NORWay, NOBILITY

  v2.0 Updated 18 February 2011

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.            DESCENDANTS of ERLING SKJALGSSON. 2

Chapter 2.            DESCENDANTS of FINN ARNESSON. 5

Chapter 3.            DESCENDANTS of FIN SKJALGE. 9

Chapter 4.            The LADE JARLS. 10

Chapter 5.            DESCENDANTS of HALFDAN the OLD. 16

Chapter 6.            DESCENDANTS of EILIV. 23

Chapter 7.            DESCENDANTS of IVAR HVIDE. 24

Chapter 8.            DESCENDANTS of NEFSTEIN. 26

Chapter 9.            DESCENDANTS of FOLKVID LAGMAD. 31

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The main primary sources which have been used in the preparation of the present document are English translations of Snorre´s Heimkringsla series of Sagas[1] which is generally dated to [1230], Morkinskinna[2] dated to ten years or so earlier[3], Orkneyinga Saga[4] which was probably written not long after 1200, and the Historia Norwegie, of uncertain date in the late 12th century, which was written in Latin in Norway[5].  The difficulties concerning the unreliability of these sources are fully discussed in the Introduction to the document NORWAY KINGS.  Specific difficulties relating to the descendants of Halfdan the Old, which result from information extracted from Orkneyinga Saga, are discussed in the introduction to Chapter 5 below. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    DESCENDANTS of ERLING SKJALGSSON

 

 

 

HORDAKERE, son of ---. 

m ---.  The name of Hordakere´s wife is not known. 

Hordakere & his wife had four children: 

1.         THORLEIF Spake .  Snorre names (in order) "Thorleif Spake, the second Ogmund father of Thorolf Skialg…third Thord…and lastly Olmod" as the four sons of Hordakare in Hordaland[6]

2.         OGMUND .  Snorre names (in order) "Thorleif Spake, the second Ogmund father of Thorolf Skialg…third Thord…and lastly Olmod" as the four sons of Hordakare in Hordaland[7]m ---.  The name of Ogmund´s wife is not known.  Ogmund & his wife had one child: 

a)         THORLEIF Skjalg .  Snorre names "Thorolf Skialg" as son of Ogmund[8]

-        see below

3.         THORD .  Snorre names (in order) "Thorleif Spake, the second Ogmund father of Thorolf Skialg…third Thord, father of the Herse Klyp who killed King Sigurd…and lastly Olmod" as the four sons of Hordakare in Hordaland[9]m ---.  The name of Thord´s wife is not known.  Thord & his wife had one child: 

a)         KLYP (-Vors 965).  Snorre names "Herse Klyp" as son of Thord when recording that he was killed by Erling "Gamle" after Klyp had killed Sigurd Slefa, brother of Harald I King of Norway in revenge for the rape of his wife[10]m ALOF Asbjörnsdatter, daughter of ASBJÖRN & his wife ---.  Snorre names "Alof…a daughter of Asbjorn" as the wife of "Herse Klyp", when recording that she was raped by Sigurd "Slefa", brother of Harald King of Norway[11]

4.         OLMOD .  Snorre names (in order) "Thorleif Spake, the second Ogmund father of Thorolf Skialg…third Thord…and lastly Olmod" as the four sons of Hordakare in Hordaland[12]m ---.  The name of Olmod´s wife is not known.  Olmod & his wife had one child: 

a)         ASKEL .  Snorre names Askel as son of Olmod[13]m ---.  The name of Askel´s wife is not known.  Askel & his wife had one child: 

i)          ASLOK Fitjaskelle .  Snorre names Aslak "Fitjaskalle" as son of Askel, son of Olmod[14]

 

 

THORLEIF Skjalg, son of OGMUND Hordakeresson.  Snorre names "Thorolf Skialg" as son of Ogmund[15]

m ---.  The name of Thorleif´s wife is not known. 

Thorleif & his wife had one child: 

1.         ERLING Skjalgsson (-killed in battle 21 Dec 1028).  Snorre names "Erling of Sole" as son of Thorolf "Skialg", son of Ogmund[16].  On his marriage, his brother-in-law invested him with the land north of Sognefjord and east of the Lidandisnes.  m (Summer 996) ASTRID Trygvesdatter, daughter of TRYGVE Olavsson King in Vigen and Romerike [son of HARALD I "Hårfagre/Harfagri/Fairhair" King of Norway].  Snorre names Astrid, sister of King Olav Trygvason, and in a later passage records her marriage "in Summer" with "Erling Skjalgson"[17].  Erling & his wife had five children: 

a)         ASLAK Erlingsson (-1028)Snorre names "Aslak, Skialg, Sigurd, Lodin, Thorer and Ragnhild" as the children of Erling & his wife[18].  From Sole.  m (1015) SIGURD Sveinsdatter, daughter of SVEIN Haakonsson Jarl in Norway & Holmfrid of Sweden .  Snorre records the marriage of "Gunhild, Earl Svein's daughter" and "Aslak, Erling's son"[19].  Aslak & his wife had three children: 

i)          SVEIN Askelssonm RAGNHILD Svendsdatter, illegitimate daughter of SVEND II Estridsen King of Denmark & his mistress ---.  She is named by Christiansen as the illegitimate daughter of King Svend, without citing the source[20].  Svein & his wife had one child: 

(a)       KNUT Sveinsson .  From Sole.  [1100].  m RIMHILD, daughter of ---.  Knut & his wife had one child: 

(1)       SVEN Knutsson or Rimhildsson.  1129.

ii)         daughterm Laxe-PAL, son of ---.  Laxe-Pal & his wife had two children: 

(a)       HAAKON "Pungelta" .  Snorre names "Hakon Paulson Pulgelta…a daughter's son of Aslak, son of Erling Skjalgson of Sole, and cousin of Hakon Mage" when recording that he opposed the forces of Inge King of Norway [in 1138][21]

(b)       EINAR (-1155).

iii)        daughter.  m ---.

b)         SKJALG Erlingsson (-10 Aug 1062).  Snorre names "Aslak, Skialg, Sigurd, Lodin, Thorer and Ragnhild" as the children of Erling & his wife[22]

c)         SIGURD Erlingsson.  Snorre names "Aslak, Skialg, Sigurd, Lodin, Thorer and Ragnhild" as the children of Erling & his wife[23]

d)         LODIN Erlingsson (-after 1098).  Snorre names "Aslak, Skialg, Sigurd, Lodin, Thorer and Ragnhild" as the children of Erling & his wife[24]

e)         RAGNHILD Erlingsdatter.  Snorre names "Aslak, Skialg, Sigurd, Lodin, Thorer and Ragnhild" as the children of Erling & his wife, specifying that Ragnhild married Thorberg Arnason[25]m THORBERG Arnesson of Giske, son of ARNE & his wife ---. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    DESCENDANTS of FINN ARNESSON

 

 

 

1.         ARNEm ---.  The name of Arne´s wife is not known.  Arne & his wife had four children: 

a)         THORBERG Arnesson .  Snorre names "Thorberg, Fin and Arne" as the sons of Arne[26]

-        see below

b)         FIN Arnesson (-1062).  Snorre names "Thorberg, Fin and Arne" as the sons of Arne[27].  Of Yriar in Austratt Lendermann Norway.  Morkinskinna records that “Finnr Árnason” left Norway for Denmark where “King Sveinn gave him a jarldom and a great fief”, dated to the early 1050s from the context[28].  Jarl of Halland in Denmark [1051].  m THORBERG [Bergliot] Halfdansdatter, daughter of HALFDAN Sigurdsson & his wife --- ([1018/20]-).  Snorre names "Bergliot, a daughter of Halfdan…son of Sigurd Syr" as the wife of "Fin Arnason"[29].  Her birth date is estimated from the marriage date of her paternal grandparents, but bearing in mind the tight chronology for the birth of her daughter Ingebjörg.  Fin & his wife had two children: 

i)          INGIBJÖRG Finnsdatter ([1030/35]-)Orkneyinga Saga names Earl Thorfinn´s wife as “Ingibjorg, the Earls´-Mother, daughter of Earl Finn Arnason” and niece of Kalf Arnason[30].  Snorre names "Ingebjorg, the earl-mother…a daughter of Fin Arnason" as wife of Earl Thorfin[31]Morkinskinna records that “Thorfinn jarl [of] Orkney” was married to “Kálfr´s sister Ingibjorg Árnasdóttir” at the time Kalf Arnesson fled Norway[32].  The chronology is certainly tight for Ingibjörg to have been Kalf´s niece, if it is correct that she was already married when Kalf fled Norway, which must be dated to [1040/42] from the context in Morkinskinna.  Her birth date is estimated on the basis of the estimated birth dates of her mother and her older son, both of which are restricted.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ingibjorg the Earls´-Mother” (widow of Thorfinn) married “Malcolm King of Scots, known as Long-neck” and that “their son was Duncan, King of Scots, father of William[33].  There must be considerable doubt about whether this can be correct.  Ingibjörg's [first] husband died in [1060/65].  King Malcolm's marriage to Queen Margaret is dated to 1070, three years after her arrival at the Scottish court.  Although this provides sufficient time for the king to have married Ingebjörg, and for Ingebjörg to have died, the chronology for the birth of two sons would be tight.  In addition, it is unlikely that either of these sons was born after [1065], as explained in the document SCOTLAND.  If the king had really married Ingibjörg during this time, and if she had given birth to two sons, the absence of any reference to her in either Scottish or English sources is all the more surprising.  It is possible that King Malcolm's marriage to Ingibjörg (if it did take place) was more Danico, implying concubinage rather than regular marriage, but this does not change the chronological difficulties.  The one puzzle which remains, if the Saga is not correct, is why the author would have fabricated this detail.  m [firstly] ([1045/50]) THORFINN "the Black" Jarl of Orkney, son of SIGURD "Digri" Jarl of Orkney and Caithness & his wife --- of Scotland ([1009]-[1060/65]]).  [m secondly ([1066]) as his first wife, MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland, son of DUNCAN I King of Scotland & his wife Sibylla of Northumbria (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth, later transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, and later still to Escorial, Madrid).] 

ii)         SIGRID Finnsdatter .  Snorre records that "Sigrid, Fin [Arnason]'s daughter" was married to "Earl Orm"[34]m ORM Eilivsson, son of EILIV & his wife Ragnhild Haakonsdatter (-[1055]). 

c)         ARNE Arnesson .  Snorre names "Thorberg, Fin and Arne" as the sons of Arne[35]

d)         KALF Arnesson (-1050) .  Snorre names Kalf as brother of Fin Arnason[36]Morkinskinna records that “Kálfr Árnason” had been promised “a jarldom by King Knútr if he would topple King Óláfr”, but adding in a later passage that he made peace with Olav´s son Magnus when he returned to Norway[37]Orkneyinga Saga records that “Kalf Arnason” fled Magnus King of Norway and found refuge with his niece´s husband Thorfinn Jarl of Orkney[38]Morkinskinna records that “Kálfr Árnason” disputed with King Magnus and fled to Orkney[39].  Snorre records that Kalf was killed in battle in 1050[40]

 

 

THORBERG Arnesson of Giske, son of ARNE & his wife ---.  Snorre names "Thorberg, Fin and Arne" as the sons of Arne[41]

m RAGNHILD Erlingsdatter, daughter of ERLING Skjalgsson & his wife Astrid Trygvesdatter.  Snorre names "Aslak, Skialg, Sigurd, Lodin, Thorer and Ragnhild" as the children of Erling & his wife, specifying that Ragnhild married Thorberg Arnason[42]

Thorberg & his wife had four children: 

1.         EYSTEIN Orre (-killed in battle 25 Sep 1066)Morkinskinna names “Eysteinn orri, son of Thorbergr and grandson of Árni[43]Morkinskinna records that “Eystein Orri” was killed in battle in England with Harald III King of Norway[44]Betrothed ([early 1066]) to MARIA, daughter of HARALD III King of Norway & his wife Ielizaveta Jaroslavna (-25 Sep 1066).  Morkinskinna records that King Harald had promised “his daughter Máría” to “Eystein Orri” when they returned after their invasion of England in 1066[45]

2.         OGMUND Thorbergsson .  His name is confirmed by Snorre naming his son "Skopte Ogmundson, a grandson of Thorberg"[46]m ---.  The name of Ogmund´s wife is not known.  Ogmund & his wife had one child: 

a)         SKOPTI Ogmundsson of Giske (-Rome 1103).  Snorre names "Skopte Ogmundson, a grandson of Thorberg", when recording that he "dwelt at Giske in Sunmore"[47].  Snorre records that Skopte Ogmundson travelled from Norway with his sons Ogmund, Fin and Thord, that Skopte died in Rome, and that his sons also died during the journey[48]m GUDRUN, daughter of THORD Folason & his wife ---.  Snorre names "Gudrun, a daughter of Thord Folason" as the wife of "Skopte Ogmundson"[49].  Skopti & his wife had four children: 

i)          OGMUND (-[1103]).  Snorre names (in order) "Ogmund, Fin, Thord and Thora" as children of "Skopte Ogmundson" & his wife[50].  Snorre records that Skopte Ogmundson travelled from Norway with his sons Ogmund, Fin and Thord, that Skopte died in Rome, and that his sons also died during the journey[51]

ii)         FINN (-[1103]).  Snorre names (in order) "Ogmund, Fin, Thord and Thora" as children of "Skopte Ogmundson" & his wife[52].  Snorre records that Skopte Ogmundson travelled from Norway with his sons Ogmund, Fin and Thord, that Skopte died in Rome, and that his sons also died during the journey[53]

iii)        TORD (-Sicily [1103]).  Snorre names (in order) "Ogmund, Fin, Thord and Thora" as children of "Skopte Ogmundson" & his wife[54].  Snorre records that Skopte Ogmundson travelled from Norway with his sons Ogmund, Fin and Thord, that his sons all died during the journey, Tord dying last in Sicily[55]

iv)       THORA Skoptisdatter.  Snorre names (in order) "Ogmund, Fin, Thord and Thora" as children of "Skopte Ogmundson" & his wife, specifying that Thora married "Asolf Skulason"[56].  In an earlier Saga, Snorre names "Thora, a daughter of Skopte Ogmundson" as the wife of "Asolf of Reine"[57]m ASULF Skulesson of Rein, son of SKULI Tostesson & his wife Gudrun Nefsteinsdatter. 

3.         THORA Thorbergsdotter ([1020/25-).  Snorre names "Thora, daughter of Thorberg Arnason" as mother of King Harald's sons Magnus and Olav[58]Morkinskinna records that King Harald had married “the daughter of Thorbergr Árnason…Thóra[59].  Her birth date range is estimated on the assumption that her relationship with King Harald started around the time of his accession to the Norwegian throne, corroborated by the fact that her son King Magnus was old enough to have fathered a son before his death in 1069.  Mistress: of HARALD III "Hardråde" King of Norway, son of SIGURD Syr King of Ringeringe & his wife Asta Gudbrandsdatter (1015-killed in battle Stamfordbridge 25 Sep 1066).  Mistress: of ---.  Her other relationship is proved by Snorre recording that her grandson "Hakon…was fostered by Thorer of Steig in Gudbrandsdal, who was a brother of King Magnus by the mother's side"[60], although no indication has so far been found of the identity of Thorer's father.  It is assumed that this relationship predated her relationship with King Harald, as it is likely that Thorer would have been older than his half-brother King Magnus to have been chosen as foster-father for his nephew.  [m (1066 or after) as his third wife, SVEND II King of Denmark, son of ULF Thrugilson & his wife Estrid [Margrete] Svendsdatter of Denmark ([1020]-Søderup [29] Apr 1074, bur Roskilde Cathedral).  According to Brenner[61], Thora Thorbergsdotter is identified with Thora who was the wife of King Svend and mother of his son Magnus.  Christiansen considers that this identification is farfetched, considering her age at the time of the supposed marriage[62].  There appears to be another chronological problem: the proposed consecration of Thora's son Magnus at Rome is best explained if he was King Svend's oldest son, which would place his birth (and therefore his parents' marriage) in the late 1030s.] 

4.         JORUNN ThorbergsdotterMorkinskinna records the marriage of “Jórunn, the daughter of Thorbergr Árnason” and “Úlfr Óspaksson…the marshal[63].  Snorre names "Jorun, Thorberg's daughter, a sister of Harald's wife Thora" as wife of "Ulf Uspakson…his marshal" and their children "Joan the Strong of Rasvol, and Brigida mother of Sauda-Ulf, who was father of Peter Byrdar-Svein, father of Ulf Fly and Sigrid.  Joan the Strong's son was Erlend Himalde, father of Archbishop Eystein and his brothers"[64]m ULF Ospaksson Stallare (-1066).  Descendants in ES II 107. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    DESCENDANTS of FIN SKJALGE

 

 

 

FIN Skjalge, son of ---

m GUNHILD Halfdansdatter, daughter of HALFDAN Jarl & his wife Ingeborg of Norway [illegitimate daughter of HARALD I "Harfagri" King of Norway].  Snorre names Gunhild as the daughter of Halfdan & his wife[65].  Snorre names Gunhild, daughter of Earl Halfdan and Ingebjorg, as the mother of Harek's father[66]

Fin & his wife had two children: 

1.         EYVIND Skaldaspiller (-990).  Pöt.  m ---.  The name of Eyvind´s wife is not known.  Eyvind & his wife had one child: 

a)         HAREK of Thjotta (-murdered 1040)m RAGNHILD Arnesdatter, daughter of ARNE Arnmodsson & his wife Thora Thorsteinsdatter.  Snorre names Ragnhild, daughter of "Arne Arnmodson and Thora, Thorstein Galge's daughter" as the wife of Harek of Thjotta[67].  Harek & his wife had three children: 

i)          EINAR Fluga of Thjotta .

ii)         FIN Herkesson (-after 1028).  m ---.  The name of Fin´s wife is not known.  Fin & his wife had one child: 

(a)       HAAKON Finssonm ---.  The name of Haakon´s wife is not known.  Haakon & his wife had one child: 

(1)       ULVHILD Haakonsdatter (-before 1143).  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.  Her second marriage is referred to by Saxo Grammaticus.  She was secretly abducted by Sverker I King of Sweden but their "connection was accepted as a marriage"[68]m firstly as his second wife, INGE II Halstensson King of Sweden, son of HALSTEN Stenkilsson King of Sweden & his wife --- (-1118).  m secondly (divorced) as his second wife, NIELS King of Denmark, illegitimate son of SVEND II King of Denmark & his mistress --- (-murdered Schleswig 25 Jun 1134). 

iii)        SVEN Harkesson .

2.         NJAL Finssonm ---.  The name of Njal´s wife is not known.  Njal & his wife had one child: 

a)         ASTRID Njalsdatterm RAGNVALD "the Old", son of ---. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    The LADE JARLS

 

 

 

HAAKON Grjotgardson, son of --- (-killed in battle Fialar, Stavanger fjord 869).  Jarl of Haalogaland [north Norway].  King Harald "Fairhair" conquered his lands around Trondheim.  Jarl Haakon accepted King Harald's overlordship.  He took up residence in the area of Lade in Trondheim.  Snorre records the death in battle of "Earl Hakon Grjotgardson" in 869 at Fialar in Stavanger fjord, after a dispute with "Earl Atle Mjove" over the control of Firdafylke, which King Harald had granted to Haakon[69]

m ---.  The name of Haakon´s wife is not known. 

Haakon & his wife had four children: 

1.         ASA Haakonsdatter.  Snorre records the marriage of King Harald and "Asa, a daughter of Earl Hakon Grjotgardson"[70]m as his first wife, HARALD I "Hårfagre/Harfagri/Fairhair" King of Norway, son of HALFDAN "Swarti/the Black" King of Vestfold & his second wife [Ragnhild Sigurdsdatter] ([853/54] or 860-Hogaland 933, 934 or 940, bur "under a mound at Haugar in Karmtsund, near the church in Haugesund").  

2.         SIGURD Jarl (-murdered Oglo 962).  Snorre names Sigurd as son of "Earl Hakon Grjotgardson" when recording that he succeeded as ruler of Trondheim after his father died, with his mansion at Hlader[71].  He was a supporter of Haakon I King of Norway, he was confirmed as Jarl in Tröndheim[72].  He was betrayed to King Harald by his brother Grjotgard and burned in his house with all his men[73]m BERGLJOT Thoresdotter, daughter of THORE Ragnvaldsson "Tause/the Silent" Jarl of Möre & his wife Alof Haraldsdatter "Aarbod/Season-bettering" of Norway.  The Historia Norwegie names "Bergliota filia Thoris Tacentis", from "nobilissima Morensium ac Halogensium comitum prosapia", as the wife of "Siwardo"[74].  Snorre names "Bergljot, a daughter of Earl Thorer the Silent" & his wife as the wife of Sigurd[75].  Sigurd & his wife had one child: 

a)         HAAKON Sigurdsson "the Mighty" (Tröndheim mid-winter [955][76]-murdered Trondheim 995).  The Historia Norwegie names "Hacon" as son of "patre Siwardo, matre…Bergliota", recording that he appropriated the crown of Norway by his authority as jarl but did not take the title king[77]

-        see below

3.         GRJOTGARD (-killed in battle More 968).  Snorre names "Grjotgard and Herlaug, the sons of Earl Hakon of Lade" as brothers-in-law of King Harald when recording their death in battle[78].  According to Snorre, he was "much younger and much less respected than his brother", whom he betrayed to King Harald[79].  Appointed to defend More by King Harald, he was killed fighting his nephew Haakon[80]

4.         HERLAUG (-killed in battle More 968).  Snorre names "Grjotgard and Herlaug, the sons of Earl Hakon of Lade" as brothers-in-law of King Harald when recording their death in battle[81]

 

 

HAAKON Sigurdsson "the Mighty", son of Jarl SIGURD Haakonsson & his wife Bergljot Thoresdatter (Tröndheim mid-winter [955][82]-murdered Trondheim 995).  The Historia Norwegie names "Hacon" as son of "patre Siwardo, matre…Bergliota", recording that he appropriated the crown of Norway by his authority as jarl but did not take the title king[83].  Snorre names "Hakon, the son of Earl Sigurd" when recording that he succeeded his father in Trondheim in opposition to King Harald[84].  He was expelled from Norway by King Harald, seeking refuge with Harald King of Denmark, whose invasion of Norway he supported in 965, and who appointed him governor over Rogaland, Hordaland, Sogn, Fjord-district, South More, Raumsdal and North More[85].  Although he thus succeeded, with Danish help, in uniting large parts of Norway under his rule, he did not claim the title of King, assuming the position of Regent of Norway from [970].  King Harald of Denmark called for his help in defeating Emperor Otto who had invaded Jutland, but on his arrival at Limafjord on the island of Marsey he found that the Emperor and the Danish king had agreed a truce.  He was forced to convert to Christianity although he renounced his new religion on returning to Norway[86].  He defeated the fleet of the Jomsborg Vikings, led by Jarl Sigvaldi at Hjorungavag[87].  He was killed during a revolt against his rule which had become more and more authoritarian.  The Historia Norwegie records that he was murdered by "servus suus…Carcus" at Trondheim and his severed head taken to King Olav[88].  Snorre recounts a similar story[89]

m THORA Skagadatter, daughter of SKAGE Skoptason & his wife ---.  Snorre records the marriage of "Earl Hakon" and "Thora, a daughter of the powerful Skage Skoptason"[90]

Haakon & his wife had four children: 

1.         RAMVEIGm THORGRIM Hardrefsson

2.         SVEN Haakonsson Jarl (-1016).  Snorre names "two sons, Svein and Heming, and a daughter Bergljot" as the children of "Earl Hakon" & his wife[91].  The Historia Norwegie names "filii comitis Haconis, Sweino et Ericus" when recording that, after their father's murder, they fled to Denmark where they were received by "rege Sweinone"[92].  He fled to Olav King of Sweden after his father was killed.  With his half-brother Erik, he defeated Olav I King of Norway in the naval battle at Svolder, to revenge their father.  The Historia Norwegie records that Svend King of Denmark appointed "filiis Haconis comitis" to rule Norway after King Olav was killed in battle, and that they ruled the country for 14 years[93].  He was defeated in battle by Olav Haraldson, who succeeded as Olav II King of Norway, escaping to Sweden where he died soon after[94]m HOLMFRID, daughter of [ERIK "Segersäll/the Victorious" King of Sweden] & [his wife Sigrid "Storråda/the Haughty"].  Snorre records the betrothal of "Svein, a son of Earl Hakon, and Earl Eirik's brother" and "Holmfrid, a daughter of King Olaf the Swedish king", although it is chronologically more probable that she was the sister rather than daughter of King Olav[95].  Sven & his wife had two children: 

a)         SIGRID Svensdatter.  Snorre records the marriage of "Gunhild, Earl Svein's daughter" and "Aslak, Erling's son"[96]m (1015) ASLAK Erlingsson, son of ERLING Skjalgsson & his wife Astrid Trygvesdatter (-1028). 

b)         GUNHILD Svensdatter (-after 1060).  Her parentage is referred to in Knytlinga Saga[97].  Snorre records that "Gunhild, Earl Svein's other daughter" was married to "the Danish king Svein Ulfson"[98].  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.  Adam of Bremen refers to the marriage of "rex iuvenis Suein" and "consanguineam a Suedia", the king being threatened with excommunication by the Archbishop of Bremen and papal letters, his wife being named "Gunhild [vel Giuthe] reginam" in a later passage which records that after her separation she devoted herself to charitable activities on her estates[99]m firstly ANUND JAKOB King of Sweden, son of OLUF "Skotkonung" King of Sweden & his wife Estrith of the Abotrites (-[1052]).  m secondly ([1052], divorced 1054) as his first wife, SVEND II King of Denmark, son of ULF Thrugilson & his wife Estrid [Margrete] Svendsdatter of Denmark ([1020]-Søderup [29] Apr 1074, bur Roskilde Cathedral).

3.         HEMING .  Snorre names "two sons, Svein and Heming, and a daughter Bergljot" as the children of "Earl Hakon" & his wife[100]

4.         BERGLJOT (-after 1050).  Snorre names "two sons, Svein and Hemin, and a daughter Bergljot" as the children of "Earl Hakon" & his wife, recording that Bergljot later married "Einar Tabaskielfer"[101]m EINAR Thambarskelfir (-killed in battle 1050). 

a)         EINDRID Einarsson (-killed in battle 1050).  Snorre names Eindride as son of "Einar Tambaskelfer" & his wife[102]m SIGRID Kettilsdatter, daughter of KETTIL Kalf & his wife Gunhild Sigurdsdatter of Norway.  Snorre names "Sigrid, a daughter of Ketil Kalf and Gunhild, King Harald's sister" as the wife of Eindride, son of "Einar Tambaskelfer"[103]

b)         ALOF Einarsdatterm THORD Folesson (-killed in battle 29 Jul [31 Aug] 1030).

Haakon had five iIllegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

5.         ERIK Haakonsson (-[1023/24]).  Snorre records the birth of Eirik to Earl Hakon and "a girl of mean birth" in the Uplands and that he was fostered with "Thorleif the Wise, who dwelt in Medaldal"[104].  The Historia Norwegie names "filii comitis Haconis, Sweino et Ericus" when recording that, after their father's murder, they fled to Denmark where they were received by "rege Sweinone"[105].  He was installed as governor of Vingulmark and Raumarike by Harald King of Denmark 974[106].  He fled to Olav King of Sweden after his father was killed.  With his half-brother Sven, he defeated Olav I King of Norway in the naval battle at Svolder, to revenge their father.  He was appointed regent in Norway in 1000 by his father-in-law Svend King of Denmark.  The Historia Norwegie records that Svend King of Denmark appointed "filiis Haconis comitis" to rule Norway after King Olav was killed in battle, and that they ruled the country for 14 years[107].  He left Norway for England, after he was appointed Earl of Northumbria by King Knud in 1016[108].  However, Olav II took advantage of his departure to wrest power and impose himself as King of all Norway.  m ([996]) GYDA Svendsdatter, [illegitimate] daughter of SVEND I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark.  Snorre records the marriage of Eirik and Gyda, daughter of King Svend, in 996[109].  Erik & his wife had one child: 

a)         HAAKON Eriksson ([997/98]-drowned Pentland Firth 1030 before 29 Jul[110]).  Snorre records the birth of Haakon, son of Eirik & his wife the year after his parents' marriage[111].  He left Norway in [1016/17] after being captured by King Olav, finding refuge in England with King Canute[112].  Jarl in Norway, he was installed as regent of Norway 1028 by Knud King of Denmark after the expulsion of King Olav II.  According to Florence of Worcester, "Hakon a Danish earl who had married the noble lady Gunilda, his [=King Canute's] sister's daughter by Wyrtgeorn king of the Winidi" was banished from England in 1029 by King Canute "for he feared that the earl would take either his life or his kingdom"[113].  He was drowned while returning to Norway from England.  m ([1029]) as her first husband, GUNHILD of the Wends, daughter of BURISLAW Prince of the Wends & his wife [Tyre Haraldsdatter of Denmark] (-after 1045).  Florence of Worcester names "the noble lady Gunhilda daughter of king Wyrtgeorn by Canute's sister and successively the wife of earls Hakon and Harold" when recording that she was banished from England in 1044 with her two sons Haakon and Harald and went to Bruges, later to Denmark[114].  It is not, however, certain that Gunhild was the daughter of Burislaw by his wife Tyre of Denmark.  If this was the case, she was the first cousin of her first husband.  Gunhild is named "kinswoman of King Cnut" in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, when recording that she was expelled from England in 1045 and for a long time thereafter lived at Bruges before going to Denmark[115].  She married secondly ([1031]) Harald Thorkilsen Jarl.  Haakon & his wife had one child: 

i)          BODIL Haakonsdotterm ULF Jarl in Denmark "Galicienfari", son of ---.

Erik had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

b)         SVEIN .  Snorre names "Eirik's sons Hakon and Svein", but implies that he was not the son of Eirik's wife[116]

6.         SIGURD .  986.

7.         ERLAND (-killed in battle 995).  Snorre records that he was killed fighting Olav Trygvason[117]

8.         ERLING (-killed in battle [986]). 

9.         RAGNHILD Haakonsdatter.  Snorre names Ragnhild as an illegitimate daughter of Haakon whom her father married to "Skopte Skagason, a brother of Thora" (the latter being Haakon's wife)[118].  Snorre names Orm as the son of "Ragnhild, a daughter of Earl Hakon the Great"[119]Morkinskinna names “Ingibjorg, daughter of Hákon jarl” as mother of “one of King Magnus´s chieftains…Ormr[120]m firstly SKOPTI Skagasson, son of SKAGE Skoptason & his wife ---.  Snorre records that he was killed by his brother-in-law Erik Haakonson[121]m secondly EILIV, son of ---.

 

 

1.         BERGLIOTm HAVARD Gunnisson.  One child: 

a)         HAAKON Havardsson "Klo/ Claw” m INGEGERD Sigurdsdatter, illegitimate daughter of SIGURD "Slembdjakn" King of part Norway & his mistress Audhild Thorlufsdatter (-tortured to death 1139). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    DESCENDANTS of HALFDAN the OLD

 

 

The opening chapters of Orkneyinga Saga, probably written not long after 1200 and predating Snorre´s Heimskringla although the precise evolution of each work is complicated because the later reviser of Orkneyinga Saga made use of Snorre´s text[122], trace the descent of “Earl Rognwald the Powerful” from “the Sea-Kings” in Norway[123].  As with all the Sagas, it is impossible to distinguish the precise point where folk-legend gives way to historical fact in the narrative.  This document sets out the descent from Halfdan the Old, but the individuals in the first few generations are shown in square brackets as no corroboration for their historical existence, or their relationship to each other, has been found in any primary sources, other than Sagas, so far consulted.  The emphasis on social continuity in the narratives of the Sagas also suggests that relationships between historical figures could have been simplified or even fabricated in the text to give the impression that succession remained within the same family.  For example, Orkneyinga Saga names “Hrolf who conquered Normandy” as son of “Earl Rognwald” and his wife “Ragnhild the daughter of Hrolf Nose[124].  Snorre repeats the same statement.  However, the Historia Norwegie records that, after Orkney was conquered by "principi Rogwaldi" and his followers, "de quorum collegio…Rodulfus" captured Rouen in Normandy[125], making no reference to any blood relationship between "Rodulfus" [Rolf/Rollo] and "principi Rogwaldi".  Precise chronology is also difficult to assess from the Sagas.  In particular, a close analysis of the chronology of the reported events in the lives of Ragnvald and his sons, in particular his youngest reported illegitimate son Turf-Einar, shows considerable difficulties, as explained further below.  The conclusion must be that the tight family network described in the Sagas is unlikely to be correct and that the relationships shown below should be treated with considerable caution. 

 

 

[HALFDAN “the Old” .  Orkneyinga Saga names “…the sea-king Sveidi, father of Halfdan the Old…[126].]  [One child:] 

1.         [IVAROrkneyinga Saga names “Halfdan the Old, father of Earl Ivar of the Uplands…[127].]  [One child:]   

a)         [EYSTEIN “Glumra/Clatterer” .  Orkneyinga Saga names “Earl Ivar of the Uplands, father of Eystein the Clatterer…[128].  Jarl of the Uplanders in Norway [in Kristian and Hedemarken, the area around Oslo].  [Four children:] 

i)          [RAGNVALD "the Wise" (-[894])Orkneyinga Saga names “Eystein the Clatterer, father of the wise counsellor Earl Rognwald the Powerful…[129].  Snorre names Ragnvald Earl of More, a son of Eystein "Glumra" when recording that he had become a supporter of King Harald who had invested him with the districts of North More and Raumsdal[130].  Jarl of North and South Möre and of Raumsdal in Norway.]    

-         see below

ii)         [SIGURD "Riki/the Mighty" (-[892], bur Sydero, Dornoch Firth).  Orkneyinga Saga records that Ragnvald gave “all the islands” (indicating Shetland and Orkney from the context) to “his brother Sigurd, the forecastleman on King Harald´s ship” and that Harald I "Hårfagre" King of Norway gave “the title of earl” to Sigurd who remained in the islands after the king returned to Norway[131]Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd “joined forces with Thorstein the Red, the son of Olaf the White and Aud the Deep-Minded” and together conquered “the whole of Caithness and a large part of Argyll, Moray and Ross”, Sigurd building “a stronghold…in the south of Moray[132]Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd defeated and beheaded “Mælbrigte Earl of the Scots” but that he died from an infected wound because a tooth in Mælbrigte´s head, strapped to Sigurd´s saddle, scratched his leg, and was buried “in a mound on the bank of the River Oykel[133].  The Complete Peerage identifies the place as “Sydero on the Dornoch Firth at the estuary of the Ekkialsbakki[134].  The Complete Peerage dates Sigurd´s appointment as Jarl to [875] and his death to [892][135], but there seems no basis for either date apart from internal consistency with its reconstruction of events in the lives of this family.  Both dates should therefore be considered as extremely approximate, and as noted below the earlier date leads to difficult chonological difficulties with the reported career of Sigurd´s nephew Turf-Einar.]  [One child:] 

(a)       [GUTHORM (-[893]).  Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd was succeeded by his son “Guthorm who ruled the earldom for a year but died childless[136].  According to Snorre´s Harald Harfager´s Saga, Sigurd died “without children” but his Saga of Olaf Haraldson names Guthorm as son of Sigurd, recording that he succeeded his father as earl for one year[137].] 

iii)        [MALAHULC .  Orderic Vitalis (writing in [1113]) names Malahulc as an uncle of Rollo and ancestor of the Tosny family[138].  He is not mentioned in the Sagas and no other primary source has been found which either names him or links him with the later members of the Tosny family.] 

-         TOSNY.  

iv)       [SVANHILD.  Snorre names "Snahild, a daughter of Earl Eystein" as one of the wives of King Harald[139]m as his third wife, HARALD I King of Norway, son of HALFDAN "Swarti/the Black" King of Vestfold & his second wife [Ragnhild Sigurdsdatter] ([853/54] or 860-Hogaland 933[140], 934 or 940, bur "under a mound at Haugar in Karmtsund, near the church in Haugesund").]

 

 

RAGNVALD "the Wise", son of [EYSTEIN "Glumra/Clatterer" Jarl in Norway & his wife ---] (-[894])Orkneyinga Saga names “Eystein the Clatterer, father of the wise counsellor Earl Rognwald the Powerful…”, adding that “Earl Rognwald campaigned with King Harald Fine-Hair who gave him charge of North More, South More and Romsdale[141].  Snorre names "Ragnvald Earl of More, a son of Eystein Glumra" when recording that he had become a supporter of King Harald who had invested him with the districts of North More and Raumsdal[142].  Snorre records that he was created Jarl of North and South Möre and of Raumsdal in Norway by Harald I "Hårfagre" King of Norway after his victory at Solskiel [869] against Hunthiof King of Möre and Nokve King of Raumsdal[143]Orkneyinga Saga and Snorre both record that King Harald granted Shetland and Orkney to Ragnvald in compensation for the death of his son Ivar[144].  The Historia Norwegie records that "principi Rogwaldi" crossed the Solund Sea, destroyed the peoples of the Orkney islands, in the days of "Haraldi Comati regis…Norwegie"[145]Orkneyinga Saga records that “Halfdan Long-Leg and Gudrod Gleam, King Harald´s sons by Snæfrid” attacked “Earl Rognvald of More, killed him and assumed his authority[146].  Snorre records that Ragnvald was ambushed in his hall and burned alive by Halfdan Haaleg and Gudred Liomi, two of King Harald's sons[147]

m [RAGNHILD, daughter of HROLF “Nevja/Nose” & his wife ---.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Rognwald” married “Ragnhild the daughter of Hrolf Nose[148].  Snorre names "Hild, a daughter of Rolf Nefia" as the wife of "Earl Ragnvald"[149].] 

[Ragnvald & his wife had three children:] 

1.         [IVAR (-killed in battle either Hafrsfiord [872] or Orkney [874]).  Orkneyinga Saga names “Ivar and Thorer the Silent” as the two other sons of “Earl Rognwald” and his wife “Ragnhild the daughter of Hrolf Nose”, adding that Ivar was killed in battle fighting with Harald I "Hårfagre" King of Norway in Scotland[150].  Are´s Landnama-book names "Iwar that fell in the Southreys" as the son of "Regin-Wald Earl of More" and his wife "Ragin-hild the daughter of Hrod-wolf Nefia"[151].  Snorre names "Ivar, a son of Ragnvald Earl of More" when recording his death in battle during a Viking campaign against the Scottish islands[152].  The Complete Peerage dates the appointment of Sigurd (Ivar´s reported paternal uncle) as Jarl of Orkney to [875][153], which means that Ivar must have been killed shortly before this date.  However, as explained below this causes considerable chronological difficulties with the reported events in the career of Turf-Einar, Ivar´s youngest illegitimate half-brother, so should be considered as extremely approximate. 

2.         [ROLLO [Hrolf "Ganger/the Walker"] (-Rouen [928/33], bur ---, transferred [1064] to Rouen Cathedral)Orkneyinga Saga names “Hrolf who conquered Normandy” as son of “Earl Rognwald” and his wife “Ragnhild the daughter of Hrolf Nose”, adding that he was so big that no horse could carry him, giving rise to his name “Göngu-Hrolf[154].  Snorre names "Rolf and Thorer" as the two sons of "Earl Ragnvald" and his wife Hild, recording that Rolf was banished from Norway by King Harald and travelled to the Hebrides, settling first in Orkney before moving southwards through Scotland, and eventually conquering Normandy[155].  The Historia Norwegie records that, after Orkney was conquered by "principi Rogwaldi" and his followers, "de quorum collegio…Rodulfus" captured Rouen in Normandy, commenting that he was known as "Gongurolfr" because he was obliged to walk as he was too large to travel on horseback[156].  This source makes no reference to any blood relationship between Rollo and "principi Rogwaldi".  Guillaume de Jumièges accords a Danish origin to Rollo, stating that his father "possédant presque en totalité le royaume de Dacie [Denmark], conquit en outre les territoires limitrophes de la Dacie et de l´Alanie" and left "deux fils…l´aîné Rollon et le plus jeune Gurim"[157].  He is known to history as ROBERT I Comte [de Normandie], although no early source has been identified which refers to him by this name.]    

-        DUKES of NORMANDY

3.         [THORE Ragnvaldsson "Tause/the Silent"Orkneyinga Saga names “Ivar and Thorer the Silent” as the two other sons of “Earl Rognwald” and his wife “Ragnhild the daughter of Hrolf Nose[158].  Snorre names "Rolf and Thorer" as the two sons of "Earl Ragnvald" and his wife Hild[159].  He succeeded his father in [894] as Jarl of Möre, having dispossessed Gudrod "Ljome", son of King Harald, who had seized Möre on the death of Jarl Ragnvald[160]m ([890]) ALOF "Aarbod/Season-bettering", daughter of HARALD I "Hårfagre/Harfagri/Fairhair" King of Norway & his second wife Gyda of Hordaland.  Snorre records that King Harald gave Jarl Thore his daughter "Alof, called Arbot" after the king confirmed him as Jarl of Möre[161].]  [Thore & his wife had one child:] 

a)         [BERGLJOT Thoresdatter.  The Historia Norwegie names "Bergliota filia Thoris Tacentis", from "nobilissima Morensium ac Halogensium comitum prosapia", as the wife of "Siwardo"[162].  Snorre names "Bergljot, a daughter of Earl Thorer the Silent" & his wife as the wife of Sigurd[163]m SIGURD Jarl,  son of HAAKON Grjotgardson Jarl of Haalogaland & his wife -- (-murdered Oglo 962).] 

[Ragnvald had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:] 

4.          [HALLADOrkneyinga Saga names “Hallad, Hrollaug and the youngest Einar” as “natural sons” of “Earl Rognwald[164].  Snorre names "Hallad, the second Einar, the third Hrollaug" as the three sons of "Earl Ragnvald" by concubines, adding that they were all "grown men" when their legitimate brothers were still children[165].  Orkneyinga Saga records that Ragnvald sent “his son Hallad west to the islands” after hearing of the death of his brother and nephew, and that Harald I "Hårfagre" King of Norway gave “the title of earl” to Hallad who “came to Orkney and took up residence on Mainland[166].  Snorre records that Earl Ragnvald installed his son Hallad as Jarl of Orkney after the death of his brother Sigurd, but that he resigned the earldom and returned to Norway[167].  Orkneyinga Saga records that, following complaints by farmers about Viking raids, Hallad “tiring of his rule, gave up the earldom and went back to Norway as a common landholder” which “made him a laughing stock[168]m ---.  The name of Hallad´s wife is not known.  Hallad & his wife had one child: 

a)         THORE .  Are´s Landnama-book records that "Thor-rid the daughter of Thore, the son of Earl Hallad, the son of Rogn-wald Earl of More" married "Thor-gils…"[169]

i)          THOR-RID .  Are´s Landnama-book records that "Thor-rid the daughter of Thore, the son of Earl Hallad, the son of Rogn-wald Earl of More" married "Thor-gils of Thor-gils-stead in Deep-frith, the father of Coll", son of "Thor-beorn Loke…the son of Bead-mod of Scut [who] went to Iceland and took in settlement Deep-frith and Gruoch-ness, up to Gowe-frith", and names their descendants[170]m THORGILS, son of THORBEORN Loke & his wife ---. 

5.          [HROLLAUGOrkneyinga Saga names “Hallad, Hrollaug and the youngest Einar” as “natural sons” of “Earl Rognwald[171].  Snorre names "Hallad, the second Einar, the third Hrollaug" as the three sons of "Earl Ragnvald" by concubines, adding that they were all "grown men" when their legitimate brothers were still children[172].  Orkneyinga Saga records that Ragnvald told his son Hrollaug that “your fate will take you to Iceland [where] you´ll have plenty of descendants[173].  His alleged descendants in Iceland shown below are as stated in Thorstein Side-Hallum's Saga and Flatey-book's St Olaf's Saga[174] but the accuracy of this information, which has not been corroborated in other sources, is unknown.  m ---.  The name of Hrollaug´s wife is not known.]  [Hrollaug & his wife had three children:]

a)         [JON Ozur .  Are´s Landnama-book names "Ozur Ceilis-Eik" as the son of "Hrod-laug"[175]m GRO, daughter of THORD Bad-heart & his wife ---.  Are´s Landnama-book records that "Ozur Ceilis-Eik", son of "Hrod-laug", married "Gro, the daughter of Thord Bad-heart"[176].]  [Jon & his wife had one child:] 

i)          [THOREYAre´s Landnama-book names "Thor-dis, the mother of Hall o´Side" as the daughter of "Ozur Ceilis-Eik", son of "Hrod-laug", and his wife "Gro, the daughter of Thord Bad-heart"[177].  m ---.  The name of Thorey´s husband is not known.]  [Thorey & her husband had one child:] 

(a)        [HALL of Sida .  Are´s Landnama-book names "Thor-dis, the mother of Hall o´Side" as the daughter of "Ozur Ceilis-Eik", son of "Hrod-laug", and his wife "Gro, the daughter of Thord Bad-heart"[178].m ---.  The name of Hall´s wife is not known.]  [Hall & his wife had two children:]

(1)        [THORSTEIN .  Aged 20 at the battle of Clontarf 1014.

(2)        [THORDISOrkneyinga Saga records that “the mother of…Ospak was Thordis, daughter of Hall of Sida[179].  m ---.  The name of Thordis´s husband is not known.]  Thordis & her husband had one child: 

a.          USPAKOrkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Erlend Thorfinnson” married “Thora, the daughter of Sumarlidi Ospaksson”, adding that “the mother of…Ospak was Thordis, daughter of Hall of Sida[180].  m ---.  The name of Uspak´s wife is not known.  Uspak & his wife had one child:

(i)         SOMERLEDOrkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Erlend Thorfinnson” married “Thora, the daughter of Sumarlidi Ospaksson[181].  m ---.  The name of Somerled´s wife is not known.  Somerled & his wife had one child:

(a)        THORA Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Erlend Thorfinnson” married “Thora, the daughter of Sumarlidi Ospaksson”, adding that “the mother of this Ospak was Thordis, daughter of Hall of Sida[182].  Orkneyinga Saga records that “his mother was married…to a man called Sigurd” when her son Magnus returned to Orkney, adding that she and her second husband had a son “Hakon Karl…[and] a farm at Paplay[183].  m firstly ERLEND Thorfinsson Jarl of Orkney, son of THORFINN "the Black" Jarl of Orkney & his wife Ingibjörg Finnsdatter (-in prison Nidaros 1098, bur Nidaros).  m secondly SIGURD of Paplay . 

b)         [HROD-WALD .  Are´s Landnama-book names "Hrod-wald, the father of Oht-here Whale-roe" as "another son of Hrod-laug"[184].

c)          [HALLBERAm ASBIORN, son of HRAFUNKEL of Steinrodar-Stadir in Iceland.] 

6.          [EINAR "Turf-Einar” Orkneyinga Saga names “Hallad, Hrollaug and the youngest Einar” as “natural sons” of “Earl Rognwald[185].  Snorre names "Hallad, the second Einar, the third Hrollaug" as the three sons of "Earl Ragnvald" by concubines, adding that they were all "grown men" when their legitimate brothers were still children[186]Orkneyinga Saga records that Ragnvald sent his “youngest son Einar” to “the islands” after his brother Hallad returned to Norway and that Harald I "Hårfagre" King of Norway gave “the title of earl”, adding that his mother was “slave-born on each side of her family”, and stating that he killed “Thorir Tree-Beard and Kalf Scurvy” and succeeded in imposing his authority in Orkney where “he was the first man to dig peat for fuel…at Tarbat Ness in Scotland”, and that he “was tall and ugly…and…one-eyed[187].  It should be noted that there are considerable chronological difficulties with the career of Turf-Einar and his sons, as reported in Orkneyinga Saga.  The starting point for the analysis of these problems is the date of the battle in Northumbria in which Turf-Einar´s two oldest sons were killed, which can with reasonable accuracy be placed in the early 950s.  If these two sons were at least in their late thirties or forties when they died (a difficult assumption to make considering that they had no reported direct heirs), their births could not be placed before [905/15] at the earliest.  The likelihood would then be that their father, Turf-Einar, was not born much earlier than [975/95].  The difficulty is that this date is completely incompatible with (a) the fact that the illegitimate sons of Ragnvald were reported as “grown men” when their legitimate half-brothers were children, and (b) that the date when Ivar, the oldest legitimate son, was killed is estimated to [874]. 

-        JARLS of ORKNEY

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    DESCENDANTS of EILIV

 

 

 

EILIV, son of ---. 

m as her second husband, RAGNHILD Haakonsdatter, widow of SKOPTI Skagasson, daughter of HAAKON Sigurdsson "the Mighty" Jarl, Regent of Norway & his wife Thora Skagadotter.  Snorre names Ragnhild as an illegitimate daughter of Haakon whom her father married to "Skopte Skagason, a brother of Thora" (the latter being Haakon's wife)[188]Morkinskinna names “Ingibjorg, daughter of Hákon jarl” as mother of “one of King Magnus´s chieftains…Ormr[189].  Snorre names Orm as the son of "Ragnhild, a daughter of Earl Hakon the Great"[190]

Eiliv & his wife had one child: 

1.         ORM Eilivsson (-[1055]).  Snorre names Orm as the son of "Ragnhild, a daughter of Earl Hakon the Great"[191].  A later passage confirms that the mother of "Earl Orm Eilifson" was "Ragnhild, a daughter of Earl Hakon the Great"[192]Morkinskinna names “Ingibjorg, daughter of Hákon jarl” as mother of “one of King Magnus´s chieftains…Ormr[193].  Jarl in Oplandene.  m SIGRID Finsdatter, daughter of FIN Arnesson & his wife Thorberg Halfdansdatter.  Snorre records that "Sigrid, Fin [Arnason]'s daughter" was married to "Earl Orm"[194].  Orm & his wife had two children: 

a)         OGMUND Ormsson .  Snorre names "Ogmund…a son of Earl Orm Eilifson and Sigrid, a daughter of Earl Fin Arnason"[195]m ---.  The name of Ogmund´s wife is not known.  Ogmund & his wife had two children: 

i)          MUNAN Ogmundsson (-killed in battle 1137).  Snorre names Munan son of "Ogmund…a son of Earl Orm Eilifson and Sigrid, a daughter of Earl Fin Arnason", when recording his death in battle against the supporters of Inge King of Norway[196]

ii)         ASTRID Ogmundsdatter .  Snorre names "Astrid, Ogmund's daughter" as the mother of "Karl Sonason"[197]m SUNE Ivarsson .  A Swedish official.  Sune & his wife had one child: 

(a)       KARL Sunasson Jarl in Vestgötland.  Snorre names "Astrid, Ogmund's daughter" as the mother of "Karl Sonason"[198]m as her first husband, BRIGIDA Haraldsdatter, [illegitimate] daughter of HARALD "Gille" King of Norway & his [wife/mistress] --- (-22 Oct ----, bur Riseberga Abbey.  Snorre records that "King Harald Gille's daughter Brigida" was first married to "the Swedish king Inge Halsteinson, and afterwards to Earl Karl Sonason, and then to the Swedish king Magnus", noting that she and King Inge Haraldson were cousins by the mother's side, and "at last [she] married Earl Birger Brose"[199].  She married secondly Magnus Henriksson of Denmark, King in Östergötland, and thirdly Jarl Birger Brosa [Folkungaätten] (-1202). 

b)         RAGNA Ormsdotter .  Snorre names "Ragna, a daughter of Earl Orm Eilifson and Sigrid, a daughter of Earl Fin Arnason" as mother of "Otto"[200]m SVEN Svensson, son of ERLING of Gerd & his wife ---.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    DESCENDANTS of IVAR HVIDE

 

 

IVAR “Hvide/the White”, son of --- (-[1027]).  Snorre names "Ivar the White…a daughter's son of Earl Hakon the Great"[201]Morkinskinna names “Ívarr hvíti…one of Saint Óláfr´s district chieftains[202]

m ---.  The name of Ivar´s wife is not known. 

Ivar & his wife had one child: 

1.         HAAKON Ivarsson (-after 1065).  Snorre names Hakon as son of "Ivar the White"[203]Morkinskinna names “Hákon” as son of “Ívarr hvíti…one of Saint Óláfr´s district chieftains[204].  Jarl in Norway.  Captain of the Coast Defence in Denmark under King Svend II Estridsen [1048-1050].  Jarl of the Uplands in Norway under Harald Hardrada King of Norway [1054-1064].  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Hakon Ivarsson” had been exiled by King Harald and was “granted power in Sweden by King Steinkel[205]m ([1062]) RAGNHILD Magnusdatter, illegitimate daughter of MAGNUS I "Godi/the Good" King of Norway & his mistress ---.  Snorre records the marriage of "Hakon Ivarson" and "Ragnhild [daughter of] King Magnus"[206]Morkinskinna records that “Hákon” as son of “Ívarr hvíti” married “King Magnus´s daughter Ragnhildr”, dated to [1062] from the context[207].  Haakon & his wife had two children: 

a)         SUNNIVA HaakonsdotterMorkinskinna names “Sunnifa” as daughter of “Jarl Hákon[208]m ---.  One child: 

i)          HAAKON Orkneyinga Saga names “Hakon…the Norseman” as “another grandson” of “Hakon Ivarsson”, adding that he was father of “Eirik the Wise,King of Denmark after Eirik Eymuni[209]Morkinskinna, on the other hand, names “Hákon” as son of “Jarl Hákon[210].  It is seems chronologically more probable that the father of King Erik Lam was the grandson rather than the son of Jarl Haakon Ivarsson.  m RAGNHILD Eriksdatter, illegitimate daughter of ERIK "Ejegod/the Good" King of Denmark & his mistress ---.  Morkinskinna records that “Hákon”, son of “Jarl Hákon”, married “the daughter of King Sveinn Úlfsson[211].  It seems chronologically improbable for the mother of King Erik Lam to have been the daughter of King Svend II.  Haakon & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ERIK (-Odense, St Knuds Abbey 27 Aug 1146, bur Odense, St Knuds Abbey)Orkneyinga Saga names “Hakon…the Norseman” as “another grandson” of “Hakon Ivarsson”, adding that he was father of “Eirik the Wise,King of Denmark after Eirik Eymuni[212]Morkinskinna names “Eiríkr Lam, the king of the Danes” as the son of “Hákon”, son of “Jarl Hákon”, and his wife “the daughter of King Sveinn Úlfsson[213].  He succeeded in 1137 as ERIK III "Lam" King of Denmark.  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Hericum tertium filium sororis…Herici" succeeded on the death of King Erik II[214].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "rex…Hericus" became a monk in the tenth year of his reign[215]

-         KINGS of DENMARK

b)         daughterOrkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Paul Thorfinnson” married “a daughter of Earl Hakon Ivarsson[216]m PAUL Thorfinsson Joint Jarl of Orkney, son of THORFINN "the Black" Jarl of Orkney & his wife Ingibjörg Finnsdatter (-in prison Bergen 1098). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    DESCENDANTS of NEFSTEIN

 

 

 

NEFSTEIN, son of ---. 

m INGERID Sigurdsdatter, daughter of SIGURD Syr King of Ringeringe & his wife Asta Gudbrandsdatter.  Snorre names "Ingerid, a daughter of Sigurd Syr and Asta" as the mother of Gudrun, daughter of Nefstein[217]

Nefstein & his wife had three children: 

1.         SIGURDm ---.  The name of Sigurd´s wife is not known.  Sigurd & his wife had one child: 

a)         SIGURD Sigurdsson (-1135).

2.         TORE Ingridsson .

3.         GUDRUN Nefsteinsdatter.  Snorre records that King Olav gave Skule "his female relative, Gudrun, the daughter of Nefstein…and Ingerid" in marriage[218]m SKULI Tostesson, son of [TOSTIG Godwinsson & his wife Judith de Flandre]. 

 

 

SKULI Tostesson "Kongsfostre", son of [TOSTIG Godwinsson & his wife Judith de Flandre] .  Snorre names "Skule, a son of Earl Toste, who since has been called the king's foster-son, and his brother Ketil Krok…of high family in England" when recording that they accompanied Olav King of Norway after their father's were both killed at the battle of Stamford Bridge[219], the context suggesting that he and his brother were adults at the time.  If this is correct, they must have been their father's illegitimate sons and not the children of Tostig who were “unweaned” when their father died, referred to in the Vita Ædwardi Regis[220].  Morkinskinna records that “Skúli, the son of Jarl Tostig Godwinson, and Ketill krókr from Hálogaland came to Norway with King Óláfr” after the failed invasion of England in 1066[221].  Snorre records that King Olav granted lands "eastward at Konungahella, Oslo, Tunsberg, Sarpsborg, Bergen, and north at Nidaros" to Skule[222]Morkinskinna records that “not long after King Haraldr´s fall Skúli went west to England to ask for the return of King Haraldr´s body” which was “readily granted to him[223]

m GUDRUN Nefsteinsdatter, daughter of NEFSTEIN --- & his wife Ingerid Sigurdsdatter.  Snorre records that King Olav gave Skule "his female relative, Gudrun, the daughter of Nefstein…and Ingerid" in marriage[224].  Skuli & his wife had two children: 

1.         ASULF Skulesson of Rein .  Snorre names "Asolf of Reine" as the son of Skule & his wife[225]Morkinskinna names “Ásólfr, the father of Guthormr at Rein” as the son of “Skúli, the son of Jarl Tostig Godwinson[226]m THORA Skoptisdotter, daughter of SKOPTI Ogmundsson of Giske & his wife ---.  Snorre names "Thora, a daughter of Skopte Ogmundson" as the wife of "Asolf of Reine"[227]

a)         GUTTORM Asulfsson of Rein .  Snorre names "Guthorm of Reine" as the son of "Asolf of Reine" & his wife[228]Morkinskinna names “Ásólfr, the father of Guthormr at Rein” as the son of “Skúli, the son of Jarl Tostig Godwinson[229]

-        see below

b)         SIGRIDm HALLKEL Huk.  Halkel & his wife had two children: 

i)          JON Halkelsson m ([1155]) MARGARETA Haraldsdatter, illegitimate daughter of HARALD "Gille" King of Norway & his mistress ---.  Snorre names "Harald Gille's third daughter…Margaret who was married to Jon Halkelson, a brother of Simon"[230].  Jon & his wife had one child: 

(a)       HALLKEL Jonsson (-killed in battle Florevåg near Bergen 3 Apr 1194).  From Blindheim Jarl in Norway.  m (after 19 Jun 1179) as her second husband, RAGNHILD Erlingsdatter, widow of JON Thorbergsson, daughter of ERLING Ormsen Skakke & his wife Kristin of Norway .  The Saga of King Sverre records the marriage of "Ragnhild daughter of Earl Erling and Kristin Kings-daughter" and "Halkel son of Jon Hallkelsson"[231].  Hallkel & his wife had one child: 

(1)       RAGNVALD Hallkelsson (-murdered Husvik near Drøbak 1217, bur Oslo).  Stormann of the Bagler in Norway. 

ii)         SIMON Skalp (-killed in battle 1161).  Snorre names "Simon Skalp, a son of Halkel Huk" when recording his marriage[232]m ([1155]) MARIA Haraldsdatter, illegitimate daughter of HARALD "Gille" King of Norway & his mistress ---.  Snorre names "Harald Gille's second daughter…Maria who was married to Simon Skalp, a son of Halkel Huk"[233].  Simon & his wife had one child: 

(a)       NIKOLAS .  Snorre names Nikolas as son of "Simon Skalp, a son of Halkel Huk" & his wife[234].  Snorre records that "Simon Skalp's son, the son of a daughter of King Harald Gille" was proposed as king in 1161[235]

2.         RAGNHILD Skulisdatterm ORM Svendsson "Krypinge-Orm", son of SVEN Svensson & his wife Ragna Ormsdatter (-[1140]).

 

 

GUTTORM Asulfsson of Rein, son of ASULF Skulesson & his wife Thora Skoptisdotter .  Snorre names "Guthorm of Reine" as the son of "Asolf of Reine" & his wife[236]Morkinskinna names “Ásólfr, the father of Guthormr at Rein” as the son of “Skúli, the son of Jarl Tostig Godwinson[237]

m firstly ELDRED Jonsdotter

m secondly BERGLJOT, daughter of ---. 

m thirdly SIGRID Thorkilsdotter

Guttorm & his ---wife had five children: 

1.         RANGRID Guttormsdotterm firstly BJORN Byrdasvenm secondly FREDERIK Kjona (-1164).  Rangrid & her first husband had one child: 

a)         ELRID Bjornsdotterm firstly THORER Skindfeldm secondly MAGNUS Erlingsson King of Norway, son of ERLING Ormsen "Skakke/the Sharp" Jarl in Norway & his wife Kristin Sigurdsdotter of Norway (1156-killed in battle near Fimreite on Sognefjord 15 Jun 1184, bur Bergen, Christ's Church).

2.         INGERIDm GUTTORM Ostmansson .

3.         GUDRUD .

4.         ASULF Guttormsson

5.         BAARD Guttormsson of Rein (-1194).  Snorre names Bard as son of "Guthorm of Reine"[238]Morkinskinna names “Guthormr at Rein” as father of “Bárdr, the father of King Ingi and Skúli jarl[239]m firstly ULFHILD Palsdatterm secondly (after 15 Jun 1184) as her second husband, CECILIA Sigurdsdotter, divorced wife of FOLKVID Lagmand in Värmland, illegitimate daughter of SIGURD Haraldsson "Mund" Joint King of Norway & his mistress --- (-1185).  The Saga of King Sverre records that King Sverre arranged the marriage of "his sister Cecilia" to "Bard Guthormsson of Rein"[240], dated from the context to just after the death of King Magnus [15 Jun 1184].  m thirdly RAGNDID Erlingsdotter .  Baard & his second wife had one child:

a)         INGE Baardsson (-23 Apr 1217)Morkinskinna names “Guthormr at Rein” as father of “Bárdr, the father of King Ingi and Skúli jarl[241].  Snorre names "Guthorm of Reine" as grandfather of "King Inge and Duke Skule", their father presumably being Baard although this is not stated in this passage[242].  King of the Birkebeiner.  He succeeded as King of Norway in 1204.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1204 of "rex Haquinus, Sverreri filius" and the succession of "Ingo Bardi filius" aged 13 [although this age appears inconsistent with the chronology of the family][243].  Inge had one illegitimate child by GYRITH, daughter of ---:

i)          GUTTORM Ingesson (1205/6-1223/35).

Baard & his third wife had six children:

b)         SIGURD Baardsson .

c)         ARNULF Baardsson .

d)         GUTTORM Baardsson .

e)         SKULI Baardsson (-killed in battle Oslo 1240)Morkinskinna names “Guthormr at Rein” as father of “Bárdr, the father of King Ingi and Skúli jarl[244].  Snorre names "Guthorm of Reine" as grandfather of "King Inge and Duke Skule", their father presumably being Baard although this is not stated in this passage[245].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1217 of "rex Ingo et Philippus rex Vicensium" and the succession of "Haquini, regis Haquini filii et Skulonis comitis"[246].  The Icelandic Annals record that "Haquinum regem et Schulonem comitem" divided "provinciarum Norvegiæ" in 1223[247].  "Skule jarll broder Inga konongs" and "Hakon kongr" donated property to St Olav's church, Nidaros by charter dated 29 Sep 1225 which names "Margrettar dottor"[248].  Duke of Norway:  The Icelandic Annals record that "Rex Haqvinus" created "Skuloni…ducem" in 1238[249].  The Icelandic Annals record that "Skulo dux" gave himself "nomen regis" in 1239[250].  The Icelandic Annals record a battle between "Haquinum regem" and "Skulonem ducem" at Oslo in 1240, and that "dux Skulo et Petrus filius eius" were killed[251]m RAGNHILD, daughter of ---.  Skuli & his wife had three children: 

i)          MARGARETA (-1270).  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1225 of "rex Haquinus" and "Margareta Schulonis comitis filia"[252].  "Skule jarll broder Inga konongs" and "Hakon kongr" donated property to St Olav's church, Nidaros by charter dated 29 Sep 1225 which names "Margrettar dottor"[253]m (25 May 1225) HAAKON Haakonsson King of Norway, illegitimate son of HAAKON Sverkersson King of the Birkebeiner & his mistress Inge --- (posthumously 1204-Orkney [5/16] Dec 1263).

ii)         INGERID (-1232)m (1227) KNUD Haakonsson King of the Ribbunger, son of Jarl HAAKON Galin & his wife Kristin Nilsdotter (-1261). 

iii)        RAGNRID (-after 1247).

Skuli had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

iv)        PETER (-killed in battle Oslo 1240).  The Icelandic Annals record a battle between "Haquinum regem" and "Skulonem ducem" at Oslo in 1240, and that "dux Skulo et Petrus filius eius" were killed[254]

f)          SIGRIDMorkinskinna records that “Sigridr, the sister of King Ingi Bárdarson” married “Jón”, son of “Sigurdr Austrátt, a district chieftain”, who was the son of “Kári King´s brother and [his wife] Borghildr the daughter of Dag Eilífsson[255]m firstly (1206) THORGRIM of Ljanes (-1206).  m secondly JON Sigurdsson of Osteraat, son of SIGURD Austratt & his wife --- (-1214).

g)         INGEBORGm ALF von Thornberg .

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    DESCENDANTS of FOLKVID LAGMAD

 

 

FOLKVID Lagmand in Värmland, son of ---. 

m as her first husband (divorced) CECILIA Sigurdsdatter, illegitimate daughter of SIGURD Haraldsson Mund Joint King of Norway & his mistress --- (-1185).  She married secondly as his second wife, Baard Guttormsson of Rein. 

Folkvid & his wife had [two] children: 

1.         HAAKON "Gallin" Jarl (-1214).  The Saga of King Sverre names "Hakon Gallin a son of King Sverri's sister" at a meeting of the Birkibeins at Borg[256].  The Icelandic Annals record the succession in 1204 of "Ingo Bardi filius" and "frater…eius Haquinus Galin comitatum"[257].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1214 of "Haquinus Galin comes"[258]m (1204) as her first husband, KIRSTIN Nilsdotter, daughter of NILS Blaka & his wife Katerina Eriksdotter of Sweden (-1254).  She married secondly ([1217]) Eskil Magnusson [Folkungaätten] Lagmand in Västergötland.  Haakon & his wife had one child: 

a)         KNUD Haakonsson (-1261).  King of the Ribbungers.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1226 of "Sigurdus…rex Ribbungorum" and the succession of "domicellus Canutus Haquini filius" as leader of "Ribbungis" and his elevation to "regiam dignitatem"[259].  The Icelandic Annals record that "Haquini regis" made peace with "domicelli Canuti Haquini" in 1227[260].  The Icelandic Annals record that King Haakon granted the title count to "Canutum Haqvini filium" in 1239[261].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1261 of "Canutus comes Haqvini filius"[262]m (1227) INGERID Skulesdatter, daughter of SKULI Baardsson & his wife Ragnhild --- (-1232). 

2.         [JON (-murdered Tunsberg  [1190/95]).  The Saga of King Sverre records that "Jon a son of King Sverri's sister" was put to death at Tunsberg[263].  The text does not name the king's sister in question, but Cecilia is the only [half] sister who is recorded in other sources.] 

 

 



[1] Laing, S. (trans.) (1907) Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings Snorre (Norroena Society, London), available at Online Medieval and Classical Library Release 15b, <http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Heimskringla/> (24 Jan 2003). 

[2] Andersson, T. M. and Gade, K. E. (trans.) (2000) Morkinskinna (Cornell). 

[3] Morkinskinna, Introduction, pp. 66-7. 

[4] Pálsson, H. and Edwards, P. (trans.) (1978) Orkneyinga Saga, The History of the Earls of Orkney (Penguin Books). 

[5] Ekrem, I. and Mortensen, L. B. (eds.) Fisher, P. (trans.) (2003) Historia Norwegie (Copenhagen). 

[6] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 60. 

[7] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 60. 

[8] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 60. 

[9] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 60. 

[10] Snorre, Saga of King Harald and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 14. 

[11] Snorre, Saga of King Harald and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 14. 

[12] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 60. 

[13] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 60. 

[14] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 60. 

[15] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 60. 

[16] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 60. 

[17] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 62 and 64. 

[18] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 21. 

[19] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 29. 

[20] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 232 footnote 23. 

[21] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 6. 

[22] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 21. 

[23] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 21. 

[24] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 21. 

[25] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 21. 

[26] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part VII, 190. 

[27] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part VII, 190. 

[28] Morkinskinna, 35, p. 211. 

[29] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 46. 

[30] Orkneyinga Saga 25, p. 63. 

[31] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Good, 37.  

[32] Morkinskinna, 3, p. 104. 

[33] Orkneyinga Saga 33, p. 76. 

[34] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 47. 

[35] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part VII, 190. 

[36] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 53. 

[37] Morkinskinna, 1, pp. 96 and 99. 

[38] Orkneyinga Saga 25, p. 63. 

[39] Morkinskinna, 2, p. 100. 

[40] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 54. 

[41] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part VII, 190. 

[42] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 21. 

[43] Morkinskinna, 41, p. 223. 

[44] Morkinskinna, 50, p. 273. 

[45] Morkinskinna, 50, p. 268. 

[46] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 12. 

[47] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 12. 

[48] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 22. 

[49] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 12. 

[50] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 12. 

[51] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 22. 

[52] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 12. 

[53] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 22. 

[54] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 12. 

[55] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 22. 

[56] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 12. 

[57] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[58] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 33. 

[59] Morkinskinna, 32, p. 204. 

[60] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 105. 

[61] Brenner, p. 4. 

[62] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 232 footnote 24. 

[63] Morkinskinna, 32, p. 204. 

[64] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 38. 

[65] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 1. 

[66] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part IV, 110. 

[67] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part IV, 116. 

[68] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, X, p. 138. 

[69] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 13.

[70] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 3.

[71] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 40.  

[72] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 1. 

[73] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 5. 

[74] Historia Norwegie XVI, pp. 88 and 90. 

[75] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 40.  

[76] He was born in "the night of the first day of Yule" according to Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 12, although no year is specified. 

[77] Historia Norwegie XVI, pp. 88 and 90. 

[78] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 11.

[79] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 4 and 5. 

[80] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 15. 

[81] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 11.

[82] He was born in "the night of the first day of Yule" according to Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 12, although no year is specified. 

[83] Historia Norwegie XVI, pp. 88 and 90. 

[84] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 6 and 13. 

[85] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 15 (which says this took place in 969, which must be inaccurate), and Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 15.   

[86] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 27 and 28. 

[87] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 43. 

[88] Historia Norwegie XVII, p. 94. 

[89] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 55 and 56. 

[90] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 19. 

[91] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 19. 

[92] Historia Norwegie XVII, p. 94. 

[93] Historia Norwegie XVII, pp. 98 and 100. 

[94] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part II, 52 and 53. 

[95] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 123. 

[96] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 29. 

[97] Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23, cited in Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 232 footnote 24. 

[98] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 42. 

[99] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum III.11 and III.14, MGH SS VII, pp. 339 and 341. 

[100] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 19. 

[101] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 19. 

[102] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 40. 

[103] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 40. 

[104] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 8. 

[105] Historia Norwegie XVII, p. 94. 

[106] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 20.

[107] Historia Norwegie XVII, pp. 98 and 100. 

[108] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1016. 

[109] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 97. 

[110] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle C, 1030.

[111] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 97. 

[112] Snorre, Saga of Olav Haraldson Part I, 29. 

[113] Florence of Worcester 1029, p. 136. 

[114] Florence of Worcester 1044, p. 146. 

[115] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle D 1045. 

[116] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 19. 

[117] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 54.

[118] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 19. 

[119] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 42. 

[120] Morkinskinna, 17, p. 159. 

[121] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 20.

[122] Orkneyinga Saga, Introduction, pp. 10-11. 

[123] Orkneyinga Saga 3, p. 26. 

[124] Orkneyinga Saga 4, p. 26. 

[125] Historia Norwegie VI, p. 66. 

[126] Orkneyinga Saga 3, p. 26. 

[127] Orkneyinga Saga 3, p. 26. 

[128] Orkneyinga Saga 3, p. 26. 

[129] Orkneyinga Saga 3, p. 26. 

[130] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 10.

[131] Orkneyinga Saga 4, p. 27. 

[132] Orkneyinga Saga 5, p. 27. 

[133] Orkneyinga Saga 5, pp. 27-8. 

[134] CP X Appendix A, p. 4. 

[135] CP X Appendix A, p. 4. 

[136] Orkneyinga Saga 5, p. 28. 

[137] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 22, and Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 99. 

[138] GND, ii, 94-5. 

[139] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[140] According to Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 45, King Harald "lived 3 years after he gave Erik the supreme authority over his kingdom" dying in 933. 

[141] Orkneyinga Saga 3 and 4, p. 26. 

[142] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 10.

[143] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 12.

[144] Orkneyinga Saga 4, p. 27 and Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 22. 

[145] Historia Norwegie VI, p. 66. 

[146] Orkneyinga Saga 8, p. 29. 

[147] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 30.  

[148] Orkneyinga Saga 4, p. 26. 

[149] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 24.

[150] Orkneyinga Saga 4, pp. 26-7. 

[151] Vigfusson, G. & York Powell, F. (eds. and trans.) (1905) Origines Islandicæ (1905), Vol. I, Are´s Landnama-book, IV, 14.1, p. 187. 

[152] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 24.

[153] CP X Appendix A, p. 4. 

[154] Orkneyinga Saga 4, p. 26. 

[155] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 24.

[156] Historia Norwegie VI, p. 66. 

[157] Guizot, M. (ed.) (1826) Histoire des ducs de Normandie, par Guillaume de Jumiège (Paris) (“WJ”), II.1, pp. 21-2. 

[158] Orkneyinga Saga 4, p. 26. 

[159] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 24.

[160] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 30.  

[161] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 30.  

[162] Historia Norwegie XVI, pp. 88 and 90. 

[163] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 40.  

[164] Orkneyinga Saga 4, p. 26. 

[165] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 24.

[166] Orkneyinga Saga 5, p. 28. 

[167] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 27.  

[168] Orkneyinga Saga 5, p. 28. 

[169] Origines Islandicæ, Vol. I, Are´s Landnama-book, II, 20, 2, p. 96. 

[170] Origines Islandicæ, Vol. I, Are´s Landnama-book, II, 20, 2, p. 96. 

[171] Orkneyinga Saga 4, p. 26. 

[172] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 24.

[173] Orkneyinga Saga 6, p. 28. 

[174] CP X Appendix A p 4 footnote (b), citing Thorstein Side-Hallum's Saga and Flatey-book's St Olaf's Saga ch 358.

[175] Origines Islandicæ, Vol. I, Are´s Landnama-book, IV, 14, 4, p. 189. 

[176] Origines Islandicæ, Vol. I, Are´s Landnama-book, IV, 14, 4, p. 189. 

[177] Origines Islandicæ, Vol. I, Are´s Landnama-book, IV, 14, 4, p. 189. 

[178] Origines Islandicæ, Vol. I, Are´s Landnama-book, IV, 14, 4, p. 189. 

[179] Orkneyinga Saga 33, p. 77. 

[180] Orkneyinga Saga 33, p. 77. 

[181] Orkneyinga Saga 33, p. 77. 

[182] Orkneyinga Saga 33, p. 77. 

[183] Orkneyinga Saga 44, p. 89. 

[184] Origines Islandicæ, Vol. I, Are´s Landnama-book, IV, 14, 4, p. 189. 

[185] Orkneyinga Saga 4, p. 26. 

[186] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 24.

[187] Orkneyinga Saga 6, pp. 28-9. 

[188] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 19. 

[189] Morkinskinna, 17, p. 159. 

[190] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 42. 

[191] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 42. 

[192] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 17. 

[193] Morkinskinna, 17, p. 159. 

[194] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 47. 

[195] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 2. 

[196] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 2. 

[197] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 2. 

[198] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 2. 

[199] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 22. 

[200] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 17. 

[201] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 40. 

[202] Morkinskinna, 42, p. 225. 

[203] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 40. 

[204] Morkinskinna, 42, p. 225. 

[205] Orkneyinga Saga 35, p. 79. 

[206] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 52. 

[207] Morkinskinna, 42, p. 235. 

[208] Morkinskinna, 42, p. 243. 

[209] Orkneyinga Saga 35, p. 79. 

[210] Morkinskinna, 42, p. 243. 

[211] Morkinskinna, 42, p. 243. 

[212] Orkneyinga Saga 35, p. 79. 

[213] Morkinskinna, 42, p. 243. 

[214] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1917) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. I, Chronicon Roskildense, XIX, p. 32. 

[215] Chronicon Roskildense, XX, p. 32. 

[216] Orkneyinga Saga 31, p. 75. 

[217] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[218] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[219] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[220] Barlow (1992), p. 38. 

[221] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[222] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[223] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[224] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[225] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[226] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[227] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[228] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[229] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[230] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 22. 

[231] Sverissaga 118. 

[232] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 22. 

[233] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 22. 

[234] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 22. 

[235] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 1. 

[236] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[237] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[238] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[239] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[240] Sverissaga 100. 

[241] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[242] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[243] Íslenzkir Annálar sive Annales Islandici (Copenhagen, 1847) ("Annales Islandici"), 1204, p. 85. 

[244] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[245] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[246] Annales Islandici, 1217, p. 93. 

[247] Annales Islandici, 1223, p. 99. 

[248] Diplomatarium Norvegicum Vol. I, 8. 

[249] Annales Islandici, 1238, p. 113. 

[250] Annales Islandici, 1239, p. 113. 

[251] Annales Islandici, 1240, p. 115. 

[252] Annales Islandici, 1225, p. 101. 

[253] Diplomatarium Norvegicum Vol. I, 8. 

[254] Annales Islandici, 1240, p. 115. 

[255] Morkinskinna, 69, p. 334. 

[256] Sverissaga 119. 

[257] Annales Islandici, 1204, p. 85. 

[258] Annales Islandici, 1214, p. 91. 

[259] Annales Islandici, 1226, p. 101. 

[260] Annales Islandici, 1227, p. 103. 

[261] Annales Islandici, 1239, p. 115. 

[262] Annales Islandici, 1261, p. 131. 

[263] Sverissaga 119.