DENMARK, kings

  v3.0 Updated 30 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                KINGS of the DANES, 9th CENTURY. 3

Chapter 2.                KINGS of DENMARK 935-1042 (FAMILY of GORM) 16

Chapter 3.                  KINGS of DENMARK 1047-1412 (FAMILY of THORGILS) 31

A.         ORIGINS, DESCENDANTS of THORGILS SPRAKLING.. 31

B.         KINGS of DENMARK 1047-1412. 34

C.        Dukes of SØNDERHALLAND, SKARSHOLM.. 77

D.        LØVENBALK.. 78

Chapter 4.                KINGS of DENMARK 1412-1448 (POMERANIA and WITTELSBACH) 80

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Kings of Denmark are recorded in Carolingian Frankish sources, including the Royal Frankish Annals[1], the Annales Fuldenses[2], and the works of Einhard[3], for most of the 9th century.  Some of the details are corroborated by Adam of Bremen[4].  In addition, the Annales Ryenses list numerous pre-8th century kings of Denmark whose existence must be considered mythical[5]. The early 9th century Danish kings led the Viking expeditions which raided north-west Germany.  This brought them into conflict with the Carolingian rulers who were extending their territorial control northwards, which accounts for the interest shown in their activities by contemporary Frankish sources.  Their followers eventually settled in Friesland, where Godefrid was appointed duke in 882.  During the first half of the 9th century, Denmark appears to have been a unified kingdom under a single ruler, but this unity quickly fell apart.  The sources record continual disputes within the Danish ruling family, with frequent assassinations and changes of rulers.  The family of the early Danish rulers can be reconstructed with reasonable certainty from the available sources, assuming that they accurately report the events and family relationships.  However, during the second half of the 9th century the picture becomes much less clear.  As will be seen in Chapter 1 of this document, little is known about some of the late 9th century kings beyond their names.  We have even less information regarding the early 10th century kings.  Even Adam of Bremen is obliged to admit that “it is uncertain how many kings reigned in Denmark during this period[6]

 

A clearer picture of Danish history emerges from the mid-10th century with the accession of King Gorm “den Gamle/the Old”.  He and his descendants are shown in Chapter 2.  Denmark started to extend its territorial influence under Gorm´s son King Harald I, who invaded Norway in 965 and imposed his nominee as regent for the Norwegian king.  Harald´s son King Svend I started raiding England soon after his accession in [987], culminating in a full-scale invasion in 1013 when Svend succeeded in imposing himself as de facto ruler of the country.  Svend´s son King Knud I defeated and killed the English king Edmund “Ironsides” and established himself as king of England in 1016. 

 

After the death in 1042 of Hardeknud, last known male descendant of King Gorm, Magnus II King of Norway invaded Denmark and conquered most of the country.  Danish resistance was led by Svend Estridsen, the son of King Knud´s sister, who reasserted control of Denmark by 1047.  His descendants ruled the country until 1412 (Chapter 3).  In common with Sweden and Norway, the Danish throne then passed through the female line to the families of the dukes of Pomerania and the Wittelsbach dukes of Bavaria.  The Danish kings between 1412 and 1448 are shown in outline form only in Chapter 4 of this document.  From 1449, the Danish crown was united with the Norwegian when Christian Duke of Oldenburg was chosen as king of Denmark and Norway. 

 

Early sources which provide genealogical information relating to the kings of Denmark are: 

  • Adam of Bremen's Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiæ pontificum, completed in the 1070s, the history of northern Germany and Scandinavia from the time of Emperor Charlemagne.  Later copies include additions by subsequent scholars. 
  • The Roskilde Chronicle (Chronicon Roskildense)[7], written between 1139 and 1143 by a clerk at Roskilde Cathedral, with a continuation covering the reign of King Valdemar I exists in three different manuscripts, the earliest dating from the late 13th century at Kiel, the early part mostly being derived from Adam of Bremen. 
  • Sveno's Brevis historia regum Dacie, written some time between 1185 and 1202 by a nephew of Archbishop Eskil, surviving in a text printed in 1642 and another later one, reconstituted text collated in 1915 by Gertz.  This source has not yet been consulted. 
  • Saxo Grammaticus, who started writing his chronicle in [1185] and appears to have used all the earlier works, the last event described being King Valdemar II's expedition to Bremen in 1208.  Saxo's work survives in different manuscripts but was not widely available until the first published edition in 1514, with additional parts discovered in later centuries.  The first nine books are of little value from a genealogical point of view as they consist mainly of folkloric narratives of mythical or semi-legendary kings whose existence is rarely corroborated by other sources.  The chronicle appears to be on firmer ground with books ten to sixteen, although it is difficult to assess the accuracy of specific points of detail given the flowing narrative style and nationalistic slant which is given to events. 
  • The Sagas, the question of whose reliability is discussed fully in the Introduction to the document NORWAY KINGS. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of the DANES, 9th CENTURY

 

 

Europäische Stammtafeln[8] sets out the outline genealogy of a family referred to as "the Kings of Haithabu".  The first two generations are reproduced below, unchanged.  The primary sources on which these two generations are based have not yet been identified, except as otherwise indicated below.  The information in the later generations of the Europäische Stammtafeln chart is not completely supported by the information obtained from the primary sources so far consulted.  It has therefore largely been ignored in the reconstruction of the later generations of the family.  Considerable doubt persists about the precise relationships between the 9th century Danish rulers. 

 

 

Three brothers, one sister: 

1.         SIGEFRID [Sigurd] ([750]-798).  First "King of Haithabu".  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Sigifridi regis Danorum" sent  "Halbdani…cum sociis suis" as missi to a council held by Charles I King of the Franks at "Lippia"[9].  One child: 

a)         ONUND ([790]-). 

2.         HARALD ([750]-killed in battle in the Irish Sea 804).  Second "King of Haithabu".  m IMHILD, daughter of WARNECHIN Graf von Engern & his wife Kunhilde von Rügen.  Three children: 

a)         HALFDAN (-killed in battle Walcheren 810).  Third "King of Haithabu". 

-        see below

b)         HARALD ([775/80]-murdered Haithabu 804).  Fourth "King of Haithabu".

c)         HOLGER ([780]-807).  Danish. 

3.         HALFDAN Mildi ([750]-802, bur Borro).  King of Vestfold. 

-        see below

4.         GEVA ([755]-).  This marriage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[10] but the primary source on which it is based has not been identified.  m ([775]) WIDUKIND Saxon Duke, son of --- (-7 Jan 810).

 

 

HALFDAN "Mildi", son of --- ([750]-802, bur Borro).  King of Vestfold. 

m LIF of Westmare, daughter and heiress of DAG King of Westmare & his wife ---. 

King Halfdan & his wife had [three] children: 

1.         GODEFRID (-murdered 810).  Godefrid is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[11] as the son of King Halfdan, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  He succeeded as GODEFRID King of the Danes.  King of Vestfold, Hedeland, Vaermland, Westmare and Hedemarken[12].  The Annales Ryenses record that "Karolus Imperator" came with all his army against "Godefrith regem Daciæ" in 776[13], although the dating would be questionable if this refers to the same King Godefrid.  Adam of Bremen names "rex Godafridus" as the Danish leader against whom Emperor Charlemagne made war[14].  The Royal Frankish Annals record that King Godefrid exchanged envoys with Emperor Charles in Schleswig in 804[15].  Einhard records a dispute between "Drasconem ducem Abodritorum" and "Godelaibum alium ducem…et cum eis filium fratris sui…Reginoldum", the latter being killed in 808[16].  Einhard records that "Thrasco dux Abodritorum" was killed by "hominibus Godofridi" in "emporie Rerie" in 809[17].  The Royal Frankish Annals also record that King Godefrid attacked the Obotrites in 808 and destroyed their commercial centre at Reria[18].  He attacked the Frisians in 810[19].  Einhard records the death of "Godefrido Danorum rege" in 810 and the succession of "Hemmingus filius fratris eius"[20].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death in 810 of "Godafrido Danorum rege", the succession by "Hemmingus filius fratris eius", and the latter making peace with the emperor[21].  He was murdered by one of his retainers[22].  King Godefrid had [four or more] children: 

a)         son (-killed in battle 814).  He and his brothers were exiled to Sweden after the death of their father.  They returned in 813 and expelled King Harald and King Reginfred[23].  Einhard's Annales record that "Harioldus et Reginfredus reges Danorum" who, in the previous year had been expelled from Denmark by "filiis Godofredi", attacked again in 814 but "Reginfridus et unus de filiis Godofredi qui maior natu erat" were killed[24]

b)         son (-after 827).  Joint King of the Danes 813.  The Annales Fuldenses record that Emperor Louis sent a Frankish army to help "Herioldo Danorum regi" against "filios Godafridi" in 815[25].  They are their brothers were driven out in 819 by King Harald, with the help of Emperor Louis I "le Pieux" and the Obotrites[26]

c)         other sons (-after 819).  Joint King of the Danes 813.  The Annales Fuldenses record that Emperor Louis sent a Frankish army to help "Herioldo Danorum regi" against "filios Godafridi" in 815[27].  No source has so far been identified which names the sons of King Godefrid or states how many sons there were.  They are their brothers were driven out in 819 by King Harald, with the help of Emperor Louis I "le Pieux" and the Obotrites[28]

2.         [SIGURD] (-killed in battle Bardowick 810).  King Godefrid's brother is named Sigurd in Europäische Stammtafeln[29], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. 

a)         REGINOLD [Ragnvald] (-killed in battle 808).  Einhard records a battle between "Drasconem ducem Abodritorum" and "Godelaibum alium ducem…et cum eis filium fratris sui…Reginoldum", the latter being killed in 808[30].  The Royal Frankish Annals name "Reginold, his [King Godefred's] brother's son" when recording that he was killed fighting the Obotrites[31].  The Annales Fuldenses record the battle between "Godafridus rex Danorum" and the Abotrites in which "Reginoldo filio fratris sui" was killed[32]

b)         HEMMING (-812).  The Gesta Francorum names "Hemmingus filius fratris eius [=Godefrido Danorum rege]" when recording that he succeeded his uncle in 810[33].  He succeeded his paternal uncle in 810 as HEMMING King of the Danes.  Adam of Bremen names "rex Godafridus" as patruelis of Hemming on the latter's accession as Danish king[34].  Einhard records the death of "Godefrido Danorum rege" in 810 and the succession of "Hemmingus filius fratris eius"[35].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death in 810 of "Godafrido Danorum rege", the succession by "Hemmingus filius fratris eius", and the latter making peace with the emperor[36].  He made peace with Emperor Charlemagne in 810, confirmed by a treaty signed at Heiligen on the river Eider in Spring 811[37].  Einhard's Annales name "fratres Hemmingi, Hancwin et Angandeo, Osfred cognomento Turdimulo, et Warstein, et Suomi, et Urm, et alius Osfrid filius Heiligen, et Osfred de Sconsowe et Hebbi et Aowin" as the Danish signatories of the peace agreed with the Franks in 811[38].  The Royal Frankish Annals record the death of King Hemming in 812[39].  Civil war broke out after King Hemming died.  Einhard's Annales record that news of the death of "Hemmingus Danorum rex" arrived in 812, that "Sigifridus nepos Godofredi regis et Anulo nepos Herioldi quondam regis" both claimed the succession, and that the faction supporting "Anulonis" was victorious, with "fratres eius Herioldum et Reginfredum" being installed as kings[40].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death in 812 of "Hemmingo Danorum rege", the succession dispute between "Sigifredo nepos Godofredi regis et Anulo nepos Herioldi", the battle in which both were killed but which Anulo's supporters won, and the accession of "Herioldum et Reginfredum fratres eius regis"[41]

c)         HANKWIN [Hakon/Holkwin] (-killed in battle Haithabu Summer 812).  Einhard's Annales name "fratres Hemmingi, Hancwin et Angandeo…" as the Danish signatories of the peace agreed in 811[42]

d)         ANGANDEO [Angantyr] (-Haithabu Summer 812).  Einhard's Annales name "fratres Hemmingi, Hancwin et Angandeo…" as the Danish signatories of the peace agreed in 811[43]

3.         [--- .  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         SIGURD [Sigfrid] (-killed in battle Summer 812).  Einhard's Annales record that news of the death of "Hemmingus Danorum rex" arrived in 812, that "Sigifridus nepos Godofredi regis et Anulo nepos Herioldi quondam regis" both claimed the succession, and that the faction supporting "Anulonis" was victorious, with "fratres eius Herioldum et Reginfredum" being installed as kings[44].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death in 812 of "Hemmingo Danorum rege", the succession dispute between "Sigifredo nepos Godofredi regis et Anulo nepos Herioldi", the battle in which both were killed but which Anulo's supporters won, and the accession by "Herioldum et Reginfredum fratres eius regis"[45].  Assuming that "nepos" should here be translated as nephew, from the context of these passages it is likely that Sigfrid's parent was a different sibling of King Godofrid from the latter's brother who was King Hemming's father.  Adam of Bremen names "Sigafrid et Anuleo, nepotes Godafridi" when recording that they fought to succeed after the death of King Hemming[46]

 

 

HALFDAN, son of HARALD King of Haithabu & his wife Imhild --- (-killed in battle Walcheren 810).  Halfdan is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[47] as the son of King Harald, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  However, Einhard's Annales record that "…Anulo nepos Herioldi quondam regis" was one of the claimants to the throne in 812[48] which, assuming that "nepos" should here be translated as grandson, indicates that this may be correct.  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Sigifridi regis Danorum" sent  "Halbdani…cum sociis suis" as missi to a council held by Charles I King of the Franks at "Lippia"[49], although it is not known to which Halfdan this refers. 

Halfdan had [six] children: 

1.         HEMMING (-killed in battle Walcheren [Walchram] 17 Jun 837).  His parentage is established by the Annales Fuldenses which records the death of "…Hemmingum, Halldani filium" (see below)[50].  Described as brother of Kings Harald and Reginfred, Hemming must have been captured by Emperor Charlemagne as Einhard's Annales record that "Harioldus et Reginfredus reges Danorum" sent envoys to Emperor Charlemagne in 812 asking for the release of "fratrum suum Hemmingum"[51].  The Royal Frankish Annals record that he was freed later in 812[52].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Nordmanni" exacted tribute in "Walchram insulam", where "Eggihardum eiusdem loci comitem et Hemmingum Halbdani filium" were killed "837 XV Kal Iul" and "Dorestadum" was devastated[53]

2.         ANULO [Ali] (-killed in battle Haithabu 812).  Although the primary source which confirms that Anulo was the son of Halfdan has not yet been identified, the sources cited below indicate that he was "nepos" (grandson?) of King Harald.  Einhard's Annales record that news of the death of "Hemmingus Danorum rex" arrived in 812, that "Sigifridus nepos Godofredi regis et Anulo nepos Herioldi quondam regis" both claimed the succession, and that the faction supporting "Anulonis" was victorious, with "fratres eius Herioldum et Reginfredum" being installed as kings[54].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death in 812 of "Hemmingo Danorum rege", the succession dispute between "Sigifredo nepos Godofredi regis et Anulo nepos Herioldi", the battle in which both were killed but which Anulo's supporters won, and the accession by "Herioldum et Reginfredum fratres eius regis"[55].  Described as the nephew of "Heriold and of the former king", the latter presumably being King Hemming, he disputed the succession on King Hemming's death but was killed fighting the rival claimant Sigfrid[56].  Adam of Bremen names "Sigafrid et Anuleo, nepotes Godafridi" when recording that they fought to succeed after the death of King Hemming[57]

3.         HARALD "Klak" [Heriold] (-killed in battle Walcheren 844).  Einhard's Annales record that news of the death of "Hemmingus Danorum rex" arrived in 812, that "Sigifridus nepos Godofredi regis et Anulo nepos Herioldi quondam regis" both claimed the succession, and that the faction supporting "Anulonis" was victorious, with "fratres eius Herioldum et Reginfredum" being installed as kings[58].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death in 812 of "Hemmingo Danorum rege", the succession dispute between "Sigifredo nepos Godofredi regis et Anulo nepos Herioldi", the battle in which both were killed but which Anulo's supporters won, and the accession by "Herioldum et Reginfredum fratres eius regis"[59].  Adam of Bremen names "Reginfridum et Haraldum" as successors to Anulo without specifying their relationship to each other, recording that the sons of Godefrid devastasted the kingdom, forcing Harald to seek help from Emperor Louis I[60].  Einhard's Annales record that "Harioldus et Reginfredus reges Danorum" sent envoys to Emperor Charlemagne in 812 asking for the release of "fratrum suum Hemmingum"[61].  They made peace with Charles I King of the Franks, but were driven from Denmark by the sons of King Godefrid.  The Annales Fuldenses record that Emperor Louis sent a Frankish army to help "Herioldo Danorum regi" against "filios Godafridi" in 815[62].  He and his brother Reginfred attacked the sons of King Godefrid in 814 in an attempt to regain the throne but were defeated, after which Harald "came to the emperor [Louis I] and put himself under his protection"[63].  Einhard's Annales record that "Harioldus et Reginfredus reges Danorum" who, in the previous year had been expelled from Denmark by "filiis Godofredi", attacked again in 814 but "Reginfridus et unus de filiis Godofredi qui maior natu erat" were killed while "Herioldus" sought protection from the emperor[64].  Einhard's Annales record that the Saxons and Abotrites, with "Baldrico" imperial legate, crossed "Aegidoram fluvium in terram Nordmannorum vocabulo Sinlendi" in 815 to help the deposed Harald King of Denmark[65].  King Harald was restored as king by Emperor Louis I "le Pieux" in 819 with the help of the Obotrites.  Einhard's Annales record that "Harioldus" was appointed joint-king by "filiis Godofredi" in 821[66].  Thegan records the baptism of “Heriolt de Danais...et uxorem eius” at Ingelheim together with the grant to him of “magnam partem Fresonum[67].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Herioldus cum uxore et magna Danorum multitudine" were baptised at Mainz in 826[68], when he was given the territory of Rüstringen on the mouth of the Weser in upper Frisia, the first portion of Frankish land to be ceded to the Danes.  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Haraldus rex Danorum…frater eius Hericus et uxor regis" was baptised in 826 at Mainz by "Othgario archiepiscopo"[69].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Herioldum" was expelled from Denmark [in 827] by "filii Godefridi Danorum quondam regis"[70].  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Gualacras" (Walcheren) was granted to "Herioldo" by Emperor Lothaire in 841[71]m --- (-after 826).  The name of Harald´s wife is not known.  Thegan records the baptism of “Heriolt de Danais...et uxorem eius” at Ingelheim[72].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Haraldus rex Danorum…frater eius Hericus et uxor regis" was baptised in 826 at Mainz by "Othgario archiepiscopo"[73].  King Harald had three children: 

a)         GODEFRID (-murdered Jun 885).  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Godefridus, Herioldi Dani filius", who had been baptised at Mainz during the reign of Emperor Louis, defected from Emperor Lothar in 852, raided Frisia, and sailed up the Scheldt and the Seine[74].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Nordmanni Godafredo duce" sailed up the Seine in 850 and that Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks granted him territory, without specifying where this was[75].  He lost control of Rüstringen in 856.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Roric et Godofridus" returned to Denmark after Emperor Lothaire gave Frisia to his son Lothaire in 855, but recovered most of Frisia at the end of the same year, establishing themselves at Dorestad[76]Duke [of Frisia] 882.  The Annales Fuldenses names "Nortmannorum…cum ipsis regibus…Sigifredo et Godofrido, principis Vurm, Hals" when recording a Viking attack in 882, in another manuscript recording the baptism of "Gotafridum" and that he was given "comitatus et benefice qua Rorich Nordmannus…in Kinnin [Kennemerland]" held from the Frankish kings[77].  The Annales Vedastini record that "Godefridus…rex" was granted land which "olim Roricus Danus tenuerat" in 882[78].  The Annales Vedastini record that "Godefridus Danus" was killed in the city of "Gerulfi sui fidelis" by "Heinrico duce" in 885[79]m (882) GISELA, illegitimate daughter of LOTHAIRE II King of Lotharingia [Carolingian] & his mistress Waldrada --- ([860/65]-[21 May/26 Oct] 907).  Regino records the marriage in 882 of "Gisla filia Hlotharii" and "rex Godofridus Nordmannorum"[80].  The Annales Fuldenses record the marriage of "Gotafrid Nordmannus qui superiore anno fuerat baptizatus" and "Hugone Hlutharii filio eiusque sororem" in 883[81].  The Annales Vedastini record the marriage in 882 between "Godefridus…rex" and "Gislam filiam Hlotharii regis"[82].  Abbess at Nivelles and Fosses, after her husband died.  "Zendeboldus…rex" gave "proprietatem…in loco…VII Fontes" to "propinqua nostra…Kisla…regis Lotharii filia…abbatisse" by charter dated 30 Jul 896[83].  "Zuendebolchus…rex" gave property to "neptis nostre…Gissele…Nyuialensis abbaciæ" for her abbey by charter dated 26 Jul 897[84]

i)          [REINHILD (-11 May ----).  The wife of Theoderich is named "Reinhildam, Danorum Fresonumque germine procreatam" in the Vita Mathildis Reginæ[85].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[86], she was the daughter of Duke Godefrid & his wife Gisela [Carolingian], which is presumably a guess based on this description in the Vita Mathildis.  However, the chronology is not ideal.  Regino records the marriage in 882 of "Gisla filia Hlotharii" and "rex Godofridus Nordmannorum"[87].  If this couple's daughter was the mother of Queen Mathilde, the latter's estimated birth date (see below) would need to be pushed forward by several years, which makes the chronology for her known descendants tight.  A better fit for the wife of Theoderich may be Regenlind, [sister of Bovo Bishop of Chalons, daughter of ---].  The known sister of Bishop Bovo was Frederuna, wife of Charles III "le Simple" King of the Franks.  This hypothesis would therefore explain (1) the name Frederuna being transmitted to Regenhild's daughter, and (2) Berenger Bishop of Cambrai, recorded elsewhere as nepos of Queen Frederuna, being described as "…Ottonis imperatoris proxime consanguineus" in the Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium[88].  If this is correct, the reference to Reginlind being "Danorum Fresonumque germine procreatam" has not been explained.  m ([900]) THEODERICH, son of --- & his wife Mathilde --- (-8 Feb 917).]

b)         ROLF (-870).  The Annales Bertiniani name "Rodulfo Normanno, Herioldi filio" when recording that he extracted money and provisions from "Hlotharius Hlotharii filius" in 864[89]

c)         GUTHORM (-killed in battle 854).  The Annales Fuldenses record the war in 854 between "Horih regem Danorum et Godurm filium fratris eius" in which both were killed, leaving only "unus puer" as the sole surviving member of the Danish royal family[90].  Adam of Bremen records that "Gudurm principe Nortmannorum" challenged "patruo…rege Danorum Horico", specifying that the only survivor of the conflict was "puerum unum…Horicum"[91]

4.         RÖRIK [Horik/Heric] (-killed in battle 854).  Adam of Bremen names "fratri eius [=Haraldi] Horuch" when recording that he was granted part of Frisia[92].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Haraldus rex Danorum…frater eius Hericus et uxor regis" was baptised in 826 at Mainz by "Othgario archiepiscopo"[93].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "fratrem regis Haraldi…Ericum" succeeded as king "nam mortuo Haraldo"[94].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Rorih natione Nordmannus", who during the reign of Emperor Louis held "cum fratre Herioldo vicum Dorestadum", was captured in 850[95].  The Annales Fuldenses record the war in 854 between "Horih regem Danorum et Godurm filium fratris eius" in which both were killed, leaving only "unus puer" as the sole surviving member of the Danish royal family[96].  Adam of Bremen records that "Gudurm principe Nortmannorum" challenged "patruo…rege Danorum Horico", specifying that the only survivor of the conflict was "puerum unum…Horicum"[97].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Hericum regem" was killed and succeeded by "Hericus puer"[98].  On his death, the kingdom of Denmark seems to have disintegrated[99]

5.         RAGNFRID (-killed in battle 814).  Einhard's Annales record that news of the death of "Hemmingus Danorum rex" arrived in 812, that "Sigifridus nepos Godofredi regis et Anulo nepos Herioldi quondam regis" both claimed the succession, and that the faction supporting "Anulonis" was victorious, with "fratres eius Herioldum et Reginfredum" being installed as kings[100].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death in 812 of "Hemmingo Danorum rege", the succession dispute between "Sigifredo nepos Godofredi regis et Anulo nepos Herioldi", the battle in which both were killed but which Anulo's supporters won, and the accession by "Herioldum et Reginfredum fratres eius regis"[101].  Adam of Bremen names "Reginfridum et Haraldum" as successors to Anulo but does not specify their relationship to each other[102].  Einhard's Annales record that "Harioldus et Reginfredus reges Danorum" sent envoys to Emperor Charlemagne in 812 asking for the release of "fratrum suum Hemmingum"[103].  He and his brother were driven out of Denmark by the sons of King Godefrid in 813.  He and his brother Reginfred attacked the sons of King Godefrid in 814 in an attempt to regain the throne but were defeated, Reginfred being killed[104].  Einhard's Annales record that "Harioldus et Reginfredus reges Danorum" who, in the previous year had been expelled from Denmark by "filiis Godofredi", attacked again in 814 but "Reginfridus et unus de filiis Godofredi qui maior natu erat" were killed[105]

6.         [---.]  Two children: 

a)         SIGFRID (-killed in battle 891).  The only indication about the parentage of Sigfrid is provided by the Annales Vedastini which name "Sigefridum Danum, christianum regique fidelim, qui nepos fuerat Heorici Dani" when recording that he swore allegiance at "Compendio palatio" in 884[106].  The Annales Bertiniani name "Sigefrido duce" among the Danes resident "in Carento [Charente]" in 865[107].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Sigifridi Danorum regis" negotiated peace with Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks in 873 at "villa Bisestat prope Wormatiam"[108].  The Gesta Francorum names "Sigifridi Danorum regis" in 873[109].  The Annales Vedastini record that "Sigefridum Danum, christianum regique fidelim, qui nepos fuerat Heorici Dani" swore allegiance at "Compendio palatio" in 884[110].  The Annales Fuldenses names "Nortmannorum…cum ipsis regibus…Sigifredo et Godofrido, principis Vurm, Hals" when recording a Viking attack in 882[111].  The Gesta Francorum records that "duo rege eorum Sigifredus et Godofridus" were killed in battle in 891[112].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "duo reges eorum, Sigifridus…et Godofridus" were killed in battle in 891[113]

b)         HALFDAN (-after [876]).  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Halbdani frater Sigifridi regis" attended a council held at "urbem Mediomatricorum" in Aug 873[114].  Adam of Bremen names "Sigafrid cum fratre Halpdani" as kings of Denmark, specifying that their names are recorded only "in Hystoria Francorum" not in Danish sources, and names "Horich, Orwig, Gotafrid, Rudolf et Inguar tyranni" as other leaders of the "Danorum vel Nortmannorum", the cruellest being "Inguar filius Lodparchi"[115].  This passage is undated but immediately precedes the paragraph recording events in 876. 

 

 

1.         RÖRIK [Horik] (-after 857).  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Roric et Godofridus" returned to Denmark after Emperor Lothar gave Frisia to his son Lothar in 855[116].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Rorih Nordmannus" who governed "Dorestado" sailed with a fleet to Denmark with the consent of "domini sui Hlotharii regis" in 857 and with the consent of "Horico Danorum rege" ruled part of the country between the sea and "Egidoram"[117].  No indication has so far been found of the parentage of this Rörik. 

 

 

1.         RÖRIK [Horik] (-after 858).  Adam of Bremen records that "Gudurm principe Nortmannorum" challenged "patruo…rege Danorum Horico", specifying that the only survivor of the conflict was "puerum unum…Horicum"[118].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Hericum regem" was killed and succeeded by "Hericus puer"[119].  Adam of Bremen records that "iuniorem Horicum" recovered the kingdom in Denmark[120], undated but the passage immediately follows one recording events in 858.  On his death, the kingdom of Denmark seems to have disintegrated[121].  No indication has so far been found of the parentage of this Rörik. 

a)         [RAGNHILD "the Rich" (-[897).  Snorre names "Ragnhild the Mighty", a daughter of King Eirik from Jutland" as one of the wives of King Harald, commenting that "it is said that he put away nine wives" when he married her[122].  No indication has been found in the primary sources so far consulted about which King Rörik may have been Ragnhild's father.  However, from a chronological point of view it is more likely that he was the most junior of the kings of this name.  According to Snorre, "Queen Ragnhild the Mighty" lived three years after she came to Norway[123]m ([894]) as his sixth wife, HARALD I "Hårfagre/Harfagri/Fairhair" King of Norway, son of HALFDAN "Swarti/the Black" King of Vestfold & his second wife [Ragnhild Sigurdsdatter] ([853/54] or 860-Hogaland 933, 934 or 940, bur "under a mound at Haugar in Karmtsund, near the church in Haugesund").] 

 

 

1.         HARALD (-after 852).  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Herioldus Nordmannus", who had previously fled from "domini sui Horih Danorum regis", joined in 852 "regem Hludowicum" and was baptised[124].  No indication has so far been found of the parentage of this Harald. 

 

 

1.         RUDOLF (-after Jun 873).  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Hruodolfus quidam Nordmannus de regio genere", who had devastated the kingdom of the West Franks, launched a fleet against "in regnum Hludowici regis in comitatum…Albdagi" in Jun 873[125].  It is not known how Rudolf may have been related to the family of the kings of Denmark. 

 

 

1.         GODEFRID (-killed in battle 891).  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Frothi" succeeded after the death of "Hericus rex" and was baptised by "Unni Bremensis archiepiscopus" and built churches in "Sleswicensis et Ripensis…[et] in honore sancte Trinitatis apud Arusam"[126].  The Gesta Francorum records that "duo rege eorum Sigifredus et Godofridus" were killed in battle in 891[127].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "duo reges eorum, Sigifridus…et Godofridus" were killed in battle in 891[128].  It is not known how Godefrid may have been related to the other kings of Denmark. 

 

 

1.         HALFDAN (-killed ----).  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "[Swen] huius filii Gorm et Hartha Knut" invaded Denmark, killed "rege Danorum Haldano cum filiis eius" and divided the kingdom between them, adding that it is in doubt whether "Haldanus" was "filius Clac Haraldi an non", dating the event to around the time of the death of King Svend[129].  This passage in the Chronicon Roskildense is confused and the alleged King Halfdan has not otherwise been identified. 

 

 

1.         SVEND .  Adam of Bremen names "Sueonum principum" as ruler of Denmark with his sons "post Olaph"[130], although the reference is too vague to be able to date his reign precisely. 

a)         HARDEKNUD .  Adam of Bremen records that "Hardegon filius Suein" deprived "Sigerich" of the kingdom, but qualifies this by saying that it was uncertain how many kings reigned in Denmark during this period[131].  The passage is undated but immediately precedes the recording of an event in 915.  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "[Swen] huius filii Gorm et Hartha Knut" invaded Denmark, killed "rege Danorum Haldano cum filiis eius" and divided the kingdom between them[132].  This passage in the Chronicon Roskildense is confused but appears to refer to the same Hardeknud as Adam of Bremen, but making him the brother instead of father of Gorm. 

i)          GORM (-before 950, bur Jelling).  Adam of Bremen records that "Hardecnudth Wrm…crudelissimus" was ruler in Denmark, and that "Worm regem" was forced to sue for peace by Heinrich I King of Germany who captured "apud Sliaswich, quæ nunc Heidiba dicitur"[133].  It is unclear from these passages whether both deal with the same individual "Hardeknud Gorm" or with two separate individuals "Hardeknud" and [his son] "Gorm".  Snorre names Gorm as father of Harald King of Denmark, and "King Hordaknut" as the latter's grandfather[134]

-         see Chapter 2. KINGS of DENMARK

 

 

1.         SIGERICH .  Adam of Bremen records that "Sigerich" replaced "Sueonum principum" as ruler of Denmark but ruled only a short time[135].  No indication has been found of the dates of his reign. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KINGS of DENMARK 935-1042 (FAMILY of GORM)

 

 

GORM, son of [HARDEKNUD] & his wife his [wife] --- (-before 950, bur Jelling).  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "[Swen] huius filii Gorm et Hartha Knut" invaded Denmark, killed "rege Danorum Haldano cum filiis eius" and divided the kingdom between them[136]GORM "den Gamle/the Old" King of Denmark.  Snorre names Gorm as father of Harald King of Denmark, and "King Hordaknut" as the latter's grandfather[137].  Adam of Bremen records that "Hardecnudth Wrm…crudelissimus" was ruler in Denmark, and that "Worm regem" was forced to sue for peace by Heinrich I King of Germany who captured "apud Sliaswich, quæ nunc Heidiba dicitur"[138], although as noted above it is unclear whether these passages both deal with the same individual "Hardeknud Gorm" or with two.  The accuracy of the peace arrangements made with Germany is challenged by Danish historians[139].  Thietmar of Merseburg refers to "Knud I" King of Denmark in this respect[140], which appears to support the co-identity of Hardeknud and Gorm.  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Gorm crudelissimus rex" established his capital "apud Selandiam"[141]

m TYRE "Danebod" (-[935], bur Jelling).  Saxo Grammaticus names Tyre as mother of King Harald[142]

King Gorm & his wife had four children: 

1.         KNUD Gormsen “Danaast” (-murdered 940).  His parentage is confirmed by Snorre who names "Harald, a son of Knut Gormson, and a brother's son of King Harald"[143].  One child: 

a)         HARALD Knudsen “Guld-Harald” (-murdered 965).  Snorre names "Harald, a son of Knut Gormson, and a brother's son of King Harald", commenting that he gathered great riches from a long Viking raid[144].  After his uncle King Harald refused to divide the kingdom with him, Haakon Sigurdson (in exile from Norway at the Danish court) proposed him as King of Norway[145].  He defeated and killed Harald II King of Norway at Limfjord [965].  Having been betrayed by Jarl Haakon, the latter captured him and had him hanged[146]

2.         [GUNHILD ([910/20]-after 970).  The Historia Norwegie records the marriage of "Ericus…Blothex" and "de Dania…Gunnildam…Gorms Stultissimi Danorum regis filiam ac Thyri", specifying that she was "malificam et iniquissimam"[147].  According to Snorre, the wife of King Erik was the daughter of Ozur Tote, a Finn who lived in Halogaland[148].  Her birth date range is estimated from her allegedly having nine sons by her husband, who were probably born in the range [935/50] if the indications in Snorre's narrative are correct.  If this is correct, she was probably older than her brother King Harald, assuming that her Danish origin is correct.  She returned to Orkney with her sons after her husband's death[149], departing in [spring/summer] 955 for Denmark where her sons received fiefs from King Harald.  After her son succeeded as king of Norway, she was known as the "King mother" and exercised considerable influence in governing the country[150].  She returned to Orkney with her surviving sons after the defeat of her son King Harald.  m ([922]) ERIK I "Blodøks/Bloodaxe" King of Norway, son of HARALD “Hårfagre/Fairhair” King of Norway & his wife Ragnhild Eiriksdatter ([895]-954).  King in Northumbria 947-48, 952-54.] 

3.         HARALD Gormsen ([925/35][151]-Jomsborg 1 Dec [986/87], bur Roskilde Cathedral).  Adam of Bremen records that "filium autem regis [=Worm] Haroldum" succeeded as ruler in Denmark[152].  He succeeded his father before 950 as HARALD I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark

-        see below

4.         TOKE “Val-Toke” Gormsen (-killed in battle [Fyrisvallarna], near Uppsala [985]).  A Runic stone in Hällerstad church, Skåne, Sweden records that "Eskil sat stone this aft Toke Gorms son, his gracious king.  He fled not at Uppsala" (referring to the battle at Fyrisvallarna in [985])[153]m ---.  The name of Toke´s wife is not known.  Toke & his wife had one child: 

a)         ASBJØRN Tokesen (-killed in battle [Fyrisvall] near Uppsala [985]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

HARALD Gormsen, son of GORM "den Gamle/the Old" King of Denmark & his wife Tyre "Danebod" ([925/35]-Jomsborg 1 Dec [986/87], bur Roskilde Cathedral[154]).  Adam of Bremen records that "filium autem regis [=Worm] Haroldum" succeeded as ruler in Denmark[155]Saxo Grammaticus names Harald as son of Tyre[156].  The Chronicon Roskildense names "Gorm pater Haraldi", specifying that "Haraldus" reigned for 15 years during the life of his father and 50 years after his father died, and was known as "Blatan sive Clac Harald", on the other hand a later passage specifies that Harald succeeded his father Gorm[157].  He succeeded his father before 950 as HARALD I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark.  Snorre records that "King Harald Gormson" ruled in Denmark when the sons of King Eirik " Blodøks" sought refuge there in [955][158].  According to Snorre, he invaded Norway in 965 after the death of King Harald II, supported by Jarl Haakon Sigurdson, Harald Gudrodson "Grenske" and other Norwegian exiles[159].  He effectively made himself ruler of Norway, but returned to Denmark after leaving Jarl Haakon in Norway as his regent[160].  Emperor Otto invaded Jutland and defeated King Harald, who took refuge at Limafjord on the island of Marsey where he was converted to Christianity by Bishop Poppo after agreeing a truce with the emperor[161].  Adam of Bremen records that King Harald submitted to Emperor Otto and was baptised "cum uxore Gunhild et filio parvulo"[162].  Adam of Bremen names "Suein Otto, filius magni Haroldi regis Danorum" when recording that he deposed and expelled his father who fled to "civitatem Sclavorum quæ Iumne dicitur" where King Harald died from his wounds.  Adam specifies that his body was repatriated to Roskilde for burial in the church of the Holy Trinity which he had built, that King Harald had ruled for 50 years and that he died "in festivitate omnium sanctorum"[163].  His son Svend rebelled against him and forced his father to flee to Jomsburg (now Wolin) where he died from wounds received while counter-attacking his son's forces[164].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Aigroldus rex Danorum” was expelled from his kingdom by "filio suo...Sveno" and was received in Normandy by “dux” [Guillaume Comte de Normandie] who granted him “Constantiensem comitatum[165], although this is evidently anachronistic as Duke Guillaume died in 942.  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Louis IV King of the West Franks, after the death of Richard´s father, marched on Rouen, was received by “Rodulphus et Bernardus atque Anslech totius Normannici ducatus tutores”, and captured Richard, who was taken to Laon but was freed by “Osmundus...consilio cum Yvone patre Willelmi de Belismo” and taken to “Silvanectis” where “Bernardus...comes” protected “nepotem suum Richardum[166], a passage dated to [945] from the context.  According to King Olav Trygvason's Saga, King Harald defeated his son but died from wounds received in the battle[167].  Modern-day "Bluetooth" computer technology was named after King Harald, his union of Denmark and Norway being considered by the inventors, for some reason, as analogous with the wire-free linking of computer devices[168].    

m firstly ([before 960]) GUNHILD, daughter of ---.  Adam of Bremen names Gunhild as wife of King Harald when recording that the couple were baptised with their small son[169].  965. 

m secondly TOVE, daughter of [MSTIVOJ] & his wife --- (-[990]).  Her marriage and parentage are confirmed by a Runic stone at Sönder Vissing, Denmark which records that "Tufa let gera [make] kuml [monument], Mistiuis do´tter,ept [daughter] Mo´thur [mother] sina.Kona [queen] Haralds hins Goda,Gorms sonar"[170].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[171] she was Tove, daughter of Mstivoj the Wendish prince.  The name of Tove´s father, "Mistiuis", on the Runic stone bears some similarity to Mstivoj.  However, one difficulty is the apparent chronological discrepancy.  The only other reference to Mstivoj is dated to 1000 (see MECKLENBURG) and gives no idea about his age at the time.  Nor is there any indication of the date of Tove´s marriage, although it appears unlikely that she married much later than 980 considering the date her husband died.  This would place her birth in [960] which, in turn, would mean that Mstivoj would have been over 60 years old when he is mentioned in 1000.  This is not impossible, but it seems a little surprising.  Another possibility is that she was Tove of Poland, daughter of Mieszko I Prince of Poland.  The name "Mieszko" is just as similar to "Mistiuis" as "Mstivoj".  This would place her birth after 966, later than suggested above, assuming that she was Mieszko´s daughter by his wife Dobrava of Bohemia.  If this hypothesis is correct, Tove could have been the sister of the first wife of King Harald´s son, King Svend, implying a father/son double marriage with two sisters.  This would place King Svend´s marriage rather earlier than the date suggested below, but the idea is not impossible. 

[m [thirdly] ([984/85]) GYRITHA of Sweden, sister of STYRBJÖRN "den Starke/the Strong" King of Sweden, daughter of ---.  This marriage is only referred to by Saxo Grammaticus, who says that King Styrbjörn had sought help from King Harald after being deposed as king of Sweden by his cousin and granted Harald his sister in marriage[172].] 

King Harald I had six children, maybe all by his first wife although this is not certain: 

1.         HAKON Haraldsen (-before 987).  According to Saxo Grammaticus[173], Hakon attacked the Sembi (a Prussian tribe living north of modern-day Kaliningrad).  Adam of Bremen records that King Harald sent "Hiring filium" with an army to England and the death of Hiring in Northumbria[174], the paragraph being undated but following that recording the succession of Emperor Otto III in 983. 

2.         SVEND Haraldsen ([960]-Gainsborough 3 Feb 1014, bur in England, later removed to Roskilde Cathedral).  Adam of Bremen names "Suein Otto, filius magni Haroldi regis Danorum" when recording that he deposed and expelled his father[175].  He succeeded his father in [987] as SVEND I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark

-        see below

3.         TYRE Haraldsdatter (-18 Sep [1000]).  Snorre records the betrothal of "Thyre, a daughter of Harald and King Svein's sister" and "King Burizleif" as part of the deal reached for the release of her brother after he was captured at Jomsborg[176].  Snorre records the marriage in a later passage, Tyre's flight from her new husband to Norway and her marriage to King Olav[177].  The Historia Norwegie records the marriage of King Olav and "sororem Sweinonis regis…Tyri" who had earlier been betrothed to "dux quidam de Sclauia"[178].  According to the Gesta Danorum, the marriage shown below as her third did not take place as Svend King of Denmark (there described as Tyre's father rather than brother) withdrew his consent[179].  The account records the event as having taken place just before King Svend's marriage to Sigrid.  m firstly STYRBJÖRN [Björn] “den Starke/the Strong" of Sweden, from Jomsburg, son of [BJÖRN Erkison/OLOF Björnsson King of Sweden & his wife ---] (-killed in battle Fyrisvall, near Uppsala 985).  m secondly (divorced) as his [---] wife, BURISLAW Prince of the Wends, son of ---.  m thirdly (Tønsberg 998) as his third wife, OLAV I Trygveson King of Norway, son of TRYGVE Olavvsson King in Romerike & his wife Åstrid Eiriksdatter ([968]-in a sea battle in the Øresund, off Svold near Rügen 9 Sep [1000]). 

4.         GUNHILD Haraldsdatter (-murdered in England 13 Nov 1002).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She was killed while a hostage in England, one of the victims of the massacre of Danes ordered by King Æthelred II.  m PALLIG [Palle] Ealdorman in Devonshire (-murdered in England 13 Nov 1002). 

5.         MO Haraldsdatter (-[1015]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

6.         THORGNY Haraldsdatter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m THRUGOT ---.  Thrugot & his wife had one child: 

a)         THORGUNNA Thrugotsdatter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m BOSI, son of --- (-[1010]). 

 

 

SVEND Haraldsen, son of HARALD I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark & his [first wife Gunhild ---] ([960]-Gainsborough, Lincolnshire 3 Feb 1014, bur in England, later removed to Roskilde Cathedral).  Adam of Bremen names "Suein Otto, filius magni Haroldi regis Danorum" when recording that he deposed and expelled his father[180].  Converted to Christianity with his father, he was baptised "OTTO SVEND" in honour of Emperor Otto[181].  Snorre records that "Svein, King Harald's son" rebelled after his father refused to share the kingdom with him, but was forced to flee, although his father had been mortally wounded and Svend was chosen as king after he died[182].  He rebelled against his father, who had refused to divide the kingdom with him, and forced him to flee to Jomsburg (now Wolin)[183], succeeding in [early 987] as SVEND I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark.  King Svend immediately set about restoring the heathen religion in Denmark[184].  Adam of Bremen records that King Svend persecuted Christians in Denmark[185].  Sigvaldi Jarl at Jomsborg in Vindland captured King Svend and took him to Jomsborg, threatening to deliver him into the hands of the Wends unless he made peace[186].  Adam of Bremen records that "rex Sueonum Hericus" invaded Denmark and expelled King Svend, who was eventually received by "rex Scotthorum" with whom he stayed seven years until the death of King Erik, after which he returned to Denmark after 14 years exile[187], although his period of absence appears exaggerated.  King Svend first attacked England in 994, in the company of Olav Tryggveson (who succeeded in [995] as Olav I King of Norway).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "came Anlaf and Swein to London with ninety-four ships and kept up an unceasing attack on the city" 8 Sep 994[188].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the isle of Man was devastated by Swain son of Harold" in 994[189].  At that time, Stenton suggests that there was some support to declare Svend as king of England from those who despaired of the government of King Æthelred "the Unready"[190].  Adam of Bremen records that Olof King of Sweden invaded Denmark and expelled King Svend, but allowed him to return to his kingdom because "matrem suam habuerit"[191].  Olav I King of Norway attempted to invade Denmark but was defeated by King Svend in a naval battle "inter Sconiam et Seland", during which King Olav was drowned, after which Svend imposed himself as king of Norway[192].  Danish raids on England intensified after King Æthelred ordered the massacre of Danes in England 13 Nov 1002, which included the death of King Svend's sister Gunhild sister of King Svend.  A full-scale Danish invasion came in 1013 and by the end of the year Svend had become SVEIN de facto King of England.  King Æthelred fled to Normandy after Christmas 1013[193], but after Svend's death in Feb 1014 he was invited back, but on condition he improve his rule.  Adam of Bremen records that King Svend held England for only a short time before he died[194].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Danamarchæ...regique Sveno” invaded England but died “apud Lundoniam”, was buried “apud Danamarcham”, and succeeded by “filius eius...Chunutus” who launched a new invasion with “Lacman equidem Suauorum et Olavum Noricorum[195]

m firstly ([988/90]) --- (-before [1000]).  The name and identity of King Svend's first wife is uncertain, although she seems to have been known as GUNHILD in Denmark.  According to Snorre, Gunhild died before King Svend's second marriage but no precise date is given[196].  Two possibilities emerge from the primary sources: 

(1) --- of Poland, daughter of MIESZKO I Prince of Poland & his second wife Dobrava [Dobroslawa] of Bohemia.  The sole authority for this appears to be Thietmar who refers to the mother of "filiis Suenni" as "Miseconis filia ducis, soror Bolizlavi successori eius", commenting that "long exiled by her husband…this woman suffered no small amount of controversy" although this comment is in no way explained[197]

(2) --- of the Wends, daughter of BURISLAV King of the Wends & his wife ---.  Snorre names "Geira, Gunhild and Astrid" as the three daughters of "in Vindland…a king called Burizleif"[198].  In a later passage, he records Gunhild's marriage to Svend arranged as part of the peace deal brokered with the Wends by Sigvaldi (Jarl at Jomsborg) who was already married to another daughter of King Burizleif[199]

The matter is further complicated by the secondary sources.  Brenner[200] names King Svend's first wife "Gunhild of Poland", stating that she was the widow of Erik "Segersäll/the Victorious" King of Sweden, which appears to confuse her with King Svend's second wife Sigrid (see below).  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[201], King Svend had a single wife "Gunhild of Poland", widow of King Erik of Sweden.  In another table, Europäische Stammtafeln[202] further confuses the issue by naming the second wife of King Erik of Sweden and King Svend as "Šwiętosława [Gunhild] of Poland" (although the basis for proposing this Polish name is not known) and the first wife of King Erik as Sigrid Storrada. 

The only safe conclusions are: firstly, that King Svend did marry before marrying Sigrid, as a first marriage at the age of about 35 after the death of Sigrid's first husband seems improbable; and secondly, that his first wife was probably of Slavic origin from the southern Baltic coastal area, confusion in the primary sources between Polish and Wendish in this context being understandable.  According to Ronay[203], King Svend divorced his first wife who returned to Poland taking her son Knud with her, but he cites no primary source to support this statement. 

m secondly ([1000]) SIGRID “Storråda/the Haughty”, widow of ERIK “Segersäll/the Victorious” King of Sweden, daughter of SKOGAR-Toste, a Swedish noble & his wife ---.  There appears to be unanimity among the primary sources about the identity of King Svend's second wife.  Snorre records the second marriage of King Svend with "Sigrid the Haughty, a daughter of Skoglartoste and mother of the Swedish king Olaf"[204].  Adam of Bremen records the marriage of Svend King of Denmark and "Herici relictam, matrem Olaph"[205].  The Fagrskinna names Sigrid, mother of King Olof, as daughter of Skoglar-Tosta[206]Morkinskinna names "Sigridr en stórráda" as mother of “the lady Ástrídr…sister of two kings, Knútr the Great and Óláfr the Swede” who married “Jarl Úlfr sprakaleggr[207]Saxo Grammaticus states that King Svend married "Syritha" after she was unsuccessfully wooed by Olav I King of Norway, and also refers to Olof King of Sweden as King Svend's stepson[208].

Mistress (1): [AESA], daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. 

King Svend & his [first/second] wife had three children:

1.         KNUD Svendsen ([995]-Shaftesbury, Dorset 12 Nov 1035, bur Winchester Cathedral, Old Minster).  The Encomium Emmæ Reginæ names "Cnutone filio suo [=Sueinum] maiore"[209].  However, the identity of Knud's mother is uncertain.  Adam of Bremen names "Chnut" as son of King Svend & his wife "Herici relictam, matrem Olaph"[210].  The Fagrskinna suggests that Knud was the son of King Svend's first marriage by stating that Astrid, daughter of King Svend and Sigrid Skoglar-Tosta, had the same father as King Knud and the same mother as Olof King of Sweden[211].  He succeeded King Edmund II "Ironsides" in 1016 as CANUTE King of England.  He succeeded his brother in 1018 as KNUD I "den Storre/the Great" King of Denmark

-        see below

2.         HARALD Svendsen (-[1018]).  It is uncertain whether Harald was the older or younger son of King Svend.  Thietmar names (in order) "fratres Harald et Cnut" when recording their arrival in England in 1016 with "dux Thurcil" and laying siege to London[212].  If the Encomium Emmæ Reginæ can be taken as authoritative, Harald was King Svend's younger son as it refers to "Cnutone filio suo [=Sueinum] maiore"[213].  Stenton[214] refers to Harald as King Svend's older son, but the basis for this is not stated.  At first sight his accession in Denmark suggests that he was the older son.  However, it is not impossible that England was considered the greater prize and that his brother Knud relegated his younger brother to succeed in Denmark.  He succeeded his father in 1014 as HARALD II King of Denmark

3.         SANTSLAVA .  "h' Santslaue soror Cnvti regis nostri" is named in an undated list of "Nomina feminarum illustrium" in the Liber vitae of Winchester Cathedral[215].  Her name, possibly of Slavic origin, suggests that she was born from King Knud's first marriage. 

King Svend & his second wife had one child:

4.         ESTRID [Margrete] Svendsdatter (-9 May ----, bur Roskilde).  Adam of Bremen records that "Chnud…rex Danorum" gave "suam…germanam Margaretam pro foedere" to "comitis Nortmannorum Rikardi" and, after she was repudiated by Richard, to "Wolf duci Angliæ"[216].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Kanutus" gave "sororem…Estrith" to "Richardo", who repudiated her, after which she married "duci Ulf" without her brother´s consent[217].  Snorre names "Astrid, a daughter of King Svein Forkbeard" as wife of Earl Ulf, specifying that she was "a sister of Canute the Great by the father's side and of the Swedish king Olaf Eirikson by the mother's side, for her mother was Queen Sigrid the Haughty, a daughter of Skoglar Toste"[218]Morkinskinna names “the lady Ástrídr…sister of two kings, Knútr the Great and Óláfr the Swede” as daughter of “King Sveinn Forkbeard…and Sigrídr en stórráda” who had previously been married to King Eirikr enn sigrsæli” and wife of “Jarl Úlfr sprakalegge[219].  Saxo Grammaticus also records her betrothal[220]Betrothed (after 1017) to RICHARD II "le Bon/l'Irascible" Duke of Normandy, son of RICHARD I "Sans Peur" Comte [de Normandie] & his second wife Gunnora --- (-23 Aug 1026).  m ULF Thrugilson Jarl [Wulfsige Sprakling], son of THORGILS Sprakling [THRUGILS Sprakaleg] & his wife --- (-murdered Roskilde 1026, bur Roskilde). 

King Svend had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):

2.          GYDA SvendsdatterSnorre records the marriage of Eirik and Gyda, daughter of King Svend, in 996[221].  According to Brenner[222] Gyda was either illegitimate or the daughter of one of King Svend's marriages.  In Europäische Stammtafeln[223], she is King Svend's legitimate daughter, presumably by his first marriage as she is shown as the eldest child.  m (996) EIRIK Håkonsson Jarl, son of HÅKON Sigurdsson Jarl (-in England [1023]).  Regent in Norway 1000-1015.  Jarl in Northumbria 1015.  . 

 

 

KNUD Svendsen, son of SVEND I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark & his first wife [Gunhild] --- ([995]-Shaftesbury, Dorset 12 Nov 1035, bur Winchester Cathedral, Old Minster).  The Encomium Emmæ Reginæ names "Cnutone filio suo [=Sueinum] maiore"[224].  However, the identity of Knud's mother is uncertain.  Adam of Bremen names "Chnut" as son of King Svend & his wife "Herici relictam, matrem Olaph"[225].  The Fagrskinna suggests that Knud was the son of King Svend's first marriage by stating that Astrid, daughter of King Svend and Sigrid Skoglar-Tosta, had the same father as King Knud and the same mother as Olof King of Sweden[226].  According to Ronay[227], Knud was taken back to Poland with his mother after her divorce and fostered by Thorkell "the Tall" at the fortress of Jömsborg at the mouth of the River Oder but the author cites no primary source to support this.  Knud took part in the invasion of England led by his father in 1013.  After the death of King Svend, Æthelred II King of England counter-attacked the Danes in Lindsey, and the Danish fleet under Knud withdrew to Denmark.  In August 1015, Knud invaded England again.  Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Danamarchæ...regique Sveno” invaded England but died “apud Lundoniam”, was buried “apud Danamarcham”, and succeeded by “filius eius...Chunutus” who launched a new invasion with “Lacman equidem Suauorum et Olavum Noricorum[228].  By the end of 1015, he was in control of Wessex, helped by the defection of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" Ealdorman of Mercia.  The Danes controlled Northumbria in early 1016, then turned their attention to London and the south-east.  After the death of King Æthelred in Apr 1016, the Witan offered the throne to Knud, to whom a group of nobles and church dignitaries from southern England swore allegiance at Southampton[229].  Knud's fleet laid siege to London, which was relieved by King Æthelred's son King Edmund "Ironside" who had been proclaimed king by an assembly in London.  Knud turned his attention to Mercia, Eadric "Streona" defecting back to King Edmund's forces at Aylesford, only to return to Knud at Ashingdon in Essex where Danish forces finally defeated King Edmund in Oct 1016[230].  At Alney, near Deerhurst, the king agreed a compromise division of the country with Knud, Edmund taking Wessex and Knud the north, but Edmund died in Nov 1016 before this could be implemented.  After the death of King Edmund II, Knud was accepted as CANUTE King of England, crowned maybe at Old St Paul’s Cathedral, London 6 Jan 1017.  After succeeding in England, he divided the country into four districts for administrative purposes[231].  He appointed Eadric "Streona" as Ealdorman of Mercia ("slain in London" the same year[232]), gave East Anglia to Thorkell the tall, confirmed Erik Haakonsson Jarl in Norway as Earl of Northumbria, and kept direct control over Wessex.  He held a national assembly at Oxford in 1018 which decided the legal form of his rule, largely following that of King Edgar "the Peaceable".  He succeeded his brother in 1018 as KNUD I "den Storre/the Great" King of Denmark, leaving England for Denmark to take possession in 1019.  His position in Denmark did not go unchallenged, for he was defeated at the Holy River in [1025] by Olaf King of Norway and Amund King of Sweden[233].  He expelled Olav King of Norway in 1028, declaring himself KNUD King of Norway.  Malcolm II King of Scotland submitted to him in 1031[234].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of King Canute at Shaftesbury on 12 Nov 1035 and his burial in the Old Minster, Winchester[235]

m (2 or 31 Jul 1017) as her second husband, EMMA de Normandie, widow of ÆTHELRED II King of England, daughter of RICHARD I "Sans Peur" Comte de Normandie & his second wife Gunnora --- ([985]-Winchester 14 Mar 1052, bur Winchester Cathedral, Old Minster[236]).  Adam of Bremen records the marriage of "Chnud" and "regnum Adelradi…uxoremque eius Immam…soror comitis Nortmannorum Rikardi"[237].  Emma was described by Henry of Huntingdon as "Emma Normanorum gemma"[238], although it is not known whether this was a particular indication of her beauty or mere hyperbole.  She was known as "ÆLFGIFU" in England[239].  Her first husband sent her to her brother's court in Normandy in 1013 after the invasion of Svend King of Denmark[240].  She was living in Normandy in 1017 when King Æthelred's successor King Canute proposed marriage to her.  Guillaume of Jumièges records that, after the death of “Edelredus rex”, “Emmam reginam” married “rex...Chunutus...Christiano more”, and names their children “Hardechunutum postmodum regem Danorum et filiam...Gunnildem quæ nupsit Henrico Romanorum Imperatori[241].  Roger of Wendover records the marriage in Jul 1018 of "Cnuto" and "ducem Ricardum…Emmam sororem suam et regis Ethelredi relictam"[242].  After the death of her second husband, she continued to live at Winchester.  After the election of her step-son as regent in early 1036, it was recognised that she would continue to live there to look after the interests of her son Harthacnut (then absent in Denmark), who had nominally succeeded his father as king of England and Denmark.  It is likely that she encouraged her sons by her first husband, Edward and Alfred, to join her.  After Harold was recognised as king of England in 1037, Emma was expelled from England and took refuge at Bruges[243].  She commissioned the Encomium Emmæ Reginæ from a Flemish convent at Saint-Omer, maybe St Bertin's, designed to promote her son Harthacnut's claim to the English throne.  Harthacnut joined her in Bruges in early 1040, and after the death of King Harold I, they returned together to England.  After the accession of her son by her first husband, Edward "the Confessor" to the English throne, Emma appears to have supported the rival claim of Magnus King of Norway[244].  King Magnus had claimed the throne of Denmark on the basis of an alleged agreement reached with Harthacnut in 1039, and invaded and took control of large parts of Denmark on the strength of it.  He claimed the English throne on the same basis and threatened to invade, but was too preoccupied with conquering Denmark to carry out the threat.  Whatever the truth of this, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that King Edward did confiscate her property in 1043[245].  She seems to have spent the last years of her life in retirement in Winchester[246].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of "Ælfgifu Emma, the mother of king Edward and of king Harthacnut" in 1052[247]

Mistress (1): (before [1015]) ÆLFGIFU Ælfhelmsdotter of Northampton, daughter of Ealdorman ÆLFHELM of Deira & his wife Wulfrun of Northampton (-after [1042]).  Roger of Wendover names "Algiva, Elfelmi comitis filia" as first wife of "regis Cnutonis" and mother of "duos…filios Suanum…et Haroldum"[248].  She was known as ALFIFA in Denmark and Norway.  King Knud took her as a "temporary wife"[249], but the "marriage" was not recognised by the church.  According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Harold claimed that he was the son of King Canute by "Ælfgifu of Northampton, although it was not true", another passage commenting that "many thought this [claim] quite incredible"[250].  She continued to behave as Queen in the north of England after King Canute married Emma.  King Canute appointed her co-regent in Norway in 1030 for their son Svend.  Morkinskinna records that “Álfifa” accompanied her son Svend back to Denmark after he was overthrown as king of Norway (in 1035)[251]Morkinskinna records that “Álfifa” tried unsuccessfully to poison Magnus King of Norway but killed “King Hordaknútr” instead (dated to 1042), and that “she vanished instantly so that she could not be punished”, stating that this took place “in the sixth year of King Magnus´s reign[252]Morkinskinna records that “Álfífa” tricked “a powerful duke named Otto south in Saxony”, when visiting “Norway and arrived in Vik”, into thinking that “her daughter…not King Sveinn´s sister by the same father” was Ulfhild, sister of Magnus King of Norway[253].  The paragraph refers to Ordulf Duke of Saxony who later married Ulfhild, their marriage being dated to Nov 1042.  This is the only reference so far identified to this supposed daughter.  However, it seems surprising that Ælfgifu would have been present in Norway and have been in a position to welcome foreign visitors, given that her son by King Canute had been overthrown as king of Norway by King Magnus.  All passages in Morkinskinna which refer to “Álfífa” treat her with disdain as the archetypal wicked queen figure, suggesting that they should all be treated with caution.  Weir gives her date of death as “1044?” without any basis for her conjecture[254].  Roger of Wendover records that death "Algiva, Elfelmi comitis filia", first wife of "regis Cnutonis", died in 1018[255], but this date is incompatible with the other sources quoted above. 

King Canute & his wife Queen Emma [Ælfgifu] had two children:

1.         HARDEKNUD (England 1018-Lambeth 8 Jun 1042, bur Winchester Cathedral).  Guillaume of Jumièges records that, after the death of “Edelredus rex”, “Emmam reginam” married “rex...Chunutus...Christiano more”, and names their children “Hardechunutum postmodum regem Danorum et filiam...Gunnildem quæ nupsit Henrico Romanorum Imperatori[256].  Adam of Bremen names "Hardechnut" as son of King Knud and Emma when recording that he succeeded his father in Denmark[257].  Hardeknud may have been the son of King Knud who in 1023 was delivered as a hostage to Thorkell "Havi/the Tall", in exchange for Thorkell's son, when Thorkell was reconciled with the king and appointed regent in Denmark[258].  Hardeknud was proclaimed associate king of Denmark in 1028 at Nidaros.  He succeeded his father in 1035 as HARDEKNUD King of Denmark.  It seems that his father intended that Hardeknud and his half-brother Harald should succeed jointly in England, but Hardeknud was unable to leave Denmark to claim the English throne.  He finally arrived at Bruges, where his mother was living in exile, in 1039[259].  He was there when his half-brother died, whereupon he succeeded as HARTHACNUT King of England.  He sailed back to England with his mother, landing at Sandwich 17 Jun 1040[260].  He is said to have been crowned at Canterbury Cathedral in Jun 1040[261].  His uterine half-brother Edward came to England in 1041 and was "sworn in as future king"[262].  Florence of Worcester records that King Harthacnut fell down "by a sad mischance while in the act of drinking" at the wedding feast of his father's retainer, Tovi the Proud, and "continued speechless" until he died a few days later[263]Morkinskinna records that “Álfifa” tried unsuccessfully to poison Magnus King of Norway but killed “King Hordaknútr” instead (dated to 1042), and that “she vanished instantly so that she could not be punished”, stating that this took place “in the sixth year of King Magnus´s reign[264].  The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “VI Id Jun” of “Hardcnute rex, qui dedit Hemingford[265]

2.         GUNHILD [Æthelfryth] ([1020]-in Italy 18 Jul 1038, bur Limburg Klosterkirche).  Guillaume of Jumièges records that, after the death of “Edelredus rex”, “Emmam reginam” married “rex...Chunutus...Christiano more”, and names their children “Hardechunutum postmodum regem Danorum et filiam...Gunnildem quæ nupsit Henrico Romanorum Imperatori[266].  Adam of Bremen records that the daughter of King Knud married "imperator filio suo"[267].  Her parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis, who also refers to her marriage[268].  Wipo names "Chnutonis regis Anglorum filiam, nomine Chunehildem" as wife of "Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris" when recording their marriage in 1036[269].  The Annalista Saxo records that the wife of King Heinrich III was "filiam Cnud regis Danorum", specifying that the marriage was arranged by Unwan Archbishop of Bremen[270], although this seems unlikely as Archbishop Unwan died in 1029[271]Herimannus names "Chunihildem, Cnutonis Danorum et Anglorum regis filiam" when recording her marriage to "Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris" in 1036[272].  She adopted the name KUNIGUND on her marriage.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "uxor imperatoris Henrici Gunhildis imperatrix de Anglia" was accused of adultery, that she was defended in trial by combat, but that after her champion's victory she disdained the success and became a nun[273].  William of Malmesbury also recounts that she was accused of adultery and retired to a convent[274].  She died during her husband's expedition to Italy[275], the death of "regina Conihild" being recorded in the Annalista Saxo "XV Kal Aug"[276].  The necrology of Speyer records the death "XV Kal Aug" of "Cunehilt regina"[277]m (Nijmegen [29] Jun 1036) as his first wife, HEINRICH III King of Germany, Duke of Bavaria, son of Emperor KONRAD II & his wife Gisela of Swabia (Ostrebeck 28 Oct 1017-Burg Bodfeld im Harz 5 Oct 1056, bur Speyer Cathedral).  He was crowned Emperor at Rome 25 Dec 1046. 

King Canute had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

3.          SVEND Alfifasen ([1015]-in Denmark 1036)Adam of Bremen names "Suein" as son of King Knud "a concubina" when recording that he succeeded in Norway[278].  Roger of Wendover names "Algiva, Elfelmi comitis filia" as first wife of "regis Cnutonis" and mother of "duos…filios Suanum…et Haroldum", but adds that "others said that they were conceived "ex fornicatione"[279].  According to Florence of Worcester, it was asserted at the time that his mother "desired to have a son by the king but, as she could not, she caused the new-born child of a certain priest to be brought to her" and made the king believe it was his son[280].  His father appointed him SVEND King of Norway in 1030, under the regency of his mother.  Morkinskinna records “hostility between Sveinn Álfífuson and King Yaroslav [of Russia]” because the king “correctly judged that the Norwegians had betrayed Saint Óláfr[281].  He continued to rule in Norway until 1035, when Norwegian nobles from the Trondheim area, dissatisfied with Danish rule, recalled Magnus Olavsson from Novgorod and installed him as king of Norway.  Morkinskinna records that “King Sveinn the son of Álfifa” died in Denmark in the winfer after he was overthrown as king of Norway[282]

4.         HARALD (maybe Northampton [1016/17]-Oxford 17 Mar 1040, bur Abbey Church of St Peter Westminster[283], probably later removed to St Clement Danes, Strand, London).  Adam of Bremen names "Haroldus" as son of King Knud "a concubina" when recording that he succeeded in England[284].  Roger of Wendover names "Algiva, Elfelmi comitis filia" as first wife of "regis Cnutonis" and mother of "duos…filios Suanum…et Haroldum", but adds that "others said that they were conceived "ex fornicatione"[285].  According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Harold claimed that he was the son of King Canute by "Ælfgifu of Northampton, although it was not true", another passage commenting that "many thought this [claim] quite incredible"[286].  Florence of Worcester comments that "some say that he was the son of a cobbler" and that his mother had acted with him in the same way as with his brother Svend (see above)[287].  In Mercia when King Canute died, in early 1036 Harald was elected regent of England "on behalf of himself and his brother Harthacnut"[288] in Oxford by a council led by Leofric Earl of Mercia, while Harthacnut was absent in Denmark.  This text appears to imply that a joint kingship was intended at the time.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Harald confiscated King Canute's "best valuables" from Queen Emma at Winchester in 1036, but allowed her to continue to live in the town[289].  Harold "began to reign as though he was the lawful heir" and shortly afterwards the kingdom was divided by lot, Harold getting the north and Harthacnut the south[290].  In Harthacnut's continuing absence, Harald was chosen as king in England in 1037[291], when he can be taken to have succeeded as HAROLD I "Harefod/Harefoot" King of England, crowned in 1037 at Oxford.  According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, King Harold's body was "disinterred and cast into a marsh" on King Harthacnut's orders[292]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    KINGS of DENMARK 1047-1412 (FAMILY of THORGILS)

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS, DESCENDANTS of THORGILS SPRAKLING

 

 

THORGILS Sprakling [THRUGILS Sprakaleg], son of [STYRBJØRN & his wife Tyre daughter of King Harald Bluetooth][293].  According to Florence of Worcester, "Spracing" was the son of Urso[294]

m ---.  The name of the wife of Thorgils is not known. 

Thorgils & his wife had three children: 

1.         GYTHA (-St Omer after 1069).  Adam of Bremen records that "Wolf sororem" married "duci Gudvino", and was mother of "ducis Suein, Tostin et Haroldum [genuit parricidas]"[295], although this last reference is unexplained.  She is named by Florence of Worcester[296].  Her origin is deduced from Ulf Jarl of Denmark being described as the uncle of her son Svein by Florence of Worcester[297]Morkinskinna names “Gytha, the daughter of Thorgils sprakaleggr and the sister of Jarl Úlfr” as the wife of “Godwin[298].  Orderic Vitalis records that, after the rebellion of [her grandsons] the sons of King Harold, “Gisa Goduini uxor, Heraldi genitrix” secretly took a great treasure (“ingentem gazam clanculum”) and crossed “in Galliam[299].  Florence of Worcester records that "Gytha…comitissa…mater Haroldi regis Anglorum ac soror Suani regis Danorum" fled to Flanders, in a passage dealing with events in early 1068[300].  She became a nun at Saint-Omer.  m (1019) GODWIN Earl of Wessex, son of WULFNOTH "Cild" & his wife --- ([993]-Winchester 15 Apr 1053, bur Winchester Old Minster). 

2.         ULF Thrugilson [WULFSIGE Sprakling] (-murdered Roskilde 1026, bur Roskilde).  Florence of Worcester specifies that he was the son of "Spracing"[301].  Snorre names Earl Ulf as son of Thorgils Sprakaleg[302].  Jarl in England 1017.  Regent of Denmark from [1026].  He joined the alliance of Olav II King of Norway and Anund King of Sweden to oppose his brother-in-law King Knud[303].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "duci Ulf" was killed "in ecclesia Roskildensi" where his widow buried him[304].  Saxo Grammaticus records that he was killed on the orders of King Knud whom he had allegedly insulted[305]m ESTRID [Margrete] Svendsdatter, daughter of SVEND I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark & his wife his second wife Sigrid “Storråda/the Haughty” (-9 May ----, bur Roskilde Cathedral).  Adam of Bremen records that "Chnud…rex Danorum" gave "suam…germanam Margaretam pro foedere" to "comitis Nortmannorum Rikardi" and after she was repudiated to "Wolf duci Angliæ"[306].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Kanutus" gave "sororem…Estrith" to "Richardo", who repudiated her, after which she married "duci Ulf" without her brother´s consent[307].  Snorre names "Astrid, a daughter of King Svein Forkbeard" as wife of Earl Ulf[308]Morkinskinna names “the lady Ástrídr…sister of two kings, Knútr the Great and Óláfr the Swede” as daughter of “King Sveinn Forkbeard…and Sigrídr en stórráda” who had previously been married to King Eirikr enn sigrsæli” and wife of “Jarl Úlfr sprakalegge[309].  Ulf & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         SVEND Estridsen ([1020]-Søderup [29] Apr 1074, bur Roskilde Cathedral).  Adam of Bremen names "Bern ducem et Suein regem" as sons of "Wolf duci Angliæ" & his wife[310].  Jarl 1042.  He succeeded in 1047 as SVEND II King of Denmark

-        see below, Part B

b)         BJØRN Ulfsen (-murdered Dartmouth 1049, bur Dartmouth, transferred to Winchester Cathedral).  Adam of Bremen names "Bern ducem et Suein regem" as sons of "Wolf duci Angliæ" & his wife[311].  1020.   Florence of Worcester specifies that he was the son of Ulf and brother of King Svend[312].  He was created Earl in Eastern Mercia in 1045 by Edward "the Confessor" King of England.  King Edward granted him part of the earldom of Svein Godwinsson, son of Godwin Earl of Wessex, after the latter was outlawed following his seduction of the Abbess of Leominster[313].  Bjørn was killed on board the ship of his cousin Earl Svein, son of Godwin Earl of Wessex. 

c)         ASBJØRN Ulfsen (-1086).  Adam of Bremen names "in Anglia duces…Bern…[et] Osbern" as brothers of "Suein regis"[314].  As Asbjørn is not named with his brothers in the earlier passage which names their mother, it is possible that he was their half-brother born from a concubine.  Like his brother, he lived in England.  Jarl in Denmark.  Florence of Worcester records that "Suani regis Danorum filii, Haroldus, Canutus et patruus eorum Esbernus comes et comes Turkillus" sailed from Denmark in [1069] and landed "in ostio Humbræ fluminis"[315].  Orderic Vitalis records that “Suenus rex Danorum” sent a fleet led by “duos...filios suos et Osbernum fratrem suum” to attack England, dated to 1069[316]m ---.  The name of Asbjørn's wife is not known.  Asbjørn & his wife had one child: 

i)          [MARGRETE Asbjørnsdatter .  Her marriage is referred to in Knytlinga Saga[317].  A Queen Margreta is referred to in the Liber daticus Roskildensis who was assigned to King Harald III in the 19th century[318]m her first cousin, HARALD III "Hein/the Whetstone" King of Denmark, illegitimate son of SVEND II Estridsen King of Denmark (-17 Apr 1080, bur Dalby Cloister, near Lund).] 

d)         [daughter .  m ---.]  One child: 

i)          ASMUND "Free-booter" (-killed in battle [1063]).  Snorre names "Asmund…said to have been King Svein's sister's son and his foster-son" when recording that he was murdered[319]Morkinskinna records that “Ásmundr” was the son of “Bjorn” (see above)[320]

3.         EILAF.  He was one of the leaders of the Danish raids on England in 1009[321].  He was made an Earl in England by Knud.  He joined his brother's alliance to oppose Knud in 1026. 

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of DENMARK 1047-1412

 

 

SVEND Estridsen, son of ULF Thrugilson [WULFSIGE Sprakling] & his wife Estrid [Margrete] Svendsdatter of Denmark ([1020]-Søderup[322] [28] Apr 1074, bur Roskilde Cathedral).  Adam of Bremen names "Bern ducem et Suein regem" as sons of "Wolf duci Angliæ" & his wife[323]Morkinskinna names “Sveinn” as son of “Jarl Úlfr sprakalegge and the lady Ástrídr[324].  He fled to Sweden after the death of his father[325].  Created Jarl in 1042 by Magnus King of Norway.  He claimed Denmark on the death of his cousin Hardeknud, but Magnus II "the Good" King of Norway also claimed the Danish throne based on an alleged agreement with Hardeknud before the latter's death.  King Magnus invaded Denmark and was master of most of the country before the end of 1046.  Magnus King of Norway died on an expedition against Svend Estridsen, who was able to succeed in 1047 as SVEND II King of Denmark.  The Chronicon Roskildense records the succession of "Sven, regis Gambliknut ex sorore nepos filius Estrid et Ulf", adding that he had "filios filiasque ex diversis mulieribus"[326].  He was defeated by Harald III "Hardråde" King of Norway at Nissa in 1062, but made peace with Norway at Gota in 1064.  Orderic Vitalis records that “Suenus rex Danorum” sent a fleet led by “duos...filios suos et Osbernum fratrem suum” to attack England, that they were repulsed at Dover, Sandwich and Ipswich, and at Norwich by “Radulfus de Guader”, that they were joined by “Adelinus, Guallevus, Siguardus” but defeated on the Humber, entered York headed by “Guallevus...Gaius Patricius, Marius Suenus, Elnocinus, Archillus et quatuor filii Karoli” but were eventually expelled, dated to 1069[327]Saxo Grammaticus says that King Svend was "famed for his generosity, remarkably benevolent", encouraged the building of churches and the spread of Christianity, but "soiled this spotless conduct only by the excesses of his lust"[328].  According to William of Malmesbury, King Svend bound the inhabitants of Denmark by oath that "as he had 14 sons, they should confer the kingdom on each of them in succession as long as his issue remained"[329].  Simeon of Durham records the death in 1076 of "Suane king of the Danes…a man well imbued with learning"[330].  The Chronicon Roskildense records the death in 1074 of "rex Danorum Sveno Magnus in Iucia" after reigning for 31 years and his burial "Roskildie"[331]

m firstly ([1052], divorced 1054) as her second husband, GUNHILD Svensdatter, widow of ANUND JAKOB King of Sweden, daughter of Jarl SVEN Haakonsson & his wife Holmfrid of Sweden (-1060 or after).  Adam of Bremen refers to the marriage of "rex iuvenis Suein" and "consanguineam a Suedia", the king being threatened with excommunication by the Archbishop of Bremen and papal letters, his wife being named "Gunhild [vel Giuthe] reginam" in a later passage which records that after her separation she devoted herself to charitable activities on her estates[332].  Snorre records that "Gunhild, Earl Svein's other daughter" was married to "the Danish king Svein Ulfson"[333].  Her parentage is referred to in Knytlinga Saga[334]

m secondly (divorced 1055) GYDA, daughter of --- (bur Gudheim).  Adam of Bremen names Gyda as King Svend's legitimate queen, adding that she was poisoned by Thora[335].  She was the same person as King Svend's first wife shown above, according to Saxo Grammaticus[336]

m thirdly THORA, daughter of ---.  Adam of Bremen names Gyda as King Svend's legitimate queen, adding that she was poisoned by Thora[337].  According to Brenner[338], she was Thora Thorbergsdatter, mistress of Harald III “Hardråde” King of Norway, daughter of Thorberg Arnesson [Arnung] from Giske, married after the death of King Harald although there appears to be no direct evidence to corroborate this.  Christiansen considers that the identification is far-fetched[339], in view of what must have been her age at the time of the supposed marriage: it is likely that she was born in [1020/25] considering the likely birth dates of her sons by King Harald.  There appears to be another chronological problem: the proposed consecration of Thora's son Magnus at Rome is best explained if he was King Svend's oldest son, which would place his birth (and therefore his parents' marriage) in the late 1030s/early 1040s.  Another oddity is that Thora would have given the same name to her son by King Svend as her older son by King Harald. 

King Svend II & his first wife had one child:

1.         SVEND Svendsen ([1053]-).  His legitimate parentage is referred to in Knytlinga Saga[340]Saxo Grammaticus refers to one illegitimate son of King Svend named Svend, listed third in the order of sons, and implies that he was the full brother of Eymund[341]same person as …?  SVEND (-murdered near Philomelum, Asia Minor 1097).  William of Tyre records "Danorum regis filius Sueno nomine" who with 1500 men was killed by Turks near Nikaia[342].  Albert of Aix records "filius regis Danorum Sueno nomine" who, with 1500 men travelling to Antioch from Nikaia, was ambushed and killed between Philomelum and Pherna[343].  He has been identified with Svend Svendsen[344].  However, if this is correct it is not clear why he was not considered for the succession on his father's death[345] or on the subsequent deaths of his brothers.  [Betrothed to FLEURINE de Bourgogne, daughter of [EUDES I Duke of Burgundy [Capet] & his wife Sibylle de Bourgogne [Comté]] (-murdered near Philomelum, Asia Minor 1097).  Albert of Aix records that "Florina…filia ducis Burgundiæ", widow of "Philippensium principi", accompanied the expedition of "Danorum regis filius Sueno" across Asia Minor "sperans post triumphum Fidelium tanto tamque nobili sociari marito" but that they were attacked between Philomelum and Pherna and killed[346].  The dating of the supposed expedition to 1097 is consistent with the context of the passage.  Albert of Aix appears to be the only source which gives any information relating to her.  She is not mentioned in any of the Burgundian sources which have so far been consulted during the preparation of Medieval Lands.  If she did exist, the chronology dictates that Eudes I must have been the duke of Burgundy who was her father.  There appears to be no satisfactory way of identifying her husband "Philippensium principis".  The text of Albert of Aix does not clearly indicate her betrothal to Svend of Denmark, although secondary sources assume that it took place.  It is of course not impossible that Albert´s report is garbled and that, when he left on crusade in late 1100 (see above), Duke Eudes took with him one of his daughters whom he married to a local dignitary.  If that is correct, the expedition during which she was killed must have been a different one from the one reported by Albert of Aix and the connection with Svend of Denmark doubtful.  Kerrebrouck[347] doubts the existence of Fleurine, who "died in Palestine in [1102], married to a Macedonian Lord".] 

King Svend II & his third wife had one child:

2.         MAGNUS (-young).  Son of King Svend and Thora according to Adam of Bremen, who says that he was sent to Rome to be consecrated for kingship[348]same person as …?  KNUD .  Illegitimate son of King Svend listed in Knytlinga Saga, first in order in the list, but not referred to in other sources[349]

King Svend II had [eighteen] illegitimate children by unknown mistresses. The order of birth of King Svend's illegitimate sons is uncertain.  The order shown below is as set out in Knytlinga Saga[350], except where otherwise noted.  As can be seen, this order is completely different from that set out in Saxo Grammaticus but reflects the order of succession to the throne which presumably (although not inevitably) followed seniority of age: 

3.         GORM (-[before 1069]).  Illegitimate son of King Svend according to Saxo Grammaticus who lists him first in the order of sons and implies that he was the full brother of Harald[351].  He is not named among King Svend's sons in the list in Knytlinga Saga, unless he was the same person as "Guthorm" who is named there.  He is not named among the sons of King Svend who accompanied the expedition to England in 1069[352]

4.         HARALD (-17 Apr 1080, bur Dalby Abbey, near Lund).  Illegitimate son of King Svend listed in Knytlinga Saga, second in order in the list[353], while Saxo Grammaticus lists him second in order and implies that he was the full brother of Gorm[354]Saxo Grammaticus says that Harald was possessed by "an everlasting slothful inertia" since boyhood[355].  Florence of Worcester records that "Suani regis Danorum filii, Haroldus, Canutus et patruus eorum Esbernus comes et comes Turkillus" sailed from Denmark in [1069] and landed "in ostio Humbræ fluminis"[356].  He succeeded his father in 1074 as HARALD III "Hein/the Whetstone"[357] King of Denmark.  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "filius eius Haroldus" succeeded on the death of "rex Danorum Sveno Magnus in Iucia" and ruled for seven years[358].  Snorre records that "his son Harald Hein" succeeded King Svend and ruled for three years[359]m [his first cousin, MARGRETE Asbjørnsdatter, daughter of ASBJØRN Ulfsen Jarl in Denmark & his wife ---.  A Queen Margreta is referred to in the Liber daticus Roskildensis who was assigned to King Harald III in the 19th century[360].  The marriage of King Harald to the unnamed daughter of Asbjørn is referred to in Knytlinga Saga[361].] 

5.         SIGRID Svendsdatter ([1040/43][362]-).  Illegitimate daughter of King Svend according to Saxo Grammaticus who lists her separately from all his sons, suggesting that she was from a different mother[363].  1066.  m [as his second wife,] GOTTSCHALK Prince of the Wends, son of PRIBIGNEV & his wife --- (-murdered 7 Jun 1066). 

6.         KNUD (-murdered Odense, St Albans Church 10 Jul 1086, bur Odense, St Albans Church, later called St Knuds Church).  Illegitimate son of King Svend listed in Knytlinga Saga, third in order in the list[364], while Saxo Grammaticus lists him ninth in order and implies that he was the full brother of Erik[365].  Florence of Worcester records that "Suani regis Danorum filii, Haroldus, Canutus et patruus eorum Esbernus comes et comes Turkillus" sailed from Denmark in [1069] and landed "in ostio Humbræ fluminis"[366].  He challenged the succession of his brother Harald in 1074, supported in particular by the Scanians, but went into exile when he was unsuccessful[367].  Jarl in Sjælland 1074.  He invaded England in 1075, joining a revolt against William I King of England, raiding Yorkshire.  He succeeded his brother in 1080 as KNUD II “den Hellige/the Holy” King of Denmark.  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "frater eius Kanutus" succeeded on the death of "Haroldus"[368].  He led expeditions against the Curones (in coastal Latvia, later Courland) and Estonians[369].  He was planning another invasion of England with his father-in-law in 1085, but was delayed "almost two years by the adverseness of the wind, changed his design, affirming that it must be the determination of God that he could not put to sea", but later being "misled by the suggestions of some persons who attributed the failure of their passage to the conjurations of certain old women, he sentenced the chiefs whose wives were accused … to an intolerable fine" and was murdered in consequence[370].  Saxo Grammaticus records that he was besieged in the church of St Alban, while praying, by "the mutinous populace" who eventually broke in and killed him on the altar[371].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Kanutus" was killed "Othinse in ecclesia sancti Albani" in 1090 in the eleventh year of his reign[372].  Canonised 1100 by Pope Pascal II, feast day 19 Jan.  m ([1080]) as her first husband, ADELA de Flandre, daughter of ROBERT I "le Frison" Count of Flanders & his wife Gertrud of Saxony [Billung] ([1065]-Apr 1115).  Her marriage and parentage are referred to by Saxo Grammaticus[373].  She returned to Flanders from Denmark after her husband's murder with her son, leaving her daughters behind[374].  She married secondly (1092) Roger "Borsa/the Purse" Duke of Apulia.  King Knud II & his wife had three children: 

a)         CARL ([1084]-murdered Bruges 2 Mar 1127, bur Bruges, St Donatien, later Saint-Sauveur)Saxo Grammaticus names him as his father's legitimate son[375].  "Carolus filius Canuti, regis Dacie, ex filia primogenita Robert Frisonis et Gertrudis" is named in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[376].  "Caroli regis Danorum filii" is named in the donation to Saint-Bertin of "Balduinus Flandrensium marchisus" dated 1119[377].  His mother took him to Flanders for safety after the murder of his father in 1086.  He made a pilgrimage to Palestine [1107][378].  He was received in Flanders in 1111 by Count Robert II.  He succeeded in 1119 as CHARLES "the Good" Count of Flanders

-        COUNTS of FLANDERS

b)         CÆCILIA ([1085/86]-after Jan 1131).  Twin with her sister Ingegerd, they were left in Denmark when their mother fled to Flanders after their father's murder according to Saxo Grammaticus who also names her husband[379].  She is named in the Passio as the hostess of Knud "Lavard" during his stay with her husband in early 1131[380]m ERIK "prefect of the Goths".  Jarl at Falster (island off south Zealand).  Saxo Grammaticus records that Knud "Lavard" was murdered while staying at the house of "Ericus prefect of Falster" in Haraldsted in 1131[381].   As "Ericus dux" he witnessed the 1 Sep 1145 charter of Archbishop Eskill at Lund[382].  Erik & his wife had two children: 

i)          KNUD .  His parentage is given by Saxo Grammaticus[383]

ii)         KARL .  His parentage is given by Saxo Grammaticus[384]

c)         INGEGERD ([1085/86]-).  Twin with her sister Cæcilie, they were left in Denmark when their mother fled to Flanders after their father's murder according to Saxo Grammaticus who also names her husband[385]m FOLKE "den Digre/the Fat" Jarl in Sweden , son of ---. 

7.         OLUF (-18 Aug 1095).  Illegitimate son of King Svend listed in Knytlinga Saga, fourth in order in the list[386], while Saxo Grammaticus lists him sixth in order and implies that he was the full brother of Ulv[387].  His brother King Knud appointed him Jarl in Schleswig [Sønderjylland] in [1080][388].  His brother King Knud II accused him of involvement in the conspiracy regarding the failure of the former's projected invasion of England, ordered him bound and transported in chains by sea to Flanders where he was imprisoned[389].  He was redeemed from captivity by King Knud's murderers for 10,000 marks of silver[390], and after delivery of his half-brother Niels as security[391], and succeeded his brother in 1086 as OLUF I “Hunger” King of Denmark.  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Olavum fratrem eius" succeeded after "Kanutus" was killed[392].  Snorre records that "Olaf, King Svein's third son" succeeded King Knud and ruled for eight years[393].  His accession was marked by several years of harsh weather which led to severe famine in Denmark[394], hence the king's nickname.  m ([1070]) as her first husband, INGEGÄRD Haraldsdatter, daughter of HARALD III "Hardråde" King of Norway & his wife Ielisaveta Iaroslavna of Kiev.  Snorre names "one Maria, the other Ingegerd" as the daughters of King Harald & his wife[395]Morkinskinna records that King Olav “married his sister Ingigerdr” to “óláfr, the son of Danish king Sveinn”, dated from the context to soon after Olav succeeded as sole king in Norway[396].  Snorre records the marriage of "Olaf, the Danish King Svein's son" and "Ingegerd, a daughter of King Harald and sister of King Oalf of Norway"[397].  She married secondly Filip Halstensson King of Sweden

8.         INGERID SvendsdatterMorkinskinna records the betrothal of “King Óláfr” and “King Sveinn…his daughter Ingirídr”, dated to soon after his accession as sole king in Norway[398].  Snorre records the marriage of King Olav and "Ingerid, a daughter of Svein, the Danish king"[399]m ([1070]) OLAV III "Kyrre/the Gentle" King of Norway, illegitimate son of HARALD III "Hardråde" King of Norway & his wife his mistress Thora Thorbergsdatter (-Håkeby, Sweden 22 Sep 1093, bur Nidaros [Trondheim], Christ's Church).  He fought with his father at Stamford Bridge 1066. 

9.         ERIK (Slangerup ---- -Cyprus 10 Jul 1103, bur Cyprus).  Illegitimate son of King Svend listed in Knytlinga Saga, sixth in order in the list[400], while Saxo Grammaticus lists him tenth in order and implies that he was the full brother of Knud[401].  He succeeded his brother in 1095 as ERIK I “Ejegod/the Good” King of Denmark.   

-        see below

10.      SVEND Svendsen (-near Viborg 1104).  Illegitimate son of King Svend listed in Knytlinga Saga, fifth in order in the list[402] but this is presumably inaccurate as he is described as the "next eldest brother" to King Erik I when he proposed his own accession after the latter's death in 1103[403]Saxo Grammaticus refers to one illegitimate son of King Svend named Svend, listed third in the order of sons and implying that he was the full brother of Eymund, but this may refer to King Svend's legitimate son named Svend (see above)[404].  When news arrived in Denmark of the death of his brother King Erik, Svend summoned the Viborg ting to propose his own accession but died on his way to the meeting[405]m ---.  The name of Svend's wife is not known.  Svend & his wife had one child: 

a)         HENRIK "Skadelår/the Limper" (-killed in battle near Fotevig 4 Jun 1134).  He was one of the murderers of Knud "Lavard" in 1131, having blamed Knud for his wife's desertion[406]m as her first husband, INGRID Ragnvaldsdatter, daughter of RAGNVALD Ingersson "Knaphövde" of Sweden Under King of Västergötland & his wife --- (-after 1161).  Her first marriage is confirmed by Snorre naming "Magnus…and…Ragnvald" as sons of "Queen Ingerid and Henrik Halte…a son of the Danish king Svein Sveinson"[407].  According to Saxo Grammaticus, her first marriage was arranged by her paternal aunt Margareta Queen of Denmark to improve relations between the Swedish and Danish royal families[408].  She deserted her husband, allegedly with a lover, but she was recaptured at Ålborg and brought home[409].  She married secondly Harald "Gille" King of Norway (-murdered 1136), Snorre records the marriage of King Harald and "Ingerid, a daughter of Ragnvald, who was the son of the Swedish King Inge Steinkelson"[410].  She married thirdly as his second wife, Ottar Birtting, and fourthly Arne Kongsmåg Ivarsson from Ståreim.  Snorre records that Queen Ingerid married "Ottar Birting…a lendermen and a great chief, and of a Trondheim family" after the death of King Harald, but that he was killed "north in the merchant town"[411].  Snorre records that "Queen Ingerid had a son to Ivar Sneis…called Orm [surnamed]…King-brother", and afterwards married "Arne of Stodreim, who was from this called King's-mate", their children being "Inge, Nikolas, Philip of Herdla, and Margaret who first married Bjorn Buk and afterwards Simon Karason"[412].  Henrik & his wife had five children: 

i)          MAGNUS Henrikssen (-killed in battle [near Örebro] 1161, bur Vreta Abbey).  Snorre names "Magnus…and…Ragnvald" as sons of "Queen Ingerid and Henrik Halte…a son of the Danish king Svein Sveinson"[413].  King in Östergötland 1156-1161.  m as her second husband, BRIGIDA of Norway, widow of KARL Sunasson Jarl in Västergötland, [illegitimate] daughter of HARALD "Gille" King of Norway & his wife [his wife ---] (-22 Oct ----).  Snorre records that "King Harald Gille's daughter Brigida" was first married to "the Swedish king Inge Halsteinson, and afterwards to Earl Karl Sonason, and then to the Swedish king Magnus", noting that she and King Inge Haraldson were cousins by the mother's side, and "at last [she] married Earl Birger Brose"[414].  She married thirdly Birger Brosa Jarl in Sweden [Folkungaätten] (-1202).

ii)         RAGNVALD Henrikssen (-killed in battle [near Örebro] 1161, bur Vreta Abbey).  Snorre names "Magnus…and…Ragnvald" as sons of "Queen Ingerid and Henrik Halte…a son of the Danish king Svein Sveinson"[415].  Jarl in Östergötland.

iii)        KNUD Henrikssen (-12 Mar 1162, bur Løgum Abbey).  “Waldemarus…Danorum Rex” founded the monastery of “Withscuele” by charter dated 1158, witnessed by “Canutus dux et frater eius Buris[416].  He tried to usurp the duchy of Schleswig [Sønderjylland] in [1150/51][417].  Duke of Jylland 1157.

iv)       BURIS Henrikssen ([1130]-murdered [1167]).  Snorre names "Buriz Heinrekson, King Inge's brother"[418].  “Waldemarus…Danorum Rex” founded the monastery of “Withscuele” by charter dated 1158, witnessed by “Canutus dux et frater eius Buris[419].  Duke of Sønderjylland 1162.  He was arrested and imprisoned for treason against Valdemar I King of Denmark in 1167[420].  The Annales Stadenses records that "Magnus Burtzius dux Daniæ" blinded and castrated by "Waldemaro rege"[421]m ([1166]) --- von Winzenburg, daughter of HERMANN II Graf von Winzenburg, ex-Landgraf von Sachsen & his second wife Liutgard von Stade [Nordmark] (1150-).  The Annales Stadenses refers to the three daughters of "Hermanno de Winceburg" & his wife "Lutgardis", specifying that the second (unnamed) married "Magnus Burtzius dux Daniæ" but was sent back to Saxony with her nose cut[422]

v)        JOHAN Henrikssen (-before 1161, bur Vreta Abbey).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Jarl in Östergötland.

11.      THORGILS Svendsen.  Illegitimate son of King Svend listed in Knytlinga Saga, seventh in order in the list, but not referred to in other sources[423].  He emigrated to Garderike (Russia)[424].  

12.      SIGURD Svendsen (-killed in battle).  Illegitimate son of King Svend listed in Knytlinga Saga, eighth in order in the list, but not referred to in other sources[425].  He was killed fighting the Wends[426]

13.      BENEDIKT [Bengt] Svendsen (-murdered Odense, St Albans Church 10 Jul 1086, bur Odense, St Albans Church, later called St Knuds Church).  Illegitimate son of King Svend listed in Knytlinga Saga, eighth in order in the list[427], while Saxo Grammaticus lists him ninth in order[428].  His half-brother King Knud kept him within the bodyguard in [1080][429].  Saxo Grammaticus records that he was murdered with his half-brother Knud II “den Hellige/the Holy” King of Denmark[430].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "frater eius…Benedictus" was killed with "Kanutus" at "Othinse in ecclesia sancti Albani"[431]

14.      BJØRN Svendsen (-murdered Rendsburg [1100]).  Illegitimate son of King Svend listed in Knytlinga Saga, ninth in order in the list[432], while Saxo Grammaticus lists him tenth in order[433].  He is named by Gaimar among the sons of King Svend who accompanied the expedition to England in 1069[434]

15.      GUTTORM Svendsen.  Illegitimate son of King Svend listed in Knytlinga Saga, eleventh in order in the list[435], not named by Saxo Grammaticus unless he was the same person as the son Gorm (see above). 

16.      EYMUND [Ømund] Svendsen.  Illegitimate son of King Svend listed in Knytlinga Saga, twelfth in order in the list[436], while Saxo Grammaticus lists him fourth in order and implies that he was the full brother of Svend[437]

17.      ULV [Ubbe] Svendsen.  Illegitimate son of King Svend listed in Knytlinga Saga, fourteenth in order in the list[438] although this is presumably inaccurate in light of his proposed accession in 1104, while Saxo Grammaticus lists him fifth in order and implies that he was the full brother of Olav[439].  His accession was proposed in 1104 being the next most senior brother after the death of King Erik but he refused the offer[440]

18.      NIELS Svendsen (-murdered Schleswig 25 Jun 1134).  Illegitimate son of King Svend listed in Knytlinga Saga, thirteenth in order in the list[441], while Saxo Grammaticus lists him seventh in order[442].  He was sent as a hostage to Flanders in 1086 in return for the release of his half-brother Olav[443].  He succeeded his brother in 1104 as NIELS King of Denmark.  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "fratrem eius Nicholaum" succeeded after the death of "Hericus"[444].  “Nicolaus Rex Danorum” donated property “in Löneburg” to the churches of “martyrum Albani atque Canuti” by charter dated to [1107], witnessed by “uxor Regis Margaretha Regina, Magnus filius Regis, Karolus frater Regis…[445].  After the murder of his nephew Knud "Lavard" Count of Schleswig in 1131, Emperor Lothar launched a revenge expedition against Denmark and compelled King Niels to do homage and pay a fine of four thousand marks of silver[446].  He was driven out by his nephew Erik "Emun" who succeeded as Erik II King of Denmark, but proclaimed his nephew Harald as his heir in an attempt to thwart Erik.  He was murdered by the people of Schleswig[447]m firstly ([1105]) as her second husband, MARGRETA "Fredkulla/peace-bringing woman" of Sweden, widow of MAGNUS "Berrføtt/Barfod/Barfot/Barefoot" King of Norway, daughter of INGE I Stenkilsson King of Sweden & his first wife Helena --- (-4 Nov [1130], bur Roskilde).  Her parentage and two marriages are referred to by Saxo Grammaticus[448].  Snorre names "Queen Margaret, a daughter of King Inge, who had before been married to King Magnus Barefoot" as the wife of "the Danish king Nikolas, a son of Svein Ulfson"[449].  “Nicolaus Rex Danorum” donated property “in Löneburg” to the churches of “martyrum Albani atque Canuti” by charter dated to [1107], witnessed by “uxor Regis Margaretha Regina…[450].  She arranged the marriages of two of her nieces into the Danish royal family (Ingrid Ragnvaldsdatter of Sweden to Henrik "Skådelar", and Ingeborg Mstislavna of Kiev to Knud "Lavard") in an attempt to improve relations with the Swedish royal family.  However, the plan backfired as she also gave the nieces in question two-thirds of her patrimony which served to flame the animosity with other members of the family[451]m secondly (divorced) as her second husband, ULVHILD Haakonsdotter, widow of INGE II Halstensson King of Sweden, daughter of HAAKON Finsson & his wife --- (-before 1143).  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.  Her second marriage is referred to by Saxo Grammaticus who states that "Ulvildam Noricam", wife of "Nicolaus", was secretly abducted by Sverker I King of Sweden but their "connection was accepted as a marriage"[452].  King Niels & his first wife had two children: 

a)         MAGNUS Nielsen (1106-killed in battle near Fotevig, Scania 4 Jun 1134, bur Vreta Abbey).  Snorre names (in order) "Nikolas and Magnus the Strong" as the sons of "the Danish king Nikolas, a son of Svein Ulfson" and his wife Queen Margreta[453].  “Nicolaus Rex Danorum” donated property “in Löneburg” to the churches of “martyrum Albani atque Canuti” by charter dated to [1107], witnessed by “…Magnus filius Regis…[454].  The Annales Colbazienses name "Magno filio Nicolai Regis" when recording that he killed "Canutus" in 1130[455].  He was chosen as king of Sweden [Västergötland] in 1129 after the death of [Inge II King of Sweden][456].  Saxo Grammaticus records that he "committed a most loathsome murder on a kinsman [Knud "Lavard"] and developed into a most notorious exemplar of treachery"[457].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Magnus unicus filius Nicholai regis" killed "Kanutum filium Herici regis" in 1130[458].  He was publicly defamed by the ting at Ringsted in 1131, and exiled to Sweden by his father to avoid bloodshed[459].  He succeeded his father in 1134 as MAGNUS I "den Stærke/the Strong" King of Denmark.  He was formally enfeoffed with Denmark by Emperor Lothar I at Halberstadt in 1134[460].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Magnus duodecimus [filii Haroldi]" was killed in battle "in Scania cum Magno Nicholai regis filio"[461]m ([1127]) as her first husband, RYKSA [Swantosława] of Poland, daughter of BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" Prince of Poland & his second wife Salome von Berg-Schelklingen ([1116/17]-after 25 Dec 1155).  She married secondly (before 18 May 1136) Vladimir Vsevolodich Prince of Novgorod, and thirdly (after 1140) Sverker I King of Sweden.  King Magnus I & his wife had two children: 

i)          KNUD Magnussen ([1129]-murdered Roskilde 9 Aug 1157).  King in Jylland 1147.  With Svend Eriksson King of Seeland (later Svend III King of Denmark), he led a Danish army against Nyklot Prince of the Obotrites in 1147, in response to Pope Eugene III's call for a crusade against the heathens[462].  He disputed the succession with Svend Eriksson, and in 1151 was forced into exile in Saxony where he sought help from Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony and from Hartwig Archbishop of Bremen.  He was defeated near Husum on the Mildau by King Svend[463].  The disputed succession was resolved at the diet of Merseburg called in 1152 by Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany, when Knud renounced his claim and was compensated by lands in Zealand, while King Svend III was enfeoffed with the kingdom[464].  Knud Magnusson and Valdemar Knudsson joined against King Svend, together with Eskil Archbsihop of Lund, and expelled the king from Denmark in 1154[465], when Knud succeeded as KNUD III joint King of Denmark.  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Kanutum filium Magni filii Nicholai regis" succeeded after the death of "rex…Hericus"[466].  Svend sought help from Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony who invaded Jutland at end 1156, captured Schleswig and Ripen, but returned to Saxony in Jan 1157[467].  Svend invaded Denmark with a Wendish fleet and murdered King Knud at a meeting of the three rival claimants at Roskilde.  Valdemar Knudsson defeated Svend at Gradeheide, near Viborg, his opponent being killed fleeing from the battle[468].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Kanutus et Constantinus cognatus eius" were killed "Roschildis…a Svenone…V Id Aug"[469]m (1156) [INGEGÄRD] of Sweden, daughter of SVERKER I King of Sweden & his first wife Ulvhild Haakonsdatter (-1172, bur Vreta Abbey).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  King Knud III had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:   

(a)        [St] NIELS (-[Århus] 1180, bur Århus Cathedral).  Waldemarius…Rex Danorum” confirmed a donation to “Esrom” by charter dated 6 Jul 1176, witnessed by “Nicholao Domini Regis Kanuti filio…[470]Canonised 1260. 

(b)        VALDEMAR (-Cîteaux 18 Jul 1236, bur Cîteaux).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Bishop of Schleswig 1182.  Archbishop of Bremen 1190, imprisoned at Søborg 1192-1206, he was restored as Archbishop 1207 and 1211.  Monk at Loccum 1218, at Cîteaux 1220-1224 and 1232-1236.

ii)         NIELS Magnussen (-[1158]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Maybe monk in Esrom Abbey[471]

b)         INGE Nielsen (-[1121]).  Saxon Grammaticus records that he was "thrown by a mettlesome and unbridled horse and trampled to pieces"[472].  Snorre names (in order) "Nikolas and Magnus the Strong" as the sons of "the Danish king Nikolas, a son of Svein Ulfson" and his wife Queen Margreta[473]

King Niels had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:

c)          INGERDThe primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated 1117 under which “Nicolaus…Rex Danorum” granted privileges to the church of St Knud, witnessed by “Ubbo Comes gener meus[474]m (before 1117) ULF [Ubbe] Esbernsen Jarl af Lolland (-murdered 1133). 

19.      RAGNHILD Svendsdatter.  She is named by Christiansen as the illegitimate daughter of King Svend, without citing the source[475]m SVEIN Askelsson Jarl in Norway, son of ASKEL [Aslak] Erlingsson from Sole & his wife Sigrid Sveinsdatter. 

20.      HELENE [Gunhild] Svendsdatter.  She is recorded as the illegitimate daughter of King Svend on the Gunhild cross in the National Museum of Copenhagen[476]

21.      CARL (-after [1107]).  “Nicolaus Rex Danorum” donated property “in Löneburg” to the churches of “martyrum Albani atque Canuti” by charter dated to [1107], witnessed by “uxor Regis Margaretha Regina, Magnus filius Regis, Karolus frater Regis…[477].  He is not named in the Kytlinga Saga

 

 

ERIK Svendson, illegitimate son of SVEND II Estridsen King of Denmark & his wife his mistress --- (Slangerup[478] ---- -Paphos, Cyprus [10 Jul] 1103, bur Cyprus).  His brother King Knud appointed him Jarl in Sjalond in [1080][479].  On the release of his brother Olav from prison in Flanders, Erik retired with his wife to Sweden[480].  He succeeded his brother in 1095 as ERIK I “Ejegod/the Good” King of Denmark.  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Hericus Bonus frater eius" succeeded after the death of "Olavus rex" and reigned for eight years[481].  Snorre records that "Eirik the Good, King Svein's fourth son" succeeded King Olav and ruled for eight winters[482].  Saxo Grammaticus records that he undertook a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1102 as penance for having killed four warriors but died en route in Cyprus[483].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Hericus…cum uxore sua Botilda" left for Jerusalem in 1103 but died on arriving "ad Kyprum"[484].  According to Saxo Grammaticus, King Erik was "unusually tall…matched by corresponding strength" but "only the power of lust and the rage of intemperance marred this brilliance of body and mind"[485].  The Liber Vitæ of Durham names "Eiric rex Danorum Botild regina"[486]

m (before 1086) as her second husband, BODIL Thorgunnasdatter, widow of BJØRN, daughter of THRUGOT Ulfsen & his wife Thorgunna Vagnsdatter (-Mount of Olives, Jerusalem 1103, bur St Mary’s Church in Joseph’s Valley).  She is named as the wife of Erik by Saxo Grammaticus, who also gives her father's and paternal grandfather's names[487].  A charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark on which their divorce was based, names “Botildis Regina ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia orta” as mother of “Kanutum…Dux Danorum et Rex Slavorum[488].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Hericus…cum uxore sua Botilda" left for Jerusalem in 1103 but died on arriving "ad Kyprum"[489].  Saxo Grammaticus records that she accompanied her husband on pilgrimage to Jerusalem and died there[490].  The Liber Vitæ of Durham names "Eiric rex Danorum Botild regina"[491]

King Erik I & his wife had one child:

1.         KNUD "Lavard/the Lord" (Roskilde 12 [Mar/Apr] [1096]-murdered Haraldsted Skov, near Ringsted 7 Jan 1131, bur Ringsted).  Named as his father's legitimate son by Saxo Grammaticus[492].  The Chronicon Roskildense names "Kanutum" as the son of "Hericus Bonus…ex legitima"[493].  He was appointed Count in Sønderjylland [Schleswig] in 1115 by his uncle Niels King of Denmark.  He led Danish counter-attacks against Heinrich Fürst in Wagrien, who had devastated southern Schleswig, but made peace by agreeing to buy the disputed land from Heinrich[494].  He mediated the dispute between his two half-brothers Harald and Erik by ordering an equal partition of their patrimony[495].  Helmold records that "principatus Sclavorum" was transferred to "Kanutum, filium Herici regis Danorum" after "Zventepolch filius…Zvinike" was killed[496], dated to [1128/29].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Magnus unicus filius Nicholai regis" killed "Kanutum filium Herici regis" in 1130[497].  Saxo Grammaticus records that he was murdered by his cousin Magnus, (later Magnus I King of Denmark), his cousin Henrik and his brother-in-law Haakon Sunnivasson, jealous of his success and ambitions[498].  The Annales Colbazienses record that "Canutus" was killed "1130 VII Id Jan" by "Magno filio Nicolai Regis"[499].  The burial records of Ringsted record that "sanctus Kanutus dux Dacie, filius regis Erici Egothæ in Cypro" was killed "VII Id Jan…in silva Harelstæthæ" in 1130 by "Magno filio Nicolai tunc regis Danorum" and was buried at Ringsted[500].  He was canonised in 1170.  m ([1116]) INGEBORG Mstislavna, daughter of MSTISLAV I Vladimirovich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Christine of Sweden (-after 1131).  Snorre names "Harald Valdemarson's other daughter, sister to Malmfrid…Ingebjorg" as wife of "Canute Lavard, a son of the Danish king Eirik the Good and grandson of King Svein Ulfson"[501]Morkinskinna records that “Haraldr Valdimarsson´s second daughter…Ingibjorg” married “King Knútr lávardr[502].  A charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark on which their divorce was based, names “Ingiburgh filia Rizlavi…Ruthenorum Regis et Cristinæ Reginæ…filia…Ingonis Suevorum Regis et Helena Reginæ” as mother of “Waldemarum Regem[503].  Her marriage was arranged by her maternal aunt Margareta Queen of Denmark to improve relations between the Swedish and Danish royal families[504].  Saxo Grammaticus records that she warned her husband of a possible plot against his life in 1131 but that he ignored her[505].  Knud & his wife had four children: 

a)         MARGRETE Knudsdatter.  Snorre names (in order) "the Danish king Valdemar…and daughters Margaret, Christina and Catherine" as the children of "Canute Lavard" & his wife, recording that Margrete married "Stig Hvitaled" and that their daughter was "Christina, married to the Swedish king, Karl Sorkvison, and their son was king Sorkver"[506].  “Ericus III Rex Danorum” donated property to the monks “in Othensi” by charter dated 7 Dec 1141, witnessed by “… filiabus Canuti Christina, Katherina, cum Domina Margareta et Botilda…[507].  m as his first wife, STIG Tokesen [Hvide] (-killed in battle Gedbæk, near Viborg 1151).

b)         KIRSTIN Knudsdatter ([1118]-).  Snorre names (in order) "the Danish king Valdemar…and daughters Margaret, Christina and Catherine" as the children of "Canute Lavard" & his wife[508]Morkinskinna records that King Magnus married “Kirstín, the daughter of Knút lávardr and the sister of the Danish king Váldimarr” but adds that he sent her back to Denmark[509].  Snorre refers to the wife of King Magnus as "a daughter of Knut Lavard…sister of the Danish King Valdemar" and records that her husband sent her back to Denmark[510].  Her husband accused her of betraying his plan to attack Niels King of Denmark and sent her back to Denmark[511].  “Ericus III Rex Danorum” donated property to the monks “in Othensi” by charter dated 7 Dec 1141, witnessed by “… filiabus Canuti Christina, Katherina, cum Domina Margareta et Botilda…[512].  m (1133, divorced 1133) MAGNUS Sigurdsson King of Norway, illegitimate son of SIGURD "Jorsalafare/the Crusader" Joint King of Norway & his wife his mistress Borghild Olavsdatter ([1115]-killed in battle near Holmengrå, Svinesund 12 Nov 1139, bur Oslo, Hallvards Church).

c)         KATARIN Knudsdatter.  Snorre names (in order) "the Danish king Valdemar…and daughters Margaret, Christina and Catherine" as the children of "Canute Lavard" & his wife[513].  “Ericus III Rex Danorum” donated property to the monks “in Othensi” by charter dated 7 Dec 1141, witnessed by “… filiabus Canuti Christina, Katherina, cum Domina Margareta et Botilda…[514].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  m ([1159]) PRISLAW [von Mecklenburg] Herr zu Laaland [Lolland], son of NYKLOT Fürst der Obotriten & his wife --- (-[1165/75]). 

d)         [BOTILDA (-after 7 Dec 1141).  “Ericus III Rex Danorum” donated property to the monks “in Othensi” by charter dated 7 Dec 1141, witnessed by “… filiabus Canuti Christina, Katherina, cum Domina Margareta et Botilda…[515].  The wording of the witness list suggests that all four ladies were daughters of Knud, but no other reference has yet been found to a daughter of his named Botilda.] 

e)         VALDEMAR Knudson (posthumously 14 Jan 1131-Vordingborg 12 May 1182, bur Ringsted).  Snorre names (in order) "the Danish king Valdemar…and daughters Margaret, Christina and Catherine" as the children of "Canute Lavard" & his wife[516].  He succeeded his cousin in 1157 as VALDEMAR I "den Store/the Great" King of Denmark

-        see below.

King Erik I had five illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

2.         HARALD "Kesja" (-murdered Skibet, near Vejle, Jutland 1135, bur Skibet).  Named as his father's illegitimate son "born of a mistress" by Saxo Grammaticus[517].  The Chronicon Roskildense names "Haroldum, Benedictum, Hericum" as the three sons of "Hericus Bonus…ex concubinis"[518].  His father appointed him regent of Denmark in 1102/03 during his absence on pilgrimage but he "roused the people's most violent hatred by his iniquitous administration of the realm"[519].  He based himself at a fort near Roskilde from where he pillaging, robbery and theft[520].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Hericus" killed "Haroldus" at "villa…Scipyng"[521].  He and eight of his sons were murdered on the orders of his half-brother Erik II King of Denmark[522]m RAGNHILD of Norway, illegitimate daughter of MAGNUS III "Berrføtt/Barfod/Barfot/Barefoot" King of Norway & his wife his mistress ---.  Snorre records that "Magnus Barefoot's daughter, Ragnhild was married by her brothers to Harald Kesia, a son of the Danish king Eirik the Good"[523].  Harald & his wife had six children: 

a)         BJØRN Jernside (-drowned 1134).  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Byorn et Hericum Diaconum" drowned "ad castellum…ante prtum Sleswich" one year before the death of their father[524]m KATARIN of Sweden, daughter of INGE I Stenkilsson King of Sweden & his first wife Helena ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Bjørn & his wife had one child: 

i)          KIRSTIN.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m [St] ERIK Jedvardsson "den helige" King of Sweden, son of JEDVARD --- & his wife Cecilia of Sweden (-murdered [near Uppsala] 18 May 1159, bur Uppsala Church).

b)         ERIK Haraldsen (-drowned 1134).  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Byorn et Hericum Diaconum" drowned "ad castellum…ante prtum Sleswich" one year before the death of their father[525].  Deacon. 

c)         MAGNUS Haraldsen (-killed in battle near Fotevik, Scania 4 Jun 1134).  Snorre names (in order) "Magnus, Olaf, Knut and Harald" as the sons of "Harald Kesia, a son of the Danish king Eirik the Good" & his wife[526].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Magnus duodecimus [filii Haroldi]" was killed in battle "in Scania cum Magno Nicholai regis filio"[527]

d)         OLAF Haraldsen (-killed in battle near Tjuteå [1143]).  Snorre names (in order) "Magnus, Olaf, Knut and Harald" as the sons of "Harald Kesia, a son of the Danish king Eirik the Good" & his wife[528].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Olavus", after his father and brothers were captured, went to "regem Swethie…Swerki" to seek help[529].  Snorre records that Sigurd "Slembidjakn" attacked "Olaf the son of Harald Kesia"[530].  Anti-King of Denmark.  m ---.  The name of Olaf´s wife is not known.  Olaf & his wife had [one possible child]: 

i)          [HARALD "Skrænk/the Thin" (-[1183]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  King of Skåne 1182.]

e)         KNUD Haraldsen (-murdered 1135).  Snorre names (in order) "Magnus, Olaf, Knut and Harald" as the sons of "Harald Kesia, a son of the Danish king Eirik the Good" & his wife[531].  The Chronicon Roskildense names "Sywardus, Hericus, Sveno, Nicolaus, Haroldus, Benedictus, Mistiuint, Knut" as the sons of "Haroldus" who were held in chains "in Scaniam…insulam Suer" and killed after their father was murdered[532]

f)          HARALD Haraldsen (-murdered 1135).  Snorre names (in order) "Magnus, Olaf, Knut and Harald" as the sons of "Harald Kesia, a son of the Danish king Eirik the Good" & his wife[533].  The Chronicon Roskildense names "Sywardus, Hericus, Sveno, Nicolaus, Haroldus, Benedictus, Mistiuint, Knut" as the sons of "Haroldus" who were held in chains "in Scaniam…insulam Suer" and killed after their father was murdered[534]

Harald had six illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

g)         SIVARD Haraldsen (-murdered 1135).  The Chronicon Roskildense names "Sywardus, Hericus, Sveno, Nicolaus, Haroldus, Benedictus, Mistiuint, Knut" as the sons of "Haroldus" who were held in chains "in Scaniam…insulam Suer" and killed after their father was murdered[535]. 

h)         ERIK Haraldsen (-murdered 1135).  The Chronicon Roskildense names "Sywardus, Hericus, Sveno, Nicolaus, Haroldus, Benedictus, Mistiuint, Knut" as the sons of "Haroldus" who were held in chains "in Scaniam…insulam Suer" and killed after their father was murdered[536]. 

i)           SVEND Haraldsen (-murdered 1135).  The Chronicon Roskildense names "Sywardus, Hericus, Sveno, Nicolaus, Haroldus, Benedictus, Mistiuint, Knut" as the sons of "Haroldus" who were held in chains "in Scaniam…insulam Suer" and killed after their father was murdered[537]. 

j)           NIELS Haraldsen (-murdered 1135).  The Chronicon Roskildense names "Sywardus, Hericus, Sveno, Nicolaus, Haroldus, Benedictus, Mistiuint, Knut" as the sons of "Haroldus" who were held in chains "in Scaniam…insulam Suer" and killed after their father was murdered[538]. 

k)          BENEDIKT Haraldsen (-murdered 1135).  The Chronicon Roskildense names "Sywardus, Hericus, Sveno, Nicolaus, Haroldus, Benedictus, Mistiuint, Knut" as the sons of "Haroldus" who were held in chains "in Scaniam…insulam Suer" and killed after their father was murdered[539]. 

l)           MISTIVINT Haraldsen (-murdered 1135).  The Chronicon Roskildense names "Sywardus, Hericus, Sveno, Nicolaus, Haroldus, Benedictus, Mistiuint, Knut" as the sons of "Haroldus" who were held in chains "in Scaniam…insulam Suer" and killed after their father was murdered[540]. 

3.         RAGNHILD.  Saxo Grammaticus records that her father promised her hand in marriage to "whoever avenged the murder of Bero", who had been murdered by the Holzatians and Ditmarsians whom he had subdued[541]Morkinskinna records that “Hákon”, son of “Jarl Hákon”, married “the daughter of King Sveinn Úlfsson[542].  It seems chronologically improbable for the mother of King Erik Lam to have been the daughter of King Svend II.  m HAAKON, son of [--- & his wife Sunniva Haakonsson].  He was involved in the conspiracy against his brother-in-law Knut "Lavard"[543].  Haakon & his wife had one child: 

a)         ERIK (-Odense, St Knuds Abbey 27 Aug 1146, bur Odense, St Knuds Abbey)Orkneyinga Saga names “Hakon…the Norseman” as “another grandson” of “Hakon Ivarsson”, adding that he was father of “Eirik the Wise ,King of Denmark after Eirik Eymuni[544]Morkinskinna names “Eiríkr Lam, the king of the Danes” as the son of “Hákon”, son of “Jarl Hákon”, and his wife “the daughter of King Sveinn Úlfsson[545].  He succeeded in 1137 as ERIK III "Lam" King of Denmark.  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Hericum tertium filium sororis…Herici" succeeded on the death of King Erik II[546].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "rex…Hericus" became a monk in the tenth year of his reign[547].  The Annales Colbazienses record the death "1146 VI Kal Sep" of "Ericus rex danorum"[548]m (1144, divorced) as her second husband, LIUTGARD von Stade, divorced wife of FRIEDRICH [II] Pfalzgraf von Sommerschenburg, daughter of RUDOLF I von Stade Markgraf der Nordmark & his wife Richgard von Sponheim (-murdered Winzenburg 30 Jan 1152).  She married thirdly (1148) as his second wife, Hermann [II] Graf von Winzenburg Pfalzgraf von Sachsen.  King Erik III had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

i)          MAGNUS EriksenHis parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 1138 of “Ericus…Danorum Rex” witnessed by “Magnus Regis filius…[549]Imprisoned at Søborg 1178[550].

4.         BENEDIKT (-1 May ----).  The Chronicon Roskildense names "Haroldum, Benedictum, Hericum" as the three sons of "Hericus Bonus…ex concubinis"[551]

5.         ERIK (-near Ribe 18 Sep 1137, Ribe Cathedral).  The Chronicon Roskildense names "Haroldum, Benedictum, Hericum" as the three sons of "Hericus Bonus…ex concubinis"[552].  Named as his father's illegitimate son "born…in adultery" by Saxo Grammaticus[553].  Deprived of his inheritance by his half-brother Harald, Erik revenged himself by devastating the possessions of the former and collected "a sumptuous treasure".  The dispute was settled by their half-brother Knud who ordered an equal partition of the patrimony[554].  He drove out his uncle Niels King of Denmark and succeeded in 1134 as ERIK II "Emun" King of Denmark.  He formally did homage to Emperor Lothar King of Germany at the assembly of Magdeburg in 1135[555].  "Erici Danorum regis, Erici filius" founded "præbendæ canonicalis in ecclesia Lundensi", with the consent of "Malfride regina et filio regis Svenone", by charter dated 6 Jan 1135[556].  "Erici Secundus Daniæ regis" donated property to Ringsted in memory of "frater eius Canutus" buried there, by charter dated 1135[557]m ([1130]) as her second husband, MALMFRID Mstislavna, divorced wife of SIGURD I "Jorsalafare/the Crusader" King of Norway, daughter of MSTISLAV I "the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Christine of Sweden (-after 1137).  Snorre records the marriage of Sigurd King of Norway and "Malmfrid, a daughter of King Harald Valdemarson, eastward in Novgorod"[558].  Snorre records that King Sigurd divorced her[559].  "Erici Danorum regis, Erici filius" founded "præbendæ canonicalis in ecclesia Lundensi", with the consent of "Malfride regina et filio regis Svenone", by charter dated 6 Jan 1135[560].  The source which more precisely confirms that Malmfrid, divorced wife of King Sigurd, was the same person as Malmfrid wife of King Erik II had not yet been identified.  Baumgarten records her parentage and second marriage but only cites one secondary source in support[561]Mistress (1): THUNNA, daughter of ---.  King Erik II had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):   

a)         SVEND Eriksen (-murdered 23 Oct 1157, bur Gradehede, [transferred to Viborg, St Kjelds Chapel]).  "Erici Danorum regis, Erici filius" founded "præbendæ canonicalis in ecclesia Lundensi", with the consent of "Malfride regina et filio regis Svenone", by charter dated 6 Jan 1135[562].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Kanutum filium Magni filii Nicholai regis" succeeded after the death of "rex…Hericus", while "Scanienses" appointed "Swenonem filium Herici Emunj" as their king[563].  King of Sjælland 1147.  With Knud Magnusson King of Jutland (later Knud III King of Denmark), he led a Danish army against Nyklot Prince of the Obotrites in 1147, in response to Pope Eugene III's call for a crusade against the heathens[564].  He disputed the succession with Knud Magnusson, who in 1151 was forced into exile in Saxony where he sought help from Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony and from Hartwig Archbishop of Bremen.  Svend defeated Knud near Husum on the Mildau[565].  The disputed succession was resolved at the diet of Merseburg called in 1152 by Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany, when Knud renounced his claim and King Svend III was enfeoffed with the kingdom[566].  He succeeded in 1152 as SVEND III "Grade" King of Denmark.  In 1153 he unsuccessfully sought Saxon help against the Slavs who were plundering the Danish coasts.  He carried out an unsuccessful campaign against Sweden in the winter of 1153/54.  His rivals Knud Magnusson and Valdemar Knudsson joined against him, with Eskil Archbsihop of Lunc, and expelled him from Denmark in 1154.  He sought refuge with his father-in-law in Meissen[567].  He sought help from Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony who invaded Jutland at end 1156, captured Schleswig and Ripen, but returned to Saxony in Jan 1157[568].  Svend invaded Denmark with a Wendish fleet and murdered Knud at a meeting of the three rival claimants at Roskilde.  Valdemar Knudsson defeated Svend at Gradeheide, near Viborg, his opponent being killed fleeing from the battle[569]m ([1152], repudiated 1153) as her first husband, ADELHEID von Meissen, daughter of KONRAD I "der Grosse" Graf von Wettin, Brehna, Camburg und Eilenburg, Markgraf der Ober- und Niederlausitz & his wife Luitgard von Elchingen (-after 6 Dec 1172).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names (in order) "Odam et Bertam abbatissam Gerbestadensem, Agnetam Quidelingenburgensem abbatissam, quarta…Gerdrudis…quinta Adela…sexta Sophia" as the six daughters of "Conradus Misnensis et Orientalius marchio [filius Thiemonis]" & his wife, specifying that Adela married firstly "regi Danorum Suenoni" and secondly "Albertus comes Alberti marchionis filius"[570].  She married secondly (end 1157) Albrecht Graf von Ballenstedt [Brandenburg].  King Svend III & his wife had two children: 

i)          [ERIK] (1153-1157 or before).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

ii)         LUITGARD.  The Genealogia Wettinensis names "Lucardem quam duxit Bertoldus marchio de Bavaria" as daughter of "Adela [von Meissen] [et] regi Danorum Suenoni", noting that they were separated with episcopal consent because of adultery[571]m ([1180], divorced) as his second wife, BERTHOLD [II] Marchese di Istria Graf von Andechs, son of BERTOLD [I] Graf von Andechs & his first wife Sophia of Istria (-14 Dec 1188). 

 

 

VALDEMAR Knudsen, son of KNUT "Lavard" Duke of South Jutland/Sønderjylland [Schleswig] and King of the Obotriten & his wife Ingeborg Mstislavna of Kiev (14 Jan 1131-Vordingborg 12 May 1182, bur Ringsted).  Snorre names (in order) "the Danish king Valdemar…and daughters Margaret, Christina and Catherine" as the children of "Canute Lavard" & his wife[572].  He attended the diet of Merseburg, called in 1152 by Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany to resolve the disputed succession in Denmark, and was awarded a Danish province, probably Schleswig[573].  He joined Knud Magnusson against King Svend, together with Eskil Archbsihop of Lunc, and expelled the king from Denmark in 1154[574].  Svend invaded Denmark with a Wendish fleet and murdered King Knud at a meeting of the three rival claimants at Roskilde.  Valdemar Knudsson defeated Svend at Gradeheide, near Viborg, his opponent being killed fleeing from the battle[575], when he succeeded as VALDEMAR I "den Store/the Great" King of Denmark, finally resolving the disputed succession.  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Valdemarus filius sancti Kanuti ducis et martyris, filii Herici regis Boni" succeeded after "Kanutus et Constantinus cognatus eius" were killed[576].  In 1159, he concluded a treaty of friendship with Heinrich "dem Löwen" Duke of Saxony, with whom he campaigned against the Obotrites in 1160[577].  He attacked the island of Rügen in 1168, conquered the fortified shrine of Arkona, destroyed the statue of the heathen god Svantevit, and added the whole island to the diocese of Absalon Bishop of Roskilde who accompanied the expedition[578].  His relations with Duke Heinrich cooled after King Valdemar refused to surrender half the Rügen hostages and share the tribute paid, although they made peace 24 Jun 1171 on a bridge over the River Eider when Rügen accepted Saxon suzerainty, the alliance being sealed by the betrothal of their children[579].  The Icelandic Annals record the death 12 May 1182 at "Ringstadis" of "Valdemarus Canuti filius rex Danorum"[580]

m (Viborg 1157) as her first husband, SOFIA Vladimirovna, daughter of VLADIMIR Vsevolodich Prince of Novgorod & his wife Ryksa [Swantosława] of Poland ([1141]-5 May 1198, bur Ringsted).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Sophiam de Russia" as wife of "Waldemarum II"[581].  Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark on which their divorce was based, which records that “Waldemarus” and “Sophia cuius pater fuit Waldemar…Ruthenorum Rex” were parents of “dominam nostrum Franciæ reginam[582].  She married secondly ([1184], divorced 1187) as his second wife, Ludwig III "der Milde" Landgraf of Thuringia.  Arnold's Chronica Slavorum confirms that "Lothewigus lantgravius de Thuringia, filius sororis imperatoris" repudiated his first wife on the grounds of consanguinity to marry "matrem Kanuti regis Danorum"[583].  "Kanutum regem" donated property to Ringsted with "fratrem regis, ducem Waldemarum, dnam Sophiam matrem regis", by charter dated 1197[584].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "6 May" of "Sophia regine Dacie"[585].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1199 of "Sophia Danorum Regina"[586].  The burial records of Ringsted record the burial at Ringsted of "sanctus Kanutus dux Dacie…filius suus Waldemarus primus, ampliator huius ecclesia" and the burial next to him at Ringsted of "regina Sophia uxor sua filia Swerchonis regis Suetie" who died "III Id Mai" in 1198[587]

Mistress (1): TOVE, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her relationship with King Valdemar has not yet been identified.  

King Valdemar I & his wife had eight children:

1.         SOPHIE ([1159]-1208).  Her origin is confirmed by the Chronica Godefridi Coloniensis which names "Albertus comes de Urlemunde, filius sororis…regis [Dacie]"[588].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  She became a nun after her husband died.  m (Lübeck 1181) SIEGFRIED [III] Graf von Orlamünde, son of HERMANN [I] Graf von Orlamünde [Askanier] & his wife Ermgard --- (-1206). 

2.         KNUD Valdemarsen ([1162]-2 Nov 1202, bur Ringsted).  “Waldemarus…Rex Danorum” confirmed a donation to “Esrom” by charter dated 25 Feb 1174, witnessed by “Kanutus filius meus…[589].  He succeeded his father in 1182 as KNUD IV King of Denmark.  He continued his father's campaigns along the southern Baltic coast, subjugating Mecklenburg in 1184 and Pomerania in 1185, after which he adopted the title "King of the Danes and the Slavs"[590].  "Canuti regis, Waldemari filii" confirmed the possessions of "ecclesiæ Lundensi", by charter dated 12 May 1186[591].  He refused to do homage to Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" and withheld part of the dowry promised to his sister, who was betrothed to the emperor's son.  Jordan says that the emperor repudiated the betrothal and sent the princess back to Denmark.  It is not known which of King Knud's sisters this was[592].  “Kanutis…Danorum Slavvorumque Rex” emancipated monks of “Esrom” by charter dated 22 Oct 1194, which names “Waldemarus pater noster et Kanutus avunculus noster Danorum Reges”, and is witnessed by “Christoforus frater Kanuti regis, Waldemarus Dux[593].  "Kanutum regem" donated property to Ringsted with "fratrem regis, ducem Waldemarum, dnam Sophiam matrem regis", by charter dated 1197[594].  The Saga of King Sverre records the death of "Knut King of the Danes" in the same year as Sverre King of Norway[595].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1202 of "Canutus, Valdemari filius, rex Danorum" and the succession of "Valdemarus frater eius"[596].  The burial records of Ringsted record the burial of "Kanutus filius Waldemari primi rex Danorum ac Sclavorum Pomeraneorum ac totius Holtzatie, sed et dux Estonie" who died "III Id Nov" in 1210[597]Betrothed ([1167/68]) to RICHENZA von Sachsen, daughter of HEINRICH "dem Löwen" Duke of Saxony [Welfen] & his first wife Klementia von Zähringen (-before 1 Feb 1168).  Her betrothal is referred to by Jordan[598], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  m (betrothed 24 Jun 1171, Lund Feb 1177) as her second husband, GERTRUD von Sachsen, widow of FRIEDRICH [IV] [von Staufen] Duke of Swabia, daughter of HEINRICH "dem Löwen" Duke of Saxony [Welfen] & his first wife Klementia von Zähringen ([1154]-1 Jun 1197, bur Wå Gårds Harde).  Helmold records the marriage of "Heinricus dux Bawarie et Saxonie…[et] domna Clementia…filiam" and "filio Conradi regis"[599].  Helmold records the marriage of "[Heinricus dux Bawarie et Saxonie] filiam suam, viduam Fretherici…principis de Rodenburg" and "rex Danorum…filio suo…designatus…rex" as part of the peace process between Saxony and Denmark[600].  The Annales Stadenses refers to the betrothal of "Heinricus dux filiam suam" and "Daciæ regi" in 1171[601].  This marriage was arranged to seal the renewed peace agreed between her father and King Valdemar I in 1171[602].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Knud & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [603][INGERD [Ingeborg] (-before 1236).  "M[yroszlava] et Hyn[gardis]…ductrices Slavie…cum filiis nostris et ducibus Barnym et Wartizlao" donated property to Kloster Mogilno in Colberg by charter dated to [1223/24][604].  Her Danish royal origin is indicated by the charter dated 1225 under which her son "Wartislaus…dux Pomeranorum et Diminensium" donated property to Kloster Dargun, sealed by "ducis Worzlai e sanguine regis Danor"[605].  From a chronological point of view, it seems likely that Ingerd was the daughter of King Knud IV: the children of Knud´s brother King Valdemar II were born too late for one of them to have been the mother of Wartislaw Duke of Pomerania, and King Knud´s father, King Valdemar I, is already recorded with a daughter named Ingebjörg.  Another possibility is that she was descended from the Danish royal family in the female line.  The date of her marriage is estimated assuming that the date of birth of her son Wartislaw is correctly estimated as shown in the document POMERANIA.  "M[yroszlava] et Hyn[gardis]…ductrices Slavie…cum filiis nostris et ducibus Barnym et Wartizlao" donated property to Kloster Mogilno in Colberg by charter dated to [1223/24][606].  "Anastasia…ducissa Pomeranorum" donated property to Kloster Belbog, with the consent of "dominarum relicte…filii mei Bugzlai et alterius filii Kazemari relicte" by charter dated 7 Jul 1224 witnessed by "…Barnota filius domini Jaromiri de Ruia…"[607].  "Dominus Barnym…dux Slauorum…et…fratre meo germano domino dice Wartislao" renewed the donations to Kloster Mogilno made by "mater nostra domina Myroslaua…post mortem domini mei Boguslai…[et] mee matertere…Hyngardis domina terre Slauie relicta ducis Kazimari" by charter dated 1236[608]m (before [1208/10]) KASIMIR II Duke of Pomerania, son of BOGISLAW I Duke of Pomerania & his second wife Anastasia of Poland ([1180]-before 20 Jun 1219).] 

3.         MARGRETE.  Nun at St Maria's Convent, Roskilde [1188]. 

4.         MARIA.  Nun at St Maria's Convent, Roskilde [1188]. 

5.         VALDEMAR ([28 Jun] 1170-Vordingborg 28 Mar 1241, bur Ringsted Church).  "Kanutum regem" donated property to Ringsted with "fratrem regis, ducem Waldemarum, dnam Sophiam matrem regis", by charter dated 1197[609].  He succeeded his brother in 1202 as VALDEMAR II "Sejr/the Conqueror" King of Denmark.   

-        see below

6.         INGEBJÖRG (1174-Priory of Saint-Jean-en-l’Ile, near Corbeil, Essonne 29 Jul 1236, bur Saint Jean-en-l'Ile).  The Chronicle of Ralph of Coggeshall records the marriage of King Philippe in 1193 and "sororem regis Daciæ…Ingelburgh" and his repudiation of her after the wedding[610].  The Balduini Ninovensis Chronicon records the marriage of "Philippus [rex]" and "filiam…regis Dano", recording that he repudiated her after 8 days and imprisoned her[611].  She was known as ISAMBOUR in France.  She was consecrated Queen of France 15 Aug 1193, but during the ceremony King Philippe "by the devil's suggestion, began to be horrified, to tremble and turn pale at the sight of her"[612].  The chronicler William of Newburgh reported that the king's aversion to Isambour was reported to be due to the fetid smell of her breath or to some hidden deformity[613].  King Philippe disavowed her, imprisoned her at Cysoing and procured an annulment from prelates at the synod of Compiègne, although this was not recognised by the Pope[614].  A charter dated 1193 records that Etienne Bishop of Tournai requested Guillaume Archbishop of Reims to protect "Reginam" who had sought protection in Cysoing abbey[615].  Protracted correspondence with successive Popes ensued, the dispute being complicated by the king's bigamous third marriage.  King Philippe's refusal to restore Isambour eventually resulted in Pope Innocent III's interdict on France 13 Jan 1200.  The king restored Isambour as queen from Apr 1213, although it is likely that the couple did not live together, Isambour living on her dower lands near Orléans[616].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1237 of "senior regina Francie…Guineburgis sive Indeburgis de Dacia" specifying that she was "domna Aurelianensis"[617].  The necrology of the Eglise Cathédrale de Paris records the death "IV Kal Aug" of "regina Ysenburgis…uxor regis Francorum Philippi"[618]m (Notre-Dame d’Amiens, Somme 14 Aug 1193, repudiated later that year, annulled 5 Nov 1193, annulment declared illegal 13 Mar 1195, remarried 1200) as his second wife, PHILIPPE II “Auguste” King of France, son of LOUIS VII King of France & his third wife Alix de Champagne (Château de Gonesse, Val d’Oise 21 Aug 1165-Mantes, Yvelines 14 Jul 1223, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).

7.         HELENA (-Lüneburg [22 Nov] 1223, bur Lüneburg Michaeliskirche).  The Annales Stadenses records the betrothal in Hamburg in 1202 of "sororem ducis [Danorum] Helenam" and "fratri suo [=regis Otto] Willehelmo"[619]m (Hamburg Summer 1202) WILHELM "der Dicke" Herzog von Lüneburg, son of HEINRICH "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony and Bavaria & his second wife Matilda of England (Winchester [Jul] 1184-12 Dec 1213, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis).

8.         RIKISSA (-8 May 1220, bur Ringsted Church).  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1210 of "Ericus Canuti filius rex Suecorum" and "Richizzam filiam Valdemari, sororem Valdemari senioris Danorum regis"[620].  The Annales Ryenses record the death in 1221 of "Rikæcæ regina"[621].  The burial records of Ringsted record the burial of "Kanutus filius Waldemari primi rex Danorum ac Sclavorum Pomeraneorum ac totius Holtzatie, sed et dux Estonie" and "soror sua Rikizæ regina uxor Erici regis Suetie" who died "VIII Id Mai" in 1210[622]m (1210) ERIK Knutson King of Sweden, son of KNUT Eriksson King of Sweden & his wife Cecilia Johansdottir of Sweden (-Visingsö 10 Apr 1216). 

King Valdemar I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

9.          CHRISTOFFER Valdemarsen ([1150]-11 Apr 1166, or 15 Jun 1173, or after 22 Oct 1194, bur Ringsted).  Duke of Sønderjylland.  Kanutis…Danorum Slavvorumque Rex” emancipated monks of “Esrom” by charter dated 22 Oct 1194, which names “Waldemarus pater noster et Kanutus avunculus noster Danorum Reges”, and is witnessed by “Christoforus frater Kanuti regis, Waldemarus Dux[623].  The burial records of Ringsted record the burial at Ringsted of "sanctus Kanutus dux Dacie…filius suus Waldemarus primus, ampliator huius ecclesia" and the burial next to him of "regina Sophia uxor sua filia Swerchonis regis Suetie" and of "filius ipsorum Cristoferus dux Jutie" who died "III Id Apr" in in 1166[624].  This last source indicates that Christoffer was his father´s legitimate son. 

 

 

VALDEMAR Valdemarsen, son of VALDEMAR I "den Store/the Great" King of Denmark & his wife Sofia Volodarovna of Novgorod [Rurikid] ([28 Jun] 1170-Vordingborg 28 Mar 1241, bur Ringsted Church).  "Kanutum regem" donated property to Ringsted with "fratrem regis, ducem Waldemarum, dnam Sophiam matrem regis", by charter dated 1197[625].  The Saga of King Sverre records the accession of "his brother Valdemar" after the death of "Knut King of the Danes" in the same year as Sverre King of Norway[626].  He succeeded his brother in 1202 as VALDEMAR II "Sejr/the Conqueror" King of Denmark.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1202 of "Canutus, Valdemari filius, rex Danorum" and the succession of "Valdemarus frater eius"[627].  The Icelandic Annals record that "Valdemarus rex Dannorum" waged war in Estonia in 1219[628].  Imprisoned 1223-1225.  The Icelandic Annals record that "Rex Danorum Valdemarus filiusque Valdemarus" were captured by "Henrico comite Palatino" in 1223[629].  Denmark and the Knights of the Teutonic Order agreed the division of Estonia between them in the treaty of Stensby in 1238[630].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1242 of "Valdemarus fortis Danorum rex Valdemari filius"[631].  The Annales Stadenses record the death "1241 V Kal Apr" of "rex Daciæ Waldemarus"[632].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death "1240…in cena Domini" of "rex Dacie Waldemarus"[633].  The burial records of Ringsted record "Waldemarus rex…filius Waldemari" who died "VI Kal Apr" in 1241[634]

Betrothed (Hamburg 1202) to IRMGARD Pfalzgräfin, daughter of HEINRICH Herzog von Braunschweig, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his first wife Agnes von Staufen ([1200]-Lichtenthal 24 Feb 1260, bur Kloster Lichtenthal).  The Annales Stadenses records the betrothal in Hamburg in 1202 of "duci Danorum" and "filiam fratris sui [=regis Otto] Heinrici"[635].  Although the daughter in question is not named, it is probable that it was the older daughter Irmgard. 

m firstly (Lübeck 1205) MARGARETA of Bohemia, daughter of PŘEMYSL OTAKAR I King of Bohemia & his first wife Adelheid von Meissen [Wettin] (-Ribe 24 May 1212, bur Ringsted Church).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "Vredislaum et filias tres" as children of "Odacarus qui postea fuit dux Bohemie" and his wife Adelheid, specifying that one daughter married "regi Dacie"[636].  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1205 of "Valdemarus rex Danorum" and "Margaretam regis Boemiæ filiam" who was called "Dagmöam" by the Danes[637].  The Annales Ryenses record the marriage in 1205 of "rex Waldemarus" and "Daghmar filiam regis Boemiæ", and in a later passage the death in 1212 of "Margareta regina" specifying that she was known as Dagmar "propter præcipuam formæ pulchritudinem"[638].  A 13th century genealogy refers to the two daughters of "rex Boemie Otaker" and his wife Adelheid, specifying that "unam" married "rex Dacie"[639].  She was known as DAGMAR in Denmark.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1212 of "Margareta Dagmö, regina Danorum"[640].  The burial records of Ringsted record "Waldemarus rex…filius Waldemari" and "prima uxor sua Dagmar" who died "IX Kal Jun" in 1213[641]

m secondly ([18/24] May 1214) Infanta dona BERENGARIA de Portugal, daughter of dom SANCHO I "o Poblador" King of Portugal & his wife Infanta doña Dulcia de Aragón (-Ringsted 27 Mar 1221, bur Ringsted Church).  The Annales Ryenses record the marriage in 1214 of "rex Waldemarus secundus" and "Berengaria sorore Ferrandi comitis Flandriæ" specifying that she was known as "Bringrenila", and in a later passage her death in 1221[642].  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1214 of "Valdemarus rex Danorum" and "Berengariam Portugaliæ regis filiam"[643].  “Waldemarus…Danorum Sclavorumque Rex” granted “insulam…Thund” to the church of “Arusiensis” by charter dated 23 Nov 1216, witnessed by “B. regina…[644].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1220 of "Berengaria Danorum regina"[645].  The burial records of Ringsted record "Waldemarus rex…filius Waldemari" and "uxor sua secunda Berengera filia regis Portugalie, soror Feruandi comitis Flandrie" who died "VI Kal Apr" in 1220[646]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Valdemar´s first mistress is not known. 

Mistress (2): HELENE Guttormsdotter, daughter of Jarl GUTTORM in Sweden & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and relationship with King Valdemar has not yet been identified.   She married as his third wife, Esbern "Snare" [Hvide] (Fjenneslev [1127]-[Sæbygård] 1204, bur Sorø Abbey).

King Valdemar II & his first wife had one child:

1.         VALDEMAR (1209-Revsnæs near Kalundborg 28 Nov 1231, bur Ringsted Church).  The Annales Ryenses record the birth in 1209 of "Waldemarus tertius filius secundi"[647].  The Icelandic Annals record the birth in 1209 of "Valdemarus junior, filius Valdemari senioris, Danorum regis"[648].  The Chronica Jutensis names "Waldemarum, Ericum, Abel et Christoferum" as the four legitimate sons of "Waldemarus rex"[649].  He succeeded his father in 1215 as VALDEMAR III "den Unge/the young" Joint King of Denmark, crowned 1218.  The Icelandic Annals record that "Valdemarus junior Daniæ" was made king in 1215, and in a later passage that he was crowned in 1218 "Slesvici…a 22 episcopis"[650].  Imprisoned 1223-1226.  The Icelandic Annals record that "Rex Danorum Valdemarus filiusque Valdemarus" were captured by "Henrico comite Palatino" in 1223[651].  "Waldemari iunioris, Danorum Sclavorumque regis" confirmed a sale of property to "fratribus Esromensibus" by undated charter (included under 1230 in the compilation)[652].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1231 of "Valdemarus junior Danorum rex"[653].  He died after being accidentally shot while hunting[654].  The Annales Stadenses record the death in 1231 of "iunioris regis Daciæ" within a few weeks of his wife[655].  The burial records of Ringsted record "Waldemarus tercius filius Waldemari secundi" who died "in venacione in silua Resnes…IV Kal Dec" in 1231[656]m (Ribe 23/24 Jun 1229) Infanta dona LEONOR de Portugal, daughter of dom AFFONSO II King of Portugal & his wife Infanta doña Urraca de Castilla (1211-28 Aug 1231, bur Ringsted Church).  The contract of marriage between “Waldemarus secundus…Danorum Sclavorumque rex…filius noster rex Waldemarus” and “domine A” is dated 25 Jun 1229, subscribed by “filius noster Kanutus dux Estonie, nepos noster Albert comes Orlemunde et dominus Alsie…[657].  The De Rebus Hispaniæ of Rodericus Ximenes names "Alienor" as daughter of "Aldefonsum" & his wife, specifying that she married "Regi Daciæ" but died childless[658].  The Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelos names "D. Leonor muger del hijo del Rey Marces" as the daughter of "D. Alonso Sanchez Rey de Portugal" and his wife "D. Urraca"[659].  The Annales Ryenses record the marriage "Ripis in festo beati Iohannis baptistæ" of "rex Waldemarus III" and "filia Portugaliæ Elienor" and in a later passage her death in 1231 "in parto"[660].  The Annales Stadenses record the death in 1231 of "uxor iunioris regis Daciæ"[661].  The burial records of Ringsted record "Waldemarus tercius filius Waldemari secundi" and "uxor sua Elienor filia regis Hispanie" who died "III Id Mai" in 1231[662].  King Valdemar III & his wife had one child: 

a)         child ([28] Aug 1231-[28 Aug] 1231).  The Annales Ryenses record that "regina Elienor" died "in parto" but does not specify if the child survived or, if so, for how long[663]

King Valdemar II & his second wife had four children:

2.         ERIK (1216-murdered 10 Aug 1250, bur Schleswig St Peter, transferred 1257 to Ringsted Church).  The Annales Ryenses record the birth in 1216 of "Ericus filius Waldemari regis" and specifying that his father granted him "ducatum Iutiæ"[664].  The Icelandic Annals record the birth in 1216 of "Ericus filius Valdemari Danorum regis, cui tunc Valdemarus rex ducatum, sed Nicolao filio suo comitatum Hallandiæ contulit"[665].  The Chronica Jutensis names "Waldemarum, Ericum, Abel et Christoferum" as the four legitimate sons of "Waldemarus rex"[666].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "regem Ericum, ducem Abel et comitem Christophorum" as the three sons of "rex Dacie Waldemarus"[667].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1231 of "Valdemarus junior Danorum rex" and the succession and coronation of "Ericus Sanctus frater eius"[668].  He succeeded his father in 1241 as ERIK IV "Plovpennig/Plough-Penny" King of Denmark.  The Annales Stadenses record that Erik King of Denmark was killed by his brother Abel in 1250[669].  The Icelandic Annals record that "Erici sancti Valdemari filii Danorum regis" was killed "vespera festi Laurentii" in 1249[670].  His murder by his brother Abel is recorded by Matthew of Paris[671].  The Chronica Jutensis records that "Ericus" was captured "Sleswik…in vigilia beati Laurencii" by "fratrem suum Abel", killed "per Sliam navigio", buried "in ecclesia beati Petri..:Sleswik", and later transferred "per Christoferum regem fratrem eius in Ringstad"[672].  The burial records of Ringsted record "beatus Ericus rex filius regis Waldemari secundi" who was killed "in Sliæ…V Id Aug" in 1250, transferred "Ringstadis de Slæswigh per fratrem suum Christoforum regem Danorum" in 1257[673]m (Papal dispensation 4o Anagni 31 Jul 1239, 9 Oct 1239) as her first husband, JUTTA von Sachsen, daughter of ALBRECHT I Duke of Saxony & his first wife Anna of Austria.  The Chronica Jutensis records that "Ericum", son of "Waldemarus rex", married "Juttam filiam ducis Saxonie"[674].  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1239 of "Ericus Danorum rex Valdemari filius" and "Juttam filiam Henrici ducis Anhaltini"[675].  Pope Gregory IX issued a dispensation for the marriage of "Ericum filium Waldemari regis" and "Juttam filiam ducis Saxoniæ" dated 31 Jul 1239[676].  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Iuttam [uxor] Ericus rex Dacie" as daughter of "Albertus dux" & his first wife Agnes[677].  The Annales Stadenses records the marriage "1239 die Dyonisii" of "Ericus rex Daciæ [frater Abel]" and "filiam ducis Alberti de Anehalt"[678].  The Annales Ryenses record the marriage in 1239 of "rex Ericus" and "Iudith filiam ducis Saxoniæ"[679].  1250.  She married secondly as his second wife, Burchard von Querfurt Burggraf von Magdeburg.  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.   King Erik IV & his wife had six children: 

a)         CHRISTOFFER (-before 10 Aug 1250).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

b)         KNUD (-before 10 Aug 1250).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

c)         SOPHIE (-1286).  The Icelandic Annals record a visit to "Konúngahellam…festo martyris Albani" by "rex Valdemarus Sophiaque regina cum filio domicello Erico annos quinque nato" in 1276[680]m (1260, divorced after 1276) as his first wife, VALDEMAR Birgersson King of Sweden [Folkunge], son of BIRGER Magnusson Jarl and Regent of Sweden [Folkungaätten] & his first wife Ingeborg of Sweden ([1237]-Nyköping Castle 26 Dec 1302).

d)         INGEBORG ([1244]-24/26 Mar 1287).  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1261 of "Rex Magnus" and "Ingeborgam filiam sancti Erici Valdemari filii Danorum regis"[681].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1287 of "Regina Ingeburga Erici filia"[682]m (Bergen 11 Sep 1261) MAGNUS of Norway, son of HAAKON "den Gamle/the Old" King of Norway & his wife Margret Skulesdatter (Tønsberg 1 May 1238-Bergen 9 May 1280, bur Bergen, St Olav's Abbey).  He succeeded his father in 1263 as MAGNUS IV "Lagabøte/Lagabæter/the Law-reformer" King of Norway

e)         JUTTA ([1246]-[1286/95]).  Abbess of St Agneta in Roskilde 1266.  She left the convent in 1271[683].  "Anundi Haraldi filii et --- sacerdotis, nuntiorum regis Norvegie" sent letters, undated but placed with documents dated to 1284 or after in the compilation, relating to the property of "domicellarum Juttæ et Agnetis, filiarum Erici quondam Daciæ regis"[684]Mistress: of VALDEMAR Birgersson King of Sweden [Folkunge], son of BIRGER Magnusson Jarl and Regent of Sweden [Folkungaätten] & his first wife Ingeborg of Sweden ([1237]-Nyköping Castle 26 Dec 1302). 

f)          AGNES ([1249]-[after 1296]).  She founded the Convent of St Agneta in Roskilde, becoming Abbess there [1266].  She left the convent in 1271[685].  "Anundi Haraldi filii et --- sacerdotis, nuntiorum regis Norvegie" sent letters, undated but placed with documents dated to 1284 or after in the compilation, relating to the property of "domicellarum Juttæ et Agnetis, filiarum Erici quondam Daciæ regis"[686].  [The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1296 of "Ericus dux Langelandiæ" and "Agnesam virginem, materteram Erici regis Norvegiæ"[687].  This marriage appears unlikely considering the considerable age difference between the alleged spouses.  m (1296) ERIK Eriksson "Langben/Long-bone" Duke of Langeland, son of ERIK I Herzog von Schleswig & his wife Margareta von Rügen (1272-1310).] 

3.         SOPHIE (1217-Flensburg 2 Nov 1247, bur Ribe, Franciscan Abbey)m ([1233/35]) as his first wife, JOHANN I Markgraf von Brandenburg, son of ALBRECHT II Markgraf von Brandenburg [Askanier] & his wife Mathilde von Lensberg ([1208/13]-[3 Jun 1266/2 Feb 1267], bur Kloster Chorin).

4.         ABEL (1218-killed in battle in Friesland 29 Jun 1252, bur Schleswig).  The Chronica Jutensis names "Waldemarum, Ericum, Abel et Christoferum" as the four legitimate sons of "Waldemarus rex"[688].  The Annales Ryenses name "Berengaria" as mother of "regum Erici, Abel et Cristophori"[689].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "regem Ericum, ducem Abel et comitem Christophorum" as the three sons of "rex Dacie Waldemarus"[690].  The Annales Stadenses record that "comes Adolfus de Scowenburg" appointed "generum suum Abel ducem Daciæ" as tutor of his young children when he became a monk, a later passage recording that he renounced the appointment in Hamburg in 1241[691].  He succeeded in 1250 as ABEL King of Denmark, after murdering his brother King Erik and was crowned "in die omnium sanctorum"[692].  The Icelandic Annals record that "Abelis Danorum regis" was killed in 1252[693].  The Annales Erphordenses record that "Abel rex Dacie" was killed "1252 pridie Kal Iul" by the Frisians[694]m (Schleswig 25 Apr 1237) as her first husband, MECHTILD von Holstein, daughter of ADOLF IV Graf von Holstein und Stormarn & his wife Hedwig zur Lippe (-1288, bur Varnhem Abbey).  The Chronica Jutensis records that "Abel", son of "Waldemarus rex", married "Mectildam filiam Adulfi comitis Holzacie"[695].  The Annales Stadenses record the marriage "1237 VII Kal Mai" of "dux Abel" and "filiam comitis Adolfi de Scowenborch", naming her "Mechtildem" and recording her second marriage to "ducem Sueciæ" in a later passage[696].  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1237 of "Dux Abel" and "Mathildam"[697].  The Annales Ryenses record the marriage in 1237 of "dux Abel" and "Machtildem filiam comitis", specifying that this was against the wishes of his father[698].  The Annales Stadenses record that she was crowned Queen with her husband in 1250[699].  She married secondly (1261) as his second wife, Birger Magnusson Jarl Regent of Sweden.  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1261 of "Bergerus Sveciæ dux" and "Mathildam reginam Daniæ"[700].  King Abel & his wife had four children: 

a)         VALDEMAR Abelsen (1238-1257).  The Annales Stadenses name "Waldemaro" as son of Abel King of Denmark & his wife, recording that he was "a huc puerulo" in 1250[701].  The Annales Ryenses record that "Waldemarus filius ducis Abel" was captured by soldiers of the archbishop of Köln "a scolis Parisiis domum pergens"[702].  He succeeded in 1254 as Duke of Sønderjylland [Schleswig].  The Annales Ryenses record the death in 1257 of "Waldemarus dux"[703]

b)         SOFIA ([1240]-after 1284).  The Annales Hamburgenses record the marriage "die Blasii in Hammenburch" of "comes Bernardus de Berneburg" and "filiam regis Abel"[704].  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Sophiam, filiam Abel" as wife of "Bernardum comitem"[705]m (Hamburg 3 Feb 1258) BERNHARD I Fürst von Anhalt in Bernburg, son of HEINRICH I "der Fette" Graf von Anhalt und Aschersleben & his wife Irmgard von Thüringen (-[1286/87]).

c)         ERIK Abelsen (-27 May 1272).  The Annales Hamburgenses name "Ericus filius Abel regis" when recording that he received the "ducatum" in 1259[706].  He succeeded his brother in 1257 as Duke of Sønderjylland [Schleswig].  The Chronica Jutensis records that "Ericus filius Abel" was made "dux Jacie" after the death of "Waldemaro fratre eius"[707].  The Annales Ryenses record the death in 1272 of "dux Ericus"[708]

-        DUKES of SCHLESWIG

d)         ABEL (1252-Svendborg 2 Apr 1279, bur Svendborg, Franciscan Abbey).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Erichum et Abel" as the two sons of "Abel, filius Woldemari regis Dacie" & his wife[709]m as her first husband, MECHTILD von Schwerin, daughter of GÜNZEL [III] Graf von Schwerin & his wife Margarete von Mecklenburg.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.   She married secondly Johann Gans von Wittenberge.  Abel & his wife had one child: 

i)          MARGRETE (-1281).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Nun at Zarrentin.

5.         CHRISTOFFER ([1219]-Ribe 29 May 1259, bur Ribe Cathedral).  The Annales Ryenses name "Berengaria" as mother of "regum Erici, Abel et Cristophori"[710].  He succeeded his brother in 1252 as CHRISTOFFER I King of Denmark

-        see below

King Valdemar I had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

6.          NIELS Valdemarsen (-[1218/19])The Annales Ryenses name "Nicolao filio illegitimo [Waldemari Regis]" specifying that his father granted him "comitatum Hallandiæ"[711].  The Icelandic Annals record the birth in 1216 of "Ericus filius Valdemari Danorum regis, cui tunc Valdemarus rex ducatum, sed Nicolao filio suo comitatum Hallandiæ contulit"[712].  Count of Halland 1218.  "Gozelino et Henrico fratribus, comitibus Zwerinensibus et Nicolao comite Hallandiæ" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers of St John by undated charter (included under 1217 in the compilation)[713].  m (1217) ODA von Schwerin, daughter of GÜNZEL [II] Graf von Schwerin & his wife Oda --- (-[1218/19]).  A charter dated 28 Feb 1221 names “Graff Hinrichs zu Schwerin Schwester, Frau Jdda” as widow of “Graff Niclausen von Halland, könig Woldemars zu Dennemarck natürlichen Sohns” and the rights of their young son “Nicolaus” to half of the county of Schwerin[714].  Despite the wording of this charter, it appears unlikely that Oda, wife of Niels Valdemarssen, could have been the daughter of Günzel [I] Graf von Schwerin unless she was considerably younger than her known brothers.  In addition, she would have been almost 100 years old when she was named in 1283, even assuming that she was born at the end of her supposed father´s lifetime.  Her entitlement to half the county of Schwerin suggests that her father must have been Graf von Schwerin himself.  It appears more probable that Oda was the daughter of Günzel [II] Graf von Schwerin, and therefore niece not sister of Graf Heinrich [I], although the primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified.  1283.  Niels & his wife had one child: 

a)         NIELS ([1218]-1251, bur Sorø).  A charter dated 28 Feb 1221 names “Graff Hinrichs zu Schwerin Schwester, Frau Jdda” as widow of “Graff Niclausen von Halland, könig Woldemars zu Dennemarck natürlichen Sohns” and the rights of their young son “Nicolaus” to half of the county of Schwerin[715]Count of Halland.  The Annales Ryenses record the death in 1251 of "comes Nicolaus"[716].  m as her first husband, CECILIE Jensdatter [Galen], daughter of JENS Jakobsen [Galen] & his wife Adelheid Gräfin von Dassel.  Her parentage and first marriage are indicated by the charter dated 28 Jul 1267 under which "Ericus…Danorum Slavorumque rex" confirmed an agreement between her sons "Nicholaus et Iacobus fratres filii comitis Nicholai de Hallandia…suos nepotes" and "Ottonem comitem de Ravensbergh" [her mother´s sons by her second marriage] about the inheritance of her brother "dominum Iohannem parvum pie memorie fratrem suum"[717].  She married secondly (1252) R. Anders Olufsen [Glug] (-1270).  Niels & his wife had four children: 

i)          NIELS (-1271).  "Ericus…Danorum Slavorumque rex" confirmed an agreement between "Nicholaus et Iacobus fratres filii comitis Nicholai de Hallandia…suos nepotes" and "Ottonem comitem de Ravensbergh" about the inheritance of "dominum Iohannem parvum pie memorie fratrem suum" by charter dated 28 Jul 1267[718]. 

ii)         ANDERS (-before 28 Jul 1267).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

iii)        JAKOB (-1308).  "Ericus…Danorum Slavorumque rex" confirmed an agreement between "Nicholaus et Iacobus fratres filii comitis Nicholai de Hallandia…suos nepotes" and "Ottonem comitem de Ravensbergh" about the inheritance of "dominum Iohannem parvum pie memorie fratrem suum" by charter dated 28 Jul 1267[719].  "Iacobus filius comitis Nicholai" paid money to "avunculo nostro domino Ottoni comiti de Ravensbergh" by charter dated 9 Feb 1274[720].  The Icelandic Annals record that "domicellus Jacobus filius Nicolai comitis Hallandiæ, qui filius fuit Nicolai…comitis Hallandiæ quem rex Daniæ Valdemarus genuit" visited Magnus King of Norway in 1276[721].  The Annales Lubicenses record that "Iacobus" obtained the "cometiam Hallandiæ" in 1283[722].  Count of Halland.  The testament of "Wizlavus senior Ruyanorum princeps", dated 27 Dec 1302, was witnessed by "…Iacobo comiti Hallandie"[723].  m ---.  The name of Jakob's wife is not known.  Jakob & his wife had three children: 

(a)        NIELS (-murdered 1314).  "Nicholaus Jacobi quondam comitis Hallandie filius" issued a charter dated Jul [1310] which names "comes de Ravensberg"[724].  Count of Halland. 

(b)        VALDEMAR (-murdered 1314).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Count of Halland. 

(c)        EUPHEMIA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m HENNING [I] von Putbus (-1351/2).

iv)        CÆCILIA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m TYGE Thorstensen .

King Valdemar I had two illegitimate children by Mistress (2):

7.          KNUD Valdemarsen (1211-15 Oct 1260, bur Ringsted Church)The contract of marriage between “Waldemarus secundus…Danorum Sclavorumque rex…filius noster rex Waldemarus” and “domine A” is dated 25 Jun 1229, subscribed by “filius noster Kanutus dux Estonie, nepos noster Albert comes Orlemunde et dominus Alsie…[725].  Duke of Estonia 1223, and [1238-1340]. 

-        see below, Part C. Dukes of SØNDERHALLAND, SKARSHOLM

8.          --- Valdemarsdatter (bur Falkenau Abbey).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

 

 

CHRISTOFFER Valdemarsen, son of VALDEMAR II "Sejr/the Conqueror" King of Denmark & his second wife Infanta dona Berengaria de Portugal ([1219]- Ribe 29 May 1259, bur Ribe Cathedral).  The Chronica Jutensis names "Waldemarum, Ericum, Abel et Christoferum" as the four legitimate sons of "Waldemarus rex"[726].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "regem Ericum, ducem Abel et comitem Christophorum" as the three sons of "rex Dacie Waldemarus"[727].  The Annales Ryenses name "Berengaria" as mother of "regum Erici, Abel et Cristophori"[728].  He succeeded his brother in 1252 as CHRISTOFFER I King of Denmark.  The Icelandic Annals record that "Abelis Danorum regis" was killed in 1252 and succeeded by "Christophorus frater eius"[729].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1259 of "Christophorus rex Danorum Valdemari filius"[730].  The Chronica Jutensis records the death "Ripis" of "rex Christoferus" and his burial there[731]

m (1248) SAMBIRIA von Pommerellen, daughter of SAMBOR III Duke of Pommerellen [Pomorze] in Dirschau & his wife Mechtild von Mecklenburg (-Rostock Dec 1282, bur Doberan Abbey).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   She was known as MARGRETE in Denmark.  The Icelandic Annals record that "rex Danorum cum matre sua Margareta" were captured "in tesqva Loheidensi inter Ericum Danorum regem et ducem…Holsati" in 1261[732].  "Margaretæ Danorum reginæ" granted rights of wreck to Lübeck by charter dated 16 Aug 1264[733]

King Cristoffer I & his wife had five children: 

1.         ERIK ([Lolland 1249]-murdered Finderup, near Viborg 22 Nov 1286, bur Viborg Cathedral).  The Annales Hamburgenses name "Ericus" as son of "Christoforus rex Daciæ" when recording that he succeeded his father in 1259[734].  He succeeded his father in 1259 as ERIK V "Klipping" King of Denmark.  "Erici Danorum Slavorumque regis, Christophori regis filii" confirmed the rights of Lübeck, with the consent of "matris suæ", by charter dated 5 Sep 1259[735].  The Icelandic Annals record that "rex Danorum cum matre sua Margareta" were captured "in tesqva Loheidensi inter Ericum Danorum regem et ducem…Holsati" in 1261[736].  The Icelandic Annals record that "Ericus Danorum rex, Christophori regis filia" was sent back from captivity "Brandenburgica" in 1264[737].  "Ericus…Danorum Slavorumque rex" confirmed an agreement between "Nicholaus et Iacobus fratres filii comitis Nicholai de Hallandia…suos nepotes" and "Ottonem comitem de Ravensbergh" about the inheritance of "dominum Iohannem parvum pie memorie fratrem suum" by charter dated 28 Jul 1267[738].  The Annales Lubicenses record that "Ericus Danorum rex" was killed "1286 in nocte beatæ Cæciliæ"[739].  The Icelandic Annals record that "Erici Christophori filii Danorum regis" was killed in 1286[740].  The Chronica Jutensis records the death "iuxta Wibergh…in nocte sancte Cecilie" in 1286 of King Erik and his burial "Wibergh in ecclesia cathedrali"[741]m (Schleswig 11 Nov 1273) as her first husband, AGNES von Brandenburg, daughter of JOHANN I Markgraf von Brandenburg [Askanier] & his second wife Jutta von Sachsen ([1258/61]-early Oct 1304, bur Ringsted Church).  The Annales Lubicenses records the marriage in 1273 of "Ericus Danorum rex, Christofori filius" and "Agnetem filiam marchionis de Brandenborch, sororis Ottonis marchionis"[742].  Her second marriage is deduced from the Annales Lubicenses which record the death in 1304 of "Agnes uxor Gherardi comits Holtzatiæ" specifying that she was mother of "Erici regis Danorum et Christophori ducis" and "Iohannis postea comitis Holzatiæ" by her second husband[743].  She married secondly (1293, Papal dispensation Anagni 3 Aug 1295) Gerhard Graf von Holstein-Plön.  The Vetus Chronica Sialandie records the death in 1304 of "comitissa Agnes, que prius fuit regina Danorum"[744].  The burial records of Ringsted record "Ericus rex, filius Erici regis" and "mater sua Agnes regina uxor regis Erici…filia Alberti marchionis Brandenburgensis" who died "III Kal Oct" in 1303[745].  King Erik V & his wife had seven children: 

a)         ERIK (1274-Roskilde 13 Nov 1319, bur Ringsted Church).  The Annales Lubicenses name (in order) "Ericum, Christophorum et Waldemarum" as the three sons of "Ericus Danorum rex"[746].  He succeeded his father in 1286 as ERIK VI "Mændved" King of Denmark.  The Icelandic Annals record that "Ericus rex Danorum et eius frater dux Christophorus" arrested and imprisoned "Johannem archiepiscopum Lundensem" in 1295, for which Denmark was excommunicated[747].  The Annales Colbazienses record the death in 1319 of "rex Dacie et uxor eius"[748].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1320 of "Erici regis Danorum" and the succession of "rex Christophorus"[749].  The Chronica Jutensis records the death "die Briccii confessoris" in 1319 of King Erik and his burial "cum aliis regibus Ringstadis"[750].  The burial records of Ringsted record "Ericus rex, filius Erici regis" who died "Id Nov" in 1319[751]m (Hälsingborg [Jun] 1296) INGEBORG of Sweden, daughter of MAGNUS Lådulas [Folkunge] King of Sweden & his wife Hedwig von Holstein (-5 Aug 1319, bur Ringsted Church).  The Annales Lubicenses record the marriage in 1297 of "Ingeburgem sororem Birgen regis Sweorum" and "Ericus rex Danorum"[752].  Nun of St Klara in Roskilde 1318.  The Annales Colbazienses record the death in 1319 of "rex Dacie et uxor eius"[753].  The burial records of Ringsted record "Ericus rex, filius Erici regis" and "Ingeburgh uxor sua filia Magni regis Suecie" who died "Non Apr" in 1319[754].  King Erik VI & his wife had four children: 

i)          VALDEMAR (-1302).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

ii)         ERIK (-young, bur Esrom Abbey).  Twin with Magnus.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

iii)        MAGNUS (-young, bur Esrom Abbey).  Twin with Erik.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

iv)       son (b and d 1318).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He died accidentally[755]

b)         CHRISTOFFER (29 Sep 1276-Nykøbing Castle 2 Aug 1332, bur Sorø Abbey).  The Annales Lubicenses name (in order) "Ericum, Christophorum et Waldemarum" as the three sons of "Ericus Danorum rex"[756].  He succeeded in 1320 as CHRISTOFFER II King of Denmark

-        see below

c)         VALDEMAR (-Rostock 1304, bur Sorø Abbey).  The Annales Lubicenses name (in order) "Ericum, Christophorum et Waldemarum" as the three sons of "Ericus Danorum rex"[757]

d)         RICHIZA (-[1303/27 Oct 1308])m (Papal dispensation 4o Orvieto 1 Oct 1291, [1291/1301]) as his first wife, NIKOLAUS [II] Herr von Werle zu Parchim, son of JOHANN [I] Herr von Werle zu Parchim [Mecklenburg] & his wife Sophie von Lindau-Ruppin (-Pustow 12 Oct 1316).

e)         MARGRETE (-2 Mar 1341, bur Ringsted Church).  Pope Martin IV issued a dispensation for the marriage of "Birgero, filio Magni Sveciæ regis" and "Margaretæ filiæ Erici regis Daniæ" for 4o consanguinity dated 23 Dec 1284[758].  The Annales Lubicenses refer to the wife of "Birgerum regem…Sweorum" as "sororem regis Danorum" when recording that her husband's brothers "Ericus et Waldemarus duces" captured her and her husband in 1305[759].  She was known as MÄRTA in Sweden.  The burial records of Ringsted record "Birgerus rex Suetie" who died "pridie Kal Jun" in 1321 and "uxor sua Margareta filia regis Erici et Agnetis" who died "VI Non Mar" in 1341[760]m (Papal dispensation 23 Dec 1284, Stockholm 25 Nov 1298) BIRGER Magnusson King of Sweden, son of MAGNUS Lådulas [Folkunge] King of Sweden & his wife Hedwig von Holstein (1280-[Sjælland] 31 May 1321, bur Ringsted Church).

f)          KATARINE (b and d 1283, bur Odense, Franciscan Abbey).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

g)         ELISABETH (b and d 1283, bur Odense, Franciscan Abbey).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

2.         VALDEMAR (-21 Dec [1259], bur Ringsted Church).  The burial records of Ringsted record "domicellus Waldemarus filius Cristofori regis, filii Waldemari secundi" who died "XII Kal Jan"[761]

3.         NIELS (-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

4.         MATHILDE (-[23 Apr 1299/19 Nov 1300], bur Kloster Lehnin).  Pulcawa's Bohemian Chronicle records the marriage of "Albertus…frater Ottonis longi" and "filiam regis Swecie"[762].  The primary source which confirms her name and correct parentage has not yet been identified.  m (1269 or 1271) ALBRECHT III Markgraf von Brandenburg, son of OTTO III Markgraf von Brandenburg [Askanier] & his wife Beatrix [Božena] of Bohemia ([1246/54]-4 Dec 1300, bur Kloster Himmelpfort).

5.         MARGRETE (-[Preetz] 2 Feb 1306).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m ([1276]) JOHANN II Graf von Holstein-Kiel, son of JOHANN I Graf von Holstein-Schaumburg in Kiel & his wife Elisabeth von Sachsen (1253-[1321]).

 

 

CHRISTOFFER Eriksen, son of ERIK V "Klipping" King of Denmark & his wife Agnes von Brandenburg (29 Sep 1276-Nykøbing Castle 2 Aug 1332, bur Sorø Abbey).  The Annales Lubicenses name (in order) "Ericum, Christophorum et Waldemarum" as the three sons of "Ericus Danorum rex"[763].  The Icelandic Annals record that "Ericus rex Danorum et eius frater dux Christophorus" arrested and imprisoned "Johannem archiepiscopum Lundensem" in 1295, for which Denmark was excommunicated[764].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1320 of "Erici regis Danorum" and the succession of "rex Christophorus"[765].  He succeeded in 1320 as CHRISTOFFER II King of Denmark, until 1326.  The Chronica Jutensis records that "Christoferus" fled "in Teutoniam" after his son Erik was captured[766].  The Annales Colbazienses record that "rex Cristoforos cum filio suo Octone" was expelled from the kingdom in 1325 "sine bello"[767].  He was restored as king 1329-1332.  The Chronica Jutensis records that "Christoferus" was captured "a Danis et Teutonicis in Saxkyøpingh", imprisoned "in castro Aleholm", but after he was freed died "in castro Nykyøping" and was buried "in supradicto monasterio" (referring to Sorø from the context)[768]

m ([1300/04) EUPHEMIA von Pommern, daughter of BOGISLAW IV Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast & his second wife Margareta von Rügen ([1286/88]-26 Jul 1330, bur Sorø Abbey).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

King Christoffer II & his wife had six children: 

1.         MARGRETE ([1305]-Berlin [19 Mar/31 May] 1340, bur Berlin Church of the Franciscan Order).  The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) records the betrothal in 1323 of "Ludwicus Rex filio suo prinogenito" and "Cristafori Regis Daciæ filiam"[769].  The marriage contract between "Ludouicum, marchionum Brandenburgensem, primogenitum…Ludouici Romanorum Regis" and "Christoforus…Danorum Saluorumque Rex, Dux Estonie…Margaretham filiam nostram" is dated 13 Jul 1323, witnessed by "…filium nostrum dominum Erycum"[770].  The Chronicon Elwacense in 1323 records that "rex Ludwicus marchiam Brandenburgensem filio suo contulit" and his marriage to "filiam regis Daciæ"[771]m (contract 13 Jul 1323, Vordingborg Castle Dec 1324) as his first wife, LUDWIG Markgraf von Brandenburg, son of Emperor LUDWIG IV "der Bayer" King of Germany, Duke of Bavaria, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his first wife Beatrix von Schweidnitz [Piast] (Jul 1316-Zorneding 18 Sep 1361, bur Munich).  He succeeded his father in 1347 as LUDWIG V "der Brandenburger" joint-Duke of Bavaria

2.         ERIK ([1307]-Kiel early 1332, bur Sorø Abbey).  The Chronica Jutensis names "Ericum, Ottonem et Waldemarum" as the three sons of "Cristoferus, frater Erici", adding that Erik was imprisoned by the nobles of the kingdom in the seventh year of his father´s reign[772].  The marriage contract between "Ludouicum, marchionum Brandenburgensem, primogenitum…Ludouici Romanorum Regis" and "Christoforus…Danorum Saluorumque Rex, Dux Estonie…Margaretham filiam nostram" is dated 13 Jul 1323, witnessed by "…filium nostrum dominum Erycum"[773].  Chosen as king in 1321.  The Chronica Jutensis records the death of "rex Ericus in Kilone" and his burial "in Soræ monasterio"[774]m (1330, divorced 1331) as her second husband, ELISABETH von Holstein-Rendsburg, widow of JOHANN II Herzog von Sachsen-Lauenburg, daughter of HEINRICH I Graf von Holstein-Rendsburg & his wife Heilwig von Bronckhorst ([1300]-before 1340).  Her parentage is confirmed by the Chronica Jutensis which records disputes between "Christoferum" and "comitem Gerardum", adding that "rex Ericus" repudiated "sororem eius"[775]

3.         OTTO (-after 1347).  The Chronica Jutensis names "Ericum, Ottonem et Waldemarum" as the three sons of "Cristoferus, frater Erici"[776].  The Annales Colbazienses record that "rex Cristoforos cum filio suo Octone" was expelled from the kingdom in 1325 "sine bello"[777].  The Chronica Jutensis records that "Otto secundus filius Christoferi" came "cum societate de Lalandia in Noriuciam", attempting to capture the kingdom, but was captured an imprisoned "in castro Holzacie Syebyergh"[778].  Duke of Lolland and Estonia.  Knight of the Teutonic Order. 

4.         AGNES (-1312, bur Sorø Abbey).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

5.         VALDEMAR ([1320]-Gurre Castle 24 Oct 1375, bur Vordingborg Castle, transferred 1377 to Sorø Abbey).  The Chronica Jutensis names "Ericum, Ottonem et Waldemarum" as the three sons of "Cristoferus, frater Erici"[779].  He succeeded in 1340 as VALDEMAR IV "Atterdag" King of Denmark

-        see below

6.         HELVIG (bur Sorø Abbey).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

King Christoffer II had two illegitimate children by [---[Lunge]].

7.          REGITZE Christoffersdatter [Løvenbalk].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m PEDER Stigsen [Krognos] of Krapperup.

8.          ERIK Christoffersen [Løvenbalk].  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

-        see below, Part D. LØVENBALK.   

 

 

VALDEMAR, son of CHRISTOFFER II King of Denmark & his wife Euphemia of Pomerania-Wolgast ([1320]-Gurre Castle 24 Oct 1375, bur Vordingborg Castle, transferred 1377 to Sorø Abbey).  The Chronica Jutensis names "Ericum, Ottonem et Waldemarum" as the three sons of "Cristoferus, frater Erici"[780].  He succeeded in 1340 as VALDEMAR IV "Atterdag" King of Denmark.  The Chronica Jutensis records that "Waldemarus regis Christoferi filius natu minimus" entered "Juciam…de Marchia" in 1340 and was elected king[781]

m (Sønderborg Castle shortly before 4 Jun 1340) HEILWIG von Schleswig, daughter of ERICH II Herzog von Schleswig & his wife Adelheid von Holstein-Rendsburg (-[1374]).  The Chronica Jutensis records that "Waldemarus regis Christoferi filius natu minimus" married "sororem Waldemari ducis Jucie" just before he was elected king[782]

King Valdemar IV & his wife had six children: 

1.         CHRISTOFFER ([1341]-Copenhagen 11 Jun 1363, bur Roskilde Cathedral).  Duke of Lolland 1359.

2.         MARGRETHE (1345-1350 before 23 Oct)[783]Betrothed to HEINRICH von Mecklenburg, son of ALBRECHT II "der Große" Herzog von Mecklenburg & his first wife Eufemia Eriksdatter of Sweden (-Wismar 24 Apr 1383), who later married Margrete's younger sister. 

3.         INGEBORG of Denmark (1 Apr 1347-before 16 Jun 1370).  Her descendants were recognised as heirs in Denmark by her younger sister Margrete I Queen of Denmark.  m (contract Dornburg 23 Oct 1350, before 3 Jun 1362) as his first wife, HEINRICH von Mecklenburg, son of ALBRECHT II "der Große" Herzog von Mecklenburg & his first wife Eufemia Eriksdatter of Sweden (-Wismar 24 Apr 1383).  He succeeded his father in 1379 as HEINRICH III Herzog von Mecklenburg

-        see Chapter 4. KINGS of DENMARK, HOUSES of POMERANIA and WITTELSBACH

4.         KATARINE (1349-young).

5.         VALDEMAR (1350-young).

6.         MARGRETHE (1353-on board ship Flensburg harbour 28 Oct 1412, bur Sorø Abbey, transferred 1413 to Roskilde Church).  She succeeded in 1387 as MARGRETHE I Queen of Denmark.  She was elected Regent of Norway for life in 1388 after the death of her son, and was empowered to renew the dynasty by adopting the heir of her choice.  She adopted her great nephew Erich Duke of Pomerania who succeeded in 1389 as Erik III King of Norway.  Queen Margrethe continued to rule in Norway as Regent but did not adopt the title Queen of Norway[784].  Queen of Sweden 1389.  She consolidated Scandinavian political and administrative institutions to ensure the effective government of the three countries in the union.  m (Copenhagen 9 Apr 1363) HAAKON VI King of Norway, son of MAGNUS II King of Sweden and Norway & his wife Blanche de Namur (-1380).  Queen Margrethe & her husband had one child: 

a)         OLAF (Dec 1370-3 Aug 1387).  He succeeded in 1376 as OLAF II King of Denmark, and in 1381 as OLAV IV King of Norway.

 

 

 

C.      Dukes of SØNDERHALLAND, SKARSHOLM

 

 

KNUD Valdemarsen, illegitimate son of VALDEMAR II "Sejr/the Conqueror" King of Denmark & his mistress Helene Guttormsdotter (1211-15 Oct 1260, bur Ringsted Church).  The contract of marriage between “Waldemarus secundus…Danorum Sclavorumque rex…filius noster rex Waldemarus” and “domine A” is dated 25 Jun 1229, subscribed by “filius noster Kanutus dux Estonie, nepos noster Albert comes Orlemunde et dominus Alsie…[785]Duke at Tallinn in Estonia 1223, and [1238-1240].  Duke at Blekinge 1232, and from 1251.  Duke at Lolland 1249.  The burial records of Ringsted record "Kanutus dux Lalandie filius regis Waldemari II" who died "Id Oct" in 1260[786]

m [HEDWIG][787] von Pommerellen, daughter of SWANTEPOLK Duke of Pommerellen [Pomorze] & his [first/second] wife ---. 

Knud & his wife had two children (the order of their birth is uncertain): 

1.         ERIK Knudsen (-1304, bur Ringsted Church).  Duke of Sønderhalland 1284.  The burial records of Ringsted record "Kanutus dux Lalandie filius regis Waldemari II" and "filius eius Ericus dux Hallandie" who died in 1304[788]m ELSEBE, daughter of ---.  Erik & his wife had one child: 

a)         BARNUM Eriksen (-[1328/29]).  Of Skarsholm.  m --- Pedersdatter, daughter of PEDER Trygesen or Truidsen & his wife ---.  Barnum & his wife had one child: 

i)          ERIK Barnumsen (-[1369]).  Of Skarsholm.  m GERTRUD Pedersdatter, daughter of PEDER Grubbe & his wife ---.  Erik & his wife had five children: 

(a)       KNUD Eriksen .

(b)       BARNUM Eriksen (-[1401]).  Of Skarsholm.  m (before 1378) EDEL Jepsdatter, daughter of JEPPE & his wife --- (-after [1408])  Edel seems to have inherited Skarsholm from her daughter and then sold it[789].  Barnum & his wife had one child: 

(1)       JOHANNA Barnumsdatter (-[1408]).  Heiress of Skarsholm.  m HANS [I] von Putbus [Podebusk].

(c)       ERIK Eriksen (-[1402]). 

(d)       INGERD Eriksdatter .

(e)       KIRSTEN Eriksdatter m firstly THORBJÖRN Pedersen [Galen?].  m secondly GEVERT Bydelsbak .

2.         SVANTEPOLK Knudsen ([1230]-1310).  Lord of Viby in Sweden.  Knight in Sweden.  He was probably Justiciar [Lagman] of Ostrogothia[790]m ([1250]) BENEDIKTA [Bengta] Sunadotter av Ymseborg, daughter of SUNE Folkason & his wife Helena Sverkersdotter of Sweden (-1261 or after).  Svantepolk & his wife had five children: 

a)         KNUD Svantepolksen .

b)         INGEBORG Svantepolksdotter (-[1341])m firstly JOHAN Filipsson (-executed 1280).  m secondly TUNE Anundsson .

c)         KARIN Svantepolksdotter (-1329).  Abbess of Vreta.

d)         INGRID Svantepolksdotter (-after 1350)m (1288) FOLKE Algotsson Riddare .

e)         INGEGERD Svantepolksdotterm firstly BRYNJOLF Bengtssonm secondly MATTS Törneson .

 

 

 

D.      LØVENBALK

 

 

ERIK Christoffersen [Løvenbalk], illegitimate son of CHRISTOFFER II King of Denmark & his wife his mistress [--- Lunge] .  He left descendants extinct in the male line in the 16th century. 

m ---.  The name of Erik´s wife is not known. 

Erik & his wife had [four] children: 

1.         JOHAN Eriksen [Løvenbalk].  1343. 

2.         MARGRETE Eriksdatter [Løvenbalk]m NIELS Ågesen [Galen] from Karsholm, son of ÅGE Nielsen [Galen] & his wife ---. 

3.         NIELS Eriksen [Løvenbalk].  At Avnsbjerg.  m [SOPHIE Johansdatter Rantzau, daughter of JOHAN Rantzau & his wife ---].  1315/26.  Niels & his wife had one child: 

a)         JENS Nielsen [Løvenbalk] ([1344]-1 Feb 1442, bur Viborg, Franciscan Abbey).  At Avnsbjerg.  m firstly ELLEN Pedersdatter [Munk], daughter of PEDER Munk & his wife ---.  m secondly ---.  The name of Jens´s second wife is not known.  Jens & his first wife had four children:

i)          ERIK Jensen [Løvenbalk] (-before 1453).  At Avnsbjerg.  m firstly KAREN Pedersdatter [Gyldenstierne], daughter of PEDER Nielsen [Gyldenstierne] & his wife ---.  m secondly ANNE Albrektsdatter [Krag af Sjælland], daughter of [ALBREKT Hemmingsen] [Krag af Sjælland] & his wife --- (-after 1429).  He left possible descendants. 

ii)         MAREN Jensdatter [Løvenbalk]m JENS Kaas from Kaas, son of NIELS Kaas & his wife --- (-after 1429). 

iii)        GERTRUD Jensdatter [Løvenbalk]m as his first wife, LAURIDS Mus [Mus af Stenalt] (-after 21 Feb 1437, bur Ørsted Church). 

iv)       ELLEN Jensdatter [Løvenbalk]m as his first wife, JENS Olufsen, from Bustrup.  1452. 

Jens & his second wife had [three] children:

v)        SOPHIE Jensdatter [Løvenbalk]m as his first wife, JON Viffertsen [Viffert] from Torstedland, son of VIFFERT Jonsen [Viffert] & his wife Christine Thomasdatter (-1493 before 14 Sep). 

vi)       MOGENS Jensen [Løvenbalk] (-[killed in battle 1441]).  At Avnsbjerg.  m as her second husband, ELSE Svendsdatter [Udsen], widow of ESKILD Ibsen [Basse af Tjele], daughter of SVEND Udsen [Udsen] & his wife Kirsten Andersdatter [Hvide] (-1482, bur Viborg).  He left possible descendants. 

vii)      [MARGRETE Jensdatter [Løvenbalk]m JAKOB Mogensen [Seefeld], from Revsnæs (-after 1406).] 

4.         [MIKKEL Eriksen [Løvenbalk].]  m ---.  The name of Mikkel´s wife is not known.  Mikkel & his wife had one child: 

a)         JOHANNES Mikkelsen [Løvenbalk].  At Bosholm 1404.   

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    KINGS of DENMARK 1412-1448 (POMERANIA and WITTELSBACH)

 

 

HEINRICH von Mecklenburg-Schwerin, son of ALBRECHT II "der Große" Herzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin & his second wife Adelheid von Hohenstein (-Wismar 24 Apr 1383).  He succeeded his father in 1379 as HEINRICH III Herzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin.  He died following an accident in a tournament. 

m firstly ([1361/62]) INGEBORG of Denmark, daughter of VALDEMAR IV King of Denmark & his wife Heilwig von Schleswig (1 Apr 1347-before 16 Jun 1370). 

1.         other children: see MECKLENBURG

2.         MARIE von Mecklenburg (-after 13 May 1402)m (1380) WARTISLAW VII Duke of Pomerania in Hinterpommern, (-killed in battle [1394/24 Feb 1395]). 

a)         ERICH BOGISLAW von Pommern ([1381]-Rügenwalde 1459 [after 4 Apr], bur Rügenwalde, Marienkirche).  He succeeded in 1389 as ERIK III King of Norway, under the regency of Queen Margrete.  He succeeded as Duke of Pomerania in Stolp.  He succeeded in 1396 as ERIK VII King of Denmark and Sweden, crowned 12 Jun 1397.  He ruled as sole king from 1412.  He abdicated in Denmark and Sweden 10 Apr 1440.  He abdicated in Norway in 1442.  Betrothed (1400) to ISABELLE de Bourbon, daughter of LOUIS II Duc de Bourbon & his wife Anne dauphine d'Auvergne Ctss de Forez (-after 1451).  m [firstly] (Lund 25/26 Oct 1406) PHILIPPA of Lancaster, daughter of HENRY IV King of England & his first wife Mary de Bohun (Peterborough Castle 4 Jun 1394-convent of Vadstena, Lingkoping, Sweden 5 Jan 1430, bur convent of Vadstena).  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk records that “Rex” married “duas filias suas, unam regi Daci et alteram [filio] ducis Bavarie tunc imperatoris electi[791].  Her marriage was proposed by her father in 1401 in order to obtain international recognition after his accession, together with the marriage of her oldest brother the future King Henry V to her husband's sister Katharina, although the latter project was abandoned[792].  She took an active part in the government of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, in particular acting as regent for her husband his absence in Italy and Germany in 1423.  She negotiated peace with Hanseatic League and concluded a currency convention between the Union and Lübeck[793].  [m secondly CÆCILIE, daughter of --- (-after 22 Jul 1459)]. 

b)         KATHARINA von Pommern-Stolp ([1390]-4 Mar 1426, bur Neumarkt Hofkirche, transferred to Kloster Gnadenburg).  Negotiations for her marriage with Henry of Monmouth, eldest son of Henry IV King of England and the future Henry V King of England, were abandoned due to the Danish inability to recognise the hereditary right to the Danish throne of any children of the marriage, such right being incompatible with the Danish and Swedish constitutions which guaranteed the elective nature of the monarchies in the two countries[794]m (contract Lund 11 Nov 1406, Ripen 15 Aug 1407) as his first wife, JOHANN Herzog von Bayern Pfalzgraf bei Rhein in Neumarkt, son of RUPRECHT III "Klemb" Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern, King of Germany & his wife Elisabeth von Nürnberg (Neunburg vorm Wald [1383]-Benedictine Kloster Kastl, Oberpfalz 13 Mar 1443, bur Neunburg vorm Wald St Georg).  He succeeded his father 1410 as JOHANN Pfalzgraf in Neunburg vorm Wald und in Neumarkt. 

i)          other children: see PALATINATE

ii)         CHRISTOPH (Neumarkt 26 Feb 1416-Helsingborg 5/6 Jan 1448, bur Roskilde Cathedral).  He succeeded his maternal uncle 10 Apr 1440 as CHRISTOFFER III King of Denmark, 4 Oct 1440 as CHRISTOF King of Sweden and 4 Jun 1441 as CHRISTOF King of Norway.  He succeeded his father in 1443 as Pfalzgraf in Neunburg vorm Wald und in Neumarkt.  m (Copenhagen 12 Sep 1445) as her first husband, DOROTHEA von Brandenburg, daughter of JOHANN "dem Alchimisten" Markgraf von Brandenburg & his wife Barbara von Sachsen [Askanier] (1430-Kalundborg 10 Nov 1495, bur Roskilde Cathedral).  She married secondly (28 Oct 1449) CHRISTIAN I King of Denmark, who had been chosen as her first husband's successor as King of Denmark and Norway. 

 

 



[1] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”), 804, p. 83 onwards. 

[2] Annales Fuldenses , MGH SS I, pp. 227-415. 

[3] Einhardi Annales, MGH SS I, pp. 135-218. 

[4] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum, MGH SS VII, pp. 267-389. 

[5] Annales Ryenses, MGH SS XVI, p. 397. 

[6] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.54, MGH SS VII, p. 303. 

[7] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1917) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. I, Chronicon Roskildense, p. 14. 

[8] ES II 104. 

[9] Annales Fuldenses 782, MGH SS I, p. 349. 

[10] ES II 104. 

[11] ES II 104. 

[12] ES II 104. 

[13] Annales Ryenses, MGH SS XVI, p. 397. 

[14] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.16, MGH SS VII, p. 291. 

[15] RFA, 804, p. 83. 

[16] Einhardi Annales 808, MGH SS I, p. 195. 

[17] Einhardi Annales 809, MGH SS I, p. 196. 

[18] RFA, 808, p. 88. 

[19] RFA, 810, pp. 91-2. 

[20] Einhardi Annales 810, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[21] Annales Fuldenses 810, MGH SS I, p. 355. 

[22] RFA, 810, pp. 91-2. 

[23] RFA, 812, p. 96. 

[24] Einhardi Annales 814, MGH SS I, p. 201. 

[25] Annales Fuldenses 815 MGH SS I, p. 356. 

[26] McKitterick, R. (1983) Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987 (Longman, London and New York), p. 229. 

[27] Annales Fuldenses 815 MGH SS I, p. 356. 

[28] McKitterick (1983), p. 229. 

[29] ES II 104. 

[30] Einhardi Annales 808, MGH SS I, p. 195. 

[31] RFA, 808, p. 88. 

[32] Annales Fuldenses 808, MGH SS I, p. 354. 

[33] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 810, MGH SS I, p. 355. 

[34] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.16, MGH SS VII, p. 291. 

[35] Einhardi Annales 810, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[36] Annales Fuldenses 812, MGH SS I, p. 355. 

[37] RFA, 810 and 811, p. 93. 

[38] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[39] RFA 812, p. 94. 

[40] Einhardi Annales 812, MGH SS I, p. 199. 

[41] Annales Fuldenses 812 MGH SS I, p. 355. 

[42] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[43] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[44] Einhardi Annales 812, MGH SS I, p. 199. 

[45] Annales Fuldenses 812 MGH SS I, p. 355. 

[46] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.17, MGH SS VII, p. 291. 

[47] ES II 104. 

[48] Einhardi Annales 812, MGH SS I, p. 199. 

[49] Annales Fuldenses 782, MGH SS I, p. 349. 

[50] Annales Fuldenses 837, MGH SS I, p. 361. 

[51] Einhardi Annales 812, MGH SS I, p. 200. 

[52] RFA, 812, p. 95. 

[53] Annales Fuldenses 837, MGH SS I, p. 361. 

[54] Einhardi Annales 812, MGH SS I, p. 199. 

[55] Annales Fuldenses 812 MGH SS I, p. 355. 

[56] RFA, 812, p. 94. 

[57] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.17, MGH SS VII, p. 291. 

[58] Einhardi Annales 812, MGH SS I, p. 199. 

[59] Annales Fuldenses 812 MGH SS I, p. 355. 

[60] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.17, MGH SS VII, p. 291. 

[61] Einhardi Annales 812, MGH SS I, p. 200. 

[62] Annales Fuldenses 815 MGH SS I, p. 356. 

[63] RFA, 814, p. 99. 

[64] Einhardi Annales 814, MGH SS I, p. 201. 

[65] Einhardi Annales 815, MGH SS I, p. 202. 

[66] Einhardi Annales 821, MGH SS I, p. 208. 

[67] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris, 33, MGH SS I, p. 597. 

[68] Annales Fuldenses 826, MGH SS I, p. 359. 

[69] Chronicon Roskildense, I, p. 14. 

[70] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 42, MGH SS II, p. 631. 

[71] Annales Bertiniani Pars Secunda auctore Prudentio Trecensi Episcopo 841, MGH SS I, p. 438. 

[72] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris, 33, MGH SS I, p. 597. 

[73] Chronicon Roskildense, I, p. 14. 

[74] Annales Bertiniani II 852. 

[75] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 850, MGH SS I, p. 366. 

[76] Annales Bertiniani II 855. 

[77] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 882, MGH SS I, p. 396. 

[78] Annales Vedastini 882, MGH SS I, p. 520. 

[79] Annales Vedastini 885, MGH SS I, p. 522. 

[80] Reginonis Chronicon 882, MGH SS I, p. 593. 

[81] Annales Fuldenses , Pars Quarta, 883, MGH SS I, p. 398. 

[82] Annales Vedastini 882, MGH SS I, p. 520. 

[83] D Zw 11, p. 36. 

[84] D Zw 16, p. 45. 

[85] Vita Mathildis Reginæ 2, MGH SS IV, p. 285. 

[86] ES II 104. 

[87] Reginonis Chronicon 882, MGH SS I, p. 593. 

[88] Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium I,80 , MGH SS VII, p. 431. 

[89] Annales Bertiniani III 864. 

[90] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 854, MGH SS I, p. 369. 

[91] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.30, MGH SS VII, p. 296. 

[92] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.17, MGH SS VII, p. 291. 

[93] Chronicon Roskildense, I, p. 14. 

[94] Chronicon Roskildense, I, p. 15. 

[95] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 850, MGH SS I, p. 366. 

[96] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 854, MGH SS I, p. 369. 

[97] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.30, MGH SS VII, p. 296. 

[98] Chronicon Roskildense, II, p. 15. 

[99] Stenton, F. M. (2001) Anglo-Saxon England 3rd edn (Oxford UP), p 242. 

[100] Einhardi Annales 812, MGH SS I, p. 199. 

[101] Annales Fuldenses 812 MGH SS I, p. 355. 

[102] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.17, MGH SS VII, p. 291. 

[103] Einhardi Annales 812, MGH SS I, p. 200. 

[104] RFA, 814, p. 99. 

[105] Einhardi Annales 814, MGH SS I, p. 201. 

[106] Annales Vedastini 884, MGH SS I, p. 521. 

[107] Annales Bertiniani III 865. 

[108] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 873, MGH SS I, p. 386. 

[109] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 873, MGH SS I, p. 386. 

[110] Annales Vedastini 884, MGH SS I, p. 521. 

[111] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 882, MGH SS I, p. 396. 

[112] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 891, MGH SS I, p. 407. 

[113] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 891, MGH SS I, p. 408. 

[114] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 873, MGH SS I, p. 386. 

[115] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.39, MGH SS VII, p. 298. 

[116] Annales Bertiniani II 855. 

[117] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 857, MGH SS I, p. 370. 

[118] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.30, MGH SS VII, p. 296. 

[119] Chronicon Roskildense, II, p. 15. 

[120] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.30, MGH SS VII, p. 296. 

[121] Stenton (2001), p 242. 

[122] Laing, S. (trans.) (1907) Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings Snorre (Norroena Society, London), available at Online Medieval and Classical Library Release 15b, <http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Heimskringla/> (24 Jan 2003), Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[123] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 24.

[124] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 852, MGH SS I, p. 367. 

[125] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 873, MGH SS I, p. 386. 

[126] Chronicon Roskildense, IV, p. 17. 

[127] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 891, MGH SS I, p. 407. 

[128] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 891, MGH SS I, p. 408. 

[129] Chronicon Roskildense, IV, p. 18. 

[130] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.54, MGH SS VII, p. 303. 

[131] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.54, MGH SS VII, p. 303. 

[132] Chronicon Roskildense, IV, p. 18. 

[133] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.57 and I.59, MGH SS VII, p. 304. 

[134] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 8. 

[135] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.54, MGH SS VII, p. 303. 

[136] Chronicon Roskildense, IV, p. 18. 

[137] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 8. 

[138] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.57 and I.59, MGH SS VII, p. 304. 

[139] Dunham, S. A. (1840) History of Denmark, Sweden and Norway (London), Vol. I 104. 

[140] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press) 1.17, p. 80. 

[141] Chronicon Roskildense, V, p. 18. 

[142] Christiansen, E. (1980) Saxo Grammaticus, Danorum Regum Heroumque Historia, Books X-XVI (B. A. R. International Series 84), 10, II, p. 5. 

[143] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 15. 

[144] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 15. 

[145] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 8, 10, 11. 

[146] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 14. 

[147] Ekrem, I. and Mortensen, L. B. (eds.) Fisher, P. (trans.) (2003) Historia Norwegie (Copenhagen) XII, pp. 80 and 82. 

[148] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 34. 

[149] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 5. 

[150] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 1 and 3. 

[151] Birth date range estimated from the birth of his son in [960]. 

[152] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.61, MGH SS VII, p. 304. 

[153] Runic Stone DR295 at Hällerstad church, Skåne, Sweden, information supplied by Jan Hedbor of Uppsala, in a private email to the author dated 4 May 2008. 

[154] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, VIII, p. 14. 

[155] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.61, MGH SS VII, p. 304. 

[156] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, II, p. 5. 

[157] Chronicon Roskildense, IV and V, pp. 17-18. 

[158] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 10. 

[159] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 15. 

[160] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 15. 

[161] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 27. 

[162] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.3, MGH SS VII, p. 307. 

[163] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.25 and 26, MGH SS VII, p. 315. 

[164] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, VIII, pp. 12-14. 

[165] Willelmi Gemmetensis monachi Historiæ Normannorum, Du Chesne, A. (1619) Historiæ Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui (Paris) (“Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619)”), Liber III, IX, p. 237. 

[166] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, IX, p. 243. 

[167] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38. 

[168] Bluetooth Resource Center – “What is Bluetooth?”, consulted at <http://www.palowireless.com/infotooth/whatis.asp> (5 Feb 2004). 

[169] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.3, MGH SS VII, p. 307. 

[170] Runic Stone at Sönder Vissing, Denmark, information supplied by Jan Hedbor of Uppsala, in a private email to the author dated 4 May 2008. 

[171] ES II 97. 

[172] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, II, p. 5. 

[173] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, V, p. 10. 

[174] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.22, MGH SS VII, p. 314. 

[175] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.25, MGH SS VII, p. 315. 

[176] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38. 

[177] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 99 and 100. 

[178] Historia Norwegie XVII, p. 94. 

[179] Gesta Danorum, 10.12.2. 

[180] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.25, MGH SS VII, p. 315. 

[181] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 29. 

[182] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38. 

[183] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, VIII, pp. 12-13. 

[184] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, VIII, p. 14. 

[185] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.27, MGH SS VII, p. 316. 

[186] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38. 

[187] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.28, II.32 and II.37, MGH SS VII, pp. 316-17 and 318-19. 

[188] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E and F, pp. 126-7. 

[189] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 33. 

[190] Stenton (2001), p. 378. 

[191] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.37, MGH SS VII, pp. 319-20. 

[192] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.38 and II.39, MGH SS VII, p. 320. 

[193] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1013. 

[194] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.49, MGH SS VII, p. 324. 

[195] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, VII, VIII, pp. 251-2. 

[196] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 98. 

[197] Thietmar 7.39, pp. 334-5. 

[198] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 22. 

[199] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38.  

[200] Brenner, S. O. (1978) Nachkommen Gorms des Alten I-XVI Generation (Dansk Historisk Haandbogsforlag), p. 1. 

[201] ES II 97. 

[202] ES II 114. 

[203] Ronay, G. (1989) The Lost King of England, The East European Adventures of Edward the Exile (Boydell), p. 55. 

[204] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 98. 

[205] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 319. 

[206] Fagrskinna, Chapter 24, p. 147, quoted by Rafal T. Prinke, at <http://main.amu.edu.pl/~bkpan/SIGRID/Sigrid.htm> (26 Mar 2005). 

[207] Andersson, T. M. and Gade, K. E. (trans.) (2000) Morkinskinna (Cornell), 4, p. 113. 

[208] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, XII, p. 22. 

[209] Encomium Emmæ Reginæ I.3, MGH SS. 

[210] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 319. 

[211] Fagrskinna, Chapter 49, p. 218, quoted by Rafal T. Prinke, at <http://main.amu.edu.pl/~bkpan/SIGRID/Sigrid.htm> (26 Mar 2005). 

[212] Thietmar 7.40, p. 335. 

[213] Encomium Emmæ Reginæ I.3, MGH SS. 

[214] Stenton (2001), p. 387. 

[215] Birch, W. de G. (ed.) (1892) Liber vitæ Register and martyrology of New Minster and Hyde Abbey Winchester (London), vol. I, p. 57-58, Keynes, S. (ed.) (1996) The Liber vitae of the New Minster and Hyde Abbey Winchester. British Library Stowe 944 facsimile ed. (Copenhagen), folio 26v. 

[216] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.52, MGH SS VII, p. 325. 

[217] Chronicon Roskildense, VII, p. 20. 

[218] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Good, 23. 

[219] Morkinskinna, 4, p. 113. 

[220] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, XIV, p. 28. 

[221] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 97. 

[222] Brenner (1978), p. 2. 

[223] ES II 97. 

[224] Encomium Emmæ Reginæ I.3, MGH SS. 

[225] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 319. 

[226] Fagrskinna, Chapter 49, p. 218, quoted by Rafal T. Prinke, at <http://main.amu.edu.pl/~bkpan/SIGRID/Sigrid.htm> (26 Mar 2005). 

[227] Ronay (1989), p. 55. 

[228] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, VII, VIII, pp. 251-2. 

[229] Ronay (1989), p. 10. 

[230] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle D, E and F, 1016. 

[231] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle D, 1017. 

[232] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle C, 1017. 

[233] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1025. 

[234] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1031. 

[235] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1035, D, 1035, E, 1036 [1035]. 

[236] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle C, 1051. 

[237] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.52, MGH SS VII, p. 325. 

[238] Greenway, D. (2002) Henry of Huntingdon: The History of the English People 1000-1154 (Oxford University Press), II, 2, p. 7. 

[239] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle F, 1013 and 1017. 

[240] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1013. 

[241] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, IX, p. 253. 

[242] Coxe, H. O. (ed.) (1841) Rogeri de Wendover Chronica sive Flores historiarum (London) ("Roger of Wendover"), Vol. I, p. 463. 

[243] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E and F, 1037. 

[244] Barlow (1983), pp. 51-6. 

[245] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle C and D, 1043, and E, 1042 [1043]. 

[246] Stafford, P. 'Emma: The Powers of the Queen in the Eleventh Century', Duggan, A. (ed.) (1997) Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (The Boydell Press), p. 6. 

[247] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1052. 

[248] Coxe, H. O. (ed.) (1841) Rogeri de Wendover Chronica sive Flores historiarum (London) ("Roger of Wendover"), Vol. I, p. 462. 

[249] Stenton (2001), p. 397. 

[250] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C and D, 1035, E, 1036. 

[251] Morkinskinna, 2, p. 100. 

[252] Morkinskinna, 4, p. 111. 

[253] Morkinskinna, 5, p. 116. 

[254] Weir, A. (2002) Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (Pimlico), p. 30. 

[255] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 462. 

[256] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, IX, p. 253. 

[257] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.72, MGH SS VII, p. 332. 

[258] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle C, 1023, where the son of King Canute is not named.   

[259] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle C, 1039. 

[260] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1039 [1040]. 

[261] Weir (2002), p. 31. 

[262] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle C, 1041. 

[263] Forester, T. (trans.) (1854) The Chronicles of Florence of Worcester with two continuations (London), 1042, p. 144. 

[264] Morkinskinna, 4, p. 111. 

[265] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.   

[266] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, IX, p. 253. 

[267] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.54, MGH SS VII, p. 325. 

[268] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. III, Book  V, p. 87. 

[269] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 35, MGH SS XI, p. 272. 

[270] Annalista Saxo 1026. 

[271] Grote, H. (1877) Stammtafeln (reprint Leipzig, 1984), p. 506. 

[272] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1036, MHG SS V, p. 122. 

[273] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1041, MGH SS XXIII, p. 787. 

[274] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989) II, 188, p. 179. 

[275] Fuhrmann, H., trans. Reuter, T. (1995) Germany in the high middle ages c.1050-1200 (Cambridge University Press), p. 40. 

[276] Annalista Saxo 1038. 

[277] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Kalendarium Necrologicum Canonicorum Spirensium, p. 322. 

[278] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.72, MGH SS VII, p. 332. 

[279] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 462. 

[280] Florence of Worcester, 1035, p. 140. 

[281] Morkinskinna, 1, p. 91. 

[282] Morkinskinna, 2, p. 101. 

[283] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1039 [1040]. 

[284] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.72, MGH SS VII, p. 332. 

[285] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 462. 

[286] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C and D, 1035, E, 1036. 

[287] Florence of Worcester, 1035, p. 140.   

[288] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1036. 

[289] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C and D, 1036. 

[290] Florence of Worcester, 1035, p. 140. 

[291] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1037. 

[292] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1040. 

[293] Burke's Guide to the Royal Family.  This parentage is not shown in ES II. 

[294] Florence of Worcester 1049, p. 148. 

[295] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.52, MGH SS VII, p. 325. 

[296] Florence of Worcester, 1049, 1051 and 1067, pp. 148, 152 and 172, the last reference calling her sister of Svend King of Denmark. 

[297] Florence of Worcester, 1049, p. 148. 

[298] Morkinskinna, 49, p. 261. 

[299] Le Prévost, A. (1845) Orderici Vitalis Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ (Paris) ("Orderic Vitalis (Prévost)"), Vol. II, Liber IV, V, p. 190. 

[300] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus II (London) (“Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon”), p. 2. 

[301] Florence of Worcester 1049, p. 148. 

[302] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Good, 23. 

[303] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, XVI, p. 34. 

[304] Chronicon Roskildense, VII, p. 20. 

[305] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, XVII, p. 36. 

[306] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.52, MGH SS VII, p. 325. 

[307] Chronicon Roskildense, VII, p. 20. 

[308] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Good, 23. 

[309] Morkinskinna, 4, p. 113. 

[310] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.52, MGH SS VII, p. 325. 

[311] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.52, MGH SS VII, p. 325. 

[312] Florence of Worcester 1049, p. 148. 

[313] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 

[314] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum III.13, MGH SS VII, p. 340. 

[315] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 3. 

[316] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, V, pp. 190-3. 

[317] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 240 footnote 40, the author being sceptical about the accuracy of the statement. 

[318] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 242 footnote 44. 

[319] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 51. 

[320] Morkinskinna, 42, p. 237. 

[321] Stenton (2001), p. 382. 

[322] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, IX, p. 68. 

[323] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.52, MGH SS VII, p. 325. 

[324] Morkinskinna, 4, p. 113. 

[325] Snurre, Saga of Magnus the Good, 23. 

[326] Chronicon Roskildense, IX, p. 22. 

[327] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, V, pp. 190-3. 

[328] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 58. 

[329] Malmesbury, 261, p. 245. 

[330] Stevenson, J. (trans.) (1855) The Historical Works of Simeon of Durham (London) (“Simeon of Durham”), p. 563. 

[331] Chronicon Roskildense, X, p. 23. 

[332] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum III.11 and III.14, MGH SS VII, pp. 339 and 341. 

[333] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 42. 

[334] Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23, cited in Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 232 footnote 24. 

[335] Adam of Bremen, scholium 72 (73), cited in Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 232 footnote 24. 

[336] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 59. 

[337] Adam of Bremen, scholium 72 (73), cited in Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 232 footnote 24. 

[338] Brenner (1978), p. 4. 

[339] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 232 footnote 24. 

[340] Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23, cited in Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 232 footnote 24. 

[341] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 58. 

[342] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") (“WT”) IV.XX, p. 185. 

[343] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber III, Cap. LIV, p. 376. 

[344] For example Brenner (1978), p. 4. 

[345] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, X, pp. 69-72, describes the competing claims of the brothers Harald and Knud. 

[346] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber III, Cap. LIV, p. 377. 

[347] Brenner (1978), p. 4, and Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 (Villeneuve d'Asq), p. 563, footnote 19.  

[348] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 231 footnote 23. 

[349] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230-31, which quotes Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23. 

[350] Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23, quoted in Saxo (Christiansen), p. 230 footnote 23. 

[351] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 58. 

[352] Geoffroi Gaimar: L'Estoire des Englais, 1.5434, cited in Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230 footnote 23. 

[353] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230-31, which quotes Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23. 

[354] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 58. 

[355] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VIII, p. 67. 

[356] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 3. 

[357] Nicknamed as such for his passivity, Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 241 footnote 43. 

[358] Chronicon Roskildense, X, p. 23. 

[359] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Kyrre, 5. 

[360] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 242 footnote 44. 

[361] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 240 footnote 40, the author being sceptical about the accuracy of the statement. 

[362] Birth date range estimated from the birth of her older son in [1059]. 

[363] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 58. 

[364] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230-31, which quotes Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23. 

[365] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 58. 

[366] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 3. 

[367] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, X, pp. 69-72, and XI, p. 72. 

[368] Chronicon Roskildense, X, p. 23. 

[369] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, XI, p. 72. 

[370] Malmesbury, 261, p. 245. 

[371] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, XV, pp. 84-5. 

[372] Chronicon Roskildense, X, p. 24. 

[373] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, XI, p. 72. 

[374] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, XIV, p. 86.  

[375] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, XI, p. 72. 

[376] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Bertin (Paris) II.92, p. 288. 

[377] Saint-Bertin II.45, p. 256. 

[378] Murray, A. V. (2000) The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: a dynastic history 1099-1125 (Prosopographica & Genealogica), p. 144. 

[379] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, XIV, p. 86. 

[380] The Passio, Vitæ Sanctorum Danorum, ed. M. C. Gertz, 2 vols, 1908-12, 195, cited in Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 311 footnote 56. 

[381] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, VI, p. 127. 

[382] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 257 footnote 79. 

[383] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, XIV, p. 86. 

[384] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, XIV, p. 86. 

[385] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, XIV, p. 86.  

[386] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230-31, which quotes Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23. 

[387] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 58. 

[388] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, XIII, p. 78. 

[389] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, XIII and XIV, pp. 78-80. 

[390] Malmesbury, 261, p. 245. 

[391] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, I, p. 90. 

[392] Chronicon Roskildense, XI, p. 24. 

[393] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Kyrre, 5. 

[394] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, I, pp. 90-2. 

[395] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 33. 

[396] Morkinskinna, 53, p. 281. 

[397] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Kyrre, 5. 

[398] Morkinskinna, 53, p. 279. 

[399] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Kyrre, 5. 

[400] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230-31, which quotes Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23. 

[401] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 58. 

[402] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230-31, which quotes Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23. 

[403] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, VIII, p. 104. 

[404] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 58. 

[405] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, VIII, p. 104, although Christensen is sceptical of the truth of the story. 

[406] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, IV, p. 118. 

[407] Snorre, Saga of Hakon Herdebreid, 18. 

[408] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, I, p. 110. 

[409] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, IV, p. 118. 

[410] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 1. 

[411] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 14. 

[412] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 16. 

[413] Snorre, Saga of Hakon Herdebreid, 18. 

[414] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 22. 

[415] Snorre, Saga of Hakon Herdebreid, 18. 

[416] Thorkelin, G. J. (ed.) (1776) Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, Tomus I 1085-1259, p. 15. 

[417] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 279 footnote 42. 

[418] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 2. 

[419] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 15. 

[420] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 279 footnote 42. 

[421] Annales Stadenses, MGH SS XVI, p. 327.  

[422] Annales Stadenses, MGH SS XVI, p. 327.  

[423] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230-31, which quotes Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23. 

[424] Brenner (1978), p. 5. 

[425] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230-31, which quotes Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23. 

[426] Brenner (1978), p. 5. 

[427] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230-31, which quotes Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23. 

[428] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 58. 

[429] Knytlinga, ch. 30, cited in Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 248 footnote 63. 

[430] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, XIV, pp. 85-6. 

[431] Chronicon Roskildense, X, p. 24. 

[432] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230-31, which quotes Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23. 

[433] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 58. 

[434] Geoffroi Gaimar: L'Estoire des Englais, 1.5434, cited in Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230 footnote 23. 

[435] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230-31, which quotes Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23. 

[436] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230-31, which quotes Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23. 

[437] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 58. 

[438] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230-31, which quotes Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23. 

[439] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 58. 

[440] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, VIII, p. 106. 

[441] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 230-31, which quotes Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23. 

[442] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 11, VII, p. 58. 

[443] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, I, p. 90. 

[444] Chronicon Roskildense, XIII, p. 25. 

[445] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 243. 

[446] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 123. 

[447] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, XI, pp. 142-3. 

[448] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, I, p. 108. 

[449] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 28. 

[450] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 243. 

[451] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, I, p. 110. 

[452] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, X, p. 138. 

[453] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 28. 

[454] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 243. 

[455] Annales Colbazienses 1130, MGH SS XIX, p. 715. 

[456] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, V, p. 119. 

[457] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, I, pp. 108-9. 

[458] Chronicon Roskildense, XIV, p. 27. 

[459] Christiansen, E. (1997) The Northern Crusades, 2nd Ed. (Penguin Books), p. 23. 

[460] Jordan, K., trans. Falla, P. S. (1986) Henry the Lion: a Biography (Clarendon Press, Oxford), p. 17. 

[461] Chronicon Roskildense, XVII, p. 31. 

[462] Christiansen (1997), p. 54. 

[463] Jordan (1986), p. 40. 

[464] Jordan (1986), p. 43. 

[465] Jordan (1986), pp. 52-3. 

[466] Chronicon Roskildense, XX, p. 32. 

[467] Jordan (1986), p. 53. 

[468] Jordan (1986), p. 53. 

[469] Chronicon Roskildense, XX, p. 33. 

[470] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 40. 

[471] Brenner (1978), p. 9. 

[472] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, I, p. 108. 

[473] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 28. 

[474] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 2. 

[475] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 232 footnote 23. 

[476] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 232 footnote 23. 

[477] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 243. 

[478] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, VII, p. 104, where King Erik sent to his birth place Slangerup "a particle of the Holy Cross with the most sacred bones of St Nicholas". 

[479] Knytlinga, ch. 30, cited in Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 248 footnote 63. 

[480] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, I, p. 90. 

[481] Chronicon Roskildense, XII, p. 25. 

[482] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Kyrre, 5. 

[483] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, VI, p. 100, and VII, p. 104. 

[484] Chronicon Roskildense, XII, p. 25. 

[485] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, III, pp. 94-6. 

[486] Surtees Society (1841) Liber Vitæ Ecclesiæ Dunelmensis (London, Edinburgh, 1841) (“Liber Vitæ Dunelmensis”), folio 51b, p. 78. 

[487] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, I, p. 90. 

[488] Liljegren, J. G. (ed.) (1829) Diplomatarium Suecanum, Svensk Diplomatarium, Tome I 817-1285 (Stockholm) 101, p. 125. 

[489] Chronicon Roskildense, XII, p. 25. 

[490] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, VI, p. 100, and VII, p. 104. 

[491] Liber Vitæ Dunelmensis, folio 51b, p. 78. 

[492] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, III, p. 96. 

[493] Chronicon Roskildense, XII, p. 25. 

[494] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, III, pp. 114-16. 

[495] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, IV, p. 118. 

[496] Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum I, 49, MGH SS XXI, p. 49. 

[497] Chronicon Roskildense, XIV, p. 27. 

[498] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, VI, pp. 125-9. 

[499] Annales Colbazienses 1130, MGH SS XIX, p. 715. 

[500] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1918) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. II, Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 83. 

[501] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 21. 

[502] Morkinskinna, 66, p. 329. 

[503] Diplomatarium Suecanum 101, p. 125. 

[504] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, I, p. 110. 

[505] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, VI, p. 126. 

[506] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 21. 

[507] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 246. 

[508] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 21. 

[509] Morkinskinna, 82a, p. 359. 

[510] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 1. 

[511] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, XI, p. 142. 

[512] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 246. 

[513] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 21. 

[514] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 246. 

[515] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 246. 

[516] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 21. 

[517] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, III, p. 96. 

[518] Chronicon Roskildense, XII, p. 25. 

[519] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, VI, p. 100, and VIII, p. 105. 

[520] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, IV, pp. 117-18. 

[521] Chronicon Roskildense, XVII, p. 30. 

[522] Christiansen, E. (1997) The Northern Crusades, 2nd Ed, Penguin Books, p. 25. 

[523] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 26. 

[524] Chronicon Roskildense, XVII, p. 31. 

[525] Chronicon Roskildense, XVII, p. 31. 

[526] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 26. 

[527] Chronicon Roskildense, XVII, p. 31. 

[528] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 26. 

[529] Chronicon Roskildense, XVII, p. 30. 

[530] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 5. 

[531] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 26. 

[532] Chronicon Roskildense, XVII, p. 30. 

[533] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 26. 

[534] Chronicon Roskildense, XVII, p. 30. 

[535] Chronicon Roskildense, XVII, p. 30. 

[536] Chronicon Roskildense, XVII, p. 30. 

[537] Chronicon Roskildense, XVII, p. 30. 

[538] Chronicon Roskildense, XVII, p. 30. 

[539] Chronicon Roskildense, XVII, p. 30. 

[540] Chronicon Roskildense, XVII, p. 30. 

[541] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, III, p. 96. 

[542] Morkinskinna, 42, p. 243. 

[543] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 270 footnote 19. 

[544] Orkneyinga Saga 35, p. 79. 

[545] Morkinskinna, 42, p. 243. 

[546] Chronicon Roskildense, XIX, p. 32. 

[547] Chronicon Roskildense, XX, p. 32. 

[548] Annales Colbazienses 1146, MGH SS XIX, p. 715. 

[549] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 7. 

[550] Brenner (1978), p. 12. 

[551] Chronicon Roskildense, XII, p. 25. 

[552] Chronicon Roskildense, XII, p. 25. 

[553] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 12, III, p. 96. 

[554] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, IV, p. 118. 

[555] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 123. 

[556] Cuba, Societatis Regiæ Scientiarum Danicæ (1847) Regesta Diplomatica Historiæ Danicæ, Tome I (Copenhagen) ("Regesta Diplomatica Danica"), 175, p. 35. 

[557] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 177, p. 36. 

[558] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 21. 

[559] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 40. 

[560] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 175, p. 35. 

[561] Baumgarten, N. de 'Généalogies et mariages occidentaux des Rurikides Russes du X au XIII siècles´, Orientalia Christiana Vol. IX - 1, No. 35, May 1927 (reprint, Pont. Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Rome) (“Baumgarten (1927)”), p. 25, citing Langebek, Genealogia Regum Danorum, IV, 250. 

[562] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 175, p. 35. 

[563] Chronicon Roskildense, XX, p. 32. 

[564] Christiansen (1997), p. 54. 

[565] Jordan (1986), p. 40. 

[566] Jordan (1986), p. 43. 

[567] Jordan (1986), pp. 52-3. 

[568] Jordan (1986), p. 53. 

[569] Jordan (1986), p. 53. 

[570] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 228. 

[571] Genealogia Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 228. 

[572] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 21. 

[573] Jordan (1986), p. 43. 

[574] Jordan (1986), pp. 52-3. 

[575] Jordan (1986), p. 53. 

[576] Chronicon Roskildense, XX, p. 33. 

[577] Jordan (1986), p. 73. 

[578] Jordan (1986), p. 82. 

[579] Jordan (1986), pp. 82-3. 

[580] Íslenzkir Annálar sive Annales Islandici (Copenhagen, 1847) ("Annales Islandici"), 1182, p. 75. 

[581] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1151, MGH SS XXIII, p. 841. 

[582] Diplomatarium Suecanum 101, p. 125. 

[583] Arnoldi Chronica Slavorum III, 16, MGH SS XXI, p. 158. 

[584] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 455, p. 68. 

[585] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[586] Annales Islandici, 1199, p. 81. 

[587] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 83. 

[588] Excerpta ex Chronica Godefridi Coloniensis 1198-1238, Fontes rerum Germanicarum II, p. 356. 

[589] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 36. 

[590] Christiansen (1997), p. 68, and Jordan (1986), p. 186. 

[591] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 360, p. 60. 

[592] Jordan (1986), p. 186. 

[593] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 67. 

[594] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 455, p. 68. 

[595] Stephton, J. (trans.) (1898) The Saga of King Sverri of Norway (London) (“Sverissaga”) 182, consulted at <http://www.northvegr.org/lore/Sverri/ (9 Feb 2007). 

[596] Annales Islandici, 1202, p. 83. 

[597] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 83. 

[598] Jordan (1986), p. 64. 

[599] Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum II, 10, MGH SS XXI, p. 95. 

[600] Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum II, 14, MGH SS XXI, p. 99. 

[601] Annales Stadenses 1171, MGH SS XVI, p. 347.  

[602] Jordan (1986), p. 83. 

[603] Brenner (1978), p. 258 note 147. 

[604] Perlbach, M. (ed.) (1882) Pommerellisches Urkundenbuch, Zweite Abteilung (Danzig) ("Pommerellisches Urkundenbuch, II"), II, 24, p. 20. 

[605] Hasselbach, K., Kosegarten, J. (eds.) (1862) Codex Pomeraniæ Diplomaticus, Band I (Greifswald), 153, pp. 362-3. 

[606] Pommerellisches Urkundenbuch, II, 24, p. 20. 

[607] Fabricius, C. G. (ed.) (1859) Urkunden zur Geschichte des Fürstenthums Rügen (Berlin) ("Rügen Urkunden"), Band II, XVI, p. 9. 

[608] Pommerellisches Urkundenbuch, II, 58, p. 51. 

[609] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 455, p. 68. 

[610] Stevenson, J. (ed.) (1875) Radulphi de Coggeshall Chronicon Anglicanum (London), p. 62. 

[611] Balduini Ninovensis Chronicon 1182, MGH SS XXV, p. 536. 

[612] Gesta Innocentii III, xlviii. 93-4, quoted in Conklin, George 'Ingeborg of Denmark, Queen of France, 1193-1223', in Duggan, A. (ed.) (1997) Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (The Boydell Press), p. 40 footnote 4. 

[613] Howlett, R. (ed.) Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I, 4 vols. RS 82 (London, 1884-89), I, 369, quoted in Conklin 'Ingeborg of Denmark', p. 40 footnote 5. 

[614] Baldwin, J. 'La vie sexuelle de Philippe Auguste' Mariage et sexualité ay Moyen âge. Accord ou crise? Colloque international de Conques, sous la direction de M. Rouche, pp. 217-229, and Bruguières, N. B. 'Le mariage de Philippe Auguste et Isambour de Danemark, Aspects canoniques et politiques', Melanges offerts à Jean Dauvilier (Toulouse, 1979), pp. 135-56. 

[615] Coussemaker, I. de (ed.) (1886) Cartulaire de l´abbaye de Cysoing et de ses dépendances (Lille) ("Cysoing"), LX, p. 74. 

[616] Conklin 'Ingeborg of Denmark', p. 51. 

[617] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1237, MGH SS XXIII, p. 942. 

[618] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Eglise Cathédrale de Paris, p. 162.       

[619] Annales Stadenses 1202, MGH SS XVI, p. 353.  

[620] Annales Islandici, 1210, p. 89. 

[621] Annales Ryenses 1221, MGH SS XVI, p. 406. 

[622] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 83. 

[623] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 67. 

[624] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 83. 

[625] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 455, p. 68. 

[626] Sverissaga 182. 

[627] Annales Islandici, 1202, p. 83. 

[628] Annales Islandici, 1219, p. 95. 

[629] Annales Islandici, 1223, p. 99. 

[630] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 242, footnote 45. 

[631] Annales Islandici, 1241, p. 115. 

[632] Annales Stadenses 1241, MGH SS XVI, p. 367.  

[633] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1240, MGH SS XXIII, p. 949. 

[634] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 85. 

[635] Annales Stadenses 1202, MGH SS XVI, p. 353.  

[636] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 229. 

[637] Annales Islandici, 1204, p. 85. 

[638] Annales Ryenses 1205 and 1212, MGH SS XVI, p. 405. 

[639] Cod Giessensis Nr. 176, fol. 234, included as Genealogiæ Comitum et Marchionum sæc XII et XIII, in MGH SS XXIV, p. 78. 

[640] Annales Islandici, 1212, p. 91. 

[641] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 85. 

[642] Annales Ryenses 1214 and 1221, MGH SS XVI, p. 406. 

[643] Annales Islandici, 1214, p. 91. 

[644] Diplomatarium Arna-Magnæanum, I, p. 96. 

[645] Annales Islandici, 1220, p. 95. 

[646] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 85. 

[647] Annales Ryenses 1209, MGH SS XVI, p. 405. 

[648] Annales Islandici, 1209, p. 87. 

[649] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1917) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. I, Chronica Jutensis, p. 443. 

[650] Annales Islandici, 1215 and 1218, pp. 91 and 93. 

[651] Annales Islandici, 1223, p. 99. 

[652] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 735, p. 99. 

[653] Annales Islandici, 1231, p. 105. 

[654] Brenner (1978), p. 15. 

[655] Annales Stadenses 1231, MGH SS XVI, p. 361.  

[656] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 85. 

[657] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 2005, p. 157. 

[658] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VII, 5, RHGF XII, p. 382. 

[659] Faria i Sousa, F. & Alarcon, F. A. de (eds.) (1641) Nobiliario del Conde de Barcelos Don Pedro (Madrid) ("Pedro Barcelos"), Tit. VII, Reyes de Portugal, 4 p. 31. 

[660] Annales Ryenses 1229 and 1231, MGH SS XVI, p. 407. 

[661] Annales Stadenses 1231, MGH SS XVI, p. 361.  

[662] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 85. 

[663] Annales Ryenses 1231, MGH SS XVI, p. 407. 

[664] Annales Ryenses 1216, MGH SS XVI, p. 406. 

[665] Annales Islandici, 1216, p. 93. 

[666] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1917) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. I, Chronica Jutensis, p. 443. 

[667] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1240, MGH SS XXIII, p. 949. 

[668] Annales Islandici, 1231, p. 105. 

[669] Annales Stadenses 1250, MGH SS XVI, p. 373.  

[670] Annales Islandici, 1249, p. 121. 

[671] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (London) (“MP”), Vol. V, 1251, p. 221. 

[672] Chronica Jutensis, p. 444. 

[673] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 86. 

[674] Chronica Jutensis, p. 443. 

[675] Annales Islandici, 1239, p. 113. 

[676] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 791, p. 105. 

[677] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[678] Annales Stadenses 1239, MGH SS XVI, p. 365.  

[679] Annales Ryenses 1239, MGH SS XVI, p. 407. 

[680] Annales Islandici, 1276, p. 148. 

[681] Annales Islandici, 1261, p. 131. 

[682] Annales Islandici, 1287, p. 163. 

[683] Brenner (1978), p. 22. 

[684] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 1348, p. 166. 

[685] Brenner (1978), p. 22. 

[686] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 1348, p. 166. 

[687] Annales Islandici, 1296, p. 173. 

[688] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1917) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. I, Chronica Jutensis, p. 443. 

[689] Annales Ryenses 1221, MGH SS XVI, p. 406. 

[690] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1240, MGH SS XXIII, p. 949. 

[691] Annales Stadenses 1239 and 1241, MGH SS XVI, pp. 365 and 367.  

[692] Annales Stadenses 1250, MGH SS XVI, p. 373.  

[693] Annales Islandici, 1252, p. 123. 

[694] Annales Erphordenses 1252, MGH SS XVI, p. 38. 

[695] Chronica Jutensis, p. 443. 

[696] Annales Stadenses 1237 and 1241, MGH SS XVI, pp. 363 and 367.  

[697] Annales Islandici, 1237, p. 111. 

[698] Annales Ryenses 1237, MGH SS XVI, p. 407. 

[699] Annales Stadenses 1250, MGH SS XVI, p. 373.  

[700] Annales Islandici, 1261, p. 131. 

[701] Annales Stadenses 1250, MGH SS XVI, p. 373.  

[702] Annales Ryenses 1250, MGH SS XVI, p. 408. 

[703] Annales Ryenses 1257, MGH SS XVI, p. 408. 

[704] Annales Hamburgenses 1258, MGH SS XVI, p. 384. 

[705] Cronica Principum Saxonie , MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[706] Annales Hamburgenses 1259, MGH SS XVI, p. 384. 

[707] Chronica Jutensis, p. 446. 

[708] Annales Ryenses 1272, MGH SS XVI, p. 408. 

[709] Cronica Principum Saxonie 6, MGH SS XXV, p. 473. 

[710] Annales Ryenses 1221, MGH SS XVI, p. 406. 

[711] Annales Ryenses 1216, MGH SS XVI, p. 406. 

[712] Annales Islandici, 1216, p. 93. 

[713] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 646, p. 89. 

[714] (1863) Mecklenburgisches Urkundenbuch, Band I 786-1250 (Schwerin) 275. 

[715] Mecklenburgisches Urkundenbuch 275. 

[716] Annales Ryenses 1251, MGH SS XVI, p. 408. 

[717] Lamey, A. (1779) Diplomatische Geschichte der alten Grafen von Ravensberg (Mannheim) ("Ravensberg Codex"), XLIV, 46. 

[718] Ravensberg Codex, XLIV, 46. 

[719] Ravensberg Codex, XLIV, 46. 

[720] Ravensberg Codex, XLVII, 48. 

[721] Annales Islandici, 1276, p. 149. 

[722] Annales Lubicenses 1283, MGH SS XVI, p. 415. 

[723] Fabricius, C. G. (ed.) (1851) Urkunden zur Geschichte des Fürstenthums Rügen (Stettin) ("Rügen Urkunden"), Band III, CCCVIII, p. 128. 

[724] Ravensberg Codex, LXXIX, 73. 

[725] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 2005, p. 157. 

[726] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1917) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. I, Chronica Jutensis, p. 443. 

[727] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1240, MGH SS XXIII, p. 949. 

[728] Annales Ryenses 1221, MGH SS XVI, p. 406. 

[729] Annales Islandici, 1252, p. 123. 

[730] Annales Islandici, 1259, p. 129. 

[731] Chronica Jutensis, p. 445. 

[732] Annales Islandici, 1261, p. 131. 

[733] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 1109, p. 139. 

[734] Annales Hamburgenses 1259, MGH SS XVI, p. 384. 

[735] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 1039, p. 131. 

[736] Annales Islandici, 1261, p. 131. 

[737] Annales Islandici, 1264, p. 135. 

[738] Ravensberg Codex, XLIV, 46. 

[739] Annales Lubicenses 1286, MGH SS XVI, p. 415. 

[740] Annales Islandici, 1286, p. 161. 

[741] Chronica Jutensis, p. 447. 

[742] Annales Lubicenses 1273, MGH SS XVI, p. 414. 

[743] Annales Lubicenses 1304, MGH SS XVI, p. 419. 

[744] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1918) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. II, Vetus Chronica Sialandie, p. 72. 

[745] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 86. 

[746] Annales Lubicenses 1286, MGH SS XVI, p. 415. 

[747] Annales Islandici, 1295, p. 171. 

[748] Annales Colbazienses 1319, MGH SS XIX, p. 717. 

[749] Annales Islandici, 1320, p. 217. 

[750] Chronica Jutensis, p. 451. 

[751] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 86. 

[752] Annales Lubicenses 1297, MGH SS XVI, p. 417. 

[753] Annales Colbazienses 1319, MGH SS XIX, p. 717. 

[754] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 86. 

[755] Brenner (1978), p. 59. 

[756] Annales Lubicenses 1286, MGH SS XVI, p. 415. 

[757] Annales Lubicenses 1286, MGH SS XVI, p. 415. 

[758] Regesta Diplomatica Danica 1344, p. 165. 

[759] Annales Lubicenses 1305, MGH SS XVI, p. 419. 

[760] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 86. 

[761] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 86. 

[762] Novus Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis, Vierter Haupttheil, Band 1, Bruchstücke einer Brandenburgischen Chronik in Pulcawa's Böhmischer Chronik, p. 16. 

[763] Annales Lubicenses 1286, MGH SS XVI, p. 415. 

[764] Annales Islandici, 1295, p. 171. 

[765] Annales Islandici, 1320, p. 217. 

[766] Chronica Jutensis, p. 452. 

[767] Annales Colbazienses 1325, MGH SS XIX, p. 717. 

[768] Chronica Jutensis, p. 454. 

[769] Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci), Liber II, Caput XI, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 135. 

[770] Riedel, A. F. (ed.) (1845) Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis, Zweiter Haupttheil (Berlin), Band 2, DCII, p. 2. 

[771] Chronicon Elwacense 1323, MGH SS X, p. 40.  

[772] Chronica Jutensis, p. 452. 

[773] Codex Brandenburgensis, Zweiter Haupttheil, Band 2, DCII, p. 2. 

[774] Chronica Jutensis, p. 453. 

[775] Chronica Jutensis, p. 453. 

[776] Chronica Jutensis, p. 452. 

[777] Annales Colbazienses 1325, MGH SS XIX, p. 717. 

[778] Chronica Jutensis, p. 454. 

[779] Chronica Jutensis, p. 452. 

[780] Chronica Jutensis, p. 452. 

[781] Chronica Jutensis, p. 455. 

[782] Chronica Jutensis, p. 456. 

[783] Brenner (1978), p. 94. 

[784] Imsen, Steinar 'Late Medieval Scandinavian Queenship', Duggan, A. (ed.) (1997) Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (The Boydell Press), p. 59.

[785] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 2005, p. 157. 

[786] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 85. 

[787] Brenner (1978), p. 15.  She is unnamed in ES III.6. 

[788] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 86. 

[789] M. Sjöström, in a private email to the author dated 10 Feb 2007. 

[790] M. Sjöström, in a private email to the author dated 10 Feb 2007. 

[791] Thompson, E. M. (1904) Chronicon Adæ de Usk 1377-1421, 2nd edn (London) (“Chronicon Adæ de Usk”), p. 85. 

[792] Imsen 'Late Medieval Scandinavian Queenship', p. 56. 

[793] Imsen 'Late Medieval Scandinavian Queenship', p. 62. 

[794] Imsen 'Late Medieval Scandinavian Queenship', p. 56.