SCOTLAND, KINGS

  v2.1 Updated 24 May 2011

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 3

Chapter 1.            ORIGINS, KINGS of SCOTLAND 834-1034. 6

ALPIN 831-834, DONALD I 859-863. 6

GREG [877]-[892] 7

KENNETH I 844-859, CONSTANTINE I 863-877, EOCHAID 878-889, DONALD II 889-900. 9

AEDH 877-878, CONSTANTINE II 900-942, INDULF 954-962, COLIN 967-971, CONSTANTINE III 995-997. 13

MALCOLM I 942-954, DUFF 962-967, KENNETH II 971-995, MALCOLM II 1005-1034. 18

MACBETH 1040-1057. 24

KENNETH III 997-1005, LULACH 1057-1058. 26

Chapter 2.            KINGS of STRATHCLYDE. 28

Chapter 3.            KINGS of SCOTLAND (DUNKELD) 31

A.       ORIGINS.. 31

B.       KINGS OF SCOTLAND 1034-1290. 32

DUNCAN I 1034-1040, DONALD III 1093-1097. 32

MALCOLM III 1058-1093, DUNCAN II 1094, EDMUND 1094-1097, EDGAR 1097-1107, ALEXANDER 1 1107-1124. 36

DAVID I 1124-1153. 46

MALCOLM IV 1153-1165. 48

WILLIAM I 1165-1214. 59

ALEXANDER II 1214-1249, ALEXANDER III 1249-1286, MARGARET 1286-1290. 64

C.      DESCENDANTS of WILLIAM FitzDuncan. 69

Chapter 4.            KINGS of SCOTLAND (BALLIOL) 75

A.       ORIGINS.. 75

B.       KINGS OF SCOTLAND 1292-1296, 1332/1336. 90

JOHN 1292-1296, EDWARD 1332/1336. 90

Chapter 5.            KINGS of SCOTLAND (BRUCE) 92

A.       ORIGINS.. 92

B.       KINGS OF SCOTLAND 1306-1371. 111

ROBERT I 1306-1329, DAVID II 1329-1371. 111

Chapter 6.            KINGS of SCOTLAND (STEWART) 115

A.       HIGH STEWARDS of SCOTLAND.. 115

B.       KINGS of SCOTLAND 1371-1603. 125

ROBERT II 1371-1390. 125

ROBERT III 1390-1406. 132

JAMES I 1406-1437. 134

JAMES II 1437-1460. 136

JAMES III 1460-1488. 138

JAMES IV 1488-1513. 139

JAMES V 1513-1542, MARY 1542-1567, JAMES VI 1567-1625. 141

C.      STEWART of DARNLEY.. 146

D.      STEWART of LORN.. 148

E.       STEWARTS of GARLIES, STEWARTS of MINTO, LORDS BLANTYRE.. 151

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The early history of Scotland is characterised by the absence of contemporary Scottish sources before the 10th century.  This contrasts markedly with the situation in nearly all other European countries during the same period.  No Scottish chronicles survive for this period and references to Scottish affairs in English chronicles are infrequent, although more information is included in Irish chronicles.  In addition, the earliest confirmed Scottish royal charter dates from the reign of King Duncan II at the end of the 11th century, in contrast to the comparative wealth of charter evidence which has survived for Anglo-Saxon England.  Reliable information now available about the early Scottish kingdom and its kings is therefore limited. 

 

The present document attempts to reconstruct the genealogy of the Scottish kings from the mid-9th century.  The earlier period, about which the information contained in the sources appears semi-mythical, has not been attempted.  The reconstruction is based mainly on information extracted from Irish annals, in particular the Annals of Tigernath and Ulster (discussed in more detail in the Introduction to the document IRELAND), and in the 10th to 14th century Scottish chronicles which were collected by Skene in 1867[1].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun[2], which dates from the 1370s, and the later Liber Pluscardensis[3] are two other important sources which have been consulted, although the former is unreliable on many points of detail.  As will be observed when studying this document, these different primary sources are mutually contradictory in many areas.  The major point of difference concerns the regnal years, which means that dating of the early Scottish kings is reliable only when it can be checked against outside sources such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.  A complete analysis of the differences in regnal years between the 16 different surviving manuscripts is set out by Duncan[4]

 

The nub of the problem with the available Scottish sources is that each succeeding manuscript contains more detailed information than the previous ones.  The suspicion is therefore that later chroniclers supplemented the limited information available with bogus additions, for reasons which will be discussed further below.  The earliest available source, the late 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum which records events up to 995[5], contains a bare outline of the names of the kings with some incomplete information about their affiliations and events during their reigns.  In particular, the Cronica de Origine includes no information about how King Aedh and King Indulf were related to the main family line.  However, when we read the 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach[6] and the 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum[7], we see that the information has been expanded to show all the kings as related to each other.  In the case of Kings Aedh and Indulf, they are stated to have been, respectively, the brother of King Constantine I and the son of King Constantine II.  This process of expanded information continues with the Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177[8] and the two Chronicles of the Picts and Scots dated 1251[9] and 1317[10], all of which include additional details about where the kings died and were buried, as well as some further family relationships.  For example Greg (also referred to as Giric or Grime), son of King Kenneth II, whose death is dated to [1005], is named for the first time in the 1251 chronicle.  It is of course not known which earlier sources, since disappeared, may have been used in the compilation of the later manuscripts.  Nevertheless, this phenomenon of expanded information over time does not inspire confidence in the overall reliability of the data. 

 

If the hypothesis is correct, what then would have inspired the later chroniclers to add bogus information?  It is not easy to place oneself in the mind of the later medieval chronicler.  However, in the late 11th century Scotland was emerging from a couple of centuries of political anarchy, exacerbated by continual rivalries with England and Ireland as well as frequent Viking attacks.  For the first time, the kingdom benefited from a series of strong kings (for example Malcolm III, David I and William I) who were powerful enough to forge a sense of national identity.  In this climate of renewed vigour, the contemporary chroniclers may have been keen to emphasise continuity in the earlier royal succession in order to reinforce the legitimacy of the present incumbents and boost national identity.  The idea of continuity was probably best served by a lengthy male-line royal ancestry.  In this context, one is reminded of the lengthy genealogies included in the later Anglo-Saxon chronicles which, as discussed in the Introduction to the document ANGLO-SAXON KINGS, were probably designed to reinforce the legitimacy of usurping monarchs and are of dubious factual accuracy.  An interesting case from the Scottish documentation appears to support this hypothesis: that of King Eochlaid, whose reign is dated to the 880s.  He is named in the 10th century Cronica de Origine as successor to his maternal uncle King Aedh.  However, he is omitted from later documents.  If our hypothesis is correct, this omission may have been intentional as his relationship to his predecessor through the female line was considered incompatible with the idea of male-line royal continuity.  Another point relates to the alleged burial of the early kings on the island of Iona.  These burials are not mentioned in the 10th century Cronica but are first referred to in the Chronicle dated 1177, suggesting another case of information introduced into later documentation to reinforce the sense of continuity in early Scottish history. 

 

Other details about the early kings which are contained in the later Scottish chronicles are also dubious.  For example, the more than 40 year reign attributed to King Constantine III in the first half of the 10th century, compared with the relatively short reigns of his predecessors and successors.  King Constantine is named in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle so there is little doubt that he did exist.  But it is possible that there were in fact two kings of the same name during this period attributed to Constantine III. 

 

Assuming that the information is correct, the Scottish chronicles reveal a remarkably regular alternation of royal succession between two collateral lines of descent from the earliest kings, with no case of a son succeeding his father.  The obvious explanation is that the succession was claimed by the most powerful individual at the time, and that there was no particular pattern or custom which governed the right to the throne.  No evidence has been uncovered to support any hypothesis regarding any succession pattern of these early kings.  The only reference to succession practice which has been found is the report in the Chronicle of John of Fordun which states that King Kenneth II decreed a change to enable "the nearest survivor in blood to the deceased king to succeed"[11].  The move would obviously have been unpopular in the wider royal family, and King Kenneth was not powerful enough to carry it through, as shown by his murder in 995, alleged in the same source to have been committed by his collateral relatives. 

 

Another feature of the reconstructed genealogy which is set out in the present document is the almost total lack of information about female members of the family, in particular the royal consorts.  It would be inappropriate to draw too many conclusions from this about the insignificance of the role of early Scottish queens, assuming that consorts bore such a title (of which there is no evidence), as the absence of information may reflect lack of interest of the chroniclers rather than generally prevailing practices or attitudes.  However, the information about Scottish queens and princesses which is found in primary sources from other countries is also sparse.  This suggests minimal inter-marriage with neighbouring royal or noble families, in contrast once again with the Anglo-Saxon case, where information from Frankish, German and Scandinavian sources supplements the data in English primary sources concerning royal marriages.   

 

Scottish kings were neither crowned nor anointed, but inaugurated in a ceremony which took place outdoors near the cross in the cemetery at the east end of the church of Scone.  It is not known when this practice started as the first detailed account of such a ceremony is the 1249 inauguration of King Alexander III which is recorded in the chronicle of John of Fordun.  There appears to have been no equivalent ceremony for the queen. 

 

The normal recorded form of title of the Scottish kings found in primary sources "rex Scottorum", frequently translated into English as "King of the Scots" rather than "King of Scotland", is of little practical significance as it mirrors the practice in chronicles which describe the king of England as "rex Anglorum" and the duke of Normandy as "dux Normannorum".  The form "King of Scotland" is therefore used throughout this document rather than "King of the Scots". 

 

Early Scottish history between the late 8th and late 11th centuries has been analysed effectively by Alex Woolf, who provides a detailed analysis of primary sources in a highly readable narrative[12].  He pays particular attention to the source which in the present document is called the 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum, which he suggests represents an original king list spliced with other later material and was compiled in its present form by [1200][13]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    ORIGINS, KINGS of SCOTLAND 834-1034

 

 

ALPIN 831-834, DONALD I 859-863

 

1.         [EOCHAID m ---.  The name of Eochaid´s wife is not known.  Eochaid & his wife had [one child]:] 

a)         [ALPIN (-killed in battle against the Picts in Galloway [20 Jul/Aug] 834).  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records the accession of "Alpin the son of Achay" in 831, his reign of three years, and his defeat by the Picts "20 July" after which he was beheaded[14].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "Alpin filius Eochal venenosi iii, Kynedus filius Alpini primus rex Scottorum xvi…" as kings, dated to the 9th century[15].  It should be noted that Alpin´s parentage is not stated in the earlier chronicles.]  m ---.  The name of Alpin's wife is not known.  Alpin & his wife had two children: 

i)          KENNETH [Cinaed] MacAlpin (-Forteviot, Perthshire 13 Feb [858], bur [Isle of Iona]).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record the death in 858 of "Cinaed son of Ailpín king of the Picts"[16].  He succeeded as KENNETH I King of Scotland

-         see below

ii)         DONALD [Domnall] (-Kinn Belachoir palace or killed in battle Scone 13 Apr [863], bur [Isle of Iona]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Kinadius…filius Alpini, primus Scottorum…Dunevaldus frater eius" ruled for four years[17].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "Alpin filius Eochal venenosi iii, Kynedus filius Alpini primus rex Scottorum xvi, Dolfnal filius Alpini iiii…" as kings, dated to the 9th century[18].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Donald also a son of Alpin" succeeded his brother in 854, reigned for four years, died "at Scone" and was buried "in Iona beside his brother"[19].  He succeeded his brother as DONALD I King of Scotland.  The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries[20].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 862 of "Domnall son of Ailpín king of the Picts"[21].  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Dunevaldus" died "in palacio Cinn Belachoir idus Aprilis"[22].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Douenald mac Alpin" reigned for 4 years, died "in Rathinueramon" and was buried "in Iona insula"[23]

 

 

GREG [877]-[892]

 

1.         [LICET] or [DONGAL] .  m ---.  The name of his wife is not known.  [Licet/Dongal] had one child: 

a)         GREG [Grig/Ciricius] (-Donedoure [892], bur [Isle of Iona]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that, when "Eochodius…filius Run regis Britannorum, nepos Cinadei ex filia" succeeded King Aedh, "others say" that "Licet Ciricium filium" reigned[24].  The Cronica de Origine fixes the chronology by adding that "Aed filius Neil" died in the second year of his reign, and that there was a solar eclipse in the ninth year, adding that "Eochodius" was expelled from the kingdom.  The Annals of Inisfallen and Annals of Ulster record the death of Aedh son of Niall King of Ireland (see the document IRELAND) in 879 of "Aed son of Niall king of Temuir[25], which would place the accession of GREG King of Scotland to [877].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Hed filius Kinet i anno, Grig filius Dunegal xii…" as king, dated to the 9th century[26].  No information has yet been found to identify his alleged father "Licet".  However, a different indication of Greg´s parentage is provided by the 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, which name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries[27]  The Chronicle of John of Fordun, presumably echoing the Synchronisms, records that "his brother Heth the Wing-footed…also a son of Kenneth the Great" succeeded King Constantine and reigned one year, although "according to the rule of the kingship Gregory son of Dungallus should have come before him", adding in a later passage that Gregory succeeded as king in 875 after Aedh died, and reigned eighteen years[28].  The chronology suggests that "Ciricius" and "Gregory" refer to the same person.  If these sources are being read correctly, Greg and Eochlaid ruled at the same time, presumably as rival kings probably over different parts of the country.  If the mid-14th century John of Fordun can be believed, Greg had a better claim to the throne than King Aedh.  This would suggest that he was a member of the same family, maybe in the previous generation.  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Edh mac Kynnath" reigned for one year, was killed "in bello de in Strathalun a Girg filio Dungal" and that "Girg mac Dungal" reigned for 12 years, died "in Dundurn" and was buried "in Iona insula"[29].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[30].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "King Gregory died after a vigorous reign of eighteen years, all but a few months…at Donedoure" and was buried "in the island of Iona"[31]

 

 

The precise relationship between the following family group and the main family of Scottish kings has not been determined, but the names suggest a close relationship. 

1.         ALPINm ---.  The name of Alpin´s wife is not known.  Alpin & his wife had one child: 

a)         EOCHAID (-[937/40]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Dubucan filius Indrechtaig mormair Oengusa, Adalstan filius Advar rig Saxan, et Eochaid filius Alpini"[32], dated to [937/40] if the second person named can be identified as Æthelstan King of Wessex. 

 

 

KENNETH I 844-859, CONSTANTINE I 863-877, EOCHAID 878-889, DONALD II 889-900

 

KENNETH [Cinaed] MacAlpin, son of ALPIN & his wife --- (-Forteviot, Perthshire 13 Feb [858], bur [Isle of Iona]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Kinadius…filius Alpini, primus Scottorum" assumed the "Dalriete regnum" two years before coming to "Pictaviam" which he for 16 years[33].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "Alpin filius Eochal venenosi iii, Kynedus filius Alpini primus rex Scottorum xvi…" as kings, dated to the 9th century[34].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Kenneth son of Alpin" succeeded his father in 834, and became king of the Picts in 839 "when they had been overcome", and reigned "nearly sixteen years as sole monarch of these kingdoms"[35].  Thereafter he is considered to have succeeded as KENNETH I King of Scotland.  The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries, adding that "Kenneth son of Alpin…was the first king who possessed the kingdom of Scone, of the Gael"[36].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 858 of "Cinaed son of Ailpín king of the Picts"[37].  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Kinadius…filius Alpini, primus Scottorum" died "Id Feb" from a tumour "in palacio Fothuirtabaicht"[38].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Kynat mac Alpin" reigned for 16 years, died "in Fethertauethn" and was buried "in Yona insula"[39].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information but records his place of death as "Forteviet", and adds that "tres filii…Fergus, Loern, Tenegus" were also buried at Iona[40]

m ---.  The name of Kenneth's wife is not known. 

Kenneth I & his wife had [four] children:

1.         CONSTANTINE [Causantin] (-killed in battle Inverdorat, the Black Cove, Angus [876], bur [Isle of Iona]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Constantinus filius Cinadi" ruled for 16 years[41].  He succeeded his uncle as CONSTANTINE I King of Scotland.  The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries[42].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Constantinus filius Kinet xx…" as king, dated to the 9th century[43].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "his nephew Constantine, son of his brother Kenneth the Great" succeeded in 858 on the death of Donald, and reigned for sixteen years[44].  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that, in the second year of Constantine´s reign, "Amlaib cum gentibus suis" [Olaf King of Dublin] wasted "Pictaviam" which they occupied from 1 Jan to 17 Mar, and that in the third year "Amlaib" was killed by King Constantine[45].  The Annals of Ulster record that in 872 "Artgal king of the Britons of Strathclyde was killed at the instigation of Constantine son of Cinaed"[46].  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that, in the fourteenth year of Constantine´s reign, a battle was fought at "Dolair" between "Danarios et Scottos", after which "Normanni" spent a whole year "in Pictavia"[47].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 876 of "Constantine son of Cinaed king of the Picts"[48].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Constantinus mac Kynat" reigned for 15 years, was killed "a Noruagiensibus in bello de Merdo fatha" and was buried "in Iona insula"[49].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Constantinus mac Kinet" reigned for 16 years, was killed "a Norvagensibus in bello Inuerdofacta" and was buried at Iona[50].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Constantine was killed in battle "at a spot named the Black Den" by the Danes[51]m ---.  The name of Constantine's wife is not known.  Constantine I & his wife had one child:

a)         DONALD (-killed Dun-fother [900], bur [Isle of Iona]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Donivaldus filius Constantini" reigned for eleven years, after the expulsion of Eochlaid[52].  The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries[53].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Duneval filius Constantini xi…" as king[54].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Donald…the son of…Constantine, son of Kenneth the Great" succeeded in 892 after the death of Gregory and reigned for eleven years[55].  He succeeded his cousin as DONALD II "Dasachtach" King of Scotland.  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the battle "Innisibsolian, inter Danarios et Scottos", won by "Scotti", during King Donald´s reign[56].  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that the Scots defeated the Danes during Donald´s reign, and that he was killed "opidum Fother"[57].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 900 of "Domnall son of Constantine king of Scotland"[58].  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that King Donald was killed "opidum Fother…a gentibus"[59].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Donald mac Constantine" reigned for 11 years, died "in Fores" and was buried "in Iona insula"[60].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[61]m ---.  The name of Donald's wife is not known.  Donald & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          [EUGENE .  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Constantine son of Heth the Wing-footed" granted "the lordship of the region of Cumbria" to "Eugenius the son of Donald his expected next heir" in "the sixteenth year of his reign" ([916/20][62].  No reference to him as been found in any other primary source.  His name is not typical of the period.  His existence should be treated with caution.] 

ii)         MALCOLM [Maelcoluim] (-killed Vlurn [954], bur [Isle of Iona]).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record the death in 954 of "Mael Coluim son of Domnall king of Scotland…killed"[63].  He succeeded in 942 as MALCOLM I King of Scotland

-         see below.

2.         [AEDH (-killed in battle Strathallan [878], bur [Isle of Iona] or [Maiden Stone, Aberdeenshire]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Edus" succeeded King Constantine I and for 1 year and was killed "in civitate Nrurim", but does not state the family relationship between the two kings[64].  As noted in the Introduction to this document, the relationship between Aedh and his predecessors is only mentioned from the 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach which name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries[65].  The suspicion is that his family relationship may have been fabricated by later Scottish chroniclers who were concerned with reinforcing the continuity in the male line of the Scottish succession.  He succeeded as AEDH King of Scotland.] 

-        see below

3.         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum which records that "Eochodius…filius Run regis Britannorum, nepos Cinadei ex filia" succeeded King Aedh and ruled for 11 years[66]m RUN Macarthagail King of Strathclyde, son of --- ([878]).  Run & his wife had one child: 

a)         EOCHAID (-[889]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Eochodius…filius Run regis Britannorum, nepos Cinadei ex filia" succeeded King Aedh and ruled for 11 years before being expelled[67].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum does not name Eochlaid in its king-list[68].  He succeeded his maternal uncle as EOCHAID King of Scotland.  His succession appears to have been challenged by Greg (see above).  Deposed [889]. 

4.         MAEL MUIRE (-913).  The mid-12th century Banshenchas records that "Mael Muire daughter of Cinaed son of Alpin" married "Aed Finnliath and then later…Flann Sinna"[69].  The reliability of this information is unknown, although the inclusion of a record of Mael Muire´s death in the Annals of Ulster (see below) indicates that she had some connection with Ireland.  If the information is correct, the chronology dictates that Aedh Finnliath must have divorced his known wife Land of Osraige before marrying Mael Muire.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 913 of "Mael Muire daughter of Cinaed son of Ailpin[70].  [m firstly as his [third] wife, AEDH Finnliath King of Ireland, son of NIALL & his wife --- (-Druimm Inasclainn 20 Nov 879).  m secondly [as his --- wife,] FLANN King of Ireland, son of MAELSECHLAINN King of Ireland & his [second] wife Land of Osraige ([847/48]-Tailltin 25 May 916).]  [Possible child by her first husband:]

a)         [DOMNALL (-after 911)King of Strathclyde.  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Doneualdus rex Britannorum", during its record of the early part of the reign of Constantine II King of Scotland, and the choice of "Duuenaldus filius Ede" to succeed him, "et Flann filius Maelsethnaill et Niall filius Ede"[71].  Some secondary sources show Donald as the son of Aedh King of Scotland.  However, the subsequent references to the two Irish kings in the same passage suggest that the Chronicle is referring to the son of Aedh King of Ireland.  If this hypothesis is correct, it is possible that Domnall´s claim to the Strathclyde throne was through Mael Muire, shown above as the possible second wife of his father, which would mean in turn that this Domnall was not the same person as the son of Aedh of the same name who is recorded in 863 (see above).] 

 

 

AEDH 877-878, CONSTANTINE II 900-942, INDULF 954-962, COLIN 967-971, CONSTANTINE III 995-997

 

AEDH, son of [KENNETH I King of Scotland & his wife ---] (-killed in battle Strathallan [878], bur [Isle of Iona] or [Maiden Stone, Aberdeenshire]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Edus" succeeded King Constantine I and for 1 year and was killed "in civitate Nrurim", but does not state the family relationship between the two kings[72].  As noted in the Introduction to this document, the relationship between Aedh and his predecessors is only mentioned from the 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach which name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries[73].  The suspicion is that his family relationship may have been fabricated by later Scottish chroniclers who were concerned with reinforcing the continuity in the male line of the Scottish succession.  He succeeded as AEDH King of Scotland.  The sources suggest that his succession was challenged by Greg and maybe also by Eochaid.  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Hed filius Kinet i anno, Grig filius Dunegal xii…" as king, dated to the 9th century[74].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "his brother Heth the Wing-footed…also a son of Kenneth the Great" succeeded King Constantine and reigned one year, although "according to the rule of the kingship Gregory son of Dungallus should have come before him"[75].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 878 of "Aed son of Cinaed king of the Picts…killed by his own associates"[76].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Edh mac Kynnath" reigned for one year, was killed "in bello de in Strathalun a Girg filio Dungal" and was buried "in Iona insula"[77].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records the same information[78].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that, "the chiefs of the kingdom being divided amongst themselves", Aedh was mortally wounded in battle "at Strathallam", died two months later, and was buried "in the island of Iona beside his father"[79]

m ---.  The name of Aedh's wife is not known. 

Aedh & his wife had [two] children:

1.         CONSTANTINE (-St Andrews [947/952], bur [Isle of Iona]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Constantinus filius Edii" reigned for forty years, after King Donald II[80].  The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin), Custantin mac Aeda, Maelcolaim mac Domnall, Illolb mac Custantin, Dub mac Maelcolaim, Cuillen mac Illiulb…" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th century[81].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Constantinus filius Hed xxv…" as king[82].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Constantine son of Heth the Wing-footed" succeeded in 903 after the death of Donald and reigned for forty years[83].  He succeeded his cousin in 900 as CONSTANTINE II King of Scotland.  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Normanni" (presumably indicating the Danes) ravaged "Dincalden, omnemque Albaniam" in the third and sixth years of Constantine´s reign[84].  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that King Constantine defeated "Regnall" (presumably referring to Rægnald I King of York, see the document ANGLO-SAXON KINGS) in "bellum Tinemore" in the 17th year of his reign[85].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 923 "the king of Scots and the whole Scottish nation accepted [King Edward the Elder] as father and lord", although the name of the king is not specified nor the circumstances of the subjugation[86].  Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum…Reignoldus rex Danorum…rex Streatcledwalorum" submitted to King Eadward and signed a treaty, undated but dateable to [920/22] from the context[87].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle date of 923 is not compatible with the date of the death of Rægnald King of York, recorded in 921 in the Annals of Ulster[88].  This subjection to England evidently did not last as the Chronicle records King Athelstan bringing "into submission all the kings in this island [including] Constantine king of Scots" in 926 and invading Scotland in 934 "both with a land and naval force"[89].  Florence of Worcester records King Constantine's invasion of England and defeat, with his son-in-law Olaf King of York, at Brunanburgh in 937 by Athelstan King of Wessex[90].  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that King Constantine "in senecture decrepitus baculum cepit" ("took the staff") and handed the kingdom to "Mael filio Domnail"[91].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that, according to "William", King Constantine was killed at Brunanburgh, but that "various truthful chronicles" say that he reigned for four more years, "he resigned the crown and, serving God in the monastic garb at St Andrews, was made abbot of the Culdees and lived there five years, where he also died and was buried" but was reburied in Iona "in the chapel of the blessed Oran in 947"[92].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 952 of "Constantine son of Aedh king of Scotland"[93].  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Constantinus" in the tenth year of the reign of King Malcolm I[94].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Constantine mak Edha" reigned for 40 years, abdicated to become a monk, was made abbot "in Keldeorum Sancte Andree", where he served five years and was buried[95].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[96]m ---.  The name of Constantine's wife is not known.  Constantine II & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         son (-killed in battle [936/37]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "filius Constantini" was killed in "bellum Duinbrunde" in the 33rd year of Constantine´s reign[97].  This date appears to coincide with the battle of Brunanburh in which Æthelstan King of Wessex defeated the invasion of England in which King Constantine participated (see above), although it is not certain that "Duinbrunde" refers to the same battle. 

b)         [INDULF [Ildulb] (-killed at the battle of the Bauds, Muir of Findochty, Banffshire [962], bur [Isle of Iona]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Indulfus" was king after King Malcolm I and reigned for eight years[98].  As noted in the Introduction to this document, the relationship between Indulf and King Constantine II is only mentioned from the 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach which name (in order) "…Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin), Custantin mac Aeda, Maelcolaim mac Domnall, Illolb mac Custantin, Dub mac Maelcolaim, Cuillen mac Illiulb…" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th century[99].  The suspicion is that his family relationship may have been fabricated by later Scottish chroniclers who were concerned with reinforcing the continuity in the male line of the Scottish succession.  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Indolf filius Constantin ix…" as king[100].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Indulf son of Constantine son of Heth the Wing-footed" succeeded in 952 after King Malcolm was killed[101].  He succeeded his second cousin in 954 as INDULF King of Scotland.  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Indolf mac Constantin" reigned for 9 years, was killed "a Noruagensibus in Innercolan" and was buried "in Iona insula"[102].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[103].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Indulf was killed by the Danes and was buried in "Columba´s island"[104]m ---.  The name of Indulf's wife is not known.  Indulf & his wife had three children:

i)          CULEN [Cuilean/Colin] (-killed in battle Amdarch [971]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Culenring" was king after "Caniculus" and reigned for five years[105].  The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin), Custantin mac Aeda, Maelcolaim mac Domnall, Illolb mac Custantin, Dub mac Maelcolaim, Cuillen mac Illiulb…" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th century[106].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Culen filius Indulf iv annis et vi mensibus…" as king[107].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Culen the son of King Indulf" succeeded as king in 965 after Dubh was killed and reigned four years and six months[108].  He succeeded in [967] as COLIN King of Scotland.  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Marcan filius Breodelaig" was killed during the reign of Colin and that "Leot et Sluagadach" went to Rome[109].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 971 of "Cuilén son of Illulb king of Scotland…killed by the Welsh in a battle-rout"[110].  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Cellach filius Ferdalaig" reigned (implying, but not stating directly, that he had deposed Colin) and that "Culen et frater eius Eochodius" were killed "a Britonibus"[111].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Culen mac Indolf" reigned for 4 years and 6 months and was killed "ab Amdarch filio Donvald propter filiam suam in Ybandonia"[112].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[113].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Culen was killed by "a certain chief named Radhard" whose daughter the king had wanted to seduce[114]m ---.  The name of Culen's wife is not known.  Culen & his wife had one child:

(a)       CONSTANTINE (-killed in battle Rathinveramon [997]).  The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Cuillen mac Illiulb, Cinaet mac Maelcolaim, Custantin mac Cuilen, Cinaet mac Duib, Maelcolaim mac Cinaeta" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th and 11th centuries[115].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Custantin filius Culen i anno et iv mensibus…" as king[116].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Constantine the Bald, son of King Culen" succeeded in 994 after King Kenneth II was killed, but that he was "continually harassed by Malcolm [son of King Kenneth] and his illegitimate uncle…Kenneth" and killed in battle "in Laudonia by the banks of the river Almond" after reigning for one and a half years[117].  He succeeded in [995] as CONSTANTINE III King of Scotland.  He was killed by King Kenneth III.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Constantine son of Culannan king of Scotland” was killed in battle in [995/96][118].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Constantin mac Culen" reigned for 1 year and 6 months, was killed "a Kynnet filio Malcolmi in Rathinueramon" and was buried "in Yona insula"[119].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[120]

ii)         EOCHAID (-killed in battle 971).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Culen et frater eius Eochodius" were killed "a Britonibus"[121].  He was killed by the king of Strathclyde.

iii)        [OLAF [Amlaib] (-killed in battle [977]).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 977 of "Amlaíb son of Ollulb i.e. King of Scotland…killed by Cinaed son of Domnall"[122].  [He succeeded in [971] as OLAF King of Scotland.]  It is assumed that "Ollulb" is intended to refer to King Indulf/Ildulb, although the name Olaf/Amlaib is Scandinavian, suggesting that his mother may have been of Viking stock.  Olaf is not named in the Scottish sources.  It is possible that he challenged the succession of King Kenneth II in 971 but was never generally recognised as king.] 

c)         daughter.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Florence of Worcester who states that King Constantine was Olaf's father-in-law[123]m (937) OLAF King of Dublin, son of GUTHFRITH King of Dublin & his wife --- (-end 940).  He installed himself as King of York in 939. 

2.         [DONALD .  King of Strathclyde.  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Doneualdus rex Britannorum", during its record of the early part of the reign of Constantine II King of Scotland, and the choice of "Duuenaldus filius Ede" to succeed him, "et Flann filius Maelsethnaill et Niall filius Ede"[124].  Some secondary sources show Donald as the son of Aedh King of Scotland.  He is shown above as the possible son of King Aedh´s sister who had possibly married Aedh King of Ireland.] 

 

 

It is possible that the following individuals were related to the main line of Scottish kings but the exact connection, if any, cannot be proved: 

1.         CAIRILLm ---.  The name of Cairill´s wife is not known.  Cairill & his wife had one child: 

a)         DOMNAL (-[967]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Domnal filius Cairill", dated from the context to around the time of the accession of Colin as king[125]

 

2.         FERDALAIGm ---.  The name of Cairill´s wife is not known.  Cairill & his wife had one child: 

a)         CELLACH (-after 971).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Cellach filius Ferdalaig" reigned, implying but not stating directly that he deposed King Colin[126]

 

 

MALCOLM I 942-954, DUFF 962-967, KENNETH II 971-995, MALCOLM II 1005-1034

 

MALCOLM [Maelcoluim], son of DONALD II "Dasachtach" King of Scotland & his wife --- (-killed Vlurn [954], bur [Isle of Iona]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Mael filio Domnail" succeeded King Constantine II and reigned eleven years[127].  The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin), Custantin mac Aeda, Maelcolaim mac Domnall, Illolb mac Custantin, Dub mac Maelcolaim, Cuillen mac Illiulb…" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th century[128].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Malcolin filius Duneuald ix…" as king[129].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Constantine "made room for Malcolm, son of Donald, to reign" in 943 and that he reigned for nine years[130].  He succeeded in 942 as MALCOLM I King of Scotland.  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that King Malcolm travelled to "Moreb" and killed "Cellach"[131].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 945 Edmund King of England "ravaged all Strathclyde and ceded it to Malcolm king of Scots" in return for an alliance, which was renewed by Edmund's brother and successor King Eadred to whom "the Scots gave oaths and promised to do his will in all things"[132].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Strath Clyde was devastated by the Saxons" in 944[133].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 954 of "Mael Coluim son of Domnall king of Scotland…killed"[134].  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that King Malcolm was killed "in Fodresach id est in Claideom"[135].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Malcom mac Donald" reigned for 9 years, was killed "a Morauiensibus" and was buried "in Yona insula"[136].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Malcolm mack Dovenal" reigned for 9 years, was killed "in Vlurn a Moraviensibus" and was buried at Iona[137].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Malcolm "was killed at Ulrim" after reigning for nine years and three months[138]

m ---.  The name of Malcolm's wife is not known. 

Malcolm I & his wife had two children:

1.         DUBH [Duff] (-killed in battle Forres [19/20 Jul 966], bur Isle of Iona).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Niger filius Maelcolaim" was king after King Indulf and reigned for five years[139].  The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin), Custantin mac Aeda, Maelcolaim mac Domnall, Illolb mac Custantin, Dub mac Maelcolaim, Cuillen mac Illiulb…" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th century[140].  It is assumed that "Niger" and "Dub" in these two sources refer to the same person, although this is not beyond all doubt.  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Duf filius Malcolin iv annis et vi mensibus…" as king[141].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Duff the son of King Malcolm" succeeded in 961 after Indulf was killed and reigned for four years and six months[142].  He succeeded in 962 as DUFF King of Scotland.  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Niger filius Maelcolaim" defeated "Caniculum super Dorsum Crup", in which battle "Duchad abbas Duncalden et Dubdon satrapas Athochlach" were killed, after which Niger was expelled and "Caniculus" reigned for a short time[143].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 967 of "Dub son of Mael Coluim king of Scotland…killed by the Scots themselves"[144].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Duf mac Malcolm" reigned for 4 years and 6 months, was killed "in Fores…absconditus…sub ponte de Kynloss", when the sun did not shine, and was buried "in Iona insula"[145].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[146].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Duff was killed by robbers who hid his body, that "no ray of sunlight gleamed within the whole kingdom" until it was found, and that he was buried at Iona[147].  According to Duncan, this eclipse of the sun has been dated to 20 Jul 966[148].  Duncan says that, according to other sources, he was killed "by the men of Moray", in 967[149]m ---.  The name of Dubh's wife is not known.  Dubh & his wife had one child:

a)         KENNETH (-killed in battle Monzievaird [25 Mar 1005]).  The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Cuillen mac Illiulb, Cinaet mac Maelcolaim, Custantin mac Cuilen, Cinaet mac Duib, Maelcolaim mac Cinaeta" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th and 11th centuries[150].  He succeeded in 997 as KENNETH III King of Scotland

-        see below

2.         KENNETH (-maybe murdered Finella's Castle, Fettercairn [995], bur Isle of Iona).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Cinadius filius Maelcolaim" succeeded after the death of Colin, adding that after one year he invaded Saxony and brought back "filium regis Saxonum"[151].  The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Cuillen mac Illiulb, Cinaet mac Maelcolaim, Custantin mac Cuilen, Cinaet mac Duib, Maelcolaim mac Cinaeta" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th and 11th centuries[152].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Kinet filius Malcolin xxii annis et ii mensibus…" as king[153].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Kenneth the son of Malcolm and brother of King Duff" succeeded as king in 970 after Culen was killed and reigned for twenty-four years and nine months[154].  He succeeded in 971 as KENNETH II King of Scotland.  Florence of Worcester records that "subreguli eius octo…Kynath…rex Scottorum, Malcolm rex Cumbrorum, Maccus plurimarum rex insularum et alii quinque Dufnal, Siferth, Huwal, Jacob, Juchil" submitted to King Eadgar at Chester and rowed him on the river Dee, dated to [973] from the context[155].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Kenneth II decreed a change to the Scottish royal succession to enable "the nearest survivor in blood to the deceased king to succeed", in opposition to "Constantine the Bald, son of King Culen, and Gryme son of Kenneth son of King Duff"[156].  The same source adds that the king´s opponents persuaded "the daughter of Cruchne, Earl of Angus…Finele" to murder the king in revenge for the death of her son which he had ordered[157].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Cinaed son of Mael Coluim king of Scotland was deceitfully killed" in 995[158].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Kynnath mac Malcolm" reigned for 24 years and 2 months, was killed "a suis hominibus in Fetherkern" through the treachery of "Finuele filie filie Cunthar comitis de Anguss" whose only son had been killed by the king[159].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[160]m ---.  The name of Kenneth's wife is not known.  Kenneth II & his wife had one child: 

a)         MALCOLM ([954]-Glamis Castle, Angus 25 Nov 1034, bur Isle of Iona).  The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Cuillen mac Illiulb, Cinaet mac Maelcolaim, Custantin mac Cuilen, Cinaet mac Duib, Maelcolaim mac Cinaeta" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th and 11th centuries[161].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Malcolin filius Kinet xxx…" as king[162].  It is tempting to suggest that either he, or his first cousin with the same name, spent time at the court of Edgar King of England during his youth, as "Malcolm dux" subscribed a charter of King Edgar relating to land in Cambridgeshire and Norfolk dated 970[163], but there is no proof of the co-identity of these persons.  He succeeded in 1005 as MALCOLM II King of Scotland.  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Grime was killed by Malcolm, son of King Kenneth II, who succeeded as king[164].  He attacked northern England in 1006.  King of Lothian from [1016], becoming effective ruler of the whole of Scotland.  The Historia Regum of Simeon of Durham records a battle between "Huctredum filium Waldef comitem Northymbrorum" and "Malcolmum filium Cyneth regem Scottorum" at "Carrum" in 1018[165].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Malcolm submitted to Canute King of England in 1031, along with "two other kings, Mælbeth and Iehmarc"[166].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun defended Cumbria against King Canute, who agreed that it should be ruled by Malcolm´s grandson Duncan[167].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1034 of "Mael Coluim son of Cinaed, king of Scotland"[168].  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1034 of “Mael-Coluímb son of Cinaed king of Scotland[169].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Malcolm mac Kynnat Rex" reigned for 30 years, died "in Glammes" and was buried "in Yona"[170].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[171]m ---.  The name of Malcolm's wife is not known.  King Malcolm III & his wife had [four] children:

i)          BETHOC .  The "Genealogy of King William the Lyon" dated 1175 names "Betoch filii Malcolmi" as parent of "Malcolmi filii Dunecani"[172].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 names "Cran Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok filia Malcolm mac Kynnet" as parents of King Duncan[173].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Malcolm II had "an only daughter…Beatrice who married Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles…in some annals, by a blunder of the writer…abbot of Dul"[174].  Lady of Atholl.  m ([1000]) CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl, son of --- (-killed in battle 1045). 

ii)         [DONADA .  Many secondary sources name Donada as a younger daughter of King Malcolm II and the mother of King Macbeth.  It seems that the proof for this connection is slim.  The only source so far identified which refers to Macbeth´s maternal origin is the Chronicle of Huntingdon which names "Maket Regem [=King Macbeth] nepotem dicti Malcolmi" when recording that he was expelled from Scotland after ruling 15 years[175].  The word "nepos" is of course treacherous, and could indicate a variety of relationships in addition to grandson.  However, it appears that early historians assumed that "grandson" was the correct translation.  For example, Ralph Holinshed´s 1577 Chronicle of Scotland names "Doada" as second daughter of Malcolm II King of Scotland and adds that she married "Sinell the thane of Glammis, by whom she had issue one Makbeth"[176].  Another variation is provided by the Cronykil of Andrew of Wyntoun, which records that "Makbeth-Fynlak, his systyr sowne" murdered King Duncan[177].  From a chronological point of view, it is unlikely that Macbeth could have been a nephew of King Duncan, but it is possible that the passage represents an interpretation of "nepos" from an earlier source and has confused the king with whom Macbeth enjoyed this relationship.  No source earlier than Holinshed has been found which names her Donada.  m as his second wife, FINDLAECH MacRory Thane of Angus Mormaer of Moray, son of RUAIDHRI Mormaer of Moray & his wife --- (-1020).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1020 of "Finnlaech son of Ruadrí king of Alba…killed by his own people"[178].] 

iii)        [son .  Rodulfus Glaber refers to Canute King of England seeking "the friendship of the king of the Scots, receiving his son at the font of baptism"[179].  This passage follows a description of "the Scots whose king was called Malcolm" resisting King Canute's invasion, undated but from the context apparently occurring at the start of Canute's reign.  If it is correct that King Malcolm had a son baptised at this time, he would have been considerably younger than the king's daughters, presumably therefore born to a different mother.  No corroborative evidence for the existence of this son has been found in other contemporary sources.] 

iv)       [daughter Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Sigurd” married “the daughter of Malcolm King of Scots[180].  Snorre records the marriage of "Sigurd the Thick" and "a daughter of the Scottish king Malcolm"[181].  It appears unlikely that Sigurd´s wife could have been King Malcolm´s possible daughter Donada (as shown in many secondary sources, including the Complete Peerage[182]) if it is correct that Donada´s recorded husband Findlaech was killed in 1020 and also that their son was born in [1005][183]m SIGURD "Digri" Hlodverson Jarl of Orkney and Caithness, son of HLODVIR [Lodver] Torfinnsson & his wife Audna --- (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).] 

Malcolm I had [one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress]: 

3.          [KENNETH .  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Constantine the Bald, son of King Culen" succeeded in 994 after King Kenneth II was killed, but that he was "continually harassed by Malcolm [son of King Kenneth] and his illegitimate uncle…Kenneth" and killed in battle "in Laudonia by the banks of the river Almond" after reigning for one and a half years[184].  He is not mentioned in any of the earlier sources so far consulted.  His existence should be treated with caution.] 

 

 

MACBETH 1040-1057

 

1.         MACBETH, son of FINDLAECH MacRory Mormaer of Moray & his [second wife] [Donada of Scotland] ([1005]-killed in battle Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire 15 Aug 1057, bur Isle of Iona).  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Macheth filius Findleg xvii…" as king[185].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Machabeus son of Finele" killed King Duncan and succeeded as king in 1040[186].  Mormaer of Moray [1029/32].  He may have been one of the "two other kings, Mælbeth and Iehmarc" recorded by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has having submitted to Canute King of England in 1031 with King Malcolm II[187].  He succeeded in 1040 as MACBETH King of Scotland.  The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Donnchal rex Scotiæ" was killed "1040 XIX Kal Sep" by "duce suo Macbethad mac Finnloech" who succeeded as king for 17 years[188].  The Annales Dunelmenses record that "comes Siward" invaded Scotland with a large army in 1046 and briefly expelled "rege Macbeod", the king recovering his realm when Siward withdrew[189].  Florence of Worcester records that "Rex Scottiæ Macbethad" distributed silver in Rome ("Romæ argentum spargendo distribuit"), dated to 1050 by the editor of the edition consulted[190].  The dating of the various reports of King Macbeth´s defeat and death is inconsistent.  It is not certain that all the records refer to the final battle in which he was killed.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that he was defeated in battle 27 Jul 1054 by the army of Siward Earl of Northumbria which had invaded Scotland[191].  Florence of Worcester records that "dux Northhymbrorum Siwardus"  defeated "rege Scottorum Macbeotha" in battle, dated to 1054, and installed "Malcolmum regis Cumbrorum filium" in his place[192].  The Annales Dunelmenses record that "Siwardus" put "Macbeth" to flight in 1054 and installed "Malcolmum rege" in the following year[193].  The Chronicle of Huntingdon records that "comes Northumbrie Sywardus" invaded Scotland and that "Maket Regem nepotem dicti Malcolmi", who had reigned for 15 years, fled[194].  The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Macfinlaeg" was killed "1057…in Augusto"[195].  The Annals of Ulster record in 1058 that "Mac Bethad son of Finnlaech, over-king of Scotland, was killed by Mael Sechlainn son of Donnchad in battle"[196].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Mac bethadh son of Findlaech overking of Scotland” was killed by “Malcolm, son of Donnchad” in 1058[197].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Maket mac Fyngal" reigned 17 years, was killed "in Lufanan a Malcolm mac Dunkat" and was buried "in Iona insula"[198].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Malcolm recaptured his kingdom with the help of "Siward Earl of Northumberland" and killed "Machabeus" 5 Dec 1056[199].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Machabeus" was buried "in the island of Iona"[200]m (after 1032) [as her second husband,] GRUOCH, [widow of GILLACOMGAIN Mormaer of Moray,] daughter of BOITE [Bodhe] of Scotland & his wife --- ([1015]-).  "Machbet filius Finlach…et Gruoch filia Bodhe, rex et regina Scottorum" made grants to the church of St Serf, although the document also names "Malcolmus Rex filius Duncani" which casts doubt on its authenticity[201].  Her possible first marriage appears to be based on the following logic.  The Continuation of the Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach records Lulach as son of Macbeth[202].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Lulach son of Gilla Comgain, over-king of Scotland was killed in battle by Mael Coluim son of Donnchad" in 1058[203].  Dunbar, basing his argument on this and the other sources which are quoted in this section, states that "from the above it seems most probable that Lulach was son of Gillacomgan and step-son of Macbeth"[204].  In addition, the 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "Lulac nepos filii Boide" ["nephew of the son of Boite"] as successor of King Macbeth[205].  However, there does not appear to be a surviving source which more specifically confirms that Macbeth´s queen was the widow of Gillacomgain and mother of Lulach. 

 

 

KENNETH III 997-1005, LULACH 1057-1058

 

KENNETH, son of DUFF King of Scotland & his wife --- (-killed in battle Monzievaird [25 Mar 1005]).  The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Cuillen mac Illiulb, Cinaet mac Maelcolaim, Custantin mac Cuilen, Cinaet mac Duib, Maelcolaim mac Cinaeta" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th and 11th centuries[206].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Chinet filius Duf i anno et dimidium…" as king[207].  He succeeded in 997 as KENNETH III King of Scotland.  The Annals of Ulster record that "the king of the Albu Cinaed son of Dub" was killed in battle "between the men of Albu themselves" in 1005[208]

m ---.  The name of Kenneth's wife is not known. 

Kenneth III & his wife had [three] children: 

1.         [GREG [Giric] (-killed in battle Monzievaird [25 Mar 1005], bur Isle of Iona).  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Girus mac Kinath mac Duff" reigned for 8 years, was killed "a filio Kinet in Moeghauard" and was buried at Iona[209].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1317 includes the same information[210].  His existence is not recorded in any of the earlier chronicles and should be treated with caution.  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Kenneth II decreed a change to the Scottish royal succession to enable "the nearest survivor in blood to the deceased king to succeed", in opposition to "Constantine the Bald, son of King Culen, and Gryme son of Kenneth son of King Duff"[211].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Gryme the son of Kenneth son of Duff" succeeded in 996 after King Constantine III was killed and reigned for eight years and three months[212].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Grime was killed by Malcolm, son of King Kenneth II, adding that the latter arranged his burial at Iona[213].] 

2.         GILLACOMGAIN (-killed in battle 999).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "Cathal son of Amalgaid, king of Western Laigin, and his wife, the daughter of the son of Gilla Caemgein son of Cinaed, and his hound were killed at the same time by the son of Cellach son of Dúnchad"[214]m ---.  The name of Gillacomgain's wife is not known.  Gillacomgain & his wife had one child: 

a)         son .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "Cathal son of Amalgaid, king of Western Laigin, and his wife, the daughter of the son of Gilla Caemgein son of Cinaed, and his hound were killed at the same time by the son of Cellach son of Dúnchad"[215]m ---.  The name of this son's wife is not known.  He & his wife had one child:

i)          daughter (-murdered 1035).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Cathal son of Amalgaid, king of Western Laigin, and his wife, the daughter of the son of Gilla Caemgein son of Cinaed, and his hound were killed at the same time by the son of Cellach son of Dúnchad"[216]m CATHAL King of Western Leinster, son of AMALGAID & his wife --- (-murdered 1035). 

3.         BOITE [Bodhe] (-before 1033).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "the grandson of Baete son of Cinead was killed by Mael Coluim son of Cinaed" in 1033[217]m ---.  The name of Boite's wife is not known.  Boite & his wife had two children:

a)         GILLE .  Iinquisitions by "David…Cumbrensis regionis princeps", dated 1124, concerning land owned by the church of Glasgow refer to donations by "…Gille filius Boed…"[218]same person as…?  son.  m ---.  m ---.  The name of this son's wife is not known.  He & his wife had one child:

i)          son (-murdered in infancy 1033).  The Annals of Ulster record that "the grandson of Baete son of Cinead was killed by Mael Coluim son of Cinaed" in 1033[219]

b)         GRUOCH ([1015]-).  "Machbet filius Finlach…et Gruoch filia Bodhe, rex et regina Scottorum" made grants to the church of St Serf, although the document also names "Malcolmus Rex filius Duncani" which casts doubt on its authenticity[220].  Her possible first marriage appears to be based on the following logic.  The Continuation of the Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach records Lulach as son of Macbeth[221].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Lulach son of Gilla Comgain, over-king of Scotland was killed in battle by Mael Coluim son of Donnchad" in 1058[222].  Dunbar, basing his argument on this and the other sources which are quoted in this section, states that "from the above it seems most probable that Lulach was son of Gillacomgan and step-son of Macbeth"[223].  In addition, the 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "Lulac nepos filii Boide" ["nephew of the son of Boite"] as successor of King Macbeth[224].  However, there does not appear to be a surviving source which more specifically confirms that Macbeth´s queen was the widow of Gillacomgain and mother of Lulach.  [m firstly GILLACOMGAIN Mormaer of Moray, son of MAELBRIGTE & his wife --- (-burned alive 1032).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Gilla Comgán son of Mael Brigte, earl of Moray was burned together with fifty people" in 1032[225].]  m [secondly] ([after 1032]) MACBETH, son of FINDLAECH MacRory Thane of Angus, Mormaer of Moray & his wife [Donada] of Scotland ([1005]-killed in battle Lumphanan 15 Aug 1057, bur Isle of Iona).  He succeeded in 1040 as MACBETH King of Scotland.  Gruoch & her [first husband] had [one child]: 

i)          [LULACH ([1032]-killed in battle Essie, Strathbogie 17 Mar 1058, bur Isle of Iona).  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Macheth filius Findleg xvii, Lulac nepos filii Boide iv mensibus et dimidium…" as kings[226].  The Continuation of the Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach records Lulach as son of Macbeth[227].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "on the death of Machabeus, some of his kinsfolk" installed "his cousin Lulath…the Simple" as king at Scone but that King Malcolm killed him 3 Apr 1057, adding that he was buried "in the island of Iona"[228].  He succeeded [his stepfather] in 1057 as LULACH "the Simple" King of Scotland, crowned Aug 1057 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire.  The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Lulag" was killed "[1058]…in Martio"[229].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Lulach son of Gilla Comgain, over-king of Scotland was killed in battle by Mael Coluim son of Donnchad" in 1058[230], although curiously this entry precedes the record of the death of King Macbeth in the same year.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Lulach rí Alban” was killed by “Mael-Coluimb, son of Donnchad” in 1058[231], also preceding the record in the same source of the death of King Macbeth.  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Lulach fatuus" reigned 4 months, was killed "in Esseg in Strathbolgin" and was buried "in Iona insula"[232].] 

-         MORMAERS of MORAY

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KINGS of STRATHCLYDE

 

 

1.         RUN Macarthagail (-[878])King of Strathclydem --- of Scotland, daughter of KENNETH I King of Scotland & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum which records that "Eochodius…filius Run regis Britannorum, nepos Cinadei ex filia" succeeded King Aedh and ruled for 11 years[233].  Run & his wife had one child: 

a)         EOCHAID (-[889]).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Eochodius…filius Run regis Britannorum, nepos Cinadei ex filia" succeeded King Aedh and ruled for 11 years before being expelled[234].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum does not name Eochlaid in its king-list[235].  He succeeded his maternal uncle as EOCHAID King of Scotland.  His succession appears to have been challenged by Greg (see above).  Deposed [889].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "the men of Strath Clyde who would not unite with the Saxons were obliged to leave their country and go to Gwynedd" in 890, adding that "Anarawd gave them leave to inhabit the country taken from him by the Saxons, comprising Maelor, the Vale of Clwyd, Rhyvoniog and Tegeingl, if they could drive the Saxons out which they did bravely"[236]

 

 

1.         DUNWALLON [Donald] .  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Doneualdus rex Britannorum", during its record of the early part of the reign of Constantine II King of Scotland, and the choice of "Duuenaldus filius Ede" to succeed him[237]m ---.  The name of Dunwallon´s wife is not known.  Dunwallon & his wife had one child: 

a)         EOAN (-after 934).  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "rex Constantinus" held "Cumbriam et ceteras terras in Anglia" and that in the 16th year of his reign (916, on the assumption that the passage refers to Constantine II King of Scotland) gave "Eugenio filio Douenaldi…dimidium regni Cumbrie hereditarie possidendum"[238]King of Strathclyde 916.  Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum…Reignoldus rex Danorum…rex Streatcledwalorum" submitted to King Eadward and signed a treaty, undated but dateable to [920/22] from the context[239]m ---.  The name of Eoan´s wife is not known.  Eoan & his wife had one child:

i)          DUNWALLON [Donald] (-974).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "king Edmund ravaged Strathclyde and ceded it to Malcolm king of Scots, on the condition that he would be his fellow-worker by sea and land" in 945[240].  Roger of Wendover records that King Edmund, with help from "Leolini regis Demetiæ" [this person has not been identified], devastated "Cumbriam totam" and blinded "duobus filiis Dummail eiusdem provinciæ regis" in 946[241].  The Welsh sources do not record Welsh participation in the expedition.  The Annales Cambriæ record that "Strat Clut vastata est a Saxonibus" in 946[242].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Strath Clyde was devastated by the Saxons" in 944[243].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Strathclyde was devastated by the Saxons who killed all they could find in their way, of the Britons belonging to it" in 943[244].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Dunwallon king of Strath Clyde went to Rome" in 974[245].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Dunwallon king of Strath Clyde went to Rome and took the tonsure" in 975[246].  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 974 of “Domnall son of Eoan king of Britain…in pilgrimage[247]m ---.  The name of Donald´s wife is not known.  Donald & his wife had [five] children: 

(a)       son (-after 945).  Roger of Wendover records that King Edmund, with help from "Leolini regis Demetiæ", devastated "Cumbriam totam" and blinded "duobus filiis Dummail eiusdem provinciæ regis" in 398[248]

(b)       son (-after 945).  Roger of Wendover records that King Edmund, with help from "Leolini regis Demetiæ", devastated "Cumbriam totam" and blinded "duobus filiis Dummail eiusdem provinciæ regis" in 398[249]

(c)       [AMDARCH [Radhard] (-after [971]).  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Culen mac Indolf" reigned for 4 years and 6 months and was killed "ab Amdarch filio Donvald propter filiam suam in Ybandonia"[250].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[251].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Culen was killed by "a certain chief named Radhard" whose daughter the king had wanted to seduce[252].] 

(d)       MALCOLM (-996).  Florence of Worcester records that "subreguli eius octo…Kynath…rex Scottorum, Malcolm rex Cumbrorum, Maccus plurimarum rex insularum et alii quinque Dufnal, Siferth, Huwal, Jacob, Juchil" submitted to King Eadgar at Chester and rowed him on the river Dee, dated to [973] from the context[253].  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 996 of “Mael-Coluimb son of Domnall king of the Britons of the North[254]

(e)       EOAN (-killed 1015).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Owain son of Dyvnwal was killed" in 1015[255]

 

 

1.         DOMNALL, son of [AEDH Finnliath King of Ireland & his wife Mael Muire of Scotland (-after 911)King of Strathclyde.  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Doneualdus rex Britannorum", during its record of the early part of the reign of Constantine II King of Scotland, and the choice of "Duuenaldus filius Ede" to succeed him, "et Flann filius Maelsethnaill et Niall filius Ede"[256].  Some secondary sources show Donald as the son of Aedh King of Scotland.  However, the subsequent references to the two Irish kings in the same passage suggest that the Chronicle is referring to the son of Aedh King of Ireland.  If this hypothesis is correct, it is possible that Domnall´s claim to the Strathclyde throne was through Mael Muire, shown above as the possible second wife of his father, which would mean in turn that this Domnall was not the same person as the son of Aedh of the same name who is recorded in 863 (see above).] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    KINGS of SCOTLAND (DUNKELD)

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

CRINAN "the Thane", son of --- (-killed in battle 1045).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Abthane of Dule.  Lay abbot of Dunkeld.  Steward of the Western Isles.  Mormaer of Atholl.  He was killed fighting King Macbeth.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Crónán abbot of Dún Caillen" was killed in 1045 in "a battle between the Scots themselves"[257].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Crínan abbot of Dunkeld” was killed in 1045 in “a battle between the men of Scotland on one road[258]

m ([1000]) BETHOC, daughter of MALCOLM II King of Scotland & his wife ---.  The "Genealogy of King William the Lyon" dated 1175 names "Betoch filii Malcolmi" as parent of "Malcolmi filii Dunecani"[259].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 names "Cran Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok filia Malcolm mac Kynnet" as parents of King Duncan[260].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Malcolm II had "an only daughter…Beatrice who married Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles…in some annals, by a blunder of the writer…abbot of Dul"[261]

Crinan & his wife had two children:   

1.         DUNCAN [Donnchad] ([1001]-killed in battle either Bothganowan/Pitgaveny, near Elgin, or Burghead 14 Aug 1040, bur Isle of Iona).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record the death of "Donnchad son of Crínán, king of Scotland" in 1040[262].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Duncan" as son of "Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles" and his wife[263].  He succeeded in 1018 as King of Strathclyde.  He succeeded his maternal grandfather in 1034 as DUNCAN I King of Scotland

-        see below, Part B. KINGS of SCOTLAND 1034-1290

2.         MALDRED (-killed in battle [1045]).  His parentage is confirmed by Simeon of Durham who records the marriage of "Maldred the son of Crinan"[264].  Lord of Allerdale.  Regent of Strathclyde 1034/35.   

-        EARLS of DUNBAR

 

 

 

B.      KINGS OF SCOTLAND 1034-1290

 

 

DUNCAN I 1034-1040, DONALD III 1093-1097

 

DUNCAN [Donnchad], son of CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl & his wife Bethoc of the Scots ([1001]-killed in battle either Bothganowan/Pitgaveny, near Elgin, or Burghead 14 Aug 1040, bur Isle of Iona).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record the death of "Donnchad son of Crínán, king of Scotland" in 1040[265].  He is not named as king in the 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum king-list[266].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Duncan" as son of "Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles" and his wife[267].  He succeeded in 1018 as King of Strathclyde.  He succeeded his maternal grandfather in 1034 as DUNCAN I King of ScotlandOrkneyinga Saga records that “Karl Hundason” succeeded King Malcolm in Scotland and records his battles with Thorfinn Jarl of Orkney[268].  No other record has been identified of this alleged person.  The Annales Dunelmenses record that "Dumechanus rex Scotorum" besieged Durham in 1039 with a large army but retreated from the siege[269].  He was killed in battle by his first cousin, Macbeth, who succeeded as King of Scotland.  The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Donnchal rex Scotiæ" was killed "1040 XIX Kal Sep" by "duce suo Macbethad mac Finnloech" who succeeded as king for 17 years[270].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Donnchad son of Crínán, king of Scotland, was killed by his own people" in 1040[271].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donncadh mac Crínan, airdrí Alban” was killed “immaturo etate a suis” in 1040[272].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Duncan was killed by "Machabeus son of Finele…at Bothgofnane" and buried in the island of Iona[273].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Donchath mac Cran Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok filia Malcolm mac Kynnet" reigned for 6 years, was killed "a Maketh mac Fyngel in Bothngouane" and was buried "in Yona insula"[274]

m ([1030]) [SIBYLLA], [cousin of SIWARD Earl of Northumbria, daughter of ---].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that the mother of Malcolm and Donald Bane, Duncan´s sons, was "the cousin of Earl Siward"[275].  This information is not included in any earlier source and should be considered dubious.  In one earlier king list, King Malcolm III's mother is named "Suthen"[276].  No reference has been found in primary sources to her being named Sibylla, the name found in many secondary sources. 

King Duncan I & his wife had [three] children:

1.         MALCOLM (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth, later transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, and later still to Escorial, Madrid).  The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Moelcol…filius Donchael" succeeded Lulach in 1058[277].  He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland

-        see below

2.         DONALD (-in prison Rescobie, Forfarshire 1099, bur Dunkeld Abbey, later transferred to Isle of Iona).  Matthew Paris names him as brother of King Malcolm, and records that he was elected by the Scots to succeed his brother in 1093 as DONALD III "Bane" King of Scotland[278].  Florence of Worcester records that "Dufenaldum regis Malcolmi fratrem" was elected king after his brother's death but that "filius regis Malcolmi Dunechain" expelled "patruum suum Dufenaldum"[279].  According to Florence of Worcester, he expelled all the English from the Scottish court[280].  "Douenald filius Conchat Regis" made donations "cum ceteris regibus…Duncano rege Edgaro et Alexandro et David fratribus"[281].  This charter is undated and the reference to the four brothers all as kings indicates that it is probably spurious.  Florence of Worcester records that King Donald was deposed in 1094 by his nephew Duncan, with help from the English and Normans[282].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall son of Donnchadh” killed “Donnchadh son of Mael Coluim king of Alba” in 1094 and “took the kingship of Alba[283].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "his uncle Donald…again usurped the kingship" after the death of "Duncan, King Malcolm´s illegitimate son" and reigned for three years[284].  Florence of Worcester records that "clitorem Eadgarum" led an army to Scotland in [1097] to place "consobrinum suum Eadgarum Malcolmi regis filium" on the Scottish throne after expelling "patruo suo Dufenaldo"[285].  William of Malmesbury records that King Duncan II "was murdered by the wickedness of his uncle Donald" and that the latter was "dispatched by the contrivance of David, the youngest brother and the power of [King] William [II]"[286].  He was imprisoned.  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Donald mac Donchat" was captured "a Edgar mac Malcolm", blinded, died in "Rosolpin" and was buried "in Dunkelden", transferred to Iona[287]m ---.  The name of Donald's wife is not known.  King Donald III & his wife had [one child]: 

a)         [BETHOC (-[1150/70][288]).  The sources are contradictory regarding the supposed child of King Donald.  The proofs relating to the claim to the Scottish throne in 1291 made by "dñi Johannis Comyn" name "Gothrik" as the son of "Dovenald filius Duncani filii Erici", and trace John Comyn´s descent from him[289].  However, in the Great Roll, John Comyn traced his descent from Bethoc, daughter and heiress of Donald[290].  Bethoc´s first marriage is confirmed by a charter of King Henry III dated 1261 which confirmed to John Comyn the land inherited from Hextildis, wife of Richard Comyn and daughter of Uhtred son of Waltheof[291].  Her second marriage is referred to by Young but he does not cite the corresponding primary source, which has not yet been identified[292].   Altogether the chronology for Bethoc is stretched almost to beyond credibility.  Her supposed father King Donald Bane must have been born before 1040, and yet his daughter is supposed to have been living more than 100 years later, and her supposed second husband living in the last quarter of the 12th century.  It is suggested that this supposed descent of Hextilda, wife of Richard Comyn, from King Donald Bane should be treated with caution.  m firstly ([1085]) UHTRED Lord of Tynedale, son of [293]WALTHEOF ---.  The 1130 Pipe Roll records "Uctred fil Walleof" in Northumberland[294]m secondly RADULF, son of DUNEGALL Lord of Nithsdale (-[1185]).]  [Bethoc & her first husband] had [one child]: 

i)          [HEXTILDA of Tynedale .  The proofs relating to the claim to the Scottish throne in 1291 made by "dñi Johannis Comyn" name "Hextilde" as daughter and heiress of "Gothrik", son of "Dovenald filius Duncani filii Erici", and "Willelmo" as her son and heir[295].  “R. Cumin” donated property to Hexham Priory, with the consent of “uxoris meæ Hextildis”, by undated charter which names “fratrem meum Walterum[296].  "Ric Cymyn" donated "ecclesiam de Lyntunruderie" to Kelso monastery, for the souls of "Henrici comitis dni mei et…Johis filii mei quorum corpa apud eos tumulant", by charter dated to [1160], witnessed by "Hextild sponsa mea, Od filio meo…"[297].  "Ricardus Cumin" donated [Slapfeld] to Holyrood Abbey, with the consent of "Hestild uxoris mee et heredum meorum", by charter dated to [1166] witnessed by "…Odinello et Simone filiis meis…"[298].  Her second marriage is confirmed by the undated charter under which “Hextildis comitissa de Eththetela” donated property to Rievall Abbey, for the soul of “domini mei Richardi Cumin[299].  "Malcolmus comes de Athoil" donated "ecclesiam de Dul" to St Andrew´s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Dunecano comite de Fif, Hextilda comitissa sponsa mea…Henrico et Dunecano filiis meis…"[300].  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Hextild, Willelmus, Odenellus, Simon, Ricardus Cumin…", and in a later passage "Malcolmus filius Mal. et comes Athodlie, Hextilda filia Ucthredi uxor eius…"[301]m firstly ([1144/50]) RICHARD Comyn, son of --- Cumin [Comyn] & his wife --- (-[1179]).  m secondly (after 1179) as his second wife, her second cousin, MALCOLM Earl of Atholl, son of MADDAD Earl of Atholl & his first wife --- (-[1186/Aug 1198]).] 

3.         [MAELMUIRE [Melmare] .  According to the Complete Peerage, Melmare, who it says was the father of Madach Earl of Atholl, was the son of Duncan I King of Scotland & his wife ---, but it cites no corresponding primary source[302].  The primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified.  The only primary source reference to Maelmuire which has so far been found is the undated charter under which David I King of Scotland granted protection to the clerics of Deer, which is witnessed by "Donchado comite de Fib et Malmori d´Athotla et Ggillebrite comite d´Engus et Ghgillcomded Mac Aed…"[303].  From the names of the earls of Fife and Angus, it is unlikely that this document can be dated to before 1135 at the earliest.  If that is correct, it is evidently impossible from a chronological point of view that Maelmuire could have been the son of King Duncan I.] 

 

 

MALCOLM III 1058-1093, DUNCAN II 1094, EDMUND 1094-1097, EDGAR 1097-1107, ALEXANDER 1 1107-1124

 

MALCOLM, son of DUNCAN I King of Scotland & his wife [Sibylla of Northumbria] (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093[304], bur Tynemouth St Albans[305], transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife[306], transferred again to Escorial, Madrid).  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum names "Malcolaim filii Donnchada" in one of its lists[307].  The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Moelcol…filius Donchael" succeeded Lulach in 1058[308].  [Florence of Worcester records that "dux Northhymbrorum Siwardus"  defeated "rege Scottorum Macbeotha" in battle, dated to 1054, and installed "Malcolmum regis Cumbrorum filium" in his place[309].  The Annales Dunelmenses record that "Siwardus" put "Macbeth" to flight in 1054 and installed "Malcolmum rege" in the following year[310].  It is not clear that these two accounts refer to the future King Malcolm III: it is uncertain why King Malcolm would be called "regis Cumbrorum filium".]  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Lulach rí Alban” was killed by “Mael-Coluimb, son of Donnchad” in 1058[311].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Malcolm recaptured his kingdom with the help of "Siward Earl of Northumberland" and killed "Machabeus" 5 Dec 1056[312].  He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland, crowned 25 Apr 1058 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire.  Duncan cites sources which demonstrate that this nickname was first applied to King Malcolm III in the 13th century[313].  He suggests[314] that it was originally applied to King Malcolm IV who, he asserts, suffered from Paget's disease, involving a deformation of the bones particularly observable in the skull, and was later misapplied to King Malcolm III.  King Malcolm supported the claim to the English crown of Edgar ætheling, whose sister he had married, and led plundering raids into England.  Florence of Worcester records that he did homage to William I King of England at Abernethy in Aug 1072[315].  The same source records that King Malcolm invaded Northumberland in 1091, but did fealty to Willam II King of England after peace was negotiated between the two kings[316].  Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum Malcolmus et primogenitus filius suus Eadwardus" were killed in battle in Northumbria "die S Bricii" [13 Nov] by the army of "Rotberti Northymbrorum comitis"[317].  William of Malmesbury records that he was killed, with his son Edward, by Morael of Bamborough, steward of Robert Mowbray Earl of Northumberland, while leading a raid into England[318].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French in Inber Alda in England"[319]

[m] [firstly] ([before 1058]) ---.  The identity of the mother of King Malcolm's sons Duncan and Donald is uncertain.  The absence of any reference to her in Scottish sources is best explained if her relationship with the king ended before his accession in 1058.  However, this is not totally consistent with the estimated birth dates of her sons as shown below.  It should be noted that King Duncan II, in his charter dated 1093, makes no reference to his mother, which implies that his father's relationship with her may have been short-lived and informal.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ingibjorg the Earls´-Mother” (Ingibjörg Finnsdatter, widow of Thorfinn "the Black" Jarl of Orkney and Caithness, daughter of Finn Arnisson [later Jarl of Halland in Denmark]) married “Malcolm King of Scots, known as Long-neck” and that “their son was Duncan, King of Scots, father of William[320].  There must be considerable doubt about whether this can be correct.  Ingibjörg's [first] husband died in [1060/65].  King Malcolm's marriage to Queen Margaret is dated to 1070, three years after her arrival at the Scottish court.  Although this provides sufficient time after the death of her first husband for the king to have married Ingebjörg, and for Ingebjörg to have died, the chronology for the birth of two sons would be tight.  In addition, it is unlikely that either of these sons was born after [1065], as explained further below.  If the king had really married Ingibjörg during this time, and if she had given birth to two sons, the absence of any reference to her in either Scottish or English sources is all the more surprising.  It is possible that King Malcolm's marriage to Ingibjörg (if it did take place) was more Danico, implying concubinage rather than regular marriage, but this does not change the chronological difficulties.  The one puzzle which remains, if the Saga is not correct, is why the author would have fabricated this detail. 

m [secondly] (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) MARGARET of England, daughter of EDWARD ætheling of England & his wife Agatha --- ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai).  Although Margaret's birth is often placed in [1045/46][321], a later birth would be more consistent with the "German" theory of her mother's origin (as discussed in the document ANGLO-SAXON KINGS).  Margaret's birth as late as 1053 would still be consistent with her having given birth to four children before her daughter Edith/Matilda (later wife of Henry I King of England), whose birth is estimated to have taken place in [1079/80].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Margaret left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[322].  Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[323].  Florence of Worcester records that "regina Scottorum Margareta" died from grief after learning of the death of her husband and oldest son[324].  The Annals of Ulster record that "his queen Margaret…died of sorrow for him within nine days" after her husband was killed in battle[325].  She was canonised in 1250, her feast day in Scotland is 16 Nov[326]

King Malcolm III & [his first wife] had [two] children: 

1.         DUNCAN ([1060/65]-murdered Monthechim/Mondynes, Kincardineshire 12 Nov 1094, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  William of Malmesbury names Duncan as illegitimate son of King Malcolm, when recording that he was knighted by William II King of England[327].  There is no indication of the identity of Duncan's mother, as explained above.  His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was a child when given as a hostage in 1072, which precludes his being the son of Queen Margaret.  It is possible that he was illegitimate, although there is no indication that he was thereby excluded from succession to the throne.  "Dunecanus fili regii Malcolum constans hereditarie rex Scotie" donated property to the monks of St Cuthbert for the souls of his father, "fratri mei, uxore mea et infans mei" (all unnamed), by charter dated 1093, witnessed by "Eadgari, [Etheread], Aceard, Ulf, Malcolub[328], Hormer, Heming, Ælfric, Teodbold, Earnulf"[329].  The copy in Early Scottish Charters lists the witnesses in a different order, and adds "Grentonis…Vinget"[330].  He was given as a hostage to William I King of England at Abernethy in 1072 to guarantee his father's good behaviour[331].  The Annals of Ulster record that the "French went into Scotland and brought away the son of the king of Scotland as hostage" in 1072[332], which presumably refers to Duncan as any of his half-brothers (if then born) would have been infants at the time.  He was kept in Normandy.  Florence of Worcester records that Robert III "Curthose" Duke of Normandy released "Ulfam Haroldi quondam regis Anglorum filium, Dunechaldumque regis Scottorum Malcolmi filium" from custody after his father's death in Sep 1087, knighted them and allowed them to leave Normandy[333].  He joined William II King of England and remained at his court in England[334].  Florence of Worcester records that Duncan served in the army of King William II, who supported his bid to depose his uncle, and to whom Duncan swore fealty before leaving for Scotland[335].  He deposed his uncle in 1094 and proclaimed himself DUNCAN II King of Scotland[336].  Florence of Worcester records that "Dufenaldum regis Malcolmi fratrem" was elected king after his brother's death but that "filius regis Malcolmi Dunechain" expelled "patruum suum Dufenaldum"[337].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall son of Donnchadh” killed “Donnchadh son of Mael Coluim king of Alba” in 1094 and “took the kingship of Alba[338].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Donnchad son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland, was treacherously killed by his own brothers Domnall and Edmond" in 1094[339].  William of Malmesbury records that King Duncan was "murdered by the wickedness of his uncle Donald"[340].  Florence of Worcester records that "Scotti regem…Dunechan" was killed in [1094][341].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Donechat mac Malcolm" was killed "a Malpeder Mackcolm comite de Merns in Monacheden" through the treachery of "Donald mac Donehat"[342].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Duncan, King Malcolm´s illegitimate son" was "slain at Monthechin by the Earl of Mernys…Malpetri, in Scottish, Malpedir, through the wiles of his uncle Donald" as was buried "in the island of Iona"[343]m ([1090]) ETHELREDA of Northumberland, daughter of GOSPATRICK Earl of Northumberland & his wife --- (bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Waldevus filius comitis Cospatricii” enfeoffed “Waldeve filio Gileminii” with property and “Ethreda sorore sua[344].  The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Ethreda sorore Waldevi patris sui” married “Doncani comes de Murrayse” and that their son “Willielmus” succeeded her nephew “Alanus filius Waldevi[345].  It is assumed that Duncan was Ethelreda´s first husband and Waltheof her second husband.  She married secondly Waltheof.  King Duncan II & his wife had one child: 

a)         WILLIAM FitzDuncan ([1091/94]-[1153/54]).  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) which records the rebellion of his son "Macwilliam whose real name was Donald Bane…son of William son of Duncan the bastard" against King William[346].  That William was his father's only child is shown by King Duncan's charter dated to 1093 referring to "infans mei".  As the actual date of the charter is more likely to be 1094, this leaves little time for the birth of any more children before the king's murder.  "…Willelmo nepote comitis…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk[347].  Lord of Skipton and Craven, by right of his [second] wife. 

-        see below, Part C

2.         DONALD ([1060/65]-killed in battle 1085).  There is no indication of the name of Donald's mother.  His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was an adult when killed, and old enough to have had a son himself at that time, but this precludes his being the son of Queen Margaret.  It is possible that he was illegitimate.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Domnall son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland…ended [his] life unhappily" in 1085[348]m ---.  The name of Donald's wife is not known.  Donald & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [LADHMANN (-killed in battle 1116).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Ladhmann son of Domnall, grandson of the king of Scotland, was killed by the men of Moray"[349].  It is not known with certainty to whom this refers, but a son of Donald, son of King Malcolm, is the most likely possibility.] 

King Malcolm III & his second wife had eight children[350]:

3.         EDWARD (-Edwardsisle, near Jedburgh 16 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth St Albans).  Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum Malcolmus et primogenitus filius suus Eadwardus" were killed in battle in Northumbria "die S Bricii" [13 Nov] by the army of "Rotberti Northymbrorum comitis"[351].  He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him first of the sons[352].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[353].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that, according to "William", "Edmund…was privy to his brother Duncan´s death, having…bargained with his uncle [Donald] for half the kingdom" but was captured and "kept in fetters for ever"[354].  He died from wounds received at the battle of Alnwick during a raid on England led by his father.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French in Inber Alda in England"[355].  Matthew Paris reports that the remains of "regis Scotorum Malcolmi et Edwardi filii sui" were found at Tynemouth, commenting that both had been killed fighting "Robertus de Mumbrai"[356]

4.         EDMUND (-after 1097, bur [Montacute]).  He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him second of the sons[357].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife, adding in a later passage that Edmund "was buried at Montacute in England"[358].  He succeeded in 1094 as EDMUND joint King of Scotland, jointly with his uncle King Donald III "Bane", ruling south of the Forth/Clyde.  He was deposed in 1097 by his brother Edgar, and became a monk at Montacute Abbey.  Edmund is not mentioned either by Orderic Vitalis in his brief account of the usurpation of King Donald "Bane"[359], or by Florence of Worcester in his account of the deposition of King Donald in 1097[360].  If Edmund was older than his brother Edgar, it is not clear why their uncle Edgar Ætheling, who led the English army which deposed their uncle, would have supported the accession of Edgar in place of Edmund.  The Annals of Ulster record that he was involved in the killing of his half-brother King Duncan[361].  William of Malmesbury records that "Edmund was the only degenerate son of Margaret", that he "[partook] in his uncle Donald's crime and…had been accessory to his brother's death", was "doomed to perpetual imprisonment", and "on his near approach of death, ordered himself to be buried in his chains"[362].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum records that "Edmundus" was buried "apud Montem Acutum in…cella Cluniacensi"[363]

5.         EDGAR ([1074]-[Dundee or Edinburgh Castle] 6 Jan 1107, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him third of the sons[364].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[365].  He succeeded in 1097 as EDGAR King of Scotland.  Florence of Worcester records that "clitorem Eadgarum" led an army to Scotland in [1097] to place "consobrinum suum Eadgarum Malcolmi regis filium" on the Scottish throne after expelling "patruo suo Dufenaldo"[366].  The reign of Edgar is ignored by Orderic Vitalis, who says that Alexander succeeded when King Donald was deposed[367].  "Edgarus filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" made grants for the souls of "fratrum meorum Doncani et Edwardi" by charter dated 30 Aug 1095, subscribed by "Egeri regis, Alexandri fratri eius, Manyanium, Agulfi, filii Doncani, Eyluerti, filii Eghe Omani, Uhtredi, filii Magdufe, Constantini, Rodberti de humet, Ætele, A. gulfi, Alimoldi filii sui, David"[368].  The precise dating of this charter and the unusual list of subscribers suggest that it may be spurious.  "Edgarus…Rex Scottorum" made grants for the souls of "Malcolmi patris nostri et Margaretæ matris nostræ…ac Edwardi et Duncani fratrum nostrorum" by charter dated 1095[369].  Robert of Torigny records the death in 1107 of "Edgarus rex Scotiæ"[370].  Florence of Worcester records the death "VIII Id Jan" in [1107] of "Eadgarus rex Scottorum"[371].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Edgar mac Malcolm" reigned for 9 years, died "in Dunedin", and was buried "in Dumferline"[372]

6.         ALEXANDER ([1077/78]-Stirling Castle 23, 25 or 27 Apr 1124, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him fourth of the sons[373].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[374].  Robert of Torigny records that "Alexander frater eius" succeeded in 1107 on the death of "Edgarus rex Scotiæ"[375].  He succeeded his brother in 1107 as ALEXANDER I "the Fierce" King of Scotland.  Florence of Worcester records that "Alexander frater eius" succeeded his brother King Edgar in [1107][376].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "VII Kal Mai" [1124] of "Alexander rex Scottorum"[377].  "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey by charter dated to [1114/15], witnessed by "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna"[378].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Alexander" reigned for 17 years and 3 months, died "in Crasleth", and was buried "in Dumferline"[379]m (before [1114/15]) SIBYL, illegitimate daughter of HENRY I King of England & his mistress [---/Sibyl Corbet] (-Island of the Women, Loch Tay, Perthshire 12/13 Jul 1122, bur Island of the Women, Loch Tay).  William of Malmesbury records the marriage of Alexander to the unnamed illegitimate daughter of King Henry, but adds "there was…some defect about the lady either in correctness of manners or elegance of person"[380], which appears to imply mental retardation.  "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey by charter dated to [1114/15][381].  Her name is confirmed by various charters, including the charter dated to [1120] under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum filius Regis Malcolmi et Reginæ Margaretæ et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Angliæ" made grants[382].  Considering the date of her marriage, it is unlikely that she was born much later than [1095].  The Complete Peerage[383] suggests that she was the daughter of Sibyl Corbet, both because of her name and also because of the possible co-identity between "…Willelmo fratre reginæ…", who witnessed the charter dated 1124 under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum" granted jurisdiction to the prior of Scone[384], and  "…Willielmo fratre meo…" who witnessed the charter dated to [1163/75] under which "Reginaldus, Henrici Regis filius, comes Cornubiæ" granted property to "Willielmo de Boterell, filio Aliziæ Corbet, materteræ meæ"[385].  However, this co-identity is not ideal from a chronological point of view.  William, brother of Renaud Earl of Cornwall, died after 1187.  If he was the same person as the brother of Sibyl Queen of Scotland, he could only have been a child when he subscribed the Scottish charters in which he is named.  In addition, as noted in the document ENGLAND KINGS, it is possible that William, brother of Earl Renaud, may have been his uterine brother, in which case it is unlikely that he would have been chosen to accompany the queen to Scotland.  Another factor is that the birth of Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Sibyl Corbet by her marriage, is estimated to [1125/35] (see the document UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY).  This means that he could only have been Sibyl´s half-brother if she had been a young girl at the time of her marriage.  On the other hand, "Robert Corbet" witnessed charters in Scotland which are dated to late in the reign of King Alexander and the early years of the reign of his brother King David (see UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY).  If Robert Corbet was Queen Sibyl´s maternal grandfather or her maternal uncle, this could account for his presence at the Scottish court at the time.  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death in 1122 "apud Lochtay cellam canonicorum de Scona" of "Sibilla…regine Scocie uxor regis Alexandri, filia Henrici Beuclerk regis Anglie"[386].  King Alexander I had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress: 

a)         MALCOLM ([1105/15]-after 1158).  Orderic Vitalis names Malcolm as bastard son of King Alexander[387]Robert of Torigny records that "Aragois comes Morefie cum Melcolmo notho filio Alexandri fratri regis David" invaded Scotland in 1130[388].  same person as …?  MALCOLM MacHeth (-23 Oct 1168[389]).  Duncan suggests that Malcolm, son of King Alexander I, and Malcolm MacHeth were two different persons, the latter being the son of "Aed" or "Heth" who witnessed two charters in the early years of the reign of King David I[390].  He was reconciled with King Malcolm IV in 1157.  Malcolm MacHeth was created Earl of Ross in 1162 or before[391]. 

-        EARLS of ROSS

7.         ETHELRED (-before [1107], bur [St Andrew´s Church, Kilremont]).  He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him fifth of the sons[392].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife, adding in a later passage that Ethelred "as some assert…lies buried in St Andrew´s church at Kilremont"[393].  Lay abbot of Dunkeld.  "Edelradus…filius Malcolmi Regis Scotiæ Abbas de Dunkeldense et insuper Comes de Fyf" made donations to the Keledei of Loch Leven by undated charter, witnessed by "duo fratres Hedelradi…David et Alexander…Constantini comitis de Fyf et Nesse et Cormac filii Macbeath et Malnethte filii Beollani sacerdotum de Abyrnethyn et Mallebride alterius sacerdotis"[394]

8.         EADGYTH (1079-1 Jun 1118).  Orderic Vitalis records that their mother sent Eadgyth and her sister Mary to be brought up by their maternal aunt Christina, nun at Romsey Abbey[395].  Florence of Worcester records the marriage of King Henry and "regis Scottorum Malcolmi et Margaretæ reginæ filiam Mahtildem" and her coronation as queen in a passage dealing with events in late 1100[396].  She adopted the name MATILDA on her marriage.  Crowned Queen Consort of England 11 or 14 Nov 1100.  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "Kal Mai" of "Matildis Anglorum regina"[397].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "Kal Mai " at Westminster of "Mahthildis regina Anglorum", and her burial at Westminster Abbey[398]m (11 Nov 1100) as his first wife, HENRY I "Beauclerc" King of England, son of WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England & his wife Mathilde de Flandre (Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068-Saint-Denis le Ferment, Forêt d’Angers near Rouen 1/2 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire). 

9.         DAVID ([1080]-Carlisle 24 May 1153, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him as the sixth son of his parents[399].  He succeeded his brother in 1124 as DAVID I King of Scotland.   

-        see below.

10.      MARY (-31 May 1116 or 18 Apr 1118, bur Bermondsey Priory).  Orderic Vitalis records that their mother sent Mary and her sister Eadgyth to be brought up by their maternal aunt Christina, nun at Romsey Abbey[400].  Florence of Worcester records that Henry I King of England arranged the marriage of "Mariam reginæ sororem" and "Eustatio Bononensium comiti" in [1102][401].  Her marriage is also recorded by Orderic Vitalis, who also names her daughter[402].  The Genealogica comitum Buloniensium records that "Eustachius, frater Balduini regis Iheruslame" married "Mariam filiam regis Scotiæ"[403].  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum records the death "II Kal Jun" in 1116 of "Maria…comitissa" and her burial "apud Bermundseiam"[404].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Mary countess of Bouillon" died in "the third year before her sister´s death"[405]m (1102) EUSTACHE [III] Comte de Boulogne, son of EUSTACHE [II] "Gernobadatus" Comte de Boulogne and Lens & his second wife Ida of Lotharingia (-after 1125). 

 

 

The precise relationship of the following person to the Scottish royal family has not yet been ascertained. 

 

1.         ALEXANDER (-after [1120]).  "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna" witnessed the charter dated to [1114/15] under which "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey[406].  "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri…" subscribed the possibly spurious charter dated to [1120] of "Alexander…Rex Scottorum…Sibilla regina Scottorum…"[407].  Duncan suggests that the entry is an error for William and that his position in the witness list indicates that he may then have been intended by the king as his successor[408].  However, the fact that Alexander also witnessed the [1114/15] Scone charter (see above) indicates that he was a separate person (unless of course the subscription list was copied from one charter to the other). 

 

 

DAVID I 1124-1153

 

DAVID, son of MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland & his wife Margaret of England ([1080]-Carlisle 24 May 1153, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him as the sixth son of his parents[409].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[410].  He was designated Prince of Cumbria in [1107][411].  "David comes" made donations to the monks of Durham by undated charter which names "frater meus Eadgarus rex", witnessed by "Mathildis Reginæ et Willelmi filii sui"[412], presumably referring to his sister Matilda Queen of England which dates the document to before Jun 1118.  Earl of Northampton and Huntingdon, de iure uxoris.  "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk by charter dated to [1120], witnessed by "Matilde comitisse, Henrico filio comitis…"[413].  "David comes filii Malcolmi regis Scotorum" founded the monastery of Kelso by charter dated to [1119/24] witnessed by "Matilda comitissa, Henrico filio comitis…Willo nepote comitis…"[414].  Inquisitions by "David…Cumbrensis regionis princeps", dated 1124, concern land owned by the church of Glasgow[415].  He succeeded his brother in 1124 as DAVID I King of Scotland.  Having at first supported Empress Matilda's right to succeed her father Henry I King of England, he made peace with King Stephen, agreeing in 1136 to resign his English earldoms to his son Henry[416].  The peace was short-lived, King David being defeated by King Stephen at the battle of the Standard 22 Aug 1138.  "Rex Scottorum" (no name) donated "terram de Eldune…Dernewic" to Melrose abbey, for the souls of "fratris mei Ædgari et alios fratrem et sororis mearum et uxoris mee Matild et…Henrici filii mei", by charter dated "die Venis crastino Ascensionis dni…quo Stephanus rex Anglie captus est" (29 Apr 1141)[417].  Robert of Torigny records the death in 1153 of "David rex Scotiæ"[418].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "David" reigned for 29 years and 3 months, died "in Carlelle", and was buried "in Dumfermline"[419].  The Chronicle of Melrose records the death "IX Kal Jun" in 1153 of King David[420].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "IX Kal Jun" in 1153 of "rex…sanctus David junior filius Malcolmi et S. Margaretæ Scotorum reginæ" and his burial at Dunfermline[421]

m (1113) as her second husband, MATILDA [Maud] of Huntingdon, widow of SIMON de St Lis Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton, daughter of WALTHEOF Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton & his wife Judith de Lens [Boulogne] ([1071/76]-[23 Apr 1130/22 Apr 1131], bur Scone Abbey, Perthshire).  Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records the marriage of Matilda eldest daughter of Judith and "Earl Simon[422].  Guillaume de Jumièges records that the eldest of the three daughters of Waltheof & his wife married "Simon de Senlis" and later "David frère de la seconde Mathilde reine des Anglais"[423].  Her parents are named by Orderic Vitalis[424].  Robert of Torigny records that the wife of "David [rex Scotiæ] frater [Alexandri]" was "filiam Gallevi comitis et Judith consobrini regis", naming "Symon Silvanectensis comes" as her first husband[425].  "Matilde comitisse, Henrico filio comitis…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk[426].  "David comes filii Malcolmi regis Scotorum" founded the monastery of Kelso by charter dated to [1119/24] witnessed by "Matilda comitissa, Henrico filio comitis…Willo nepote comitis…"[427].  "Matildis comitissa…" witnessed inquisitions by "David…Cumbrensis regionis princeps", dated 1124, concerning land owned by the church of Glasgow[428]

King David & his wife had [five] children:

1.         MALCOLM ([1114]-[1116/17]).  His parentage is given by Orderic Vitalis, who specifies that he was the first-born child but does not name him, and says that he was "cruelly murdered by the iron fingers of a certain wretched clerk" when aged two[429].  The primary source which confirms his name has not yet been identified. 

2.         HENRY ([1115]-12 Jun 1152, bur Kelso Abbey, Roxburghshire).  Robert of Torigny names "filium Henricum duasque filias Clariciam et Hodiernam" as children of "David [rex Scotiæ] frater [Alexandri]" & his wife[430].  He succeeded as Earl of Huntingdon in [Feb 1136], on his father's resignation of the earldom.  He was created Earl of Northumberland in 1139. 

-        see below

3.         CLARICIA (-young).  Her parentage is given by Orderic Vitalis[431].  Robert of Torigny names "filium Henricum duasque filias Clariciam et Hodiernam" as children of "David [rex Scotiæ] frater [Alexandri]" & his wife[432]

4.         HODIERNA (-young).  Her parentage is given by Orderic Vitalis[433].  Robert of Torigny names "filium Henricum duasque filias Clariciam et Hodiernam" as children of "David [rex Scotiæ] frater [Alexandri]" & his wife[434]

5.         [--- .  m ---.  [One child]: 

a)         [ELA .  Malcolm IV King of Scotland granted "Scradimigglock et Falecklen et Radhulit et Strathbranen et totam firmam meam de Cattel…in maritagium" to "Duncano comiti et heredi suo qui de uxore sua Ada nepte mea nasceretur" by charter dated 1160 ("anno septimo regni regis")[435].  King Malcolm was too young to have had a niece who married around the date of this charter.  However, it is possible that "nepte" should be interpreted more loosely in this document and that the bride was a more remote relative of the king, maybe his first cousin, daughter of an otherwise unrecorded paternal uncle or aunt.  The following charters demonstrate that the wife of Earl Duncan was named Ela not Ada, presumably indicating a mistranscription in the reproduction of the 1160 charter.  "Dunecanus comes de Fif" donated "ecclesiam de Cupre" to St Andrew´s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Hela comitissa, Adam fratre comitis…"[436].  "Ada comitissa mater regis Scottorum" donated "toftum in burgo meo de Hadintuna" to St Andrew´s priory, for the soul of "Henrici comitis sponsi mei", by undated charter, witnessed by "…Hela comitissa de Fif…"[437].  "Morgrundus comes de Mar" donated "ecclesiam Miggehwith" to St Andrew´s priory, confirmed by "Agnetis comitisse sponse mee", by undated charter witnessed by "Ada comitissa, Hela comitissa, Alexandro de sco Martino, Hugone Giffard, Willo Giffard…Willo filio Hugonis Giffard…"[438]m ([1159/60]) DUNCAN Macduff Earl of Fife, son of DUNCAN Macduff Earl of Fife & his wife --- (-[Aug/Dec] 1203).] 

 

 

MALCOLM IV 1153-1165

 

HENRY of Scotland, son of DAVID I King of Scotland & his wife Matilda [Maud] of Huntingdon ([1115]-12 Jun 1152, bur Kelso Abbey, Roxburghshire).  His parentage is given by Orderic Vitalis[439].  Robert of Torigny names "filium Henricum duasque filias Clariciam et Hodiernam" as children of "David [rex Scotiæ] frater [Alexandri]" & his wife[440].  "Matilde comitisse, Henrico filio comitis…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk[441].  "David comes filii Malcolmi regis Scotorum" founded the monastery of Kelso by charter dated to [1119/24] witnessed by "Matilda comitissa, Henrico filio comitis…Willo nepote comitis…"[442].  He succeeded as Earl of Huntingdon in [Feb 1136], on his father's resignation of the earldom.  He was created Earl of Northumberland in 1139 by King Stephen as part of the peace settlement which followed the battle of the Standard.  He remained at the court of King Stephen for some time[443].  Robert of Torigny records that "Henricus filius eius" died the year before "David rex Scotiæ"[444]

m (1139[445]) ADA de Warenne, daughter of WILLIAM de Warenne Earl of Surrey & his wife Isabelle de Vermandois (-1178).  She is named by Orderic Vitalis, who also names her father[446].  Robert of Torigny refers to the wife of "Henricus filius eius [David rex Scotiæ]" as "filia Willermi comitis de Warenna, sorore uterine Gualeranni comitis Mellenti"[447].  "Ada comitissa mater regis Scottorum" donated "toftum in burgo meo de Hadintuna" to St Andrew´s priory, for the soul of "Henrici comitis sponsi mei", by undated charter, witnessed by "…Hela comitissa de Fif…"[448].  "Ada comitissa mater regis Scot" donated "unam marcham argenti", from "Malisus de Pethmolin", to St Andrew´s priory for lighting the church, for the soul of "comitis Henrici sponsi mei", by undated charter witnessed by "Hug Giff, Alexandro de sco Martino, Hug de Baiol…Willo Giff…"[449].  "Morgrundus comes de Mar" donated "ecclesiam Miggehwith" to St Andrew´s priory, confirmed by "Agnetis comitisse sponse mee", by undated charter witnessed by "Ada comitissa, Hela comitissa, Alexandro de sco Martino, Hugone Giffard, Willo Giffard…Willo filio Hugonis Giffard…"[450].  The Chronicle of Melrose records the death in 1178 of Ctss Ada[451]

Earl Henry & his wife had six children:

1.         MALCOLM (20 Mar 1142[452]-Jedburgh Castle 9 Dec 1165, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife[453]).  William of Newburgh names "Malcolmum filii primogenitum" of Earl Henry[454].  Robert of Torigny names "nepotes quos Henricus filius eius" Malcolm and William as successors of "David rex Scotiæ"[455].  He succeeded his grandfather in 1153 as MALCOLM IV “the Maiden” King of Scotland, crowned soon after at Scone Abbey, Perthshire.  He resigned his right to the earldoms of Northumberland and Cumberland in 1157, and was confirmed as Earl of Huntingdon by Henry II King of England[456].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Malcolm filius Henrici filii David" reigned for 12 years, 6 months and 20 days, died "apud Jedwarth", and was buried "Dumfermline"[457].  King Malcolm had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

a)         son (-before 1165, bur Inverlethan).  King Malcolm IV granted privileges to the church of Inverlethan in which "corpore filii mei" passed its first night after he died, by undated charter[458]

2.         WILLIAM (1143-Stirling 4 Dec 1214, bur Arbroath Abbey).  Robert of Torigny names "nepotes quos Henricus filius eius" Malcolm and William as successors of "David rex Scotiæ"[459].  He succeeded his brother in 1165 as WILLIAM I “the Lion” King of Scotland

-        see below

3.         MARGARET ([1144/45]-1201, bur Sawtrey Abbey).  Her origin and first marriage are deduced from Benedict of Peterborough who records that "filia sororis regis Scotiæ Willelmi comitissa Brittaniæ" gave birth in 1186 to "filium…Arturum"[460].  Her birth date is estimated from the Rotuli de Dominabus of 1185 which records property “villam de Wissinton” held by “Margareta comitissa…xl annorum”, adding that “comes Britannie habet filiam suam” and that she has “i filium de Humfrido de Buun qui est infra etatem[461].  The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1160 of "Malcolm king of Scotland…his sister Margaret to Conan duke of Brittany"[462].  The Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ records that "Conanus filius Alani" married "Margaretam sororem Willielmi Regis Scotie"[463].  "Conan dux Britannie comes Richmundie" confirmed the donation of Plubihan and Plougasnou to Saint-Georges de Rennes by charter to [1156/69], witnessed by "Margarita comitissa, Willelmo filio Hamon, Alano de Rohan, Constancia sorore comitis…"[464].  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey records that “dominus Humfridus quartus de Bohun, comes Herefordiæ et constabularius Angliæ” married “Margaretam comitissam Britanniæ[465].  [Two possibilities have been proposed for a third marriage of Margaret.  Firstly, Evans suggests that she was the second marriage of Pedro de Lara, quoting a charter dated "X Kal Feb 1221" (Spanish Era = A. D. 23 Jan 1183) at Anjou which records a donation by "P…comes de Lara…comitisse Marger´ uxori mee consanguinee H...angl´ regis" of "Molmera et Handaluz et Agusinu et Eles et Pulucranke…in Hyspania" to Llanthony abbey, witnessed by "comes Gaufredus Britannie, J. sine terra, J. comes J, Mauricius de Creon senescallus Andeg, J. Didaci comitis"[466].  He points out that Llanthony had been founded in 1136 by Miles of Gloucester, whose eldest daughter married Humphrey de Bohun, who was the father of Margaret´s second husband[467].  If this origin is correct, Pedro´s marriage to Margaret was presumably terminated before her death, given his third marriage.  The difficulty with Evans´s proposal is the obvious age difference between Pedro de Lara and Margaret of Scotland.  Another possibility, which also justifies the connection with Llanthony through the Bohun family and is more satisfactory from a chronological point of view, is that Pedro´s second wife was an otherwise unrecorded daughter of Margaret´s.  The second possibility for a third marriage for Margaret with "the Berwickshire thegn" William FitzPatrick of Greenlaw, Westmoreland was proposed by Washington[468], and accepted by Hedley[469].  The Liber de S. Marie de Calchou (Kelso abbey) lists "Carta Willi fil Patric…in villa de Grenlaw" which records the donation by "M comitisse uxoris mee" to Kelso of land "in Grenelawe quem Lyolfus eq´cius tenuit"[470], while the Pipe Roll of 1184 for Westmoreland records lands owned by "Countess Margaret"[471].  Washington assigns three children to this marriage: "1. Walter de Washington, 2. Sir William de Washington, 3. Marjory who married firstly David de Lindsay (from which marriage descended Sir Robert de Pinkney, a competitor for the Scottish crown in 1291) and secondly Sir Malcolm FitzWaldeve alias de Ingoe".]  The Annals of Burton record the death in 1201 of “Margareta mater…Constantiæ, soror Willelmi regis Scotiæ, mater Henrici de Boum comitis Herefordiæ[472]m firstly (1160) CONAN IV "le Petit" Duke of Brittany, Earl of Richmond, son of ALAIN Earl of Richmond & his wife Berthe heiress of Brittany ([1138]-20 Feb 1171).  m secondly (1171 before Easter) HUMPHREY de Bohun, son of HUMPHREY de Bohun & his wife Margaret of Hereford (-[1181]).  Hereditary Constable of England.  [Two possible alternatives for her third marriage: (1) m thirdly as his second wife, conde don PEDRO Manrique de Lara Vicomte de Narbonne, son of conde don MANRIQUE Pérez de Lara & his wife Ermesinde Ctss de Narbonne (-Jan 1202, bur Santa María de Huerta). (2) m thirdly WILLIAM FitzPatrick alias de Hertburn, alias de Washington, of Greenlaw, Westmoreland, son of --- (-after 1184).]    

4.         DAVID ([1144]-Yardley, Northants 17 Jun 1219, bur Sawtrey Abbey).  William of Newburgh names "Hunteduniensem comitem David fratrem regis Scottorum" when recording that he became the leader of a rebellion in England [in 1174][473].  He received Garioch in Aberdeenshire from his brother in 1174, possibly becoming Earl of Garrioch, although there is no evidence of this creation[474].  Earl of Huntingdon in 1185, on the resignation of his brother King William.  "Comes David frater regis Scottorum" founded Lindores Abbey, for the souls of "comitis Henrici patris mei et comitisse Ade matris mee…regis Willelmi fratris mei et regine Ermegard et…Matilde comitisse sponse mee et…David filii mei", by undated charter (dated to before 1203 from the names of the subscribers)[475].  "Comes David frater regis Scottorum" donated "ecclesiam de Lundors…ecclesiam de Dunde…ecclesiam de Durnach" to Lindores Abbey, for the souls of "comitis Henrici patris mei et comitisse matris mee et Malcolmi regis fratris mei et…regis Willelmi fratris mei et Regine Armengard…et Matildis sponse mee et…David filii mei", by undated charter[476].  He was deprived of all his English honours in [1215/16], but restored 13 Mar 1218[477].  The Annals of Waverley record the death in 1219 of “comes David, frater Willelmi regis Scotiæ[478].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "apud Jerdelay in Anglia…die…Sancti Botulphi" of "comes David" and his burial "apud abbatiam de Sautreia"[479].  [m firstly ---.  No direct evidence has been of this supposed first marriage of David.  However, the date of David´s marriage to Matilda of Chester is late for this to have been his first marriage.  In addition, his foundation charter for Lindores abbey refers to the donation of his daughter Ada, who was already married at the time and therefore considerably older than David´s children by his marriage to Matilda.  Secondary sources generally assume that Ada was illegitimate.  However, it is possibly that she was the daughter of an otherwise unrecorded earlier marriage of David, especially as she was given his mother´s name.]  m [secondly] (26 Aug 1190[480]) MATILDA [Maud] of Chester, daughter of HUGH de Kevilloc Earl of Chester & his wife Bertrade de Montfort (1171-6 Jan 1233).  The Annales Londonienses record that "Ranulphus comes Cestriæ" had four sisters, of whom "primogenita…Matilda" married "comiti David"[481].  Benedict of Peterborough records the marriage in 1190 of "David frater Willelmi regis Scotiæ" and "sororem Ranulfi comitem Cestriæ"[482].  "Comes David frater regis Scottorum" founded Lindores Abbey, for the souls of "…Matilde comitisse sponse mee et…David filii mei", by undated charter (dated to before 1203 from the names of the subscribers)[483].  "Comes David frater regis Scottorum" donated "ecclesiam de Lundors…ecclesiam de Dunde…ecclesiam de Durnach" to Lindores Abbey, for the souls of "…Matildis sponse mee et…David filii mei", by undated charter[484].  The Testa de Nevill includes a writ of King John dated 1212 which records that "comes Cestrie" gave land "in Forthington et in Ulesbi" in Lincolnshire to "comiti Davidi in maritagium cum sorore ipsius comitis"[485].  Mistresses (1) - (5): ---.  The names of David's mistresses are not known.  Earl David & his [first wife] had one child: 

a)         ADA .  The undated charter, dated to before 1203 from the names of the subscribers, under which "Comes David frater regis Scottorum" founded Lindores Abbey refers to land "in villa de Neutile" donated by "Ada filia mea, uxor Malisii filii comitis Fertheth"[486].  As noted above, secondary sources mostly show Ada as David´s illegitimate daughter. The fact that she was given his mother´s name may indicate that she was legitimate, born from a possible first marriage.  "Malisius filius comitis Fertheth frater comitis Gilberti de Strathern" donated "Rathangothen" to Lindores Abbey, for the soul of "uxoris mee filie comitis David", by undated charter, witnessed by "Waltero Olifard, David de Lindeseia…David Olifard…"[487].  "Ada filia comitis David uxor Malisii filii comitis Fertheth" donated land "in villa de Balemagh" to Lindores Abbey by undated charter[488]m MALISE, son of FERTETH [Ferquhard] Earl of Strathearn & his wife Ethen --- ([after 1150]-). 

Earl David & his [first/second] wife had one child: 

b)         DAVID (-after [1200]).  "Comes David frater regis Scottorum" founded Lindores Abbey, for the souls of "…Matilde comitisse sponse mee et…David filii mei", by undated charter (dated to before 1203 from the names of the subscribers)[489].  "Comes David frater regis Scottorum" donated "ecclesiam de Lundors…ecclesiam de Dunde…ecclesiam de Durnach" to Lindores Abbey, for the souls of "…Matildis sponse mee et…David filii mei", by undated charter[490]

Earl David & his [second] wife had [eight] children: 

c)         ROBERT (-young, bur Lindores Abbey, Fife).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Robertum…et Henricum necnon Johannem" as the three sons of "David, rex quondam Willelmus frater" and his wife "Matildem filiam Hugonis…comitis quondam de Cestria", adding that Robert died "immatura" and was buried "apud abbatiam de Lundoris"[491]

d)         MARGARET ([1194]-[after 6 Jan 1233]).  The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1209 of "Alan FitzRoland" and "the daughter of earl David, the brother of the king of Scotland"[492].  The Annales Londonienses name "Margaretam, Isabellam, Matildam, et Aldam" as the four daughters of "comiti David", recording the marriage of "la primere fille Davi" and "Aleyn de Gavei"[493].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the marriage in 1208 "apud Dunde" of "Alanus magnus de Galweyia, filius Rotholandi" and "Margaretam filiam David comitis de Huntingtona"[494].  The primary source which confirms her appearance in Jan 1233 has not been identified.  The date is inconsistent with Alan´s subsequent marital history, unless his marriage to Margaret was dissolved.  m (Dundee 1209) as his [third] wife, ALAN Lord of Galloway, son of ROLAND Lord of Galloway & his wife Helen de Moreville (-[2] Feb 1234, bur Dundraynan).  Constable of Scotland. 

i)          other children: LORDS of GALLOWAY

ii)         DEVORGUILLA of Galloway ([1218]-28 Jan 1290, bur Sweetheart Abbey, Kirkland).  The Annales Londonienses name "Devorgoille de Baillol" as second of the three daughters of "la primere fille Davi" and "Aleyn de Gavei"[495].  According to the Chronicle of Melrose[496], Devorguilla was second daughter of Alan of Galloway, when recording her marriage in 1233 to "John de Baylol".  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "Diuorgilla filia Alani domini de Galwidia" founded "monasterium Dulcicordis ordinis Cisterciensis et fratrum minorum de Dundee"[497]m ([1233]) Sir JOHN de Balliol of Barnard Castle, co Durham, son of HUGH Balliol [Bailleul] of Barnard Castle & his wife Cecilia de Fontaines (-before 24 Oct 1268 or 1269).   

-         see below, Chapter 3. KINGS OF SCOTLAND, HOUSE of BALLIOL

e)         HENRY (-after 1215, bur Lindores Abbey, Fife).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Robertum…et Henricum necnon Johannem" as the three sons of "David, rex quondam Willelmus frater" and his wife "Matildem filiam Hugonis…comitis quondam de Cestria"[498].  His father offered 1,000 marks for Henry's marriage with Maud de Cauz in 1203, but the marriage did not take place[499]

f)          ISABEL (1206-1251, bur Saltre Abbey, near Stilton, Gloucs).  The Annales Londonienses name "Margaretam, Isabellam, Matildam, et Aldam" as the four daughters of "comiti David", recording the marriage of "la secounde fille Davi" and "sire Robert de Brus"[500].  She was granted the manors of Writtle and Hatfield, Essex, 16 Oct 1241 in return for her share of the inheritance of her brother John Earl of Chester.  m ROBERT [IV] de Brus “the Noble” Lord of Annandale, son of WILLIAM de Brus & his wife Christina --- (-1245). 

-        see below, Chapter 4. KINGS OF SCOTLAND, HOUSE of BRUCE

g)         JOHN "the Scot" ([1207]-Darnhall, Cheshire shortly before 6 Jun 1237, bur Chester, Abbey of St Werburg[501]).  The Annales Londonienses name "Johannem" as the son of "comiti David" & his wife[502].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Robertum…et Henricum necnon Johannem Scotum ab Anglis vocitatum" as the three sons of "David, rex quondam Willelmus frater" and his wife "Matildem filiam Hugonis…comitis quondam de Cestria", adding that John succeeded his father and also succeeded "Ranulpho…ad comitatum Cestriæ"[503].  He succeeded his father in 1219 as Earl of Huntingdon and Garioch.  "Johannes de Scocia comes Huntedun" donated "terram…de Lundors" to Lindores Abbey by undated charter, subscribed by "Henrico de Striuelin fratre meo…"[504].  He was created Earl of Chester 21 Nov 1232, in succession to his maternal uncle.  Matthew Paris records that it was suspected that his wife "filia Leolini" poisoned John “the Scot”[505].  The Annales Cambriæ record the death in 1237 of "Johannes comes Cestriæ gener suus [dominæ Johannæ filiæ regis Angliæ et uxor Lewilini principis Walliæ]"[506].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the death “V Id Jan” in 1237 of “Johannes de Scotia comes Cestriæ[507]m ([1220/22]) as her first wife, HELEN of Wales, daughter of LLYWELYN ap Iorwerth Fawr ("the Great") Prince of Wales & his second wife Joan [illegitimate daughter of John King of England] (-1253 before 24 Oct).  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Johannes comes Cestriæ” died in 1237 and “eius uxor…filia Lewelini” married “Roberto [de Quinci]” against her father´s wishes[508].  She married secondly (1237 before 5 Dec) Robert de Quincy.  A writ after the death of "Eleanor, sometime the wife of John Earl of Chester", dated "the eve of St Martin 38 Hen III", records the "partition of her lands between Si J. de Bayllol, Robert de Brus, and Henry de Hasting, the heirs of the said earl"[509]

h)         MATILDA [Maud] .  The Annales Londonienses name "Margaretam, Isabellam, Matildam, et Aldam" as the four daughters of "comiti David"[510].  1239. 

i)          ADA (-after 1241).  The Annales Londonienses name "Margaretam, Isabellam, Matildam, et Aldam" as the four daughters of "comiti David", recording the marriage of "la tierce fille Davi" and "sire Henri de Hastinges"[511]m (before 7 Jun 1237) Sir HENRY de Hastings, of Ashill in Norfolk, son of WILLIAM de Hastings & his first wife Margery Bigod of Norfolk (-before 9 Aug 1250). 

Earl David had four illegitimate children by Mistresses (1) - (5):

j)           WILLIAM .  "Walkelino filio Stephani, Willo Wacelin Henr et Henrico fil meis…" witnessed the undated charter under which "Comes David frater regis Scotorum" donated "elemosinam totum Kanum et Kuneueth" to St Andrew´s priory[512]

k)          WALKELIN .  "Walkelino filio Stephani, Willo Wacelin Henr et Henrico fil meis…" witnessed the undated charter under which "Comes David frater regis Scotorum" donated "elemosinam totum Kanum et Kuneueth" to St Andrew´s priory[513]. 

l)           HENRY of Stirling (-after 12 Feb 1236).  "Walkelino filio Stephani, Willo Wacelin Henr et Henrico fil meis…" witnessed the undated charter under which "Comes David frater regis Scotorum" donated "elemosinam totum Kanum et Kuneueth" to St Andrew´s priory[514].  "…Henrico filio comitis…" subscribed the undated charter under which "Comes David frater regis Scottorum" founded Lindores Abbey[515].  It is unlikely that Henry was legitimate as, unlike his [half-brother] David, he is not named as a beneficiary of the foundation in the body of the charter.  Henry is also named well down the list of subscribers to the document, indicating an inferior position relative to the other subscribers.  "…Waltero Olifard, Henrico filio comitis David…" subscribed the undated charter under which "comes David frater regis Scottorum" donated "totam terram de Perthegus…et…terre in Pethannot" to Lindores Abbey[516].  "…duobus Henricis filiis comitis…" subscribed the undated charter under which "Comes David frater regis Scocie" donated "Culsamuel et…Munkegyn" to Lindores Abbey[517].  "Johannes de Scocia comes Huntedun" donated "terram…de Lundors" to Lindores Abbey by undated charter, subscribed by "Henrico de Striuelin fratre meo…"[518].  "Henricus de Brechyn filius comitis Dauid" donated revenue to Lindores Abbey, for the souls of "Juliane sponse mee et Willelmi filii mei", by undated charter, witnessed by "Domino Henrico de Striuelin fratre meo…Willelmo filio meo…"[519].  "…Henrico de Strivelin filio comitis David…" subscribed the charter dated 12 Feb 1236 under which Alexander II King of Scotland confirmed donations to Kinloss[520]. 

m)        HENRY of Brechin (-[1244/Aug 1245])"Walkelino filio Stephani, Willo Wacelin Henr et Henrico fil meis…" witnessed the undated charter under which "Comes David frater regis Scotorum" donated "elemosinam totum Kanum et Kuneueth" to St Andrew´s priory[521].  "…duobus Henricis filiis comitis…" subscribed the undated charter under which "Comes David frater regis Scocie" donated "Culsamuel et…Munkegyn" to Lindores Abbey[522].  "Henricus de Brechyn filius comitis Dauid" donated revenue to Lindores Abbey, for the souls of "Juliane sponse mee et Willelmi filii mei", by undated charter, witnessed by "Domino Henrico de Striuelin fratre meo…Willelmo filio meo…"[523].  He swore to aid King Alexander II to keep the 1237 truce with England in 1244[524]m JULIANA de Cornhill, daughter of RALPH de Cornhill & his wife ---.  "Henricus de Brechyn filius comitis Dauid" donated revenue to Lindores Abbey, for the souls of "Juliane sponse mee et Willelmi filii mei", by undated charter, witnessed by "Domino Henrico de Striuelin fratre meo…Willelmo filio meo…"[525].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Henry & his wife had one child: 

i)          WILLIAM de Brechin (-before 10 Dec 1292)"Henricus de Brechyn filius comitis Dauid" donated revenue to Lindores Abbey, for the souls of "Juliane sponse mee et Willelmi filii mei", by undated charter, witnessed by "Domino Henrico de Striuelin fratre meo…Willelmo filio meo…"[526].  "Willelmus de Brechine filius domine Henrici de Brechin filii comitis David" founded Messyndew, for the souls of "…domini Henrici patris mei et domine Juliane matris mee", by undated charter[527]m HELEN Comyn, daughter of ALEXANDER Comyn Earl of Buchan & his wife Elizabeth de Quincy (-after 24 Aug 1302).  Andrew Wyntoun´s Cronykil records that "Jhon and Alysandyre" had five sisters, the fourth of which married "Schyr Willame off Brechyne" by whom she had "Schyr Dawy"[528].  "Elena relicta quondam domini Willelmi de Brechin, domina de Kyndeloch" donated "tenementum meum de Kyndeloch" to Lindores Abbey by charter dated 24 Aug 1302[529].  William & his wife had one child: 

(a)        DAVID de Brechin (-executed [Aug] 1320).  Balfour Paul says that David is named as son of William de Brechin when Edward I King of England granted his marriage to "Sir John de Callantir" by charter dated 10 Dec 1292, renewed 18 Jun 1294[530].  King Edward granted "terres Aleyn Doreward" to "Domino David de Breghhyn"[531].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Dominus David de Brechin" among those accused of involvement in the plot led by "dominus Willelmus de Sowlis et comitissa de Strathern" and executed[532]m firstly (after 1298) as her second husband, MARGARET de Bonkyl, widow of Sir JOHN Stewart of Bonkyl, daughter of Sir ALEXANDER Bonkyl of that Ilk & his wife ---.  m secondly (before 1314) MARGERY, daughter of ---.  David & his first wife had one child: 

(1)        MARGARETm ([1315]) Sir DAVID Barclay, son of --- (-murdered Aberdeen 25 Jan 1350). 

n)         [MARJORY (-[after 1241])"DD de Lyndes filius DD de Lyndes" donated revenue to Dunfermline abbey with "matri mee" by undated charter witnessed by "domina Margeria de Lyndeseya…"[533].  This document suggests that Marjory lived during the later years of the life of her son David, who died in 1241.  "Willelmus de Lyndesay miles filius quondam dni David de Lyndeshay" donated revenue to Newbattle priory, for the souls of "dni David de Lydesay patris mei et Margarete de Lyndesay matris mee", by charter dated 1293[534].  The proofs relating to the claim to the Scottish throne in 1291 made by her great grandson "domini Roberti de Pinkeny" name "Margareta" as daughter of "Henr patre Regis Willi" but do not name her husband[535].  If the hypothesis about Marjory´s date of death is correct, this alleged parentage is impossible from a chronological point of view.  Balfour Paul suggests that she may have the daughter of one of the sons of David Earl of Huntingdon who are named Henry[536].  However, this suggestion appears to place her birth somewhat late, considering that her son David was married when he died in 1241.  She is shown here as the possible daughter of David Earl of Huntingdon, but that is only a suggestion.  m DAVID de Lindsay, son of WILLIAM de Lindsay & his wife --- (-after 12 Nov 1246).] 

5.         ADA ([1146/48]-11 Jan after 1205, bur Middleburg Monastery).  The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1162 of "Malcolm king of Scotland…his second sister Ada to Florence earl of Hoilande"[537].  Her birth date is estimated assuming that she was the second daughter of Earl Henry, and bearing in mind the estimated birth dates of his other children as shown above.  The Annales Egmundani record the marriage in 1162 of "Florentius comes Hollandiæ" and "sororem Regis Scottorum…Ada"[538].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Floris III and "Adam filiam Henrici prepotentis regis Scottorum"[539].  "Florentius tertius…comes Hollandie" donated the church of Vlaardingen, held by "patris mei Theoderici", to Egmond abbey by charter dated 28 Aug 1162, the dating clause of which refers to "anno primo…matrimonii nostri quo sororem regis Scotie Ade duxit uxorem"[540].  "Theodericus Hollandie comes…comitis Florentii et Ade comitisse filius" donated property at Poeldijk bij Naaldwijk to the church of St Maria, Utrecht by charter dated 1198, in the presence of "Ada mater mea, Willelmus frater meus comes Frisie, Margareta soror mea, Florentius frater meus…"[541].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "III Id Ian" of "Ada quidam Hollandie comitissa regie stirpis" and her burial in Middleburg monastery[542].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "Id Jan" of "Ada comitissa filia Heynrici regis Scothorum"[543]m (1162, before 28 Aug[544]) FLORIS III Count of Holland, son of DIRK VI Count of Holland & his wife Sophie von Rheineck ([1140]-Tyre 1 Aug 1190).  He was created Earl of Ross in 1162 by his brother-in-law Malcolm IV King of Scotland but the earldom was withdrawn from him[545]

6.         MATILDA (-1152).  The death of Matilda, daughter of Henry Earl of Northumberland, is recorded in the Chronicle of Melrose and by Roger of Hoveden, in the same year that her father died[546]

 

 

WILLIAM I 1165-1214

 

WILLIAM, son of HENRY of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland & his wife Ada de Warenne (1143-Stirling 4 Dec 1214, bur Arbroath Abbey).  Robert of Torigny names "nepotes quos Henricus filius eius" Malcolm and William as successors of "David rex Scotiæ"[547].  The Chronicle of Melrose records the birth of "William king of Scotland" in 1143[548].  William of Newburgh names "fratri eius [Malcolmum filii primogenitum] Wilelmo" when recording his succession as Earl of Northumberland on the death of his father[549].  He succeeded his father in 1152 as Earl of Northumberland, his older brother surrendering the earldom in 1157 on his behalf.  He succeeded his brother in 1165 as WILLIAM I “the Lion” King of Scotland, and as Earl of Huntingdon.  Although Henry II King of England recognised his succession to the earldom of Huntingdon, he refused to grant William the earldom of Northumberland.  King William made unsuccessful attempts to regain Northumberland, including joining forces with King Henry's son Henry for an unsuccessful invasion which ended with his defeat and capture at Alnwick 12 Jul 1174, and the confiscation of the earldom of Huntingdon.  King Henry re-granted Huntingdon to him in 1185, but King William immediately resigned it in favour of his brother David[550].  In 1189, he contributed £10,000 to Richard I King of England in answer to an appeal for funds to finance the crusade to relieve Jerusalem, in return for release from his allegiance to the English crown and the restoration of the towns of Berwick and Roxburgh[551].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Willielmus" died aged 52 "in Stirlin", and was buried "in Aberbrothock"[552]

Betrothed (1184) to MATHILDE [née Richenza] von Sachsen, daughter of HEINRICH "der Löwe" ex-Duke of Saxony and Bavaria & his second wife Matilda of England (1172-13 Jan [1209/10]).  Benedict of Peterborough records the betrothal of "Willelmus rex Scotiæ" and "Matildem filiam Matildis ducissa Saxoniæ"[553].  This betrothal was not pursued as the Pope refused a dispensation for the marriage on grounds of consanguinity[554]

m (Woodstock Palace, Oxford 5 Sep 1186) ERMENGARDE de Beaumont, daughter of RICHARD [I] Vicomte de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe et du Maine & his wife Lucie de Laigle (-11 Feb 1233, bur Balmerino Abbey, Fife[555]).  Benedict of Peterborough records that "Ricardus vicecomes de Bellomonte et uxor sua…filiam" brought their daughter to be married to "Willelmo regis Scotiæ" at "Wdestoke Non Sep…1186"[556].  The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1186 of "William king of the Scots" and "a relation of Henry king of England…Ermengarda …daughter of the count of Beaumont who was the son of the daughter of the elder son of William the Bastard"[557].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records the death of "Queen Ermengarde" in 1233 and her burial at "the abbey of St Edward of Balmurinath"[558].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death "III Id Feb", 47 years after her marriage, of "Edmergerda regina Scocia" and her burial "apud Balmurynot" which she had founded[559]

Mistress (1): --- Avenell, daughter of ROBERT Avenell & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of Melrose refers to "the daughter of Robert Avenal" as the mother of King William's daughter Isabel[560]

Mistress (2): ---.  The name of William's second mistress is not known. 

Mistress (3): --- de Hythus, daughter of ADAM de Hythus & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of Melrose refers to "the daughter of Adam de Hythusum" as the mother of King William's [illegitimate] daughter Margaret[561]

Mistresses (4) - (9): ---.  The names of William's other mistresses are not known. 

King William & his wife had four children:

1.         MARGARET (1193-1259, bur Church of the Black Friars, London).  The Annales Londonienses record the marriage in 1221 of "Hubertus de Burgo, justiciarius Angliæ" and "sororem regis Scotiæ apud Sanctum Trinitatum Londoniis"[562].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the marriage "in die Sancti Petri ad vincula apud Bereuicum" of "Marioriam sororem suam Alexander rex" and "comiti de Pendburghe, marescallo Anglie"[563].  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Hubertus de Burgo justiciarius Angliæ” divorced his third wife in 1232, because she was “consanguinea” of his second wife “comitissæ Gloverniæ”, in a prolonged and difficult lawsuit[564][565]Betrothed (1219) THIBAUT IV Comte de Champagne, son of THIBAUT III Comte de Champagne & his wife Infanta doña Blanca de Navarra (Pamplona 3 May 1201-Pamplona 8 Jul 1253, bur Pamplona).  m (Berwick 1 Aug or York Jun 1221, divorced 1232) as his third wife, HUBERT de Burgh, son of --- & his wife Alice --- (-Banstead, Surrey 12 May 1243, bur Church of the Black Friars, London).  He was created Earl of Kent in 1227. 

2.         ALEXANDER (Haddington, East Lothian 24 Aug 1198-Isle of Kerrara, Bay of Ohan 8 Jul 1249, bur Melrose Abbey, Roxburghshire).  The Chronicle of Melrose records the birth "the day of St Bartholomew the Apostle" in 1198 of "Alexander the son of William king of the Scots"[566].  He succeeded his father in 1214 as ALEXANDER II King of Scotland

-        see below

3.         ISABEL (-after 1253, bur Church of the Black Friars, London).  Henry III King of England granted property to "Isabelle soori A. regis Scottorum" on her marriage to "Rogero filio et heredi H. le Bigod comitis Norfolkie" dated 11 May 1225[567].  An order dated 20 May 1225 refers to the marriage of "Rogerum fil et heredem H. com le Bigod" and "Isab sorore reg Scot"[568].  She is called "filiam regis Scotiæ" (but not named) by Matthew Paris when he records her husband's resumption of their marriage[569].  She appears to have been living in Gloucestershire in Oct 1263.  m (Alnwick May 1225, repudiated 1245 on grounds of consanguinity, but compelled by ecclesiastical sentence to take her back 1253[570]) ROGER Bigod Earl of Norfolk, son of HUGH Bigod Earl of Norfolk & his wife Maud Marshal of Pembroke ([1212/13]-3/4 Jul 1270, bur 10 Jul Thetford).  No issue. 

4.         MARJORY (-17 Nov 1244, bur London, Church of the Preaching Friars572).  The Annales Cambriæ record that "Gilbertus Marescallus" married "sororem regis Scotiæ" in 1235[571].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the marriage “circa Assumptionis beatæ Virginis” in 1235 of “Margata soror regis Scotiæ” and “G. Marscallo[572].  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Gilebertus Marscallus” married “Margaretam, sororem regis Scotiæ” in 1235, her dowry being 10,000 marcs[573].  Matthew Paris records her death, when he names her "Margareta soror regis Scotiæ…relicta Gileberti comitis Marescalli"[574]m (Berwick 1 Aug 1235[575]) GILBERT Marshall Earl of Pembroke, son of WILLIAM Marshal Earl of Pembroke & his wife Isabel Ctss of Pembroke (-Hertford Priory 27 Jun 1241, bur New Temple Church, London).  He died after falling from his horse during a tournament[576].  No children.  

King William had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1): 

5.         ISABEL .  The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1183 of "William king of the Scots…his daughter Isabella" and "Robert de Brus"[577].  The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1191 of "the king of Scots…his daughter Ysembel (the widow of Robert de Brus)" and "Robert de Ross" at Haddington[578].  A manuscript narrating the foundation of Rievall Abbey records that Robertum de Roos dictum Fursan” married “Isabellam filiam regis Scotiæ”, by whom he was father of “Willielmum de Roos et Robertum”, and also lists their descendants[579].  The Liber Pluscardensis records that "dominus Willelmus de Ross" claimed the Scottish throne "de legittimacione Ysabellæ antecedentis suæ"[580].  m firstly (1183) ROBERT de Brus Lord of Annandale, son of ROBERT de Brus Lord of Annandale & his wife Euphemia --- (-1191).  m secondly (Haddington early 1191) ROBERT de Ros "Furson", son of EVERARD de Ros & his wife Rohese Trussebut ([1172/73]-before 23 Dec 1226).  Bailiff of the royal castellany of Bonneville sur Toques in Normandy.  Sheriff of Cumberland 1213-1215.  He was one of the barons appointed to enforce Magna Carta.  He became a Templar, and retired from secular life in 1226[581]

King William had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (2):

6.          ADA (-1200).  The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1184 of "William king of Scotland…his daughter Ada" and "earl Patrick"[582]"Ricardus filius Normanni de Leinhal" donated "terram de Scaithemor" to Coldstream, for the souls of "comitis Waldeui et comitisse Alin sponse eius" and for the health of "comitis Patricii…et…comitisse Ade sponse eius", by undated charter, signed by "Dominis Patricio, Johanne et Alexandro filiis nostris…"[583].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death in 1200 of "Ada comitissa filia regis"[584].  m (1184) as his first wife, PATRICK Dunbar, son of WALTHEOF of Dunbar, Earl & his wife Aline --- (1152-31 Dec 1232, bur Eccles, Berwick).  He assumed the style Earl of Dunbar from his castle at Dunbar. 

King William had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (3):

7.          MARGARET .  The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1193 of "William king of the Scots…his daughter Margaret" and "Eustace de Vesci" at "Rokesburch"[585]"Margarita de Vescy filia regis Scottis" donated revenue to Kelso monastery by charter dated to [1207] witnessed by "…Dno Eustachio de Vescy dno meo…"[586].  "Willelmus de Vesci" confirmed the donation of property "in territorio de Lillecliue" made to Melrose abbey by "Margerie matris mee" by undated charter[587].  Henry III King of England granted custody of "Willelmum filium et heredum Eustachii de Vescy" to "Margarete que fuit uxor Eustachii de Vescy" dated 4 Apr 1218[588].  Living 13 Nov 1218, probably living 1226.  m (Roxburgh 1193) EUSTACE de Vescy, son of WILLIAM de Vescy & his wife Burga de Stuteville ([1169/71]-killed Barnard Castle Aug 1216). 

King William had four illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

8.          AUFRICA The proofs relating to the claim to the Scottish throne in 1291 made by "Rogeri de Mundeville" name "Austrid" as one of the daughters of King William, adding that she married "in Ulvester cuidam Willo de Say"[589].  The descent which is attributed to her is suspiciously long.  If it is accurate, Aufrica must have been born early in her father´s adult life.  m WILLIAM de Say, son of GEOFFREY [II] de Say & his first wife --- (-[10 Aug 1197/1 Jan 1198]). 

9.          ROBERT de Lundon"Robertus de Lundoniis filius regis Scottorum" donated "toftum in burgo meo de Inuerkaithin" to Lindores Abbey by undated charter, dated to before 1219, witnessed by "Comite David fratre regis Scotorum, comite Patricio, William de Lindesei, Willelmo de Haya…"[590].  Alexander II King of Scotland confirmed the donation by "Robertus de Londoniis frater meus" made the priory of the Isle of May by undated charter[591].  "Rob de Lundoniis filius regis Scocie" donated property "de Cadihou" to the church of Glasgow by undated charter[592]. 

10.       HENRY GalithlyThe proofs relating to the claim to the Scottish throne in 1291 made by "Patricii Galightly" name "Henrico" as his father, Henry´s parentage being confirmed because the claimant refers to King Alexander III as "filius patrui sui Alexandro"[593].  No other mention has been found of Henry Galithly in any of the primary sources consulted during the preparation of the present document.  If his parentage is correctly attributed, he must have been born late in King William´s life if his own son was a candidate for the throne in 1291.  m ---.  The name of Henry's wife is not known.  Henry & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         PATRICK GalithlyThe proofs relating to the claim to the Scottish throne in 1291 made by "Patricii Galightly" name "Henrico" as his father, Henry´s parentage being confirmed because the claimant refers to King Alexander III as "filius patrui sui Alexandro"[594].  Claimant to the throne of Scotland in 1291, seventh in order on the Great Roll of Scotland. 

b)         [HENRY Galithly (-after Aug 1296).  The Ragman Roll names "…Henry Galighly of Aberdene…" among those who swore allegiance to Edward I King of England at Berwick-upon-Tweed 28 Aug 1296[595].] 

11.       MARJORY .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by an undated charter under which Alexander II King of Scotland confirmed the donation by "Malcolmus comes de Fyf" of "terras de Petgornoc et de Drundol in Fyf", given by the donor to "Marjerie cognate nostre…quas dominus Willelmus Rex pater noster dedit predicte Marjerie in liberum maritagium", after the death of "dicte Marjorie comitisse", to Balmerino Abbey[596]m as his [first] wife, MALCOLM Macduff Earl of Fife, son of DUNCAN Earl of Fife & his wife Ela --- (-1228, bur Culross [Kilenross] Abbey). 

King William had two further possible illegitimate children by an unknown mistress: 

12.       [ALEXANDER (-1229).  Monk at Fusny.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1229 "apud Fusniacum" of "frater Alexander…filius…regis Scotie et frater Mathildis qui requiescit in villa Lapion"[597].  No other reference has been found to Alexander and his sister Matilda.  If they were really children of the king of Scotland, King William "the Lion" is chronologically the only possible father.  If this paternity is correct, it is unlikely that they were legitimate.]  

13.       [MATILDA (-1220, bur Lappion).  Nun at Lappion.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1220 of "religiosa et sancta Mathildis de Lapion regis Scotie filia", specifying that she had gone into hiding to escape[598].] 

 

 

ALEXANDER II 1214-1249, ALEXANDER III 1249-1286, MARGARET 1286-1290

 

ALEXANDER of Scotland, son of WILLIAM I "the Lion" King of Scotland & his wife Ermengarde de Beaumont (Haddington, East Lothian 24 Aug 1198-Isle of Kerrara, Bay of Ohan, near the Sound of Mull 8 Jul 1249[599], bur Melrose Abbey, Roxburghshire[600]).  The Chronicle of Melrose records the birth "the day of St Bartholomew the Apostle" in 1198 of "Alexander the son of William king of the Scots"[601].  He succeeded his father in 1214 as ALEXANDER II King of Scotland, crowned 6 Dec 1214 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire.  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the death in 1250 of “Alexander rex Scotiæ[602].  The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1280 records that "Alexandre" reigned for 37 years, died "a Kenbray en Orkany", and was buried "a Melros"[603]

Betrothed (1200) to MARIE de France, daughter of PHILIPPE II "Auguste" King of France & his third wife Agnes von Andechs-Merano (after 1197-15 Aug 1238, bur Louvain, église collégiale de Saint Pierre).  The primary source which confirms her betrothal has not yet been identified. 

m firstly (York Minster 19 Jun 1221) JOAN of England, daughter of JOHN King of England & his wife Isabelle Ctss d'Angoulême (22 Jul 1210-Havering-atte-Bower, Essex 4 Mar 1238, bur Tarrant Crawford Abbey, Dorset[604]).  Matthew Paris records her marriage, specifying that she was the sister of King Henry III[605].  The Annals of Dunstable record that “regi Scotiæ” married “rege…sororem suam” in 1221, specifying that she was eleven years old at the time and had previously been betrothed to “Hugoni Brun[606].  The Annales Londonienses record the death in 1238 of "Johanna regina regis Scotiæ, soror regis Anglorum" while on a visit to her brother in England and her burial "IV Non Mar"[607].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the death “apud Haveringes III Non Mar” of “regina Scotiæ soror regis Angliæ” and her burial “apud Tarentune monialium[608]

m secondly (Roxburgh 15 May 1239[609]) as her first husband, MARIE de Coucy, daughter of ENGUERRAND [III] Seigneur de Coucy & third his wife Marie de Montmirail (-[1284/85], bur Newbottle, Scotland).  She is named by Matthew Paris, who also names her father when he records her marriage[610].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the marriage in 1239 of "Ingelrannus de Coci…filiam suam" and "regi Scotie Alexandro"[611].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the marriage at Roxburgh in 1239 of "rex Alexander Scociæ" and "filiam domini de Coussy Mariam"[612].  She returned to France 29 Sep 1251 after her husband's death[613], and married secondly ([1251/52]) as his first wife, Jean de Brienne "d'Acre".  Her second marriage is confirmed by John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) which records that "Maria mater regis Alexandri…uxor Johannis de Aconia" fled her husband for Scotland in 1265[614].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death of "Maria mater Alexandri tertii regis Scotiæ in partibus transmarinis", dated to [1284/85] from the context[615]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Alexander's mistress is not known. 

King Alexander II & his second wife had one child:

1.         ALEXANDER (Roxburgh 4 Sep 1241-between Burntisland and Kinghorn, Fife 19 Mar 1286).  The Chronicle of Melrose records the birth "on the day of the translation of St Cuthbert the day before Non Sep" in 1241 of "the eldest child of…Alexander king of Scotland…Alexander" at Roxburgh[616].  He succeeded his father in 1249 as ALEXANDER III "the Glorious" King of Scotland, crowned 13 Jul 1249 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire.  A description of his inauguration ceremony is contained in the chronicle of Fordun[617].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "XIV Kal Apr" [1286] of "Alexander rex Scotiæ"[618].  He died after his horse plunged over a cliff.  m firstly (York Minster 26 Dec 1251) MARGARET of England, daughter of HENRY III King of England & his wife Eléonore de Provence (Windsor Castle 5 Oct 1240-Cupar Castle, Fife 26 Feb 1275, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  Her birth is recorded by Matthew Paris[619].  Matthew Paris also records her marriage, as well as the splendour and extravagance of the marriage banquets[620].  The Annals of Burton record the marriage “die Natalis Domini apud Eboracum” in 1251 of “rex Scotiæ, filius regis Alexandri, puer parvulus ix annorum” and “Margaretam filiam regis Henrici Angliæ…eiusdem ætatis[621].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the marriage “apud Eboracum…circa festum beati Stephani” in 1251 of “dominus rex…filiam suam primogenitam” and “regi Scotiæ[622].  The Annales Londonienses record the marriage "apud Eboracum" in 1252 of "Henricus rex Margaretam filiam suam" and "regi Scotiæ"[623].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death in 1275 of "Margareta regina Scotie et Beatrix comitissa Britanniæ, filiæ Henrici"[624].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death "IV Kal Mar apud castrum de Cupro" of "Margareta regina Scocie, soror…regis Anglie" and her burial "Dunfermling iuxta regem Dauid"[625]m secondly (Jedburgh Abbey 1 Nov 1285) as her first husband, YOLANDE de Dreux, daughter of ROBERT [IV] Comte de Dreux & his wife Beatrix Ctss de Montfort ([1269]-2 Aug 1322).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage in [1285] of "Alexander rex Scotorum" and "filiam comitis de Drues"[626].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the betrothal "post festum Purificationis beatæ Mariæ virginis" of "rex Alexander" and "Joletam sive Jolandam…filiam…comitis de Droco sive Droys", dated to [1284/85] from the context, and in a later passage their marriage "die S. Calixti" in 1285[627].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the marriage "apud Jedwode die Sancti Calixti" in 1285 of "Alexander rex tercius" and "domina Ioleta filia comitis de Droco", with some details of the celebration[628].  She married secondly (1292) Arthur de Bretagne, who succeeded in 1305 as Arthur II Duke of Brittany.  The necrology of Port-Royal records the death "IV Non Aug" of "dame Yoland, royne d'Escosse, duchesse de Bretaigne et contesse de Montfort"[629].  King Alexander III & his first wife had three children:

a)         MARGARET (Windsor Castle 28 Feb 1261-Tönsberg 9 Apr 1283, bur Christ Kirk, Bergen).  The Annals of Dunstable record the birth in 1260 of “rex Scotiæ…filiam apud Wyndlesores”, noted as the last event in that year[630].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester names " Margaretæ filiæ Alexandri regis Scotiæ et Margaretæ reginæ filiæ Henrici regis Anglorum" as wife of "Irici regis Norwegiæ"[631].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the marriage in 1281 of "Margareta filia regis Alexandri" and "Hanigo, Henrico vocato, regi Noricorum"[632].  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1281 of "Ericus Norvegiæ rex" and "dominam Margaretham Alexandri Scotorum regis filiam"[633].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "V Id Apr" in 1283 of "domina Margareta Noricorum regina" leaving "unicam filiam…Margaretam"[634].  The Icelandic Annals record the death "Tunsbergis" in 1283 of "Margareta regina…filia Alexandri Scotorum regis"[635].  She died in childbirth.  m (Bergen 31 Aug 1281) as his first wife, ERIK II King of Norway, son of MAGNUS IV "Lagabøte/Lagabæter/the Law-reformer" King of Norway & his wife Ingeborg of Denmark (1268-Bergen 13 Jul 1299, bur Bergen, Christ's Church).  He was a claimant to the throne of Scotland in 1291, thirteenth in order on the Great Roll of Scotland.  The Liber Pluscardensis records that "regis Norouwegiæ" claimed the Scottish throne "ascendens…ad successionem filiæ suæ Margaretæ"[636].  King Erik & his first wife had one daughter:

i)          MARGARET "the Maid of Norway" (Tönsberg before 9 Apr 1283-on board ship off Orkney [26 Sep] 1290, bur Bergen, Christ's Church).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "V Id Apr" in 1283 of "domina Margareta Noricorum regina" leaving "unicam filiam…Margaretam"[637].  Acknowledged as heir to the throne by the magnates of Scotland in Feb 1284, she succeeded her grandfather in 1286 as MARGARET Queen of Scotland, although her succession was, according to John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator), considered provisional depending whether her grandfather's widow was pregnant[638].  The Liber Pluscardensis records that "domino episcopo Sanctiandreæ, domino Willelmo Frasier, domino comite de Fife Duncano cum domino Duncano de Cumyn comite de Buchan…ex parte boriali aquæ de Forth" and "ex parte…australi…Robertus episcopus Glasquensis cum domino Johanne Cumyn et Jacobo senescallo Scociæ" were appointed guardians of the realm after the death of King Alexander[639].  Negotiations for her return from Norway were preceded by the Treaty of Salisbury 9 Nov 1289 under which Edward I King of England confirmed that the government of the guardians in Scotland should be obeyed.  This was followed by the Treaty of Birgham in Jul 1290 which confirmed the Queen's betrothal and that Scotland would retain its independence after the marriage took place[640].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records the betrothal between "Edward I king of England…Edward his son and heir" and "Margaret the daughter of the king of Norway…the true heiress of Scotland" in 1290[641].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death in Orkney of "Margareta filia Irici regis Norwegiæ et Margaretæ filiæ Alexandri regis Scotiæ et Margaretæ reginæ filiæ Henrici regis Anglorum", adding that she was betrothed to "Eadwardo regis Eadwardi filio"[642].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1290 of "virgo Margareta filia Erici regis Norvegiæ"[643].  Queen Margaret's premature death plunged Scotland into a succession crisis, during which thirteen rival claimants to the throne emerged.  King Edward I intervened more forcibly in Scottish affairs, acquiring the right to reappoint the guardians 11 Jun 1291 after which he became effective direct ruler of Scotland[644].  The choice of the new ruler was submitted in Aug 1291 to a specially appointed court, Robert Bruce and John Balliol emerging as leading candidates, the final judgment 17 Nov 1292 favouring the latter.  Betrothed (Birgham Jul 1290) to EDWARD Prince of Wales, son of EDWARD I King of England & his first wife Infanta doña Leonor de Castilla (Caernarvon Castle 25 Apr 1284-murdered Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire 21 Sep 1327, bur Gloucester Cathedral).  He succeeded his father in 1307 as EDWARD II King of England

b)         ALEXANDER (Jedburgh, Roxburghshire 21 Jun 1264-Lindores Abbey, Fife 28 Jan 1283, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the birth "apud Jedword XII Kal Jan" in 1264 of "regi Alexandro filius, paterno nomine vocatus"[645].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death "apud Lundoris" in 1283 of "Alexander filius Alexandri tercii et…Margaretæ sororis Edwardi Langschankiæ regis Angliæ" aged 20 and his burial "apud Dunfermlyng cum fratre"[646].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death "in festo Sancte Agnetis secundo" in 1283 of "Alexander filius regis Alexandri" aged 20 and his burial "in Dunfermling"[647]m (Roxburgh 15 Nov 1282) as her first husband, MARGUERITE de Flandre, daughter of GUY de Dampierre Count of Flanders & his second wife Isabelle de Luxembourg (-1331).  The Liber Pluscardensis records the marriage at Roxburgh in 1279 of "Alexander filius Alexandri tercii et…Margaretæ sororis Edwardi Langschankiæ regis Angliæ" and "filiam comitis Flandreæ"[648].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the marriage "apud Roxburgh…dominica proxima post festum Martini" of "Alexander filius regis Alexandri" and "filiam comitis Flandrie" and the celebration which lasted 15 days, adding that she returned to Flanders after her husband died[649].  She married secondly (Namur 3 Jul 1286) as his second wife, Reinald I Graaf von Gelderland.  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "Rennolt…grave van Gelre" married secondly "dye dochter van dye grave van Flanderen", naming her "Mergreta" in a later passage[650].  The contract of marriage between "Renauls cuens de Ghelre et dus de Lemburgh" and "Guyon conte de Flandre et marchis de Namur et…dame Ysabel se feme…et noble damoisel Margherite fille dou conte et delle contesse devant ditte" is dated 21 Apr 1286[651].  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "dye gravinne van Gelre, Mergreta dochter van Flanderen" died in 1321 and was buried "toe Groenendaell"[652]

c)         DAVID (20 Mar 1273-Stirling Castle 1278 or end Jun 1281, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death at Stirling in 1278 of "filius regis Alexandri…David" and his burial "apud Dunfermling"[653].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "apud Strivelyne" in 1280 of "David filius regis Alexandri III" and his burial "apud Dunfermelyn"[654]

King Alexander III had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):    

2.          MARJORY"Alanus Ostiarius, Justiciarius Scocie" donated property "in parochia de Logindurnach" to Lindores Abbey, for the souls of "pie recordationis domini mei Alexandri quondam…regis Scocie et…Margerie uxoris mee", by undated charter dated to after 1249, witnessed by "Domino Colino Ostiario fratre meo…"[655].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) which records that "Robertus abbas de Dunfermelyn, cancellarius regis" was accused of proposing "sororem regis notham…uxorem Alani Ostiarii" as successor to the throne in 1251[656].  m ([1244]) [as his second wife,] ALAN Durward, son of THOMAS de Lundie & his wife --- (-[1268/75], bur Cuprose). 

 

 

 

C.      DESCENDANTS of WILLIAM FitzDuncan

 

 

 

WILLIAM FitzDuncan, son of DUNCAN II King of Scotland & his wife Ethelreda of Northumberland ([1091/94]-[1153/54]).  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) which records the rebellion of his son "Macwilliam whose real name was Donald Bane…son of William son of Duncan the bastard" against King William[657].  That William was his father's only child is shown by King Duncan's charter dated to 1093 referring to "infans mei".  As the actual date of the charter is more likely to be 1094, this leaves little time for the birth of any more children before the king's murder.  "…Willelmo nepote comitis…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk[658].  "David comes filii Malcolmi regis Scotorum" founded the monastery of Kelso by charter dated to [1119/24] witnessed by "Matilda comitissa, Henrico filio comitis…Willo nepote comitis…"[659].  ["Alexander nepos regis Alexandri…" subscribed the possibly spurious charter dated to [1120] of "Alexander…Rex Scottorum…Sibilla regina Scottorum…"[660].  No other reference to Alexander nephew of King Alexander has been found.  Duncan suggests the entry is an error for William and that his position in the witness list indicates that he may then have been intended by the king as his successor[661].  However, the fact that Alexander also witnessed the [1114/15] Scone charter (see above) indicates that he was a separate person.]  William acquired rights in Allerdale, Cumberland, held by his maternal uncle Waltheof[662].  A charter of King Henry II records donations to York St Mary, including the donation of rights relating to “ecclesiam S. Begæ…et terram de Hothneth” by “Willielmus filius Duncani"[663].  "…Willelmus nepos ipsius principis…" witnessed inquisitions by "David…Cumbrensis regionis princeps", dated 1124, concerning land owned by the church of Glasgow[664].  "…Willelmo filio Duncani…" witnessed a charter dated to [1128] by which "David…Rex Scottorum" made grants to the church of St John in the castle of Roxburgh[665].  The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Ethreda sorore Waldevi patris sui” married “Doncani comes de Murrayse” and that their son “Willielmus” succeeded his cousin “Alanus filius Waldevi[666].  "Willelmo nepote Regis…" witnessed a charter dated to [1135] by which "David Rex Scottorum" granted Swinton to "Arnulfo…mee militi"[667].  Lord of Skipton and Craven de iure uxoris.  “Willielmus filius Dunecani nepos regis Scotiæ…et Aeliz de Rumeili uxor mea” confirmed donations of property to Bolton Priory by undated charter[668].  "Willelmo filio Duncani, Gospatrico filio eius…" witnessed a charter dated to before 1138 under which "Gospatricus comes frater Dolfini" made grants to the monks of St Cuthbert[669].  He fought at the battle of the Standard in Aug 1138[670].  "…Willo nepote regis…" witnessed the charter dated 29 Apr 1141 under which David King of Scotland donated "terram de Eldune…Dernewic" to Melrose abbey[671]

[m firstly ---.  The name of William´s supposed first wife or mistress is not known.  It is clear that William FitzDuncan´s sons Gospatrick and Donald could not have been born from his known marriage.  It is not known whether they were sons of an earlier otherwise unrecorded marriage or were illegitimate.] 

m [secondly] (1138) as her first husband, ALICE de Rumilly Lady of Skipton, daughter of WILLIAM "le Meschin" Lord of Copeland & his wife Cecily de Rumilly Lady of Skipton.  A manuscript genealogy of William de Forz Comte d´Aumâle names “Aliciam de Rumeleya” as daughter of “Willielmus de Mechines primus hæres de Sciptun in Craven”, adding that she married “Willielmo filio Duncan” and was buried “apud Fontes[672].  A different version of her parentage is provided by the Cronicon Cumbriæ which records that “Willielmus”, son of “Doncani comes de Murrayse”, married “Aliciam filiam Roberti de Romeney, domini de Skipton in Craven” and his wife “filiam Willielmi de Meschinis domini de Coupland[673].  Lady of Skipton.  “Willielmus filius Dunecani nepos regis Scotiæ…et Aeliz de Rumeili uxor mea” confirmed donations of property to Bolton Priory by undated charter[674].  “Aaliz de Rumelli” donated property to Pontefract Priory, with the consent of “Willielmi filii mei”, for the soul of “domini mei Willielmi filii Dunecani”, by undated charter[675].  She married secondly (before 1156[676]) Alexander FitzGerold.  Dugdale summarises donations to Southwark priory, including the donation of “cheese at Badleking in the manor of Kingston Lisle in Berkshire” made by "Alexander Fitzgerald" and confirmed by "Alice de Rumeley, wife of Alexander"[677]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of William's mistress is not known. 

William FitzDuncan & his [first wife or mistress] had two [maybe illegitimate] children:

1.         GOSPATRICK .  "Willelmo filio Duncani, Gospatrico filio eius…" witnessed a charter dated to before 1138 under which "Gospatricus comes frater Dolfini" made grants to the monks of St Cuthbert[678]

2.         DONALD MacWilliam (-killed in battle Mamgarvey [Mngarnia] Moor, Speyside 31 Jul 1187).  The Chronicle of Melrose records that "Macwilliam" rebelled against William "the Lion" King of Scotland, but was killed by Scottish forces on Mount Mamgarvey, near Moray[679].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the rebellion of "Mackwillam…vero nomine Donaldum Ban…filium…Willelmi filii Duncani Bastardi, qui fuit filius major Malcolmi regis Scotiæ viri S. Margaretæ" who captured "duo castella…Dunschath et Edirdovar" but was killed "in mora…Macgarvy prope Moraviam…pridie Kal Aug"[680]m ---.  The name of Donald's wife is not known.  Donald & his wife had four children: 

a)         GODFREY MacWilliam (-beheaded Kincardine 1211).  The Chronicle of Melrose records that "Guthred son of Macwilliam" rebelled against William "the Lion" King of Scotland in 1211[681].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "Gothredus Makwilliam" rebelled against King William, was captured by "Willelmum Cummyne comitem Buchquanie" and beheaded "apud Kincardin"[682]

b)         DONALD MacWilliam (-killed in battle Morayshire 15 Jun 1215).  The Chronicle of Melrose records that "Donald Ban the son of Macwilliam" invaded Moray in 1215 with Kenneth MacAht and "the son of a certain king of Ireland at the head of a large troop of wicked ones", but he was beheaded by Ferquhard MacTaggart (later created Earl of Ross) who presented his head to Alexander II King of Scotland 15 Jun 1215[683]

c)         daughter .  m --- MacEwen, son of ---.  --- MacEwen & his wife had one child: 

i)          GILLESPIE MacEwen (-killed 1229).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the rebellion in 1222 of "quidam iniqui de genere MacWilliam…Gillascop et filii eius, et Rodericus in extremis Scotiæ finibus"[684].  The Chronicle of Lanercost records the rebellion in 1230 of "quidam iniqui de genere Mach William…et filius eius, et quidam Rotherike"[685].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Gillescop…et duo filii eius" were killed in 1229 and their heads sent to the king[686]m ---.  The name of Gillespie's wife is not known.  Gillespie & his wife had three children:

(a)       2 sons (-killed 1229).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Gillescop…et duo filii eius" were killed in 1229 and their heads sent to the king[687]

(b)       daughter (-killed Forfar [1229/30]).  The Chronicle of Lanercost records the rebellion in 1230 of "quidam iniqui de genere Mach William…et filius eius, et quidam Rotherike" and the murder of "Mac William filia, adhuc recens de matris utero edita" at Forfar[688]

d)         GOSPATRICK MacWilliam (-before 1208).  Lord of Airton in Yorkshire.  His descendants are extant[689]

William FitzDuncan & his second wife had four children: 

3.         WILLIAM "the Boy of Egremont" (-drowned Bolton Wharf after 1155).  The Cronicon Cumbriæ names “Willielmum puerum de Egremund” as the son “Willielmus”, son of “Doncani comes de Murrayse”, and his wife Alice, adding that he died young[690].  “Aaliz de Rumelli” donated property to Pontefract Priory, with the consent of “Willielmi filii mei”, for the soul of “domini mei Willielmi filii Dunecani”, by undated charter[691].  Lord of Egremont. 

4.         CICELY (-before 1190).  The Cronicon Cumbriæ names “prima…Cecilia…secunda Amabilla…tertia Alicia” as the three daughters of “Willielmus”, son of “Doncani comes de Murrayse”, and his wife Alice, adding that Cicely received the honor of Skipton and married “Willielmo le Grossus comiti Albemarliæ[692].  Co-heiress of her brother.  Lady of Skipton.  "Willelmus comes Albemarlie" confirmed donations to St Bees, for the souls of "…antecessorum uxoris mee Cecilie", by undated charter[693].  "Cecilia comitissa Albamarlie" donated land "inter Esc et Duden…Kirkesantan et Haverigg…et Thueites" to St Bees, and confirmed the donation of "ecclesia de Gosford" made by "W[illelmi] fratris mei", by undated charter[694]m GUILLAUME Comte d'Aumâle Lord of Holderness, son of ETIENNE de Troyes Comte d'Aumâle [Blois] & his wife Hawise de Mortimer (-20 Aug 1179, bur Abbey of Thornton, Lincolnshire). 

5.         AMABEL (-before 1201).  The Cronicon Cumbriæ names “prima…Cecilia…secunda Amabilla…tertia Alicia” as the three daughters of “Willielmus”, son of “Doncani comes de Murrayse”, and his wife Alice, adding that Amabel received the honor of Egremont and married “Reginaldo de Lucy”, by whom he fathered “Amabillam et Aliciam, et successit Amabillæ Lambertus de Multon”, the latter being succeeded by “Thomas de Multon de Egremond[695].  Co-heiress of her brother.  Lady of Egremont and Copeland.  The Testa de Nevill includes a writ of King John dated 1212 which records that "Robertus de Stutevill" held "villam de Thorpennoi de domino rege" in Cumberland which was "de baronia Alicie de Rumill" and that "Reginaldus de Lucy" had held the land "cum sorore predicte Alicie" and refused homage to "Philippi de Valoines, antecessoris predicti Roberti et uxoris sue"[696].  m (before 1162) REYNOLD de Lucy, [697][relative of RICHARD de Lucy, Justiciar of England] (-[1199/1200]).  Keeper of Nottingham castle when it was burnt by Earl Ferrers in the rebellion of 1174[698]

6.         ALICE (before [1153/54][699]-[6 Mar or 18 Mar] [1212/1215], bur [Gisburne Priory]).  The Cronicon Cumbriæ names “prima…Cecilia…secunda Amabilla…tertia Alicia” as the three daughters of “Willielmus”, son of “Doncani comes de Murrayse”, and his wife Alice, adding that Alice received “Aspatrike, et baronia de Allerdale et libertate de Cokermouth” and married “Gilberto Pipard” and secondly “Roberto de Courtenay”, but died childless and was succeeded by “Thomas de Lucy, cui successit Thomas filius eius, cui successit Antonius frater eius[700].  Co-heiress of her brother.  Lady of Allerdale and Cockermouth.  "Ric de Luci fil Reginaldi de Luci" paid a fine for "terra sua de Copland et in Cautebige" relating to a claim against "B. com Albemarl et uxore sua et versus Rob de Curtenay et Alic uxorem suam", dated 1200[701].  “Ælicia de Rumely, filia Willielmi filii Duncani” confirmed donations of property to Gisburne Priory by “antecessorum meorum…Waldevi filii Cospatrici comitis, et Alani filii Waldevi”, by undated charter[702].  “Alicia de Rumelli filia Willielmi filii Dunecani” donated property to Fountains Abbey by undated charter[703].  The Feet of Fines records the judgment dated 8 Dec 1195 in a claim by "Walterus Pipard" against "Rob de Curtenai…loco Alic de Rumilie ux sue" concerning land "in Croumse"[704].  "Robertus de Curtenei" donated revenue from "molendino…de Kokermuth" to St Bees, with the advice of "uxoris mee Aaliz de Rumeleie", to St Bees by undated charter, witnessed by "…Willelmo de Curtenei…"[705].  “Alicia de Rumely, filia Willielmi filii Duncani” donated property to Gisburne Priory, for the souls of “maritorum meorum Gilberti Pypard et Roberti de Curtenay”, by undated charter[706].  The Red Book of the Exchequer records "Aliz de Romely" holding property in Cumberland in [1210/12][707].  The Testa de Nevill includes a writ of King John dated 1212 which records that "Alicia de Rumilly" held "terram suam in Alredal de domino rege" in Cumberland which King Henry I had granted to "Waldevo filio Gospatric, antecessoris predicte Alicie"[708].  The obituary of Gisburne priory records the death “II Non Mar” of "Aliciæ de Rumley"[709]m firstly GILBERT Pipard, Sheriff of Gloucester and Hereford, son of --- (-[Sep 1191/Sep 1192]).  m secondly (before 8 Dec 1195) as his second wife, ROBERT de Courtenay Lord of Sutton, Berkshire, Sheriff of Cumberland, son of RENAUD Sire de Courtenay & his first wife Helvis de Donjon (-[1207/09]). 

William FitzDuncan had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

7.          WILLIAM .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   m (1138) ---. 

 

 

 

  

Chapter 4.    KINGS of SCOTLAND (BALLIOL)

 

 

According to the Complete Peerage, this family came from Bailleul-en-Vimeu in Picardie[710].  This is based on the charter dated to [1138] under which “Bernardus de Bajollio et uxor mea Mathildis et filii mei Ingerannus et Wido, Eustachius et Bernardus, et filia mea Atuidis” donated "the altars they held by inheritance…Domnopetro, Baiollio, Tours, Aerdicuria, Ramburellis, Allenai" [all in Picarie] to Cluny[711].  This origin is confirmed by a charter dated 1304 under which "Jehans rois d´Escoce et sires de Bailleul-en-Vimeu" sold property to the commune of Abbeville[712]

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known. 

1.         GUY de Balliol (-[1112/30]).  A charter of King Henry II records donations to York St Mary, including the donation of “ecclesiam et…terræ in Stocalea et ecclesiam de Skaintuna et…ecclesiam de Gaynford” by “Wydo de Balliol[713].  The Testa de Nevill includes a writ of King John dated 1212 which records "Hugo de Bailliol" holding "baroniam de Biwelle" in Northumberland which had been granted by King William II to "antecessores"[714].  This could indicate a grant to Guy de Balliol, who was presumably contemporary to King William II, but this is not certain.  “Guido de Baill” donated property to the abbey of St Mary, York, for the souls of “…Dionisie uxoris mee et Bernardi de Ball nepotis mei”, by charter dated to [1112/22][715]m DIONISIA, daughter of ---.  “Guido de Baill” donated property to the abbey of St Mary, York, for the souls of “…Dionisie uxoris mee et Bernardi de Ball nepotis mei”, by charter dated to [1112/22][716].  Guy & his wife had one child: 

a)         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated to [1149/52] under which “Rogerus Bertram” confirmed donations to the church of St Mary, York by “pater meus Willelmus et avus meus Wido de Balliolo[717]m WILLIAM Bertram, son of ---.  William & his wife had one child: 

i)          ROGER Bertram (-after [1149/52]).  “Rogerus Bertram” confirmed donations to the church of St Mary, York by “pater meus Willelmus et avus meus Wido de Balliolo”, by charter dated to [1149/52][718]

2.          --- de Balliol (-[before [1112/22]).  His relationship with Guy de Balliol is confirmed by the charter dated to [1150] under which his son "B. de Balliolo" granted Gainford church and the chapel of Barnard´s Castle, Durham, inherited from "Wid de Balliol me avuncul", to York St Mary[719].  As the two named individuals share the same name "Balliol", it is assumed that "avunculus" in this document should be interpreted as meaning paternal uncle, instead of its strict meaning.  The possibility cannot be excluded entirely that Bernard´s was the son of Guy´s sister and that he adopted his uncle´s name as a condition of inheriting his estate.  However, if this was correct, it is difficult to understand why Guy would have preferred as his successor a more remote relation in the female line rather than his own daughter.  m ---.  The name of his wife is not known.  Four children: 

a)         BERNARD de Balliol (-[1150]).  “Guido de Baill” donated property to the abbey of St Mary, York, for the souls of “…Dionisie uxoris mee et Bernardi de Ball nepotis mei”, by charter dated to [1112/22][720].  The 1130 Pipe Roll records "Ber de Bailleol" in Yorkshire, Northumberland (three times)[721].  “B. de Balliolo” confirmed donations of property to the abbey of St Mary, York, made by “Wido de Balliolo meus avunculus”, for the souls of “ipsius Widonis…et filiorum meorum vivorum et defunctorum”, by charter dated to [1132/53], witnessed by “Ingelranno de Ball…[722].  He fought against the Scots at the Battle of the Standard in 1138.  “Bernardus de Bajollio et uxor mea Mathildis et filii mei Ingerannus et Wido, Eustachius et Bernardus, et filia mea Atuidis” donated property to Cluny, in the presence of “fratrum meorum”, by charter dated [1138] which names “fratris mei Radulfi monachis[723].  He was taken prisoner at Lincoln with King Stephen in 1139.  He made a grant of land at Hitchin, Hertfordshire to the Templars dated 27 Apr 1147 at Paris[724].  "B. de Balliolo" granted Gainford church and the chapel of Barnard´s Castle, Durham, inherited from "Wid de Balliol me avuncul", to York St Mary by charter dated to [1150], witnessed by "Ingelranno de Ball…Bnard de Ball…"[725].  "Bernard de Baill" donated "piscatoria in Twede" to the monastery of Kelso, for the souls of "H. [error for "M."?] comit. et filii mei" by charter dated to [1150], witnessed by "Wydone filio meo et Bernardo et aliis"[726].  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Bernardus Bail senior, Bernardus junior filius eius, Ingelram le b filius eius, Wid et Eustacius filii eius, Matilda mater et Hawisia et altera Hawis, et domina Agnes de Pinchensi uxor junioris Bernardi, Rogerus filius Hugonis nepos eius et Johannes frater Rogerii"[727]m MATILDA, daughter of ---.  “Bernardus de Bajollio et uxor mea Mathildis et filii mei Ingerannus et Wido, Eustachius et Bernardus, et filia mea Atuidis” donated property to Cluny by charter dated [1138][728].  "Bernard de Baill" donated "piscatoria in Twede" to the monastery of Kelso, for the souls of "H. [error for "M."?] comit. et filii mei" by charter dated to [1150], witnessed by "Wydone filio meo et Bernardo et aliis"[729].  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Bernardus Bail senior, Bernardus junior filius eius, Ingelram le b filius eius, Wid et Eustacius filii eius, Matilda mater et Hawisia et altera Hawis, et domina Agnes de Pinchensi uxor junioris Bernardi, Rogerus filius Hugonis nepos eius et Johannes frater Rogerii"[730].  Bernard & his wife had five children: 

i)          INGELRAN (-before [1150]).  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Bernardus Bail senior, Bernardus junior filius eius, Ingelram le b filius eius, Wid et Eustacius filii eius, Matilda mater et Hawisia et altera Hawis, et domina Agnes de Pinchensi uxor junioris Bernardi, Rogerus filius Hugonis nepos eius et Johannes frater Rogerii"[731].  “Bernardus de Bajollio et uxor mea Mathildis et filii mei Ingerannus et Wido, Eustachius et Bernardus, et filia mea Atuidis” donated property to Cluny by charter dated [1138][732].  "B. de Balliolo" granted Gainford church and the chapel of Barnard´s Castle, Durham, inherited from "Wid de Balliol me avuncul", to York St Mary by charter dated to [1150], witnessed by "Ingelranno de Ball…Bnard de Ball…"[733]m --- de Berkeley, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

ii)         GUY .  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Bernardus Bail senior, Bernardus junior filius eius, Ingelram le b filius eius, Wid et Eustacius filii eius, Matilda mater et Hawisia et altera Hawis, et domina Agnes de Pinchensi uxor junioris Bernardi, Rogerus filius Hugonis nepos eius et Johannes frater Rogerii"[734].  “Bernardus de Bajollio et uxor mea Mathildis et filii mei Ingerannus et Wido, Eustachius et Bernardus, et filia mea Atuidis” donated property to Cluny by charter dated [1138][735].  "Bernard de Baill" donated "piscatoria in Twede" to the monastery of Kelso, for the souls of "H. [error for "M."?] comit. et filii mei" by charter dated to [1150], witnessed by "Wydone filio meo et Bernardo et aliis"[736].  “Bernardus de Balillol” confirmed donations to the monks of Whitby, for the souls of “…fratrisque mei Wydonis et sororis mee Hawis”, by charter dated to [1155/67][737]

iii)        EUSTACE (-after 1166).  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Bernardus Bail senior, Bernardus junior filius eius, Ingelram le b filius eius, Wid et Eustacius filii eius, Matilda mater et Hawisia et altera Hawis, et domina Agnes de Pinchensi uxor junioris Bernardi, Rogerus filius Hugonis nepos eius et Johannes frater Rogerii"[738].  “Bernardus de Bajollio et uxor mea Mathildis et filii mei Ingerannus et Wido, Eustachius et Bernardus, et filia mea Atuidis” donated property to Cluny by charter dated [1138][739].  Military fee certifications in the Red Book of the Exchequer, in 1166, record that "Eustachius de Boilloil" held one knight´s fee in Mere, Wiltshire [from "Girardi Giffard"][740]

iv)       BERNARD de Balliol (-after 1174).  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Bernardus Bail senior, Bernardus junior filius eius, Ingelram le b filius eius, Wid et Eustacius filii eius, Matilda mater et Hawisia et altera Hawis, et domina Agnes de Pinchensi uxor junioris Bernardi, Rogerus filius Hugonis nepos eius et Johannes frater Rogerii"[741].  “Bernardus de Bajollio et uxor mea Mathildis et filii mei Ingerannus et Wido, Eustachius et Bernardus, et filia mea Atuidis” donated property to Cluny by charter dated [1138][742].  "Bernard de Baill" donated "piscatoria in Twede" to the monastery of Kelso, for the souls of "H. [error for "M."?] comit. et filii mei" by charter dated to [1150], witnessed by "Wydone filio meo et Bernardo et aliis"[743].  "B. de Balliolo" granted Gainford church and the chapel of Barnard´s Castle, Durham, inherited from "Wid de Balliol me avuncul", to York St Mary by charter dated to [1150], witnessed by "Ingelranno de Ball…Bnard de Ball…"[744].  “Bernardus de Balillol” confirmed donations to the monks of Whitby, for the souls of “…fratrisque mei Wydonis et sororis mee Hawis”, by charter dated to [1155/67][745].  The Red Book of the Exchequer refers to "Bernardus de Ballol xx l" in Yorkshire in [1161/62][746].  “Bernardus de Balliolo” donated property to the monks of Rievaulx, for the souls of “…Jocelini avunculi mei…et uxoris mee”, by charter dated to [1161/67][747].  He captured William "the Lion" King of Scotland at Alnwick in 1174 after the latter's invasion of Northumberland.  He is reputed to have founded Barnard Castle on the banks of the River Tees[748]m AGNES de Pinkeney, daughter of ---.  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Bernardus Bail senior, Bernardus junior filius eius, Ingelram le b filius eius, Wid et Eustacius filii eius, Matilda mater et Hawisia et altera Hawis, et domina Agnes de Pinchensi uxor junioris Bernardi, Rogerus filius Hugonis nepos eius et Johannes frater Rogerii"[749].  Bernard & his wife had [two] children: 

(a)       EUSTACE de Balliol (-after 5 Jun 1205).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

-         see below

(b)       [HUGH de Balliol .  "Ada comitissa mater regis Scot" donated "unam marcham argenti", from "Malisus de Pethmolin", to St Andrew´s priory for lighting the church, for the soul of "comitis Henrici sponsi mei", by undated charter witnessed by "Hug Giff, Alexandro de sco Martino, Hug de Baiol…Willo Giff…"[750].  As the death of Ctss Ada is recorded in 1178, the witness Hugh Balliol could not have been Hugh Lord of Biwell, son of Eustace (see below).  It is possible that he was an otherwise unrecorded brother of Eustace de Balliol.] 

v)        HAWISE .  “Bernardus de Bajollio et uxor mea Mathildis et filii mei Ingerannus et Wido, Eustachius et Bernardus, et filia mea Atuidis” donated property to Cluny by charter dated [1138][751].  “Bernardus de Balillol” confirmed donations to the monks of Whitby, for the souls of “…fratrisque mei Wydonis et sororis mee Hawis”, by charter dated to [1155/67][752].  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Bernardus Bail senior, Bernardus junior filius eius, Ingelram le b filius eius, Wid et Eustacius filii eius, Matilda mater et Hawisia et altera Hawis, et domina Agnes de Pinchensi uxor junioris Bernardi, Rogerus filius Hugonis nepos eius et Johannes frater Rogerii"[753].  The second Hawise has not yet been identified. 

b)         JOCELYN de Balliol .  "…Jocelino de Baillol…" witnessed the charter dated 31 Aug 1153 under which Henry Duke of Normandy confirmed an agreement between Rainulf Earl of Chester and the bishop of Lincoln"[754].  “Bernardus de Balliolo” donated property to the monks of Rievaulx, for the souls of “…Jocelini avunculi mei…et uxoris mee”, by charter dated to [1161/67][755].  King John confirmed "terre in Burton et pasturam de Gaveldon" which "Joscelin de Bailleul" had granted to "Galf Le Paum pater predicte Matild", approving a settlement agreement between "Everard et Matilde et Eustach de Baylloel, nepote et herede predicti Joscelin", by charter dated 5 Jun 1205[756]m ---.  The name of Jocelyn's wife is not known.  Jocelyn & his wife had one child: 

i)          INGELRAN .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

c)         RALPH de Balliol .  “Bernardus de Bajollio et uxor mea Mathildis et filii mei Ingerannus et Wido, Eustachius et Bernardus, et filia mea Atuidis” donated property to Cluny, in the presence of “fratrum meorum”, by charter dated [1138] which names “fratris mei Radulfi monachis[757].  Monk. 

d)         daughter .  m HUGH, son of ---.  Hugh & his wife had two children: 

i)          ROGER FitzHugh .  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Bernardus Bail senior, Bernardus junior filius eius, Ingelram le b filius eius, Wid et Eustacius filii eius, Matilda mater et Hawisia et altera Hawis, et domina Agnes de Pinchensi uxor junioris Bernardi, Rogerus filius Hugonis nepos eius et Johannes frater Rogerii"[758]

ii)         JOHN FitzHugh .  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Bernardus Bail senior, Bernardus junior filius eius, Ingelram le b filius eius, Wid et Eustacius filii eius, Matilda mater et Hawisia et altera Hawis, et domina Agnes de Pinchensi uxor junioris Bernardi, Rogerus filius Hugonis nepos eius et Johannes frater Rogerii"[759]

 

 

1.         --- de Balliolm ISABEL de Trouville, daughter of --- (-after [Oct] 1227).  Henry III King of England consented to "Ysabella de Bailloil" selling the lands she held "in dotem in Heresham, Haverhell, Denardeston et Bivelham" to "Henrico de Trublevill fratri suo" dated [Oct] 1227[760]

 

 

EUSTACE de Balliol, son of BERNARD de Balliol & his wife Agnes de Pincheny (-after 5 Jun 1205).  He gave £100 for licence to marry the widow of Robert FitzPiers[761].  The Red Book of the Exchequer, listing scutage payments in [1196/97], records "Eustachius de Bailliol" paying "xx s, i militem" in Northamptonshire[762].  King John confirmed "terre in Burton et pasturam de Gaveldon" which "Joscelin de Bailleul" had granted to "Galf Le Paum pater predicte Matild", approving a settlement agreement between "Everard et Matilde et Eustach de Baylloel, nepote et herede predicti Joscelin", by charter dated 5 Jun 1205[763]

[m firstly --- (-before 1194).  The marriage of Eustace´s grandson John in 1233 suggests that John´s father could not have been born from Eustace´s marriage with Perronelle, but rather from an otherwise unrecorded earlier marriage.] 

m [secondly] (1194) PERRONELLE, widow of ROBERT FitzPiers of Cherhill, daughter of ---.  The 1194/95 Pipe Roll records "Eustacius de Baillol" in Wiltshire "pro habenda uxore que fuit Robert f Petri"[764]

Eustace de Balliol & his [first] wife had two children:

1.         HUGH de Balliol (-1228).  Lord of Biwell.  "Hugo de Balliol" confirmed the donation of "piscaria…ad Wudehorn…Wudehornestelle in flumie de Tuede" made to the monastery of Kelso by "qm Bernardo de Bailloil" by charter dated to [1200][765].  The Red Book of the Exchequer records "Hugo de Baylol" holding "baroniam de Bywelle" with five knights´ fees in Northumberland in [1210/12][766].  Lord of Hiche, Essex.  Of Barnard Castle, he helped in the defence of the castle against Alexander II King of Scotland who invaded England in 1216[767].  “Hugo de Baillol” confirmed donations to the monks of Fountains, by charter dated to [1190/1210][768].  The Red Book of the Exchequer records "Hugo de Baillol" holding four knights´ fees "de Stokeley" in Yorkshire, and three in Essex, Hertfordshire, in [1210/12][769].  The Testa de Nevill includes a writ of King John dated 1212 which records "Hugo de Bailliol" holding "baroniam de Biwelle" in Northumberland which had been granted by King William II to "antecessores"[770].  "Hugo de Baillol" donated land at Newsam to Rievaulx abbey, for the soul of "uxoris meæ Ceciliæ", by undated charter[771]m CECILIA de Fontaines, daughter of ALLEAUME de Fontaines & his wife Laure de Saint-Valéry.  "Hugo de Baillol" donated land at Newsam to Rievaulx abbey, for the soul of "uxoris meæ Ceciliæ", by undated charter[772].  Hugh de Balliol donated his fishery at Courchon, part of the dowry of his wife "fille de sa…mere Lorette de St Valery", to the chapter of Longpré [Longpré-les-Corps-Saints, Picardie, near Bailleul-en-Vimeu[773]] by charter dated 1210[774].  Hugh de Balliol & his wife had two children:

a)         JOHN de Balliol (-before 27 Oct 1268).  "John de Balliol, son and heir of Hugh Balliol" made a fine for "his relief of 30 knights´ fees that Hugh de Balliol his father held of the king in chief", dated [Apr] 1229[775].  Of Barnard Castle, co Durham. 

-        see below

b)         ADA de Balliol (-Stokesley late Jul 1251).  A writ after the death of "Ada alias Eda de Baylliol alias de Baillol", dated "8 Sep 35 Hen III", and later inquisitions record that "Stokesley Manor was given by Sir Hugh de Balloil in free marriage to Ada his daughter who, after the death of her husband, enfeoffed Hugh and Robert her sons thereof", that "the said Lady Ada died at Stokesley on Saturday after St James the Apostle, 35 Hen III" and that "the said Hugh took and held seisin of the said manor, in the name of himself and his brother, until expelled"[776][777]m JOHN FitzRobert of Warkworth, co. Northumberland, son of --- (-before 1251).  John & his wife had three children: 

i)          ROGER FitzJohn (-1249).  Matthew Paris records the death in a 1249 tournament of "quidam de nobilioribus baronibus Borealibus Rogerus filius Johannis" and names his mother "Ada de Bailliol"[778]

ii)         HUGH .  A writ after the death of "Ada alias Eda de Baylliol alias de Baillol", dated "8 Sep 35 Hen III", and later inquisitions record that "Stokesley Manor was given by Sir Hugh de Balloil in free marriage to Ada his daughter who, after the death of her husband, enfeoffed Hugh and Robert her sons thereof", that "the said Lady Ada died at Stokesley on Saturday after St James the Apostle, 35 Hen III" and that "the said Hugh took and held seisin of the said manor, in the name of himself and his brother, until expelled"[779]

iii)        ROBERT .  A writ after the death of "Ada alias Eda de Baylliol alias de Baillol", dated "8 Sep 35 Hen III", and later inquisitions record that "Stokesley Manor was given by Sir Hugh de Balloil in free marriage to Ada his daughter who, after the death of her husband, enfeoffed Hugh and Robert her sons thereof"[780]

2.         EUSTACE de Balliol (-after 1269).  Sheriff of Cumberland and governor of Carlisle Castle in 1260/61.  He accompanied Edward, son of Henry I King of England, on crusade to Palestine in 1269[781]m HAWISE de Boyville, daughter and heiress of RALPH de Boyville of Levington & his wife Ada de Furnivall née --- ([1247/48]-before 1274).  A writ after the death of "Ada late the wife of William de Furnivall", dated "15 May 55 Hen III", names "Helewisa her daughter, wife of Sir Eustace de Baylloll, aged 23" as her heir[782].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 13 Sep 1274 under which "Walter de Corry, cousin and one of the heirs of Helewisa de Levynton wife of Eustace de Balliol deceased" swore homage to King Edward I for his portion of her lands[783]

 

 

1.         INGELRAN de Balliol .  Alexander II King of Scotland confirmed donations to St Andrew´s priory, including the donation of "ecclesiam de Dul" by "Malcolmi comitis de Hathoil et ex confirmacione Henrici filii sui", by undated charter, probably dated to the start of his reign, witnessed by "…Engeram de Bayllol…"[784].  The parentage of this Ingelran de Balliol has not yet been ascertained.  It is chronologically impossible that he was Ingelran, son of Bernard de Balliol, given the estimated marriage date of his daughter Ellen.  It is also unlikely that he was Ingelran, son of Jocelyn de Balliol, who belonged to the generation earlier than Ingelran son of Bernard.  From a chronological point of view, it is possible that he was the son of Eustace Balliol (son of Bernard de Balliol).  m ---.  The name of Ingelran´s wife is not known.  Ingelran & his wife had three children: 

a)         HENRY de Balliol (-after 12 Feb 1246).  According to the Complete Peerage, Henry was son of Ingelran and brother of Ellen[785].  It has not been possible to check the sources cited.  According to Burke´s Extinct Peerage, he was the son of Eustace de Balliol[786], although this source is usually less reliable.  The Red Book of the Exchequer records "Henricus de Baylol" holding one knight´s fee "in Bingeham" in Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire in [1210/12][787].  "…Henrico de Ballol…" witnessed the charter dated 3 Feb 1231 under which Alexander II King of Scotland founded Balmerino Abbey[788].  "Henr de Balliol cam, Johe de Vall, Nichol de Sulis" witnessed the charter dated 16 Feb 1246 under which Alexander II King of Scotland recorded a dispute regarding "terram de Dunroden quam tenet in Galuuath de dono Fergi" and Holyrood abbey[789]m (before 1233) LORETA de Valoignes, daughter of WILLIAM de Valoignes Chamberlain of Scotland & his wife Loreta de Quincy (-after 25 May 1233).  "Henry de Balliol and Lora his wife, David Cumin and Isabel his wife, and Piers de Maudue and Christine his wife, had livery of the lands which Christine, late the wife of W. Earl of Maundeville had held from the king in chief" dated 25 May 1233[790].  Henry & his wife had three children: 

i)          GUY Balliol (-killed in battle Evesham 1265).  "Alexander de Balliolo dominus de Caveris" donated "medietatem bosci de Gladiswod que quondam fuit domini Johannis de Wallibus et domine Deruorgille sponse sue" to Dryburgh monastery, for the soul of "domini Gwido fratris mei", by undated charter[791].  Standard-bearer of Simon de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265, where he was killed[792]

ii)         Sir ALEXANDER Balliol of Cavers, co. Roxburgh (-[19 Apr 1310/Jun 1311]).  "Alexander de Balliolo dominus de Caveris" donated "medietatem bosci de Gladiswod que quondam fuit domini Johannis de Wallibus et domine Deruorgille sponse sue" to Dryburgh monastery, for the soul of "domini Gwido fratris mei", by undated charter[793].  Lord of Chilham, by right of his wife.  A charter dated  to [20 Jan/Feb] in 1280 records King Edward I´s permission for "Christiana de Maune and Alexander de Balliol, the heirs of Robert de Valoignes" to pay a debt at a reduced amount[794].  Chamberlain of Scotland [1287/94].  He was summoned to Parliament in 1300 as Baron Balliol[795].  Chamberlain of Scotland [1287/94].  The Ragman Roll names "Sir Alexander de Balliol knight" among those who swore allegiance to Edward I King of England at Montrose 10 Jul 1296[796]m (shortly after 7 Nov 1270) as her second husband, ISABEL of Chilham, widow of DAVID of Strathbogie Earl of Atholl, daughter of RICHARD Lord of Chilham & his wife Maud Ctss of Angus (after 1245-18 Mar 1292).  She was heiress of her brother at Chilham.  "Alexander de Balliol and Isabella his wife…going to Scotland" appointed attorneys for their affairs in England[797].  Leland quotes a manuscript which records the death "XV Kal Apr…apud Chilham" in 1292 of "Domina Isabella de Dovora comitissa de Assele" and her burial "Cantuar: in ecclesia Christi"[798].  A charter dated 1 May 1292 ordered the valuation of the assets of "the late Isabella countess of Athol to her husband Alexander de Balliol"[799].  Sir Alexander & his wife had two children:

(a)       Sir THOMAS Balliol (-after 7 Feb 1313).  He succeeded his father as Lord of Cavers[800]

(b)       ALEXANDER Balliol (-after 1346).  He was a prisoner at Berkhamsted 12 Oct 1301, released from the Tower 28 Mar 1310.  He was cited in 1316 and 1346[801]

iii)        LORA Balliol (-1309).  The Stemma fundatoris of Bardney Abbey names “Loram, sororem Alexandri de Balliolf” as wife of ”Gilbertus”, son of Gilbert, adding that they died childless[802].  Inquisitions after the death of "Gilbert de Gaunt", dated "26 Jan 2 Edw I", records that the deceased gave "Hundemanby…to Gilbert his son and heir in marriage with Lora de Balyolo"[803]m (before 26 Jan 1274) Sir GILBERT de Gaunt Lord Gaunt, son of Sir GILBERT de Gaunt of Folkingham & his wife --- ([1249]-1298). 

b)         EUSTACE Balliol (-after Sep 1262).  "Eustachius de Balliol dominus de Turribus" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam sancti Constantini de Kolmanele que nunc dicitru Kirkostintyn…ecclesiam sancte Brigide de Blaket" made by "Uthredus filius Fergus", and "ecclesiam suam de Kircostintyn et de Kirkebrid" made to Holyrood abbey by "Engeraldus de Balliolo pater meus", by charter dated early Sep 1262[804].  The former confirmation suggests a relationship with the family of the lords of Galloway but, if this is correct, its precise nature has not been ascertained.  m AGNES de Percy, daughter of --- (-after 1276).  King Edward I confirmed the grant by "Agnes de Balliol to her son Ingeram de Balliol of her land at Foxton" for five years from 11 Jun 1275, by charter dated 5 May 1276[805].  Eustace & his wife had one child: 

i)          INGELRAM Balliol (-after 1276).  King Edward I confirmed the grant by "Agnes de Balliol to her son Ingeram de Balliol of her land at Foxton" for five years from 11 Jun 1275, by charter dated 5 May 1276[806]

c)         ELLEN de Balliol (-shortly before 22 Nov 1281).  She is recorded as the daughter of Ingelran de Balliol[807].  Heiress of Dalton (Percy) co. Durham.  m ([1233/35]) as his second wife, WILLIAM de Percy, son of HENRY de Percy & his wife Isabel de Brus ([1196/98]-shortly before 28 Jul 1245, probably bur Salley Abbey, his heart bur at Sandown Hospital with his first wife). 

 

 

1.         WILLIAM de Balliol (-after Jul 1296).  The Ragman Roll names "Sir William de Balliol rector of Kirkepatrik" among those who swore allegiance to Edward I King of England at Montrose 12 Jul 1296[808]

 

 

JOHN de Balliol, son of HUGH Balliol [Bailleul] of Barnard Castle & his wife Cecilia de Fontaines (-before 27 Oct 1268).  "John de Balliol, son and heir of Hugh Balliol" made a fine for "his relief of 30 knights´ fees that Hugh de Balliol his father held of the king in chief", dated [Apr] 1229[809].  Bracton records a claim, dated 1230, by "Johannes de Cauz et Alina uxor eius James de Cauz et Alesia uxor eius" against "Johannem de Bailliol" concerning "Hugonem de Bailliol patrem predicti Johannis de Baillol…terra"[810].  Of Barnard Castle, co Durham.  Lord of Galloway, de iure uxoris.  Sheriff of Cumberland and governor of Carlisle Castle.  He supported Henry III King of England against the barons, and was captured with the king at the battle of Lewes in 1264 by Simon de Montfort Earl of Leicester[811].  He and his wife founded Balliol College, Oxford in 1263[812].  A writ after the death of "John de Balliolo", dated "27 Oct 52 Hen III", and later inquisitions name "Sir Hugh de Balliolo his son, age variously stated as 28 or more, and 30 and more" as his heir[813].  The Chronicle of Melrose records the death in 1269 of "John de Balliol…a lover of scholars", adding that "he built a house at Oxford"[814]

m (1233[815]) DEVORGUILLA of Galloway, daughter of ALAN Lord of Galloway & his second wife Margaret of Scotland (-28 Jan 1290, bur Sweetheart Abbey, Kirkland).  The Chronicle of Melrose records that "Alan of Galloway gave his daughter to John de Bailiol in marriage" in 1233[816].  The Annales Londonienses name "Devorgoille de Baillol" as second of the three daughters of "la primere fille Davi" and "Aleyn de Gavei"[817].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the marriage in 1233 of the second daughter of "Alanus de Galway filius Rotholandi de Galway" and "Johannes de Balliolo"[818].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "Diuorgilla filia Alani domini de Galwidia" founded "monasterium Dulcicordis ordinis Cisterciensis et fratrum minorum de Dundee"[819].  Alexander III King of Scotland confirmed the donations made by "Deruorguilla de Balliolo filia et una heredes quondam Alani de Galwathya…in viduitate sua" to the church of Glasgow by charter dated 18 May 1277[820].  A charter dated 22 Feb 1290 records the extent of the manor of Kempstone held by "dominæ Dervergullæ de Balliolo defunctæ", noting that she had died "die Sabbati proxima post conversionem Sancti Pauli, anno prædicto"[821].  A writ after the death of "Lady Dervergulla de Balliolo", dated "4 Feb 18 Edw I", and later inquisitions name "John de Balliolo her son, aged 40 at the feast of St Michael last…her…heir"[822]

Sir John & his wife had six children:

1.         HUGH Balliol (Barnard Castle [1237/40]-[Palestine] before 10 Apr 1271).  A writ after the death of "John de Balliolo", dated "27 Oct 52 Hen III", and later inquisitions name "Sir Hugh de Balliolo his son, age variously stated as 28 or more, and 30 and more" as his heir[823].  A charter of David II King of Scotland dated 15 May 1359 confirmed a donation by "Dervorgilla daughter of the late Alan of Galloway, in her widowhood" for founding the abbey of St Mary of Sweetheart, for the souls of "…John Baliol the granter´s lord and late spouse, Hugh his son and hers, Cicilia her daughter", stating that the abbey was founded 10 Apr 1273[824].  He succeeded his father in 1268 as Lord of Bywell, co. Northumberland and Barnard's Castle, co. Durham.  A writ after the death of "Hugh de Balliolo", dated "10 Apr 55 Hen III", assigns her dower to "Agnes de Valentia, the king´s niece, late the wife of the said Hugh"[825].  Inquisitions after the death of "Hugh de Balliolo", dated "Sunday before St Gregory 56 Hen III", names "Alexander de Balliolo his brother" as his heir[826]m (after 1268) as her second husband, AGNES de Valence Dame de Danfalize, widow of MAURICE Fitzgerald Baron of Offaly, daughter of GUILLAUME de Lusignan Seigneur de Valence, Lord of Pembroke & his wife Joan Munchensy of Swansbrooke (-1310).  A writ after the death of "Hugh de Balliolo", dated "10 Apr 55 Hen III", assigns her dower to "Agnes de Valentia, the king´s niece, late the wife of the said Hugh"[827].  King Edward I confirmed the grant by "Agnes de Balliol to her son Ingeram de Balliol of her land at Foxton" for five years from 11 Jun 1275, by charter dated 5 May 1276[828].  She married thirdly Jean d'Avesnes Seigneur de Beaumont. 

2.         ALEXANDER Balliol (-before 13 Nov 1278).  A charter dated Easter 1277 records a claim against "Alexander de Balliol brother and heir of Hugh de Balliol" for his brother´s debts[829].  He succeeded his brother in [1271] as Lord of Bywell, co. Northumberland and Barnard's Castle, co. Durham.  A writ after the death of "Alexander de Balliolo", dated "13 Nov 6 Edw I", and later inquisitions name "John de Ball[iolo] his brother aged 30 and more…his…heir"[830]m ELEONORE, daughter of --- (-1303).  A charter dated 29 Nov 1278 records that the sheriff of Northumberland "is commanded to deliver to Alianora widow of Alexander de Balliol" land which she and her husband held "by gift of Alianora the queen mother"[831].  According to Burke´s Extinct Peerage, she was "Eléonore de Genoure"[832].  "Genoure" could be Geneva, but she has not been traced in the family of the comtes de Genève (see the document BURGUNDY KINGDOM NOBILITY).  The reference to her having been granted land by Eléonore de Provence, queen of England, suggests that she was yet another of the relatives of the family of the comtes de Savoie who were brought to England by the queen´s nephew Pierre de Savoie.  This speculation is supported by the charter dated 30 Dec 1278 under which King Edward I ordered that half of the proceeds from her husband´s estate be paid to "his cousin Alianora the widow…of Alexander de Balliol"[833].  The records of pleas taken before justices at Newcastle-upon-Tyne 20 Jan 1279 include the comment that "Alienora de Balliol is marriageable and her lands worth 100 marks yearly"[834]

3.         JOHN Balliol ([1250]-in France Normandy [4 Mar 1314/4 Jan 1315],.bur [Church of St Waast, Normandy]).  The Annales Londonienses name "Johan de Baillol" as son of "la secunde fille Aleyne, Devergoille"[835].  He succeeded his brother in [1278] as Lord of Bywell, co. Northumberland and Barnard's Castle, co. Durham.  He succeeded in 1292 as JOHN King of Scotland

-        see below, Part B

4.         ALAN Balliol .  Balfour Paul states that Alan is named only in the claim made by John Balliol as competitor for the crown of Scotland[836]

5.         CECILIA Balliol (-[before 10 Apr 1273]).  A charter of David II King of Scotland dated 15 May 1359 confirmed a donation by "Dervorgilla daughter of the late Alan of Galloway, in her widowhood" for founding the abbey of St Mary of Sweetheart, for the souls of "…John Baliol the granter´s lord and late spouse, Hugh his son and hers, Cicilia her daughter", stating that the abbey was founded 10 Apr 1273[837].  This document suggests, but does not state explicitly, that Cecilia was deceased at the time of her mother´s donation.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   The estimated birth date of her daughter Devorguilla suggests that Cecilia was her parents´ oldest daughter.  m Sir JOHN de Burgh of Wakerley, Northants, son of --- (-before 3 Mar 1279).  A writ after the death of "John de Burgo", dated "3 Mar 8 Edw I", records that he held "Wakerle…with the barony of Launvaley…Thingdene" and names his "three daughters, Dervorguilla whom Sir Robert son of Walter married, Hawis whom Sir Robert de Grelee married, and Margery who is a nun at Chikessaunt…his next heirs and of full age"[838].  Inquisitions on the death of "John de Burgo the younger", dated "15 Sep 12 Edw I", records that he held "the barony of Launvaley" and names his "two daughters and heirs, Dervergulla whom Robert son of Walter married, and Hawis whom Robert Greyll married"[839].  Cecily & her husband had three children: 

a)         DEVORGUILLA de Burgh ([1255]-1284, bur Dunmow Priory)A writ after the death of "John de Burgo", dated "3 Mar 8 Edw I", records that he held "Wakerle…with the barony of Launvaley…Thingdene" and names his "three daughters, Dervorguilla whom Sir Robert son of Walter married, Hawis whom Sir Robert de Grelee married, and Margery who is a nun at Chikessaunt…his next heirs and of full age"[840]m (before 1275) as his first wife, ROBERT FitzWalter, son of WALTER FitzRobert & his wife Ida de Longespee of the Earls of Salisbury (Henham 1247-18 Jan 1326).  He became Baron Fitzwalter 1295. 

b)         HAWYS de Burgh .  A writ after the death of "John de Burgo", dated "3 Mar 8 Edw I", records that he held "Wakerle…with the barony of Launvaley…Thingdene" and names his "three daughters, Dervorguilla whom Sir Robert son of Walter married, Hawis whom Sir Robert de Grelee married, and Margery who is a nun at Chikessaunt…his next heirs and of full age"[841]m (before Mar 1279) Sir ROBERT de Grelle of Manchester, son of ROBERT Grelle & his wife ---.  Hawys & her husband had three children: 

i)          Sir THOMAS de Grelle of Manchester (Sixhills, Lincolnshire 8 Aug 1279-before 11 Oct 1311).  Became Baron Grelle 1308.  m (before 2 Nov 1399) ---, sister of JOHN Wake, daughter of ---. 

ii)         JOAN de Grelle (-20/21 Mar 1353)m (soon after 19 Nov 1294) JOHN Lord La Warre, son of Sir ROGER La Warre of Wickwar, Gloucestershire Lord La Warre & his wife Clarice Tregoz ([1276]-9 May 1347). 

iii)        ISABEL de Grelle (-before 8 Jul 1322).  m JOHN de Gyse .  No issue.

c)         MARJORY de Burgh .  A writ after the death of "John de Burgo", dated "3 Mar 8 Edw I", records that he held "Wakerle…with the barony of Launvaley…Thingdene" and names his "three daughters, Dervorguilla whom Sir Robert son of Walter married, Hawis whom Sir Robert de Grelee married, and Margery who is a nun at Chikessaunt…his next heirs and of full age"[842].  Nun at Chicksands Priory. 

6.         ADA Balliol (-after 27 Dec 1283).  A writ dated Thursday after Epiphany "56 Hen III", after the death of "Walter de Lyndesay", states that he died "on the day of the Commemoration of All Souls last" and names "William his son, aged 21 at the nativity of St John the Baptist last, is his heir, and five years ago at Whitsunday last contracted marriage with Ada daughter of John de Balliolo, with his father´s consent"[843].  A charter dated 27 Dec 1283 records the protection granted by King Edward I to "Ada widow of William de Lyndeseye about to set out for Scotland"[844]m (15 May 1266) WILLIAM de Lindsay of Lamberton, son of WALTER de Lindsay Lord of Lamberton & his wife --- (1250-1283). 

7.         ALIANORE [Mary/Marjory] Balliol .  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Johannes de Balliolo…filiam…Marjoriam, sororem…Johannes regis" married "Johanni Comyn"[845].  Andrew Wyntoun´s Cronykil records that "Jhon Blak Cwmyn" married "Jhon the Ballyollis douchtyr…that he gat on Derworgyll"[846]m JOHN Comyn "the Black" of Badenoch, son of JOHN Comyn Lord of Badenoch & his first wife Eva --- (-1302).

 

 

 

B.      KINGS OF SCOTLAND 1292-1296, 1332/1336

 

 

JOHN 1292-1296, EDWARD 1332/1336

 

JOHN Balliol, son of Sir JOHN de Balliol of Barnard Castle, co Durham & his wife Devorguilla of Galloway ([1250]-in France [4 Mar 1314/4 Jan 1315],.bur [Church of St Waast, Normandy]).  The Annales Londonienses name "Johan de Baillol" as son of "la secunde fille Aleyne, Devergoille"[847].  His birth date is estimated from a writ after the death of his mother "Lady Dervergulla de Balliolo", dated "4 Feb 18 Edw I", and later inquisitions which name "John de Balliolo her son, aged 40 at the feast of St Michael last…her…heir"[848].  He succeeded his brother in [1278] as Lord of Bywell, co. Northumberland and Barnard's Castle, co. Durham.  He was a claimant to the throne of Scotland in 1291, eleventh in order on the Great Roll of Scotland.  The special court appointed in Aug 1291 to select the new ruler found in favour of John Balliol in its final judgment 17 Nov 1292[849].  He was crowned 30 Nov 1292 as JOHN King of Scotland at Scone Abbey, Perthshire: John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the coronation 30 Nov 1292 "apud Sconam" of "Johannes de Balliolo" and that he swore homage to Edward I King of England "in sequenti festo Sancti Stephani apud Novum-castrum"[850].  He forfeited the Barony of Biwell in 1295[851].  In 1295, he was replaced as head of the Scottish government by the Council of Twelve, and 5 Apr 1296 King John formally renounced his homage to Edward I King of England[852].  King Edward marched into Scotland and King John submitted, abdicating his throne 10/11 Jul 1296 at Brechin.  He was kept a prisoner in England for about three years, then went to France. 

m (before 7 Feb 1281) ISABEL de Warenne, daughter of JOHN de Warenne Earl of Surrey & his wife Alix de Lusignan (1253-).  The Chronicle of Thomas Wykes records the marriage “infra octavus Purificationis” in 1279 of “Johannes de Balhol” and “adolescentulam Isabellam filiam comitis Warennæ[853].  A charter dated 27 Mar 1281 records a grant of property by "Dervergulla de Balliol" to "her son John de Balliol and the king´s cousin Isabella daughter of Earl Warrenne his wife"[854]

King John & his wife had two children:

1.         EDWARD Balliol (-[May 1363/Sep 1365]).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Eadwardo de Balliolo" as son of "Johannes de Balliolo…regis Scotiæ" when recording his betrothal[855].  He was a prisoner in the Tower at his father's death[856].  He defeated David II King of Scotland in Aug 1332 at the battle of Dupplin Moor, near Perth.  He succeeded as EDWARD King of Scotland.  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Eadwardus de Balliolo" was crowned king "VIII Kal Oct…apud Sconam" in 1332[857].  He was deposed in favour of David II 16 Dec 1332, and fled from Scotland: John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Eadwardus de Balliolo" was defeated "XVII Kal Jan…in villa de Anand" in 1332 and fled[858].  He was restored in Mar 1333.  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that Berwick was besieged by Edward III King of England "pridie Id Apr" in 1333 and defeated the Scots "XIV Kal Aug" at "bellum de Halidona"[859].  He was deposed again in 1334 and fled to England.  Restored again in 1335, finally deposed in 1336.  He became Baron Balliol 1349/63.  He surrendered all claims to the Scottish throne 20 Jan 1356.  He lived at Wheatley, near Doncaster, on a pension from Edward III King of England[860]Betrothed (5 Jul or 23 Oct 1295) to ISABELLE de Valois, daughter of CHARLES de France Comte de Valois & his first wife Marguerite of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] (1292-1309).  The Liber Pluscardensis records that "Edwardo de Balliolo…regis Scociæ filio" was betrothed to "nepte…regis Franciæ", further identified in a later passage as "Karoli de Valoiz et Andegavensis comitis…filiam germani [sui]", dated to [1295] from the context[861].  [[862]m (divorced 1344) as her first husband, MARGUERITE of Sicily-Tarento, daughter of PHILIPPE of Sicily Principe di Tarento [Anjou-Capet] & his second wife Catherine de Valois titular Empress of Constantinople (-Naples in prison 1380, bur Naples San Domenico).  An anonymous 14th century poem about the descendants of Charles I King of Sicily names "Filipo imperadore…sorella…madona Margarita di Scocia" adding that she died "in quarantanni"[863].  She married [secondly] (1352) as his second wife, Francesco del Balzo Conte di Montescaglioso e Avellino.  Her first marriage is shown by Kerrebrouck, although the author cites no source[864].  According to the Complete Peerage[865], this marriage is erroneous, although it is not clear whether this means that the couple were betrothed but not married or that there was not even a betrothal.  She succeeded her brother in 1373 as titular empress of Constantinople.] 

2.         HENRY Balliol (-killed in battle Annan 16 Dec 1332).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "dominus Henricus de Balliolo" was among those killed when King Edward Balliol was defeated "XVII Kal Jan" in 1332 at Annan[866]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    KINGS of SCOTLAND (BRUCE)

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

[Three possible] brothers, parents not known: 

1.         ROBERT [I] de Brus (-11 May 1141, bur Gisburne Priory).  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory records that “Robertus de Bruse…miles de Normannia” became “domini Castri de Skelton, Merkes, Uplythum, S. Westyby et Brudone, dominus de Danby, Levyngton et Parum, dominus de Kendall, et dominus Vallis Anandiæ[867].  The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “primus Brus de Carleton…Robertus de Brus” came to England with William “the Conqueror”[868], although this is not possible chronologically assuming that the text refers to Robert who died in 1141.  A charter of King Henry II records donations to York St Mary, including the donation of land “in Apilton…et Hornby…Midelton” by “Robertus de Brus[869].  Lord of Skelton.  "…Roberto de Brus…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk, listed first witness after the members of the royal family[870].  “Robertus de Brus” confirmed donations to the canons of Bridlington by charter dated to [1120/35], witnessed by “…Ernaldus de Perceio…Petrus de Brus…[871].  "Militum meorum Roberti de Brus…" witnessed the charter dated to [1123] under which "David comes" made grants to the church of Glasgow with the consent of "Matildis uxoris mea"[872].  "David…Rex Scottorum" granted Annandale to "Roberto de Brus" by charter dated to [1124][873].  “Robertus de Brus” donated property to St Mary´s, York by charter dated to [1125/35], witnessed by “Ada filio meo, Petro de Brus…[874].  The 1130 Pipe Roll records "Rob de Bruis" in Yorkshire, Northumberland (three times)[875].  “Robertus de Brus…Agnes uxor mea, filiusque noster Adam de Brus” donated property to Middlesburgh priory by undated charter[876].  “Robertus de Brus…et Agnes uxor mea et Adam filius noster” founded Gisburne Priory, Yorkshire by undated charter[877].  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory records that “Robertus de Brus pater” died “1141 V Id Mai” and was buried “apud Gysburghe in Cleveland[878].  The obituary of Gisburne priory records the death “V Id Mai” of "Roberti de Brus fundator hujus domus"[879]m [firstly] AGNES Paynell, daughter of FULK Paynell & his wife [Beatrix ---] (-18 Nov, after 1155).  The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “primus Brus de Carleton…Robertus de Brus” married “Agnetam filiam Fulconis Paynell” and received “manerium de Carleton” from his father-in-law[880].  “Robertus de Brus…Agnes uxor mea, filiusque noster Adam de Brus” donated property to Middlesburgh priory by undated charter[881].  “Robertus de Brus…et Agnes uxor mea et Adam filius noster” founded Gisburne Priory, Yorkshire by undated charter[882].  A charter of King Henry II, dated to [1176/86], confirmed donations to the canons of Gisburne, among which a donation by “Agnetis uxoris Roberti de Brus[883].  The obituary of Gisburne priory records the death “XIV Kal Dec” of "Agnetis Brus uxoris fundatoris nostri"[884].  [m secondly AGNES, daughter of --- (-after 1155).  The 1155 Pipe Roll records "Agnes de Bruis…p filio suo"[885].  This entry suggests that Agnes represented her son, who must have been a minor at the time, in relation to the property for which the return was made.  If this is correct, her son was presumably Robert [II] de Brus, who must have been considerably younger than his [half-]brother Adam [I], and so probably born from a different wife.]  Robert de Brus & his [first] wife had one child: 

a)         ADAM [I] de Brus (-[20 Mar] [1143], bur Gisburne Priory).  “Robertus de Brus” donated property to St Mary´s, York by charter dated to [1125/35], witnessed by “Ada filio meo, Petro de Brus…[886]

-        see below

Robert de Brus & his [first/second] wife had one child: 

b)         AGATHA de Brus .  A charter dated to [1145/54] records the dowry granted by “Robertus de Brus” to “Agathe filie sue” on her marriage to “Radulfo Ribaldi filio”, witnessed by “…Petro de Brus, Ernaldo de Perci…Herveo Ribaldi filio…[887].  Although this charter is dated to after the death of Robert de Brus (died 1141), the chronology of the family of Agatha´s husband suggests that Agatha must have been his daughter and not the daughter of Robert [II] de Brus his son, the marriage having taken place many years before the charter.  [888]m RALPH "Taillebois", son of RIBALD & his wife Beatrix Taillebois. 

Robert de Brus & his [second] wife had one child: 

c)         ROBERT [II] de Brus ([1135/40]-[17 Feb, 26 Aug, or 4 Dec] after [1170/90]).  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory names “Robertus de Bruse…miles de Normannia” and “Roberto de Bruse filio suo juniori”, adding that the latter was captured during the Anglo-Scottish wars[889]

-        see below

2.         [WILLIAM de Brus (-1 Aug ----).  Priory of Gisburne.  The obituary of Gisburne priory records the death "Kal Aug" of "Willmi Brus primi Prioris"[890].  Presumably William was installed as prior by Robert [I] de Brus who founded the priory and was presumably a close relation.  Dugdale names "William who occurs in 1131" (without specifying the primary source to which this date relates) first in his list of priors of Gisburne, without specifying that he was "de Brus".  If this date is correct, the chronology suggests that it is more likely that William was the brother, rather than the son, of Robert [I] de Brus.] 

3.         [PETER [I] de Brus (-after [1155/65]).  “Robertus de Brus” confirmed donations to the canons of Bridlington by charter dated to [1120/35], witnessed by “…Ernaldus de Perceio…Petrus de Brus…[891].  “Robertus de Brus” donated property to St Mary´s, York by charter dated to [1125/35], witnessed by “Ada filio meo, Petro de Brus…[892].  Neither of these charters specifies the family relationship between the donor and Peter de Brus.  Domesday Descendants suggests that Peter was the son of Robert [I] de Brus[893].  However, the chronology indicates that it is more likely that the two were brothers.  “A. de Brus” donated property to the canons of Gisburne, for the souls of “R. de Brus avi mei et A. patris mei”, by charter dated to [1155/65], witnessed by “Petro de Brus…[894].  [m firstly ---.  No evidence has been found of this supposed first marriage.  However, considering the likely age of Peter [I] de Brus, it is unlikely that his marriage to Agnes d´Aumâle was his first.  m [secondly] (after 1151) as her second husband, AGNES d'Aumâle, widow of WILLIAM de Roumare, daughter of ETIENNE de Blois Comte d'Aumâle & his wife Hawise de Mortimer.  A manuscript history of the foundation of Melsa Abbey records that “Willielmus” had “sorores quatuor, filias Stephani” who married “una…vicedomino de Pynkeney, altera…vicedomino de Verberay, tertia…Bertanno de Brikebet, quarta Willielmo de Romare et postea Petro de Brus[895].  Secondary sources often indicate that Agnes´s husband was in fact Adam [I] de Brus.  This conclusion is based not only on the assumption that the manuscript history mistook "Petro" for "Adam", but also that it reversed the order of Agnes´s marriages: the birth date of Isabel, daughter of Adam [II] de Brus (son of Adam [I]), estimated to [1168/70] on the basis of her first marriage in [1180], suggests the likelihood that Adam [II] was born before 1143 (approximate date of Agnes´s marriage to William de Roumare) rather than after 1151 (date of death of William de Roumare).  As a general principle, it appears preferable to find ways of confirming that a primary source is factually correct rather than justifying why it is in error.  No other primary source has yet been identified which names Agnes as the wife of Adam, or as the mother of his children.  In addition, as noted above, Peter [I] de Brus was named in a charter dated to [1155/65].  It is therefore possible that the manuscript history is factually correct and that Agnes d´Aumâle married Peter as her second husband, presumably as his second wife considering his likely age by that time.  While waiting for other primary source information to emerge, this appears to be a safer interim conclusion compared with assuming that the manuscript history made two factual errors, relating to the name of Agnes´s Brus husband and to the order of her marriages.] 

 

 

The exact relationship between the following individuals and the main line of the Bruce family has not yet been determined: 

1.         HUGH de Brus (-after [1170/90]).  “Robertus de Brus” donated property to the monks of Durham by charter dated to [1170/90], witnessed by “Roberto, Willelmo et Bernardo filiis meis…Hugone de Brus…[896]

 

2.         ADAM de Bruce (-after 1190).  The Red Book of the Exchequer, listing scutage payments in [1190/91], records "Adam de Brus…Robertus de Brus" paying "vii l x s, xv milites" and "l s, v milites", respectively, in Yorkshire[897]

 

 

ADAM [I] de Brus, son of ROBERT [I] de Brus & his wife Agnes Paynell (-[20 Mar] [1143], bur Gisburne Priory).  “Robertus de Brus” donated property to St Mary´s, York by charter dated to [1125/35], witnessed by “Ada filio meo, Petro de Brus…[898].  “Robertus de Brus…Agnes uxor mea, filiusque noster Adam de Brus” donated property to Middlesburgh priory by undated charter[899].  “Robertus de Brus…et Agnes uxor mea et Adam filius noster” founded Gisburne Priory, Yorkshire by undated charter[900].  He succeeded his father in 1141 as Lord of Skelton.  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory records that “Adam de Bruse filius et hæres…Roberti patris sui” succeeded his father in 1141, died “1167 XIII Kal Apr…anno regni regis Henrici secundi…octavo” and was buried “apud Gysburghe[901].  The year and the regnal year (indicating [1160/61]) in this passage are inconsistent.  Assuming that it is correct that Adam´s widow married William de Roumare as her second husband, as suggested below, both these years must be incorrect and Adam [I] must have died in [1142/43], although the primary source (if any) which confirms that this date is correct has not yet been identified.  This speculation all appears to be confirmed by the Chronicle of John Prior of Hexham which records the death of "Adam de Brus" in 1143[902].  It should be noted that the obituary of Gisburne priory records the death “XIII Kal Apr” of "Adæ de Brus Scdi"[903].  It is not known whether the obituary, or the manuscript history, reproduces the correct dates of death of Adam [I] and Adam [II]. 

m ---.  The name of Adam´s wife is not known.  Secondary sources often indicate that she was Agnes d'Aumâle, widow of William de Roumare, daughter of Etienne de Blois Comte d'Aumâle & his wife Hawise de Mortimer.  A manuscript history of the foundation of Melsa Abbey records that “Willielmus” had “sorores quatuor, filias Stephani” who married “una…vicedomino de Pynkeney, altera…vicedomino de Verberay, tertia…Bertanno de Brikebet, quarta Willielmo de Romare et postea Petro de Brus[904].  The assumption is made that the manuscript history not only mistook "Petro" for "Adam", but also that it reversed the order of Agnes´s marriages: the birth date of Isabel, daughter of Adam [II] de Brus (son of Adam [I]), estimated to [1168/70] on the basis of her first marriage in [1180], suggests the likelihood that Adam [II] was born before 1143 (approximate date of Agnes´s marriage to William de Roumare) rather than after 1151 (date of death of William de Roumare).  As a general principle, it appears preferable to find ways of confirming that a primary source is factually correct rather than justifying why it is in error.  No other primary source has yet been identified which names Agnes as the wife of Adam, or as the mother of his children.  In addition, as noted above, Peter [I] de Brus was named in a charter dated to [1155/65].  It is therefore possible that the manuscript history is factually correct and that Agnes d´Aumâle married Peter as her second husband, presumably as his second wife considering his likely age by that time.  While waiting for other primary source information to emerge, this appears to be a safer interim conclusion compared with assuming that the manuscript history made two factual errors, relating to the name of Agnes´s Brus husband and to the order of her marriages.  Another possibility is that the mother of Adam [II] de Brus was related to the Percy family, as suggested by the 1170/71 Pipe Roll which records "Ada de Brus" accounting for ".c. li. p hedibus Robt de Pci qs habuit I custod sua p habenda tra Ærnaldi auunculi eorum" in Yorkshire[905]

Adam [I] de Brus & his wife had two children: 

1.         --- de Brus (-before 1167).  The existence of an older son who predeceased his father is confirmed by the manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory which records that “Adam de Bruse secundus filius et hæres Adæ patris sui” succeeded his father[906]

2.         ADAM [II] de Brus (-[20 Mar or 11 Jul] [1196/1200], bur Gisburne Priory).  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory records that “Adam de Bruse secundus filius et hæres Adæ patris sui” succeeded his father, died “1180 V Id Jul” (incorrect year, see below) and was buried “apud Gysburghe[907].  He succeeded his father as Lord of Skelton. 

-        see below

 

 

ADAM [II] de Brus, son of ADAM [I] de Brus Lord of Skelton & his wife Agnes d´Aumâle (-[20 Mar or 11 Jul] [1196/1200], bur Gisburne Priory).  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory records that “Adam de Bruse secundus filius et hæres Adæ patris sui” succeeded his father, died “1180 V Id Jul” (incorrect year, see below) and was buried “apud Gysburghe[908].  He succeeded his father as Lord of Skelton.  He was of age in 1155.  “A. de Brus” donated property to the canons of Gisburne, for the souls of “R. de Brus avi mei et A. patris mei”, by charter dated to [1155/65], witnessed by “Petro de Brus…[909].  The 1170/71 Pipe Roll records "Ada de Brus" accounting for ".c. li. p hedibus Robt de Pci qs habuit I custod sua p habenda tra Ærnaldi auunculi eorum" in Yorkshire[910].  Brown states that Adam [II] de Brus was recorded in [1196/97] as owing the king £20 being part of the debts of Aaron the Jew in Yorkshire[911].  The obituary of Gisburne priory records the death “XIII Kal Apr” of "Adæ de Brus Scdi"[912].  It should be noted that "XIII Kal Apr" is the date of death attributed to Adam [I] de Brus in the manuscript history of Gisburne Priory.  It is not known whether the obituary, or the manuscript history, reproduces the correct dates of death of Adam [I] and Adam [II]. 

[913]m (after 1167[914]) as her second husband, IVETA de Arches, widow of ROGER de Flamville, daughter and heiress of WILLIAM de Arches & his wife --- (-after 1192).  “Iveta de Arches, uxor domini Rogeri de Flamevilla” confirmed her husband´s donations to Malton priory by undated charter[915].  “Jueta de Arches” donated property, formerly held by “Willelmus de Archis pater meus”, to the church of St Peter, York by charter dated to [1167/90][916].  “Juetta de Arches” granted property to “Isabelle de Brus filie mee” by charter dated to 1192[917]

Adam de Brus & his wife had two children: 

1.         ISABEL de Brus ([1168/70]-after 1230).  A charter dated to [1190/96] notified that “Adam de Brus” granted property to “Henrico de Perci et Isabelle filie mee uxori sue” on their marriage[918].  This suggests that Isabel must have been only eleven years old at the most at the time of her marriage, assuming that her father´s dates of marriage and death are correctly stated above.  “Juetta de Arches” granted property to “Isabelle de Brus filie mee” by charter dated to 1192[919].  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.   m firstly ([1180]) HENRY de Percy, son of JOSCELIN de Louvain & his wife Agnes de Percy (-before Nov 1198, bur Saint-Lo, Rouen).  m secondly ROGER Mauduit, son of ---. 

2.         PETER [II] de Brus (-17 Jan 1211, bur Gisburne Priory).  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory records that “Petrus de Bruse primus filius…Adæ” succeeded his father, died “1211 XVI Kal Feb” and was buried “apud Gysburghe[920].  He succeeded his father as Lord of Skelton.  "Petrus de Brus" paid a fine to exchange "villas de Berdeseya et de Colingham et de Rington" for "villa de Daneby cum…foresta de Daneby" which "Rex H." had taken from "Ade de Brus patri ipsius Petri", dated to 1200[921].  Brown states that Peter [II] de Brus confirmed liberties at Walton, granted by "his mother the lady Iveta", to the canons of Helagh Park, by undated charter[922].  The Red Book of the Exchequer records "Petrus de Brus" holding 11 knights´ fees "de honore de Skeltone" in Yorkshire in [1210/12][923].  The obituary of Gisburne priory records the death “XVI Kal Feb” of "Petri de Brus primi"[924]m JOAN, daughter of ---.  Brown states that the wife of Peter [II] de Brus was "Joan, but her parentage is unknown", without citing the corresponding primary source[925].  Peter [II] & his wife had one child: 

a)         PETER [III] de Brus (-Marseille 13 Sep 1241, bur Gisburne Priory)The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory records that “Petrus de Bruse secundus” succeeded his father, died while returning from “terra sancta…apud Marsiliam 1267 Id Sep” (presumably incorrect year, see below) and was buried “apud Gysburghe[926].  He succeeded his father as Lord of Skelton.  Matthew Paris names "…Petrus de Brus…" among those who died in 1241[927].  The obituary of Gisburne priory records the death “VII Id Sep” of "Petri de Brus 2"[928]m HAWISE, daughter of Sir GILBERT FitzRoger FitzReinfrid Lord of Kendal & his wife Hawise de Lancaster.  A manuscript describing the descendants of “Ivo Tayleboyse” names “Helewisiam primogenitam…maritata Petro de Brus seniori, Alicia…maritata Willo de Lindesay et Serotam…maritata Alano de Multono” as the three sisters of "Willielmum de Lancastre…tertius et ultimus"[929].  A manuscript narrating the family of “Willielmi de Lancastra” records that “Petrus le Brus senior” married “Helewisam” sister of “Willielmus de Lancastra tertius[930].  According to an undated manuscript relating to Cokersand Abbey, Lancashire, the wife of “Petrum de Brus seniorem” was Hawise, daughter of “Willielmus de Lancaster secundus” as her second husband[931].  Peter [III] & his wife had five children: 

i)          PETER [IV] de Brus (-18 Sep 1272).  A writ dated 25 Dec "31 Hen III", after the death of "William de Lancastr" names "Peter de Brus of full age and Walter son of William de Lyndeseys aged 16 are his heirs", adding that he died "on Wednesday the vigil of St Andrew"[932].  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory records that “Petrus de Bruse tertius” succeeded his father, died “1273 XIV Kal Oct” childless, was buried with his wife, and succeeded by his four sisters[933].  A manuscript narrating the family of “Willielmi de Lancastra” names “Petrum juniorem, Agnetem, Luciam, Margaretam et Laderinam” as the children of “Petrus le Brus senior” and his wife “Helewisam”, adding that Peter died childless in 1272[934].  He succeeded his father as Lord of Skelton.  The obituary of Gisburne priory records the death “XIV Kal Oct” of "Petri de Brus tertii"[935]m HILARY de Mauley, daughter of PETER de Mauley of Mulgrave Castle & his wife ---.  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory records that “Petrus de Bruse tertius” married “Hillariam de Malolacu” who was sterile[936]

ii)         AGNES de Brus (-23 May 1286, bur Gisburne Priory).  A manuscript narrating the family of “Willielmi de Lancastra” names “Petrum juniorem, Agnetem, Luciam, Margaretam et Laderinam” as the children of “Petrus le Brus senior” and his wife “Helewisam”, adding that Agnes married “Waltero de Fawkunbergh[937].  Co-heiress of her brother[938].  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory records that Agnes married “dominus Walterus Fauconberg, dominus de Ryse in Holdyrnes”, inherited “castrum de Skelton, Hersk, Uplythum, Westyby et Estburne”, predeceased her husband “1286 in vigilia ascensionis Domini”, and was buried at Gisburne Priory, adding the names of their children and descendants[939]m WALTER de Faucomberge of Rise and Withernwick in Holderness, son of PIERS de Faucomberge & his first wife Margaret de Montfichet of Stansted, Essex (-Rise 1/2 Nov 1304, bur Priory of Nunkeeling).  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory records that “dominus Walterus Fauconberg” died “apud Ryse in Holdyrnes 1304” and was buried “apud Kylyng in Holdyrnes[940].  The obituary of Gisburne priory records the death “Kal Nov” of "Walteri Fauconberge"[941]

iii)        LUCY de Brus (-after Easter 1282).  A manuscript narrating the family of “Willielmi de Lancastra” names “Petrum juniorem, Agnetem, Luciam, Margaretam et Laderinam” as the children of “Petrus le Brus senior” and his wife “Helewisam”, adding that Lucy married “Marmaduco de Thweng[942].  Co-heiress of her brother[943].  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory records that Lucy married “dominus Marmaducus de Tweng”, inherited “Danby, Bretton, Parum et Kyrkeburne”, and had nine sons and five daughters[944]m ([1242]) MARMADUKE de Thweng, son of ROBERT de Thweng & his wife Maud [de Kilton] (-[1282/84]). 

iv)       MARGARET de Brus (-[28 Feb 1305/30 Jan 1307]).  A manuscript narrating the family of “Willielmi de Lancastra” names “Petrum juniorem, Agnetem, Luciam, Margaretam et Laderinam” as the children of “Petrus le Brus senior” and his wife “Helewisam”, adding that Margaret married “domino Roberto de Ros[945].  Co-heiress of her brother[946].  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory records that Margaret married “dominus Robertus de Rose, dominus castri de Warke” and inherited “totam Kendale[947][948]m ROBERT de Ros of Wark-on-Tweed, co. Northumberland, son of ROBERT de Ros & his [second] wife Christine Bertram (-before 20 Apr 1274). 

v)        LADERINA de Brus .  A manuscript narrating the family of “Willielmi de Lancastra” names “Petrum juniorem, Agnetem, Luciam, Margaretam et Laderinam” as the children of “Petrus le Brus senior” and his wife “Helewisam”, adding that Laderina married “Johanni de Belew[949].  Co-heiress of her brother[950].  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory records that Laderina married “dominus Johannes de Bellew, id est de Bella aqua”, inherited “Carleton in Balne, Kamlesforth, Thorpe des Arches, Tybthorpe”, and had three named daughters[951]m JOHN de Bellew, son of ---. 

 

 

The exact relationship between the following individual and the main line of the Bruce family has not yet been determined: 

1.         WILLIAM de Brus (-after 12 Feb 1236).  "…Willelmo de Brus…" subscribed the charter dated 12 Feb 1236 under which Alexander II King of Scotland confirmed donations to Kinloss[952]

 

 

ROBERT [II] de Brus, son of ROBERT [I] de Brus & his [second] wife Agnes --- ([1135/40]-[17 Feb, 26 Aug, or 4 Dec] after [1170/90]).  The manuscript history of the founders of Gisburne Priory names “Robertus de Bruse…miles de Normannia” and “Roberto de Bruse filio suo juniori”, adding that the latter was captured during the Anglo-Scottish wars[953].  The 1155 Pipe Roll records "Agnes de Bruis…p filio suo"[954].  As noted above, this suggests that Agnes was acting for her son, who was a minor at the time, in relation to the property for which the return was made.  If this is correct, her son was presumably Robert [II] de Brus, who must have been considerably younger than his [half-]brother Adam [I], and so probably born from a different wife.  If this is correct, he had reached the age of majority by 1157 when he is named without his mother in the Pipe Roll (see below).  The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “primus Brus de Carleton…Robertus de Brus” granted “villam Anandiæ de regno Scotiæ…et…postea Hert et Hertnesse” to “Robertus filius eius junior[955].  Lord of Annandale.  The 1157 Pipe Roll records "Rob de Brus" in Northumberland[956].  “Robertus de Bruis et uxor mea Eufemia” donated property to the canons of Gisburne by charter dated to [1160/75][957].  The Red Book of the Exchequer refers to "Robertus de Brus v m" in Yorkshire in [1167/68][958].  “Robertus de Brus” donated property to the monks of Durham by charter dated to [1170/90], witnessed by “Roberto, Willelmo et Bernardo filiis meis…Hugone de Brus…[959].  The obituary of Gisburne priory records the deaths “XIII Kal Mar” of "Roberti Brus de Anant", "VII Kal Sep" of "Roberti Brus de Anande", and "II Non Dec" of "Roberti Brus de Anande"[960].  Two of these three deaths presumably relate to Robert [II] and Robert [III] de Brus, as the same source separately records the deaths of Robert [I], Robert [IV] and Robert [V] de Brus (see above and below).  It is not known to whom the third death refers as no other record has been found of another Robert de Brus before Robert [VI], who was not buried at Gisburne. 

m EUPHEMIE, daughter of ---.  “Robertus de Brus” notified his donation to the hospital of St Peter, York by charter dated to [1150/70], witnessed by “domina Eufemia…[961].  “Robertus de Bruis et uxor mea Eufemia” donated property to the canons of Gisburne by charter dated to [1160/75][962].  Her origin is indicated by the charter dated to [1150/60] under which “W. comes Albemarle” granted property to “Eufemie nepti mee uxori Roberti de Brus[963].  Domesday Descendants speculates that she was the daughter of Guillaume´s brother Enguerrand[964], although there seems no reason to choose one of his brothers over any of the others.  Another possibility is that she was the daughter of Guillaume´s sister Mathilde, whose husband Guermond de Picquigny is recorded with a sister named Euphemie. 

Robert [II] de Brus & his wife had three children: 

1.         ROBERT [III] de Brus (-[17 Feb, 26 Aug, or 4 Dec] 1191).  “Robertus de Brus” donated property to the monks of Durham by charter dated to [1170/90], witnessed by “Roberto, Willelmo et Bernardo filiis meis…Hugone de Brus…[965].  He succeeded his father as Lord of Annandale.  The Red Book of the Exchequer, listing scutage payments in [1190/91], records "Adam de Brus…Robertus de Brus" paying "vii l x s, xv milites" and "l s, v milites", respectively, in Yorkshire[966].  Two of these three deaths presumably relate to Robert [II] and Robert [III] de Brus, as the same source separately records the deaths of Robert [I], Robert [IV] and Robert [V] de Brus (see above and below).  It is not known to whom the third death refers as no other record has been found of another Robert de Brus before Robert [VI], who was not buried at Gisburne.  m (1183) as her first husband, ISABEL, illegitimate daughter of WILLIAM I "the Lion" King of Scotland & his mistress --- Avenell.  The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1183 of "William king of the Scots…his daughter Isabella" and "Robert de Brus"[967].  She married secondly (Haddington early 1191) Robert de Ros.  The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1191 of "the king of Scots…his daughter Ysembel (the widow of Robert de Brus)" and "Robert de Ross" at Haddington[968]. 

2.         WILLIAM de Brus (-before 4 Dec 1214).  The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “Willielmus filius eius” succeeded “Robertus Brus[969].  “Robertus de Brus” donated property to the monks of Durham by charter dated to [1170/90], witnessed by “Roberto, Willelmo et Bernardo filiis meis…Hugone de Brus…[970].  He succeeded his brother as Lord of Annandale.  The Red Book of the Exchequer, listing scutage payments in [1194/95], records "Willelmus de Brus" paying "x s, dimidium militem" in Cumberland[971].  The obituary of Gisburne priory records the deaths “XVII Kal Aug” of "Willmii Brus de Anand" and "Kal Aug" of "Willmi Brus primi Prioris"[972][973]m as her first husband, CHRISTINA, daughter of ---.  Christina was the sister of Eva, second wife of Robert de Quincy (see the document ENGLISH EARLS 1207-1466), as shown by the undated charter under which "Eua quondam uxor Roberti de Quinci" donated property "de Edmundesten" to Melrose abbey, for the souls of "dominorum meorum Robti de Quinci et Walteri de Berkeley et Rolandi fratris mei et Johis filii mei et Christine sororis mee"[974].  The Liber Vitæ of Durham names "Cristina uxor Willelmi de Brus, Robertus de Brus filius eius"[975].  She married secondly (before 4 Dec 1214) as his second wife, Patrick Earl of Dunbar.  "Patricius comes de Dumbar" donated land "iuxta Emudestu" to Melrose abbey, for the souls of "Ade comitisse quondam uxoris mee…et Christine comitisse uxoris mee et…Patricii filii mei et omnium filiorum meorum et filiarum", to Melrose abbey by undated charter[976].  William de Brus & his wife had two children: 

a)         ROBERT [IV] de Brus “the Noble” (-[1 Apr] 1245).  The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “Robertus Brus secundus” succeeded “Willielmus Brus[977].  Lord of Annandale.    

-        see below

b)         [EUPHEME (-1267).  Her parentage is suggested by MacEwan[978].  If correct, she was her husband´s step-sister, daughter of his father´s second wife by her first husband.  "Eufemia comitissa" donated revenue from land in "Kirkinfyde" to Dryburgh monastery, for the soul of "domini mei Patricii comitis", by undated charter[979].  The Chronicle of Lanercost records the death in 1267 of "domina mater domini comitis Patricii de Dunbar, Eufemia…magistri Patricii qui apud Marsilium obiit"[980]m (1213 or before) PATRICK de Dunbar, son of PATRICK Earl of Dunbar & his first wife Ada of Scotland (-Marseilles [May/Dec] 1248).  He succeeded his father in 1232 as Earl of Dunbar.] 

3.         BERNARD de Brus .  “Robertus de Brus” donated property to the monks of Durham by charter dated to [1170/90], witnessed by “Roberto, Willelmo et Bernardo filiis meis…Hugone de Brus…[981]

 

 

ROBERT [IV] de Brus, son of WILLIAM de Brus & his wife Christina --- (-[1 Apr] 1245).  The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “Robertus Brus secundus” succeeded “Willielmus Brus[982].  He succeeded his father as Lord of Annandale.  The Liber Vitæ of Durham names "Cristina uxor Willelmi de Brus, Robertus de Brus filius eius"[983].  “Robertus de Brus” confirmed donations to Gisburne Priory by “Robertus de Brus avus meus…Willielmus pater meus” by undated charter witnessed by “Willielmo de Brus, Johanne de Brus…[984].  The obituary of Gisburne priory records the death “pridie Kal Apr” of "Roberti de Brus quarti"[985].  It is not known whether this date refers to his date of death or date of burial (the latter being the case of the memorial in the same source for his son Robert [V]). 

m ISABEL of Huntingdon, daughter of DAVID of Scotland Earl of Huntingdon & his wife Matilda of Cheshire (1206-1251, bur Saltre Abbey, near Stilton, Gloucs).  The Annales Londonienses name "Margaretam, Isabellam, Matildam, et Aldam" as the four daughters of "comiti David", recording the marriage of "la secounde fille Davi" and "sire Robert de Brus"[986].  She was granted the manors of Writtle and Hatfield, Essex, 16 Oct 1241 in return for her share of the inheritance of her brother John Earl of Chester. 

Robert [IV] & his wife had two children:

1.         ROBERT [V] de Brus (-Lochmaben Castle 31 Mar 1295, bur 17 Apr Gisburne Priory).  The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “Robertus Brus tertius” succeeded “Robertus Brus secundus” and was buried at Gisburne Priory[987].  The Annales Londonienses name "Robert de Brus" as son of "la secounde fille Davi" and "sire Robert de Brus"[988].  He succeeded his father 1245 as Lord of Annandale. 

-        see  below

2.         BERNARD Bruce .  The primary sources which confirms his parentage, and the affiliations and marriages of his descendants, have not yet been identified.   Lord of Conington and Exton, co. Rutland.  m firstly ALICE de Clare, daughter of ---.  m secondly CONSTANCE de Morleyn, daughter of ---.  Bernard & his [first/second] wife had two children: 

a)         BERNARD Bruce (-23 Nov 1300).  Lord of Connington and Exton.  m AGATHA, daughter of ---.  Bernard & his wife had two children: 

i)          BERNARD Bruce (24 Jul 1311-before 10 Jun 1336).  Lord of Connington.  m as her first husband, MATILDA Crophill, daughter of Sir RALPH Crophill & his wife --- (-before Dec 1350).  She married secondly Benedict of Fulsham.

ii)         Sir JOHN Bruce (13 Jun 1317-before 10 May 1346).  Lord of Connington and Exton, co. Rutland.  m MARGARET Hardreshule, daughter of ---.  Sir John & his wife had five children: 

(a)       AGNES Brucem firstly (before 24 Feb 1358) Sir HUGH Wesenham (-Nov 1375).  m secondly ROBERT Lovetot (-Sep 1393). 

(b)       JANE Bruce (-28 Jun 1421)m (before 24 Feb 1358) Sir NICHOLAS Greene

(c)       ELIZABETH Bruce .  Nun.

(d)       ELEN Bruce .  Nun.

(e)       BERNARD (posthumously 2 Feb 1347-[1 Nov 1347]). 

b)         Sir JOHN Bruce of Exton .  m ---.  The name of John's wife is not known.  Sir John & his wife had one child: 

i)          BERNARD Bruce of Thrapston (-after 1376/77).  m ---.  The name of Bernard's wife is not known.  Bernard & his wife had one child:

(a)       ELEN Bruce .  1376/77. 

 

 

ROBERT [V] de Brus, son of ROBERT [IV] de Brus "the Noble" Lord of Annandale & his wife Isabel of Huntingdon (-Lochmaben Castle 31 Mar 1295, bur 17 Apr Gisburne Priory).  The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “Robertus Brus tertius” succeeded “Robertus Brus secundus” and was buried at Gisburne Priory[989].  The Annales Londonienses name "Robert de Brus" as son of "la secounde fille Davi" and "sire Robert de Brus"[990].  He succeeded his father in 1245 as Lord of Annandale.  He was a claimant to the throne of Scotland in 1291, twelfth in order on the Great Roll of Scotland.  After the court decision in favour of John Balliol, Robert de Brus resigned his claim 7 Nov 1292 in favour of his son Robert[991].  The obituary of Gisburne priory records the death “XI Kal Apr” of "Roberti de Brus quinti"[992], but presumably this date refers to his date of burial at the priory. 

m firstly (May 1240) ISABEL de Clare, daughter of GILBERT de Clare Earl of Hertford and Gloucester & his wife Isabel Marshal of Pembroke (2 Nov 1226-after 10 Jul 1264).  The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey records the births of “duas filias, Agnetam et Isabellam” to “Gilberto…Gloucestriæ et Hertfordiæ comes” and his wife “domina Isabella filia Willielmi Marescalli senioris, comitis de Pembroke”, after the birth of their older brothers[993].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the birth “IV Non Nov” in 1226 of “Gileberto de Clare comiti Glocestriæ…filia Ysabel[994].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the marriage in May 1240 of “Isabella filia G. quondam comitis Gloucestriæ” and “Roberto de Brus[995].  A charter dated 18 Jun 1240 records that "the town of Rip" was given "as a marriage portion to Robert de Brus with Isabel, daughter of the earl of Gloucerster…the earl´s [G. Marshal Earl of Pembroke] niece"[996]

m secondly (before 10 May 1275) as her third husband, CHRISTIAN de Ireby, widow firstly of Sir THOMAS de Lascelles of Bolton, co. Cumberland and secondly of Sir ADAM de Gesemuth of Cramlington, co. Northumberland, daughter and heiress of Sir WILLIAM de Ireby. of Ireby, co. Cumberland & his wife Christian de Hodeholme (-before 6 Jul 1305).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and first marriage has not yet been identified.  A charter dated 29 Aug 1296 records an agreement between "Cristiana widow of Robert de Brus lord of Annandale" and "Robert de Brus his son and heir", granting dower to the former and reserving "her dower from her first husband Adam de Jessemuth´s land in Great Dalton"[997].  Inquisitions dated 14 Sep 1305 (writ 6 Jul 1305) related to the lands of "Cristiana widow of Robert de Brus" noting that she and her husband "died without…heirs [of their bodies]"[998]

Robert [V] & his first wife had two children:

1.         ROBERT [VI] de Brus (Jul 1243-shortly before 4 Apr 1304, bur Abbey of Holm Cultram).  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the birth in Jul 1243 of “filium nomine ---” to “Isabel de Clara…[et] R. de Brus[999].  The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “Robertus Brus quartus” succeeded “Robertus Brus tertius[1000].  He succeeded his father in 1295 as Lord of Annandale. 

-        see below

2.         RICHARD Bruce (-before 26 Jan 1287).  A writ dated 6 May 1287 ordered the restitution of the lands of "Ricardum de Bruse" deceased to "Roberti de Bruse patri sui"[1001]

 

 

ROBERT [VI] de Brus, son of ROBERT [V] de Brus Lord of Annandale & his first wife Isabel de Clare (Jul 1243-shortly before 4 Apr 1304, bur Abbey of Holm Cultram).  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the birth in Jul 1243 of “filium nomine ---” to “Isabel de Clara…[et] R. de Brus[1002].  The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “Robertus Brus quartus” succeeded “Robertus Brus tertius” and was buried “apud Holme-Coltram[1003].  Earl of Carrick, de iure uxoris, he resigned this to his son 27 Oct 1292.  His father resigned in his favour his claim to the Scottish throne 7 Nov 1292, both father and son refusing to do homage to King John Balliol[1004].  He succeeded his father in 1295 as Lord of Annandale.  He became Lord Brus [Bruce] by virtue of his summons to attend the English parliament in 1295[1005]

m firstly (Turnberry Castle 1271) as her second husband, MARGARET Ctss of Carrick suo iure, widow of ADAM de Kilconquhar, daughter and heiress of NEIL Earl of Carrick & his wife Margaret Stewart (-[1292]).  The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “Robertus Brus quartus” married “filiam et hæredem comitis Karrigg[1006].  The Liber Pluscardensis names "unicam filiam suam Martham…comitissa de Carrick" as heiress of "Adam comite de Carrick" and records her marriage to "Roberto de Bruys…secundo, futurus Vallis Anandiæ dominus in Scocia et Clevland in Anglia" without the king´s permission[1007].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "in Terram Sanctam pro Christo peregrinaturus" of "Adam comes de Carrik", dated to [1271] from the context, leaving "unicam filiam…Martham, quæ sibi in comitatum successit" and her marriage to "Roberto de Bruce…filio Roberti de Bruce cognomine Nobilis, domini Vallis de Annandia in Scotia et de Clyveland in Anglia"[1008].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "Robertum Bruse filium Roberti de Bruys, cognomine…domini Vallis de Anandia in Scocia et de Cliflande in Anglia" abducted "Martha filia et heres unica Nigelli comitis de Carryk" to "castrum suum de Turnberry" and married her without the licence of the king[1009].  These passage confuse the supposed daughter with her mother. 

m secondly as her first husband, ELEANOR, daughter of --- (-[13 Apr/8 Sep] or [16 Mar/19 Oct] 1331).  A charter dated 2 Dec 1305 refers to "Alianora widow of Robert de Brus"[1010].  She married secondly ([2 Dec 1304/8 Feb 1306]) as his first wife, Sir Richard le Waleys of Burgh Wallis, Yorkshire, Lord Waleys.  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.  

Robert [VI] & his first wife had eleven children:

1.         ISABEL Bruce (1272-1358).  The Chronicle of Lanercost records the marriage "post festum sancti Martini" in 1293 of "filia comitis Roberti de Carrich" and "regi Norwagiæ Magno"[1011].  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1293 of "Ericus rex Norvegiæ" and "Isabellam filiam domini Rodberti filii Rodberti, comitis Brunsvicensis"[1012].  A charter dated 25 Sep 1293 records articles delivered to "Lady Isabella de Brus, Queen of Norway"[1013]m (Bergen before 25 Sep 1293) as his second wife, ERIK II King of Norway, son of MAGNUS IV "Lagabøte/Lagabæter/the Law-reformer" King of Norway & his wife Ingeborg of Denmark (1268-Bergen 13 Jul 1299, bur Bergen, Christ's Church).  He was a claimant to the throne of Scotland in 1291, thirteenth in order on the Great Roll of Scotland. 

2.         MARY Bruce ([1273]-before 22 Sep 1323).  Orders for the "farther…custody of the countesses of Carrick and Buchan, Marie and Christine the sisters, and Margerie the daughter, of Robert de Brus", specifying that "three of the ladies to be in kages", are dated 7 Nov 1306[1014].  Robertson indexes an undated charter under which Robert I King of Scotland granted "all the lands quhilks were David Earl of Athole´s" to "Sir Neill Campbell and Mary his spouse sister to the king and John their son"[1015].  It is assumed that Mary´s marriage took place after her release from custody in 1312, but it is not impossible that she was married before her imprisonment, which if this was the case would date the marriage to [1303/05].  Robert I King of Scotland granted land at Auchincarnie to "Alexandro Fraser militi" and "heredibus suis inter ipsum et quondam Mariam de Brwce sponsam suam, sororem nostram" by charter dated 22 Sep 1323[1016]m firstly ([1303/05] or [1312]) as his second wife, Sir NEIL Campbell of Lochow, son of Sir COLIN Campbell & his wife --- (-[26 Apr 1315/1316]).  m secondly (1316) Sir ALEXANDER Fraser, son of ANDREW Fraser & his wife --- (-killed 1332).  Lord Great Chamberlain of Scotland. 

3.         ROBERT [VII] Bruce (Writtle, near Chelmsford, Essex 11 Jul 1274-Cardross Castle, Dumbartonshire 7 Jun 1329, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  The Liber Pluscardensis records the birth in 1274 of "Robertus de Broys tercius…rex Scociæ futurus"[1017].  The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “Robertus Brus quintus…rex Scotiæ” succeeded “Robertus Brus quartus[1018].  He succeeded his father 27 Oct 1292 as Earl of Carrick.  He succeeded in 1306 as ROBERT I King of Scotland

-        see below

4.         EDWARD Bruce (-killed in battle Dundalk 14 Oct 1318).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Eadwardus de Bruce, frater domini regis" entered Ireland in 1315 and was chosen "rex totius Hiberniæ"[1019].  Created Earl of Carrick shortly before 24 Oct 1313 by his brother.  He landed at Carrickfergus 25 May 1315, and was crowned King of Ireland 2 May 1316.  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "rex Hiberniæ Eadwardus, frater germanus domini Roberti Scottorum regis" was killed in battle 14 Oct 1318 at "Dundalk in Hibernia"[1020]Betrothed (Papal dispensation 1 Jun 1317) to ISABEL, daughter of WILLIAM Earl of Ross & his wife Eupheme ---, but the marriage never took place.  The Papal dispensation for the marriage of "Edwardi de Brux comitis de Catrilz" and "Ysabellis nate…Gulielmi comitis de Ros", issued by Pope John XXII, is dated 1 Jun 1317[1021]Mistress (1): ISABEL, daughter of JOHN of Strathbogie Earl of Atholl & his wife Margaret of Mar.  Mistress (2): ---.  The name of Edward's second mistress is not known.  Edward Bruce had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):   

a)         ALEXANDER Bruce (-killed in battle Halidon Hill 19 Jul 1333).  Created Earl of Carrick in [1330] or soon after.  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Alexandrum de Bruce comitem de Carrik" was among those captured when King Edward Balliol was defeated "XVII Kal Jan" in 1332 at Annan[1022].  The Liber Pluscardensis names "Alexander de Bruys comes de Carrick" among those killed in battle at Halidon Hill in 1333[1023]m as her first husband, ELEANOR Douglas, daughter of Sir ARCHIBALD Douglas Regent of Scotland & his wife Beatrice Lindsay of Crawford.  She married secondly (before 1349) James Sandilands of Calder (-before 1358), thirdly (before 1364) William Towers of Dalry, fourthly (before 1368) Sir Duncan Wallace of Sundrum, and fifthly (dispensation 18 Mar 1376) as his second wife, Sir Patrick Hepburn of Hales ([1321]-after 1402). 

Edward Bruce had one possible illegitimate son by Mistress (2):   

b)         [THOMAS de Bruce .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Ancestor of the Bruce family of Clackmannan.]

5.         THOMAS Bruce (-beheaded Carlisle Castle 9 Feb 1307).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Thomas et Alexander de Bruce fratres…regis" were captured "apud Lochrian" and beheaded at Carlisle in 1306 (O.S.)[1024]m HELEN Erskine, daughter of Sir JOHN Erskine & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

6.         ALEXANDER Bruce (-beheaded Carlisle Castle 9 Feb 1307).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Thomas et Alexander de Bruce fratres…regis" were captured "apud Lochrian" and beheaded at Carlisle in 1306 (O.S.)[1025].  Dean of Glasgow.

7.         CHRISTIAN Bruce (-[1356/27 Jan 1357], bur Dunfermline).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Robertum comitem de Carric…filia…seniore" married "Garthenai comiti de Marria"[1026].  Heiress of the Lordship of Garioch.  The Chronicle of Lanercost records that "Christoforus de Setone, Anglicus…duxerat sororem…Roberti"[1027].  The source does not name Christopher´s wife, but the Papal dispensation for Christian´s third marriage names her "Cristiane de Setono nate quondam Robert de Bruys" (see below).  It is assumed that the marriage took place after 3 Mar 1304, when Christopher Seton is recorded as supporting the English.  Orders for the "farther…custody of the countesses of Carrick and Buchan, Marie and Christine the sisters, and Margerie the daughter, of Robert de Brus", specifying that "three of the ladies to be in kages", are dated 7 Nov 1306[1028].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the marriage of "Andreas de Moravia" and "dominam Christianam sororem…regis" at Cambuskenneth in 1326[1029].  The Papal dispensation for the marriage of "Andree de Moravia domino de Bothvile" and "Cristiane de Setono nate quondam Robert de Bruys", issued by Pope John XXII, is dated 20 Sep 1326[1030].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records the death in 1357 of "the Lady Christiana of Bruce, King Robert´s sister" and her burial "at Dunfermline with her parents"[1031].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death in 1356 of "domina Christiana de Broys, uxor quondam…domini Andreæ de Moravia, custodies Scociæ" and the burial of both of them "in capella Nostræ Dominæ de Dunfermlyn"[1032]m firstly (1292 or after) GRATNEY of Mar, son of DONALD Earl of Mar & his wife Helen [of North Wales] (-before Sep 1305).  He succeeded his father [1297] as Earl of Mar.  m secondly ([May 1304/1306]) Sir CHRISTOPHER Seton, son of JOHN Seton of Hinderwell, Yorkshire & his wife --- (-hanged [Oct] 1306).  thirdly (Papal dispensation 20 Sep 1326, Cambuskenneth 1326) [as his second wife,] Sir ANDREW Moray of Bothwell, son of ANDREW Moray & his wife --- (1298-Avoch 1338, bur Rosemarkie in Moray, transferred to Dunfermline).  Regent of Scotland. 

8.         MAUD Bruce (-after Sep 1323, bur Fearn).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Robertum comitem de Carric…alia filia" married "Hugoni comiti de Ross"[1033]m as his first wife, Sir HUGH de Ross, son of WILLIAM de Ross Earl of Ross & his wife Eupheme --- (-killed in battle Halidon Hill 19 Jul 1333, bur Fearn).  He succeeded his father in 1323 as Earl of Ross.

9.         NIGEL [Neil] Bruce (-beheaded Berwick Sep 1306).  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records that in 1306 "Nigel of Bruce one of the king´s brothers" was captured and "brought to Berwick" and killed[1034]

10.      MARGARET Bruce .  David II King of Scotland issued a charter dated 24 Jul 1369 related to land granted by "Robertus…rex Scotorum" to "Willelmo de Karlyolo militi…et Margarete sponse sue sorori nostre"[1035].   m Sir WILLIAM de Carlyle (-before Mar 1329). 

11.      ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated 12 Apr 1316 under which Robert I King of Scotland granted annual revenue from the farms of Perth to Perth Blackfriars witnessed by "…Thoma Randulph comite Moraviæ nepote nostro…"[1036]m THOMAS Randolph of Strathdon, son of ---.  Chamberlain of Scotland. 

 

 

 

B.      KINGS OF SCOTLAND 1306-1371

 

 

ROBERT I 1306-1329, DAVID II 1329-1371

 

ROBERT [VII] Bruce, son of ROBERT [VI] de Brus, Earl of Carrick, Lord of Annandale & his first wife Margaret Ctss of Carrick (Writtle, near Chelmsford, Essex 11 Jul 1274-Cardross Castle, Dumbartonshire 7 Jun 1329, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  The Liber Pluscardensis records the birth in 1274 of "Robertus de Broys tercius…rex Scociæ futurus"[1037].  The manuscript history of the Bruce family of Carleton records that “Robertus Brus quintus…rex Scotiæ” succeeded “Robertus Brus quartus[1038].  He succeeded his father 27 Oct 1292 as Earl of Carrick.  He succeeded his father in 1304 as Baron Bruce and Lord of Annandale.  Edward I King of England forfeited his English estates 20 Feb 1305/6.  In defiance of Edward I King of England, he assumed the crown 25 or 27 Mar 1306 as ROBERT I King of Scotland, crowned 25 and 27 Mar 1306.  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the coronation "VI Kal Apr" in 1306 of "Robertus de Bruce comes tunc de Carrick" at Scone[1039].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "VII Id Jun…apud Cardros" in 1329 of "Robertus de Bruce rex Scotorum" in the twenty-fourth year of his reign[1040].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death "apud Cardross" of "Robertus de Broys rex Scotorum" and his burial "in medio chori de Dumfermling…VII Id Jun" in 1329[1041]

m firstly ([1295]) ISABEL of Mar, daughter of DONALD Earl of Mar & his wife Helen [of North Wales] (-before 1302).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Robertus…rex, quuando fuit comes de Carric" married "Isabellam sororem Garthenai comitis de Marr"[1042]

m secondly (1302) ELIZABETH de Burgh, daughter of RICHARD de Burgh Earl of Ulster and Connaught & his wife Margaret de Burgh of Lavanley (-Cullen Castle, Banffshire 26 Oct 1327, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Robertus, adhuc comes" married "Elizabeth filiam Haymeri de Burkis comitis de Hullister" after the death of his first wife[1043].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records that in 1306 "the queen" was captured by William Earl of Ross and "brought to the king of England and…kept a prisoner in close custody until the battle of Bannockburn"[1044].  Orders for the "farther…custody of the countesses of Carrick and Buchan, Marie and Christine the sisters, and Margerie the daughter, of Robert de Brus", specifying that "three of the ladies to be in kages", are dated 7 Nov 1306[1045].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "VII Kal Nov" in 1327 of "domina Elizabeth regina, mater regis David" and her burial "in choro de Dunfermeling juxta regem Robertum sponsum suum"[1046].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death in 1327 of "Elizabeth regina Scociæ mater David regis et uxor…Roberti de Broys" and her burial "apud Dunfermlyn"[1047].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death "VII Kal Nov" in 1327 of "Regina Elizabeitht, mater regis David de Broys" and her burial "in choro de Dumfermling iuxta Robertem regem et suum sponsum"[1048]

King Robert I & his first wife had one child:

1.         MARJORY Bruce ([1296/97]-Paisley, Renfrewshire 2 Mar 1316, bur Paisley Abbey).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Marjoriam" as the only daughter of "Robertus…rex, quuando fuit comes de Carric" and his wife "Isabellam sororem Garthenai comitis de Marr", adding that she married "Waltero senescallo Scotiæ"[1049].  Orders for the "farther…custody of the countesses of Carrick and Buchan, Marie and Christine the sisters, and Margerie the daughter, of Robert de Brus", specifying that "three of the ladies to be in kages", are dated 7 Nov 1306[1050].  The Liber Pluscardensis records that "nobilis Walteri Stevart" married "filiam Roberti de Broys"[1051].  She died in childbirth triggered by falling from her horse.  m (1315) as his first wife, WALTER High Steward of Scotland, son of JAMES High Steward of Scotland & his [third] wife Egidia de Burgh ([1292]-9 Apr [1326/29]).  Marjory & her husband had one child: 

a)         ROBERT Stewart (Paisley, Renfrewshire 2 Mar 1316-Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire 19 Apr 1390, bur Scone Abbey, Perthshire).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Robertum regem, secundum" as only son of "Marjoriam", daughter of "Robertus…rex, quuando fuit comes de Carric", and her husband "Waltero senescallo Scotiæ"[1052].  He succeeded his uncle in 1371 as ROBERT II King of Scotland

-        see below, Chapter 5.B. KINGS of SCOTLAND, House of STEWART.

King Robert I & his second wife had four children:

2.         MARGARET Bruce (-in childbirth [30 Mar 1346/9 Nov 1347]).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Matildem…et Margaritam" as the two daughters of "Robertus, adhuc comes" and his wife "Elizabeth filiam Haymeri de Burkis comitis de Hullister", adding that Margaret married "comiti Suthirlandiæ" by whom she had "unicum filium…Johannem", dying in childbirth[1053]m (dispensation 1 Dec 1342, [3 Aug/28 Sep] 1345) as his first wife, WILLIAM Sutherland Earl of Sutherland, son of KENNETH Earl of Sutherland & his wife Mary [Marjory] of Mar (-[27 Feb 1370/Jun 1371]).  The earldom of Sutherland was erected into a regality 10 Oct 1345, although this lapsed on the Earl's death without surviving issue from his first marriage.

3.         MATILDA Bruce (-Aberdeen 30 Jul 1353, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Matildem…et Margaritam" as the two daughters of "Robertus, adhuc comes" and his wife "Elizabeth filiam Haymeri de Burkis comitis de Hullister", adding that Matilda "did nothing worth recording" and in a later passage that Matilda married "Thomæ Isak" by whom she had two daughters, "Johannam" who married "Johanni domini de Lorn" and had "filios et filias", and "Catherinam" who died "apud Strivelyn"[1054].  The same source in a later passage records the death "on the feast of the blessed virgin Margaret" in 1353 at Aberdeen of "Matilda of Bruce sister of the lord David king of Scotland" and her burial "at Dunfermline", adding that she married "a certain squire named Thomas Isaac" and had two daughters "Joan [wife of] John of Lorn, lord of that ilk, who of her begat sons and daughters, [and] Catherine" who died "at Strivelyn"[1055]m THOMAS Isaac, son of ---.

4.         DAVID Bruce (Dunfermline Palace, Fife 5 Mar 1324-Edinburgh Castle 22 Feb 1371, bur Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "David" as only son of "Robertus, adhuc comes" and his wife "Elizabeth filiam Haymeri de Burkis comitis de Hullister"[1056].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records in a later passage his birth 5 Mar 1324 in "the monastery of Dunfermline"[1057].  He was created Earl of Carrick [17 Mar/17 Jul] 1328.  He succeeded his father in 1329 as DAVID II King of Scotland, crowned 24 Nov 1331 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire.  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the coronation "VIII Kal Dec…apud Sconam" in 1331 of "David rex Scotorum, filius et heres regis Roberti de Bruce" when eight years old[1058].  He was deposed by Edward Balliol Aug 1332 after the battle of Dupplin Moor, near Perth, but restored Dec 1332.  Deposed again 1333, finally restored 1336.  Taken prisoner at the battle of Neville's Cross 17 Oct 1346, and imprisoned in the Tower.  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records the death in 1370 "on the Feast of St Peter´s Chair…at Edinburgh Castle" of "David Bruce king of Scotland" and his burial "in the monastery of Holyrood"[1059]m firstly (Berwick-upon-Tweed 17 Jul 1328) JOAN of England, daughter of EDWARD II King of England & his wife Isabelle de France (Tower of London 5 Jul 1321-Hertford Castle 7 Sep 1362, bur Greyfriars Church, Newgate, London).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the marriage at Berwick 17 Jul 1328 of "David filius et heres regis Roberti de Bruce" and "sororem Eadwardi de Windesour, filiam Eadwardi de Carnarvan paulo ante defuncti"[1060].  Froissart names "Ysabel" as older daughter of King Edward II and his wife, adding that she married "au jone roy David d´Escoce, filz au roi Robert de Brus" and recording their marriage at Berwick in a later passage[1061].  She was crowned Queen Consort with her husband at Scone Abbey.  Mistress (1): KATHERINE de Mortimer, daughter of --- (-1361).  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death in 1361 of "concubinæ regis Katerinæ de Mortimar", adding that the king had neglected the queen for her[1062]m secondly (Inchmurdach Manor, Fife or Inchmahone Priory, Perthshire Apr or Dec 1363, divorced 20 Mar 1370) as her second husband, MARGARET Drummond, widow of Sir JOHN Logie of that Ilk, daughter of Sir MALCOLM Drummond & his wife --- de Graham (-[Avignon] soon after 31 Jan 1375).  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records the second marriage of "lord David king of Scotland" and "Margaret of Logie" at "Inchmurdach" in 1363[1063].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the marriage "apud Enchemarthow", dated to [1362/63] from the context, of King David and "Margaretam de Logi, filiam domini Malcolmi de Drummond" and their divorce without her consent "circa festum Carnis Brevii" in 1369[1064]

5.         JOHN (Oct 1327-young, bur Restennet Priory, Forfarshire).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

King Robert I had [six] illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

6.          ROBERT (-killed in battle Dupplin 12 Aug 1332).  Baron of Liddesdale.  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "…Roberto de Bruce filio…regis Roberti…" were killed at Duplin Moor 11 Aug 1332 fighting Edward Balliol[1065]. 

7.          NEIL [Nigel] of Carrick (-killed in battle Durham 17 Oct 1346). 

8.          [ WALTER of Odistoun .]

9.          CHRISTINA of Carrick (-after 1329). 

10.       MARGARET (-after 29 Feb 1364)m ROBERT Glen .

11.       ELIZABETHm (before 1365) Sir WALTER Oliphant of Aberdalgie (-after 1378). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    KINGS of SCOTLAND (STEWART)

 

 

 

A.      HIGH STEWARDS of SCOTLAND

 

 

WALTER FitzAlan, son of ALAN FitzFlaald & his wife Aveline d'Hesdin (-1177).  "…Waltero filio Alan" witnessed a charter dated to [1135] by which "David Rex Scottorum" granted Swinton to "Arnulfo…mee militi"[1066].  "…Walterus filius Alani…" witnessed the undated charter under which David I King of Scotland donated "toftam in Beruwic" to the priory of the Isle of May[1067].  "…Waltero filio Alani…" witnessed the charter dated 29 Apr 1141 under which David King of Scotland donated "terram de Eldune…Dernewic" to Melrose abbey[1068].  "William Fitz Alan" donated the fishery of Upton-upon-Severn to Haughmond abbey by undated charter, witnessed by "Walter his brother, Christiana his wife…"[1069].  William FitzAlan invested his brother Walter in his Sussex manor of Stoke, dated to [1155/60][1070].  He was appointed first High Steward of Scotland, during the reign of King David.  Malcolm IV King of Scotland confirmed the grants of "Renfrew et Passeleth et Polloc et Talahec et Kerkert et Le Drep et le Mutrene et Eglisham et Lauchinauche et Innerwick" made to "Waltero filio Alani" by David I King of Scotland by charter dated 24 Jun 1158, which states that King David had appointed him to "Senescaliam suam"[1071].  "Walterus filius Alani dapifer regis" donated land at "Edmundiston" to Melrose abbey, for the soul of "dñi mei Malcolmi regis", by undated charter[1072].  "Walterus filius Alani dapifer regis Scotie" founded the monastery of Paisley by charter dated to before 1163, witnessed by "…Simone fratre Walteri filii Alani"[1073].  "Walterus filius Alani dapifer regis Scotie…et Alanus filius meus" donated property to Paisley by undated charter[1074].  The Chronicle of Melrose records the death in 1177 of "Walterus filius Alani, dapifer Regis Scotiæ"[1075]

[m firstly ---.  No direct evidence has been found of Walter´s supposed first marriage.  However, the charter of Eschyna de Molle, Walter´s known wife, is subscribed by "Waltero filio Alani domino meo, Alano filio eius…", which suggests that Alan was not her son.  This impression is confirmed by the charter of Eschyna dated to after 1198 which is witnessed by her two daughters but does not name Alan FitzWalter at all.  In addition, the charters quoted above show that Walter was already active in the service of the kings of Scotland in [1135/41].  He is therefore unlikely to have been born much later than 1110.  However, his wife Eschina remarried after his death in 1177, and appears in documentation in the last years of the 12th century, so is unlikely to have been as old as her husband.] 

m [secondly] as her second husband, ESCHINA de Lundon, widow of [--- de Molle], daughter of --- de Lundon & his wife --- (-after 1198).  "Eschina uxor Walterii filii Alani dapiferi regis Scotie" donated "terra in Molla" to Paisley monastery, for the soul of "Margarete filie mee que apud Passetet in capitulo jacet sepulta", by undated charter, witnessed by "Waltero filio Alani domino meo, Alano filio eius…"[1076].  Eschina´s first marriage is indicated by the charter dated to [1200/02] under which her daughter "Cecilia de Molle filia Eschine de Molle…in mea viduitate" donated "toftum et croftum que fuerunt Willi de Mollehope…[et] in dominio meo de Molle", witnessed by "…magister Walterus de Mortuo Mari…decanus ecclesie Glasguensis…Johe nepote dni W. Glasg epi…"[1077].  This document shows that the donor was too old to have been born from Eschyna´s marriage to "Henry", and her name "de Molle" indicates that she was not born from her mother´s marriage to Walter FitzAlan.  "Eschina de Londonis" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Molle", for the souls of "dni mei Gauterii filii Alani et…filie mee que apud Kelcho sepulta est", by charter dated 30 Jan 1185[1078].  She married thirdly (after 30 Jan 1185) Henry de Molle.  "Henricus de Molle et uxore eius Eschina" confirmed the donation of property "in territorio…de Molle" to Kelso monastery by undated charter[1079].  "Dna Eschina de Lundoniis" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Molle", for the souls of "dominorum meorum regis Willi et Alexi filii eius…et dominorum meorum dni Waltii fil Alani et dni Henr et…Eschine filie mee", by charter dated to after 1198, witnessed by "Dna Avicia filia mea, Dna Cecilia filia mea…"[1080]

Walter & his [first/second] wife had one child: 

1.         ALAN FitzWalter (-1204, bur Paisley).  As discussed above under his father´s supposed first marriage, the documentation suggests that Alan was not the son of Walter´s wife Eschina.  "Walterus filius Alani dapifer regis Scotie…et Alanus filius meus" donated property to Paisley by undated charter[1081].  He succeeded his father as second High Steward of Scotland.  The seal of "Alain L. fi. Watir L. fi. Al. senescall re. Sco." is appended to a charter of Melrose dated to [1170][1082].  The Chronicle of Melrose records the death in 1204 of "Alan Fitz Walter"[1083].  According to Stewart, Alan was buried at Paisley but he does not cite the corresponding primary source[1084]m ---.  The name of Alan´s wife is not known.  Alan & his wife had one child: 

a)         WALTER FitzAlan (-1241).  He succeeded his father as High Steward of Scotland.  "Walterus filii Alani domini regis Scotie senescallus" donated property to Paisley monastery by undated charter[1085]

-        see below.

Walter & his [second] wife had [two] children: 

2.         [MARGARET (-bur Paisley).  "Eschina uxor Walterii filii Alani dapiferi regis Scotie" donated "terra in Molla" to Paisley monastery, for the soul of "Margarete filie mee que apud Passetet in capitulo jacet sepulta", by undated charter, witnessed by "Waltero filio Alani domino meo, Alano filio eius…"[1086].  It is not certain whether Margaret was born from her mother´s first or second marriage.] 

3.         [ESCHINA (-bur Kelso).  "Eschina de Londonis" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Molle", for the souls of "dni mei Gauterii filii Alani et…filie mee que apud Kelcho sepulta est", by charter dated 30 Jan 1185[1087].  "Dna Eschina de Lundoniis" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Molle", for the souls of "dominorum meorum regis Willi et Alexi filii eius…et dominorum meorum dni Waltii fil Alani et dni Henr et…Eschine filie mee", by charter dated to after 1198, witnessed by "Dna Avicia filia mea, Dna Cecilia filia mea…"[1088].  It is not certain whether Eschina was born from her mother´s first, second or third marriage.] 

 

 

WALTER FitzAlan, son of ALAN FitzWalter High Steward of Scotland & his wife --- (-1241).  He succeeded his father as High Steward of Scotland.  "Walterus filii Alani domini regis Scotie senescallus" donated property to Paisley monastery by undated charter[1089].  The seal of "Walteri filii Alani" is appended to a charter under which "Walter son of Alan the Stuart" confirmed the donation of land at Edmonstone to Melrose by "Walter the son of Alan his grandfather"[1090].  Alexander II King of Scotland confirmed the donation of land "in Tibermur" made by "Walterus filius Alani", in confirmation of a donation by "Suanus filius Thori avus eiusdem Walteri", by undated charter[1091].  "Walterus filius Alani" confirmed the donation of "Tubermure" made to Scone abbey by "Swan filius Thory auus meus" by undated charter, dated to before 1221, witnessed by "Gilbto comite de Stathern dño Robto filio ei, Rogero de Mortimer, Galfrido de Inutunglas vic de Pth, Dunecano fil Moregrund, Reginaldo de Warenn, Walto filio Swani, Henr fil Alani fil Wani…"[1092].  He adopted the name Stewart.  The Melrose Chronicle records the death in 1241 of "Walterus filius Alani junioris"[1093]

m ---.  The name of Walter´s wife is not known. 

Walter Stewart & his wife had [seven] children:

1.         ALEXANDER Stewart (-1283).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "dominus Alexander Stevart de Dundonald, pronepos primi Walteri Stewart"[1094].  He succeeded his father as High Steward of Scotland.   

-        see below

2.         JOHN Stewart (-killed in battle Damietta, Egypt 1249).  The Visitation of Cambridge 1575 records that "Johannes Stuart primogenitus Walt" was killed "apud Massour", adding that "Gualto patre et Patricio Marchie comite" fought under "Lodovico Francor´ Rege"[1095].  It is unlikely that John was the oldest son of Walter as no record has been found of his having been appointed High Steward after his father´s death. 

3.         WALTER Stewart "Bailloch/Freckled" (-before 28 Apr 1295).  "Dominis Waltero fratre nostro…" subscribed the undated charter under which "Alexander filius Walteri senescalus regis Scotie" donated "ecclesiam de Dundonald…de Sanchar…de Awchinlac" to Paisley monastery[1096].  Earl of Menteith [1260], de iure uxoris

-        EARLS of MENTEITH

4.         [ROBERT Stewart .  The Visitation of Cambridge 1575 names "Robertus Stuart iunior filius Gualteri" adding that his father granted him "agro de Tourbourton" and that he married "heredem --- Roberti Crux de Cruxton" from whom descended "Barones de Derule et tandem etiam comites a Lennex", naming their son "Johannes de Stuart de Dernle" and his son "Robertus Styward de Dernle" (adding that the latter was a hostage in England for "Rege David Brus" in 1357)[1097]m --- Crux, daughter of ROBERT Crux of Cruxton & his wife ---.  The Visitation of Cambridge 1575 records that "Robertus Stuart iunior filius Gualteri" married "heredem --- Roberti Crux de Cruxton" from whom descended "Barones de Derule et tandem etiam comites a Lennex"[1098].] 

5.         ELIZABETH Stewart (-before her husband).  "Maldovenus comes de Levenax" donated "terram de Drumthocher et…de Drumthecglunan" to Paisley monastery, for the soul of "Elizabeth sponse mee", by undated charter, witnessed by "Macolmo filio meo, Amelec, Macolmo, Duncano fratribus meis…"[1099]m MALDOUEN of Lennox, son of ALWYN Earl of Lennox & his wife Eve of Menteith (-after 12 Mar 1251).  He succeeded his father in [1224] as Earl of Lennox. 

6.         [MARGARET Stewart .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m NEIL Earl of Carrick, son of DUNCAN Earl of Carrick & his wife --- (-1256).]

7.         daughter .  Balfour Paul names Jean as daughter of James Lord of Bute and Arran, and records her marriage, but does not cite the corresponding primary source[1100]m DONALD Lord of the Isles, son of REGINALD Lord of the Isles & his wife --- (-Island of Kerrara 1249, bur Iona).

 

 

ALEXANDER Stewart, son of WALTER FitzAlan High Steward of Scotland & his wife --- (-1283).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "dominus Alexander Stevart de Dundonald, pronepos primi Walteri Stewart"[1101].  The Visitation of Cambridge 1575 names "Alexander Stuart  secundo genitus Gualt, Senescalli Scotie"[1102].  He succeeded his father as High Steward of Scotland.  "Alexander filius Walteri Scotie senescallus" donated flour from "firma mea de Inchynnan" to Paisley monastery by charter dated Jan 1286 (presumably misdated)[1103].  The seal of "Alexandri filii Walterii senescalli regis Scotie" is appended to a charter under which "Alexander Stuart" donated lands at Machline and Carentabel to Melrose by charter dated to [1226] (presumably misdated)[1104].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death in 1281 of "Alexander senescallus Scotiæ, avus…Walteri generi domini Roberti Bruce regis"[1105]

m JEAN, daughter of ---.  Balfour Paul names Jean of Bute heiress of the Isles of Bute and Arran, daughter of James Lord of Bute and Arran & his wife ---, and records her marriage to Alexander Stewart, but does not cite the corresponding primary source[1106].  Andrew McEwen suggests that there is no evidence to indicate that the wife of Alexander Stewart was the daughter of James Lord of Bute[1107].  He adds that what evidence there is "suggests a double marriage alliance…about 1240 between Sir Walter fitz Alan II and Richard Comyn by which the Steward´s son and heir Alexander married Comyn´s daughter Joanna, while Comyn´s son and heir John married Sir Walter´s daughter Eva", but he does not cite the nature of the evidence in question[1108]

Alexander Stewart & his wife had [six] children:

1.         [JAMES Stewart (-young).  The Visitation of Cambridge 1575 names "Jacobus Styward" as eldest son of "Alexander Stuart  secundo genitus Gualt, Senescalli Scotie", adding that he died young[1109]

2.         JAMES Stewart ([1243]-16 Jul 1309).  The Visitation of Cambridge 1575 names "Johannes Steward" as second son of "Alexander Stuart  secundo genitus Gualt, Senescalli Scotie", adding that he was killed in battle "ad variu´ Sacella"[1110].  He succeeded his father as High Steward of Scotland.  He was appointed one of the six guardians of the kingdom on the death of King Alexander III in 1286[1111].  King Edward I confirmed the grant of "castro de Roo" made by "Ricardus de Burgo comes Ultoniæ et dominus Connactensis" to "Jacobo Senescallo Scotiæ et Egidiæ sorori ipsius comitis" by charter dated 10 Oct 1296[1112].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "XVII Kal Aug" in 1309 of "dominus Jacobus senescallus Scotie, pater…Walteri, generi regis Roberti Bruce"[1113].  [m firstly CECILIA de Dunbar, daughter of PATRICK Earl of Dunbar & his wife Cecilia ---.  Symson records that James Stewart married "Cecilia daughter to Patrick Earl of Dunbar…the first of that family who quitted that title and assumed that of March", adding that Cecilia was the mother of James´s children. without citing the corresponding primary source[1114].  Andrew McEwen indicates that "no documentary evidence has been found" to support this statement, but adds that "though hardly free from error, Symson´s work is always deserving of respect", and highlights that "it is highly unlikely that Muriel of Strathearn, whom he married in 1278, was James´s first wife"[1115].]  [m secondly (before Jan 1279, [divorced before 1291]) as her second husband, MURIEL of Strathearn, widow of WILLIAM Earl of Mar, daughter of MALISE Earl of Strathearn & his first wife Marjory de Muschamp of Wooler ([1244]-[16 May/12 Nov] 1291).  The evidence for this possible second marriage is indicated by an assize roll dated "7 Edw I" [Nov 1278/Nov 1279] which records a claim relating to the barony of Muschamp brought by "Jacobus filius Alexandri et Muriella uxor eius" and "Maria uxor Nicholai de Grame", both represented by "Stephanum de Muschaump vel Thomam de Hagarston", against "Thomam de Rok"[1116].  Pleas taken at Newcastle 20 Jan 1279 (N.S.) include a jury finding that "the heirs of Muschampe hold their barony by service of four knights, and making suit to the county of Newcastle"[1117].  Andrew MacEwen indicates that "Muriella…Maria" were the two daughters of Malise Earl of Strathearn by his first wife Marjory de Muschamp, and identifies "Jacobus filius Alexandri", the husband of Muriel, as James Stewart the future High Steward of Scotland, although he cites no primary source which confirms that the latter identification is correct[1118].  The absence of any reference to Muriel´s husband "James" in the document dated 16 May 1291, which records the homage sworn to King Edward by "Muriellæ quæ fuit uxor Willelmi quondam comitis de Mar, filiæ et heredis Margeriæ filiæ Roberti de Muschaumps defunctæ" for the lands of "Margeria mater sua"[1119], suggests that her second marriage to "James" must have terminated before that date by divorce or annulment.]  m [thirdly] EGIDIA de Burgh, daughter of WALTER de Burgh Earl of Ulster & his wife Aveline FitzJohn ([1260/70]-).  King Edward I confirmed the grant of "castro de Roo" made by "Ricardus de Burgo comes Ultoniæ et dominus Connactensis" to "Jacobo Senescallo Scotiæ et Egidiæ sorori ipsius comitis" by charter dated 10 Oct 1296[1120].  The Visitation of Cambridge 1575 records that "Johannes Steward", second son of "Alexander Stuart  secundo genitus Gualt, Senescalli Scotie", married "heredem de Bouthill"[1121].  According to Burke, James Stewart married "Cecilia, daughter of Patrick de Dunbar 7th Earl of Dunbar & March" by whom he fathered Walter Stewart[1122].  James Stewart & his [third] wife had [five] children:

a)         ANDREW Stewart ([after 1290]-after 25 Aug 1306).  The fact that Andrew was his father´s oldest [surviving] son is confirmed by a notarial confirmation dated 9 Aug 1306 which attested the verity of various documents, including one indicating that William Bishop of St Andrews had delivered "Andrew son and heir of Sir James the Steward of Scotland" to Robert de Brus[1123].  Malise Earl of Strathearn and John de Inchmartyn were ordered to produce "Andrew son of the Steward of Scotland and John son of John Earl of Athol" by charter dated 25 Aug 1306[1124].  These two documents presumably indicate that Andrew was still a minor in 1306, which confirms that he must have been from his father´s marriage to Egidia de Burgh. 

b)         WALTER Stewart ([1292]-9 Apr [1326/29]).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "dominus Alexander Stevart de Dundonald, pronepos primi Walteri Stewart" as "proavus…nobilis Walteri Stevart qui filiam Roberti de Broys desponsavit"[1125].  He succeeded his father as High Steward of Scotland.   

-        see below

c)         EGIDIA Stewart .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter under which "Alexandro de Meyners militi et Egidie Senescalli sponse sue" renounced "totam baroniam de Dorsidere" {Durrisdeir} in favour of her brother James, dated to [1315/21][1126]m ALEXANDER de Meyners, son of ---. 

d)         [JOHN Stewart (-killed in battle Dundalk 1318).  "…Johe Senescallo…" witnessed a charter dated 9 Jul 1316 under which "Thomas Ranulphi comes Morauie et dns Mannie" confirmed a donation to Newbattle abbey[1127].  Andrew McEwen states that "if there was such a son [John], he must have been illegitimate", but he does not explain his reasoning for this statement[1128].] 

e)         JAMES Stewart of Durisdeer (-after Nov 1330).  "…Domino Malcolmo Flemyng, domino Jacobo senescallo fratre quondam domini Walteri quondam senescalli Scotie, domino Alano Senescallo…" subscribed the charter dated Nov 1330 under which "Malcolmus comes de Levenax" donated "ecclesiam de Kylpatrick" to Paisley monastery[1129]

3.         ELIZABETH Stewart .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Balfour Paul records her parentage and marriage without citing a precise source[1130].  The marriage is suggested by Barbour´s The Brus which records that "Walter Steward" and "Douglas" were "cosynis in ner degre"[1131]m as his first wife, Sir WILLIAM Douglas "the Hardy" of that Ilk, son of Sir WILLIAM Douglas of Douglas & his wife --- (-London in prison 1298). 

4.         [ANDREW Stewart (-after 1350).  m --- Beith, daughter of JAMES Beith & his wife ---.  The Visitation of Cambridge 1575 records the marriage of "Andreas Stuard iunior filius" (of Alexander Stuart  secundo genitus Gualt, Senescalli Scotie) and "filiam Jacobi Bethe", adding that he was decorated with a military swordbelt by "Johanne Francor´ Rege" and naming "Alexander Styward unicus filius Andree" who was awarded military honours by "Carolus rex Francor" (together with eight generations of Alexander´s alleged descendants in East Anglia)[1132].  The chronology of this entry is extremely shaky and it is unlikely that Andrew was the son of Alexander.] 

5.         Sir JOHN Stewart of Bonkyl (-killed in battle Falkirk 1298).  A charter dated 15 May 1296 records the submission of "Johan le Seneschal frere Mons James Seneschal d Escoce" to Edward I King of England[1133]m as her first husband, MARGARET Bonkyl, daughter and heiress of Sir ALEXANDER Bonkyl of that Ilk & his wife ---.  She married secondly as his first wife, David de Brechin.  Sir John & his wife had six children: 

a)         Sir ALEXANDER Stewart of Bonkyl (-1317)m ---.  The name of Sir Alexander's wife is not known.  Sir Alexander & his wife had one child: 

i)          JOHN Stewart (-9 Dec 1331).  He succeeded his father in 1319 at Bonkyl, co. Berwick.  He was created Earl of Angus before 15 Jun 1329, when he is styled as such in a charter[1134]

-         EARLS of ANGUS

b)         Sir ALAN Stewart of Dreghorn (-killed in battle Halidon Hill 19 Jul 1333).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "Jacobus, Johannes et Alanus Stewart, filii nobilis Valteri Stewart et fratres Roberti postea regis" among those killed in battle at Halidon Hill in 1333[1135].  It is not chronologically possible for these three brothers to have been younger half-brothers of the future King Robert II if they were old enough to have fought in 1333. 

-        see below Part C. STEWART of DARNLEY

c)         Sir WALTER Stewart of Garlies and Dalswinton.  m ---.  The name of Sir Walter's wife is not known.  Sir Walter & his wife had one child:

i)          Sir JOHN Stewart .  1346.  m ---.  The name of Sir John's wife is not known.  Sir John & his wife had one child:

(a)       Sir WALTER Stewartm ---.  The name of Sir Walter's wife is not known.  Sir Walter & his wife had one child: 

(1)       MARION Stewart .  m firstly (1396) Sir JOHN Stewart, feudal baron of Garlies and Dalswinton, son of Sir WILLIAM Stewart of Jedworth & his wife Lady Isabel Oliver.  m secondly (1422) Sir JOHN Forrester of Corstorphine. 

d)         Sir JAMES Stewart of Pearston (-killed in battle Halidon Hill 19 Jul 1333).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "Jacobus, Johannes et Alanus Stewart, filii nobilis Valteri Stewart et fratres Roberti postea regis" among those killed in battle at Halidon Hill in 1333[1136].  It is not chronologically possible for these three brothers to have been younger half-brothers of the future King Robert II if they were old enough to have fought in 1333. 

-        see below Part D, STEWART of LORN

e)         Sir JOHN Stewart of Daldar (-killed in battle Halidon Hill 19 Jul 1333).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "Jacobus, Johannes et Alanus Stewart, filii nobilis Valteri Stewart et fratres Roberti postea regis" among those killed in battle at Halidon Hill in 1333[1137].  It is not chronologically possible for these three brothers to have been younger half-brothers of the future King Robert II if they were old enough to have fought in 1333. 

f)          ISABEL Stewart (-after 16 Jul 1351).  Lady of Gailies.  m THOMAS Randolph, son of THOMAS Randolph of Strathdon, Chamberlain of Scotland & his wife --- Bruce (-Musselburgh 20 Jul 1332).  He was created Earl of Moray [12 Apr/29 Oct] 1312.  Regent of Scotland. 

6.         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated [Oct] [1299] under which "Robert de Feltone" reported to Edward I King of England damage caused by raids on castle Lochmaben whose constable was "Robert de Conigham…vallet of the Steward of Scotland, whose sister his uncle had married"[1138]m --- Cunningham, son of ---. 

 

 

WALTER Stewart, son of JAMES High Steward of Scotland & his [third] wife Egidia de Burgh ([1292]-9 Apr [1326/29]).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "dominus Alexander Stevart de Dundonald, pronepos primi Walteri Stewart" as "proavus…nobilis Walteri Stevart qui filiam Roberti de Broys desponsavit"[1139].  He succeeded his father as High Steward of Scotland.  Regent of Scotland.  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "V Id Apr" in 1326 of "Walterus Stewart, gener regis Roberti de Bruce et pater regis Roberti secundi"[1140].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death "V Id Apr" in 1328 of "Walterus senescallus Scocie…gener regis"[1141].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death in 1329 of "Walterus Stewart gener regis Roberti de Bruys et pater Roberti Stewart [regis] futuri"[1142]

m firstly (1315) MARJORY Bruce, daughter of ROBERT I King of Scotland & his first wife Isabel of Mar ([1296/97]-Paisley, Renfrewshire 2 Mar 1316, bur Paisley Abbey).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Marjoriam" as the only daughter of "Robertus…rex, quuando fuit comes de Carric" and his wife "Isabellam sororem Garthenai comitis de Marr", adding that she married "Waltero senescallo Scotiæ"[1143].  The Liber Pluscardensis records that "nobilis Walteri Stevart" married "filiam Roberti de Broys"[1144].  She died in childbirth triggered by falling from her horse. 

m secondly ISABEL de Graham, daughter of Sir JOHN Graham of Abercorn & his wife Mary of Strathearn.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

Walter Stewart & his first wife had one child:

1.         ROBERT Stewart (Paisley, Renfrewshire 2 Mar 1316-Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire 19 Apr 1390, bur Scone Abbey, Perthshire).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Robertum regem, secundum" as only son of "Marjoriam", daughter of "Robertus…rex, quuando fuit comes de Carric", and her husband "Waltero senescallo Scotiæ"[1145].  He succeeded his maternal uncle in 1371 as ROBERT II King of Scotland

-        see below, Part C. KINGS of SCOTLAND

Walter Stewart & his second wife had three children:

2.         Sir JOHN Stewart of Ralston .  m ---.  The name of Sir John's wife is not known.  Sir John & his wife had four children:

a)         WALTER Stewart

b)         MARGERY Stewart (-before 1442)m firstly (before 19 Oct 1378) Sir ALEXANDER Lindsay of Glenesk (-Oct 1381).  m secondly (before 19 Oct 1384) Sir WILLIAM Douglas of Lugton. 

c)         EGIDIA Stewart m ([1384]) as his second wife, PATRICK de Graham of Kincardine and Dundaff, son of DAVID de Graham & his wife --- (-after 6 May 1400).  

d)         MARGARET Stewart m (1388) Sir JOHN Hay of Tullbody (-1416). 

3.         Sir ANDREW Stewart

4.         EGIDIA Stewart .  The Papal dispensation for the marriage of "Jacobo nobili viro Jacobo de Lundesay" and "Egidie Steward", issued by Pope Clement VI, is dated 11 Apr 1346[1146].  The marriage contract between "Egidia de Lyndesay" and "dñm Jacobum de Douglas dñm de Dalketh" is dated Oct 1378, witnessed by "dñis Willelmo de Douglas et Herico fratribus predicti dñi Jacobi militibus Thoma de Douglas Nicholao de Douglas…"[1147]m firstly (Papal dispensation 11 Apr 1346, 21 Apr 1346) Sir JAMES Lindsay of Cranson, son of --- (-1358 before 11 Nov).  m secondly Sir HUGH Eglinton of Ardrossan, son of ---.  m thirdly (contract Oct 1378) as his second wife, Sir JAMES Douglas of Dalkeith and Arbroath, son of Sir JOHN Douglas & his wife Agnes --- (-1420). 

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of SCOTLAND 1371-1603

 

 

ROBERT II 1371-1390

 

ROBERT Stewart, son of WALTER Stewart High Steward of Scotland & his first wife Marjorie Bruce (Paisley, Renfrewshire 2 Mar 1316-Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire 19 Apr 1390, bur Scone Abbey, Perthshire).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Robertum regem, secundum" as only son of "Marjoriam", daughter of "Robertus…rex, quuando fuit comes de Carric", and her husband "Waltero senescallo Scotiæ"[1148].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the birth in 1315 (O.S.) of "Robertus Stewart filius Walteri, nepos regis et rex futurus"[1149].  Created Earl of Atholl 16 Feb 1342, which he resigned 31 May 1367.  "…Roberto senescallo Scotie nepote nostro…" witnessed the charter dated 29 Dec 1351 under which "David rex Scottorum" confirmed the possessions of Scone abbey[1150].  Created Earl of Strathearn [6/13 Nov 1357/58], resigned this earldom 18 Apr 1369, restored 4/7 Apr 1370.  He succeeded his uncle in 1371 as ROBERT II King of Scotland, crowned 22 Feb or 26 Mar 1371 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire.  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death "XII Kal Mai" in 1390 of "dominus Robertus rex secundus" aged 74, after reigning for 19 years and 23 days[1151].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death "apud Dundonalde" of "rex Robertus secundus" and his burial "in ecclesia monasteriali de Scona" in Aug 1390[1152]

m firstly (1336, dispensation 22 Nov 1347) ELIZABETH Mure, daughter of Sir ADAM Mure of Rowallan, Ayrshire & his [first wife Joan Cunningham or his second wife Janet Mure] (-before 1355).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Robertum regem, secundum" married "de facto unam de filiabus Adæ de More militis", by whom he had "filios et filias extra matrimonium", but that they married in 1349 after papal dispensation[1153].  The Liber Pluscardensis names "Elizabeth filia domini Adam de Mure" as first wife of "dominus Robertus rex secundus"[1154].  The Papal dispensation for the marriage of "Robertus dni de Stratgnf militis…David Regi Scotie…nepos" and "Elizabeth Mox", issued by Pope Clement VI, is dated 22 Nov "pontificatus nostri anno sexto" (1347)[1155]

m secondly (Papal dispensation 2 May 1355) as her second husband, EUPHEME of Ross, widow of JOHN Randolph Earl of Moray, daughter of HUGH Earl of Ross & his wife Margaret Graham (-1387).  The Liber Pluscardensis records the coronation in 1372 at Scone of "regina Eufemia…filia comitis Rossensis"[1156].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "regis Robert" married secondly "dominam Eufamiam filiam Hugonis comitis Rossensis"[1157].  The Liber Pluscardensis records in a later passage that King Robert married her after the death of his first wife in order to legitimate his children by her[1158].  The Papal dispensation for the marriage of "Roberti Stivardi Senescalli Scocie" and "Eufemie comitisse Moravie, relicte quondam Johannis comitis Moravie", issued by Pope Innocent VI, is dated 2 May "anno tertio" (1355)[1159]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Robert's first mistress is not known. 

Mistress (2): ---.  The name of Robert's second mistress is not known. 

Mistress (3): MARIST, sister of ROBERT of Cardney Bishop of Dunkeld, daughter of ---.

Mistresses (4) - (x): ---.  The names of Robert's other mistresses are not known. 

King Robert II & his first wife had ten children:

1.         JOHN Stewart (1337-4 Apr 1406).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "Johannem…postea…rex…Robertum Albaniæ ducem, ac…Alexandrum comitem Buchaniæ qui…Lupus de Badzenoch vocabatur" as the three sons of "dominus Robertus rex secundus" and his first wife "Elizabeth filia domini Adam de Mure"[1160].  He succeeded his father in 1390 as ROBERT III King of Scotland.   

-        see below

2.         WALTER Stewart (-1362 after 13 Aug).  Earl of Fife, de iure uxorism ([1360/61]) as her second husband, ISABEL Ctss of Fife, widow of Sir WILLIAM Ramsay of Colluthie, daughter of DUNCAN Earl of Fife & his wife Mary de Monthermer (-after 2 Aug 1389).  She married thirdly (10 Jan 1363) Sir Thomas Byset of Upsetlington, and fourthly John de Dunbar.  She resigned the Earldom of Fife to Robert Stewart Earl of Menteith 30 Mar 1371[1161]

3.         ROBERT Stewart ([1340]-3 Sep 1420).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "Johannem…postea…rex…Robertum Albaniæ ducem, ac…Alexandrum comitem Buchaniæ qui…Lupus de Badzenoch vocabatur" as the three sons of "dominus Robertus rex secundus" and his first wife "Elizabeth filia domini Adam de Mure"[1162].  Earl of Menteith in 1361, de iure uxoris.  Earl of Fife 30 Mar 1371 after Isabel Ctss of Fife resigned the earldom to him[1163].  The Liber Pluscardensis records that "Robertus Stewart de Fife, regis secundo genitus" invaded England, dated to [1385] from the context, with "Archibaldus de Douglas de Galwidia ac…Jacobus de Douglas comes eiusdem pater, Blak Archibaldi dictus"[1164].  Governor of Scotland 1388-1420.  Duke of Albany 28 Apr 1398.  The Liber Pluscardensis records that "rex Robertus tercius" created "fratrem suum Robertum comitem de Fife et de Menteth" as "ducem Albaniæ" in 1398[1165].  Earl of Atholl 2 Sep 1403.  Earl of Buchan 1406. 

-        EARLS of MENTEITH

4.         Sir ALEXANDER Stewart of Badenoch (1342-[1405/06], bur Dunkeld).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "Johannem…postea…rex…Robertum Albaniæ ducem, ac…Alexandrum comitem Buchaniæ qui…Lupus de Badzenoch vocabatur" as the three sons of "dominus Robertus rex secundus" and his first wife "Elizabeth filia domini Adam de Mure"[1166].  His cruel and rapacious character earned him the nickname "the Wolf of Badenoch"[1167].  Earl of Ross, de iure uxoris.  He was recognised 25 Jul 1382 as Earl of Buchan.  m ([24 Jul 1382], separated, divorced 1392) as her second husband, EUPHEME Ctss of Ross, widow of Sir WALTER Leslie, daughter of WILLIAM Earl of Ross & his wife Mary Macdonald of the Isles (-after 5 Sep 1394).  She possessed one half of the lands of the Earldom of Buchan, which she resigned before their regrant to her husband[1168].  Earl Alexander had seven illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

a)         ALEXANDER Stewart ([1375]-25/26 Jul 1435, bur 26 Jul Inverness, Friars Preachers)The Liber Pluscardensis names "Alexandrum comitem de Mar, Robertum Stewart de Atholia, et Duncanum Stewart" as the three illegitimate sons of "Alexandrum comitem Buchaniæ qui…Lupus de Badzenoch vocabatur"[1169]He is called "Alexander Patenson" in a grant dealing with lands in the earldom of Mar dated 9 Mar 1508[1170].  He was imprisoned with his brothers in Stirling Castle in Jan 1399 after a plundering expedition in the Highlands[1171].   The seal of "Isabel comitissa de Mare et Garviath" is appended to a contract between "Isabella de Douglas countess of Mar and of Garviach" and "Sir Alexander Stuart son of Alexander Stuart Earl of Buchan" dated 1404[1172].  He is said to have "seized [the] person [of his first wife] as well as the castle of Kildrummy, wrung from her a charter" dated 12 Aug 1404 granting him the earldom of Mar, although she finally granted him the earldom 9 Dec 1404[1173].  He remained Earl of Mar after the death of his first wife, as tenant for life under the terms of the confirmation granted 9 Dec 1404[1174]m firstly (5 Dec 1404) as her second husband, ISABEL Douglas Ctss of Mar, widow of Sir MALCOLM Drummond of Drummond, daughter of WILLIAM Douglas Earl of Douglas & his wife Margaret Ctss of Mar ([1360]-[Aug/Sep] 1408).  The seal of "Isabel comitissa de Mare et Garviath" is appended to a contract between "Isabella de Douglas countess of Mar and of Garviach" and "Sir Alexander Stuart son of Alexander Stuart Earl of Buchan" dated 1404[1175].  m secondly ([Aug 1410/17 Mar 1411]) as her second husband, MARIE van Horn, widow of THIERRY van Linden, daughter of WILLEM van Horn Heer van Duffel & his wife Marie van Randerode (-before Jun 1436).  Alexander Stewart had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress: 

i)          Sir THOMAS Stewart (-before 1435).  Master of Mar.  His father granted him the Lordship of Badenoch before 1424.  m ([1425]) as her second husband, ELIZABETH Douglas, widow of JOHN Stewart Earl of Buchan, daughter of ARCHIBALD Douglas Earl of Douglas, Duc de Touraine & his wife Eupheme Ctss of Stratherne (-1451).  She married thirdly, as his first wife, William Sinclair Earl of Orkney.

b)         Sir ANDREW Stewart of Sandhauch .

c)          DUNCAN StewartThe Liber Pluscardensis names "Alexandrum comitem de Mar, Robertum Stewart de Atholia, et Duncanum Stewart" as the three illegitimate sons of "Alexandrum comitem Buchaniæ qui…Lupus de Badzenoch vocabatur"[1176]

d)         JAMES Stewart m JANET Menzies, daughter and heiress of ALEXANDER Menzies of Fothergill & his wife ---.  James & his wife had two children: 

i)          JOHN Stewart of Fothergill (-killed in battle 1443).  He was the ancestor of the STEWART families of Fothergill, STEWART MEIKLEJOHN of Edradymte and STEWART STEVENS of Balnakeilly. 

ii)         daughter.  m PATRICK Rattray of that Ilk (-1461).

e)         WALTER Stewart

f)          ROBERT StewartThe Liber Pluscardensis names "Alexandrum comitem de Mar, Robertum Stewart de Atholia, et Duncanum Stewart" as the three illegitimate sons of "Alexandrum comitem Buchaniæ qui…Lupus de Badzenoch vocabatur"[1177]

g)         MARGARET Stewart .  Her mother was maybe Mariot Athyn[1178]m (1389) ROBERT Sutherland Earl of Sutherland, son of KENNETH Sutherland Earl of Sutherland & his second wife Joan Menteith ([1356]-1427 or before). 

5.         Lady MARGARET Stewart  .  Robert II King of Scotland granted "insulam de Colowsay" to "Johanni del Yle…et…filis nostre Margarete sponse sue" by charter dated Jul 1376[1179]m (dispensation 14 Jun 1350) as his second wife, JOHN MacDonald Lord of the Isles, son of ANGUS Og Lord of the Isles & his wife --- (-1387).

6.         Lady MARJORIE Stewart (-after 6 May 1417).  The Papal dispensation for the marriage of "Johannis de Dovibar" and "Mariorie Senescalli", issued by Pope Urban V, is dated 11 Jul 1370[1180]m firstly (Papal dispensation 11 Jul 1370) JOHN Dunbar, son of Sir PATRICK Dunbar & his wife Isabel Randolph of Moray (-before 15 Feb 1392).  He was created Earl of Moray by his father-in-law Robert II King of Scotland 9 Mar 1372.  m secondly (before 24 Apr 1403) Sir ALEXANDER Keith of Grandown.

7.         Lady JEAN Stewart (-after 1404)m firstly Sir JOHN Keith, son of WILLIAM de Keith, the Marischal & his wife Margaret Fraser (-18 Mar 1374 [O.S.?]).  m secondly (1375) Sir JOHN Lyon of Glamis (-killed in battle 4 Nov 1382).  m thirdly ([Nov 1384]) Sir JAMES Sandilands of Calder (-before 9 Nov 1397).

8.         Lady ELIZABETH Stewart [1181]m (before 7 Nov 1372) Sir THOMAS de la Haye Baron of Erroll, son of Sir DAVID de la Haye, Baron of Erroll & his wife --- Keith (-Jul 1406).  Constable of Scotland. 

9.         [Lady KATHERINE Stewart m Sir ROBERT Logan of Rastalrig.]

10.      Lady ISABEL Stewart (-[1410]).  The Liber Pluscardensis records the marriage in 1371 of "Willelmus de Douglas…comes de Douglas…Jacobus de Douglas primogenitus eius" and "filiam…Roberti [regis]" to gain his father´s support for the king´s accession[1182]m firstly (dispensation 23 Nov 1371) JAMES Douglas, son of WILLIAM Douglas Earl of Douglas & his wife Margaret Ctss of Mar (-[14] Aug 1388, bur Melrose).  He succeeded his father in 1384 as Earl of Douglas.  m secondly ([1388/90]) Sir JOHN Edmonstone of Duntreath. 

King Robert II & his second wife had four children:

11.      DAVID Stewart ([1356/60]-before 15 Mar 1390).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "comitem David de Strathern" as son of King Robert and his wife "regina Eufemia"[1183].  He was created Earl of Strathearn 26 Mar 1371, and Earl of Caithness before 24 Dec 1375, after which he was styled "Earl Palatine of Strathearn and Earl of Caithness"[1184]m --- Lindsay, daughter of Sir ALEXANDER Lindsay & his first wife Catherine Stirling.  Earl David & his wife had one child: 

a)         EUPHEME Stewart ([1378]-1415).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "comitem David de Strathern" as father of "comitissæ eiusdem" who married "fratre domini de Graham Willelmo"[1185].  She succeeded her father in [1390] as Ctss Palatine of Strathearn and Ctss of Caithness, suo iure.  She resigned the Earldom of Caithness in favour of her uncle Walter Stewart Lord of Brechin[1186]m firstly (before 24 Aug 1406) PATRICK Graham, son of PATRICK Graham of Dundaff and Kincardine & his second wife --- (-killed in battle Crieff 10 Aug 1413).  Earl of Strathearn, de iure uxorisBetrothed (dispensation 4 May 1414) to her first cousin once removed, ROBERT Stewart Master of Fife, son of MURDOCH Stewart Duke of Albany & his wife Isabel Dss of Lennox (-before 1421).  Betrothed (dispensation 5 Sep 1415) to her first cousin once removed, WALTER Stewart of Lennox, son of MURDOCH Stewart Duke of Albany & his wife Isabel Dss of Lennox (-beheaded 25 May 1425).  

12.      WALTER Stewart ([after 13 Aug 1362]-beheaded Edinburgh 26 Mar 1437).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "Walterum comitem Adoliæ…et David comitem de Strathern" as the sons of "dominus Robertus rex secundus" and his second wife "Evfamiam filiam comitis de Ross"[1187].  It appears a safe assumption that Walter was born after the death of his half-brother Walter Earl of Fife, although it is true that his full sister Elizabeth must have been born when her half-sister of the same name was still alive. Lord of Brechin, de suo uxoris.  He became Earl of Caithness in 1402 after his niece Eupheme Stewart resigned the earldom in his favour[1188].  He was created Earl of Atholl before 8 Jun 1404, and Earl Palatine of Strathearn 22 Jul 1424.  He resigned the Earldom of Caithness in [1428] in favour of his younger son, but the Earldom returned to him in 1431 on his son's death[1189].  He was implicated, along with his grandson, in the murder of his great-nephew James I King of Scotland in 1437 and executed for high treason, when his titles and estates became forfeited[1190]m (before 19 Oct 1378) MARGARET Barclay, daughter and heiress of Sir DAVID Barclay, Laird of Brechin, co. Forfar & his wife Janet Keith of Synton (-before 1 Aug 1404).  [1191]Betrothed (dispensation 1 Aug 1404) to ELIZABETH Graham, daughter of Sir WILLIAM Graham of Kincardine & his wife ---.  Balfour Paul states that Robert Keith was betrothed to "Elizabeth daughter of Sir William Graham" who had a dispensation dated 1 Aug 1404 to marry "Walter [Stewart] Earl of Caithness"[1192].  Earl Walter & his wife had two children:

a)         DAVID Stewart (-after Feb 1434).  Master of Atholl.  He was one of the hostages for the ransom of James I King of Scotland in May 1424[1193]m ---.  The name of David's wife is not known.  David & his wife had one child: 

i)          Sir ROBERT Stewart (-beheaded [1/25] Mar 1437).  Master of Atholl.  He was implicated, along with his grandfather, in the murder of James I King of Scotland in 1437 and executed for high treason[1194]Betrothed (Papal dispensation 29 Jan 1429) MARGARET Ogilvy, daughter of ---.  The Papal dispensation for the marriage of "Roberti Stewart de Atolia" and "Margarite de Ogelby", issued by Pope Martin V, is dated 29 Jan 1429[1195]

b)         ALAN Stewart (-killed Inverlochy 1431).  Earl of Caithness [1428] after his father resigned the Earldom in his favour.  He was killed in a fray by Donald Balloch[1196].

13.      Lady EGIDIA Stewart .  The Liber Pluscardensis records that "Archibaldus de Douglas…filium…Willelmum" married "rex Scociæ Robertus…filiam…Egidia Pulcra"[1197]m (1387) Sir WILLIAM Douglas of Nithsdale, illegitimate son of ARCHIBALD Douglas [later Earl of Douglas] & his mistress --- (-killed in battle Danzig [1392]).

14.      Lady ELIZABETH Stewart [1198]m (dispensation 22 Feb 1375) DAVID Lindsay, son of Sir ALEXANDER Lindsay of Glenesk, co. Angus & his first wife Catherine Stirling of Edzell ([1465/66]-Castle Finhaven, co. Angus Feb 1407, bur Dundee, Grey Friars Church).  He succeeded his first cousin in 1397 as Baron of Crawford.  He was created Earl of Crawford [21 Apr/2 May] 1398 at Perth. 

King Robert II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

15.       JOHN Stewart of Dundonald (-[1445/49]).  "The Black Stewart".  Sheriff of Bute.   m firstly JANET, daughter of JOHN Sympil of Elistoun & his wife ---.  [1199]m secondly (3 Feb 1408) ELIZABETH Graham, daughter of Sir WILLIAM Graham of Kincardine & his wife ---. 

-        EARLS of BUTE, EARLS of WHARNCLIFFE

King Robert II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (2): 

16.       JOHN Stewart (-1425).  Lord of Burley.  Keeper of Dunbarton Castle. 

King Robert II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (3): 

17.       JOHN Stewart of Cairdney .  Knight.  m ---.  He was ancestor of the family of MENZIES of Menzies. 

King Robert II had five illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

18.       ALEXANDER Stewart .  Canon of Glasgow.

19.       ALEXANDER Stewart of Inverlunan (-after 3 Jan 1378).  Knight. 

20.       THOMAS Stewart .  Archdeacon of St Andrews.  Dean of Dunkeld. 

21.       JAMES Stewart of Kinfauns (-after 15 Jan 1383).

22.       WALTER Stewart

 

 

ROBERT III 1390-1406

 

JOHN Stewart, son of ROBERT II King of Scotland & his first wife Elizabeth Mure (1337-4 Apr 1406).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "Johannem…postea…rex…Robertum Albaniæ ducem, ac…Alexandrum comitem Buchaniæ qui…Lupus de Badzenoch vocabatur" as the three sons of "dominus Robertus rex secundus" and his first wife "Elizabeth filia domini Adam de Mure"[1200].  He succeeded his father in 1390 as ROBERT III King of Scotland.  The Liber Pluscardensis records the coronation at Scone in 1390 of "rex Robertus tercius" and "Anabella de Drommond"[1201]

m ([1367]) ANNABEL Drummond, daughter of Sir JOHN Drummond of Stobhall & his wife [Mary de Montefichet] ([1350]-1401).  The Liber Pluscardensis records the coronation at Scone in 1390 of "rex Robertus tercius" and "Anabella de Drommond"[1202].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death in 1401 of "Anabella"[1203]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of King Robert's first mistress is not known. 

Mistress (2): ---.  The name of King Robert's second mistress is not known. 

King Robert III & his wife had seven children:

1.         DAVID Stewart (24 Oct 1378-Falkland Castle 26 Mar 1402, bur Lindores Abbey).  The Liber Pluscardensis records the birth in 1379 of "dux Rothsai David" who was later killed by "ducem Albaniæ Robertum avunculum eius"[1204].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the birth "IX Kal Nov" in 1378 of "David primogenitus comitis de Carrik et nepos et heres regni, postea dux Rothsay"[1205].  He was recognised as Earl of Carrick after his father's accession.  He was created Duke of Rothesay 28 Apr 1398, and Earl of Atholl 6 Sep 1398.  The Liber Pluscardensis records that "rex Robertus tercius" created "filium suum primogenitum comitem de Carrik David" as "ducem de Rosay" in 1398[1206].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death in 1401 of "Anabella"[1207].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death 7 Apr 1402 of "princeps Scociæ dux Rothsay" while in the custody of "ducis Albaniæ" and his burial "apud Lundoris"[1208].  Foulplay was suspected[1209]Betrothed (contract broken before Feb 1400) ELIZABETH Dunbar, daughter of GEORGE Dunbar Earl of March or Dunbar & his wife Christian de Seton.  The Liber Pluscardensis records the betrothal in 1399 of "dux Rothsay David princeps, primogenitus regis Roberti tercii" and "domina Elizabeth filia domini Georgii de Dunbar comitis Marchiarum" but adding that the marriage did not take place[1210]m (Bothwell Church Feb 1400) as her first husband, MARJORY Douglas, daughter of ARCHIBALD Douglas "the Grim" Earl of Douglas & his wife Jean Moray of Strathearn (-before 11 May 1421).  The Liber Pluscardensis records the marriage "apud Bothwel" of "dux Rothsay David princeps, primogenitus regis Roberti tercii" and "Archibaldus de Douglas…filiam suam Mariam"[1211].  She married secondly (1403) Walter Halyburton of Dirletoun (-1447).  

2.         ROBERT Stewart (-young). 

3.         JAMES Stewart (Dec 1394-murdered Perth 21 Feb 1437).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Jacobum regem" as son of "Robertus tertius"[1212].  He succeeded in 1406 as JAMES I King of Scotland

-        see below

4.         Lady MARGARET Stewart (-[26 Jan 1450/Sep 1456], bur Lincluden Church).  The marriage contract between "Jacobus de Douglas filius et heres…dñi Jacobi", and if he died "Willelmus de Douglas filius predictus dñi Jacobi nunc minor", and "dñm Johannem primogenitum dñi nostri Regis comite de Carrick senescallim Scocie…filiabus…Margareta filia sua seniore aut Elizabeth filia sua minore" is dated Apr 1378[1213]m (before 1390) ARCHIBALD Douglas, son of ARCHIBALD Douglas "the Grim" Earl of Douglas & his wife Joan Moray of Strathearn ([1370]-killed in battle Verneuil 17 Aug 1424, bur 24 Aug 1424 Tours Cathedral).  He succeeded his father in 1400 as Earl of Douglas.  Charles VII King of France created him Duc de Touraine 19 Apr 1424.  He was killed fighting against the Duke of Bedford[1214]

5.         Lady MARY Stewart (-after 1458, bur Strathblane)m firstly (contract 24 May 1397) GEORGE Douglas Earl of Angus, illegitimate son of WILLIAM Douglas Earl of Douglas & his mistress Margaret Ctss of Angus ([1378 or before]-1402).  m secondly (1404) Sir JAMES Kennedy of Dunure (-killed in battle before 8 Sep 1408).  Betrothed (Papal dispensation Jul 1409) as his second wife, Sir WILLIAM Cunningham (-[7 Aug 1413/Dec 1415]).  There is no clear evidence that this marriage took place[1215]m thirdly (13 Nov 1413) as his second wife, Sir WILLIAM Graham of Kincardine, son of Sir PATRICK Graham & his first wife Maud --- (-1424).  He may have been created Lord Graham in [1419][1216]m fourthly (1425) Sir WILLIAM Edmonton of Duntreath (-1462, bur Strathblane).

6.         Lady ELISABETH Stewart (-before 1411).  The marriage contract between "Jacobus de Douglas filius et heres…dñi Jacobi", and if he died "Willelmus de Douglas filius predictus dñi Jacobi nunc minor", and "dñm Johannem primogenitum dñi nostri Regis comite de Carrick senescallim Scocie…filiabus…Margareta filia sua seniore aut Elizabeth filia sua minore" is dated Apr 1378[1217]m (contract Apr 1378, before 10 Nov 1387) as his first wife, Sir JAMES Douglas of Dalkeith, son of Sir JAMES Douglas & his first wife Agnes Dunbar (-before 22 May 1441).  He succeeded his father in 1420 in the barony of Aberdour, co. Fife, and in the castle and town of Dalkeith.  He may have been created Lord Dalkeith in [1430][1218]

7.         Lady EGIDIA Stewart (-young).

King Robert III had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

8.          JAMES Stuart of Killbride.

King Robert III had one illegitimate child by Mistress (2): 

9.          Sir JOHN Stewart of Ardgowan and Blackhall .  His father gave him charters for land at Auchingoun in 1390, Blackhall in 1395 and Ardgowan in 1403, all in Renfrewshire.  He was ancestor of the SHAW-STEWART family, Baronetcy created 27 Mar 1667[1219]m ---.  The name of Sir John´s wife is not known.  Sir John & his wife had --- children: 

a)         MARGARET Stewart (-after Aug 1442)Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 12 Mar 1440 under which her grandson "Sir Duncan le Cambel knight Lord of Lochawe" donated alms from "his lands of Ardenaslate" to the church of Dunovyng [Dunoon], for the souls of "his grandfather Celestin Cambel and Isabella Lamont [Laigmani] his lawful wife…Colin Cambel his father and Mariote filie M´Cwill Cambel matris quondam nostre…his late wife Marcellina Stewart and Margaret Stewart his present wife"[1220].  m (before 12 Mar 1440) as his second wife, Sir DUNCAN Campbell of Lochow, son of Sir COLIN Campbell of Lochow, Argyllshire & his wife Mariot Campbell (-1453, bur Kilmun).  He was created Lord Campbell in 1445.

 

 

JAMES I 1406-1437

 

JAMES Stewart, son of ROBERT III King of Scotland & his wife Annabel Drummond (Dec 1394-murdered Perth 21 Feb 1437).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Jacobum regem" as son of "Robertus tertius"[1221].  He became Duke of Rothesay 10 Dec 1404 after receiving from his father all lands belonging to the office of Steward of Scotland[1222].  A prisoner in France 1406-1424.  He succeeded his father in 1406 as JAMES I King of Scotland

m (2 or 13 Feb 1424) as her first husband, JOAN Beaufort, daughter of JOHN Beaufort Earl of Somerset & his wife Margaret de Holand of the Earls of Kent (-15 Jul 1445).  She married secondly Sir James Stewart "the Black Knight of Lorn". 

King James I & his wife had eight children:

1.         Lady MARGARET Stewart (1424-Châlons-sur-Marne, Cathédrale Saint-Etienne 16 Aug 1445, bur Abbaye de Saint-Laon, Vienne)m (contract Perth, Scotland 19 Jul 1428, contract Chinon, Indre-et-Loire 30 Oct 1428, Cathédrale de Tours 24 Jun 1436) as his first wife, LOUIS de France Dauphin de Viennois, son of CHARLES VII King of France & his wife Marie d'Anjou (Bourges, Bishop's palace 3 Jul 1423-Château de Plessis-les-Tours, La Riche, Indre-et-Loire 30 Aug 1483, bur Notre-Dame de Cléry, Loiret).  He succeeded his father in 1461 as LOUIS XI King of France.

2.         Lady ISABEL Stewart (Autumn 1426-[13 Oct 1494/5 Mar 1499])Betrothed (contract 19 Jul 1441, ratified 29 Sep 1441) to JEAN VI Duke of Brittany, son of JEAN V "le Vaillant" Duke of Brittany & his third wife Infanta doña Juana de Navarra (Château de l'Hermine, near Vannes, Morbihan 24 Dec 1389-manoir de La Touche, near Nantes 29 Aug 1442, bur Tréguier, Cathédrale Saint-Tugdual).  He died before the religious ceremony.  m (30 Oct 1442) as his second wife, FRANÇOIS I Duke of Brittany, son of JEAN VI Duke of Brittany & his wife Jeanne de France (Vannes 11 May 1414-Château de l'Hermine, Vannes 17 Jul 1450, bur Redon Abbaye de St Sauveur, Ille-et-Vilaine). 

3.         Lady JOAN Stewart ([1428]-after 16 Oct 1486).  She was deaf and dumb, known as "the dumb lady of Dalkeith".  She lived in France from Aug 1445 to spring 1458[1223]m (before 15 May 1459) JAMES Douglas Earl of Morton, son of JAMES Douglas of Dalkeith & his wife Elizabeth Gifford of Sheriffhall (-[22 Jun/22 Oct] 1493). 

4.         ALEXANDER Stewart (16 Oct 1430-young).  Duke of Rothesay.

5.         JAMES Stewart (16 Oct 1430-Roxburgh 3 Aug 1460, bur Holyrood).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Jacobum secundum regem qui nunc est" as son of "Jacobum secundum"[1224].  He succeeded his father in 1437 as JAMES II King of Scotland.   

-        see below.

6.         Lady ELEANOR Stewart (Dunfermline 1433-Innsbruck 20 Nov 1480, bur Stams)m (12 Feb 1449) as his first wife, SIGISMUND "der Münzreiche" Archduke of Austria, Graf von Tirol, son of FRIEDRICH IV "mit den leeren Tasche" Duke of Austria, Graf von Tirol & his second wife Anna von Braunschweig-Lüneburg (Innsbruck 26 Oct 1427-Innsbruck 4 Mar 1496, bur Stams). 

7.         Lady MARY Stewart (-20 Mar 1465, bur Sandenburg, ter Veere, Zeeland).  She was granted the Earldom of Buchan, probably on her marriage, thereby becoming Ctss of Buchan[1225]m (ter Veere, Zeeland 1444) as his first wife, WOLFART van Borselen, son of HENDRIK van Borselen Comte de Grandpré & his second wife Jeanne van Halewijn (-Ghent 29 Apr 1487, bur Sandenburg, ter Veere, Zeeland).  Earl of Buchan, de iure uxoris.  He succeeded his father in 1474 as Comte de Grandpré.  Governor of Holland, Zeeland and Friesland 1477-1480[1226]

8.         Lady ANNABEL Stewart  .  The marriage contract between "Lodovico di Savoia figlio secundogenito del Duca Lodovico" and "Anabella figlia del Re Giacomo di Scozia" is dated 14 Dec 1444[1227]m firstly (contract 14 Dec 1444[1228], 14 Dec 1447, divorced 1458) as his first wife, LOUIS de Savoie Comte de Genève, son of LOUIS Duke of Savoy & his wife Anne Pss of Cyprus (5 Jun 1436-château-monastère de Ripaille 16 Jul 1482).  m secondly (before 10 Mar 1460, divorced 24 Jul 1471) as his second wife, Sir GEORGE Gordon, son of ALEXANDER Gordon [formerly Seton] Earl of Huntly & his second wife Elizabeth Crichton (-Stirling [8 Jun] 1501, bur Cambuskenneth).  He succeeded his father in 1470 as Earl of Huntly. 

 

 

JAMES II 1437-1460

 

JAMES of Scotland, son of JAMES I King of Scotland & his wife Joan Beaufort (16 Oct 1430-Roxburgh 3 Aug 1460, bur Holyrood).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Jacobum secundum regem qui nunc est" as son of "Jacobum secundum"[1229].  He succeeded his father in 1437 as JAMES II King of Scotland.  The Chronicle of John Smith, monk of Kinloss records the death in Aug 1463 "apud Rokisburtht" of "Jacobus 2us rex Scocie" and his burial "in monasterio Sancte Crucis"[1230].  

m (3 Jul 1449) MARIA van Gelre, daughter of ARNOLD Duke of Gelre [Egmond] & his wife Katharina von Kleve ([1442]-1 Dec 1463). 

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of the mistress of King James is not known. 

King James II & his wife had seven children:

1.         child (19 May 1450-1450).

2.         JAMES Stewart (10 Jul 1451-killed in battle 11 Jun 1488).  He succeeded his father in 1460 as JAMES III King of Scotland

-        see below

3.         Lady MARY Stewart ([May 1453]-[May 1488]).  The island of Arran, within the Sheriffdom of Bute, was given as her dower on her first marriage[1231]m firstly (before 26 Apr 1467) THOMAS Boyd Master of Boyd, son of ROBERT Boyd Lord Boyd of Kilmarnock & his wife Mariot Maxwell of Calderwood (-Antwerp [1473]).  He was created Earl of Arran 26 Apr 1467.  While absent in Denmark to escort Pss Margrethe back to Scotland, James III King of Scotland had become alienated from him.  He had to flee the country and was attainted 22 Nov 1469[1232]m secondly ([Feb/Mar 1474], dispensation 25 Apr 1476) as his second wife, JAMES Hamilton Lord Hamilton, son of Sir JAMES Hamilton of Cadyow, co. Lanark & his wife Janet Livingston ([1415]-16 Nov 1479). 

4.         ALEXANDER Stewart ([1454]-Paris 1485, bur Paris, église des Celestins).  He was created Earl of March before 4 Aug 1455, and Duke of Albany before 3 Jul 1458.  He was arrested, with his brother John Earl of Mar, by his brother James III King of Scotland on suspicion of conspiracy but escaped to France.  He styled himself King of Scotland when he made an agreement with Edward IV King of England to pay homage to him in 1482, but was reconciled with King James and created Earl of Mar and Garioch Jan 1483.  However, he renewed his treaty with the English, had his estates forfeited, and invaded Scotland but was defeated near Lochmaben 22 Jul 1484.  He escaped to France again[1233].  He was accidentally killed at a tournament[1234]m firstly (divorced 2 Mar 1478, on grounds of consanguinity, ratified by Act of Parliament 15 Nov 1516) CATHERINE Sinclair, daughter of WILLIAM Sinclair Earl of Orkney and Caithness & his wife Elizabeth Douglas.  m secondly (contract 16 Jan 1479) as her first husband, ANNE de La Tour d'Auvergne, daughter of BERTRAND [VI] de La Tour Comte d´Auvergne et de Boulogne & his wife Louise de la Trémoïlle (-Château de La Rochette, Savoie 13 Oct 1512, bur La Rochette, Carmelite monastery).  She married secondly (15 Feb 1487) Louis Comte de la Chambre (-7 May 1517).  Duke Alexander & his first wife had four children:

a)         MARGARET Stewart (-after 1542)m firstly Sir PATRICK Hamilton of Kincavil, illegitimate son of JAMES Baron Hamilton & his mistress --- Witherspoon (-killed in battle 30 Apr 1520).  m secondly Sir DAVID Ross of Balnagown (-20 May 1527).  m thirdly (divorced 17 Feb 1531) JOHN Hamilton

b)         ANDREW Stewart . 

c)         son (1477-before 1479). 

d)         ALEXANDER Stewart ([1478/79]-killed in battle 19 Dec 1537, bur Scone).  He was declared illegitimate by Act of Parliament 13 Nov 1516.  He was appointed Bishop of Moray in 1527[1235].  Alexander had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

i)          ALEXANDER .  Legitimated 1550.

ii)         ALEXANDER

iii)        MARGARETm firstly PATRICK Graham of Inchbrakie (-1516).  m secondly COLIN Campbell of Glenmurchy. 

Duke Alexander & his second wife had two children:

e)         JOHN Stewart ([1484]-Château de Mirefleur, Auvergne 2 Jun 1536, bur Vic-le-Comte).  He was restored as Duke of Albany, maybe in 1505 although there is no existing record of this restoration.  He was appointed Regent of Scotland, arriving from France at Dunbarton 18 May 1515 where he was inaugurated in great state, even crowned.  He left Scotland in Dec 1524 after an efficient regency of eight years[1236]m (contract 13 Jul 1505) his first cousin, ANNE de La Tour d'Auvergne, daughter of JEAN de La Tour Comte d'Auvergne et de Boulogne & his wife Jeanne de Bourbon-Vendôme ([1496]-Château de Saint-Saturnin Jun 1524).  Mistress (1): JEAN Abernethy, daughter of ---.  John had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

i)          ELEANOR Stewart .  Legitimated.  m (1527) JEAN [III] de l'Hôpital Comte de Choisy

f)          MAUD Stewart (-young). 

5.         DAVID Stewart ([1455]-before 18 Jul 1457).  He was created Earl of Moray 12 Feb 1456[1237]

6.         JOHN Stewart ([Jul 1457]-Canongate, Edinburgh 1479).  He was created Earl of Mar and Garioch [21 Jun 1458/25 Jun 1459][1238].  He was arrested, with his brother Alexander Duke of Albany, by his brother James III King of Scotland on suspicion of conspiracy and died in prison[1239]

7.         Lady MARGARET Stewart Mistress: of WILLIAM Crichton Lord Crichton, son of JAMES Crichton Lord Crichton & his wife Janet Dunbar of Moray (-1493), by whom she had one possible illegitimate daughter[1240]

a)         MARGARET Crichton (-after 21 Oct 1542).  She continued to style herself Ctss of Rothes after her divorce from her third husband although she had no right to the title.  Mistress: of PATRICK Panter, secretary of James IV King of Scotland.  m firstly GEORGE Halkerston, son of ---.  Burgess of Edinburgh.  m secondly WILLIAM Todrig, son of ---.  Burgess of Edinburgh.  m thirdly (before 1 Apr 1517, divorced 27 Dec 1520) as his first wife, GEORGE Leslie Earl of Rothes, son of WILLIAM Leslie Earl of Rothes & his [first/second wife ---] (-Dieppe [9 Nov] 1558). 

King James II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

8.          JOHN Stewart (-21 Sep 1523).  Lord of Sticks.  

-        LORDS of STICKS

 

 

JAMES III 1460-1488

 

JAMES of Scotland, son of JAMES II King of Scotland & his wife Maria van Gelderland (10 Jul 1451-killed in battle 11 Jun 1488).  He succeeded his father in 1460 as JAMES III King of Scotland

m (13 Jul 1469) MARGRETHE of Denmark, daughter of CHRISTIAN I King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden & his wife Dorothea von Brandenburg (23 Jun 1456-14 Jul 1486). 

King James III & his wife had three children:

1.         JAMES Stewart (17 Mar 1473-killed in battle Flodden 9 Sep 1513).  He succeeded his father in 1488 as JAMES IV King of Scotland.   

-        see below

2.         JAMES Stewart (1476-[12/17] Jan 1504, bur 29 Jan 1504 St Andrews Cathedral).  He was created Marquess of Ormond at his baptism, and Duke of Ross 29 Jan 1488.  He was nominated as Archbishop of St Andrews before 22 May 1497.  He was Papal Legate in 1500[1241]

3.         JOHN Stewart ([Jul 1479/Jul 1480]-11 Mar 1503).  He was created Earl of Mar and Garioch 2 Mar 1486[1242]

 

 

JAMES IV 1488-1513

 

JAMES of Scotland, son of JAMES III King of Scotland & his wife Margarethe of Denmark (17 Mar 1473-killed in battle Flodden 9 Sep 1513).  He succeeded his father in 1488 as JAMES IV King of Scotland

[1243]Betrothed (26 Oct 1474, contract broken 12 Oct 1482) to CECILY, daughter of EDWARD IV King of England & his wife Lady Elizabeth Wydeville (Palace of Westminster 20 Mar 1469-Quarr Abbey, Isle of Wight 24 Aug 1507, bur Quarr Abbey). 

m (8 Aug 1503) as her first husband, MARGARET Tudor, daughter of HENRY VII King of England & his wife Elizabeth of York (Palace of Westminster 28 Nov 1489-Methven Castle, Perthshire 18 Oct 1541, bur Carthusian Monastery of St John, Perth).  Queen Regent of Scotland.  She married secondly (Kinnoul Church 6 Aug 1514, divorced 11 Mar 1527) as his second wife, Archibald Douglas Earl of Angus.  She married thirdly (before 2 Apr 1528) as his second wife, Henry Stewart, who was created Lord Methven 17 Jul 1528.  She died of palsy. 

Mistress (1): MARGARET [Marion] Boyd, daughter of ARCHIBALD Boyd of Kilmarnock & his wife ---.

Mistress (2): MARGARET Drummond, daughter of JOHN Drummond Lord Drummond & his wife Elizabeth Lindsay of Crawford (-murdered May 1502, bur Dunblane).  She was poisoned with her sisters Sybil Drummond and Eupheme Drummond, wife of John Lord Fleming[1244]

Mistress (3): JANET Kennedy, [widow] of Sir ALEXANDER Gordon, [separated] wife of ARCHIBALD Douglas Earl of Angus, daughter of JOHN Kennedy Lord Kennedy & his second wife Elizabeth Gordon of Huntly Dowager Countess of Erroll (-after 1531). 

Mistress (4): ([1509]) AGNES Stewart, illegitimate daughter of JAMES Stewart Earl of Buchan & his mistress Margaret --- (-Feb 1557). 

King James IV & his wife had six children:

1.         JAMES Stewart (Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh 21 Feb 1507-Stirling Castle 27 Feb 1508).  Duke of Rothesay from birth.

2.         daughter (b and d Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh 15 Jul 1508). 

3.         ARTHUR Stewart (Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh 20/21 Oct 1509-Edinburgh Castle 14/15 Jul 1510, bur Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh).  Duke of Albany from birth. 

4.         JAMES Stewart (Linlithgow palace, Fife 15 apr 1512-Falkland castle 14 Dec 1542).  Duke of Rothesay from birth.  He succeeded his father 9 Sep 1513 as JAMES V King of Scotland

-        see below

5.         daughter (Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh Nov 1512-Nov 1512). 

6.         ALEXANDER Stewart (posthumously Stirling Castle 12 or 20 Apr 1514-Stirling Castle 18 Dec 1515, bur Cambuskenneth Abbey, Stirlingshire).  Duke of Ross from birth. 

King James IV had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

7.          ALEXANDER Stewart (1493-killed in battle Flodden 9 Sep 1513).  Archbishop of St Andrews.  Chancellor of Scotland 1510.

8.          JAMES Stewart (-young).

9.          CATHERINE Stewart (-after 5 Jul 1554)m (before 10 Dec 1507) JAMES Douglas Master of Morton, son of JOHN Douglas Earl of Morton & his wife Janet Crichton of Cranston-Riddel (-Dec 1548).  He succeeded his father in [1511/13] as Earl of Morton. 

King James IV had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (2):   

10.       MARGARET Stewart (1497-)m firstly (Nov 1512) JOHN Gordon Lord Gordon Master of Huntly, son of ALEXANDER Gordon Earl of Huntly & his first wife Janet Stewart of Atholl (-Kinloss Abbey 5 Dec 1517, bur Kinloss Abbey).  m secondly (dispensation 20 Jan 1531) Sir JOHN Drummond of Innerpeffray. 

King James IV had three illegitimate children by Mistress (3):   

11.      JAMES Stewart ([1500]-Darnaway [3 Dec 1544/14 Mar 1545]).  He was created Earl of Moray and Lord Abernethy 12 Jun 1501.  He was a member of the Council of Regency for James V King of Scotland  in Jan 1523.  He was appointed the King's Lieutenant in the North in Mar 1531.  He was chief of the commission which arranged the king's betrothal to Marie de Bourbon in Dec 1535.  He retired from court to Moray in [1543][1245][1246]Betrothed (1524) to MARGARET Douglas, daughter of ARCHIBALD Douglas Earl of Angus & his wife Lady Margaret Tudor (Harbottle 18 Oct 1515-Hackney 9 Mar 1578, bur 3 Apr 1578 Westminster Abbey).  m ([24 Aug] 1529) as her first husband, ELIZABETH [Isabel] Campbell, daughter of COLIN Campbell Earl of Argyll & his wife Jean Gordon of Huntly (-before 15 May 1548).  She married secondly ([21 Nov 1545/6 Aug 1546]) John Gordon Earl of SutherlandMistress (1): MARION Stewart, daughter of ---.  Earl James had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

a)         JAMES Stewart .  He is named in his father's will[1247]

b)         ELIZABETH Stewart .  She is named in her father's will[1248]m as his first wife, JOHN Stewart Master of Buchan, son of JOHN Stewart Earl of Buchan & his wife Margaret Scrymgeour (-killed in battle Pinkie 1547). 

12.       child (-young). 

13.       child (-young).

King James IV had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (4):   

14.       JEAN Stewart (1510-[5 Oct 1560/20 Feb 1563][1249]).  She went to France as Governess of Mary Queen of Scots in 1548.  She was known in France as "Mademoiselle Flamine de Leviston".  She was sent back to Scotland after proclaiming her affair with King Henri II[1250]m (contract 28 Feb 1524, dispensation 26 Feb 1525) MALCOLM Fleming, son of JOHN Fleming Lord Fleming & his first wife Eupheme Drummond of Drummond ([1494]-killed in battle Pinkie 10 Sep 1547).  He succeeded his father in 1524 as Lord Fleming.  Mistress ([1550]) of HENRI II King of France, son of FRANÇOIS I King of France & his first wife Claude de France (Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye 31 Mar 1519-Hôtel des Tournelles, Paris 10 Jul 1559, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis)

 

 

JAMES V 1513-1542, MARY 1542-1567, JAMES VI 1567-1625

 

JAMES of Scotland, son of JAMES IV King of Scotland & his wife Margaret Tudor (Linlithgow palace, Fife 15 Apr 1512-Falkland castle 14 Dec 1542).  Duke of Rothesay from birth.  He succeeded his father 9 Sep 1513 as JAMES V King of Scotland.  Crowned 21 Sep 1513 at the Chapel Royal, Stirling Castle. 

[1251]Betrothed (1535) to MARIE de Bourbon, daughter of CHARLES de Bourbon Duc de Vendôme & his wife Françoise d'Alençon (Chateau de la Fère en Picardie 29 Oct 1515-Chateau de la Fère 28 Sep 1538, bur Soissons, Abbaye de Notre-Dame). 

m firstly (contract Château de Blois, Loir-et-Cher 26 Nov 1536, Notre-Dame de Paris 1 Jan 1537) MADELEINE de France, daughter of FRANÇOIS I King of France & his first wife Claude de France (Château de Saint Germain-en-Laye 10 Aug 1520-Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh 2 Jul 1537, bur Edinburgh, Holyrood Abbey). 

m secondly (by proxy May 1538, in person St Andrews Cathedral, Fife 12 Jun 1538) as her second husband, MARIE de Guise, widow of LOUIS II d'Orléans Duc de Longueville, daughter of CLAUDE I de Lorraine Duc de Guise & his wife Antoinette de Bourbon-Vendôme (Bar-le-Duc 22 Nov 1515-Edinburgh Castle 10/11 Jun 1560, bur Reims Cathedral).  Crowned Queen of Scotland 22 Feb 1540 at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh. 

Mistress (1): ELIZABETH Shaw of Sauchie. 

Mistress (2): MARGARET Erskine, daughter of JOHN Lord Erskine & his wife Margaret Campbell of Argyll. 

Mistress (3): ELIZABETH [Katherine] Carmichael, daughter of Sir JOHN Carmichael & his wife ---. 

Mistress (4): EUPHEME, daughter of ALEXANDER Elphinstone Lord Elphinstone & his wife Elizabeth Barlee. 

Mistress (5): CHRISTINE Barclay, daughter of ---. 

Mistress (6): HELEN Stuart Ctss of Erroll, wife of WILLIAM Earl of Erroll, daughter of JOHN Stewart Earl of Lennox & his wife Elizabeth Stuart of Atholl (-1564).

Mistress (7): ELIZABETH Beaton, wife of JOHN Stewart Lord Innermeath, daughter of Sir JOHN Beatoun [Bethune] of Creich. 

Mistress (8): ---. 

Mistress (9): ---. 

King James V & his second wife had three children:

1.         JAMES Stewart (St Andrews, Fife 22 May 1540-St Andrews Apr 1541, bur Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh).  Duke of Rothesay from birth.

2.         ARTHUR Stewart (Falkland Palace, Fife Apr 1541-Falkland Palace, Fife Apr 1541, bur Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh).  Duke of Albany from birth. 

3.         MARY (Linlithgow Palace 7/8 Dec 1542-executed Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire 8 Feb 1587, bur Peterborough Cathedral, transferred 1612 to Westminster Abbey).  She succeeded her father 14 Dec 1542 as MARY Queen of Scotland, under a Regency Council of three members headed by the Earl of Arran.  Crowned Queen of Scotland 9 Sep 1543 at Stirling Castle.  She left for France following her betrothal, landing at Roscoff in Brittany 15 Aug 1548.  On the death of Mary I Queen of England, she assumed the title Queen of England, considering herself the legitimate heir in view of Queen Elizabeth I's illegitimacy in the eyes of the Catholic church.  Crowned Queen of France 18 Sep 1559 at Reims Cathedral.  After the death of her first husband, she abandoned the title Queen of England, following the advice of the Guise family and attempted to be recognised as the legitimate heir to the English crown.  She left the French court Mar 1561, receiving the Duchy of Touraine and the County of Poitou, retired to Reims and then back to Scotland, arriving at Holyrood Palace 19 Aug 1561.  She was forced to abdicate as Queen of Scotland at Lochleven 24 Jul 1567 in favour of her son.  She annulled her abdication at Niddry Castle 3 May 1568, but was defeated and forced to seek exile in England where she was kept imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth I.  Throughout her imprisonment she was the focus of various plots, supported by the King of Spain and the Duc de Guise, to replace Elizabeth I and revive the Catholic religion in England.  Elizabeth eventually had her tried and executed.  m firstly (contract Châtillon 27 Jan 1548, contract Palais du Louvre 19 Apr 1558, Notre-Dame de Paris 24 Apr 1558) FRANÇOIS de France Dauphin de Viennois, son of HENRI II King of France & Caterina de’ Medici (Château de Fontainebleau 19 Jan 1544-Orléans 5 Dec 1560, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  Recognised as King of Scotland, in right of his wife, on his marriage.  He succeeded his father 1559 as François II King of France, crowned 18 Sep 1559 at Notre-Dame de Reims.  m secondly (secretly Stirling [7/14] Apr 1565[1252], openly Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh 29 Jul 1565) her first cousin, HENRY Stuart Lord Darnley, son of MATTHEW Stewart Earl of Lennox & his wife Margaret Douglas of Angus (Temple Newsham, Yorkshire 7 Dec 1545-murdered Provost’s House, Kirk o’ the Field, near Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh 10 Feb 1567, bur Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh).  Lord Darnley from birth.  Created Earl of Ross and Baron Ardmannoch 15 May 1565.  Created Duke of Albany 20 Jul 1565.  Proclaimed King of Scotland 28 Jul 1565.  m thirdly (contract Edinburgh 14 May 1567, Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh 15 May 1567) as his second wife, JAMES Hepburn Earl of Bothwell, son of PATRICK Hepburn Earl of Bothwell & his [first] wife Agnes Sinclair ([1535]-in prison Dragsholm Castle, Denmark 14 Apr 1578, bur Faarevejle Church, Dragsholm).  He was created Duke of Orkney and maybe Marquess of Fife 12 May 1567.  He escaped north after his wife surrendered to the Scottish nobles at Carberry Hill 15 Jun 1567.  His titles and estates were all forfeited 29 Dec 1567[1253].  He made his way to Bergen in Norway where he arrived 2 Sep 1567 and was detained as a state prisoner.  He was sent to Copenhagen and imprisoned at Malmoe Castle from Jan 1568 to Jun 1573, and at Dragsholm Castle where he died[1254].  Mary Queen of Scots & her second husband had one child: 

a)         JAMES CHARLES Stewart (Edinburgh Castle 19 Jun 1566-Theobalds Park, Herts 27 Mar 1625, bur Westminster Abbey).  Duke of Rothesay from birth.  He succeeded his father as Duke of Albany, Earl of Ross and Baron Ardmannoch 10 Feb 1567.  He succeeded his mother 24 Jul 1567 as JAMES VI King of Scotland.  Crowned King of Scotland 29 Jul 1567 at the Church of the Holy Rood, Stirling.  He succeeded Queen Elizabeth I 24 Mar 1603 as JAMES I King of England.  Crowned 25 Jul 1603 at Westminster Abbey.  m (by proxy Kronborg Castle Copenhagen 20/24 Aug 1589 in person Oslo 23 Nov 1589, and in person again Kronborg Castle 21 Jan 1590) ANNE Pss of Denmark, daughter of FREDERIK II King of Denmark & his wife Sophie Hgn von Mecklenburg-Güstrow (Skanderborg Castle, Jutland 14 Oct 1574-Hampton Court Palace 4 Mar 1619, bur Westminster Abbey).  Crowned Queen of Scotland 17 May 1590 at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh.  Crowned Queen of England 25 Jul 1603 at Westminster Abbey. 

-                 KINGS OF ENGLAND.

Mary Queen of Scots & her third husband had two children:

b)         stillborn twins (Lochleven Castle [18/24] Jul 1568). 

King James V had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):   

4.          JAMES Stewart ([1529]-1557).  Abbot of Kelso and Melrose. 

King James V had one illegitimate son by Mistress (2):

5.          JAMES Stewart ([1531]-murdered Linlithgow 21 Jan 1570, bur 14 Feb 1570 Edinburgh, St Giles).  He was legitimated by letters dated 7 Feb 1551.  He joined the reformed religion of John Knox in 1559 and became one of the Lords of the Congregation.  He was created Earl of Moray and Lord Abernethy 30 Jan 1562, and Earl of Mar 7 Feb 1562, although he resigned the latter a few months later.  He was appointed Regent of Scotland 22 Aug 1567 until his assassination by James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh[1255]Betrothed (16 Jan 1550) to CHRISTIAN Stewart Ctss of Buchan, daughter of JOHN Stewart Master of Buchan & his second wife Margaret Ogilvy of Boyne ([1547/48]-Aberdeen 20 Sep 1580).  m (8 Feb 1562) as her first husband, AGNES Keith, daughter of WILLIAM Keith Earl Marischal & his wife Margaret Keith (-Edinburgh 16 Jul 1588, bur Edinburgh, St Giles).  She married secondly (Feb 1572) as his second wife, Colin Campbell Lord Lorne, Master of Argyll, who later succeeded as Earl of Argyll.  Earl James & his wife had three children:

a)         ELIZABETH Stewart ([Aug 1565]-18 Nov 1591).  She succeeded her father in 1570 as Ctss of Moray, suo iurem (23 Jan 1581) JAMES Stuart, son of JAMES Stewart Lord Doune & his wife Margaret Campbell of Argyll (-murdered Donibristle 7 Feb 1592).  Earl of Moray, de iure uxoris.  He succeeded his father in 1590 as Lord Doune. 

b)         ANNABEL Stewart ([1566/69]-1572).

c)          MARGARET Stewart (posthumously [21 Jan/18 Apr] 1570-before 3 Aug 1586)m (contract 22 Apr 1584, 27 Jun 1584) as his first wife, FRANCIS Hay, son of ANDREW Hay Earl of Erroll & his first wife Jean Hay of Erroll (chr 30 Apr 1564-Slains, Aberdeen 16 Jul 1631, bur Slains).  He succeeded his father in 1585 as Earl of Erroll.  No children. 

King James V had one illegitimate son by Mistress (3):   

6.          JOHN Stewart ([1531/2]-[Nov] 1563).  Prior of Coldingham.  m as her first husband, JEAN Hepburn, daughter of PATRICK Hepburn Earl of Bothwell & his [first] wife Agnes SInclair.  Mistress of Bothwell.  John Stewart & his wife had one child: 

a)         FRANCIS Stewart (1563-Naples [7 Sep 1611/30 Jul 1614]).  He was created Earl of Bothwell and Lord Hailes 16 Jun 1581.  Lord High Admiral of Scotland 1583-1591.  He was joint Governor of the Realm in 1589.  He was accused of witchcraft and imprisoned 2 Jun 1591, although he escaped 22 Jun 1591.  He was attainted by Act of Parliament 12 Jul 1592 whereby all his honours were forfeited.  He fled to England in 1594, later to France, Spain and Italy.  He lived in Naples for twelve years in poverty, casting horoscopes and doing conjuring tricks for a livelihood[1256].  "The Wizard Earl".  m (before 1 Jul 1592) as her second husband, MARGARET Douglas, widow of Sir WALTER Scott of Buccleugh, daughter of DAVID Douglas Earl of Angus & his wife Margaret Hamilton of Clydesdale (-1640, bur Eckford).  Earl Francis & his wife had seven children:

i)          FRANCIS Stewart (-1639).  Master of Bothwell.  [1257]m (2 Aug 1614) as her second husband, ISABELSeton, widow of JAMES Drummond Earl of Perth, daughter of ROBERT Seton Earl of Winton & his wife Margaret Montgomerie of Eglintoun (30 Nov 1593-).  Francis Stewart & his wife had two children:

(a)        MARGARET Stewart .

(b)        CHARLES Stewart (1618-[1651]).  Trooper in the civil war.

ii)         JOHN Stewartm MARGARET Home, daughter of ---.  John & his wife had two children: 

(a)        FRANCIS Stewart .  1679.  Captain of Dragoons of Charles II.

(b)        MARGARET Stewartm Sir JOHN Home of Renton.

iii)        HENRY Stewart

iv)        ELIZABETH Stewart[1258]m as his second wife, JAMES Cranstoun of Crailing, co. Roxburgh, Master of Cranstoun, son of WILLIAM Cranstoun Lord Cranstoun & his wife Sarah Cranstoun of Cranstoun . 

v)         MARGARET Stewart (-before 29 Oct 1626).  [1259]m (contract Aug 1621) as his first wife, ALAN Cathcart Lord Cathcart, son of ALAN Cathcart Master of Cathcart & his wife Isabel --- (-Auchencruive 18 Aug 1628). 

vi)        JEAN Stewartm ROBERT Elliott of Redhough, chief of the Elliots.

vii)       HELEN Stewartm JOHN Macfarland of that Ilk.

John Stewart had two illegitimate children:

b)         HERCULES Stewart of Whitelaw (-1595)m (divorced 1592) as her first husband, MARY Whitelaw, daughter of PATRICK Whitelaw of that Ilk.  Hercules & his wife had one child: 

i)          MARGARET Stewartm (1619) JOHN HamiltonHami, illegitimate son of ALAN Hamilton of Ferguslie. 

c)          MARGARET Stewart (-1608)m firstly (before 1579) WILLIAM Sinclair of Underhoull.  m secondly WILLIAM Brus of Symbister .

King James V had one illegitimate son by Mistress (4):   

7.          Lord ROBERT Stewart (1533-4 Feb 1593).  He was constantly at court from 1561 to 1567, present with Queen Mary on the night of Rizio's murder 9 Mar 1566, and allegedly had some knowledge of the plot against Henry Lord Darnley.  He was accused of treason in Dec 1575 and imprisoned at Edinburgh and Linlithgow Castles until 30 Jan 1578.  He was created (4th) Earl of Orkney and Lord Zetland 28 Oct 1581[1260]m ([14 Dec 1561]) Lady JEAN Kennedy, daughter of GILBERT Kennedy Earl of Cassilis & his wife Margaret Kennedy of Bargany (-Sep 1598).  Earl Robert & his wife had six children:

a)         HENRY Stewart (before 3 Nov 1566-[1589/25 Jun 1590]).  Master of Orkney. 

b)         son (-young).

c)          PATRICK Stewart ([18 Sep 1568/25 Jun 1569]-executed Market Cross, Edinburgh 6 Feb 1615).  Prior of Whithorn 16 Jan 1581/2.  Master of Orkney [1590].  He succeeded his father in 1593 as Earl of Orkney.  He was found guilty of high treason for complicity in his son’s rebellion, and forfeited his honours and estates[1261]m ([1595/29 Oct 1598]) as her second husband, Lady MARGARET Livingston, widow of Sir LEWIS Bellenden of Anchinsull, daughter of WILLIAM Livingston Lord Livingston & his wife Agnes Fleming (-Canongate, after 21 Mar 1620).  Mistress (1): MARJORIE Sinclair, daughter of ---.  Earl Patrick had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1):   

i)          ROBERT Stewart (-hanged Market Cross, Edinburgh Jan 1615).  He rebelled against the King and seized Kirkwall Castle[1262]

ii)         MARY Stewart .  1616.

iii)        CATHERINE Stewartm Sir JOHN Sinclair of Ulbster. 

d)         Lord JOHN Stewart (-[22 Jun 1643/1646]).  Master of Orkney.  He was created Lord Kincleven 10 Aug 1607, and Earl of Carrick 22 Jul 1628, the latter place alleged to have been an imaginary place in Orkney to overcome the difficulty that the title was normally reserved for the king's eldest son[1263]m (Chelsea 26 Oct 1604) as her second husband, Lady ELIZABETH Howard, widow of Sir ROBERT Southwell, daughter of CHARLES Howard Earl of Nottingham & his first wife Lady Katherine Carey (bur Greenwich 31 Jan 1646).  Lord John & his wife had one child: 

i)          Lady MARGARET Stewart (-before 3 Mar 1646).  m Sir MATTHEW [John] Mennes (-1648).  He was granted letters of administration of the estate of his father-in-law on behalf of his daughter Margaret, a minor[1264]

e)         Lord JAMES Stewart of Eday, Orkney.  m MARGARET Lyon, daughter of ---.  Lord James & his wife had two children: 

i)          ROBERT Stewart of Edaym JANE Gordon, daughter of --- Gordon Earl of Sutherland. 

(a)        ROBERT Stewartm ISABEL Graem of Graemhall.

(1)        JANE Stewartm ROBERT Richan of Linklater. 

ii)         JOHN Stewart of Newark.

f)          Lord ROBERT Stewart of Middleton. 

Earl Robert had seven illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

g)         ROBERT Stewart .  Legitimated.

h)         JAMES Stewart .  Legitimated.

i)           GEORGE Stewart .  Legitimated.

j)           4 other sons. 

King James V had one illegitimate son by Mistress (5):   

8.          JAMES Stewart (tertius). 

King James V had one illegitimate son by Mistress (6): 

9.          ADAM Stewart (-1606).  Prior of the Charterhouse.  m JANET Ruthven, daughter of WILLIAM Ruthven of Ballindean. 

King James V had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (7): 

10.       JEAN Stewart .  She was present with Queen Mary when Rizio was murdered 9 Mar 1566[1265]m (contract 1 Jul 1553, separated 1567, divorced 23 Jun 1573) as his first wife, ARCHIBALD Campbell, son of ARCHIBALD Campbell Earl of Argyll & his first wife Helen Hamilton of Arran ([1532]-12 Sep 1573).  No children. 

King James V had one illegitimate son by Mistress (8):

11.       Lord ROBERT Stewart (-1581).  Prior of Whithorn.

King James V had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (9):

12.       MARGARET Stewart

 

 

 

C.      STEWART of DARNLEY

 

 

Sir ALAN Stewart of Dreghorn, son of Sir JOHN Stewart of Bonkyl & his wife Margaret Bonkyl (-killed in battle Halidon Hill 19 Jul 1333).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "Jacobus, Johannes et Alanus Stewart, filii nobilis Valteri Stewart et fratres Roberti postea regis" among those killed in battle at Halidon Hill in 1333[1266].  It is not chronologically possible for these three brothers to have been younger half-brothers of the future King Robert II if they were old enough to have fought in 1333. 

m ---.  The name of Sir Alan's wife is not known. 

Sir Alan & his wife had three children: 

1.         Sir JOHN Stewart of Darnley and Crookston (-before 1369).  m ---.  The name of Sir John's wife is not known.  Sir John & his wife had two children:

a)         JOHN Stewart .

b)         ROBERT Stewart .

2.         WALTER Stewartm ---.  The name of Walter's wife is not known.  Walter & his wife had --- children:

a)         daughters .

3.         Sir ALEXANDER Stewart of Darnley .  m ---.  The name of Sir Alexander's wife is not known.  Sir Alexander & his wife had one child: 

a)         Sir ALEXANDER Stewart of Darnley (-1404)

-        see below

 

 

Sir ALEXANDER Stewart of Darnley, son of Sir ALEXANDER Stewart of Darnley & his wife --- (-1404)

m firstly --- Turnbull, sister of Sir JOHN Turnbull of Minto, daughter of ---. 

m secondly (1381) as her second husband, JANET Keith, widow of Sir DAVID Hamilton of Cadzow, daughter of Sir WILLIAM Keith of Galston. 

Sir Alexander & his first wife had six children:

1.         Sir JOHN Stewart (-killed in battle near Orléans [1428/29]).  Seigneur d'Aubigny.   

-        see below

2.         Sir WILLIAM Stewart of Jedworth (-murdered 1402).   

-        see below, Part E. STEWARTS of GARLIES, STEWARTS of MINTO, LORDS BLANTYRE

3.         ALEXANDER Stewart .  Of Torbane and Galliston.

4.         ROBERT Stewart .

5.         JAMES Stewart .

6.         JANET Stewartm (1391) THOMAS de Somerville .

Sir Alexander & his second wife had one child:

7.         WILLIAM Stewart (-killed in battle Rouvroy 1429). 

 

 

Sir JOHN Stewart, son of Sir ALEXANDER Stewart of Darnley & his first wife --- Turnbull (-killed in battle Orléans 12 Feb 1428).  He was Constable of the Scottish army in France [1420/21].  He was created Seigneur d'Aubigny in 1423 by Charles VII King of France, and in 1427 Comte d'Evreux.  In 1428 he was granted the right to quarter the lilies of France with his own arms[1267]

m (marriage settlement Feb 1392, dispensation 23 Sep 1406) as her second husband, ELIZABETH of Lennox, widow of ALEXANDER ---, daughter of DUNCAN Earl of Lennox & his wife Ellen Campbell (-Nov 1429). 

Sir John & his wife had three children: 

1.         Sir ALAN Stewart of Darnley (-killed in battle 1437).  Seigneur d'Aubigny.  m as her first husband, CATHERINE Seton, daughter of Sir WILLIAM Seton of Seton.  She married secondly Herbert Lord Maxwell.  Sir Alan & his wife had two children: 

a)         JOHN  Stewart ([8 Jul/11 Sep] 1495).  Earl of Lennox.  Lord Darnley 1460. 

-        EARLS of LENNOX.

b)         ALEXANDER Stewart of Galstoun .  He was ancestor of the Lords Pittenween. 

2.         Sir JOHN Stewart (-1482).  Seigneur d'Aubigny et de Concressault.  m (1446) BEATRICE, daughter of BERAULT Seigneur d'Apchier & his wife ---.  Sir John & his wife had one child: 

a)         BERNARD Stuart ([1447]-1508).  Seigneur d'Aubigny.  Duc de Terranuova 1502.  Marshal of France.  Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger 1487.  Marchese di Squillazzo, Conte di Acri 1495.  m firstly GUILLEMETTE de Boucard, daughter of ---.  m secondly (1457) as her first husband, ANNE de Maumont Ctss de Beaumont-le-Roger, daughter of GUY de Maumont Seigneur de Saint Quentin & his wife Jeanne [illegitimate daughter of Jean II] d'Alençon.  She married secondly (1510) Aubert des Ages.  Bernard & his first wife had one child:

i)          GUYONE Stuartm PHILIPPE de Brague Seigneur de Luat.

Bernard & his second wife had one child:

ii)         ANNE Stuart (-before 1527).  Ctss de Beaumont-le-Roger.  m ([1499]) as his first wife, Sir ROBERT Stuart, son of JOHN Earl of Lennox Lord Darnley & his wife Margaret Montgomerie (-1543).  Seigneur d'Aubigny.  Marshal of France.  Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger.

3.         ALEXANDER Stewart (-1439).  m ---.  The name of Alexander's wife is not known.  Alexander & his wife had --- children: 

a)         daughters.

 

 

 

D.      STEWART of LORN

 

 

Sir JAMES Stewart of Pearston, son of Sir JOHN Stewart of Bonkyl & his wife Margaret Bonkyl (-killed in battle Halidon Hill 19 Jul 1333).  The Liber Pluscardensis names "Jacobus, Johannes et Alanus Stewart, filii nobilis Valteri Stewart et fratres Roberti postea regis" among those killed in battle at Halidon Hill in 1333[1268].  It is not chronologically possible for these three brothers to have been younger half-brothers of the future King Robert II if they were old enough to have fought in 1333. 

m ---.  The name of Sir James's wife is not known. 

Sir James & his wife had one child: 

1.         Sir ROBERT Stewart (-[1388]).  of Innermeath.  m ---.  The name of Sir Robert's wife is not known.  Sir Robert & his wife had three children:

a)         Sir JOHN Stewart .  Lord of Lorn 1407/12 [from his brother]. 

-        see below.

b)         ROBERT Stewart of Durisdeer (-killed in battle Shrewsbury)m JANET, daughter and heiress of EWEN de Brandin Lord of Lorn & his wife Joanna de Izac [granddaughter of King Robert Bruce].  This couple were ancestors of the Stewarts of Rosyth, co Fife, and of Craigie Hall and Newhall, co Linlithgow. 

c)         CATHERINE Stewartm JOHN Beatoun [Bethune] of Balfour. 

 

 

Sir JOHN Stewart, son of Sir ROBERT Stewart of Innermeath & his wife --- .  Lord of Lorn 1407/12 [from his brother]. 

m ISABEL of Argyll, daughter of JOHN Lord of Lorn, Chief of Clan Douglas & his wife --- (-21 Dec 1439). 

Sir John & his wife had eight children: 

1.         ROBERT Stewart (-before 1449).  Lord of Lorn.  m (dispensation 27 Sep 1397) JOAN Stewart, daughter of ROBERT Stewart Earl of Albany Regent of Scotland & his first wife Margaret Graham Ctss of Menteith .  Lord Robert & his wife had seven children: 

a)         JOHN Stewart (-Dunstaffnage 20 Dec 1463).  Lord Lorn "Muirreach/the Leper".  m ---.  The name of John's wife is not known.  Mistress (1):  ---, daughter of the Maclaren chieftain of Ardvelch.  Lord John & his wife had three children: 

i)          JANET Stewartm (1448) Sir COLIN Campbell of Glenorchy (-1475).

ii)         ISABEL Stewart (-Dunbarton 26 Oct 1510, bur Kilmun)m (before 9 Apr 1465) COLIN Earl of Argyll, son of ARCHIBALD Campbell of Lochow, Argyll & his wife Elizabeth Somerville (-10 May 1493).  He reeceived the Lordship of Lorn in 1469.

iii)        MARION Stewartm ARTHUR Campbell of Otter.

Lord John had one illegitimate child by mistress (1): 

iv)        DUGALD of Appin (-[1498]).  Chief of the clan Stewart of Appin.  He was ancestor of the Stewarts of Appin [see Burkes Landed Gentry].

b)         daughterm ROBERT Lord Erskine .

c)         WALTER Stewart (-before 3 Feb 1489).  Lord Innermeath.  Lord Lorn 1463-1469, resigned. 

-        see below

d)         ALAN Stewart (-[1463]).

e)         DAVID Stewart .

f)          ROBERT Stewart .

2.         ARCHIBALD Stewart .  1452.

3.         Sir JAMES Stewart (-[1448]).  The Black Knight of Lorn.  m (1439) as her second husband, JOAN Beaufort, widow of JAMES I King of Scotland, daughter of JOHN Beaufort Earl of Somerset & his wife Margaret de Holand (-Dunbar Castle 15 Jul 1445, bur Monastery of the Charterhouse, Perth).  Sir James & his wife had three children: 

a)         Sir JOHN Stewart of Balveny ([1440]-the Laighwood 15 Sep 1512, bur Dunkeld Cathedral).  Earl of Atholl 1457. 

-        EARLS of ATHOLL

b)         JAMES Stewart (-[Jan 1497/Jan 1500]).  Earl of Buchan 1469. 

-        EARLS of BUCHAN

c)         ANDREW Stewart (1443-1501).  Bishop of Moray 1483.

4.         ALEXANDER Stewart .  He was ancestor of the Stewarts of Grandlully.

5.         WILLIAM Stewart .

6.         CHRISTIAN Stewartm James DUNDAS of that Ilk.

7.         ISABEL Stewartm firstly Sir WILLIAM Oliphant of Aberdalgy.  m secondly Sir DAVID Murray of Gask, son of ---.

8.         JEAN Stewartm Sir DAVID Bruce of Clackmannan.

 

 

WALTER Stewart, son of ROBERT Stewart Lord of Lorn & his wife Joan Stewart of Albany (-before 3 Feb 1489).  Lord Innermeath.  Lord Lorn 1463-1469, resigned. 

m [MARGARET Lindsay, daughter of JOHN Lord Lindsay of the Byres & his wife ---]. 

Lord Walter & his wife had one child: 

1.         THOMAS Stewart (-killed in battle Flodden 9 Sep 1513).  Lord Innermeath.  m (before 23 Jun 1481) as her second husband, JANET Keith, widow of --- Master of Rothes, daughter of WILLIAM Keith Earl Marischal & his wife Mariot Erskine.  Lord Thomas & his wife had one child: 

a)         RICHARD Stewart (-1532).  Lord Innermeath.  m as her first husband, MARGARET Lindsay, daughter of JOHN Lord Lindsay of the Byres & his wife Marion Baillie (-before 4 Feb 1577).  She married secondly (before 4 Jun 1533) Sir James Stuart of Beath (-killed in battle Dunblane 1547).  Lord Richard & his wife had one child: 

i)          JOHN Stewart (-Jan 1570).  Lord Innermeath.  m (before 1540) as her first husband, ELIZABETH Beatoun, daughter of Sir JOHN Beatoun of Creich & his wife ---.  Mistress of James V King of Scotland.  She married secondly (Jun 1573, divorced 10 Jun 1581) James Grey, son of Lord Grey.  Lord John & his wife had three children: 

(a)       JAMES Stewart (-14 Feb 1586).  Lord Innermeath.  m (before 7 Jul 1554) HELEN Ogilvy, daughter of JAMES Lord Ogilvy of Airlie & his wife Helen Sinclair.  Lord James & his wife had eleven children: 

(1)       JOHN Stewart (-Kincardine [26 Aug/8 Oct] 1603).  Lord Innermeath.  Created Earl of Atholl 1596.  m firstly MARGARET Lindsay, daughter of DAVID Lindsay Earl of Crawford & his second wife Catherine Campbell of Lorn (-after 16 Jun 1589).  m secondly (contract 31 Mar 1596) as her second husband, MARY, widow of JOHN Stewart Earl of Atholl, daughter of WILLIAM Earl of Gowrie & his wife Dorothea Stewart of Methven.  She married thirdly (before 13 Aug 1613) James Stewart, son of James Stewart Master of Buchan.  Lord John & his first wife had six children:

a.         JAMES Stewart (1583-1625).  Earl of Atholl.  m (contract 12 Sep 1603) as her first husband, MARY Stewart, daughter of JOHN Stewart Earl of Atholl & his wife Mary Ruthven .  She married secondly Captain Peter Rollock

b.         4 other sons.

c.         MARGARET Stewartm firstly Sir JAMES Stewart of Ballechin, .  m secondly Sir ROBERT Crichton of Cluny.

(2)       MARGARET Stewartm Sir WILLIAM Ruthven of Bandears.

(3)       JANET Stewartm ALEXANDER Cuming of Cullet.

(4)       GRIZEL Stewartm THOMAS Gordon of Cluny.

(5)       4 other sons.

(6)       3 other daughters.

(b)       JOHN Stewart of Redcastle (-before 1607).  Poet.  m CATHERINE Grey, daughter of ANDREW Grey of Duninald.  This couple were ancestors of the Stuart family of Laitheris.

(c)       ALEXANDER Stewart

 

 

 

E.      STEWARTS of GARLIES, STEWARTS of MINTO, LORDS BLANTYRE

 

 

Sir WILLIAM Stewart of Jedworth, son of Sir ALEXANDER Stewart of Darnley & his first wife --- Turnbull (-murdered 1402)

m as her second husband, ISABEL, widow of Sir RICHARD Oliver, daughter of ---. 

Sir William & his wife had one child: 

1.         Sir JOHN Stewart .  Feudal baron of Garlies and Dalswinton.  m (1396) as her first husband, MARION Stewart, daughter and heiress of Sir WALTER Stewart of Garlies and Dalswinton & his wife ---.  Sir John & his wife had two children: 

a)         Sir WILLIAM Stewart of Garlies (-1479).  m ---.  The name of Sir William's wife is not known.  Sir William & his wife had two children: 

i)          Sir ALEXANDER Stewart of Garlies. 

ii)         THOMAS Stewart of Minter (-1500).  Provost of Glasgow.  m ISABEL Stewart, daughter and co-heiress of WALTER Stewart of Arthurlie & his wife ---.  Thomas & his wife had two children: 

(a)       Sir JOHN Stewart of Minto (-1512).  Provost of Glasgow.  m JANET Fleming, daughter of ---.  Ancestors of Stewarts of Minto, Lords Blantyre 1606-1904. 

(b)       WILLIAM Stewart (-1545).  Bishop of Aberdeen 1532.  Lord High Treasurer of Scotland 1530-1537.

b)         JOHN Stewart .  Provost of Glasgow.

 

 



[1] Skene, W. F. (ed.) (1867) Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots, and other early memorials of Scottish history (Edinburgh) ("Skene (1867)"). 

[2] Goodall, W. (ed.) (1759) Joannis de Fordun Scotichronicon cum Supplementis et Continuatione Walteri Boweri, Vols. I, II (Edinburgh) ("Joannis de Fordun (Goodall)"), and Skene, W. F. (ed.) Skene, F. J. H. (trans.) (1872) John of Fordun´s Chronicle of the Scottish Nation, Historians of Scotland Vol. IV (Edinburgh) ("John of Fordun (Skene)"). 

[3] Skene, F. J. H. (ed.) (1877) Liber Pluscardensis, Historians of Scotland Vol. VII (Edinburgh). 

[4] Duncan, A. M. M. (2002) The Kingship of the Scots (Edinburgh), Table I, p. 18. 

[5] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, pp. 8-10. 

[6] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[7] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[8] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151. 

[9] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174. 

[10] Skene (1867), XXXVI, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1317, p. 289. 

[11] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXIX and XXXII, pp. 165 and 166. 

[12] Woolf, A. (2007) The New Edinburgh History of Scotland: From Pictland to Alba 789-1070 (Edinburgh UP). 

[13] Woolf (2007), pp. 87-93. 

[14] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, II, p. 135.  

[15] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[16] Bambury, P. and Beechinor, S. (eds.) (2000) The Annals of Ulster (Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition “CELT”, University College, Cork), available at <http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100001A/index.html> (22 Feb 2006), 858.2, p. 317. 

[17] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[18] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[19] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XV, p. 147. 

[20] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[21] Annals of Ulster, 862.1, p. 320. 

[22] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[23] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151. 

[24] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9. 

[25] Seán Mac Airt (ed.) (1951) The Annals of Inisfallen (Dublin), available at <http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100004/index.html> (ed. Färber, B.) (26 Jan 2008), 879.1, p. 137, Annals of Ulster, 879.1 335. 

[26] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[27] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[28] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XVI and XVII, p. 149. 

[29] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151. 

[30] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174. 

[31] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XVIII, p. 152. 

[32] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[33] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[34] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[35] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, III, p. 136. 

[36] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[37] Annals of Ulster, 858.2, p. 317. 

[38] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[39] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151. 

[40] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174. 

[41] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[42] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[43] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[44] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XV, p. 147. 

[45] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[46] Annals of Ulster, 872.5, p. 330. 

[47] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[48] Annals of Ulster, 876.1, p. 332. 

[49] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151. 

[50] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174. 

[51] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XVI, p. 148. 

[52] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[53] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[54] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[55] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XX, p. 153. 

[56] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[57] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[58] Annals of Ulster, 900.6, p. 352. 

[59] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[60] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151. 

[61] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174. 

[62] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXI, p. 155. 

[63] Annals of Ulster, 954.2, p. 400. 

[64] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9. 

[65] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[66] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[67] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[68] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[69] Downham, C. (2007) Viking Kings of Britain and Ireland (Dunedin), p. 141, citing Dobbs, M. E. (ed.) ´The Ban-Shenchus´, Revue celtique 47 (1930), pp. 186, 225, 311, 335 [not yet consulted]. 

[70] Annals of Ulster, 913.1, p. 361. 

[71] Skene, W. F. (ed.) (1867) Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots, and other early memorials of Scottish history (Edinburgh) ("Skene (1867)") I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[72] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9. 

[73] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[74] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[75] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XVI, p. 149. 

[76] Annals of Ulster, 878.2, p. 334. 

[77] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151. 

[78] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174. 

[79] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XVI, p. 149. 

[80] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[81] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[82] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[83] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXIII, p. 157. 

[84] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[85] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[86] Garmonsway, G. N. (trans) (1972) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Dent) A 924 [923]. 

[87] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1848) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus I (London) (“Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon”), Vol. I, pp. 129-30. 

[88] Annals of Ulster, 921.4, p. 373. 

[89] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle D 926 and 934. 

[90] Forester, T. (trans.) (1854) The Chronicles of Florence of Worcester with two continuations (London) (“Florence of Worcester (Continuation)”) 938, p. 97. 

[91] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[92] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXI, p. 154. 

[93] Annals of Ulster, 952.1, p. 398. 

[94] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 10. 

[95] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151. 

[96] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174. 

[97] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[98] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9. 

[99] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[100] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[101] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXV, p. 159. 

[102] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151. 

[103] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174. 

[104] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXV, p. 160. 

[105] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9. 

[106] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[107] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[108] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXVII, p. 161. 

[109] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9. 

[110] Annals of Ulster, 971.1, p. 410. 

[111] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9. 

[112] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151. 

[113] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174. 

[114] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXVII, p. 162. 

[115] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[116] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[117] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXXIV, p. 168. 

[118] Stokes, W. (trans.) (1993) The Annals of Tigernach (Llanerch), II, p. 243. 

[119] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 152. 

[120] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 175. 

[121] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9. 

[122] Annals of Ulster, 977.4, p. 414. 

[123] Florence of Worcester 938, p. 97. 

[124] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[125] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9. 

[126] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9. 

[127] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, pp. 8-9. 

[128] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[129] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[130] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXIV, p. 158. 

[131] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9. 

[132] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle D 945 and 946. 

[133] Williams ab Ithel, J. (ed.) (1860) Brut y Tywysogion, or the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales (London) ("Brut y Tywysogion (Williams)"), p. 21. 

[134] Annals of Ulster, 954.2, p. 400. 

[135] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 10. 

[136] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151. 

[137] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174. 

[138] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXV, p. 159. 

[139] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9. 

[140] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[141] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[142] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXVI, p. 160. 

[143] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9. 

[144] Annals of Ulster, 967.1, p. 408. 

[145] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151. 

[146] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174. 

[147] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXVI, p. 160. 

[148] Duncan (2002), p. 21. 

[149] Duncan (2002), p. 21. 

[150] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 10. 

[151] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9. 

[152] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[153] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[154] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXVIII, p. 163. 

[155] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 142. 

[156] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXIX and XXXII, pp. 165 and 166. 

[157] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXXII, p. 167. 

[158] Annals of Ulster, 995.1, p. 426. 

[159] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 152. 

[160] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174. 

[161] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[162] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[163] S 779. 

[164] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXXVIII, p. 173. 

[165] Arnold, T. (ed.) (1885) Symeonis Monachi Opera Omnia (London), Vol. II, Symeonis Historia Regum, 130, p. 156. 

[166] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1031. 

[167] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XLI, p. 176. 

[168] Annals of Ulster, 1034.1, p. 474. 

[169] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 266. 

[170] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 152. 

[171] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 175. 

[172] Skene (1867), XXI, Genealogy of King William the Lyon, p. 144. 

[173] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 152. 

[174] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXXVIII, p. 173. 

[175] Skene (1867), XXXIII, Chronicle of Huntingdon, Cronica Canonicorum Beate Marie Huntingdonie, p. 210. 

[176] The Historie of Macbeth, from Ralph Holinshed´s Chronicle of Scotland 1577, in Macbeth by William Shakespeare with the Historie of Macbeth (Cassell, 1899), p. 151. 

[177] Laing, D. (ed.) (1872) The Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland by Andrew of Wyntoun (Edinburgh), Vol. II, Book VI, Chap. XVI, line 1645, p. 120. 

[178] Annals of Ulster, 1020.6, p. 458. 

[179] France, J., Bulst, N. and Reynolds, P. (eds. and trans.) (1989) Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque, Rodulfus Glaber Opera (Oxford) II.3, p. 55. 

[180] Pálsson, H. and Edwards, P. (trans.) (1978) Orkneyinga Saga, The History of the Earls of Orkney (Penguin Books) 12, p 38. 

[181] Laing, S. (trans.) (1907) Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings Snorre (Norroena Society, London), available at Online Medieval and Classical Library Release 15b, <http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Heimskringla/> (24 Jan 2003), Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 99. 

[182] CP X Appendix A, p. 9. 

[183] Duncan (2002), p. 32. 

[184] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXXIV, p. 168. 

[185] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[186] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XLIV and XLV, p. 180. 

[187] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1031. 

[188] Mariani Scotti Chronicon 1040, MGH SS V, p. 557. 

[189] Annales Dunelmenses 1046, MGH SS XIX, p. 508. 

[190] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon (London) (“Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon”), Vol. I, p. 204. 

[191] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle D 1054. 

[192] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 212. 

[193] Annales Dunelmenses 1054, MGH SS XIX, p. 508. 

[194] Skene (1867), XXXIII, Chronicle of Huntingdon, Cronica Canonicorum Beate Marie Huntingdonie, p. 210. 

[195] Mariani Scotti Chronicon 1057, MGH SS V, p. 558. 

[196] Annals of Ulster, 1058.6, p. 495. 

[197] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 291. 

[198] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 152. 

[199] John of Fordun (Skene), Book V, VII, p. 192. 

[200] John of Fordun (Skene), Book V, VIII, p. 194. 

[201] Lawrie, A. C. (1905) Early Scottish Charters: Prior to A.D. 1153 (MacLehose), V, p. 5. 

[202] Skene (1867), XII, Continuation of Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 119. 

[203] Annals of Ulster, 1058.2, p. 496. 

[204] Dunbar, Sir A. H. (1906) Scottish Kings, a revised chronology of Scottish History 2nd Edn. (Edinburgh), p. 22. 

[205] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[206] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21. 

[207] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[208] Annals of Ulster, 1005.5, p. 436. 

[209] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 175. 

[210] Skene (1867), XXXVI, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1317, p. 289. 

[211] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXIX and XXXII, pp. 165 and 166. 

[212] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXXIV, p. 168. 

[213] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXXVIII, p. 173. 

[214] Annals of Ulster, 1035.2, p. 474. 

[215] Annals of Ulster, 1035.2, p. 474. 

[216] Annals of Ulster, 1035.2, p. 474. 

[217] Annals of Ulster, 1033.7, p. 473. 

[218] Early Scottish Charters L, p. 46. 

[219] Annals of Ulster, 1033.7, p. 473. 

[220] Early Scottish Charters V, p. 5. 

[221] Skene (1867), XII, Continuation of Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 119. 

[222] Annals of Ulster, 1058.2, p. 496. 

[223] Dunbar, Sir A. H. (1906) Scottish Kings, a revised chronology of Scottish History 2nd Edn. (Edinburgh), p. 22. 

[224] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[225] Annals of Ulster, 1032.1, p. 472. 

[226] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131. 

[227] Skene (1867), XII, Continuation of Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 119. 

[228] John of Fordun (Skene), Book V, VIII, pp. 193-4. 

[229] Mariani Scotti Chronicon 1040, MGH SS V, p. 557. 

[230] Annals of Ulster, 1058.2, p. 496. 

[231] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 290. 

[232] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 152.