) XIV.4, p. 112. 

[598] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 368. 

[599] S 363. 

[600] S 378. 

[601] S 375, S 379 (King Edward), S 400, S 403, S 405, S 412, S 417, S 418, S 407, S 425 and S 428 (twice). 

[602] S 959. 

[603] S 465, S 470, S 477, S 487, S 488, S 516, S 491, S 519, S 558 and S 562. 

[604] S 517. 

[605] S 562. 

[606] S 811 and S 746. 

[607] S 683. 

[608] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 794. 

[609] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 800. 

[610] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 805 [807]. 

[611] S 268. 

[612] S 268. 

[613] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 800 [802]. 

[614] Dugdale Monasticon II, Wilton Monastery, Wiltshire, I, De prima Fundatione Wiltonensis Cœnobii, p. 319.   

[615] S 268. 

[616] S 268. 

[617] S 268. 

[618] S 268. 

[619] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 822 [824]. 

[620] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 822 [824]. 

[621] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 823 [825]. 

[622] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 837 [840]. 

[623] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 837 [840]. 

[624] S 323. 

[625] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 833 [836]. 

[626] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 833 [836]. 

[627] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 838 [841]. 

[628] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 845 [848]. 

[629] S 333. 

[630] S 289, S 291, S 296 and S 299. 

[631] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 851 [850]. 

[632] Asser, p. 4. 

[633] S 289 and S 291. 

[634] S 334. 

[635] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 860. 

[636] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 871 [870]. 

[637] S 1273. 

[638] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 852. 

[639] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 852. 

[640] S 299 and S 340. 

[641] S 315. 

[642] S 315. 

[643] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 845 [848]. 

[644] S 326. 

[645] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 860. 

[646] S 315, S 328 and S 356. 

[647] S 1200. 

[648] S 1200. 

[649] S 1200. 

[650] S 334, S 339 and S 340. 

[651] S 341. 

[652] S 340. 

[653] S 334 and S 340, respectively. 

[654] S 334. 

[655] S 315, S 332 and S 339. 

[656] S 332 and S 339. 

[657] S 334 (anachronistically dated 862, although Æthelred did not succeed as king until 866), S 333 and S 339 (the last one subscribed twice by "Ælfstan dux"). 

[658] S 342. 

[659] S 339 and S 340. 

[660] S 1275. 

[661] S 1508.   

[662] S 1204a. 

[663] S 350 and S 362. 

[664] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and D, 905. 

[665] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and D, 905. 

[666] S 345. 

[667] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, E and F, 888. 

[668] S 345. 

[669] S 219 and S 220. 

[670] S 219 and S 220. 

[671] S 220. 

[672] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 894 [893]. 

[673] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 897 [896]. 

[674] S 345 and S 348. 

[675] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 897 [896]. 

[676] S 350. 

[677] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and D, 905. 

[678] S 345 and S 350. 

[679] S 367 and S 909. 

[680] S 362. 

[681] S 364 and S 368. 

[682] S 378. 

[683] S 345, S 350 (King Alfred), S 359, S 362, S 364, S 367, S 368, S 372 and S 375 (King Edward). 

[684] S 364. 

[685] S 359 and S 362. 

[686] This uncertain descent is traced by A. Anscombe, 'The pedigree of Earl Godwin', Trans. R. Hist. Soc., 3rd ser., vii (1913), pp 129-50. 

[687] S 219, S 220, S 362, S 367 and S 361. 

[688] S 371. 

[689] S 367. 

[690] Early index of Glastonbury charters, quoted in Kelly, p. 66. 

[691] S 1504. 

[692] S 362, S 379, S 403, S 405, S 409, S 412, S 417, S 418, S 407, S 409, S 412, S 417, S 418, S 407, S 425, S 428 (twice). 

[693] S 379. 

[694] S 1504. 

[695] S 1504. 

[696] S 1504. 

[697] S 487, S 491, S 503, S 517 and S 519. 

[698] S 490. 

[699] S 359, S 362 (twice), S 364, S 367, S 368, S 372, S 375, S 378 (King Edward), S 394 and S 396 (King Æthelstan). 

[700] S 362, S 368, S 372, S 375 and S 378. 

[701] S 364, S 372 and S 378. 

[702] S 379 and S 409. 

[703] S 417. 

[704] S 412 and S 418. 

[705] S 403 and s 412. 

[706] S 367, S 361, S 372, S 379, S 396, S 400, S 403, S 405, S 409, S 418, S 407, S 425, S 428 (twice), S 434 and S 503. 

[707] S 394, S 417 and S 411. 

[708] S 379 (King Edward), S 403, S 405, S 412 (twice), S 414, S 417 (twice), S 418 (twice), S 407 (twice), S 425, S 428, S 411, S 434 (twice), S 449, S 446 (King Æthelstan), S 461, S 465, S 470, S 487, S 488, S 491 (King Edmund), S 674 and S 679 (King Edgar). 

[709] S 396, S 414, S 449, S 446 (King Æthelstan), S 461, S 465, S 470, S 487, S 488, S 516, S 491 (King Edmund), and S 519 (King Eadred). 

[710] S 405, S 412, S 418 and S 425. 

[711] S 409. 

[712] S 414. 

[713] S 414, S 417, S 407, S 425, S 428, S 434, S 449, S 446, S 461, S 465, S 470, S 486, S 488 (twice), S 516, A 491, S 503 (twice), S 519 (twice), S 558, S 570 (twice), S 564, S 582 (twice), S 571, S 583 (twice), S 584, S 585, S 593 (twice), S 597 (twice), S 666, S 663 (twice), S 674, S 679, S 681, S 811, S 683, S 694, S 696, S 712, S 724, S 725, S 729, S 737, S 758, S 766, S 777 and S 779. 

[714] S 488, S 503, S 519, S 570, S 582, S 583, S 593, S 597, S 663. 

[715] S 414, S 465, S 470, S 486, S 487, S 488, S 491, S 503, S 517, S519, S 558, S 582, S 583, S 585, S 593, S 597, S 663, S 674, S 679, S 811, S 694 and S 729. 

[716] S 403. 

[717] S 679. 

[718] S 446. 

[719] S 516, S 558, S 570, S 564, S 582, S 571, S 583, S 584, S 585, S 593, S 597, S 666, S 663, S 811, S 696 and S 712. 

[720] S 570, s 582, S 583 and S 597. 

[721] S 570, S 583, S 584, S 585, S 666 and S 663. 

[722] S 865. 

[723] S 583. 

[724] S 679. 

[725] S 777. 

[726] S 803. 

[727] S 716. 

[728] S 716. 

[729] S 712 and S 716. 

[730] S 746. 

[731] S 679. 

[732] S 564 and S 585. 

[733] S 865. 

[734] S 766 and S 779. 

[735] Anscombe, A. 'The pedigree of Earl Godwin', Trans. R. Hist. Soc., 3rd ser., vii (1913), pp 129-50. 

[736] S 1484, and Kelly, pp. 67-8. 

[737] S 830, S 831 (both King Edward), S 834, S 836, S 840, S 843, S 845, S 846, S 850, S 852, S 857, S 858, S 860, S 861, S 862, S 867, S 868, S 876, S 881, S 877, S 878, S 889, S 891, S 892, S 893, S 895 and S 909 (all King Æthelred). 

[738] S 865. 

[739] S 832. 

[740] S 891. 

[741] Written in Latin, according to Stenton (2001), p 461, it is unintelligible in places because of poor grammar. 

[742] S 1484, and Kelly, pp. 67-8. 

[743] EHD, 148, pp. 609-10. 

[744] S 1217. 

[745] S 1486. 

[746] S 911. 

[747] Barlow (2002), p. 19. 

[748] S 831, S 834, S 836, S 838, S 889, S 902, S 909 (twice) and S 933. 

[749] S 846. 

[750] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1013. 

[751] Simeon of Durham, p. 527. 

[752] Florence of Worcester, 1017, p. 134, and Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1017. 

[753] S 1484, and Kelly, pp. 67-8. 

[754] Kelly, pp. 67-8. 

[755] S 867. 

[756] S 1484, and Kelly, pp. 67-8. 

[757] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 958. 

[758] Weir (2002), p. 19. 

[759] S 1484, and Kelly, pp. 67-8. 

[760] S 911. 

[761] S 804. 

[762] S 834, S 836, S 838 and S 840. 

[763] S 838. 

[764] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 275. 

[765] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, Genealogia regum West-Saxonum, p. 275. 

[766] Aelredus Rievallensis Abbas, Genealogia Regum Anglorum, Migne, Patrologia Latina, Vol 195, col. 730B. 

[767] La Estoire de Seint Aedward le Rei, MS Cantab. Ee III 59, from Bishop Moore's Library, 11, pp. 195-218, cited in Ronay, G. (1989) The Lost King of England, The East European Adventures of Edward the Exile (Boydell Press), p. 8. 

[768] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, pp. 422 and 451. 

[769] EHD, 129, pp. 593-6. 

[770] S 865. 

[771] S 865. 

[772] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1016.  No other reference to him has been found, but on the basis of his name it looks likely that he was related to the family of Godwin Earl of Wessex. 

[773] S 840 and S 909. 

[774] Simeon of Durham, p. 524. 

[775] S 860 and S 867. 

[776] S 860. 

[777] S 860, S 861 and S 867. 

[778] S 865. 

[779] S 889. 

[780] S 909. 

[781] Simeon of Durham, p. 516. 

[782] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1010. 

[783] Dickins, B. 'The Day of Byrhtnoth's Death and other obits from a Twelfth-Century Ely Kalendar', 6 LSE, p. 15, cited in Garmonsway, G. N. (trans.) (1972) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (London), p. 140 footnote 2. 

[784] S 1483. 

[785] Simeon of Durham, p. 516. 

[786] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1010. 

[787] S 933 and S 934. 

[788] EHD, 129, pp. 593-6. 

[789] S 400. 

[790] S 403. 

[791] S 516. 

[792] S 674. 

[793] S 681, S 712 and S 716. 

[794] S 834. 

[795] S 400, S 405, S 412, S 417, S 418 and S 434. 

[796] S 405. 

[797] S 403 and S 405. 

[798] S 412, S 417, S 407 and 425. 

[799] S 407, S 417 and S 425. 

[800] S 403, S 417, S 425, S 434 (King Æthelstan), and S 674 (King Edgar). 

[801] S 403, S 412, S 417, S 407 and S 428. 

[802] S 403 and S 405. 

[803] S 412, S 417, S 407, S 425, S 428, S 43 (King Æthelstan) and S 516 (King Edmund). 

[804] S 412 and S 712. 

[805] S 417. 

[806] S 407, S 425, S 428 and S 679. 

[807] S 412. 

[808] S 405, S 407, S 417 and S 428. 

[809] S 446 (King Æthelstan), S 486 and S 487 (King Edmund). 

[810] S 679 and S 681. 

[811] S 674 and S 712. 

[812] S 716. 

[813] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 966. 

[814] S 834, S 843, S 845, S 846, S 858 and S 860. 

[815] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 991. 

[816] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, Appendix, Note KK, p. 661.

[817] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, Genealogia regum West-Saxonum, p. 275. 

[818] Aelredus Rievallensis Abbas, Genealogia Regum Anglorum, Migne, Patrologia Latina, Vol 195, col. 730B. 

[819] La Estoire de Seint Aedward le Rei, MS Cantab. Ee III 59, from Bishop Moore's Library, 11, pp. 195-218, cited in Ronay, G. (1989) The Lost King of England, The East European Adventures of Edward the Exile (Boydell Press), p. 8. 

[820] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, pp. 422 and 451. 

[821] EHD, 129, pp. 593-6. 

[822] S 679. 

[823] S 679. 

[824] S 679. 

[825] S 681.