WALES

  v2.3 Updated 27 February 2013

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                KINGS of CEREDIGION. 3

Chapter 2.                KINGS of DYFED. 4

Chapter 3.                KINGS of GWENT. 5

Chapter 4.                KINGS of GWYNEDD. 5

A.         KINGS of GWYNEDD, descendants of CADWALLON "Lawhir" 5

B.         KINGS of GWYNEDD, descendants of GWRIAD.. 10

C.        KINGS of GWYNEDD, descendants of OWAIN ap Hywel KING of GWYNEDD.. 35

D.        KINGS of GWYNEDD, family of LLYWELYN ap Seisell 38

Chapter 5.                KINGS of DEHEUBARTH. 43

Chapter 6.                KINGS and PRINCES of GLAMORGAN. 56

Chapter 7.                KINGS of POWYS. 66

A.         KINGS of POWYS, family of CADELL ap Brochwell 66

B.         KINGS of POWYS, family of CYNFYN ap Gwerstan. 68

C.        PRINCES of NORTHERN POWYS.. 78

D.        PRINCES of SOUTHERN POWYS.. 80

Chapter 8.                LORDS of ABERGAVENNY. 81

Chapter 9.                LORDS of BRECKNOCK. 86

Chapter 10.              LORDS of MONMOUTH. 88

Chapter 11.              LORDS of MONTGOMERY. 96

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The main Welsh primary sources so far consulted in the preparation of the present document are the Annales Cambrić, the Chronicle of the Princes/Brut y Tywysogion, and the so-called "Gwentian Chronicle".  Numerous extracts from these works have been incorporated, although it has proved difficult to identify all Welsh persons who are named, particularly for the later years.  The Annales Cambrić, said to have been compiled originally in 954, represents the oldest register of events in Wales[1].  The version of the 12th century "Brut y Tywysogion" (Chronicle of the Princes of Wales), published with English translation in the Rolls Series in 1860 by John Williams, was incorporated into the Red Book of Hergest, a manuscript compilation of numerous 6th to 15th century literary works written in the Welsh language[2].  The so-called "Gwentian Chronicle" represents another version of the Chronicle of the Princes/Brut y Tywysogion, allegedly arranged by Caradoc of Llancarvan, with major differences in the text and particular emphasis on southern Wales[3].  However, there is some difficulty associated with the Gwentian Chronicle.  It appears to have been first published in the late 18th century by Edward Williams (also known as "Iolo Morganwg") who was "considered an authority on Welsh literature and folklore at the time, but was revealed as a forger in the twentieth century"[4].  The extent of the fabrication of the Gwentian Chronicle is not known: clearly it includes some reliable information as many of the statements coincide with what appears in the Annales Cambrić and the Chronicle of the Princes.  The problems related to the authenticity of the Gwentian Chronicle were discussed by Thomas Stephens in the mid-19th century and more recently G. J. Williams[5].  After analysing the possible origin of the so-called Gwentian Chronicle in several other earlier manuscripts, and discussing the problems in detail, Stephens concludes that "that it abounds in mistakes, conjectures and unauthorised additions…several anachronisms" but that "it has many parallelisms with Brut Ieuan Brechva", suggesting that "both the Book of Aberpergwm and the so-called Book of Caradoc…are…documents of the sixteenth century"[6].  Extracts from the Gwentian Chronicle are included in square brackets in the present document to highlight the potential difficulty.  As will be seen, without these extracts many parts of the reconstruction of the families of the Welsh princes and kings would be sparse. 

 

Another view concerning the difficulty of accurately reconstructing Welsh royal genealogies is given by Bridgeman in the introduction to his History of the Princes of South Wales.  He states that “The chief difficulty which meets the student of Welsh medieval history is the scarcity of official deeds.  The writings of the early chroniclers, though singularly faithful on the whole, cannot always be implicitly trusted, and it is not often that the facts they record can be authenticated by contemporary documentation”, and emphasises in particular the lack of reliability of “Heraldic Pedigrees...drawn up from the first with palpable inaccuracies and without any regard for dates[7].  Some of the areas of difficulty which he highlights are discussed below in the present document. 

 

Dating of early medieval Welsh history is a particular problem as the three main sources referred to above rarely coincide in the dates which they attribute to the events recorded. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of CEREDIGION

 

 

1.         LLYWARCH Llwyd .  King of Ceredigionm ---.  Llywarch & his wife had two children: 

a)         MORYDD (-8 Dec 830).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Morydd son of Llywarch Llwyd, king of Ceredigion" died 8 Dec 830 on the same day as a solar eclipse[8].] 

b)         MEURUG .  [His parentage is confirmed by the Gwentian Chronicle which names his son "Gwgan son of Morydd son of Llywarch Llwyd, king of Ceredigion" when recording his death[9].]  King of Ceredigionm ---.  The name of Meurug´s wife is not known.  Meurug & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          GWGAWN (-drowned river Llychwr, Gower [870/71]).  King of Ceredigion.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gwgawn son of Meurug king of Ceredigion was drowned" in 871[10].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Gwgan son of Morydd son of Llywarch Llwyd, king of Ceredigion was drowned in crossing the river Llychwr in Gower, to drive the black pagans out of that country" in 870[11].] 

ii)         [ANGHARAD .  Angharad´s parentage and marriage are recorded in a manuscript now at Jesus College[12]m RHODRI ap Merfyn "Mawr/the Great", son of MERFYN "Frych/the Freckled" ap Gwriad King of Gwynedd & his wife Nest of Powys (-killed Anglesey 878).] 

 

2.         GRUFFYDDm ---.  The name of Gruffydd´s wife is not known.  Gruffydd & his wife had one child: 

a)         OWAIN (-killed 933).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Owain son of Gruffyd was killed by the men of Ceredigion" in 933[13].] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KINGS of DYFED

 

 

1.         MAREDUDD (-[Rhuddlan] [796/800]).  King of Dyfed.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death in 796 of "Maredudd king of Dyved"[14].  The Gwentian Chronicle records "the action of Rhuddlan…where Meredydd king of Dyved and Caradawc son of Gwyn, son of Collwyn king of Gwynedd were killed" in 796[15].  The Annales Menevensis record that "Maredud rex Demetorum" died in 798[16].  It should be noted that the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the Saxons killed Caradog king of Gwynedd" in 800[17].  It is not therefore known whether Maredudd and Caradog died in the same battle or in two separate incidents. 

 

2.         RHYDDERCH [Rein] (-[804/08]).  King of Dyfed.  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Arthen king of the Ceredigiawn, Rhydderch king of Dyved, and Cadell king of Teyrnllwg now called Powys" died in 804[18].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death in 808 of "Rein king of Dyved"[19], which presumably refers to the same person.  m ---.  The name of Rhydderch´s wife is not known.  Rhydderch & his wife had one child: 

a)         TRYFFIN (-815).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death in 815 of "Tryffin son of Rein"[20]

 

3.         LLYWARCH ap Hyfaidd (-904).  King of Dyfedm ---.  The name of Llywarch´s wife is not known.  Llywarch & his wife had one child: 

a)         ELEN of Dyfed, daughter and heiress of (-[943]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Elen wife of Hywel the Good" died in 943[21].]  m HYWEL ap Cadell "Dda/the Black", son of CADELL & his wife --- (-[948/50]). 

4.         RHYDDERCH (-executed 905).  King of Dyfed

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    KINGS of GWENT

 

 

1.         IDWAL (-killed in battle 848).  King of Gwent.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death in 848 of "Ithel king of Gwentslain by the men of Breicheiniog"[22]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    KINGS of GWYNEDD

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of GWYNEDD, descendants of CADWALLON "Lawhir"

 

 

1.         IAGO ap Beli (-613).  He succeeded his father in 599 as King of Gwynedd.  The Annales Cambrić record the death of "Iacob filii Beli" in 613[23]

 

 

1.         CADWALLON ap Cadfan (-killed in battle Denisesburn [635])King of Gwynedd.  The Annales Cambrić record the siege of "Catguollaun regis" in 629 in "insula Glannauc"[24].  Bede records that "Caedualla rex Brettonum", helped by "Penda…de region genere Merciorum", rebelled against Eadwine King of Northumbria who was killed in battle "IV Id Oct" in 633 at "Haethfelth", adding that the rebels continued to govern the country with varying success for 22 years[25].  Bede records that "rex Brettonum Ceadualla" killed "Osricum" [King of Deira] in [634], and ruled "provincić Nordanhymbrorum" for a year before also killing "Eanfridum" [King of Bernicia] who had visited Cadwallon to sue for peace[26].  Bede records that "Osualdi", after the death of "fratris [eius] Eanfridi", defeated and killed "Bretonnici regis tyrannidem" (referring to "rex Brettonum Ceadualla") at "Denisesburgna, id est riuus Denisi"[27].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cadwallawn son of Cadvan king of the Britons" died in 660 (dating seriously awry) and was succeeded by "his son Cadwalader the Blessed"[28].]  m --- of Mercia, daughter of [PYBBA of Mercia --- & his wife ---].  Roger of Wendover records that the mother of "rex Britonum Cadwallo…Cadwaladrus filius eius…juvenem" was "soror Pendć regis Merciorum" whom Cadwallon married after his alliance with King Penda[29].  However, the passage in this source is confused as it also records the death of King Cadwallon senior in 676.  Cadwallon & his wife had one child: 

a)         CADWALADR ap Cadwallon "Fendigard/the Blessed" (-killed in battle 682).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cadwallawn son of Cadvan king of the Britons" died in 660 (dating seriously awry) and was succeeded by "his son Cadwalader the Blessed"[30].]  After his father's death, the throne of Gwynedd was usurped by Cadafael ap Cynfedw, who was deposed in 654 by Cadwaladr who then succeeded as King of Gwynedd.  The Annales Cambrić record the death of "Catgualart filius Catguolaum" in 682, killed in battle[31]m ---.  The name of Cadwaladr´s wife is not known.  Cadwaladr & his wife had [one child]: 

i)          [IVOR (-[Rome 20 May 689]).  The Annales Menevensis record that "Cadwalladrus rex Britannić" sent "Ivor filium suum" with 12 ships "ad regendas Britonum reliquias" in 689, and that he died in Rome "XII Kal Mai" in 689[32].  The dating of this event, if it did take place, is inconsistent with the date of King Cadwaladr´s death as recorded in the Annales Cambrić (see above).] 

 

 

1.         IDWAL ap Cadwaladr "Iwrch" (-after 734).  The chronology appears stretched for Idwal ap Cadwaladr to have been the son of Cadwaladr ap Cadwallon.  King of Gwynedd.  The Annales Cambrić name "Ivor filius Cadwallader" in 734[33]

 

2.         RHODRI "Molwynog" (-[750/54], bur Caerleon).  King of Gwynedd.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the victory of "Rhodri Molwynog" in "the battle of Heilin…in Cornwall" in 721[34].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhodri Molwynawc was made king over the Britons" in 720 and that "a great war arose between him and the Saxons, during which the Britons won two battles honourably"[35].]  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 754 of "Rotri rex Brittonum"[36].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death in 754 of "Rhodri Molwynog king of the Britons"[37].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhodri Molwynawc" died in 750 after reigning for 30 years and "was buried at Caerleon on the Usk…the last of the race of the kings of the island of Britain who was buried there"[38]

 

3.         [CYNAN Dindaethwy (-after 754).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cynan Tindaethwy [was] made king of all Wales by the consent of all the kings and lords" in 754[39].]  King of Gwynedd.  The same source records the death "of Cynan Tindaethwy king of all Wales" in 814 "a short time after" he had expelled his brother from Anglesey[40].  The wide elapse of time suggests that the king whose death is reported in 814 could not have been the same person as the one whose accession is reported in 754, or else the earlier report is misdated.] 

 

4.         COLLWYNKing of Gwyneddm ---.  The name of Collwyn´s wife is not known.  Collwyn & his wife had one child: 

a)         GWYNm ---.  The name of Collwyn´s wife is not known.  Collwyn & his wife had one child: 

i)          CARADOG (-killed in battle Rhuddlan [796/800]).  King of Gwynedd.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the Saxons killed Caradog king of Gwynedd" in 800[41].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records "the action of Rhuddlan…where Meredydd king of Dyved and Caradawc son of Gwyn, son of Collwyn king of Gwynedd were killed" in 796[42].] 

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         HYWEL (-825).  King of Gwynedd.  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "the kingdom of Mona and the kingdom of Dyved [were] impoverished on account of the war between Hywel Vychan and his brother Cynan, in which Hywel conquered Mona" in 810[43].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Howel subdued the isle of Mona and expelled his brother Cynan" in 815 but "was a second time driven from Mona" in 817[44].  The Gwentian Chronicle records "war a second time between Hywel and his brother Cynan…upon which Cynan…attacked his brother Hywel and drove him from Mona to Man" in 814[45].  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 825 of "Higuel"[46].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death in 825 of "Howel king of Man"[47]

2.         CYNAN (-[816/17]).  King of Anglesey [Mona].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "the kingdom of Mona and the kingdom of Dyved [were] impoverished on account of the war between Hywel Vychan and his brother Cynan, in which Hywel conquered Mona" in 810[48].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Howel subdued the isle of Mona and expelled his brother Cynan" in 815[49].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records "war a second time between Hywel and his brother Cynan…upon which Cynan…attacked his brother Hywel and drove him from Mona to Man" in 814[50].]  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 816 of "Cinan rex"[51].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death in 817 of "Cynon king of Gwynedd"[52].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records the death "of Cynan Tindaethwy king of all Wales" in 814 "a short time after" he had expelled his brother from Anglesey[53].  The same source records the succession of "Cynan Tindaethwy" in 754.  The wide elapse of time suggests that the king whose death is reported in 814 could not have been the same person or the earlier report is misdated.]  m ---.  The name of Cynan´s wife is not known.  Cynan & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         [GRUFFYDD (-[814]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Gruffydd son of Cynan died through the treachery of his brother Elisse" in 814[54].]  It should be noted that the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Griffri son of Cyngen son of Cadell" was killed in 815 "through the treachery of his brother Elisse"[55].  It is not therefore known whether Gruffydd and Elisse were sons of Cynan King of Anglesey/Gwynedd or grandsons of Cadel King of Powys.  The chronology appears to favour the former interpretation, but the uncertainty of the chronology of all these early sources is recognised.] 

b)         [ELISSE (-[814/16]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Gruffydd son of Cynan died through the treachery of his brother Elisse" in 814[56].]  It should be noted that the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Griffri son of Cyngen son of Cadell" was killed in 815 "through the treachery of his brother Elisse"[57].  It is not therefore known whether Gruffydd and Elisse were sons of Cynan King of Anglesey/Gwynedd or grandsons of Cadel King of Powys.  The chronology appears to favour the former interpretation, but the uncertainty of the chronology of all these early sources is recognised.  If Elisse was the son of Cynan, he must have predeceased his father whose daughter is recorded as his heir (see below).] 

c)         ETHYLL (-after [814/16]).  While the surviving sources are consistent regarding the parentage of Ethyll, they are contradictory regarding the identity of her husband.  The mid-10th century Harleian Manuscript genealogy names the ancestors of Rhodri "Mawr/the Great": "…Rotri map Mermin map Etthil merch Cinnan…"[58].  The name of her husband, recorded in the 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan which names "Rodri Mawr son of Mervyn Vrych son of Gwryat…", is consistent with this version[59].  [The Gwentian Chronicle provides a different version of events when it records that "[the] daughter [of Cynan Tindaethwy king of all Wales] who was his heir married a chieftain of the name of Mervyn the Freckled", a later passage adding that "Mervyn the Freckled and Essyllt his wife began to reign over Gwynedd and Powys" in 818[60].]  It is impossible to judge which version is preferable.  Indeed, it is possible that Ethyll was not a historical figure at all but was invented to legitimise the dynastic change in the eyes of successor generations of kings of Gwynedd and their supporters.  m either: GWRIAD a Manx chieftain, son of ---, or: MERFYN ap Gwriad "Frych/the Freckled" King of Gwynedd, son of GWRIAD & his wife --- (-844). 

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of GWYNEDD, descendants of GWRIAD

 

 

GWRIAD, son of --- .  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan names "Rodri Mawr son of Mervyn Vrych son of Gwryat…", and traces Gwriad´s alleged ancestry back to Llywarch Hen, a supposed 6th century British prince, and further back through biblical times to Adam[61].  The point at which legend becomes fact in this descent is not known.  A Manx chieftain. 

m [ETHYLL of Gwynedd, daughter and heiress of CYNAN [King of Gwynedd] & his wife ---.  The mid-10th century Harleian Manuscript genealogy names the ancestors of Rhodri "Mawr/the Great": "…Rotri map Mermin map Etthil merch Cinnan…"[62].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "[the] daughter [of Cynan Tindaethwy king of all Wales] who was his heir married a chieftain of the name of Mervyn the Freckled", a later passage adding that "Mervyn the Freckled and Essyllt his wife began to reign over Gwynedd and Powys" in 818[63].]  As noted above, the Gwentian Chronicle records that Ethyll married Gwriad´s son Merfyn "Frych/the Freckled".  It is impossible to judge which version is preferable.  Indeed, it is possible that Ethyll was not a historical figure at all but was invented to legitimise the dynastic change in the eyes of successor generations of kings and their supporters.] 

Gwriad & his wife had one child: 

1.         MERFYN ap Gwriad "Frych/the Freckled" (-844).  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan names "Rodri Mawr son of Mervyn Vrych son of Gwryat…"[64]King of Gwynedd.  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 844 of "Mermin"[65].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death in 844 of "Mervyn the Freckled"[66]m [either: ETHYLL of Gwynedd, daughter and heiress of CYNAN [King of Gwynedd] & his wife ---, or: NEST of Powys, daughter of CADELL ap Brochwell King of Powys & his wife ---.  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that the mother of "Mervyn the Freckled" was "Nest daughter of Cadell of Derrnllwg, son of Brochwel Ysgithrog", after recording that "[the] daughter [of Cynan Tindaethwy king of all Wales] who was his heir married a chieftain of the name of Mervyn the Freckled"[67].]  The alternative marriage to Nest of Powys is now recorded in manuscripts dated no earlier than the later 14th century, although possibly copied from earlier texts[68].  It is impossible to judge which version is preferable.  Indeed, it is possible that both Ethyll and Nest were not historical figures at all but were invented to legitimise claims to Gwynedd and Powys, respectively, in the eyes of successor generations of kings and their supporters.]  Merfyn & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         RHODRI ap Merfyn "Mawr/the Great" (-killed Anglesey 878).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhodri the Great, son of Mervyn the Freckled began to reign over the Welsh" in 843[69].]  King of Gwynedd.  He succeeded his maternal uncle Cyngen ap Cadell as King of Powys in 855. 

-        see below

b)         [GWRIAD (-killed Anglesey 878).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhodri and his brother Gwriad were killed by the Saxons" in 878[70].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records "the action…in Mona in which Rhodri and his brother Gwriad, and Gweirydd son of Owain of Glamorgan were killed by the Saxons" in 873[71].]  The Annales Cambrić record that "Rotri et filius eius Guriat…jugulatur" in 877 by the Saxons[72].  With these contradictory sources, it is uncertain whether Gwriad was the brother or son of Rhodri, although the later passage quoted below which names Gwriad´s son suggests that he was Rhodri´s son.] 

 

 

RHODRI ap Merfyn "Mawr/the Great", son of MERFYN "Frych/the Freckled" ap Gwriad King of Gwynedd & his wife Nest of Powys (-killed Anglesey 878).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhodri the Great, son of Mervyn the Freckled began to reign over the Welsh" in 843[73].]  King of Gwynedd.  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhodri the Great opposed [Berthwrd king of Mercia]…with the assistance of Meuryg son of Hywel king of Glamorgan" in 843, adding that Meuryg was killed in the battle and was succeeded by "Ithel son of Hywel" who was killed by "the men of Brecknockshire" on his way to assist Rhodri[74].]  He succeeded his maternal uncle Cyngen ap Cadell as King of Powys in 855.  He succeeded in 872 as King of Seisyllwg.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Rhodri son of Merfyn king of the Britons came in flight from the dark foreigners to Ireland" in 877[75].  The Annales Cambrić record that "Rotri et filius eius Guriat…jugulatur" in 877 by the Saxons[76].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhodri and his brother Gwriad were killed by the Saxons" in 878[77].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Rhodri son of Merfyn king of the Britons was killed by the Saxons" in 878[78].  The Gwentian Chronicle records "the action…in Mona in which Rhodri and his brother Gwriad, and Gweirydd son of Owain of Glamorgan were killed by the Saxons" in 873 (dated in other sources to 878)[79]

m [ANGHARAD, daughter of MEURIG King of Ceredigion & his wife ---.  Angharad´s parentage and marriage are recorded in a manuscript now at Jesus College[80].] 

Rhodri & his wife had [four] children: 

1.         [GWRIAD (-killed Anglesey 878).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhodri and his brother Gwriad were killed by the Saxons" in 878[81].  The Gwentian Chronicle records "the action…in Mona in which Rhodri and his brother Gwriad, and Gweirydd son of Owain of Glamorgan were killed by the Saxons" in 873[82].  The Annales Cambrić record that "Rotri et filius eius Guriat…jugulatur" in 877 by the Saxons[83].  With these contradictory sources, it is uncertain whether Gwriad was the brother or son of Rhodri, although the later passage quoted below, which names Gwriad´s son, suggests that he was Rhodri´s son.]  m ---.  The name of Gwriad´s wife is not known.  Gwriad & his wife had one child: 

a)         GWGAWN (-killed 955).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gwgawn son of Gwriad son of Rhodri the Great" was killed in 955[84]

2.         ANARAWD ap Rhodri (-[913/15]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records the division of territories effected by "Rhodri the Great" and that "Gwynedd he conferred upon his son Anarawd and his palace was at Aberffraw in Mona"[85].]  King of Gwynedd.  The Gwentian Chronicle is contradicted by Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić which records that “Rothericus magnus, qui Britannice Rotheri Maur dicebatur” had “tres filios...Mervinum, Anaraut et Cadelh” who divided Wales between them, “Mervino...Nortwallia, Anaraut Powisia, Cadelh...Sudwallia[86].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Anarawd king of Gwynedd devastated Ceredigion, the territory of his brother Cadell" in 892[87].]  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 915 of "Anaraut rex"[88].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death in 913 of "Anarawd son of Rhodri, king of the Britons"[89].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Anarawd son of Rhodri the Great, king of the Britons" died in 913 and then "Hywel son of Cadell ruled over all Wales"[90].]  m ---.  The name of Anarawd´s wife is not known.  Anarawd & his wife had two children:

a)         IDWAL "Foel/the Bald" (-killed [941/43]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Eidwal the Bald son of Anarawd son of Rhodri the Great became king of Aberfraw" in 913 after his father died[91].]  King of Aberfraw.  It appears that Idwal "Foel/the Bald" was a different person from Idwal, son of King Rhodri, who became King of Gwynedd (see below).  This is apparent from the passage in the Gwentian Chronicle which records that "the Welsh gained their freedom…through the bravery and wisdom of Eidwal the Bald and his brother Elisseu…and Idwal son of Rhodri the Great" in 940[92].  [The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Idwal son of Rhodri, and his brother Elised were killed by the Saxons" in 941[93].]  m ---.  The name of Idwal´s wife is not known.  Idwal & his wife had [one child]: 

i)          [IDWAL "Fychan/the Little" (-killed [978/79]).  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Idwal Vychan son of Idwal the Bald" was killed in 978[94].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Idwal was slain" in 979[95].] 

b)         ELISSEU (-killed [941/43]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle which records that "the Welsh gained their freedom…through the bravery and wisdom of Eidwal the Bald and his brother Elisseu…and Idwal son of Rhodri the Great" in 940[96].]  [The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Idwal son of Rhodri, and his brother Elised were killed by the Saxons" in 941[97].]  m ---.  The name of Elisseu´s wife is not known.  Elisseu & his wife had one child: 

i)          CYNAN .  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cynan son of Elisseu was endangered by poision given to him" in 943[98].] 

3.         CADELL (-[900/09]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records the division of territories effected by "Rhodri the Great" and that "Cadell his eldest son had Ceredigion and his palace at Dinevwr…[with] the supremacy to the oldest of the three diademed princes"[99].]  King of Ceredigion.  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cadell son of Rhodri subjugated his brother Mervyn and took Powys from him, and then ruled over all Wales" in 877[100].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Anarawd king of Gwynedd devastated Ceredigion, the territory of his brother Cadell" in 892[101].]  Cadell succeeded as King of South Wales [Deheubarth], bordered by the Irish Sea, the Severn and the rivers Wye and Dovey, with his residence at Dinevawr on the river Towy in Carmarthenshire[102].  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić records that “Rothericus magnus, qui Britannice Rotheri Maur dicebatur” had “tres filios...Mervinum, Anaraut et Cadelh” who divided Wales between them, “Mervino...Nortwallia, Anaraut Powisia, Cadelh...Sudwallia”, and adds that Cadell acquired the whole of Wales after the death of his brothers[103].  Bridgeman records that Cadell´s kingdom at first approximately corresponded to the 19th century Welsh counties of Cardigan, Pembroke, Carmarthen, Glamorgan, Monmouth and Brecknock[104].  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 909 of "Catell filius Rodri rex"[105].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death in 907 of "Cadell son of Rhodri"[106].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cadell son of Rhodri the Great" died in 900[107].]  m ---.  The name of Cadell´s wife is not known.  Cadell & his wife had three children:

a)         HYWEL "Dda/the Black" (-[948/50]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "his son Hywel was made king of Ceredigion" in 900 after the death of "Cadell son of Rhodri the Great"[108].]  He succeeded his father in 909 as King of Deheubarth.  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Anarawd son of Rhodri the Great, king of the Britons" died in 913 and then "Hywel son of Cadell ruled over all Wales"[109].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys son of Tewdwr began to reign" in 1077[110].  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić records the descent of the rulers of South Wales in reverse chronological order as follows: “...Theodorus filius Cadelh, Cadelh filius Eneć, Eneas filius Oenei, Oeneus filius Hoeli da, id est Hoeli boni, Hoelus filius Cadelh, Cadelh filius Roderici magni[111].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "king Howel the Good, son of Cadell, went to Rome" in 926[112]King of Gwynedd.  Athelstan King of Wessex agreed the frontier with the Welsh princes along the river Wye at a meeting in Hereford in [930], exacting a heavy tribute from them.  Hywel visited Athelstan King of Wessex many times between 931 and 937, and was influenced by English life and methods of government[113].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Eidwal the Bald, son of Anarawd being dead, Hywel took upon himself the government of all Wales" in 943[114].]  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 950 of "Higuel rex Brittonum"[115].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Howel the Good, son of king Cadell, chief and glory of all the Britons" died in 948[116].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Hywel the Good, son of Cadell king of all Wales" died in 948[117].]  m ([904]) ELEN of Dyfed, daughter and heiress of LLYWARCH ap Hyfaidd King of Dyfed & his wife --- (-[943]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Elen wife of Hywel the Good" died in 943[118].]  Hywel & his wife had four children: 

i)          DYVNWAL (-951).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Dyvenwal and Rhodri sons of Howel" died in 951[119]

ii)         RHODRI (-[951/54]).  King of Gwynedd, jointly with his brothers.  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 954 of "Rotri filius Higuel"[120].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Dyvenwal and Rhodri sons of Howel" died in 951[121]

iii)        EDWIN (-952).  King of Gwynedd, jointly with his brothers.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Edwin son of Howel the Good" died in 952[122]

iv)       OWAIN ap Hywel (-[987/88]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "his son Owain took the rule of Ceredigion" after the death of "Hywel the Good, son of Cadell king of all Wales" in 948[123].]  King of Gwynedd, jointly with his brothers. 

-         see below, Part C

b)         MEURYG (-936).  [The Gwentian Chronicle names "Meuryg and Clydog" as the two other sons of "Cadell son of Rhodri the Great"[124].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Clydog son of Cadell son of Rhodri the Great was killed by his brother Meurug" in 917[125].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Clydog son of Cadell was killed by his brother Meuryg" in 914[126].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Hennyrth, son of Clydog, and his brother Meurug" died in 936[127].]  m ---.  The name of Meurug´s wife is not known.  Meurug & his wife had two children: 

i)          IONAVAL (-killed 984).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Ionaval son of Meurug was killed, and Cadwallon son of Ieuav killed him" in 984[128]

ii)         IDWAL (-killed in battle Penmynydd, Anglesey 994).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "the black Danes came to island of Mona and devastated the whole island as they pleased" in 993 and "on that account the Welsh took Idwal son of Meuryg and made him prince over them", adding that he "established government in Gwynedd…for he was taught by Hywel son of Morgan the Great…while in exile at the court of Ithel prince of Glamorgan"[129].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Idwal son of Meurug was killed" in 995[130].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Swaen son of Harallt accompanied by the black Danes came to Gwynedd, where the battle of Penmynydd in Mona took place where Idwal son of Meuryg, prince of Gwynedd was slain" in 994[131].] 

c)         CLYDOG (-killed [914/19]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle names "Meuryg and Clydog" as the two other sons of "Cadell son of Rhodri the Great"[132].]  King of Seissyllwg.  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 919 of "Clitauc rex"[133].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Clydog son of Cadell son of Rhodri the Great was killed by his brother Meurug" in 917[134].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Clydog son of Cadell was killed by his brother Meuryg" in 914[135].]  m ---.  The name of Clydog´s wife is not known.  Clydog & his wife had one child: 

i)          HENNYRTH (-936).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Hennyrth, son of Clydog, and his brother Meurug" died in 936[136]

4.         MERFYN (-killed [892/903]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records the division of territories effected by "Rhodri the Great" and that "Powys he gave to his son Mervyn and his palace was at Mathraval"[137].]  King of Powys.  The Gwentian Chronicle is contradicted by Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić which records that “Rothericus magnus, qui Britannice Rotheri Maur dicebatur” had “tres filios...Mervinum, Anaraut et Cadelh” who divided Wales between them, “Mervino...Nortwallia, Anaraut Powisia, Cadelh...Sudwallia[138].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cadell son of Rhodri subjugated his brother Mervyn and took Powys from him, and then ruled over all Wales" in 877[139].]  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 903 of "Merwyn filius Rodri"[140].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Mervyn king of Powys was slain by his own men" in 892[141].] 

Rhodri had [one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress]: 

5.          [IDWAL (-killed in battle 943).  The Gwentian Chronicle, the Annales Cambrić, and the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales all name "Idwal son of Rhodri" as shown in the passages quoted in this section.  The difficulties of this parentage are discussed below.  King of Gwynedd.] 

-           see below

 

 

IDWAL, son of [RHODRI King of Gwynedd & his mistress ---] (-killed in battle 943).  The Gwentian Chronicle, the Annales Cambrić, and the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales all name "Idwal son of Rhodri" as shown in the passages quoted in this section.  The chronology is stretched for Idwal to have been the son of King Rhodri "Mawr/the Great".  However, it is clear that he must have been a different person from Idwal "Foel/the Bald", son of Anarawd ap Rhodri King of Gwynedd (see above), as the two persons are both named in the passage in the Gwentian Chronicle which records that "the Welsh gained their freedom…through the bravery and wisdom of Eidwal the Bald and his brother Elisseu…and Idwal son of Rhodri the Great" in 940[142].  There is no record of Idwal having been provided for with territories by King Rhodri unlike his three surviving legitimate sons who are named above.  If Idwal was Rhodri´s son, he must have been illegitimate, born late in his father´s life.  It is suggested instead that the earlier passage in the Gwentian Chronicle is correct and that Idwal was the son of Anarawd.  A different perspective is provided by Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić which records the descent of the rulers of North Wales in reverse chronological order as follows: “David filius Oenei, Oeneus filius Griphini, Griphinus filius Canani, Cananus filius Iago, Iago filius Ythewal, Ythewal filius Meuric, Meuric filius Anaudrech, Anaudrech filius Mervini, Mervinus filius Roderici magni[143].  This descent omits Meuric, son of Idwal as noted below, the omission of a generation suggesting that the earlier ancestry may be truncated.  King of Gwynedd.  He visited Ćthelstan King of Wessex many times between 931 and 937[144].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "the Welsh gained their freedom…through the bravery and wisdom of Eidwal the Bald and his brother Elisseu, Cadell son of Arthvael son of Hywel lord of Glamorgan, and Idwal son of Rhodri the Great" in 940 after the death of King Ćthelstan, but adding that "on that account they were killed by the Saxons by treachery and ambush"[145].]  The Annales Cambrić record that "Iudgual filius Rodri et filius eius Elized" were killed by the Saxons in 943[146]

m ---.  The name of Idwal´s wife is not known. 

Idwal & his wife had six children:

1.         [ELISSED (-killed in battle 943).  The Annales Cambrić record that "Iudgual filius Rodri et filius eius Elized" were killed by the Saxons in 943[147].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Idwal son of Rhodri, and his brother Elised were killed by the Saxons" in 941[148].  It is not clear from these passages whether Elissed was the brother or son of Idwal, and whether the Idwal in question was Idwal "Foel/the Bald", son of Anarawd ap Rhodri King of Gwynedd (see above) or Idwal son of King Rhodri.]  m ---.  The name of Elissed´s wife is not known.  Elissed & his wife had one child:

a)         PRAUST .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m SEISYLL, son of ---. 

2.         MEURIC (-986).  The Annales Cambrić record that "Meuric filius Idwal" was blinded, undated, and in a later passage (also undated) that he was killed[149].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Hywel son of Ieuav…caught his uncle Meuryg and pulled out his eyes, for blinding Ieuav the father of Hywel" in 968[150].]  m ---.  The name of Meuric´s wife is not known.  Meuric & his wife had one child:

a)         IDWAL (-996).  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić records the descent of the rulers of North Wales in reverse chronological order as follows: “David filius Oenei, Oeneus filius Griphini, Griphinus filius Canani, Cananus filius Iago, Iago filius Ythewal, Ythewal filius Meuric, Meuric filius Anaudrech, Anaudrech filius Mervini, Mervinus filius Roderici magni[151].  The Annales Cambrić record that "Idwal filius Meuruc" was killed, undated[152]m ---.  The name of Idwal´s wife is not known.  Idwal & his wife had one child:

i)          IAGO ab Idwal (-killed [1036/39]).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iago son of Idwal held the government of Gwynedd after Llywelyn son of Seisyll", under 1031[153]King of Gwynedd

-         see below

3.         IAGO (-985).  King of Gwynedd, jointly with his brother.  The Annales Cambrić record that "Iago et Idwal filii Idwal" laid waste to "Dewet" in 952[154].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iago and Ieuav, sons of Idwal, ravaged Dyfed twice" in 950[155].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "King Edgar…went to Gwynedd and causing Iago son of Idwal to come to him, he imposed upon him a tribute of three hundred wolves´ heads yearly" in 962[156].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iago son of Idwal blinded his brother Ieuav son of Idwal, and Ieuav was imprisoned, and after that hanged" in 967[157].  He was deposed in 972: the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iago was expelled from his territory, and Howel ruled in consequence of his victory" in 972[158].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iago was captured, and Howel son of Ieuav had the victory and conquered the territory of Iago" in 978[159]m ---.  The name of Iago´s wife is not known.  Iago & his wife had one child: 

a)         CONSTANTINE (-killed in battle Hirbarth 979).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Constantine son of Iago and Godfrey son of Harold devastated Lleyn and Mona" in 979, but that "Constantine son of Iago was killed by Howel son of Ieuav in the battle called the action of Hirbauth" in the same year[160].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Constantine son of Iago son of Idwal came to Mona accompanied by a host of black Danes" in 978 and "Gotfrid son of Harallt and Constantine went from thence to Lleyn and ravaged the country in the same manner and there…Constantine the Black was slain in the action of Hirbarth"[161].] 

4.         IDWAL (-after 952).  King of Gwynedd, jointly with his brother.  The Annales Cambrić record that "Iago et Idwal filii Idwal" laid waste to "Dewet" in 952[162]m ---.  The name of Idwal´s wife is not known.  Idwal & his wife had two children:  

a)         MEURUG (-after 972).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Meurug son of Idwal fell sick" in 972[163]

b)         IEUAV (-987).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Ieuav son of Idwal died" in 987[164]

5.         IEUAV (-985).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iago and Ieuav, sons of Idwal, ravaged Dyfed twice" in 950[165].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iago son of Idwal blinded his brother Ieuav son of Idwal, and Ieuav was imprisoned, and after that hanged" in 967[166].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "a great hatred arose between the sons of Idwal, Iago and Ieuav and…Iago caught his brother Ieuav and imprisoned him and blinded him with a hot iron" in 967[167].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Ieuav son of Idwal died in prison, where he was for many years solitary, deprived of his eyes" in 985[168].]  m ---.  The name of Ieuav´s wife is not known.  Ieuav & his wife had three children: 

a)         HYWEL (-killed 984).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the Grove of Celynog the Great was devastated a second time by Howel son of Ieuav and the Saxons" in 977[169].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iago was captured, and Howel son of Ieuav had the victory and conquered the territory of Iago" in 978[170].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the Saxons killed Howel, son of Ieuav, through treachery" in 984[171].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Hywel son of Ieuav sent to England against the Saxons…and there he was slain" in 984[172].]  m ---.  The name of Hywel´s wife is not known.  Hywel & his wife had one child: 

i)          CYNAN (-killed 1003).  King of Gwynedd.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cynan son of Howel reigned in Gwynedd" in 999 and was killed in 1003[173]

b)         CADWALLON (-killed in battle 985).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cadwallon son of Ieuan took upon him the government of all Gwynedd" in 984 after "Hywel son of Ieuav" was killed[174].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Ionaval son of Meurug was killed, and Cadwallon son of Ieuav killed him" in 984[175].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Owain killed Cadwallon son of Ieuav victoriously and subjugated his territory, to wit the Isle of Mona and Meirionydd, and all the districts of Gwynedd he subdued by extreme craft and cunning" in 985[176].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Owain son of Hywel the Good led a great army to Gwynedd" in 985 and fought and killed "Cadwallon son of Ieuan and his brother Meuryg"[177].] 

c)         MAIG (-killed in battle 985).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maig son of Ieuav was killed" in 985[178].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Owain son of Hywel the Good led a great army to Gwynedd" in 985 and fought and killed "Cadwallon son of Ieuan and his brother Meuryg"[179].] 

6.         RHODRI (-killed 966).  The Annales Cambrić record the death of "Rodri filius Idwal", killed, undated[180].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhodri son of Idwal" was killed in 966[181].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhodri son of Eidwal was killed by the Irish of Mona, and on that account Iago son of Eidwal destroyed Aberfraw where the Irish resided" in 966[182].] 

 

 

IAGO ap Idwal, son of IDWAL of Gwynedd & his wife --- (-killed [1036/39]).  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić records the descent of the rulers of North Wales in reverse chronological order as follows: “David filius Oenei, Oeneus filius Griphini, Griphinus filius Canani, Cananus filius Iago, Iago filius Ythewal, Ythewal filius Meuric, Meuric filius Anaudrech, Anaudrech filius Mervini, Mervinus filius Roderici magni[183]King of Gwynedd.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iago son of Idwal held the government of Gwynedd after Llywelyn son of Seisyll", under 1031[184].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iago king of Gwynedd was slain" in 1037[185].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Grufudd" defeated and killed "Iago son of Idwal prince of Gwynedd" and "took the government of Gwynedd and so became king of Wales from the Irish Channel to the Severn sea", dated to [1036] from the context[186].] 

m ---.  The name of Iago´s wife is not known. 

Iago & his wife had [two] children:

1.         CYNAN ap Iago (-[1060]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cynan son of Iago came with a great host of his family from Ireland with the intention of reaching Gwynedd and gaining his territory from Grufudd son of Llywelyn" in 1050[187].] 

-        see below

2.         [GRUFFYDD .  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which records that "the battle on Carn mountain took place, when were slain Trahaiarn son of Caradog, the son of Gruffudd, grandson of Iago, and with him the Scots his auxiliaries" in 1079[188].  It is uncertain whether "grandson of Iago" in this text applies to Caradog or his father Gruffydd.  From a chronological point of view, it would make more sense if Gruffydd was the son of Iago.]  m ---.  The name of Gruffyd´s wife is not known.  Gruffyd & his wife had one child:

a)         CARADOG .  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which records that "the battle on Carn mountain took place, when were slain Trahaiarn son of Caradog, the son of Gruffudd, grandson of Iago, and with him the Scots his auxiliaries" in 1079[189]m ---.  The name of Caradog´s wife is not known.  Caradog & his wife had one child:

i)          TRAHAIARN (-killed in battle Carn mountain 1079).  King of Gwynedd.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Bleddyn son of Cynvyn was killed by Rhys son of Owain" in 1073, after which "Trahaiarn son of Caradog his cousin ruled over the kingdom of the Gwyneddians"[190].  The precise relationship between Bleddyn and Trahaiarn has not been traced.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the battle on Carn mountain took place, when were slain Trahaiarn son of Caradog, the son of Gruffudd, grandson of Iago, and with him the Scots his auxiliaries" in 1079[191]m ---.  The name of Traihaiarn´s wife is not known.  Traihaiarn & his wife had three children:

(a)       MEURUG (-killed 1103).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Meurug and Griffi, sons of Trahaiarn son of Caradog" were killed in 1103[192].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Owain son of Cadwgawn son of Bleddyn killed Meurug and Gruffudd the sons of Trahearn son of Caradog" in 1105[193].] 

(b)       GRUFFYDD (-killed 1103).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Meurug and Griffi, sons of Trahaiarn son of Caradog" were killed in 1103[194].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Owain son of Cadwgawn son of Bleddyn killed Meurug and Gruffudd the sons of Trahearn son of Caradog" in 1105[195].] 

(c)       LLYWARCH (-after 1106).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Llywarch son of Trahaiarn, the man whose brothers were killed by Owain" helped "Gerald the steward" to recover his wife Nest after she was abducted by "Owain [son of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn" in 1106[196]m ---.  The name of Llywarch´s wife is not known.  Llywarch & his wife had one child: 

(1)       GWLADUS .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m as his first wife, OWAIN ap Gruffydd King of Gwynedd, son of GRUFFYDD ap Cynan King of Gwynedd & his wife Angharad of Deheubarth ([1100]-Nov 1169). 

 

 

CYNAN ap Iago, son of IAGO ap Idwal King of Gwynedd & his wife --- (-[1060]).  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić records the descent of the rulers of North Wales in reverse chronological order as follows: “David filius Oenei, Oeneus filius Griphini, Griphinus filius Canani, Cananus filius Iago, Iago filius Ythewal, Ythewal filius Meuric, Meuric filius Anaudrech, Anaudrech filius Mervini, Mervinus filius Roderici magni[197].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cynan son of Iago came with a great host of his family from Ireland with the intention of reaching Gwynedd and gaining his territory from Grufudd son of Llywelyn" in 1050 but his fleet was scattered by storms[198].]  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan names the father of Gruffydd ap Cynan as "Cynan son of Iago son of Idwal…"[199].  This parentage is not mentioned either in the Annales Cambrić or the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales, and it is uncertain how accurate the History can be given its late date  It should be noted that the chronology of Cynan ap Iago, and that of his supposed son Gruffydd ap Cynan, is inconsistent with Trahaiarn King of Gwynnedd, supposed great nephew of Cynan ap Iago, as indicated in the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales (see above).  His marriage, and the birth of his son reported in Dublin, indicates that he was exiled to Ireland. 

m RAGNHILD, daughter of OLAV King of Dublin & his [---] wife ---.  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan records that he was born in Dublin, son of "Cynan king of Gwynedd and his mother Ragnaillt daughter of Olaf King of the city of Dublin", adding that his maternal grandmother was "Mailcorcre daughter of Dunlang son of Tuathal King of Leinster"[200]

Cynan & his wife had one child: 

1.         [GRUFFYDD ap Cynan (Dublin [1054/55]-1137, bur Bangor).  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić records the descent of the rulers of North Wales in reverse chronological order as follows: “David filius Oenei, Oeneus filius Griphini, Griphinus filius Canani, Cananus filius Iago, Iago filius Ythewal, Ythewal filius Meuric, Meuric filius Anaudrech, Anaudrech filius Mervini, Mervinus filius Roderici magni[201].  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan records that he was born in Dublin, son of "Cynan king of Gwynedd and his mother Ragnaillt daughter of Olaf King of the city of Dublin"[202].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Cynan fought against the men of Iago and of Mona, and the Gwyneddians killed Cynvrig son of Rhiwallon" in 1073[203].  According to the 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan, Gruffydd defeated "Trahaiarn son of Caradoc and Cenwric son of Rhiwallon, Kings of Powys and all Gwynedd" and, with help from "Robert of Rhuddlan…nephew to Hugh Earl of Chester" imposed himself as king of Gwynedd after prevailing at the battle of "Gwaet Erw"[204].  None of these alleged exploits are recorded the Annales Cambrić or the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales, and it is uncertain how accurate the History can be given its late date.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cadwgan son of Bleddyn and Gruffudd son of Cynan left the isle of Mona and retreated into Ireland for fear of the treachery of their own men" in 1096[205].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cadwgan son of Bleddyn and Gruffudd son of Cynan returned from Ireland" in 1097 and "made peace with the French…[and] retained part of the country…Gruffud obtained Mona"[206].  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1137 of "Grifinus filius Conani"[207].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Cynan" died in 1136[208].  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan records the death of Gruffydd ap Cynan aged 82 [probably exaggerated] and his burial at Bangor[209].]  m ([1095]) ANGHARAD of Deheubarth, daughter of OWAIN ap Edwin of Deheubarth (-1161).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Angharad daughter of Owain son of Edwin was the wife of Gruffudd son of Cynan" in 1122[210].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Angharad the wife of Gruffudd son of Cynan" died in 1161[211].  Gruffydd & his wife had eight children: 

a)         CADWALLON (-1132).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Angharad daughter of Owain son of Edwin was the wife of Gruffudd son of Cynan" and mother of "Cadwallon and Owain and Cadwalader and of many daughters"[212].  The Annales Cambrić record that "Catwalaun filius Grifini" was killed in 1132 by "consobrino suo Cadugaun filio Goronou"[213]m ---.  The name of Cadwallon´s wife is not known.  Cadwallon & his wife had one child: 

i)          CUNEDDA (-after 1151).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Owain of Gwynedd pulled out the eyes of Cunedda son of Cadwallon his nephew, being his brother´s son, and emasculated him" in 1151[214].] 

b)         OWAIN ([1100]-Nov 1169).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Angharad daughter of Owain son of Edwin was the wife of Gruffudd son of Cynan" and mother of "Cadwallon and Owain and Cadwalader and of many daughters"[215]King of Gwynedd.  He changed his title from King to Prince in [1152]. 

-        see below

c)         CADWALADR (-Mar 1172).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Angharad daughter of Owain son of Edwin was the wife of Gruffudd son of Cynan" and mother of "Cadwallon and Owain and Cadwalader and of many daughters"[216].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Owain and Cadwalader the sons of Gruffudd son of Cynan led a large and cruel army into Ceredigion" in 1135[217].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cadwalader son of Gruffudd son of Cynan" died Mar 1172[218]m ALICE de Clare, daughter of RICHARD FitzGilbert de Clare Earl of Hertford & his wife Agnes [Adelisa] of Chester.  Domesday Descendants notes her parentage and marriage but does not cite the corresponding primary source[219].  Cadwaladr & his wife had one child:  

i)          daughter .  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Anarawd son of Gruffudd son of Rhys…was married to the daughter of Cadwaladr [son of Grufudd son of Cynan] against the inclination of Cawaladr" in 1142, after which "Cadwaladr stabbed Anarawd in the ribs so that he died"[220].]  m (1142) ANARAWD, illegitimate son of GRUFFYDD ap Rhys & his mistress --- (-1143). 

d)         GWENLLIAN (-1136).  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan names "Gwenlliant and Margaret and Rhannillt and Susanna and Annest" as the daughters of Gruffydd ap Cynan by his wife[221].  [The Gwentian Chronicle names "Gwenllian daughter of Grufudd son of Cynan" as the mother of "Rhys" son of "Grufudd son of Rhys"[222].]  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which names "Rhys son of Gruffudd" and "his uncle Owain Gwynedd" in 1155[223]m (after 1116) GRUFFYDD ap Rhys Prince of Dyfed, son of RHYS ap Tewdr King of Deheubarth & his wife Gwladus --- ([1090]-1137). 

e)         MARARED .  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan names "Gwenlliant and Margaret and Rhannillt and Susanna and Annest" as the daughters of Gruffydd ap Cynan by his wife[224]

f)          RANNILL .  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan names "Gwenlliant and Margaret and Rhannillt and Susanna and Annest" as the daughters of Gruffydd ap Cynan by his wife[225]

g)         SUSANN .  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan names "Gwenlliant and Margaret and Rhannillt and Susanna and Annest" as the daughters of Gruffydd ap Cynan by his wife[226]m MADOG ap Maredudd Prince of Powys, son of MAREDUDD ap Bleddyn Prince of Powys & his first wife Hunydd --- (-1160, bur Meivod). 

h)         ANNEST .  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan names "Gwenlliant and Margaret and Rhannillt and Susanna and Annest" as the daughters of Gruffydd ap Cynan by his wife[227]

Gruffydd had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

i)           GWENLLIAN ([1080]-).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "Gwenllian daughter of Gruffudd son of Cynan" as mother of "Madog son of Cadwgan" in 1113[228].  m (1098) as his [fourth] wife, CADWGAN ap Bleddyn Prince of Powys, son of BLEDDYN ap Cynfyn Prince of Powys & his first wife --- (-killed [1108/11]). 

 

 

OWAIN ap Gruffydd, son of GRUFFYDD ap Cynan King of Gwynedd & his wife Angharad of Deheubarth ([1100]-Nov 1169).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Angharad daughter of Owain son of Edwin was the wife of Gruffudd son of Cynan" and mother of "Cadwallon and Owain and Cadwalader and of many daughters"[229].  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić records the descent of the rulers of North Wales in reverse chronological order as follows: “David filius Oenei, Oeneus filius Griphini, Griphinus filius Canani, Cananus filius Iago, Iago filius Ythewal, Ythewal filius Meuric, Meuric filius Anaudrech, Anaudrech filius Mervini, Mervinus filius Roderici magni[230].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Owain and Cadwalader the sons of Gruffudd son of Cynan led a large and cruel army into Ceredigion" in 1135[231]King of Gwynedd.  He changed his title from King to Prince [1152].  Robert of Torigny records the death in 1171 of "rex Oenus avunculus eius" (referring to "Ris rex Walensium")[232].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Owain Gwynedd son of Gruffudd son of Cynan, prince of Gwynedd" died in Nov 1169[233]

m firstly GWLADUS, daughter of LLYWARCH ap Trahearn ap Caradog & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

m secondly his first cousin, CRISIANT, daughter of GRONW ap Owain ap Edwin of Deheubarth & his wife ---.  The Gwentian Chronicle names "Crisiant daughter of Goronmy son of Owain son of Ednywain" as the mother of "David son of Owain"[234]

Mistress (1): ---. 

Mistress (2): ---. 

Mistress (3): PYFOG, daughter of ---.  [The Gwentian Chronicle names "Pyvog daughter of an honourable lord in Ireland" as the mother of "Hywel son of Owain"[235].] 

Mistresses (4) - (6): ---. 

Owain & his first wife had two children:

1.         IORWERTH "Drwyndwyn/flat nose" (-1174).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annales Cambrić which name his son "Lewelinus filius Gervasii filii Owini Guynet…princeps Wallić"[236].  He succeeded his father in 1170 as IORWERTH Prince of Gwyneddm MARARED of Powys, daughter of MADOG ap Maredudd King of Powys & his wife Susann of Gwynedd.  Marared´s parentage and marriage are recorded in a manuscript now at Jesus College "Marareda merch Madawc m Maredud"[237].  Iorwerth & his wife had one child: 

a)         LLYWELYN ap Iorwerth ([1173]-11 Apr 1240, bur Aberconway).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Llywelyn son of Iorwerth and Rhodri son of Owain and the two sons of Cynan son of Owain combined against David son of Owain Gwynedd and oppugned all the territory of David, except three castles" in 1194[238].  He succeeded in 1194 as LLYWELYN Prince of Gwynedd, ruler of All Wales. 

-        see below

2.         MAELGWN (-before 16 May 1218).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "David son of Owain Gwynedd put all his brothers in prison, but Maelgwn kept the island of Mona in opposition to him for three years, after which David…gained the island and imprisoned Maelgwn, who shortly after broke out of prison and released his kindred and brothers", in 1173[239].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "David son of Owain took his brother Maelgwn and imprisoned him" in 1174[240].  King Henry III ordered an enquiry whether "Mailgun uncle of Llewellyn Prince of North Wales had seisin of land held by Adam le Savonier in Dublin" and if he did that "seisin thereof be given to Llewellyn his nephew and heir" dated 16 May 1218[241]

Prince Owain & his second wife had two children:

3.         DAFYDD (-1203).  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić records the descent of the rulers of North Wales in reverse chronological order as follows: “David filius Oenei, Oeneus filius Griphini, Griphinus filius Canani, Cananus filius Iago, Iago filius Ythewal, Ythewal filius Meuric, Meuric filius Anaudrech, Anaudrech filius Mervini, Mervinus filius Roderici magni[242].  The Annales Cambrić name "Owinus princeps Norwallić cum filiis suis Hoelo, Canano et David" when recording that they besieged "apud Dinas Bassing castra" in 1158[243].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "David son of Owain killed his eldest brother Howel son of Owain" in 1170[244].  He succeeded his half-brother in 1174 as DAFYDD I Prince of Gwynedd.  He was deposed in 1194 by his nephew.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Llywelyn son of Iorwerth and Rhodri son of Owain and the two sons of Cynan son of Owain combined against David son of Owain Gwynedd and oppugned all the territory of David, except three castles" in 1194[245]m ([1174]) EMMA d'Anjou, illegitimate daughter of GEOFFROY V "le Bel/Plantagenet" Comte d'Anjou & his mistress ---.  A manuscript entitled "De Origine Comitum Andegavensium" records that "Gaufridus Plantagenet Comes Andegavensium" had an illegitimate daughter "Emmam quam David Norwallensium Princeps"[246].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "king David married dame Emma the sister of the king of England" in 1175[247].  The 1173/74 Pipe Roll records "pannis et apparatu sororis reg q Dauid fil Oeni dux uxore" in London/Middlesex[248].  The Testa de Nevill includes a writ of King John dated 1212 which records that "Emma quondam uxor David Regis Wallie" was granted "manerium de Hales" in Shropshire by King Henry II[249].  Dafydd & his wife had two children: 

a)         OWAIN

b)         daughter . 

4.         RHODRI (-1195).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhodri escaped from the prison of his brother David, and before the end of the year, he expelled David out of Mona and out of Gwynedd until he passed through the river Conway" in 1175[250].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Llywelyn son of Iorwerth and Rhodri son of Owain and the two sons of Cynan son of Owain combined against David son of Owain Gwynedd and oppugned all the territory of David, except three castles" in 1194[251].  Lord of Anglesey.  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1195 of "Rodri filius Owini"[252]m firstly NEST of Deheubarth, daughter of RHYS ap Gruffydd King of Deheubarth.  m secondly --- of Man, daughter of RAGNALD I King of Man.  For their descendants, see "Jones-Lloyd" in Burke's Landed Gentry. 

Prince Owain had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

5.          CYNVRIG (-killed 1138).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cynvrig son of Owain Gwynedd was killed by Madoc son of Maredudd son of Bleddyn son of Cynvyn" in 1138[253].] 

Prince Owain had one illegitimate son by Mistress (2):

6.          RHUN (-1146). 

Prince Owain had one illegitimate son by Mistress (3): 

7.          HYWEL (-1170).  The Annales Cambrić name "Owinus princeps Norwallić cum filiis suis Hoelo, Canano et David" when recording that they besieged "apud Dinas Bassing castra" in 1158[254].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "David son of Owain killed his eldest brother Howel son of Owain" in 1170[255]

Prince Owain had three illegitimate children by Mistresses (4) to (6):

8.          CYNAN (-1173).  The Annales Cambrić name "Owinus princeps Norwallić cum filiis suis Hoelo, Canano et David" when recording that they besieged "apud Dinas Bassing castra" in 1158[256].  Lord of Eifionydd, Ardudwy and Meirionydd.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cynan son of Owain Gwynedd" died in 1174[257].  m ---.  Cynan & his wife had two children: 

a)         GRUFFYDD (-Aberconway 1200).  Lord of Meirionydd and Ardudwy in 1188.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Llywelyn son of Iorwerth and Rhodri son of Owain and the two sons of Cynan son of Owain combined against David son of Owain Gwynedd and oppugned all the territory of David, except three castles" in 1194[258].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Cynan son of Owain" died in 1200 "after taking upon him the religious habit, at Aberconway"[259].  m ---.  Gruffydd & his wife had one child: 

i)          HYWEL (-1216).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Cynan was expelled from Meirionydd by Howel son of Gruffud his nephew" in 1202[260].  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1215 of "Hoelus filius Grifini"[261]. 

b)         MAREDUDD (-1212).  Lord of Eifionydd in 1188.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Llywelyn son of Iorwerth and Rhodri son of Owain and the two sons of Cynan son of Owain combined against David son of Owain Gwynedd and oppugned all the territory of David, except three castles" in 1194[262].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Cynan was expelled from Meirionydd by Howel son of Gruffud his nephew" in 1202[263].  m ---.  Maredudd & his wife had two children: 

i)          LLYWELYN Fawr/senior .  m ---.  The name of Llywelyn´s wife is not known.  Llywelyn & his wife had one child: 

(a)        MAREDUDD (-1254).  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1254 of "iuvenis Mareduth filius Lewelini de Meronnyth, relicto unico hćrede filio de Guenllian filia Mailgonis"[264].  m GWENLLIAN, daughter of MAELGWYN Fychan & his wife ---.  Maredudd & his wife had one child: 

(1)        LLYWELYN (-1263). 

ii)         LLYWELYN Fychan/junior . 

9.          ANGHARAD m GRUFFYDD Maelor [I] ap Madog Prince of Fadog [Northern Powys], son of MADOG ap Maredudd Prince of Powys & his wife Susanna of Gwynedd (-1191). 

10.       GWENLLIAN m as his first wife, OWAIN "Cyfelliog" ap Gruffydd Prince of Southern Powys, son of GRUFFYDD ap Maredudd Lord of Mawddy & his wife Gwerfyl of Caer ([1125]-1195). 

 

 

LLYWELYN ap Iorwerth, son of IORWERTH "Drwyndwyn/flat nose" Prince of Gwynedd & his wife Marared of Powys (1173-11 Apr 1240[265], bur Aberconway).  He succeeded in 1194 as LLYWELYN "Fawr/the Great" Prince of Gwynedd, Prince of All Wales.  The Annales Cambrić name "Lewelinus filius Gervasii filii Owini Guynet…princeps Wallić"[266].  The Annales Londonienses record the death "Id Apr" in 1240 of "Lewelinus princeps Norwallić"[267].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Llywelyn son of Iorwerth prince of Wales died…and was buried at Aberconway" in 1240[268]

m firstly ---. 

m secondly (after 16 Apr 1205) JOAN [of England], illegitimate daughter of JOHN King of England & his mistress Clementia Pinel (-30 Mar 1237).  King John confirmed "castrum de Ellesmara" to "Lewelino principi Norwallie in maritagium cum Johanna filia nostra" by charter dated 16 Apr 1205[269].  Her husband sent her to make peace with the king her father in 1211 when the latter was attacking North Wales.  She was legitimated in 1226 by Pope Honorius III.  She and her son David did homage to King Henry III in 1229[270].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "William Bruse was hanged by Llywelyn son of Iorewerth, having been caught in the chamber of the prince with the princess Jannet, daughter of King John and wife of the prince" in 1230[271].  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1237 of "domina Johanna filia regis Anglić et uxor Lewilini principis Wallić" and her burial "apud Haber"[272].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the death “III Kal Apr” in 1236 of “domina Johanna Wallić, uxor Lewelini, filia regis Johannis et reginć Clemencić[273].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Dame Joan daughter of king John and the wife of Llywelyn son of Iorwerth" died in Feb 1237 "at the court of Aber and was buried in a new cemetery on the side of the strand which Howel bishop of Llanelwy had consecrated"[274]

Mistress (1): TANGWYSTL, daughter of LLYWARCH "Goch" of Rhos & his wife ---. 

Mistresses (2): - (7): ---.  The names of the other mistresses of Prince Llywelyn are not known. 

Prince Llywelyn & his second wife had three children:

1.         DAFYDD ([1208]-Mar 1246, bur Aberconwy).  Son of Llywelyn according to Matthew of Paris[275].  The Annales Cambrić name "David filius eius [Lewelini] de Johanna filia Johannis regis Anglić"[276].  Henry III King of England granted protection to "nepotem nostrum David filium…L. principis Norwallie" dated [May] 1229[277].  Henry III King of England granted safe passage to "David filium L. principis Norwallier in veniendo ad regem ad faciendum ei homagium suum, et sororem ipsius David" dated 5 Sep 1229[278].  He succeeded his father in 1240 as DAFYDD II Prince of Wales.  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1246 of "David filius Lewelini apud Aber" and his burial "apud Aberconuy"[279].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "David son of Llywelyn died at Aber in the month of March and was buried with his father at Aberconway" in 1246[280]m (1230) ISABEL de Briouse, daughter of WILLIAM de Briouse & his wife Eva Marshal of the Earls of Pembroke (-1248).  A letter from "L. princeps de Aberfrau, dominus Snauedonić" to "E. de Braus", dated [May] 1230, enquires whether she wishes the proposed marriage between "David filium nostrum et I. filiam vestram" to take place[281].  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey names “Isabella, Matildis, Eva et Alianora” as the four daughters of “Willielmus de Brews quartus” and his wife “Evam filiam domini Willielmi Mareschalli”, adding that Isabel married “David filio Lewelini principis Wallić[282].  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Willelmus de Brause…filiam suam” married “Leulino…filio”, with as her dowry “castello de Boet”, which reverted to her family after her husband died[283]

2.         HELEN (-1253 before 24 Oct).  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Johannes comes Cestrić” died in 1237 and “eius uxor…filia Lewelini” married “Roberto [de Quinci]” against her father´s wishes[284].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Matthew of Paris records that it was suspected that his wife "filia Leolini" poisoned John “the Scot”[285].  A writ after the death of "Eleanor, sometime the wife of John Earl of Chester", dated "the eve of St Martin 38 Hen III", records the "partition of her lands between Si J. de Bayllol, Robert de Brus, and Henry de Hasting, the heirs of the said earl"[286]m firstly ([1220/22]) JOHN "the Scot" Earl of Huntingdon, son of JOHN of Scotland Earl of Huntingdon & his wife Matilda [Maud] of Chester ([1207]-Darnal shortly before 6 Jun 1237, bur Chester St Werburg).  He was created Earl of Chester 21 Nov 1232.  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1237 of "Johannes comes Cestrić gener suus [dominć Johannć filić regis Anglić et uxor Lewilini principis Wallić]"[287]m secondly (1237 before 5 Dec) ROBERT de Quincy, son of SAHER Earl of Winchester & his wife Margaret of Leicester (-Aug 1257). 

3.         SUSANNA ([1216/21]-after 24 Nov 1228).  Henry III King of England granted the upbringing of "L. princeps Norwallie et Johanna uxor sua et…soror nostra Susannam filiam suam" to "Nicholao de Verdun et Clementie uxori sue" by order dated 24 Nov 1228[288].  Her birth date is estimated on the assumption that Susanna was under marriageable age, but older than an infant, at the time. 

Prince Llywelyn had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

4.          GRUFFYDD (before 1205-Tower of London 1 Mar 1244).  Called "frater primogenitus" of David by Matthew of Paris, when he records that Gruffydd consented to his brother's succession on the death of their father[289].  Lord of Lleyn.  He was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London, dying in an escape attempt[290]

-        see below

Prince Llywelyn had five illegitimate children by Mistresses (2) - (7):

5.          GWENLLIAN (-1281).  In his report to King Henry dated 5 Aug 1224 following the capture of castle Trum, William Marshall Earl of Pembroke records that "the wife of William de Lascy, the daughter of Llewllyn, Griffin´s sister, the wife of Thomas Blund, William´s brother, and the mother of William, of Thomas, and of him that was killed" were in the castle[291].  m WILLIAM de Lacy, son of HUGH de Lacy & his second wife Rose --- (-after 1224). 

6.          GWLADUS Ddu ("the Black") (-Windsor 1251).  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Reginaldus frater eius” (referring to “Ćgidius Herefordensis episcopus”) married “Leulini Regis Wallić…filiam” in 1216[292].  Henry III King of England granted protection to "Gwladosa filia…[L.] principis [Norwallie] que fuit uxor Reginaldi de Brausa" dated [May] 1229, issued at the same time as letters of protection to her brother David[293].  Henry III King of England granted safe passage to "David filium L. principis Norwallier in veniendo ad regem ad faciendum ei homagium suum, et sororem ipsius David" dated 5 Sep 1229[294].  It is likely that this unnamed sister of David was Gwladus, coming to England with her brother before her second marriage.  The Annals of Worcester record that “Radulphus de Mortuomari” married “filiam Lewelini, conjugem quondam Reginaldi de Breusa” in 1230[295].  A manuscript narrating the foundation of Wigmore Abbey records that “Radulphus” married “Lewelinus princeps…Gwladusam Duy filiam suam”, who brought her husband “omnibus terries de Kery et Kedewyn[296].  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1251 of "Gladus filia domini Lewelini" at Windsor[297].  m firstly ([1215/16]) as his second wife, REYNOLD de Briouse, son of WILLIAM [III] de Briouse & his wife Mathilde de Saint-Valéry Dame de la Haye (-[5 May 1227/9 Jun 1228]).  He succeeded in 1215 as Lord of Abergavenny[298]m secondly (1230) RALPH de Mortimer of Wigmore, son of ROGER de Mortimer & his wife Isabel de Ferrers (-6 Aug 1246, bur Wigmore). 

7.          MARGARET (-1272 or after, bur [Acornbury Priory, Herefordshire]).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "John de Bruse married Margaret the daughter of Llywelyn son of Iorwerth" in 1219[299].  "Katerina de Lacy filia Walteri de Lacy" donated land in Cofham, held by "domino Waltero de Clifford", to Acornbury priory, Herefordshire, for the souls of “fratris mei…et…dicti Walteri de Clifford et Margaretć uxoris suć et Margaretć filić ipsius” by undated charter, witnessed by "domino Willielmo de Evereus, domino Rogero de Clifford, domino Ricardo Tirel, domino Roberto de Lacy, domino Willielmo de Rachesford…"[300].  "Walterus de Clifford filius Walteri de Clifford et Agnetis de Cundy" donated land in Cofham to Acornbury priory, Herefordshire, also donated by "Katherinć filić Walteri de Lacy", for the souls of “Margaretć uxoris meć et dominć Mathildis filić meć” by undated charter[301].  "Margareta quondam uxor domini Walteri de Clifford" elected burial at Acornbury priory, Herefordshire by charter dated “tertia die dominica proxima ante festum sancti Thomć apostoli” in 1260, witnessed by "…Henrico de Clifford…"[302].  m firstly (1219) JOHN de Briouse Lord of Bramber and Gower, son of WILLIAM de Briouse & his wife --- (-1232).  m secondly WALTER [III] de Clifford of Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, son of WALTER [II] de Clifford & his wife Agnes de Cundy (-Dec 1263). 

8.          ANGHARAD m MAELGWN ap Maelgwn "Fychan" Lord of Ceredigion [Cardigan], son of MAELGWN ap Rhys Lord of Ceredigion & his wife --- (-1257). 

9.          [HELEN] (before [1230]-after 16 Feb 1295).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death in 1228 of "Malcolmus comes de Fyfe" and the succession of "Malcolmus nepos eius, filius…fratris eius", adding that the latter later married "filiam Leulini regis Wallić"[303].  The Chronicle of Melrose records the death in 1230 of "Malcolm earl of Fife" and the succession of "his nephew Malcolm, the son of his brother", adding that the latter "afterwards married the daughter of Leulin"[304].  The Chronicle of Lanercost records the death in 1229 of "comes de Fif, Malcolmus", the succession of "nepos eiusdem…Malcolmus", adding that the latter married "filia Leulini senioris domini Wallić"[305].  The last source is the only one of the three which does not state that the new earl´s marriage was later than his succession.  Her birth date is estimated on her having given birth to her known son in [1244/46], which suggests that the couple married at least ten years after Malcolm became earl.  It is assumed that she was illegitimate.  If she had been her father´s legitimate daughter, the absence in the sources of any reference to her descent from John King of England would be surprising.  The second marriage of the widow of Malcolm Earl of Fife is confirmed by the documents under which "Elenć comitissć de Marre" accounted for payment of "xl s pro parte dotis suć" in the accounts of lands formerly belonging to Duncan Earl of Fife 20 Nov 1293 and 16 Feb 1294[306].  However, it is not certain that this widow of Earl Malcolm was the same person as his wife who was the daughter of Prince Llywelyn.  The birth of Earl Malcolm´s son Colban is estimated to [1244/46].  However, Earl Malcolm´s widow had four known children by her second husband.  This would mean that she gave birth to children over an approximately thirty year span, which although not impossible would be unusual.  In addition, it seems unlikely that Earl Donald would have married, as his first marriage, a woman who would have been more than 35 years old.  m [firstly] [as his first wife,] MALCOLM Earl of Fife, son of DUNCAN Macduff of Fife & his wife Alice Corbet (-1266).  [m secondly (after 1266) DONALD Earl of Mar, son of WILLIAM Earl of Mar & his first wife Elizabeth Comyn of Buchan (-after 25 Jul 1297).] 

 

 

GRUFFYDD ap Llywelyn, illegitimate son of LLYWELYN ap Iorwerth Fawr ("the Great") Prince of Wales & his mistress Tangwystl of Rhos (before 1205-Tower of London 1 Mar 1244).  Called "frater primogenitus" of David by Matthew of Paris, when he records that Gruffydd consented to his brother's succession on the death of their father[307].  Lord of Lleyn.  The Annals of Dunstable record that “David” imprisoned “fratrem suum majorem, ex alia matre oriundum” after the death of their father in 1240[308].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  The Annales Cambrić record that "Grifinus filius Lewelini" was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1244 and died while attempting to escape[309].  Matthew of Paris records that he was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London, dying in an escape attempt[310].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Llywelyn attempted to escape from the king´s prison in London by throwing a rope through the window of the tower, and descending along the rope, but the rope breaking, he fell and broke his neck" in 1244[311]

m SENENA, daughter of ---.  Henry III King of England made an agreement with "Senana wife of Griffin son of Llewellyn…whom David his brother keeps in prison with Owen his son" for payment of a ransom for their release, agreeing to give "David and Rothery her sons as hostages" to the king, dated 12 Aug 1241[312]

Gruffydd & his wife had five children: 

1.         OWAIN Goch (-before 1282).  Henry III King of England made an agreement with "Senana wife of Griffin son of Llewellyn…whom David his brother keeps in prison with Owen his son" for payment of a ransom for their release, agreeing to give "David and Rothery her sons as hostages" to the king, dated 12 Aug 1241[313].  The Annales Cambrić record that "filii fratris sui Grifini, scilicet Owinus et Lewelinus" succeeded on the death of "David filius Lewelini" in 1246[314].  The Chronicle of Peterborough records that "rex Lewelino…Oweyn…frater eius" was released in 1277 after many years in captivity and that "Oweyn et Rothericus frater suus" reached agreement with Llywelyn regarding their inheritance[315]

2.         LLYWELYN (-killed in battle 10 Dec 1282).  The Annales Cambrić record that "filii fratris sui Grifini, scilicet Owinus et Lewelinus" succeeded on the death of "David filius Lewelini" in 1246[316].  He succeeded his uncle in 1246 as LLYWELYN II Prince of Wales.  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the rebellion of "Lewelinus princeps Wallić…cum David germano suo" in [1281][317].  The Annales Cambrić record the death "in bello prope Lanueyr in Buelth III Id Dec" in 1282 of "Lewelinus princeps Northwallić"[318].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records that "Lewelinus princeps Wallić" was killed in battle against the Welsh "IV Id Dec" in 1282[319]m (13 Oct 1278) ELEANOR de Montfort, daughter of SIMON de Montfort Earl of Leicester & his wife Eleanor of England (1252-19 Jun 1282, bur Llanvaes, Anglesey).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records that "dominus Aymericus de Monteforte…cum sorore sua Alienora, Lewelino principi Wallić maritanda" were captured when sailing to Wales in [1276][320].  The Annales Cambrić record the marriage in 1277 of "Leuuelinus princeps Nortwallić" and "filiam comitis Symonis de Monte forti"[321].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "apud Wignornam die Translationi S Eadwardi" 13 Oct [1278] of "Lewelinus princeps Wallić" and "Alienoram filiam Symonis de Monte-forti quondam comitis Leycestrić"[322].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "die SS Gervasii et Protasii" 19 Jun [1282] of "Alienor filia domini Symonis de Monte-forti quondam comitis Leicestrić, nupta Lewelino principi Wallić" giving birth to her daughter, and her burial "apud Landmairs in domo fratrum minorum"[323].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Eleanor died in childbirth and buried in the chapter house of the barefooted friars at Llanvaes in Mona"[324].  Llywelyn & his wife had one child: 

a)         GWENLLIAN (1282-1337).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "die SS Gervasii et Protasii" 19 Jun [1282] of "filiam…Wencianam" to "Alienor filia domini Symonis de Monte-forti quondam comitis Leicestrić, nupta Lewelino principi Wallić"[325].  Nun at Sempringham.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "daughter to Llywelyn…Gwenllian…after the death of her father was taken as a prisoner to England and before she was of age, she was made a nun against her consent"[326]

3.         DAFYDD ([1235]-beheaded Shrewsbury 29 Sep 1283).  Henry III King of England made an agreement with "Senana wife of Griffin son of Llewellyn…whom David his brother keeps in prison with Owen his son" for payment of a ransom for their release, agreeing to give "David and Rothery her sons as hostages" to the king, dated 12 Aug 1241[327].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the rebellion of "Lewelinus princeps Wallić…cum David germano suo" in [1281][328].  He succeeded his brother in 1282 as DAFYDD III Prince of Wales.  The Annales Cambrić record that "David" was captured and beheaded "in crastino Beati Michaelis…apud Slopesburiam" in 1283[329]m ELIZABETH Ferrers, widow of WILLIAM Marshall, daughter of WILLIAM Ferrers Earl of Derby & his second wife Margaret de Quincy of Winchester (-1297).  The Annals of Dunstable state that “David germanus Leulini principis Wallić” married “filia comitis de Ferares” when recording that she was captured in 1283 with her husband and son[330].  Dafydd & his wife had [four or more] children: 

a)         LLYWELYN (-1288). 

b)         OWAIN .  1305. 

c)         daughters.  The Annales Cambrić record that "David cum duobus filiis uxore et filiabus" were captured "circa festum Nativitatis Beati Johannis Baptistć" in 1283[331].  Nuns. 

4.         RHODRI (-1315).  Henry III King of England made an agreement with "Senana wife of Griffin son of Llewellyn…whom David his brother keeps in prison with Owen his son" for payment of a ransom for their release, agreeing to give "David and Rothery her sons as hostages" to the king, dated 12 Aug 1241[332].  The Chronicle of Peterborough records that "rex Lewelino…Oweyn…frater eius" was released in 1277 after many years in captivity and that "Oweyn et Rothericus frater suus" reached agreement with Llywelyn regarding their inheritance[333]m firstly (1281) BEATRICE, daughter of DAVID de Malpas & his wife --- (-1290).  m secondly CATHERINE, daughter of --- (-before 1315).  Rhodri & his second wife had one child:

a)         THOMAS ap Rhodri ([1295]-1363).  m CECILIA, daughter of ---.  Thomas & his wife had one child: 

i)          OWAIN ap Thomas ap Rhodri ([1330]-1378). 

5.         GWLADUS (-1261).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gwladus the daughter of Gruffudd son of Llywelyn, the wife of the lord Rhys, son of Rhys Mechyll" died in 1261[334]m RHYS ap Rhys Mechyll of Dinefwr, son of RHYS Mechyll Lord of Dinefwr & his wife Matilda de Briouse (-Dinevwr Feb 1271, bur Tal y Llychau). 

 

 

 

C.      KINGS of GWYNEDD, descendants of OWAIN ap Hywel KING of GWYNEDD

 

 

OWAIN ap Hywel, son of HYWEL Dda ("the Black") King of Gwynedd & his wife Elen of Dyfed (-[987/88]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "his son Owain took the rule of Ceredigion" after the death of "Hywel the Good, son of Cadell king of all Wales" in 948[335].]  King of Gwynedd, jointly with his brothers.  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić records the descent of the rulers of South Wales in reverse chronological order as follows: “...Theodorus filius Cadelh, Cadelh filius Eneć, Eneas filius Oenei, Oeneus filius Hoeli da, id est Hoeli boni, Hoelus filius Cadelh, Cadelh filius Roderici magni[336].  The Annales Cambrić record that "Owinus filius Hoeli" died, undated but apparently in 988 from the context[337].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Owain son of Howel" in 987[338]

m ---.  The name of Owain´s wife is not known. 

Owain & his wife had five childen:

1.         CADWALLON (-[961/66]).  The Annales Cambrić record that "Catwallaun filius Oweni" died, undated but apparently in 966 from the context[339].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cadwallon, son of Owain, son of Howel the Good" died in 964[340].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cadwallon son of Owain son of Hywel son of Cadell" died in 961[341].] 

2.         EINION (-killed in battle Pencoed Colwynn, Gorwennydd [983/84]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Einion son of Owain son of Hywel the Good" fought the Irish in 966[342].]  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić records the descent of the rulers of South Wales in reverse chronological order as follows: “...Theodorus filius Cadelh, Cadelh filius Eneć, Eneas filius Oenei, Oeneus filius Hoeli da, id est Hoeli boni, Hoelus filius Cadelh, Cadelh filius Roderici magni[343].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Brecheinog and all the territory of Einon, son of Owain, were devastated by the Saxons, Alvryd being their leader, and Howel son of Ieuav and Einon killed many of the host" in 982[344].  The Annales Cambrić record that "Eynan filius Owini" was killed, undated but apparently in 984 from the context[345].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Einon son of Owain was killed through treachery by the nobles of Gwent" in 983[346].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Einion son of Owain was slain" in 982 in "Gorwennydd where the action of Pencoed Colwynn took place"[347].]  m ---.  The name of Einon´s wife is not known.  Einon & his wife had [three] childen:

a)         TEWDWR (-killed in battle Llangwm 993).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "a battle took place between the sons of Meurug and Maredudd near Llangwm, and the sons of Meurug conquered, and there Tewdwr son of Einon was slain" in 993[348]

b)         EDWIN (-after 991).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Edwin son of Einion…accompanied by Adelf a Saxon prince…and they ravaged all the lands of Meredydd, that is Ceredigion, Dyved, Menevia, Lower Gower and Cydweli" in 991[349].] 

-        PRINCES of SOUTH WALES

c)         [GRONW .  The primary source which confirms the existence of Gronw has not been identified.] 

-        KINGS of DEHEUBARTH

3.         IDWALLON (-975).  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 975 of "Idwalan filius Owein"[350]

4.         MAREDUDD (-[994/1000]).  The Annales Cambrić record that "Maredut filius Owein" laid waste to "Hewed", undated but apparently in 991 from the context[351].  He succeeded in 986 as MAREDUDD King of Gwynedd.  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "the government devolved on "Meredydd son of Owain son of Hywel the Good" after "Einion son of Owain" was killed in 982[352].]  He succeeded in 988 as King of Deheubarth.  The Annales Cambrić record that "Maredut filius Owini" died, undated but apparently in 999 from the context[353].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Owain killed Cadwallon son of Ieuav victoriously and subjugated his territory, to wit the Isle of Mona and Meirionydd, and all the districts of Gwynedd he subdued by extreme craft and cunning" in 985[354].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Owain paid to the black Pagans a tribute of one penny for each person" in 988[355].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Edwin son of Einon with Eclis the Great a Saxon prince from the seas of the south devastated all the kingdom of Maredudd, to wit Dyved and Ceredigion and Gower and Cydweli…and Maredudd hired the Paganswilling to join him and devastated Glamorgan" in 991[356].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Owain the most celebrated king of the Britons died" in 998[357].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Meredydd son of Owain died, which was the occasion of better times for peace and government in Wales" in 994[358].]  The Annales Menevensis record that "Mareduc filius Owein" died in 1000[359]m ---.  The name of Maredudd´s wife is not known.  Maredudd & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         CADWALLON (-killed in battle Cors Einion, Gower 991).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd…his son Cadwallon died" in 991[360].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records "the action of Cors Einion in Gower where Cadwallon son of Meredydd" was killed in 991[361].] 

b)         ANGHARAD .  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Llywelyn son of Seisyllt lord of Maes Essyllt…although but a youth not more than fourteen years of age" married "Yngharad, daughter of Meredydd on of Owain" in 994[362].]  Her first marriage is confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which records that "Bleddyn son of Cynvyn [and] Gruffudd son of Llywelyn…were brothers by the same mother…Angharad daughter of Meredudd king of the Britons"[363].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Yngharad the widow of Llywelyn son of Seisyllt married Cynvyn son of Gwerystan lord of Cibwyr" in 1023[364].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records in 1106 that "Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, were brothers, from Angharad daughter of king Maredudd"[365]m firstly (994) LLYWELYN ap Seisyll King of Gwynedd, son of SEISYLL & his wife Praust of Gwynedd ([after 980]-[1021/23]).  m secondly (1023) CYNFYN ap Gwerstan King of Powys, son of GWERSTAN & his wife ---. 

c)         [REIN (-after 1020).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "a certain Scot falsely pretended to be the son of king Maredudd and caused himself to be named king…Rein" in 1020 and "Llywelyn son of Seisyll, supreme king of Gwynedd and the chief and most renowned king of all the Britons made war against him"[366].] 

5.         LLYWARCH (-after 986).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "the Welsh and Danes set upon Llywarch son of Owain, brother to the prince Meredydd" and blinded him in 985[367].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Llywarch son of Owain was deprived of his eyes" in 986[368]

 

 

 

D.      KINGS of GWYNEDD, family of LLYWELYN ap Seisell

 

 

SEISYLL, son of ---

m PRAUST of Gwynedd, daughter of ELISEDD ap Anarawd of Gwynedd & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

Seisyll & his wife had four children: 

1.         LLYWELYN ap Seisyll ([after 980]-[1021/23]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records "Llywelyn son of Seisyllt lord of Maes Essyllt…although but a youth not more than fourteen years of age" marrying in 994[369].]  He succeeded in 999 as King of Gwynedd and Dyfed.  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Llewelyn son of Seisyllt" killed in battle "Aeddan son of Blegywyrd and his four nephews" in 1015 and "took the government upon himself"[370].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "a certain Scot falsely pretended to be the son of king Maredudd and caused himself to be named king…Rein" in 1020 and "Llywelyn son of Seisyll, supreme king of Gwynedd and the chief and most renowned king of all the Britons made war against him"[371].  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1023 of "Lewelin filius Seisil"[372].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Leobelín rí Bretan” died in [1021/23][373].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Llywelyn son of Seisyll died" in 1021[374].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Llywelyn son of Seisyllt and Cynan son of Seisyllt" opposed "the Scots [who] came to Carmarthen accompanied by Hywel and Maredydd sons of Edwin son of Einion" in 1021 but that Llywelyn was killed in the battle[375].]  m (994) as her first husband, ANGHARAD of Gwynedd, daughter of MAREDUDD King of Deheubarth and Gwynedd & his wife ---.  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Llywelyn son of Seisyllt lord of Maes Essyllt…although but a youth not more than fourteen years of age" married "Yngharad, daughter of Meredydd on of Owain" in 994[376].]  Her first marriage is confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which records that "Bleddyn son of Cynvyn [and] Gruffudd son of Llywelyn…were brothers by the same mother…Angharad daughter of Meredudd king of the Britons"[377].  She married secondly (1023) Cynfyn ap Gwerstan King of Powys.  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Yngharad the widow of Llywelyn son of Seisyllt married Cynvyn son of Gwerystan lord of Cibwyr" in 1023[378].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records in 1106 that "Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, were brothers, from Angharad daughter of king Maredudd"[379].  Llywelyn & his wife had four children: 

a)         GRUFFYDD ap Llywelyn (-killed Snowdonia 5 Aug 1063).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "his son…Grufydd" succeeded his father as prince of Gwynedd after "Llywelyn son of Seisyllt" was killed in 1021[380].] 

-        see below

b)         RHYS (-executed Bullington before 4 Jan 1053).  Florence of Worcester records that "Rhys brother of Griffyth king of South Wales" was put to death "on account of the plundering inroads he had frequently made" and his head brought to the king at Gloucester 4 Jan 1053[381].  Simeon of Durham records that "the brother of Griffin king of the South Welsh…Res" was killed "at Bulendum" and his head brought to the king at Gloucester "on the eve of our Lord's epiphany" in 1053[382].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhys son of Llewelyn son of Seisyllt, brother of prince Grufudd, went to Glamorgan and Gwent…and the men of the country attacked him and drove him to the borders of Mercia where they caught and beheaded him, and sent his head to Edward king of the Saxons to Gloucester" in 1056[383].] 

c)         BLETHGENT (-after 1063).  Simeon of Durham records that "Griffin king of the Britons" was killed by his own men "Non Aug" in 1064 and that the king "gave the land of the Britons to his brothers Blechgent and Rithwallan"[384]

d)         RITHWALLAN (-after 1063).  Simeon of Durham records that "Griffin king of the Britons" was killed by his own men "Non Aug" in 1064 and that the king "gave the land of the Britons to his brothers Blechgent and Rithwallan"[385]

2.         HYWEL (-killed in battle 1021).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Hywel son of Seisyllt, brother to Llywelyn son of Seisyllt" was defeated and killed in battle by "Eulaf [Olav II King of Norway] [who] came to the island of Britain…to Menevia…and…Dyved" in 1021[386].] 

3.         CYNAN (-killed 1025).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Llywelyn son of Seisyll died" in 1021[387].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Llywelyn son of Seisyllt and Cynan son of Seisyllt" opposed "the Scots [who] came to Carmarthen accompanied by Hywel and Maredydd sons of Edwin son of Einion" in 1021 but that Llywelyn was killed in the battle[388].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cynan son of Seisyll was killed" in 1025[389].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "the Saxons came to Glamorgan and the action of Ystradywain was fought where they killed Cynan son of Seisyllt and all his sons", dated to 1032 from the context[390]m ---.  The name of Cynan´s wife is not known.  Cynan & his wife had [two or more] children: 

a)         sons (-killed in battle Ystradywain [1032]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records "the action of Machwy…where Meredydd son of Edwin was slain by the sons of Cynan son of Seisyllt, brother to Llywelyn son of Seisyllt to revenge the murder of their uncle", dated to 1032 from the context[391].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "the Saxons came to Glamorgan and the action of Ystradywain was fought where they killed Cynan son of Seisyllt and all his sons", dated to 1032 from the context[392].] 

4.         ROTPERT .  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rotpert son of Seisyllt, lord of Maes Essyllt, brother to Cynan son of Seisyllt" defeated "the Saxons" and made peace with "Iestin son of Gwrgan", dated to 1032 from the context[393].]  m firstly EVILIAU, daughter of GWRGENEU & his wife ---.  m secondly ---.  Rotpert & his first wife had one child: 

a)         ARDDEN .  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Iestin son of Gwrgan…after the death of Denis daughter of Bleddyn son of Cynvyn his first wife" requested in marriage the daughter of "Rotpert son of Seisyllt…Ardden by Eviliau daughter of Gwrgeneu his first wife and was refused by her father on account of her age" but that he "ravished her against her will", dated to [1032/36] from the context[394].] 

 

 

GRUFFYDD ap Llywelyn, son of LLYWELYN ap Seisyll King of Gwynedd & his wife Angharad of Gwynedd (-killed Snowdonia 5 Aug 1063).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "his son…Grufydd" succeeded his father as prince of Gwynedd after "Llywelyn son of Seisyllt" was killed in 1021[395].]  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which records that "Bleddyn son of Cynvyn [and] Gruffudd son of Llywelyn…were brothers by the same mother…Angharad daughter of Meredudd king of the Britons"[396].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Grufudd" defeated and killed "Iago son of Idwal prince of Gwynedd" and "took the government of Gwynedd and so became king of Wales from the Irish Channel to the Severn sea", dated to [1036] from the context[397].]  He succeeded in 1039 as Prince of Gwynedd and Powys.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iago king of Gwynedd was slain" in 1037 and that "Gruffudd son of Llywelyn son of Seisyl governed in his stead", adding that the latter "from beginning to end pursued the Saxons and the other nations and killed and destroyed them…first…at Rhyd y Groes on the Severn"[398].  He accompanied Svein Godwinsson, son of Godwin Earl of Wessex, on an expedition into South Wales in 1046[399].  He made himself ruler of all of Wales.  Allied with Ćlfgar ex-Earl of East Anglia, son of Leofric Earl of Mercia, he invaded England and sacked Hereford Oct 1055.  Peace was negotiated by Leofric Earl of Mercia and Harold Earl of Wessex, under which Gruffydd swore allegiance to King Edward "the Confessor"[400].  Leofgar, recently appointed Bishop of Hereford, led an army against Gruffydd but was defeated and killed 16 Jun 1056[401].  He started raiding England again after Ćlfric Earl of Mercia died [1062].  England launched a full-scale campaign against him, led by Tostig Earl of Northumbria invading north Wales and Harold raiding the southern coast[402].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Caradoc son of Rhydderch [error for son of Grufudd son of Rhydderch?] son of Iestin hired Harallt to come with an army to S. Wales" and together they defeated Prince Gruffydd in 1060[403].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Llywelyn…fell through the treachery of his own men" in 1061[404].  Simeon of Durham records that "Griffin king of the Britons" was killed by his own men "Non Aug" in 1064[405].  Gruffydd was not caught by this pincer movement but was killed by his own men[406]

m firstly (1039) as her second husband, ---, formerly wife of HYWEL Prince of South Wales, daughter of ---.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Llywelyn son of Seisyl overcame Howel and captured his wife and took her to be his own wife"[407].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Grufudd son of Llywelyn son of Seisyllt" defeated "Hywel son of Edwin and took his wife from him and kept her as his concubine" in 1038[408]

m secondly ([1058]) as her first husband, EALDGYTH of Mercia, daughter of ĆLFGAR Earl of Mercia & his first wife Ćlfgifu.  Orderic Vitalis records that "Edwinus…et Morcarus comites, filii Algari…Edgivam sororem eorum" married firstly "Gritfridi…regis Guallorum" and secondly "Heraldo"[409].  She married secondly ([1064/early 1066) Harold II King of England.  There is no source which pinpoints the date of Ealdgyth´s second marriage.  Freeman suggests that the absence of any reference to his queen in the sources which record the circumstances of Harold´s accession and coronation may indicate that his marriage took place afterwards[410]

Gruffydd & his first wife had [two] children: 

1.         [OWAIN ap Gruffydd (-1057).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Owain son of Gruffudd died" in 1057[411].  It is not certain that Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was the father of Owain ap Gruffydd.] 

2.         daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ([1058]) as his second wife, ĆLFGAR Earl of Mercia, son of LEOFRIC Earl of Mercia & his wife Godiva --- (-1062). 

Gruffydd & his --- wife had two children: 

3.         MAREDUDD (-1068 or after).  The Annales Cambrić record war in 1068 betweeen "filios Kenwin, scilicet Bledin et Ruallo" and "filios Grifini, scilicet Maredut et Idwal" in which the latter were defeated[412].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the action of Mechain took place between Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, Maredudd and Ithel, sons of Gruffudd" in 1068, adding that "Ithel was killed in the battle and Maredudd died of cold in his flight, and Rhiwallon son of Cynvyn was slain"[413]

4.         IDWAL (-killed in battle Mechain 1068).  The Annales Cambrić record war in 1068 betweeen "filios Kenwin, scilicet Bledin et Ruallo" and "filios Grifini, scilicet Maredut et Idwal" in which the latter were defeated[414].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the action of Mechain took place between Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, Maredudd and Ithel, sons of Gruffudd" in 1068, adding that "Ithel was killed in the battle and Maredudd died of cold in his flight, and Rhiwallon son of Cynvyn was slain"[415]

Gruffydd & his second wife had one child: 

5.         NESTA .  Orderic Vitalis names "Nest" as the daughter of "Edwinus…et Morcarus comites, filii Algari…Edgivam sororem eorum" and her first husband "Gritfridi…regis Guallorum"[416].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   "Hugo filius Osberti" donated a saltpan at Droitwich to the monks of Worcester Cathedral priory, for the souls of "patris mei Osberti et matris mee Nest", by charter dated to [early 12th century][417]m OSBERN FitzRichard of Richard's Castle, son of RICHARD FitzScrob & his wife ---. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    KINGS of DEHEUBARTH

 

 

GRONW , son of [EINON ap Owain & his wife ---] .  The primary source which confirms the existence of Gronw and his son Edwin has not been identified. 

m ---.  The name of Gronw´s wife is not known. 

Gronw & his wife had one child:

1.         EDWIN .  The primary source which confirms the existence of Gronw and his son Edwin has not been identified.  m IWERYD, daughter of CYNFYN ap Gwerstan & his second wife ---.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iweryd the mother of Owain and Uchtryd, the sons of Edwin king of Tegeingl, and Bleddyn son of Cynvyn were sister and brother by the same father but not the same mother, as Angharad daughter of Maredudd was the mother of Bleddyn"[418].  Edwin & his wife had four children: 

a)         UCHTRYD (-after 1113).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Uchtred, son of Edwin, and Howel, son of Goronwy, with many other chieftains of the family of Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, marched and fought against the castle of Pembroke" in 1094[419].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Uchtryd son of Edwin" helped "Gerald the steward" to recover his wife Nest after she was abducted by "Owain [son of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn" in 1106[420].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Einon son of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn and Gruffudd son of Maredudd son of Bleddyn joined together to make an attack upon the castle of Uchtryd son of Edwin" in 1113[421]

b)         OWAIN (-[1102/05]).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Owain son of Edwin died after a long illness" in 1102[422].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Owain son of Edwin died of a disorder of the lungs" in 1103[423]m ---.  The name of Owain´s wife is not known.  Owain & his wife had six childen:

i)          OWAIN (-1124).  The Annales Cambrić record that in 1124 "Catwallaun filius Grifini" killed "quatuor avunculos suos…Owinum, Grono, Riri, Meilir" and that "Morganus filius Cadugaun" killed "fratrem suum Mareduc"[424]

ii)         GRONW (-1124).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records a dispute in 1115 between "Howel son of Ithel who was lord of Rhos and Rhyvoniog" and "the sons of Owain son of Edwin namely Goronwy, Rhirid and Llywarch and the other brothers"[425].  The Annales Cambrić record that in 1124 "Catwallaun filius Grifini" killed "quatuor avunculos suos…Owinum, Grono, Riri, Meilir" and that "Morganus filius Cadugaun" killed "fratrem suum Mareduc"[426].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cadwallon son of Gruffudd son of Cynan slew his three uncles, to wit Goronwy, Rhirid and Meilyr, the sons of Owain son of Edwin" in 1122[427]m ---.  The name of Gronw´s wife is not known.  Gronw & his wife had one child:

(a)       CRISIANT .  The Gwentian Chronicle names "Crisiant daughter of Goronmy son of Owain son of Ednywain" as the mother of "David son of Owain"[428]m as his second wife, OWAIN ap Gruffydd King of Gwynedd, son of GRUFFYDD ap Cynan King of Gwynedd & his wife Angharad of Deheubarth ([1100]-1170). 

iii)        RHIRID (-1124).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records a dispute in 1115 between "Howel son of Ithel who was lord of Rhos and Rhyvoniog" and "the sons of Owain son of Edwin namely Goronwy, Rhirid and Llywarch and the other brothers"[429].  The Annales Cambrić record that in 1124 "Catwallaun filius Grifini" killed "quatuor avunculos suos…Owinum, Grono, Riri, Meilir"[430].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cadwallon son of Gruffudd son of Cynan slew his three uncles, to wit Goronwy, Rhirid and Meilyr, the sons of Owain son of Edwin" in 1122[431]

iv)       LLYWARCH (-1118).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records a dispute in 1115 between "Howel son of Ithel who was lord of Rhos and Rhyvoniog" and "the sons of Owain son of Edwin namely Goronwy, Rhirid and Llywarch and the other brothers" in which Llywarch was killed[432].  The Annales Cambrić record that "Lewarch filius Owini" was killed in battle in 1118[433]

v)        MEILIR (-1124).  The Annales Cambrić record that in 1124 "Catwallaun filius Grifini" killed "quatuor avunculos suos…Owinum, Grono, Riri, Meilir"[434].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cadwallon son of Gruffudd son of Cynan slew his three uncles, to wit Goronwy, Rhirid and Meilyr, the sons of Owain son of Edwin" in 1122[435]

vi)       ANGHARAD (-1161).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Angharad daughter of Owain son of Edwin was the wife of Gruffudd son of Cynan" in 1122[436].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Angharad the wife of Gruffudd son of Cynan" died in 1161[437]m ([1095]) GRUFFYDD ap Cynan King of Gwynedd, son of CYNAN ap Iago & his wife Ragnhild of Dublin (-1137). 

c)         TEWDWR .  1094. 

d)         CADELL .  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić records the descent of the rulers of South Wales in reverse chronological order as follows: “...Theodorus filius Cadelh, Cadelh filius Eneć [omitting Gronw and his son Edwin as shown above], Eneas filius Oenei, Oeneus filius Hoeli da, id est Hoeli boni, Hoelus filius Cadelh, Cadelh filius Roderici magni[438]m ---.  The name of Cadell´s wife is not known.  Cadell & his wife had one child:

i)          TEWDR Mawr .  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić names “Rothericus magnus, qui Britannice Rotheri Maur dicebatur...tres filios...Mervinum, Anaraut et Cadelh”, adding that Cadell, ruler of South Wales, acquired the whole of Wales after the death of his brothers, that “successores sui similiter usque ad Theodorum” [Tewdr], but that “descendientes...a Theodoro...Resus filius Theodori, Griphinus filius Resi, et Resus filius Griphini qui hodie praest” ruled in South Wales[439]

-         see below

 

 

TEWDR Mawr, son of CADELL ap Edwin of Gwynedd & his wife --- .  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić names “Rothericus magnus, qui Britannice Rotheri Maur dicebatur...tres filios...Mervinum, Anaraut et Cadelh”, adding that Cadell, ruler of South Wales, acquired the whole of Wales after the death of his brothers, that “successores sui similiter usque ad Theodorum” [Tewdr], but that “descendientes...a Theodoro...Resus filius Theodori, Griphinus filius Resi, et Resus filius Griphini qui hodie praest” ruled in South Wales[440]

m ---.  The name of Tewdr´s wife is not known. 

Tewdr & his wife had two childen:

1.         RHYDDERCH ap Tewdr m HUNYDD [Gwladus] of Gwynedd, daughter of BLEDDYN ap Cynfyn King of Gwynedd and Powys & his first wife ---.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "the wife of Rhydderch son of Tewdwr…Hunydd daughter of Bleddyn son of Cynvyn" and her sons "Maredudd and Owain" in 1113[441].  Rhydderch & his wife had two children: 

a)         MAREDUDD (-after 1113).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "the wife of Rhydderch son of Tewdwr…Hunydd daughter of Bleddyn son of Cynvyn" and her sons "Maredudd and Owain" in 1113[442]m ---.  The name of Maredudd´s wife is not known.  Maredudd & his wife had one child: 

i)          HYWEL (-killed 1140).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Hywel son of Maredudd son of Rhydderch, lord of the Little Cantrew was killed by the Frenchmen" in 1140[443].] 

b)         OWAIN (-after 1113).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "the wife of Rhydderch son of Tewdwr…Hunydd daughter of Bleddyn son of Cynvyn" and her sons "Maredudd and Owain" in 1113[444]

2.         RHYS ap Tewdr (-killed in battle near Brecknock Castle [Mar/Apr] 1093).  The Annales Cambrić record that "filius Teudur Resus" started to rule in 1077[445].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhys son of Tewdwr came from Llydaw and put in a claim to the principality of South Wales as lawful heir" in 1077[446].]  He succeeded in 1078 as King of Deheubarth.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys son of Tewdwr began to reign" in 1077[447].  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić names “descendientes...a Theodoro...Resus filius Theodori, Griphinus filius Resi, et Resus filius Griphini qui hodie praest” as successive rulers in South Wales[448].  The Annales Cambrić record that "Resus filius Teudur" was expelled from his kingdom by "filiis Bledint, scilicet Madauc, Cadugan et Ririt" in 1087[449].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys son of Tewdwr was expelled from his territory by the sons of Bleddyn, sons of Cynvyn, to wit Madog, and Cadwgan, and Rhirid, and he himself retreated into Ireland, and immediately afterwards he collected a fleet of the Gwyddelians and returned again, and then the battle of Llych Crei took place, and the sons of Bleddyn were slain" in 1087, adding that "Rhys son of Tewdwr gave an immense sum of money to the mariners, the Scots and Gwyddelians who had come to assist him"[450].  Florence of Worcester records that "Res Walanorum rex" was killed in battle during Easter week "iuxta castellum Brecheniean" in [1093], after which "kings ceased to reign in Wales"[451].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys son of Tewdwr king of South Wales was killed by the French, who inhabited Brecheiniog, and then fell the kingdom to the Britons" in 1091[452]m GWLADUS, daughter of RHIWALLON ap Cynfyn & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records in 1106 that "Cadwgan son of Bleddyn and Gwladus daughter of Rhiwallon, the mother of Nest were cousins, as Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, were brothers"[453].  Rhys & his wife had four children: 

a)         GORONW (-beheaded 1093).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Goronwy son of Rhys" was beheaded after the death of his father, dated to 1091 in the text, but dateable to 1093 according to the other sources quoted above[454].] 

b)         NEST .  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names, in 1106, "Nest daughter of Rhys son of Tewdwr and wife of Gerald the steward" and "Gwladus daughter of Rhiwallon, the mother of Nest", when recording that "Owain [son of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn]…accompanied by a small retinue [visited] her as his kinswoman" in the castle in which his father organised a feast and later reentered the castle and abducted her "with her two sons and daughter and also another son that he [=her husband] had by a concubine"[455]Giraldus Cambrensis names "Henricus…regi Henrici primi filius…ex nobili Nesta, Resi filii Theodori filia" in South Wales[456].  She was abducted by Owain son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn from castle Ceanrth Bychan in 1109.  m (1100) GERALD FitzWalter of Windsor, son of WALTER FitzOther of Windsor & his wife Beatrice --- (-before 1136).  Custodian of Pembroke Castle.  Mistress of HENRY I King of England, son of WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England & his wife Mathilde de Flandre (Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068-Château de Lyon-la-Foręt, near Rouen 1 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire).  Mistress of STEPHEN Constable of Cardiff Castle, by whom she had one illegitimate child: 

i)          ROBERT FitzStephen .  The Expugnatio Hibernica records that "Robertus filius Stephani" was freed from prison in Wales, naming "matre…Nesta, Resi magni filia"[457].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "Robert son of Stephen by Nest daughter of Rhys son of Tewdwr" when recording that "the lord Rhys" had removed him from "the castle of Aberteivi" which he had destroyed[458].  m ---.  Robert & his wife had two children: 

(a)        RALPH .  The Expugnatio Hibernica names "Radulfus…Stephanidć filius"[459]

(b)        MEREDITH (-[1178/79]).  The Expugnatio Hibernica records the death of "Mereducius Stephanidć filius, adolescens indolis egregić" [in [1178/79]][460]

c)         GRUFFYDD ap Rhys ([1090]-murdered 1137).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Rhys son of Tewdwr, king of South Wales, came from Ireland to Dyved…returned to his patrimony" in 1112 adding that he "passed about two years, sometimes with Gerald steward of Pembroke Castle, his brother-in-law who had married his sister Nest…"[461]

-        see below

d)         HYWEL (-after 1112).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Rhys…and Howel his brother" went to "Gruffudd son of Cynan" in 1112, adding that "this same Howel had been in the prison of Ernulf son of Roger, the lord of Castle Baldwin" and "escaped in a maimed state with broken limbs out of the prison"[462]

Rhys had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

e)         CYNAN (-drowned Lake Cremlyn 1093).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that, after the death of his father, "another, a bastard son of Rhys, called Cynan" attempted "to escape through a lake called Cremlyn where he was drowned"[463].] 

f)          GORONW (-London 1101).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Goronwy son of Rhys son of Tewdrwr died in London in the king´s prison" in 1101[464].] 

 

 

GRUFFYDD ap Rhys, son of RHYS ap Tewdr King of Deheubarth & his wife Gwladus --- ([1090]-murdered 1137).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Rhys son of Tewdwr, king of South Wales, came from Ireland to Dyved…returned to his patrimony" in 1112 adding that he "passed about two years, sometimes with Gerald steward of Pembroke Castle, his brother-in-law who had married his sister Nest…"[465].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys son of Tewdwr began to reign" in 1077[466].  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić names “descendientes...a Theodoro...Resus filius Theodori, Griphinus filius Resi, et Resus filius Griphini qui hodie praest” as successive rulers in South Wales[467].  Florence of Worcester records that "Griffinus filius Res"  plundered castles in Wales in 1116 in protest at Henry I King of England not allowing him to inherit part of his father's territories[468].  He succeeded in 1135 as King of Deheubarth.  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records that "rex Waliee Griffinus filius Res" was murdered in [1137][469].  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1137 of "Grifinus Resi filius"[470].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Rhys" died in 1136[471]

m (after 1116) GWENLLIAN of Gwynedd, daughter of GRUFFYDD ap Cynan King of Gwynedd & his wife Angharad of Deheubarth (-1136).  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan names "Gwenlliant and Margaret and Rhannillt and Susanna and Annest" as the daughters of Gruffydd ap Cynan by his wife[472].  [The Gwentian Chronicle names "Gwenllian daughter of Grufudd son of Cynan" as the mother of "Rhys" son of "Grufudd son of Rhys"[473].]  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which names "Rhys son of Gruffudd" and "his uncle Owain Gwynedd" in 1155[474]

King Gruffydd & his wife had two children:

1.         MAREDUDD ([1130/31]-1157).  He succeeded his half-brother in 1153 as joint King of Deheubarth, jointly with his brother.  The Annales Cambrić record that "Maredut filius Grifini" was killed in 1156[475].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Gruffudd son of Rhys, the king of Ceredigion and the Vale of Tywi and Dyved" died aged 25 in 1154[476]m ---.  The name of Maredudd´s wife is not known.  Maredudd & his wife had one child: 

a)         daughter .  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the birth in 1172 of "Meurug son of the lord Rhys son of Gruffudd, of the daughter of Maredudd son of Gruffudd, his niece, the daughter of his brother"[477].  She was mistress ([1171/72]) of her uncle, RHYS ap Gruffydd, son of GRUFFYD ap Rhys King of Deheubarth & his wife Gwenllian of Gwynedd ([1132]-28 Apr 1197, bur St David's). 

2.         RHYS ([1132]-1197).  [The Gwentian Chronicle names "Gwenllian daughter of Grufudd son of Cynan" as the mother of "Rhys" son of "Grufudd son of Rhys"[478].]  He succeeded his half-brother in 1153 as King of Deheubarth, jointly with his brother. 

-        see below

King Gruffydd had four illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

3.          ANARAWD (-1143).  He succeeded his father in 1137 as King of Deheubarth.  The Annales Cambrić record that "Anaraut filius Grifini" was killed in 1143 "a familiaribus Cadwaladri"[479]m (1142) ---, daughter of CADWALADR ap Gruffydd & his wife ---.  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Anarawd son of Gruffudd son of Rhys…was married to the daughter of Cadwaladr [son of Grufudd son of Cynan] against the inclination of Cawaladr" in 1142, after which "Cadwaladr stabbed Anarawd in the ribs so that he died"[480].] 

4.          CADELL (-1175, bur Strata Florida).  He succeeded his brother in 1143 as King of Deheubarth.  He abdicated in 1153.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cadell son of Gruffudd died of a severe disease and was buried in Strata Florida, after taking the religious habit" in 1175[481]. 

5.          GWLADUS .  Her parentage and both marriages are confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which records that "the lord Rhys son of Gruffudd" met King Henry II at Gloucester 25 Jul 1175, taking with him "…Morgan son of Caradog son of Iestin by his sister Gwladus, of Glamorgan… and Seisyll son of Dyvnwal of Gwent Uchcoed, the man who was then married to Gwladus sister of the lord Rhys"[482].  m firstly CARADOG ap Iestyn of Morganwg .  m secondly SEISYLL ap Dyfnwal of Gwent Uchcoed (-killed Abergavenny 1175).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Seisyll son of Dyvnwal was slain, through the treachery of the lord of Brecheiniog, in the castle of Abergavenny, and with him Gruffudd his son and many of the chieftains of Gwent" in 1175[483]

6.          NEST .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which records that "the lord Rhys son of Gruffudd" met King Henry II at Gloucester 25 Jul 1175, taking with him "…Gruffudd son of Ivor, son of Meurug, of Senghenydd, his nephew by his sister Nest…"[484].  m IFOR ap Meurug of Senghenydd. 

 

 

RHYS ap Gruffydd, son of GRUFFYD ap Rhys King of Deheubarth & his wife Gwenllian of Gwynedd ([1132]-28 Apr 1197, bur St David's).  [The Gwentian Chronicle names "Gwenllian daughter of Grufudd son of Cynan" as the mother of "Rhys" son of "Grufudd son of Rhys"[485].]  He succeeded his half-brother in 1153 as King of Deheubarth, jointly with his brother.  The Annales Cambrić record that "Resus…iunior eius frater" succeeded after "Maredut filius Grifini" was killed in 1156[486].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys son of Tewdwr began to reign" in 1077[487].  Gerald of Wales´s Descriptio Kambrić names “descendientes...a Theodoro...Resus filius Theodori, Griphinus filius Resi, et Resus filius Griphini qui hodie praest” as successive rulers in South Wales[488].  The Annales Cambrić record the death "IV Kal Mai" in 1195 of "Resus Grifini filius Sudwallić princeps" and his burial "apud Sanctum David"[489]

m GWENLLIAN of Powys, daughter of MADOG ap Maredudd King of Powys & his wife Susann of Gwynedd. 

Mistress (1): ---. 

Mistress (2): his niece, ---, daughter of MAREDUDD ap Gryffydd & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the birth in 1172 of "Meurug son of the lord Rhys son of Gruffudd, of the daughter of Maredudd son of Gruffudd, his niece, the daughter of his brother"[490]

Rhys & his wife had eleven children: 

1.         GRUFFYDD (-[Jul/Aug] 1201, bur Strata Florida).  The Annales Cambrić record that "Grifinus filius Resi" succeeded after the death of "Resus Grifini filius Sudwallić princeps" in 1197[491].  He succeeded his father in 1197 as GRUFFYDD King of Deheubarth.  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1201 of "Grifinus Resi filius" within a month of his brother[492]m (1189) MATILDA de Briouse, daughter of WILLIAM de Briouse & his wife Mathilde de Saint-Valéry (-21 Dec 1209, bur Strata Florida).  Her parentage is confirmed by the which Annales Cambrić name "Griffinus…" and "Willielmoque de Breusa socero suo"[493].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death in 1209 "on the feast of St Thomas the Martyr...at Llanbadarn the Great" of “Mahalt de Bruse, the mother of the sons of Gruffudd son of Rhys” and her burial “with her husband at Strata Florida[494].  Gruffydd & his wife had two children: 

a)         RHYS Ieuanc (-1222).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records in 1210 that "all the Welsh princes, except Rhys and Owain the sons of Gruffudd son of Rhys” made peace with King John[495]

b)         OWAIN (-1235, bur Strata Florida).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records in 1210 that "all the Welsh princes, except Rhys and Owain the sons of Gruffudd son of Rhys” made peace with King John[496].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "young Maelgwn son of Maelgwn son of Rhys burned Aberteivi to the gate of the castle…and from thence he came to Owain son of Gruffudd son of the lord Rhys his cousin…to fight against the castle" in 1231[497].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Owain son of Gruffudd son of the lord Rhys…died at Strata Florida on the Wednesday after the octave of the Epiphany and was buried with Rhys, son of the lord Rhys, his brother in the chapter house of the monks" in 1235[498]m ---.  The name of Owain´s wife is not known.  Owain & his wife had one child:

i)          MAREDUDD (-Llanbadarn Mar 1265, bur Strata Florida)The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Owain son of Gruffudd son of the lord Rhys" died in Mar 1264 "at Llanbardarn the Great and was buried in the chapter house of the monks of Strata Florida"[499]

-         see below

2.         MAREDUDD (-1239, bur Whitland).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys and Maredudd the sons of the lord Rhys subjected the castle of Dinevwr and the castle of Cantrev Bychan" in 1195[500].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd the Blind, son of the lord Rhys, died, and was buried at Whitland" in 1239[501]m ---.  The name of Maredudd´s wife is not known.  Maredudd & his wife had one child: 

a)         GRUFFYDD (-1242).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Maredudd son of the lord Rhys, archdeacon of Ceredigion" died in 1242[502]

3.         CYNWRIG (-1237).  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1237 of "Kenwericus domini Resi Magni filius"[503]

4.         RHYS Gryg/the Hoarse (-Llandeilo 1234, bur St David´s).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys and Maredudd the sons of the lord Rhys subjected the castle of Dinevwr and the castle of Cantrev Bychan" in 1195[504].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys the Hoarse died at Llandeilo the Great and was buried in Menevia near the grave of his father" in 1233[505]m firstly ---.  m secondly (1219) as her second husband, MATILDA [Joan] de Clare, widow of WILLIAM de Briouse, daughter of RICHARD de Clare Earl of Hertford & his wife Amicie of Gloucester ([1185/90]-).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys the Hoarse married the daughter of the earl of Clare" in 1219[506].  Her birth date range is estimated from her having had at least one child by her first marriage and at least three by her second.  Rhys & his first wife had one child: 

a)         RHYS Mechyll (-1244).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys the Hoarse was captured at Llanarthneu by his son Rhys the little, and for the castle of Llanymddyvri was liberated" in 1227[507].  If this event is correctly dated, Rhys must have been too old to have born from his father´s marriage to Matilda de Clare.  Lord of Dinefwr.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys Mechyll son of Rhys the Hoarse, son of the lord Rhys" died in 1244[508]m MATILDA de Briouse, daughter of ---.  Rhys & his wife had four children: 

i)          RHYS Fychan/junior [Ieuanc] (-Dinevwr Feb 1271, bur Tal y Llychau).  Wrottesley shows "Rees, Wenchiliana, Margaret, Dughrica" as the children of "Lewellyn ap Rees" in relation to a claim by "Gilbert Talbot chivaler, Res ap Howel ap Willym and Walter ap Jevan ab Lewellyn" against Henry Earl of Lancaster and Blanche his wife for "the castle and commote of Tokennyn"[509].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "young Rhys son of Rhys Mechyll son of Rhys the Hoarse" died in 1271 "on the octave of the feast of St Laurence in the castle of Dinevwr and was buried at Tal y Llychau"[510]m GWLADUS of Gwynedd, daughter of GRUFFYDD ap Llywelyn Prince of Gwynedd & his wife --- (-1261).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gwladus the daughter of Gruffudd son of Llywelyn, the wife of the lord Rhys, son of Rhys Mechyll" died in 1261[511].  Rhys & his wife had three children: 

(a)       RHYS Wyndod (-after 1283).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys son of Maredudd son of Owain son of Gruffudd son of the lord Rhys, and Rhys Wyndod son of young Rhys son of Rhys Mechell son of Rhys the Hoarse son of the lord Rhys, nephew sister´s son to the prince, became reconciled to Pain son of Patrick" in 1276[512]

(b)       GRUFFYDD

(c)       LLYWELYN (-after 1276).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "…Rhys Wyndod son of young Rhys son of Rhys Mechell son of Rhys the Hoarse son of the lord Rhys, nephew sister´s son to the prince…Llywelyn his brother and Howel and Rhys the Hoarse quitted their territory and went to Gwynedd to Llywelyn" in 1276[513]

ii)         GWENLLIAN .  Wrottesley shows "Rees, Wenchiliana, Margaret, Dughrica" as the children of "Lewellyn ap Rees" in relation to a claim by "Gilbert Talbot chivaler, Res ap Howel ap Willym and Walter ap Jevan ab Lewellyn" against Henry Earl of Lancaster and Blanche his wife for "the castle and commote of Tokennyn", adding that Gwenllian was mother of Richard Talbot, grandmother of Gilbert, great-grandmother of Richard, and great-great-grandmother of "Gilbert the plaintiff"[514]m GILBERT Talbot, son of [RICHARD Talbot of Linton & his wife Aline Basset] (-before 8 Sep 1274, bur Wormesley Priory, Herefordshire). 

iii)        MARGARET .  Wrottesley shows "Rees, Wenchiliana, Margaret, Dughrica" as the children of "Lewellyn ap Rees" in relation to a claim by "Gilbert Talbot chivaler, Res ap Howel ap Willym and Walter ap Jevan ab Lewellyn" against Henry Earl of Lancaster and Blanche his wife for "the castle and commote of Tokennyn", adding that Margaret was mother of "Jevan" and grandmother of "Walter the plaintiff"[515]m ---. 

iv)       DUGHRICA .  Wrottesley shows "Rees, Wenchiliana, Margaret, Dughrica" as the children of "Lewellyn ap Rees" in relation to a claim by "Gilbert Talbot chivaler, Res ap Howel ap Willym and Walter ap Jevan ab Lewellyn" against Henry Earl of Lancaster and Blanche his wife for "the castle and commote of Tokennyn", adding that "Dughrica" was the mother of William, grandmother of Howell and great grandmother of "Rees the plaintiff"[516]m ---. 

Rhys & his [first/second] wife had two children: 

b)         MAREDUDD (-Dyryslwyn 6 Aug 1271, bur Whitland).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Rhys the Hoarse" died 6 Aug 1271 "in the castle of Dyryslwyn and was buried at Whitland"[517]m ---.  The name of Maredudd´s wife is not known.  Maredudd & his wife had five childen:

i)          RHYS (-1292)m (1285) AUDA Hastings, daughter of HENRY Hastings & his wife ---. 

c)         HYWEL

5.         MAREDUDD (-2 Jul 1201).  Lord of Cantref Bychan.  The Annales Cambrić record that "Maredut filius Resi, inclytus adolescens" was killed "die Sancti Swithini" in 1201 by "Francis de Kedweli" and his burial "juxta ecclesiam Sanctć Marić"[518]

6.         MAELGWN ([1170]-Llanerch Aeron 1231, bur Strata Florida).  The Annales Cambrić record that "Resus filius Grifini" was captured in 1194 by "filiis suis Hoelo et Mailgono"[519].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maelgwn son of Rhys gave the castle of Ystrad Meurug to his brothers" in 1194[520].  Lord of Ceredigion [Cardigan].  The Annales Cambrić record that "Mailgonus Resi filius" captured "Grifinus filius Resi…fratrem suum" in Aug 1197[521].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maelgwn son of Rhys died at Llanerch Aeron and was buried in the chapter house at Strata Florida" in 1231[522]m ---.  The name of Maelgwn´s wife is not known.  Maelgwn & his wife had one child:

a)         MAELGWN Fychan/junior [Ievanc] (-1257).  Lord of Ceredigion [Cardigan].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "young Maelgwn son of Maelgwn son of Rhys burned Aberteivi to the gate of the castle and slew all the burgesses" in 1231[523]m ANGHARAD, illegitimate daughter of LLYWELYN ap Iorwerth Fawr/the Great Prince of North Wales & his mistress ---.  Maelgwn & his wife had [four] children: 

i)          RHYS (-1255).  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1255 of "iuvenis…Resus filius Mailgonis" and his burial "in capitulo iuxta sororem suam"[524]m ISABEL Marshal, illegitimate daughter of GILBERT Marshal Earl of Pembroke & his mistress ---.  Rhys & his wife had two children: 

(a)       LLYWELYN (-1264).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Llywelyn son of Rhys son of Maelgwn son of the lord Rhys…" died in 1264 "on the octave of the epiphany"[525]

(b)       RHYS Ieuanc. 

ii)         GWENLLIAN (-1254).  The Annales Cambrić record the death "die Sanctć Katerinć" in 1254 of "Guenllian filia domini Mailgonis"[526]m MAREDUDD ap Llywelyn of Meirionydd, son of LLYWELYN Fawr/senior & his wife ---. 

iii)        MARARED (-28 Sep 1255).  The Annales Cambrić record the death "ante festum Sancte Michaelis" in 1255 of "Margeria…filia Maelgonis, uxor Owini filii Mareduth de Kedeveyn" and her burial "apud Stratam Floridam iuxta fratrem suum"[527]m OWAIN ap Maredudd of Cydewain. 

iv)       [ELEANOR .  Bridgeman states that “I cannot say positively who was the wife of Meredith; but we know that he name was Elena and that he assigned her her dower in the commot of Gwynnionith” (no citation reference”[528].  He adds that “The heralds call her Eleanor, daughter of Maelgwm ap Maelgwn ap Lord Res by his wife Angharad of Wales” (no citation reference).  m MAREDUDD ap Owain of Deheubarth, son of OWAIN ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth & his wife --- (-1265).] 

7.         HYWEL Sais (-killed 1204, bur Strata Florida).  The Annales Cambrić record that "Resus filius Grifini" was captured in 1194 by "filiis suis Hoelo et Mailgono"[529].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys was seized by his sons and imprisoned, and Howel the Saxon released his father by deceiving Maelgwn son of Rhys" in 1194[530].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Howel the Saxon son of the lord Rhys was stabbed at Cemaes through treachery by the men of Maelgwn his brother, of which stab he died and was buried at Strata Florida" in 1204[531]m ---.  The name of Hywel´s wife is not known.  Hywel & his wife had one child:

a)         CYNAN

8.         MAREDUDD (-1224).  Archdeacon of Cardigan.  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1224 of "Maredut filius Resi archidiaconus de Cardigan"[532]

9.         GWENLLIAN (-1236).  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1236 of "Guenllian filia Resi Magni uxor Edneveth Vethan"[533]m EDNYFED ap Cynwrig Fychan/junior, seneschal of Gwynedd, son of CYNWRIG & his wife --- (-1246). 

10.      MORGAN (-1251).  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1251 of "Morgan filius Resi Magni"[534]

11.      NEST m as his first wife, RHODRI Lord of Anglesey, son of OWAIN King of Gwynedd & his second wife Christina of Deheubarth (-1195). 

Rhys had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

12.       daughter .  Her parentage and marriage is confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which records that "the lord Rhys son of Gruffudd" met King Henry II at Gloucester 25 Jul 1175, taking with him "…Einon Glud of Elvael his son in law by his daughter, and Einon son of Rhys of Gwerthrynion his other son-in-law…"[535]m EINON Clud of Elvael (-killed 1177).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Einon Clud was slain" in 1177[536]. 

13.       daughter .  Her parentage and marriage is confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which records that "the lord Rhys son of Gruffudd" met King Henry II at Gloucester 25 Jul 1175, taking with him "…Einon Glud of Elvael his son in law by his daughter, and Einon son of Rhys of Gwerthrynion his other son-in-law…"[537]m EINON ap Rhys of Gwerthrynion.    

Rhys had one illegitimate child by Mistress (2): 

14.       MEURUG (1172-).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the birth in 1172 of "Meurug son of the lord Rhys son of Gruffudd, of the daughter of Maredudd son of Gruffudd, his niece, the daughter of his brother"[538]

 

 

MAREDUDD ap Owain, son of OWAIN ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth & his wife --- (-Llanbardarn Mar 1265, bur Strata Florida).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Owain son of Gruffudd son of the lord Rhys" died in Mar 1264 "at Llanbardarn the Great and was buried in the chapter house of the monks of Strata Florida"[539]

m ELEANOR, daughter of ---.  Bridgeman states that “I cannot say positively who was the wife of Meredith; but we know that he name was Elena and that he assigned her her dower in the commot of Gwynnionith” (no citation reference”[540].  He adds that “The heralds call her Eleanor, daughter of Maelgwm ap Maelgwn ap Lord Res & his wife Angharad of Wales” (no citation reference). 

Maredudd & his wife had four children: 

1.         OWAIN (-1275, bur Strata Florida).  Bridgeman states that the territory of Maredudd was divided between “his sons Owen, Griffith and Cynan” (no citation reference”[541].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death 15 Aug 1275 of "Owain son of Maredudd son of Owain son of Gruffudd son of the lord Rhys" and his burial “at Strata Florida...near his father[542]m ANGHARAD, daughter of [OWAIN ap Maredudd ap Robert of Cydewain & his wife ---] (-after 4 Jan 1278).  Dwnn´s 1597 Visitations of Wales records that “Owein ab Mddh ye sonne of Meredith ab Owein...” married “Angharad doughter of Owein ab Middh ab Roppert[543].  A writ dated 4 Jan 1278 inquired into the claims of “Angarad wife of Owen son of Maraduc ap Owyen” to “right[s] in the commot of Anhunaut...Kardigan[544].  Owain & his wife had one child: 

a)         LLYWELYN (-1309).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "from South Wales, Gruffudd and Cynan the sons of Maredudd son of Owain son of Gruffudd son of the lord Rhys, and Llywelyn son of Owain his nephew, became reconciled to the king" in 1276[545].  Lord of Iscoed.  m [---, daughter of ROBERT de Val Lord of Trefgarn & his wife ---/ELEANOR de Barry, daughter of WILLIAM de Barry & his wife ---].  The identity of the wife of Llywelyn is uncertain.  According to Griffith Hiraethog, who lived at the time of King Henry VIII, Llywelyn´s wife was “the daughter of Sir Robert Y Val, Arglwydd Trefgarn Owen[546].  Dwnn´s 1597 Visitations of Wales records that “Llywelyn ab Owein” married “Elen doughter to William de Barry[547].  Bridgeman states that “the Heralds employed to draw up the pedigree of King Henry VII recorded Llywelyn´s wife as “the daughter of William de Comte de Barr by Elinor the daughter of King Edward I” (which, if correct, would mean that she was Eléonore de Bar, daughter of Henri [III] Comte de Bar & [his wife Eleanor of England]) but dismisses this possibility[548].  Llywelyn & his wife had two children: 

i)          OWAIN .  Griffith Hiraethog, who lived at the time of King Henry VIII, names “Owen and Thomas” as the sons of Llywelyn and his wife “the daughter of Sir Robert Y Val, Arglwydd Trefgarn Owen[549]

ii)         THOMAS of Iscoed .  Griffith Hiraethog, who lived at the time of King Henry VIII, names “Owen and Thomas” as the sons of Llywelyn and his wife “the daughter of Sir Robert Y Val, Arglwydd Trefgarn Owen[550]m ELEANOR, daughter of PHILIP ap Ieuor Lord of Iscoed & his wife ---.  Dwnn´s 1597 Visitations of Wales records that “Thomas Llnn ab Owein” married secondly “Elinor doughter to Philip ab Ieuor[551].  Thomas & his wife had two children: 

(a)       ELEN .  Dwnn´s 1597 Visitations of Wales records that “Ellen Thomas Llnn ab Owein” married “Griffith ychan” and was mother of “Owein Glandwr and Margett Thomas Llnn ab Owein wyfe to Tudor ab Grono, ancestor to Owen Tudyr[552]m GRUFFYDD ap Gruffydd Fychan ("little/junior") II Lord of Glyndyfrdwy, son of GRUFFYDD ap Madog & his wife ---. 

(b)       MARGARET .  Dwnn´s 1597 Visitations of Wales records that “Margett Thomas Llnn ab Owein” married “Tudor ab Grono, ancestor to Owen Tudyr[553].  Bridgeman records that Margaret married firstly “William ap Griffith de la Pole Lord of Mawddwy in Powysland, by whom she had a son John[554]m firstly WILLIAM ap Gruffydd de la Pole, son of ---.  m secondly Sir TUDUR Fychan of Penmynydd, Anglesey, son of TUDUR Hen & his wife Angharad (-1367). 

2.         RHYS (-after 1276).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys son of Maredudd son of Owain son of Gruffudd son of the lord Rhys, and Rhys Wyndod son of young Rhys son of Rhys Mechell son of Rhys the Hoarse son of the lord Rhys, nephew sister´s son to the prince, became reconciled to Pain son of Patrick" in 1276[555]

3.         GRUFFYDD (-after 1282).  Bridgeman states that the territory of Maredudd was divided between “his sons Owen, Griffith and Cynan” (no citation reference”[556].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "from South Wales, Gruffudd and Cynan the sons of Maredudd son of Owain son of Gruffudd son of the lord Rhys, and Llywelyn son of Owain his nephew, became reconciled to the king" in 1276[557].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Maredudd son of Owain son of Gruffudd…and Rhys son of Maelgwyn the Little son of Maelgwn…possessed themselves of the town and castle of Aberystwyth" in 1282[558]

4.         CYNAN .  Bridgeman states that the territory of Maredudd was divided between “his sons Owen, Griffith and Cynan” (no citation reference”[559].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "from South Wales, Gruffudd and Cynan the sons of Maredudd son of Owain son of Gruffudd son of the lord Rhys, and Llywelyn son of Owain his nephew, became reconciled to the king" in 1276[560]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    KINGS and PRINCES of GLAMORGAN

 

 

 

1.         HYWELKing of Glamorganm ---.  Hywel & his wife had one child: 

a)         MEURYG (-killed in battle 843).  King of Glamorgan.  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhodri the Great opposed [Berthwrd king of Mercia]…with the assistance of Meuryg son of Hywel king of Glamorgan" in 843, adding that Meuryg was killed in the battle and was succeeded by "Ithel son of Hywel" who was killed by "the men of Brecknockshire" on his way to assist Rhodri[561].] 

b)         ITHEL (-killed [843/44]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhodri the Great opposed [Berthwrd king of Mercia]…with the assistance of Meuryg son of Hywel king of Glamorgan" in 843, adding that Meuryg was killed in the battle and was succeeded by "Ithel son of Hywel" who was killed by "the men of Brecknockshire" on his way to assist Rhodri[562].]  King of Glamorgan

 

2.         OWAINm ---.  Owain & his wife had one child: 

a)         GWEIRYDD (-killed Anglesey 878).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records "the action…in Mona in which Rhodri and his brother Gwriad, and Gweirydd son of Owain of Glamorgan were killed by the Saxons" in 873 (dated in other sources to 878)[563].] 

 

3.         ARTHVAELm ---.  The name of Arthvael´s wife is not known.  Arthvael & his wife had one child: 

a)         RHYSm ---.  Rhys & his wife had one child: 

i)          HYWEL (-Rome 894).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Hywel son of Rhys son of Arthvael, lord of Glamorgan died in his full old age at Rome three days after his arrival at the age of a hundred and twenty four" in 894[564].]  m ---.  The name of Hywel´s wife is not known.  Hywel & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ARTHVAELm ---.  The name of Arthvael´s wife is not known.  Arthvael & his wife had one child: 

(1)       CADELL (-killed [940/43]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "the Welsh gained their freedom…through the bravery and wisdom of Eidwal the Bald and his brother Elisseu, Cadell son of Arthvael son of Hywel lord of Glamorgan, and Idwal son of Rhodri the Great" in 940 (dated in other sources to 943, see below) after the death of King Ćthelstan, but adding that "on that account they were killed by the Saxons by treachery and ambush"[565].] 

ii)         ARTHVAEL (-895).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Arthvael the aged son of Rhys, lord of Glamorgan, and king of the seven cantrevs of Gwent died at the age of a hundred and twenty" in 895[566].]  m CEINWEN, daughter of ARTHEN King of Ceredigion & his wife ---.  [The Gwentian Chronicle names "Ceinwen daughter of Arthen king of Ceredigion" as the wife of "Arthvael the aged son of Rhys, lord of Glamorgan"[567].] 

 

4.         OWAINm ---.  The name of Owain´s wife is not known.  Owain & his wife had two children: 

a)         MORGAN (-[1001], bur Llan Dav).  King of Glamorgan.  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Blegywyrd son of Owain, chief of the court of Llandav, brother to Morgan king of Glamorgan" accompanied "Hywel the Good son of Cadell, king of all Wales" on his journey to Rome in 926[568].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Morgan the Great, prince of Glamorgan died at the extreme age of a hundred and twenty-nine" in 1001 "having transferred his authority to his sons and grandsons many years before his death on account of age and decrepitude" and was buried "under the altar of Teilaw at Llan Dav"[569].]  m ---.  The name of Morgan´s wife is not known.  Morgan & his wife had three children: 

i)          ITHEL (-994).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Meredydd was ravaging the territory of Ithel son of Morgan prince of Glamorgan" in 991[570].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Ithel prince of Glamorgan" gave assistance to "Idwal son of Meuryg" in defending against Danish attacks in 993[571].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Ithel prince of Glamorgan" died in 994 and "was succeeded by his son Gwrgan, a wise and peaceable prince; but his son Iestin preferred misrule and inclined to war and turbulence"[572].]  m ---.  The name of Ithel´s wife is not known.  Ithel & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GWRGAN (-died 1030).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Ithel prince of Glamorgan" died in 994 and "was succeeded by his son Gwrgan, a wise and peaceable prince; but his son Iestin preferred misrule and inclined to war and turbulence"[573].] 

-         see below

ii)         HYWEL (-1043).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Meredydd was ravaging the territory of Ithel son of Morgan prince of Glamorgan" in 991 and that "Hywel son of Morgan brother to Ithel" help organise the defences[574].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Gwrgan prince of Glamorgan took to his assistance his uncle Hywel son of Morgan the Aged, brother to his father" and that after Gwrgan died in 1030 "Hywel took the whole government upon himself"[575].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Hywel lord of Glamorgan died at the age of a hundred and thirty years" in 1043[576].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Howel son of Edwin king of Glamorgan died in his old age" in 1041[577]

iii)        BLEGYWYRDm ---.  The name of Blegywyrd´s wife is not known.  Blegywyrd & his wife had two children: 

(a)       AEDDAN (-killed in battle 1015).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Ithel prince of Glamorganconfederated with Aeddan son of Blegywryd son of Morgan the Great and they meditated war to acquire the territory of Meredydd" in 994[578].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Aeddan son of Blegywyrd led an army to Ceredigion and conquered the territory of Maredydd" in 1000 and "went to Gwynedd" where he defeated "Cynan son of Hywel and so acquired the country of Gwynedd…[and] acquired all Wales"[579].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Llewelyn son of Seisyllt" killed in battle "Aeddan son of Blegywyrd and his four nephews" in 1015 and "took the government upon himself"[580].] 

(b)       ARTHVAELm ---.  The name of Arthvael´s wife is not known.  Arhtvael & his wife had one child: 

(1)       MEURYG (-killed 1020).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Meuryg son of Arthvael son of Blegywryd" challenged "Llewelyn son of Seisyllt" in 1020 but was killed in battle by Llywelyn "with his own sword"[581].] 

b)         BLEGYWYRD .  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Blegywyrd son of Owain, chief of the court of Llandav, brother to Morgan king of Glamorgan" accompanied "Hywel the Good son of Cadell, king of all Wales" on his journey to Rome in 926[582].] 

c)         IDWALLON (-975).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Idwallon son of Owain and brother of Morgan the Great prince of Glamorgan" died in 975[583].] 

 

 

GWRGAN, son of ITHEL ap Morgan of Glamorgan & his wife --- (-died 1030).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Ithel prince of Glamorgan" died in 994 and "was succeeded by his son Gwrgan, a wise and peaceable prince; but his son Iestin preferred misrule and inclined to war and turbulence"[584].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Gwrgan prince of Glamorgan" died in 1030[585].] 

m ---.  The name of Gwrgan´s wife is not known. 

Gwrgan & his wife had one child: 

1.         IESTIN (-after 1043).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Ithel prince of Glamorgan" died in 994 and "was succeeded by his son Gwrgan, a wise and peaceable prince; but his son Iestin preferred misrule and inclined to war and turbulence", adding that Iestin built "a castle…Denis Powys" on "the comot of Trev Essyllt" and "confederated with Aeddan son of Blegywryd son of Morgan the Great and they meditated war to acquire the territory of Meredydd"[586].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Iestin son of Gwrgan…after the death of Denis daughter of Bleddyn son of Cynvyn his first wife" requested in marriage the daughter of "Rotpert son of Seisyllt…Ardden by Eviliau daughter of Gwrgeneu his first wife and was refused by her father on account of her age" but that he "ravished her against her will", dated to [1032/36] from the context[587].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Iestin son of Gwrgan…the worst prince ever seen in Wales" succeeded after the death of "Hywel lord of Glamorgan" in 1043[588].]  m (994) DENIS, daughter of [BLEDDYN ap Cynfyn Prince of Powys & his wife ---].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Iestin [prince of Glamorgan]" married "the daughter of Bleddyn son of Cynvyn prince of Powys, by name Denis" in 994[589].]  Iestin & his wife had three children: 

a)         RHYDDERCH (-killed in battle 1031).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Aeddan son of Blegywyrd as he had no son adopted as his heir Rhydderch son of Iestin son of Gwrgan"[590].] 

-        see below

b)         CARADAWC (-killed in battle [1032]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records "the Saxons came to Gwent, and against them Caradawc son of Iestin where he was killed", dated to 1032 from the context[591].] 

c)         GRUFFYDDm ---.  The name of Grufydd´s wife is not known.  Grufydd & his wife had one child: 

i)          MEURUGm ---.  The name of Meurug´s wife is not known.  Meurug & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ASAR .  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Pain Turberville" was granted "the lordship of Coetty…by marriage with Asar daughter of Meurug, son of Grufudd son of Iestin son of Gwrgan" by Robert FitzHamon after the death of Rhys ap Tewdwr in 1093[592].]  m PAIN d´Urbeville, son of ---. 

 

 

RHYDDERCH, son of IESTIN ap Gwrgan & his wife Denis of Powys (-killed 1031).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Aeddan son of Blegywyrd as he had no son adopted as his heir Rhydderch son of Iestin son of Gwrgan"[593].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhydderch son of Iestin assumed the government of the south" in 1021 after the death of "Llywelyn son of Seisyll"[594].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "after the death of Llywelyn son of Seisyllt, Rhydderch son of Iestin took upon him the government of South Wales as his right, as heir to Aeddan son of Blegywryd" in 1021[595].  The Annales Cambrić record that "Ryderch filius Yestin" was killed by the Scots, undated but dated to 1033 from the context[596].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhydderch son of Iestin was killed by the Scots" in 1031[597].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhydderch son of Iestin was killed by the Irish Scots, brought to South Wales by Hywel son of Edwin" in 1031 and that "Hywel and Meredydd regained the principality of S. Wales"[598].] 

m ---.  The name of Rhydderch´s wife is not known. 

Rhydderch & his wife had three children:

1.         CARADOG (-killed 1033).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the action of Hiraethwy took place between the sons of Edwin and the sons of Rhydderch" in 1032 and that "Caradog son of Rhydderch was killed by the Saxons" in 1033[599]m ---.  The name of Caradog´s wife is not known.  Caradog & his wife had one child:

a)         RHYDDERCH (-killed 1074).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhydderch son of Caradog son of Iestin took the government" in 1070 after "Caradog son of Rhydderch died from a disorder brought on by a wound he received in battle" [this last person cannot be identified, presumably there is an error in the name)[600].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Bleddyn son of Cynvyn was killed by Rhys son of Owain" in 1073, after which "Rhys son of Owain and Rhydderch son of Caradog held South Wales"[601].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhydderch son of Caradog was killed by his cousin Meirchion son of Rhys son of Rhydderch, through treachery" in 1074[602]

2.         GRUFFYDD (-killed [1054/57]).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "exceeding treachery was practised by Gruffudd and Rhys sons of Rhydderich son of Iestin against Gruffudd son of Llywelyn" in 1043[603]

-        see below

3.         RHYS .  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "exceeding treachery was practised by Gruffudd and Rhys sons of Rhydderich son of Iestin against Gruffudd son of Llywelyn" in 1043[604].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Caradoc [presumably an error for Gruffydd] and Rhys the two sons of Rhydderch son of Iestin" fought inconclusively with "Grufudd son of Llywelyn" in 1050[605]m ---.  The name of Rhys´s wife is not known.  Rhys & his wife had one child:

a)         MEIRCHION .  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhydderch son of Caradog was killed by his cousin Meirchion son of Rhys son of Rhydderch, through treachery" in 1074[606]

 

 

GRUFFYDD, son of RHYDDERCH & his wife --- (-killed [1054/57]).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "exceeding treachery was practised by Gruffudd and Rhys sons of Rhydderich son of Iestin against Gruffudd son of Llywelyn" in 1043[607].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Caradoc [presumably an error for Gruffydd] and Rhys the two sons of Rhydderch son of Iestin" fought inconclusively with "Grufudd son of Llywelyn" in 1050[608].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Llywelyn killed Grufudd son of Rhydderch" in 1054[609].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Grufudd son of Rhydderch son of Iestin arrived at man´s estate…went against Grufudd son of Llywelyn prince of Gwynedd and…was slain" in 1057[610].] 

m ---.  The name of Gruffyd´s wife is not known. 

Gruffyd & his wife had two children:

1.         OWAIN (-murdered 1060).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Owain son of Grufudd son of Rhydderch son of Iestin died by poison" in 1060[611].] 

2.         CARADOG (-killed in battle 1081).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Caradoc son of Rhydderch [error for son of Grufudd son of Rhydderch?] son of Iestin hired Harallt to come with an army to S. Wales" and together they defeated Prince Gruffydd in 1060[612].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Owain was killed by Caradog son of Gruffudd son of Rhydderch and the French on the banks of the river Rymney" in 1070[613].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Caradog and [error for son of] Grufudd, son of Rhydderch, son of Iestin" defeated and killed "Meredydd son of Owain son of Edwin king of South Wales" in 1069[614].]  m GWENLLIAN, daughter of BLEDDYN & his [first wife ---].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which names "Owain son of Caradog by Gwenllian daughter of…Bleddyn"[615].  Caradog & his wife had one child: 

a)         OWAIN (-after 1113).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Owain son of Caradog by Gwenllian daughter of…Bleddyn" in 1113[616]m ---.  The name of Owain´s wife is not known.  Owain & his wife had four children:

i)          MORGAN (-killed 1157).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Morgan son of Owain Gwynedd was killed through the treachery of Ivor son of Meurug" in 1157[617]

ii)         IORWERTH (-after 1171).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iorwerth son of Owain, the brother of Morgan governed the land of Caerleon and all the territory of Owain" in 1157[618].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the king [Henry] proceeded to South Wales and…upon the river Usk he took Iorwerth son of Owain, son of Caradog, son of Gruffudd…[who] with his two sons Owain and Howel…destroyed the town of Caerleon" in 1171[619]m ANGHARAD, daughter of UCHTRYD Bishop of Llandaf & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "Angharad daughter of Uchtryd bishop of Llandaf" as mother of "Iorwerth son of Owain, son of Caradog, son of Gruffudd…his two sons Owain and Howel"[620].  Iorwerth & his wife had two children: 

(a)       OWAIN (-killed 1172).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the king [Henry] proceeded to South Wales and…upon the river Usk he took Iorwerth son of Owain, son of Caradog, son of Gruffudd…[who] with his two sons Owain and Howel…destroyed the town of Caerleon" in 1171[621].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Owain son of Iorwerth" was killed in 1172[622]

(b)       HOWEL .  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the king [Henry] proceeded to South Wales and…upon the river Usk he took Iorwerth son of Owain, son of Caradog, son of Gruffudd…[who] with his two sons Owain and Howel…destroyed the town of Caerleon" in 1171[623].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Howel son of Iorwerth of Caerleon seized Owain Pencarwn his uncle, unknown to his father" and blinded and castrated him in 1175[624]

iii)        OWAIN Pencarwn (-after 1175).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Howel son of Iorwerth of Caerleon seized Owain Pencarwn his uncle, unknown to his father" and blinded and castrated him in 1175[625]

iv)       ANGHARAD .  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "Angharad daughter of Owain and sister to Iorwerth" as the mother of "Seisyll son of Dyvnwal" and mother of "Morgan"[626]

 

 

EDWIN ap Einion, son of EINION of Gwynedd & his wife --- (-after 991).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Edwin son of Einion…accompanied by Adelf a Saxon prince…and they ravaged all the lands of Meredydd, that is Ceredigion, Dyved, Menevia, Lower Gower and Cydweli" in 991[627].] 

m ---.  The name of Edwin´s wife is not known. 

Edwin & his wife had three children:

1.         HYWEL (-killed in battle Aber Tywi 1042).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "the Scots came to Carmarthen accompanied by Hywel and Maredydd sons of Edwin son of Einion" in 1021[628].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Howel and Maredudd sons of Edwin held the government of the south" in 1031[629].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhydderch son of Iestin was killed by the Irish Scots, brought to South Wales by Hywel son of Edwin" in 1031 and that "Hywel and Meredydd regained the principality of S. Wales"[630].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Llywelyn son of Seisyl…obtained the government of South Wales and dispossessed Howel son of Edwin of his territory" in 1038[631].  The Annales Cambrić record that "Hoelus filius Etwini" was killed in battle by "Grifinus filius Lewelini", undated but apparently dated to 1044 from the context[632].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Howel son of Edwin meditated the devastation of South Wales accompanied by a fleet of the people of Ireland and against him was opposed Gruffudd son of Llywelyn…a battle…at Aber Tywi, Howel fell and was slain" in 1042[633].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Hywel son of Edwin was slain in the action of Abertywi by Grufudd son of Llywelyn" in 1043[634].]  m ---.  She married secondly (1039) as  his first wife, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn King of Gwynedd.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Llywelyn son of Seisyl overcame Howel and captured his wife and took her to be his own wife"[635].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Grufudd son of Llywelyn son of Seisyllt" defeated "Hywel son of Edwin and took his wife from him and kept her as his concubine" in 1038[636].] 

2.         MAREDUDD (-killed [1032/35]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "the Scots came to Carmarthen accompanied by Hywel and Maredydd sons of Edwin son of Einion" in 1021[637].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Howel and Maredudd sons of Edwin held the government of the south" in 1031[638].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhydderch son of Iestin was killed by the Irish Scots, brought to South Wales by Hywel son of Edwin" in 1031 and that "Hywel and Meredydd regained the principality of S. Wales"[639].]  The Annales Cambrić record that "Maredut filius Edwini" was killed "a filiis Conani" in 1035[640].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the action of Hiraethwy took place between the sons of Edwin and the sons of Rhydderch" in 1032 and that "Maredudd son of Edwin was killed by the sons of Cynan" in 1033[641].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records "the action of Machwy…where Meredydd son of Edwin was slain by the sons of Cynan son of Seisyllt, brother to Llywelyn son of Seisyllt to revenge the murder of their uncle", dated to 1032 from the context[642].] 

3.         OWAIN .  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which records that his son "Maredudd son of Owain son of Edwin held South Wales" in 1068[643]m ---.  The name of Owain´s wife is not known.  Owain & his wife had three children:

a)         MAREDUDD (-killed in battle 1070).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "after the murder of Grufudd the son of Llywelyn, Meredydd the son of Owain the son of Edwin was made prince of S. Wales by Harallt and Edward king of the Saxons" in 1062[644].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Owain son of Edwin held South Wales" in 1068[645].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Owain was killed by Caradog son of Gruffudd son of Rhydderch and the French on the banks of the river Rymney" in 1070[646].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Caradog and Grufudd, son of Rhydderch, son of Iestin" defeated and killed "Meredydd son of Owain son of Edwin king of South Wales" in 1069[647].]  m ---.  The name of Maredudd´s wife is not known.  Maredudd & his wife had one child:

i)          GRUFFYDD (-1091).  Domesday Book records “Gruffydd ap Maredudd” holding several properties in Worcestershire[648]

b)         RHYS (-killed 1076).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Bleddyn son of Cynvyn was killed by Rhys son of Owain" in 1073, after which "Rhys son of Owain and Rhydderch son of Caradog held South Wales"[649].  The Annales Cambrić record that "Resus [filius Owini] et Hoelus frater eius" were killed in battle by "Traharn filio Caraduc" in 1076[650].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys and Howel his brother were killed by Caradog son of Gruffudd" in 1076[651]

c)         HYWEL (-killed 1076).  The Annales Cambrić record that "Resus [filius Owini] et Hoelus frater eius" were killed in battle by "Traharn filio Caraduc" in 1076[652].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys and Howel his brother were killed by Caradog son of Gruffudd" in 1076[653]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    KINGS of POWYS

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of POWYS, family of CADELL ap Brochwell

 

 

1.         CADELL ap Brochwell (-[804/08]).  [The Gwentian Chronicle names "Cadell of Derrnllwg, son of Brochwel Ysgithrog" when recording his daughter´s marriage[654].]  King of Powys.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death in 808 of "Cadell king of Powys"[655].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Arthen king of the Ceredigiawn, Rhydderch king of Dyved, and Cadell king of Teyrnllwg now called Powys" died in 804[656].]  m ---.  The name of Cadell´s wife is not known.  Cadell & his wife had two children: 

a)         CYNGEN (-Rome 854).  He succeeded his father as King of Powys.  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 854 in Rome of "Cinnen rex Pouis"[657].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records the death in Rome in 854 of "Cyngen king of Powys"[658].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Cyngen son of Cadell Deyrnllwg was killed in Rome by his own men" in 850[659].]  m ---.  The name of Cyngen´s wife is not known.  Cyngen & his wife had [two children]: 

i)          [GRUFFYDD (-killed 815).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Griffri son of Cyngen son of Cadell" was killed in 815 "through the treachery of his brother Elisse"[660].  [It should be noted that the Gwentian Chronicle records that "Gruffydd son of Cynan died through the treachery of his brother Elisse" in 814[661].]  The issue is further complicated by a later passage in the Gwentian Chronicle which records that "Griffi son of Cyngen son of Cadell Deyrnllwg" was killed in 815[662].  It is not therefore known whether Gruffydd and Elisse were sons of Cynan King of Anglesey/Gwynedd or grandsons of Cadell King of Powys.  The chronology appears to favour the former interpretation, but the uncertainty of the chronology of all these early sources is recognised.] 

ii)         [ELISSE .  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Griffri son of Cyngen son of Cadell" was killed in 815 "through the treachery of his brother Elisse"[663].  [It should be noted that the Gwentian Chronicle records that "Gruffydd son of Cynan died through the treachery of his brother Elisse" in 814[664].]  The issue is further complicated by a later passage in the Gwentian Chronicle which records that "Griffi son of Cyngen son of Cadell Deyrnllwg" was killed in 815[665].  It is not therefore known whether Gruffydd and Elisse were sons of Cynan King of Anglesey/Gwynedd or grandsons of Cadell King of Powys.  The chronology appears to favour the former interpretation, but the uncertainty of the chronology of all these early sources is recognised.] 

b)         [NEST .  The marriage of Nest of Powys is recorded in manuscripts dated no earlier than the later 14th century, although possibly copied from earlier texts[666].  [On the other hand, the Gwentian Chronicle records that the mother of "Mervyn the Freckled" was "Nest daughter of Cadell of Derrnllwg, son of Brochwel Ysgithrog", after recording that "[the] daughter [of Cynan Tindaethwy king of all Wales] who was his heir married a chieftain of the name of Mervyn the Freckled"[667].]  It is impossible to judge which version is preferable.  Indeed, it is possible that both Ethyll and Nest were not historical figures at all but were invented to legitimise claims to Gwynedd and Powys, respectively, in the eyes of successor generations of kings and their supporters.  m MERFYN ap Gwriad "Frych/the Freckled" King of Gwynedd, son of GWRIAD King of Gwynedd & his wife [Ethyll heiress of Gwynedd] (-844).] 

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of POWYS, family of CYNFYN ap Gwerstan

 

 

No other reference has been found to the following family in the mid-10th century except the marriage which is indicated below.  It is possible that there is an error in the text and that the chronicler confused the bride´s father with Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, who lived in the 11th century (see below). 

1.         CYNFYNm ---.  The name of Cynfyn´s wife is not known.  Cynfyn & his wife had one child: 

a)         BLEDDYNPrince of Powysm ---.  The name of Bleddyn´s wife is not known.  Bleddyn & his wife had one child:

i)          DENIS .  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Iestin [prince of Glamorgan]" married "the daughter of Bleddyn son of Cynvyn prince of Powys, by name Denis" in 994[668].]  m (994) IESTIN ap Gwrgan of Glamorgan, son of GWRGAN ap Ithel of Glamorgan & his wife ---. 

 

 

1.         GWERSTAN .  [The Gwentian Chronicle records the ancestry of "Cynvyn son of Gwerystan, lord of Cibwr in Gwent, son of Gwaithvoed, son of Gloddien, son of Gwrydr the Tall, son of Caradawc, son of Llew the Right-handed…etc" and nineteen further generations back to "Manogan king of the Isle of Britain"[669].]  m ---.  The name of Gwerstan´s wife is not known.  Gwerstan & his wife had one child:

a)         CYNFYN ap Gwerstan .  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which names "Cynvyn son of Gwerystan" as father of "Bleddyn"[670].  King of Powys.  m firstly (1023) as her second husband, ANGHARAD of Gwynedd, widow of LLYWELYN ap Seisyll King of Gwynedd, daughter of MAREDUDD King of Deheubarth and Gwynedd & his wife ---.  Her first marriage is confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which records that "Bleddyn son of Cynvyn [and] Gruffudd son of Llywelyn…were brothers by the same mother…Angharad daughter of Meredudd king of the Britons"[671].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Yngharad the widow of Llywelyn son of Seisyllt married Cynvyn son of Gwerystan lord of Cibwyr" in 1023[672].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records in 1106 that "Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, were brothers, from Angharad daughter of king Maredudd"[673]m secondly ---.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iweryd the mother of Owain and Uchtryd, the sons of Edwin king of Tegeingl, and Bleddyn son of Cynvyn were sister and brother by the same father but not the same mother, as Angharad daughter of Maredudd was the mother of Bleddyn"[674].  Cynfyn & his first wife had two children: 

i)          BLEDDYN ap Cynfyn ([1025]-1075).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records in 1106 that "Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, were brothers, from Angharad daughter of king Maredudd"[675].  He succeeded his uterine half-brother in 1063 as King of Gwynedd and Powys. 

-         see below

ii)         RHIWALLON (-killed in battle Mechain 1068).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records in 1106 that "Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, were brothers, from Angharad daughter of king Maredudd"[676].  Florence of Worcester records that he was appointed King of Powys by King Edward "the Confessor" after the defeat of Gruffydd[677].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the action of Mechain took place between Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, Maredudd and Ithel, sons of Gruffudd" in 1068, adding that "Ithel was killed in the battle and Maredudd died of cold in his flight, and Rhiwallon son of Cynvyn was slain"[678]m ---.  The name of Rhiwallon´s wife is not known.  Rhiwallon & his wife had four children:

(a)       CYNWRIG .  Ruled over Gwynnedd jointly with Trahaearn ap Caradog [1080]. 

(b)       MEILYS (-1081). 

(c)       GWLADUS .  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records in 1106 that "Cadwgan son of Bleddyn and Gwladus daughter of Rhiwallon, the mother of Nest were cousins, as Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, were brothers"[679]m RHYS ap Tewdwr King of Deheubarth, son of TEWDWR Mawr & his wife --- (-killed in battle near Brecknock Castle [Mar/Apr] 1093). 

(d)       SIONED m TUDOR "Walensis" Lord of Whittington. 

Cynfyn & his second wife had one child: 

iii)        IWERYD .  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iweryd the mother of Owain and Uchtryd, the sons of Edwin king of Tegeingl, and Bleddyn son of Cynvyn were sister and brother by the same father but not the same mother, as Angharad daughter of Maredudd was the mother of Bleddyn"[680]m EDWIN ap Gronw, son of GRONW ap Einon & his wife ---. 

 

BLEDDYN ap Cynfyn, son of CYNFYN ap Gwerstan & his wife Angharad of Gwynedd ([1025]-1075).  Florence of Worcester records that he succeeded his uterine half-brother in 1063 as King of Gwynedd and Powys, appointed by King Edward "the Confessor" after the defeat of Gruffydd[681].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the action of Mechain took place between Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, Maredudd and Ithel, sons of Gruffudd" in 1068, adding that "Ithel was killed in the battle and Maredudd died of cold in his flight, and Rhiwallon son of Cynvyn was slain" and that "then Bleddyn son of Cynvyn held Gwynedd and Powys"[682].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Bleddyn son of Cynvyn was killed by Rhys son of Owain" in 1073[683].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records in 1106 that "Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, were brothers, from Angharad daughter of king Maredudd"[684]

m firstly ---, daughter of BROCKWELL ap Moelyn of Nwrcelyn in Môn (Anglesey) & his wife ---. 

m secondly ---. 

m thirdly as her second husband, HAER, widow of CYNFYN Hirdref, daughter of CILLIN ap y Blaidd Rhudd of Gest & his wife ---. 

m fourthly MORIEN, daughter of IDNERTH ap Cadwgan ab Elstan Gledrydd & his wife ---. 

Bleddyn & his first wife had three children:

1.         CADWGAN ap Bleddyn (-killed [1108/11]).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys son of Tewdwr was expelled from his territory by the sons of Bleddyn, sons of Cynvyn, to wit Madog, and Cadwgan, and Rhirid, and he himself retreated into Ireland, and immediately afterwards he collected a fleet of the Gwyddelians and returned again, and then the battle of Llych Crei took place, and the sons of Bleddyn were slain" in 1087[685].  Prince of Powys.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cadwgan son of Bleddyn despoiled Dyfed" 2 May 1091[686].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cadwgan son of Bleddyn and Gruffudd son of Cynan returned from Ireland" in 1097 and "made peace with the French…[and] retained part of the country, Cadwgan son of Bleddyn took Ceredigion and a portion of Powys"[687].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Robert Earl of Shrewsbury" made an alliance with "Cadwgan, Iorwerth and Maredudd, sons of Bleddyn, son of Cynvyn" in 1100 and together they seized "castles…Arundel and Bliv and Brygge…and Shrewsbury"[688].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that Henry I King of England "gave Powys to Cadwgan son of Bleddyn and was reconciled to Owain his son" after he heard that "Iorwerth [son of Bleddyn]" was killed in a fire in 1108, but that Cadwgan was killed soon afterwards by "Madog and those who had joined him in killing Iorwerth"[689].  Lord of Nannau.  He was ancestor of the family of Lloyd of Blaenglyn, see Burke's Landed Gentry.  m firstly ---.  m secondly ---.  m thirdly ---, daughter of PICOT & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "the French woman his wife daughter of Pictot, a French prince" as mother of "Henry son of Cadwgan" in 1113[690]m fourthly SANAN, daughter of DYVINWAL & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "Sanan daughter of Dyvinwal" as mother of "Einon son of Cadwgan" in 1113[691]m fifthly ELLYW, daughter of CEDIVOR ap Collwyn & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "Ellyw daughter of Cedivor son of Collwyn" as mother of "Gwgant son of Cadwgan" in 1113[692]m sixthly (1098) GWENLLIAN of Gwynedd, illegitimate daughter of GRUFFYDD ap Cynan King of Gwynnedd & his mistress --- ([1080]-).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "Gwenllian daughter of Gruffudd son of Cynan" as mother of "Madog son of Cadwgan" in 1113[693]m seventhly EURON, daughter of HOEDLYW ap Cadwgan & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "Euron daughter of Hoedlyw son of Cadwgan son of Elstan" as mother of "Maredudd [son of Cadwgan]" in 1113[694].  Cadwgan & his [first] wife had three children: 

a)         GORONW .  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Goronwy and Llywelyn sons of Cadwgwn son of Bleddyn son of Cynvyn came with…Caradog son of Grufudd son of Rhydderch son of Iestin…to revenge the death of their grandfather and fought a pitched battle with Rhys son of Owain" in 1074[695].] 

b)         LLYWELYN (-killed 1098).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Goronwy and Llywelyn sons of Cadwgwn son of Bleddyn son of Cynvyn came with…Caradog son of Grufudd son of Rhydderch son of Iestin…to revenge the death of their grandfather and fought a pitched battle with Rhys son of Owain" in 1074[696].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Llywelyn son of Cadwgawn son of Bleddyn was killed by the men of Brecheinog in the interest of Bernard Newmarch" in 1098[697].] 

c)         OWAIN (-killed 1103).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Owain son of Cadwgawn son of Bleddyn killed Meurug and Gruffudd the sons of Trahearn son of Caradog" in 1105[698].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Owain son of Cadwgan" was killed in 1103[699]

Cadwgan & his [second] wife had one child: 

d)         OWAIN (-killed 1113).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cadwgan son of Bleddyn prepared a feast for the chieftains of his country, and he invited…his son Owain from Powys" in 1106[700].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that Henry I King of England "gave Powys to Cadwgan son of Bleddyn and was reconciled to Owain his son and requested Cadwgan to send messengers after Owain to Ireland" after he heard that "Iorwerth [son of Bleddyn]" was killed in a fire in 1108[701].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Madog son of Rhirid was taken by Maredudd son of Bleddyn and given to Owain son of Cadwgawn who pulled out his eyes and set him at liberty" in 1110[702].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales record that "Owain" was killed in 1113[703]

Cadwgan & his third wife had two children: 

e)         HENRY .  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iorwerth son of Bleddyn" was released from prison in 1107 by Henry I King of England after "his son Rhirid…Ithel son of Rhirid his brother…[and] the son of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn…born of the French woman…Henry" were given as hostages[704].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "the French woman his wife daughter of Pictot, a French prince" as mother of "Henry son of Cadwgan" in 1113[705]

f)          GRUFFYDD .  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "the French woman his wife daughter of Pictot, a French prince" as mother of "Henry son of Cadwgan" in 1113, adding that "by her he had another son Gruffudd"[706]

Cadwgan & his fourth Twife had one child: 

g)         EINON (-1121).  he Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "Sanan daughter of Dyvinwal" as mother of "Einon son of Cadwgan" in 1113[707].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Einon son of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn and Gruffudd son of Maredudd son of Bleddyn joined together to make an attack upon the castle of Uchtryd son of Edwin" in 1113[708].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "King Henry came to Powys with a strong army against Meredudd son of Bleddyn and Einion, Madoc and Morgan, the sons of Cadwgawn" in 1118[709].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Einon son of Cadwgan…the person who held a part of Powys and Meirionydd, the country which he had taken from Uchtryd son of Edwin" died in 1121[710]

Cadwgan & his fifth wife had one child: 

h)         GWRGANT (-after 1113).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "Ellyw daughter of Cedivor son of Collwyn" as mother of "Gwgant son of Cadwgan" in 1113[711]

Cadwgan & his sixth wife had one child: 

i)          MADOG (-after 1113).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "Gwenllian daughter of Gruffudd son of Cynan" as mother of "Madog son of Cadwgan" in 1113[712].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "King Henry came to Powys with a strong army against Meredudd son of Bleddyn and Einion, Madoc and Morgan, the sons of Cadwgawn" in 1118[713].] 

Cadwgan & his seventh wife had [two] children: 

j)          MAREDUDD (-killed 1122).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "Euron daughter of Hoedlyw son of Cadwgan son of Elstan" as mother of "Maredudd [son of Cadwgan]" in 1113[714].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Einon son of Cadwgan…the person who held a part of Powys and Meirionydd, the country which he had taken from Uchtryd son of Edwin" died in 1121 and bequeathed his lands to "Maredudd his brother", who was "expelled by Maredudd son of Bleddyn his uncle"[715].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records "a disturbance between Morgan and Maredudd, the sons of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn and…Morgan killed Maredudd his brother with his own hands" in 1122[716]

k)         MORGAN (-Cyprus end 1125).  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "King Henry came to Powys with a strong army against Meredudd son of Bleddyn and Einion, Madoc and Morgan, the sons of Cadwgawn" in 1118[717].]  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records "a disturbance between Morgan and Maredudd, the sons of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn and…Morgan killed Maredudd his brother with his own hands" in 1122[718].  The identify of Morgan´s mother is not known.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Morgan son of Cadwgan died at Cyprus in returning from Jerusalem, after having taken the cross…on account of his having killed his brother Maredudd" at the end of 1125[719]

2.         HUNYDD [Gwladus] .  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "the wife of Rhydderch son of Tewdwr…Hunydd daughter of Bleddyn son of Cynvyn" and her sons "Maredudd and Owain" in 1113[720]m RHYDDERCH ap Tewdwr of Deheubarth, son of TEWDR Mawr & his wife ---. 

3.         GWENLLIAN .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which names "Owain son of Caradog by Gwenllian daughter of…Bleddyn"[721]m CARADOG ap Gruffydd ap Rhys King of Gwynllwg, son of GRUFFYDD & his wife --- (-killed in battle 1081). 

Bleddyn & his second wife had two children: 

4.         MADOG (-killed in battle Llych Crei 1087).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys son of Tewdwr was expelled from his territory by the sons of Bleddyn, sons of Cynvyn, to wit Madog, and Cadwgan, and Rhirid, and he himself retreated into Ireland, and immediately afterwards he collected a fleet of the Gwyddelians and returned again, and then the battle of Llych Crei took place, and the sons of Bleddyn were slain" in 1087[722]

5.         RHIRYD (-killed in battle Llych Crei 1087).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys son of Tewdwr was expelled from his territory by the sons of Bleddyn, sons of Cynvyn, to wit Madog, and Cadwgan, and Rhirid, and he himself retreated into Ireland, and immediately afterwards he collected a fleet of the Gwyddelians and returned again, and then the battle of Llych Crei took place, and the sons of Bleddyn were slain" in 1087[723]m ---.  The name of Rhiryd´s wife is not known.  Rhiryd & his wife had two children:

a)         MADOG (-after 1110).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Ithel and Madog the sons of Rhirid son of Bleddyn" helped "Gerald the steward" to recover his wife Nest after she was abducted by "Owain [son of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn" in 1106[724].  [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Madog son of Rhirid was taken by Maredudd son of Bleddyn and given to Owain son of Cadwgawn who pulled out his eyes and set him at liberty" in 1110[725].] 

b)         ITHEL (-1122).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Ithel and Madog the sons of Rhirid son of Bleddyn" helped "Gerald the steward" to recover his wife Nest after she was abducted by "Owain [son of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn" in 1106[726].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iorwerth son of Bleddyn" was released from prison in 1107 by Henry I King of England after "his son Rhirid…Ithel son of Rhirid his brother…[and] the son of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn…born of the French woman…Henry" were given as hostages[727].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Ithel son of Rhirid was liberated from the prison of king Henry" in 1121 and "when he came to claim a part of Powys, he obtained nothing"[728].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Grufudd son of Maredudd son of Bleddyn slew his cousin Ithel son of Rhirid son of Bleddyn" in 1122[729]

Bleddyn & his third wife had one child:

6.         MAREDUDD (-1132).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Robert Earl of Shrewsbury" made an alliance with "Cadwgan, Iorwerth and Maredudd, sons of Bleddyn, son of Cynvyn" in 1100 and together they seized "castles…Arundel and Bliv and Brygge…and Shrewsbury"[730].  He succeeded his father in 1075 as Prince of Powys. 

-        see below

Bleddyn & his fourth wife had two children:

7.         IORWERTH (-[1108/11]).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Robert Earl of Shrewsbury" made an alliance with "Cadwgan, Iorwerth and Maredudd, sons of Bleddyn, son of Cynvyn" in 1100 and together they seized "castles…Arundel and Bliv and Brygge…and Shrewsbury"[731].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Iorwerth son of Bleddyn son of Cynvyn embraced the party of King Henry in opposition to the Frenchmen" in 1101, but that the king "deceived him…and threw Iorwerth into prison"[732].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iorwerth son of Bleddyn" was released from prison in 1107 by Henry I King of England after "his son Rhirid…Ithel son of Rhirid his brother…[and] the son of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn…born of the French woman…Henry" were given as hostages[733].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iorwerth [son of Bleddyn]" was killed in a fire in 1108[734]m ---.  The name of Iorwerth´s wife is not known.  Iorwerth & his wife had one child:

a)         RHIRYD .  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iorwerth son of Bleddyn" was released from prison in 1107 by Henry I King of England after "his son Rhirid…Ithel son of Rhirid his brother…[and] the son of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn…born of the French woman…Henry" were given as hostages[735]

8.         LLYWELYN [Rhiwallon] .  Ancestor of the families of Lloyd of Rhiwtas, Gethius of Glasgoed, Llansilin, and Davies of Trewylan, Montgomeryshire. 

 

 

MAREDUDD ap Bleddyn, son of BLEDDYN ap Cynfyn King of Gwynedd and Powys & his third wife Haer of Gest (-1132).  He succeeded his father in 1075 as Prince of Powys.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Robert Earl of Shrewsbury" made an alliance with "Cadwgan, Iorwerth and Maredudd, sons of Bleddyn, son of Cynvyn" in 1100 and together they seized "castles…Arundel and Bliv and Brygge…and Shrewsbury"[736].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Bleddyn escaped from prison and returned to his country" in 1104[737].  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1132 of "Maredut filius Bledint dux Powisorum"[738].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Maredudd son of Bleddyn" died in 1129[739]

m firstly HUNYDD, daughter of EUNYDD [Efnydd] ap Gwernwy & his wife ---. 

m secondly EVA, daughter of BLETRWS ap Ednowain Bendew & his wife ---. 

Maredudd & his first wife had three children:

1.         MADOG ap Maredudd (-1161, bur Meivod).  He succeeded his father in 1132 as Prince of Powys.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Madog son of Maredudd built the castle of Oswestry" in 1148 and "gave Cyveiliog to his nephews Owain and Meurug, the sons of Gruffudd son of Maredudd"[740].  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1161 of "Madoc filius Maredut Powysorum princeps"[741].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Madog son of Maredudd Lord of Powys" died in 1159 and was buried "at Meivod"[742]m SUSANN of Gwynedd, daughter of GRUFFYDD ap Cynan King of Gwynedd & his wife Angharad of Deheubarth.  Madog & his wife had four children: 

a)         LLYWELYN (-killed 1161).  The Annales Cambrić record that "Lewelinus filius eius [Madoc filius Maredut Powysorum princeps]" was killed in 1161[743].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Madog son of Maredudd Lord of Powys" died in 1159 and  "shortly afterwards that his son Llywelyn was killed"[744]

b)         GRUFFYDD "Maelor" I (-1191, bur Meivod).  Prince of Northern Powys (Fadog). 

-        see below, Part C. PRINCES of NORTHERN POWYS

c)         MARARED .  Marared´s parentage and marriage are recorded in a manuscript now at Jesus College "Marareda merch Madawc m Maredud"[745]m IORWERTH Drwyndwyn ("Flat nose") Prince of Gwynedd, son of OWAIN ap Gruffyd King of Gwynedd & his first wife Gwladus --- (-1174). 

d)         GWENLLIAN m RHYS ap Gruffyd Prince of Deheubarth, son of GRUFFYD ap Rhys King of D|eheubarth & his wife Gwenllian of Gwynedd ([1132]-1197). 

Madog had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

e)         OWAIN Brogyntyn m MARGARET, daughter of EINION ap Seisyll of Mathafarn & his wife ---. 

f)          son . 

g)         son . 

2.         GRUFFYDD (-[1125/28]).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Einon son of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn and Gruffudd son of Maredudd son of Bleddyn joined together to make an attack upon the castle of Uchtryd son of Edwin" in 1113[746].  Lord of Mawddy.  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1128 of "Grifinus filius Meredut"[747].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Maredudd son of Bledyn" died in 1125[748]m GWERFYL, daughter and heiress of GWRGENO ap Hywel Lord of Caer or Clydewen & his wife ---.  Gruffydd & his wife had two children: 

a)         OWAIN "Cyfelliog" ([1125]-1195).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Madog son of Maredudd built the castle of Oswestry" in 1148 and "gave Cyveiliog to his nephews Owain and Meurug, the sons of Gruffudd son of Maredudd"[749].  Prince of Southern Powys 1160.  He abdicated. 

-        see below, Part D. PRINCES of SOUTHERN POWYS

b)         MEURIG .  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Madog son of Maredudd built the castle of Oswestry" in 1148 and "gave Cyveiliog to his nephews Owain and Meurug, the sons of Gruffudd son of Maredudd"[750]

3.         HYWEL (-1142).  The Annales Cambrić record that "Hoelus filius Maredut filii Bledint" was killed by his own men in 1142[751]

Maredudd & his second wife had one child:

4.         IORWERTH Goch/the Red m MAUD, daughter of ROGER de Manley & his wife ---.  Iorwerth & his wife had one child: 

a)         MADOG

 

 

 

C.      PRINCES of NORTHERN POWYS

 

 

GRUFFYDD ap Madog Maelor, son of MADOG ap Maredudd Prince of Powys & his wife Susanna of Gwynedd (-1191, bur Meivod).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd Maelor king of Powys" died in 1191 and was buried "in Meivod"[752]

Prince of Northern Powys (Fadog). 

m ANGHARAD of Gwynedd, illegitimate daughter of OWAIN Gwynedd King of Gwynedd & his mistress ---. 

Gruffydd & his wife had two children: 

1.         MADOG (-1236, bur Llanegwestl).  He succeeded his father in 1191 as Prince of Northern Powys.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Madog son of Gruffudd Maelor died and was…buried in the monastery of Llanegwestl which he had previously founded" in 1236[753]m ISOTA, daughter of ---.  Madog & his wife had six children:  

a)         GRUFFYDD Maelor [II] (-1269, bur Llanegwestl).  He succeeded his father in 1236 as Prince of Northern Powys.  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Madog lord of Maelor and Madog the Little his brother" died in 1269 "and were buried at Llanegwestl"[754]m as her second husband, EMMA de Audley, widow of HENRY Touchet, daughter of HENRY de Audley & his wife Bertred Mainwaring.  Gruffydd & his wife had five children: 

i)          MADOG (-1277). 

ii)         LLYWELYN

iii)        OWAIN

iv)       GRUFFYDD Fychan/junior (-1289).  m ---.  The name of Gruffydd´s wife is not known.  Gruffydd & his wife had one child:

(a)       MADOG Crippil (-[1304])

-         see below

v)        ANGHARAD .  1308.  m (after 1261) WILLIAM Le Botiler of Wem, Shropshire (-1283). 

b)         GRUFFYDD

c)         MAREDUDD

d)         HYWEL

e)         MADOG (-1269, bur Llanegwestl).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Madog lord of Maelor and Madog the Little his brother" died in 1269 "and were buried at Llanegwestl"[755]

f)          ANGHARAD .  A letter from "W. de Lascy" to Hubert de Burgh, Justiciar, dated to [1226] urges him to bring forward the marriage of "Angaretham filiam Maddoci filii Griffini neptem meam" and "Fulconem filium Fulconis filii Warini"[756].  The precise relationship between Angharad and Walter de Lacy Lord of Meath has not yet been ascertained.  The primary source which confirms that the marriage took place has not yet been identified.  Betrothed ([1226]) to FULK Fitzwarin, son of FULK FitzWarin [II] & his wife Hawise de Dinan (-[Oct 1250/1251]). 

2.         OWAIN (-1197).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Owain son of Gruffudd Maelor" died in 1197[757]

 

 

MADOG ap Gruffydd Crippil, son of GRUFFYDD Fychan ("little/junior") ap Gruffydd of Northern Powys & his wife --- (-[1304])

m ---.  The name of Madog´s wife is not known. 

Madog & his wife had one child:

1.         GRUFFYDD (-[1365]).  m ---.  The name of Gruffydd´s wife is not known.  Gruffydd & his wife had one child:

a)         GRUFFYDD Fychan/junior .  Lord of Glyndyfrdwy.  m ELEN of Iscoed, daughter of THOMAS ap Llywelyn of Iscoed & his wife Eleanor of Iscoed.  Dwnn´s 1597 Visitations of Wales records that “Ellen Thomas Llnn ab Owein” married “Griffith ychan” and was mother of “Owein Glandwr[758].  Gruffydd & his wife had three children: 

i)          OWAIN Glyndwr .  Dwnn´s 1597 Visitations of Wales records that “Ellen Thomas Llnn ab Owein” married “Griffith ychan” and was mother of “Owein Glandwr[759].  Lord of Glyndyfrdwy.  m MARGARET Hanmer, daughter of Sir DAVID Hanmer & his wife ---.  Owain & his wife had one child: 

(a)       KATHERINE (-before 1 Dec 1413, bur London, St Swithun’s Church)m ([Nov 1402]) Sir EDMUND Mortimer, son of EDMUND Mortimer Earl of March & his wife Philippa of Clarence (Ludlow Castle, Shropshire 9 Nov 1376-Harlech Castle [1409], before 13 May 1411).  He was taken prisoner by Owen Glendower, whose daughter he married. 

ii)         LOWRY m ROBERT Pulerton

iii)        ISABEL m ADDA ab Iorwerth Ddu/the Black . 

 

 

 

D.      PRINCES of SOUTHERN POWYS

 

 

OWAIN ap Gruffydd Cyfelliog, son of GRUFFYDD ap Maredudd Lord of Mawddy & his wife Gwerfyl of Caer ([1125]-1195).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Madog son of Maredudd built the castle of Oswestry" in 1148 and "gave Cyveiliog to his nephews Owain and Meurug, the sons of Gruffudd son of Maredudd"[760]

Prince of Southern Powys 1160.  He abdicated. 

m firstly GWENLLIAN of Gwynedd, illegitimate daughter of OWAIN King of Gwynedd & his mistress ---. 

m secondly ---, daughter of RHYS ap Gruffydd. 

Owain & his first wife had two children:

1.         GWENWYNWYN (-1216).  He succeeded his father as Prince of Southern Powys.  King John agreed to free “Wennuen filium Hoeni de Keneliac” in return for hostages by charter dated 8 Oct 1208[761].  He abdicated in 1215.  m MARY [Margaret] Corbet, daughter of ROBERT Corbet of Caus & his wife --- (-after 15 Apr 1231).  Eyton records her parentage and marriage but does not cite the corresponding primary source[762].  Henry III King of England notified "M. que fuit uxor Wenunwen" that he granted "manerio...de Assesford" to “Griffino filio vestro”, a second order notifying the barons of the exchequer of the grant to “Griffino filio Wenionwen” of revenue received from “Margareta mater ipsius Griffini...pro manerio nostro de Assesford” while he remained in the king´s service[763].  Henry III King of England forgave "tallagium" from "Margarete que fuit uxor Wenunwin" dated 15 Apr 1231[764].  Gwenwynwyn & his wife had two children: 

a)         GRUFFYDD (-[1286/87]).  Henry III King of England notified "M. que fuit uxor Wenunwen" that he granted "manerio...de Assesford" to “Griffino filio vestro”, a second order notifying the barons of the exchequer of the grant to “Griffino filio Wenionwen” of revenue received from “Margareta mater ipsius Griffini...pro manerio nostro de Assesford” while he remained in the king´s service[765]m (before 24 Feb 1242) HAWISE, daughter of JOHN [III] le Strange of Knockin, Shropshire & his wife Lucy [Tresgoz] (-1310).  "Griffin son of Wenunewin" was granted "the manor of Eshford, co Derby" to give as dower to "Hawyse daughter of John Lestrange his wife", dated 24 Feb 1242[766].  "Hawise" kept the manor of Stretton for "frater suus dominus Hamo Extraneus" when he left for Palestine, with the consent of "mariti sui…domini Griffini", by charter dated to [1270], witnessed by "Dominis Rogero Extraneo, Roberto fratre suo"[767].  Gruffydd & his wife had seven children: 

i)          OWEN de la Pole (-1293)m as her first husband, JOHANNA Corbet, daughter of Sir ROBERT Corbet & his wife ---.  Owen & his wife had two children: 

(a)       HAWISE Gadam/the Hardy (1290-)m (1309) JOHN Cherleton [Charlton] (-before 1353).  Lord of Powys, de iure uxoris

(b)       GRUFFYDD (1291-1309)m as her first wife, ELA de Audley, daughter of NICHOLAS de Audley & his wife Catherine Giffard.  She married secondly Sir James de Perrers, and thirdly Piers Corbet

ii)         5 sons. 

iii)        MABEL m FULK FitzWarin [V], son of FULK FitzWarin [IV] & his wife Constance --- (-Dec 1314). 

b)         MADOG

2.         CASWALLON

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    LORDS of ABERGAVENNY

 

 

The family of Hamelin Lord of Abergavenny originated in Ballon in Maine, which is located about 20 kilometres north of the city of Le Mans.  The name Wionec (“Wyonecum”) given by Dreux de Baladon to his second son suggests a Breton family connection: the name roots “Gue-“ or “Guy-“ (equivalent to “Wio-“) and “-ec” are found among the Breton nobility in the 9th and 10th centuries (see BRITTANY).  However, the name could have been introduced into the family from Dreux´s wife whose identity is not known.  The early history of this family is based only on the Historia fundationis cum fundatoris genealogia of the priory of Abergavenny which is dateable to the early 14th century, the date of the last events recorded[768].  The accuracy of the Historia regarding the early generations of the family cannot be corroborated from other sources, and its reference to the family of the “comtes de l´Isle” who have not otherwise been identified does not inspire complete confidence. 

 

 

1.         DREUX de Baladon .  Seigneur de Baladon (in Maine).  m ---.  The name of Dreux´s wife is not known.  Dreux & his wife had [seven] children: 

a)         HAMELIN de Ballon [Baladon] (-5 Mar after 1101, bur Abergavenny Priory).  The Historia fundationis cum fundatoris genealogia of the priory of Abergavenny names “Hamelinum, Wyonecum et Wynebaldum” as the three sons of “Dru dominus de Baladun” and adds that Hamelin and his brothers accompanied Guillaume II Duke of Normandy in the conquest of England in 1066[769].  Dugdale´s Monasticon records that “Hamelin Balon or Baladun…came over with William the Conqueror” and founded the priory of Abergavenny[770].  He was born at “castello Baladone” in Maine, as shown by the undated charter which notes donations to Saint-Vincent du Mans by “Hamelinus de castello Baladone natus”, naming “capellam sui castelli…Berguensis” and specifying that William II King of England had granted this castle to Hamelin[771].  He received the lordship of Over Gwent, including the castle of Abergavenny, from William II King of England[772].  The Historia fundationis cum fundatoris genealogia of the priory of Abergavenny records that “Hamelinus, frater Lucić comitissć de Insula” was “primus dominus superioris Wencić” and constructed a castle “apud Bergenie[773].  “Hamelinus de Baladone” donated property “ad castrum…meum…Bergevenis” to Saint-Vincent du Mans by charter dated to after 1100, confirmed by “Winebaudus frater prćdicti Hamelini”, and subscribed by “Winebaudi, Elisabeth uxoris Winebaudi, Hamelini de Baladone, Agnetis uxoris eius, Wilhelmi filii Hamelini, Mathei filii eiusdem Hamelini[774].  "Patricius" donated "v hidas terrć de Westona" to Bath St Peter, for the souls of "…Hamelini et Winebaldi de Baalun…ac…Arnulfi de Hesding…et Warini clerici mei", by charter dated 14 Sep 1100, witnessed by "Hamelinus et Winebaldus de Baalun…"[775].  "…Winebaldus de Baalun, Hamelinus frater eius…" subscribed a charter of Henry I King of England dated 1101 for Bath St Peter[776].  "…Winebaldi de Baalon, Hamelini…" subscribed a charter dated 14 Sep 1101 under which Henry I King of England donated property to Bath St Peter[777].  The Historia fundationis cum fundatoris genealogia of the priory of Abergavenny records that “Hamelinus, frater Lucić comitissć de Insula” died “III Non Mar” without heirs and was buried “in prioratu de Abergenie[778]m AGNES, daughter of --- (-after 1100).  “Hamelinus de Baladone” donated property “ad castrum…meum…Bergevenis” to Saint-Vincent du Mans by charter dated to after 1100, subscribed by “…Hamelini de Baladone, Agnetis uxoris eius, Wilhelmi filii Hamelini, Mathei filii eiusdem Hamelini[779].  Hamelin & his wife had four children: 

i)          GUILLAUME .  “Hamelinus de Baladone” donated property “ad castrum…meum…Bergevenis” to Saint-Vincent du Mans by charter dated to after 1100, subscribed by “…Hamelini de Baladone, Agnetis uxoris eius, Wilhelmi filii Hamelini, Mathei filii eiusdem Hamelini[780]

ii)         MATHIEU .  “Hamelinus de Baladone” donated property “ad castrum…meum…Bergevenis” to Saint-Vincent du Mans by charter dated to after 1100, subscribed by “…Hamelini de Baladone, Agnetis uxoris eius, Wilhelmi filii Hamelini, Mathei filii eiusdem Hamelini[781]

iii)        EMMELINE .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the military fee certifications in the Red Book of the Exchequer, in 1166, which record the knights´ fees held from "Willelmus filius Reginaldi" in Herefordshire and name "Hamelinus de Balun avus suus"[782].  The cartulary of Godstow includes an undated charter under which “Reginaldus filius Rogeri comitis Herefordić et Emelina uxor sua” and “filios et filias meas Wilelmum…Reginaldum et Hamelinum necnon Agnetem et Julianam” donated property “Eatonam” to Godstow[783].  A charter of Richard I King of England confirmed donations to Godstow nunnery, Oxfordshire including the donation by “Reginaldi filii comitis et Emelinć uxoris eius…hćredum suorum Eatonam”, by undated charter[784]m RENAUD, son of ROGER Earl of Hereford & his wife --- (-after [1130]). 

iv)       daughter .  The parentage, alternative possible husbands, and descendants of this second daughter of Hamelin de Ballon well into the 14th century were identified by Rosie Bevan[785].  The descent leads through the Gundeville and Murdac families, who jointly held property rights with the descendants of Emmeline, Hamelin´s daughter, to Limesey, Cromhall/Walton, and London/Tinsley/Eyre/Bolingbroke/le Bret. 

b)         WIONEC .  The Historia fundationis cum fundatoris genealogia of the priory of Abergavenny names “Hamelinum, Wyonecum et Wynebaldum” as the three sons of “Dru dominus de Baladun[786]

c)         WINEBAUD (-after 1126).  The Historia fundationis cum fundatoris genealogia of the priory of Abergavenny names “Hamelinum, Wyonecum et Wynebaldum” as the three sons of “Dru dominus de Baladun[787].  "Patricius" donated "v hidas terrć de Westona" to Bath St Peter, for the souls of "…Hamelini et Winebaldi de Baalun…ac…Arnulfi de Hesding…et Warini clerici mei", by charter dated 14 Sep 1100, witnessed by "Hamelinus et Winebaldus de Baalun…"[788].  “Hamelinus de Baladone” donated property “ad castrum…meum…Bergevenis” to Saint-Vincent du Mans by charter dated to after 1100, confirmed by “Winebaudus frater prćdicti Hamelini”, and subscribed by “Winebaudi, Elisabeth uxoris Winebaudi…[789].  "…Winebaldus de Baalun, Hamelinus frater eius…" subscribed a charter of Henry I King of England dated 1101 for Bath St Peter[790].  "…Winebaldi de Baalon, Hamelini…" subscribed a charter dated 14 Sep 1101 under which Henry I King of England donated property to Bath St Peter[791].  "…Winebaldus de Baalun…" subscribed a charter dated 28 Jun 1121 under which "Willelmus filius regis" donated "terra…Grenta de Stoca" to Bath St Peter[792].  The Historia sancti Petri Gloucestrić records that "Wynebaldus de Balone concensu Rogeri filii sui" donated "molendinum de Fromelode et dimidiam hidam terrć in Amneneya quoam Thovi quidam Anglus tenuit…Rodefforde", the dating being contradictory as the paragraph states that the donation was made in 1126 but also "ut in scriptis invenitur, Willelmo rege juniore, rege Henrico seniore confirmantibus, tempore Serlonis abbatis" [abbot from 1072 to 1104][793].  An earlier paragraph in the same source records the donation of "dimidiam hidam terrć in Ameneye quam Thovi quidam Anglicus tenuit" made in 1126 by "Wynebaldus de Balon…et Rogerius filius eius"[794]m ISABELLE, daughter of --- (-after 1100).  “Hamelinus de Baladone” donated property “ad castrum…meum…Bergevenis” to Saint-Vincent du Mans by charter dated to after 1100, confirmed by “Winebaudus frater prćdicti Hamelini”, and subscribed by “Winebaudi, Elisabeth uxoris Winebaudi…[795].  Winebaud & his wife had three children: 

i)          ROGER (-after 1126).  The Historia sancti Petri Gloucestrić records that "Wynebaldus de Balone concensu Rogeri filii sui" donated "molendinum de Fromelode et dimidiam hidam terrć in Amneneya quoam Thovi quidam Anglus tenuit…Rodefforde", the dating being contradictory as the paragraph states that the donation was made in 1126 but also "ut in scriptis invenitur, Willelmo rege juniore, rege Henrico seniore confirmantibus, tempore Serlonis abbatis" [abbot from 1072 to 1104][796].  The Historia sancti Petri Gloucestrić records the donation of "dimidiam hidam terrć in Ameneye quam Thovi quidam Anglicus tenuit" made in 1126 by "Wynebaldus de Balon…et Rogerius filius eius"[797].  Round cites a charter of Bermondsey Priory under which Henry de Newmarch ratified donations of his grandfather Winebald and of Roger and Milo sons of Milebold[798]m as her first husband, HAWISE de Gournay, daughter of ---.  Domesday Descendants names “Hawise de Gurnay” as the wife of Roger, son of Winebaud de Ballon, and the couple´s sons “Roger, Hamelin and Arnald[799].  The Annals of Bermondsey record that “Hawisia de Gurnay” donated “ecclesiam de Inglescombe in comitatu Somersetić” to Bermondsey in 1112[800].  She married secondly Roger de Clere.  "Awys de Gurnaio" donated "terra de Athelingeworth...ex donacione Rogeri de Clera mariti mei" to Lewes priory by undated charter[801]

ii)         MILO .  Round cites a charter of Bermondsey Priory under which Henry de Newmarch ratified donations of his grandfather Winebald and of Roger and Milo sons of Milebold[802]

iii)        MABILE .  Round cites a charter of Bermondsey Priory under which Henry de Newmarch ratified donations of his grandfather Winebald and of Roger and Milo sons of Milebold[803]Domesday Descendants names her Mabilia, but cites no corresponding primary source[804]m --- [de Neufmarché, son of ---]. 

d)         EMMA .  The Historia fundationis cum fundatoris genealogia of the priory of Abergavenny names “Emmam, Luciam et Beatriciam” as the three daughters of “Dru dominus de Baladun[805]same person as…?  EMMELINE .  The parentage of Emmeline, wife of Arnoul de Hesdin, has not been identified with certainty.  However, two sources indicate that she was closely related to the Ballon family.  If that is correct, the chronology suggests that she was the daughter of Dreux de Baladon.  The first source is a charter dated 14 Sep 1100 under which [her grandson] "Patricius" donated "v hidas terrć de Westona" to Bath St Peter, for the souls of "…Hamelini et Winebaldi de Baalun…ac…Arnulfi de Hesding…et Warini clerici mei", witnessed by "Hamelinus et Winebaldus de Baalun…"[806].    The second source is a donation to Gloucester St Peter made by [her grandson] "Patricius de Cadurcis" of land "apud Ameneye de feodo suo…[et] apud Ameneye Sancti Nicholai" to Gloucester St Peter, with the confirmation of "rege Henrico seniore"[807], read together with the donation to the same abbey of land "in Ameneye" made by "Wynebaldus de Balon…et Rogerius filius meus"[808].  It should also be noted that, if this is correct, her supposed brother Hamelin had a daughter who was also named Emmeline.  [There are indications that Emmeline, wife of Arnoul de Hesdin, was the widow of Walter de Lacy.  Both families made numerous donations to Gloucester St Peter, although it has not yet proved possible to link any of the names of land donated to both families, but most significantly the Historia sancti Petri Gloucestrić, in a list of holdings, records (in order) donations made by "Walterus de Lacy dedit Leden, Ernulfus de Hesding dedit Lyncoholt, Hermelina de Lacy dedit pro anima viri sui Duntesbourne…"[809].  The interposition of Arnoul´s name between Walter de Lacy and his wife Emmeline is best explained if he was Emmeline´s second husband.  From a chronological point of view, the two marriages would fit.  It should be emphasised that this suggestion is speculative.]  [m firstly WALTER de Lacy, son of --- de Lacy & [his wife Emma ---] (-27 Mar 1085).]  m [secondly] ARNOUL de Hesdin, son of --- (-Antioch [1098]). 

e)         LUCIE .  The Historia fundationis cum fundatoris genealogia of the priory of Abergavenny names “Emmam, Luciam et Beatriciam” as the three daughters of “Dru dominus de Baladun”, adding that Lucie was “comitissć de Insula[810].  No other reference to the family of the comtes de l´Isle has yet been found.  m --- [Comte de l´Isle].  One child: 

i)          [BRIEN FitzCount .  The Historia fundationis cum fundatoris genealogia of the priory of Abergavenny records that “Brientio filio comitis de Insula, nepoti suo de sorore sua…Lucia” inherited the castle of Abergavenny after “Hamelinus, frater Lucić comitissć de Insula” died “III Non Mar” without heirs[811].  This is partially confirmed by the undated charter under which “H. de Bellocampo” confirmed donations to Abergavenny priory by “antecessores mei Hamelinus de Balon et Brientius filius comitis[812].  Empress Matilda permitted "Milon com Heref" to hold the castle and honour of Abergavenny, from "Bri fil com et Matild de Walengeford uxor sue" by charter dated [Jul 1141/Dec 1142][813].  No trace has so far been found of this alleged "Comte de l´Isle" or his family.  According to the Complete Peerage, the holder of the lordship of Abergavenny was Brien FitzCount, illegitimate son of Alain IV “Fergant” Duke of Brittany was Lord of Abergavenny[814].  The Complete Peerage takes the problem a stage further by suggesting that Brien probably held the lordship of Abergavenny (from before 1119) by right of his wife[815].  No other source has been identified which corroborates any family relationship between Hamon de Ballon Lord of Abergavenny and either Brien FitzCount or his wife.  The account in the Historia (which is dated to the early 14th century) should presumably be dismissed as spurious.  However, the problem remains of deciding whether Brien was in fact granted the lordship of Abergavenny by right of succession.  The Historia also records that “Brientio filio comitis de Insula, nepoti suo de sorore sua…Lucia” transferred the lordship of Abergavenny to “Waltero constabulatio totius Anglić, consanguineo suo[816].  No family relationship has been found between Brien FitzCount and the family of Miles of Gloucester (see EARLS of HEREFORD).] 

f)          BEATRIX .  The Historia fundationis cum fundatoris genealogia of the priory of Abergavenny names “Emmam, Luciam et Beatriciam” as the three daughters of “Dru dominus de Baladun[817]

 

 

The exact relationship, if any, between the following persons and the family of Hamelin de Ballon is not known: 

1.         ERNOLD de Ballon (-after 1136).  "…Ernaldo de Baalun…" subscribed a charter dated 1136 under which the bishop of Bath donated "villam de Cumba" to Bath St Peter[818].  There is no indication of any relationship between Ernold and the family of Hamelin de Ballon, except that Hamelin and his brother Winebaud subscribed several other charters for Bath St Peter indicating common local property interests. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    LORDS of BRECKNOCK

 

 

 

1.         BERNARD de Neufmarché, son of GEOFFROY de Neufmarché & his wife Ada de Heugleville (after 1054-1125).  Orderic Vitalis names him and gives his parentage, specifying that he and his brother were born after their father helped their maternal grandfather[819].  Orderic Vitalis names "Bernardus, Goisfredi de Novo-Mercato filius"as a donor of property to the church[820].  The Chronicle of Battle Abbey records that "Bernardus cognomento de Novo Mercato…uxor Agnes" donated property in Brecknock to Battle abbey[821].  “…Willielmus de Brai, Bernardus de Novomercato” witnessed the charter dated to [1070] under which William King of England donated property to Battle abbey[822].  The Historia sancti Petri Gloucestrić records the donation of "unam hidam terrć…Bache in parochia de Coverna" made "tempore Serlonis abbatis" [abbot from 1072 to 1104] made by "Bernardus de Novo Mercato"[823].  A later paragraph in the same source records that "Bernardus de Novo Mercato" donated "Glasebury…et…decimam…in Brekeneyam…[et] ecclesiam de Covere majori…et unam hidam…Bache" in 1088[824].  Florence of Worcester records that "Beornardus de Novo Mercatu, Rogerius de Laceio…Rawlfus de Mortuo Mari…cum hominibus comitis Rogeri de Scrobbesbyria" threatened Worcester with an army of Normans and Welsh, dated to [1088][825].  Lord of Brecknock.  “Bernardus de Novo-mercato” donated property to Breckon priory, for the soul of “Philippi filii mei”, by charter dated to the reign of King Henry I[826].  A charter of Stephen King of England dated 1138 confirmed donations to Gloucester St Peter including the donation by "Bernardi de Novomercato" of land at “Beche"[827]m NESTA [Agnes], daughter of OSBERN FitzRichard & his wife Nesta of Wales.  A manuscript narrating the history of Brecknock priory records that the founder “Bernard de Nefmarche, Norman” married “Neste qe fut apele Agnes, la file Griffin le fiz Lewelin…cruel tyrant de Gales[828], although this skips a generation.  The Historia fundationis cum fundatoris genealogia of the priory of Abergavenny names “Sibillam, legitimam hćredem totius terrć Breconić…Bernardi et Agnetis de Novo-Mercato” as parents of “Sibillam, legitimam hćredem totius terrć Breconić” who married “Milonem[829].  The Chronicle of Battle Abbey records that "Bernardus cognomento de Novo Mercato…uxor Agnes" donated property in Brecknock to Battle abbey[830].  Bernard & his wife had three children: 

a)         PHILIP .  “Bernardus de Novo-mercato” donated property to Brecknock priory, for the soul of “Philippi filii mei”, by charter dated to the reign of King Henry I[831]

b)         MAEL .  A manuscript narrating the history of Brecknock priory records that the founder “Bernard de Nefmarche, Norman” married “Neste qe fut apele Agnes, la file Griffin le fiz Lewelin…cruel tyrant de Gales” by whom he fathered “Mael…noble chevalier” whom it was claimed was not his son and who was deprived of Brecknock in favour of “la file [de] Neste, Sibile” wife of “Miles…fiz Watir le conestable de Gloucestre e de Hereford[832]

c)         SIBYLLE de Neufmarché (-bur Lanthony Prior, Gloucester).  A charter dated to [10 Apr/29 May] 1121 records the arrangements for the marriage of "Miloni de Gloec" and "Sibilia filia Beorndi de Novo Mercato", the dowry being all the possessions of her father and of her mother[833].  A manuscript narrating the history of Brecknock priory records that the founder “Bernard de Nefmarche, Norman” married “Neste qe fut apele Agnes, la file Griffin le fiz Lewelin…cruel tyrant de Gales” by whom he fathered “Mael…noble chevalier” whom it was claimed was not his son and who was deprived of Brecknock in favour of “la file [de] Neste, Sibile” wife of “Miles…fiz Watir le conestable de Gloucestre e de Hereford[834].  The Historia fundationis cum fundatoris genealogia of the priory of Abergavenny names “Sibillam, legitimam hćredem totius terrć Breconić…Bernardi et Agnetis de Novo-Mercato” as wife of “Milonem”, son of “Waltero constabulatio totius Anglić[835].  “Mylo constabularius de Gloucestria” donated property to Lanthony abbey, naming “antecessores mei Rogerus de Gloecestria et Walterus constabularius”, by charter dated 1137, supplemented by another later donation (undated) jointly with "uxor mea Sibilla et filii mei Rogerus et Walterus atque Henricus"[836].  A manuscript in Aske´s collections names “Milo…Erle of Herforde, Lord of Bricone and of all the Forest of Done, and also Constable of England…Sibbill wiff of the seid Milo…” among those buried at Lanthony Priory[837]m ([Apr/May] 1121) MILES of Gloucester, son of WALTER of Gloucester & his wife Berthe --- (-24 Dec 1143, bur Lanthony Priory, Gloucester). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10.  LORDS of MONMOUTH

 

 

Two brothers, whose names indicate Breton origin: 

1.         WETHENOC [Guihenoc] .  “Wihenocus de Monemue” founded the church “in castro meo de Monemue”, and donated it to the monastery of Saint-Florent de Saumur, by undated charter witnessed by "Baderon frater meus, Willielmus Yvin, Robertus, Paganus, Ywen Troue filii Baderonis…"[838].  A charter dated 4 Feb [1075/86] records the confirmation by William I King of England of a donation to Saumur Saint-Florent by "Wethenocus de Monmouth", witnessed by "Alano comite et Baderono fratre Wethenoci et ipso Wethenoco…"[839].  "Wihenoecus…atque Willelmus nepos eius" donated the priory of Monmouth to Saint-Florent de Saumur by undated charter witnessed by "Wihenocus Sancti Florentii monachus…de hominibus domni Willelmi…Raterius filius Wihenoci…", later consented to by "uxor domni Willelmi et filić ipsius…Iveta et Advenia"[840].  This charter shows that Wethenoc became a monk at the end of his life.  m ---, daughter of JUHEL Archbishop of Dol & his wife ---.  An enquiry made at Dol by order of Henry II King of England dated Oct 1181 records that "Juhellus" was consecrated archbishop of Dol, against the wishes of the Pope, was married and "ex ea habuit filiam" whom he married to "Guihenoco" with "monus Brientii…in Dolensi territorio" as her dowry[841].  Wethenoc had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress: 

a)         RATHER .  "Wihenocus Sancti Florentii monachus…de hominibus domni Willelmi…Raterius filius Wihenoci…", later consented to by "uxor domni Willelmi et filić ipsius…Iveta et Advenia"[842].  Rather must have been illegitimate as he did not inherited the lordship of Monmouth, which went to Wethenoc´s nephew. 

2.         BADERON [I]  .  "Baderon" donated "villam Beren cum filia sua" to the abbey of Saint-Georges de Rennes, with the consent of "Guillelmo eius filio" and in the presence of "Rivalloni filii Johannis, Radulphi Filicensis", by undated charter, witnessed by "Alanus filius Flaaldi…"[843].  “Wihenocus de Monemue” founded the church “in castro meo de Monemue”, and donated it to the monastery of Saint-Florent de Saumur, by undated charter witnessed by "Baderon frater meus, Willielmus Yvin, Robertus, Paganus, Ywen Troue filii Baderonis…"[844].  A charter dated 4 Feb [1075/86] records the confirmation by William I King of England of a donation to Saumur Saint-Florent by "Wethenocus de Monmouth", witnessed by "Alano comite et Baderono fratre Wethenoci et ipso Wethenoco…"[845].  “Baderon de Monemue” donated property in Monmouth to Monmouth Priory, with the consent of “filiorum meorum Gileberti et Jacobi”, by undated charter witnessed by "…Waltero Marmiun…"[846].  He predeceased his brother Wethenoc as shown by the charter under which his brother, together with Baderon´s son William, donated Monmouth priory to Saint-Florent de Saumur (see above).  m ---.  The name of Baderon´s wife is not known.  Baderon [I] & his wife had four children: 

a)         WILLIAM FitzBaderon (-after 18 Mar [1101/02]).  "Baderon" donated "villam Beren cum filia sua" to the abbey of Saint-Georges de Rennes, with the consent of "Guillelmo eius filio" and in the presence of "Rivalloni filii Johannis, Radulphi Filicensis", by undated charter, witnessed by "Alanus filius Flaaldi…"[847].  “Wihenocus de Monemue” founded the church “in castro meo de Monemue”, and donated it to the monastery of Saint-Florent de Saumur, by undated charter witnessed by "Baderon frater meus, Willielmus Yvin, Robertus, Paganus, Ywen Troue filii Baderonis…"[848].  

-        see below

b)         ROBERT [Payn] FitzBaderon (-after [1095/96]).  “Wihenocus de Monemue” founded the church “in castro meo de Monemue”, and donated it to the monastery of Saint-Florent de Saumur, by undated charter witnessed by "Baderon frater meus, Willielmus Yvin, Robertus, Paganus, Ywen Troue filii Baderonis…"[849].  "Willelmus filius Baderonis" donated "terram Chachebren…juxta molendinum Castelli Godrici" to the priory of Monmouth, with the consent of "domina Haduis uxor domini Willelmi et Iveta et Advenia filić eorum", by undated charter witnessed by "Robertus frater domini Willelmi, Paganus, Robertus Walensis filius domini [Willelmi]…"[850].  "Phylippus de Braiosa" confirmed all the donations to Saint-Florent de Saumur by "pater suus Willelmus" by charter dated before 1096, witnessed by "Willelmus filius Baderonis et Paganus frater Rius…"[851].  Robert Bishop of Hereford confirmed the donations to Monmouth priory made by "Guienocus dominus de Monemuda…Willelmus…eiusdem Guienoci nepos…Badero hujus Willelmi filius et Rohesia eius uxor…Pagani filii Baderonis…Ricardus de Cormeliis" by charter dated 1144[852].  Robert Bishop of Hereford confirmed the donation of the church of St Roald at Traget to Monmouth priory made by "Rotbertum Baderonis filium" by undated charter, dated to before 1144[853].  It is not known whether this last charter relates to Robert, otherwise Payn, son of Baderon [I] or the possible son of Baderon [II] of the same name. 

c)         IVO FitzBaderon .  “Wihenocus de Monemue” founded the church “in castro meo de Monemue”, and donated it to the monastery of Saint-Florent de Saumur, by undated charter witnessed by "Baderon frater meus, Willielmus Yvin, Robertus, Paganus, Ywen Troue filii Baderonis…"[854]

d)         daughter .  "Baderon" donated "villam Beren cum filia sua" to the abbey of Saint-Georges de Rennes, with the consent of "Guillelmo eius filio" and in the presence of "Rivalloni filii Johannis, Radulphi Filicensis", by undated charter, witnessed by "Alanus filius Flaaldi…"[855].  Nun at Rennes Saint-Georges. 

 

 

WILLIAM FitzBaderon, son of BADERON & his wife --- (-after 18 Mar [1101/02]).  "Baderon" donated "villam Beren cum filia sua" to the abbey of Saint-Georges de Rennes, with the consent of "Guillelmo eius filio" and in the presence of "Rivalloni filii Johannis, Radulphi Filicensis", by undated charter, witnessed by "Alanus filius Flaaldi…"[856].  “Wihenocus de Monemue” founded the church “in castro meo de Monemue”, and donated it to the monastery of Saint-Florent de Saumur, by undated charter witnessed by "Baderon frater meus, Willielmus Yvin, Robertus, Paganus, Ywen Troue filii Baderonis…"[857].  "Wihenoecus…atque Willelmus nepos eius" donated the priory of Monmouth to Saint-Florent de Saumur by undated charter witnessed by "Wihenocus Sancti Florentii monachus…de hominibus domni Willelmi…Raterius filius Wihenoci…", later consented to by "uxor domni Willelmi et filić ipsius…Iveta et Advenia"[858].  "Willelmus filius Baderonis" donated "terram Chachebren…juxta molendinum Castelli Godrici" to the priory of Monmouth, with the consent of "domina Haduis uxor domini Willelmi et Iveta et Advenia filić eorum", by undated charter witnessed by "Robertus frater domini Willelmi, Paganus, Robertus Walensis filius domini [Willelmi]…"[859].  Domesday Book records “William fitzBaderon” holding land in Burghclere in Kingsclere Hundred and East Cholderton in Andover Hundred in Hampshire, land in Cirencester, Daglingworth, Siddington, Westonbirt, Tibberton, Huntley, Longhope, Stears, Newnham, St Briavels and Hewelsfield in Gloucestershire[860].  "Phylippus de Braiosa" confirmed all the donations to Saint-Florent de Saumur by "pater suus Willelmus" by charter dated before 1096, witnessed by "Willelmus filius Baderonis et Paganus frater Rius…"[861].  William son of Baderon donated the priory of St Mary Monmouth to Saumur Saint-Florent by charter dated to 18 Mar [1101/02], witnessed by “…Float filius Alani dapiferi…[862]

m HAWISE, daughter of ---.  The name of William´s wife is not known.  "Wihenoecus…atque Willelmus nepos eius" donated the priory of Monmouth to Saint-Florent de Saumur by undated charter witnessed by "Wihenocus Sancti Florentii monachus…de hominibus domni Willelmi…Raterius filius Wihenoci…", later consented to by "uxor domni Willelmi et filić ipsius…Iveta et Advenia"[863].  "Willelmus filius Baderonis" donated "terram Chachebren…juxta molendinum Castelli Godrici" to the priory of Monmouth, with the consent of "domina Haduis uxor domini Willelmi et Iveta et Advenia filić eorum", by undated charter witnessed by "Robertus frater domini Willelmi, Paganus, Robertus Walensis filius domini [Willelmi]…"[864]

William & his wife had [four] children: 

1.         IVETA .  "Wihenoecus…atque Willelmus nepos eius" donated the priory of Monmouth to Saint-Florent de Saumur by undated charter witnessed by "Wihenocus Sancti Florentii monachus…de hominibus domni Willelmi…Raterius filius Wihenoci…", later consented to by "uxor domni Willelmi et filić ipsius…Iveta et Advenia"[865].  "Willelmus filius Baderonis" donated "terram Chachebren…juxta molendinum Castelli Godrici" to the priory of Monmouth, with the consent of "domina Haduis uxor domini Willelmi et Iveta et Advenia filić eorum", by undated charter witnessed by "Robertus frater domini Willelmi, Paganus, Robertus Walensis filius domini [Willelmi]…"[866]

2.         ADVENIA .  "Wihenoecus…atque Willelmus nepos eius" donated the priory of Monmouth to Saint-Florent de Saumur by undated charter witnessed by "Wihenocus Sancti Florentii monachus…de hominibus domni Willelmi…Raterius filius Wihenoci…", later consented to by "uxor domni Willelmi et filić ipsius…Iveta et Advenia"[867].  "Willelmus filius Baderonis" donated "terram Chachebren…juxta molendinum Castelli Godrici" to the priory of Monmouth, with the consent of "domina Haduis uxor domini Willelmi et Iveta et Advenia filić eorum", by undated charter witnessed by "Robertus frater domini Willelmi, Paganus, Robertus Walensis filius domini [Willelmi]…"[868]

3.         [daughter .  The mother of Richard and Robert de Cormelles was presumably one of the sisters of Baderon who are named above.]  m --- de Cormeilles, son of ---.  Three children: 

a)         RICHARD de Cormeilles .  "Ricardus de Cormelles et frater eius Rotbertus" donated property to Monmouth priory, with the advice of "Baderonis avunculi sui uxorisque sue Rohes", by undated charter[869].  "Ricardus de Cormeliis" donated property to Monmouth priory, with the consent of "fratribus meis Roberto et Alexandro", by undated charter, witnessed by "Badero et eius uxor Rohes…"[870].  Robert Bishop of Hereford confirmed the donations to Monmouth priory made by "Guienocus dominus de Monemuda…Willelmus…eiusdem Guienoci nepos…Badero hujus Willelmi filius et Rohesia eius uxor…Pagani filii Baderonis…Ricardus de Cormeliis" by charter dated 1144[871]m ---.  The name of Richard´s wife is not known.  Richard & his wife had one child: 

i)          WALTER de Cormeilles .  "Walterus de Cormeliis" confirmed the donation to Monmouth priory made by "pater meus Ricardus de Cormeliis" by undated charter, witnessed by "Willelmo monaco, nepoto domni Gileberti…"[872]

b)         ROBERT de Cormeilles .  "Ricardus de Cormelles et frater eius Rotbertus" donated property to Monmouth priory, with the advice of "Baderonis avunculi sui uxorisque sue Rohes", by undated charter[873].  "Ricardus de Cormeliis" donated property to Monmouth priory, with the consent of "fratribus meis Roberto et Alexandro", by undated charter, witnessed by "Badero et eius uxor Rohes…"[874]

c)         ALEXANDER de Cormeilles .  "Ricardus de Cormeliis" donated property to Monmouth priory, with the consent of "fratribus meis Roberto et Alexandro", by undated charter, witnessed by "Badero et eius uxor Rohes…"[875]

4.         BADERON [II] of Monmouth (-[1170/76]).  “Baderon de Monemue” donated property in Monmouth to Monmouth Priory, with the consent of “filiorum meorum Gileberti et Jacobi”, by undated charter witnessed by "…Waltero Marmiun…"[876].  “Badero de Momuta et uxor sua Rohes” donated revenue in Monmouth to Monmouth Priory by charter dated "circa festivitatem Omnium Sanctorum, in die qua michi desponsata fuit uxor mea Rohes" (no year) witnessed by "Galterus frater Gilleberti consulis, qui ipsa die loco consulis uxorem meam michi dedit…comitissa Ysabel, Robertus filius Baderonis, Johannes filius Roberti, Thomas filius Pagani…"[877].  Robert Bishop of Hereford confirmed the donations to Monmouth priory made by "Guienocus dominus de Monemuda…Willelmus…eiusdem Guienoci nepos…Badero hujus Willelmi filius et Rohesia eius uxor…Pagani filii Baderonis…Ricardus de Cormeliis" by charter dated 1144[878].  He mentioned a gift to the Hospitallers for the soul of his wife in his Carta of 1166[879].  The Red Book of the Exchequer refers to "Baderon de Munemue xv m" in Hereford in [1167/68][880]m ([1 Nov] before 1138) ROHESE de Clare, daughter of GILBERT FitzRichard Lord of Clare and Tonbridge & his wife Adelisa de Clermont (-before 1166).  Guillaume de Jumičges names "Richardum qui ei successit et Gislebertum et Walterium et unam filiam...Rohais” as the children of “Gislebertus ex filia comitis de Claromonte[881].  “Adeliz, uxor Gilberti filii Ricardi, et Gillebertus et Walterus et Baldewinus et Rohaisia pueri Gilberti” donated property to Thorney Monastery, by undated charter witnessed by “Gilberto filio Gilberti, Galterio, Hervćo, Baldwino fratribus eius et Rohaisia sorore eorum[882].  “Badero de Momuta et uxor sua Rohes” donated revenue in Monmouth to Monmouth Priory by undated charter witnessed by "Galterus frater Gilleberti consulis, qui ipsa die loco consulis uxorem meam michi dedit…comitissa Ysabel, Robertus filius Baderonis, Johannes filius Roberti, Thomas filius Pagani…"[883].  Baderon [II] & his wife had [five] children: 

a)         GILBERT de Monmouth .  “Baderon de Monemue” donated property in Monmouth to Monmouth Priory, with the consent of “filiorum meorum Gileberti et Jacobi”, by undated charter witnessed by "…Waltero Marmiun…"[884].  “Hugo de Laci et Roes. uxor mea et Robertus filius meus” donated revenue to Monmouth Priory by undated charter witnessed by "Gilberto de Monemue…Roberto de Monemue…"[885].  It is not clear from this document whether Gilbert and Robert were sons of Baderon de Monmouth, but this is likely to be correct. 

b)         JAMES de Monmouth (-after 1176).  “Baderon de Monemue” donated property in Monmouth to Monmouth Priory, with the consent of “filiorum meorum Gileberti et Jacobi”, by undated charter witnessed by "…Waltero Marmiun…"[886].  The 1176/77 Pipe Roll names "Iacobus de Munemutha" in Gloucestershire[887]

c)         [ROBERT .  “Badero de Momuta et uxor sua Rohes” donated revenue in Monmouth to Monmouth Priory by undated charter witnessed by "Galterus frater Gilleberti consulis, qui ipsa die loco consulis uxorem meam michi dedit…comitissa Ysabel, Robertus filius Baderonis, Johannes filius Roberti, Thomas filius Pagani…"[888].  It is not known whether this witness was the son of the donor or the same person as the donor´s paternal uncle, although the latter would presumably have been old if he had witnessed this charter.  The undated charter under which “Hugo de Laci et Roes. uxor mea et Robertus filius meus” donated revenue to Monmouth Priory, witnessed by "Gilberto de Monemue…Roberto de Monemue…"[889], suggests that Baderon may have had a son named Robert (although this possible relationship is not specified in the document.  Robert Bishop of Hereford confirmed the donation of the church of St Roald at Traget to Monmouth priory made by "Rotbertum Baderonis filium" by undated charter, dated to before 1144[890].  It is not known whether this charter relates to Robert, otherwise Payn, son of Baderon [I] or the possible son of Baderon [II] of the same name.] 

d)         [ROHESE (-[1180]).  “Hugo de Laci et Roes. uxor mea et Robertus filius meus” donated revenue to Monmouth Priory by undated charter witnessed by "Gilberto de Monemue…Roberto de Monemue…"[891].  Proof of the parentage of Rohese, first wife of Hugh de Lacy, has not been found in any of the primary sources consulted during the preparation of the present document.  However, the charter quoted above suggests a family connection with the Monmouth family, who had founded the priory.  Her name suggests that she may have been the daughter of Baderon and his wife of the same name.  m as his first wife, HUGH de Lacy, son of GILBERT de Lacy & his wife --- (-killed 25 Jul 1185).] 

e)         [--- .  m ---.  One child: 

i)          WILLIAM .  "Walterus de Cormeliis" confirmed the donation to Monmouth priory made by "pater meus Ricardus de Cormeliis" by undated charter, witnessed by "Willelmo monaco, nepoto domni Gileberti…"[892]

William had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress: 

5.          ROBERT .  "Willelmus filius Baderonis" donated "terram Chachebren…juxta molendinum Castelli Godrici" to the priory of Monmouth, with the consent of "domina Haduis uxor domini Willelmi et Iveta et Advenia filić eorum", by undated charter witnessed by "Robertus frater domini Willelmi, Paganus, Robertus Walensis filius domini [Willelmi]…"[893].  Robert must have been illegitimate considering that he was named with William´s daughters in giving consent to the donation. 

 

 

1.         JOHN de Monmouth (-after [Jan] 1224).  Henry III King of England appointed "Johanni de Monumuta" as "forestarium Nove Foreste" together with rights which came from "Cecilie uxoris sue" dated 23 Mar 1217[894].  Henry III King of England noted the serious illness of "Johannes de Moemue" and his surrender of "castrum nostrum de Sancto Briavello cum baillia foreste nostre de Dene" dated [Jan] 1224[895]m CECILIA, daughter of ---.  Henry III King of England appointed "Johanni de Monumuta" as "forestarium Nove Foreste" together with rights which came from "Cecilie uxoris sue" dated 23 Mar 1217[896]

 

2.         JOHN de Monmouth (-before 12 Apr 1257).  A writ dated 12 Apr "41 Hen III", after the death of "John de Munemuth alias de Munemur" names "Lady Albretha de Boterell alias de Botereaus aged more than 60 and Lady Joan de Nevil alias de Novilla aged more than 40 are his heirs" and "Langeford and Grimstede towns [Wiltshire]…Pidele Bardolfeston town [Dorset]"[897]

 

3.         JOHN de Monmouth .  “Johannes dominus de Monemuta” confirmed the donation of "meum dominicum de Hodenac et heremitagium meum de Garthe…et totam terram…de Vinea" to Monmouth Priory by undated charter, witnessed by "domino Johanne de Monemuta filio meo, domino Waltero de Monemuta filio meo…"[898]m ---.  The name of John´s wife is not known.  John & his wife had two children: 

a)         JOHN de Monmouth (-after 1399).  “Johannes dominus de Monemuta” confirmed the donation of "meum dominicum de Hodenac et heremitagium meum de Garthe…et totam terram…de Vinea" to Monmouth Priory by undated charter, witnessed by "domino Johanne de Monemuta filio meo, domino Waltero de Monemuta filio meo…"[899].  “Johannes dominus de Monemuta, filius et hćres domini Johannis de Monemuta” confirmed his father´s donation "in bosco suo de Bokholt" to Monmouth Priory by undated charter, confirmed by Henry IV King of England so dated to [1399/1413][900]

b)         WALTER de Monmouth .  “Johannes dominus de Monemuta” confirmed the donation of "meum dominicum de Hodenac et heremitagium meum de Garthe…et totam terram…de Vinea" to Monmouth Priory by undated charter, witnessed by "domino Johanne de Monemuta filio meo, domino Waltero de Monemuta filio meo…"[901]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11.  LORDS of MONTGOMERY

 

 

1.         BALDWIN de Boulers Lord of Montgomerym firstly ([1100/10]) SIBYLLE de Falaise, daughter of WILLIAM de Falaise of Stogursey & his wife Geva de Bursey.  A plea at Westminster, dating to the ninth year of Henry III King of England [1226], records that "Vitalis Engaing" claimed land "in honore de Mungumery" which "Dominus Rex H. senex" had given "in maritagium Baldewino de Bollers cum Sibilla de Faleise, nepte ipsius H regis", and that "eadem Sibilla" had "unam filiam Matillidem de ipso Baldewino" who "dominus Rex" gave to "Ricardo filio Ursie", who by her had "unum filium et duas filias…Reginaldum filium Ursi et Margeriam primogenitam et Mabiliam"[902].  Sibylla´s relationship with Henry I King of England, assuming that such relationship is correctly represented in this document, has not been traced.  m secondly MARGERY de Limesey, daughter of ---.  Baldwin & his first wife had two children: 

a)         MATILDA de Boulers .  A plea at Westminster, dating to the ninth year of Henry III King of England [1226], records that "Vitalis Engaing" claimed land "in honore de Mungumery" which "Dominus Rex H, senex" had given "in maritagium Baldewino de Bollers cum Sibilla de Faleise, nepte ipsius H regis", and that "eadem Sibilla" had "unam filiam Matillidem de ipso Baldewino" who "dominus Rex" gave to "Ricardo filio Ursie" who by her had "unum filium et duas filias…Reginaldum filium Ursi et Margeriam primogenitam et Mabiliam"[903]m RICHARD FitzUrse, son of --- (-after 1166). 

b)         HILARIA de Boulers

Baldwin & his second wife had three children: 

c)         STEPHEN de BoulersLord of Montgomerym ---.  The name of Stephen´s wife is not known.  Stephen & his wife had two children: 

i)          ROBERT de Boulers (-12 Oct 1203)Lord of Montgomery.  m HILARIA Trussebut, daughter of WILLIAM [II] Trussebut of Warter & his wife Albreda de Harcourt (-12 Apr 1241).  A manuscript history of the foundation of Barwell Priory names “quatuor sorores…Pagani filias…primogenita Mathildis de Doure…Alicia…Roisia…Ascelina” as the heiresses of “Gul. Peverell filius Pagani”, adding that Rohese was mother of “Albreda de Harecourt”, mother of “Galfridus Trussebut…et tres sorores…Roysia, Hillaria et Agatha[904].  The Liber Memorandorum Ecclesie de Bernewelle records that "Albreda de Harecurt" was mother of three sisters "Roysia, Hyllaria et Agatha"[905].  "Hillaria Trussebut" paid a fine for "terra de Branteston q fuit Albréé de Harecurt matris sue" in Northamptonshire, dated 1205[906].  Lady of Braunston. 

ii)         BALDWIN de Boulers (-before 30 Jun 1207)Lord of Montgomerym GWENLLIAN Tec, daughter of --- (-22 Oct 1243). 

d)         MARGERY de Boulers

e)         SIBYLLA de Boulersm --- de Stanton, son of ---.  One child:  

i)          STEPHEN de Stanton (-after 18 Jan 1215).  Lord of Montgomery.  He sold the lordship of Montgomery 18 Jan 1215[907].  m ---.  Stephen & his wife had two children: 

(1)       ROBERT de Stanton (-after 18 Jan 1215). 

(2)       WILLIAM de Stantonm ---.  The name of William´s wife is not known.  William & his wife had one child: 

(a)       WILLIAM de Stanton (-after 7 Dec 1241). 

 

 



[1] Williams ab Ithel, J. (ed.) (1860) Annales Cambrić (London). 

[2] Williams ab Ithel, J. (ed.) (1860) Brut y Tywysogion, or the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales (London) ("Brut y Tywysogion (Williams)"), Preface, p. xliv. 

[3] Archaeologia Cambrensis, The Journal of the Cambrian Archaeological Association, Vol. X, Third Series (London, 1864), Supplement Brut y Tywysogion ("Gwentian Chronicle"). 

[4] Jones, M. (2003) Jones´ Celtic Encyclopedia, introduction to Jones, O., Williams, E. & Pughe, O. (eds.) (1801-07) Y Myvrian Archaiology, The Archeological Study of Welsh Poetry, available at <http://www.maryjones.us/jce/myvyrian.html> (8 March 2011).  

[5] Stephens, T. ´The Book of Aberpergwm, improperly called the Chronicle of Caradoc´, Archeologia Cambrensis Vol. IV, Third Series (1858), pp. 77-96, and Williams, G. J. ´Brut Aberpergwm: a version of the Chronicle of the Princes´, Williams, S. (ed.) The Glamorgan Historian 4 (1967), pp. 205-20.  [information provided by Dirk Steinforth in a private email to the author dated 10 Mar 2011]

[6] Stephens ´The Book of Aberpergwm´, p. 96. 

[7] Bridgeman, G. T. O. (1876) History of the Princes of South Wales (Wigan), Introduction, p. v. 

[8] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[9] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 15. 

[10] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 13. 

[11] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 15. 

[12] Maund, K. (2000) The Welsh Kings (Tempus), p. 41, citing Jesus College MS 20, Bartrum, P. C. (1966) Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts (Cardiff), pp. 46-7, available at The Celtic Literature Collection, <http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/jesus20gen.html> (16 Feb 2010). 

[13] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 23. 

[14] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 9. 

[15] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 9. 

[16] Wharton, H. (1691) Anglia Sacra, Part. II (London), Annales Ecclesić Menevensis, p. 648. 

[17] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 9. 

[18] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 9. 

[19] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 9. 

[20] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 11. 

[21] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 25. 

[22] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 15. 

[23] Annales Cambrić, p. 6. 

[24] Annales Cambrić, p. 6. 

[25] Plummer, C. (1895) Venerabilis Bćdć opera historica, Tomus prior (Oxford) Bćdć Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum ("Bede Historia Ecclesiastica (Plummer)"), Book II, Chapter XX, p. 124. 

[26] Bede Historia Ecclesiastica (Plummer), Book III, Chapter I, p. 128. 

[27] Bede Historia Ecclesiastica (Plummer), Book III, Chapter I, p. 128. 

[28] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 3. 

[29] Coxe, H. O. (ed.) (1841) Rogeri de Wendover Chronica sive Flores historiarum (London) ("Roger of Wendover"), Vol. I, p. 166. 

[30] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 3. 

[31] Annales Cambrić, p. 8. 

[32] Annales Ecclesić Menevensis, p. 648. 

[33] Annales Cambrić, p. 9. 

[34] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 5. 

[35] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 5. 

[36] Annales Cambrić, p. 10. 

[37] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 7. 

[38] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 5. 

[39] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 7. 

[40] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[41] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 9. 

[42] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 9. 

[43] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[44] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 11. 

[45] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[46] Annales Cambrić, p. 12. 

[47] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 11. 

[48] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[49] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 11. 

[50] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[51] Annales Cambrić, p. 12. 

[52] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 11. 

[53] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[54] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[55] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 11. 

[56] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[57] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 11. 

[58] Bartrum (1966), Harleian MS 3859: The Genealogies, Latin version, Gwynedd, p. 9, available at The Celtic Literature Collection, <http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/genealogies.html> (16 Feb 2010). 

[59] Jones, A. (ed. and trans.) (1910) The History of Gruffyd ap Cynan (Manchester), I, available at The Celtic Literature Collection, <http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/gruffydd.htm> (16 Feb 2010). 

[60] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[61] Jones (1910) The History of Gruffyd ap Cynan, I. 

[62] Bartrum (1966), p. 9. 

[63] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[64] The History of Gruffyd ap Cynan, I. 

[65] Annales Cambrić, p. 13. 

[66] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 13. 

[67] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[68] Maund (2000), pp. 39 and 150, citing Jesus College MS 20, Bartrum (1966), p. 46, available at available at The Celtic Literature Collection, <http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/jesus20gen.html> (16 Feb 2010). 

[69] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 13. 

[70] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 17. 

[71] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 15. 

[72] Annales Cambrić, p. 15. 

[73] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 13. 

[74] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 13. 

[75] Bambury, P. and Beechinor, S. (eds.) (2000) The Annals of Ulster (Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition “CELT”, University College, Cork), 877.3, p. 333, available at <http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100001A/index.html> (22 Feb 2006). 

[76] Annales Cambrić, p. 15. 

[77] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 17. 

[78] Annals of Ulster, 878.1, p. 333. 

[79] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 15. 

[80] Maund (2000), p. 41, citing Jesus College MS 20, Bartrum (1966), pp. 46-7, available at available at The Celtic Literature Collection, <http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/jesus20gen.html> (16 Feb 2010). 

[81] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 17. 

[82] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 15. 

[83] Annales Cambrić, p. 15. 

[84] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 23. 

[85] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 17. 

[86] Dimock, J. F. (1868) Giraldi Cambrensis Opera (London), Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. II, p. 166. 

[87] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 19. 

[88] Annales Cambrić, p. 17. 

[89] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 21. 

[90] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 21. 

[91] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 21. 

[92] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 23. 

[93] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 21. 

[94] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 35. 

[95] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 27. 

[96] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 23. 

[97] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 21. 

[98] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 25. 

[99] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 17. 

[100] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 17. 

[101] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 19. 

[102] Bridgeman (1876), p. 3. 

[103] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. II, pp. 166-7. 

[104] Bridgeman (1876), p. 4. 

[105] Annales Cambrić, p. 16. 

[106] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 19. 

[107] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 21. 

[108] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 21. 

[109] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 21. 

[110] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 51. 

[111] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. III, p. 167. 

[112] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 21. 

[113] Stenton, F. M. (2001) Anglo-Saxon England 3rd edn (Oxford UP), p. 341. 

[114] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 25. 

[115] Annales Cambrić, p. 18. 

[116] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 23. 

[117] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 25. 

[118] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 25. 

[119] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 23. 

[120] Annales Cambrić, p. 19. 

[121] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 23. 

[122] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 23. 

[123] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 25. 

[124] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 21. 

[125] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 21. 

[126] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 21. 

[127] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 21. 

[128] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 29. 

[129] Gwentian Chronicle, pp. 39-41. 

[130] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 33. 

[131] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 41. 

[132] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 21. 

[133] Annales Cambrić, p. 17. 

[134] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 21. 

[135] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 21. 

[136] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 21. 

[137] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 17. 

[138] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. II, p. 166. 

[139] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 17. 

[140] Annales Cambrić, p. 16. 

[141] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 19. 

[142] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 23. 

[143] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. III, p. 167. 

[144] Stenton (2001), p. 341. 

[145] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 23. 

[146] Annales Cambrić, p. 18. 

[147] Annales Cambrić, p. 18. 

[148] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 21. 

[149] Annales Cambrić, pp. 19 and 20. 

[150] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 33. 

[151] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. III, p. 167. 

[152] Annales Cambrić, p. 21. 

[153] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39. 

[154] Annales Cambrić, p. 18. 

[155] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 23. 

[156] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 29. 

[157] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 25. 

[158] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 27. 

[159] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 27. 

[160] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 27. 

[161] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 35. 

[162] Annales Cambrić, p. 18. 

[163] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 27. 

[164] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 31. 

[165] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 23. 

[166] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 25. 

[167] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 31. 

[168] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 37. 

[169] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 27. 

[170] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 27. 

[171] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 29. 

[172] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 35. 

[173] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 33. 

[174] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 37. 

[175] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 29. 

[176] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 29. 

[177] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 37. 

[178] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 29. 

[179] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 37. 

[180] Annales Cambrić, p. 19. 

[181] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 25. 

[182] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 29. 

[183] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. III, p. 167. 

[184] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39. 

[185] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39. 

[186] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 51. 

[187] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 55. 

[188] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 51. 

[189] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 51.  

[190] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 47. 

[191] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 51. 

[192] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 81. 

[193] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 89. 

[194] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 81. 

[195] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 89. 

[196] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 87. 

[197] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. III, p. 167. 

[198] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 55. 

[199] The History of Gruffyd ap Cynan, I. 

[200] The History of Gruffyd ap Cynan, I. 

[201] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. III, p. 167. 

[202] The History of Gruffyd ap Cynan, I. 

[203] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 49. 

[204] The History of Gruffyd ap Cynan, 2. 

[205] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 61. 

[206] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 63. 

[207] Annales Cambrić, p. 41. 

[208] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 161. 

[209] The History of Gruffyd ap Cynan, 12. 

[210] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 153. 

[211] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 197. 

[212] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 153. 

[213] Annales Cambrić, p. 39. 

[214] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 123. 

[215] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 153. 

[216] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 153. 

[217] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 157. 

[218] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 217. 

[219] Domesday Descendants, p. 399. 

[220] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 115. 

[221] The History of Gruffyd ap Cynan, 8. 

[222] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 113. 

[223] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 185. 

[224] The History of Gruffyd ap Cynan, 8. 

[225] The History of Gruffyd ap Cynan, 8. 

[226] The History of Gruffyd ap Cynan, 8. 

[227] The History of Gruffyd ap Cynan, 8. 

[228] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 139. 

[229] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 153. 

[230] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. III, p. 167. 

[231] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 157. 

[232] Delisle, L. (ed.) (1872) Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbé de Mont-Saint-Michel (Rouen) ("Robert de Torigny"), Vol. II, p. 29. 

[233] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 207. 

[234] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 133. 

[235] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 133. 

[236] Annales Cambrić, p. 82. 

[237] Jesus College MS 20, Bartrum (1966), pp. 46-7, available at available at The Celtic Literature Collection, <http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/jesus20gen.html> (16 Feb 2010). 

[238] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 241. 

[239] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 137. 

[240] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 225. 

[241] Sweetman, H. S. (ed.) (1875) Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland preserved in the Public Record Office 1171-1251 (Vol. I) (London), 830, p. 123. 

[242] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. III, p. 167. 

[243] Annales Cambrić, p. 46. 

[244] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 207. 

[245] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 241. 

[246] De Origine Comitum Andegavensium, RHGF XII, p. 536. 

[247] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 225. 

[248] Pipe Roll Society, Vol. XXI (1896) The Great Roll of the Pipe for the 20th year of King Henry II (London) ("Pipe Roll 20 Hen II (1173/74)"), London/Middlesex, p. 9. 

[249] Public Record Office (1920) Liber Feodum, The Book of Fees commonly called Testa de Nevill (London) ("Testa de Nevill"), Part I, p. 146. 

[250] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 225. 

[251] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 241. 

[252] Annales Cambrić, p. 59. 

[253] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 113. 

[254] Annales Cambrić, p. 46. 

[255] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 207. 

[256] Annales Cambrić, p. 46. 

[257] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 225. 

[258] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 241. 

[259] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 255. 

[260] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 257. 

[261] Annales Cambrić, p. 72. 

[262] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 241. 

[263] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 257. 

[264] Annales Cambrić, p. 89. 

[265] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthći Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (London) (“MP”), Vol. IV, 1240, p. 8. 

[266] Annales Cambrić, p. 82. 

[267] Annales Londonienses, p. 37. 

[268] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 327. 

[269] Duffus Hardy, T. (ed.) (1837) Rotuli Chartarum in Turri Londinensi, Vol. I, Part I 1199-1216 (London) ("Rotuli Chartarum"), 6 John, p. 147. 

[270] Given-Wilson, C. and Curteis, A. (1988) The Royal Bastards of Medieval England (Routledge), pp. 128-9. 

[271] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 319. 

[272] Annales Cambrić, p. 82. 

[273] Annales de Theokesberia, p. 101. 

[274] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 325. 

[275] MP, Vol. IV, 1240, p. 8. 

[276] Annales Cambrić, p. 83. 

[277] Maxwell Lyte, H. C. (ed.) (1903) Patent Rolls of the reign of Henry III preserved in the Public Record Office 1225-1232 (London), p. 247. 

[278] Patent Rolls Henry III 1225-1232 (1903), p. 263. 

[279] Annales Cambrić, p. 85. 

[280] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 333. 

[281] Shirley, W. W. (ed.) (1862) Royal and other historical letters illustrative of the reign of Henry III (London) ("Letters Henry III") Vol. I, CCCV, p. 368. 

[282] Dugdale Monasticon VI, Lanthony Abbey, Gloucestershire, II, Fundatorum progenies, p. 134. 

[283] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1866) Annales Monastici Vol. III, Annales Prioratus de Dunstaplia, Annales Monasterii de Bermundeseia (London), Annales de Dunstaplia, p. 117. 

[284] Annales de Dunstaplia, p. 146. 

[285] MP, Vol. III, 1237, p. 394, and CP III 169. 

[286] Maxwell Lyte, H. C. (ed.) (1904) Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Vol. I, Henry III (London), 312, p. 82. 

[287] Annales Cambrić, p. 82. 

[288] Patent Rolls Henry III 1225-1232 (1903), p. 230. 

[289] MP, Vol. IV, 1240, p. 8. 

[290] MP, Vol. IV, 1244, p. 295. 

[291] Calendar of Documents Ireland, Vol. I, 1203, p. 183. 

[292] Annales de Dunstaplia, p. 52. 

[293] Patent Rolls Henry III 1225-1232 (1903), p. 247. 

[294] Patent Rolls Henry III 1225-1232 (1903), p. 263. 

[295] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1869) Annales Monastici Vol. IV, Annales de Oseneia, Chronicon Thomć Wykes, Annales de Wigornia (London), Annales de Wigornia, p. 421. 

[296] Dugdale Monasticon VI, Wigmore Abbey, Herefordshire, III, Fundationis et Fundatorum Historia, p. 350. 

[297] Annales Cambrić, p. 88. 

[298] CP I 22. 

[299] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 305. 

[300] Dugdale Monasticon VI, Acornbury Priory, Herefordshire, IV, p. 490.   

[301] Dugdale Monasticon VI, Acornbury Priory, Herefordshire, V, p. 490.   

[302] Dugdale Monasticon VI, Acornbury Priory, Herefordshire, VI, p. 490.   

[303] Goodall, W. (ed.) (1759) Joannis de Fordun Scotichronicon cum Supplementis et Continuatione Walteri Boweri, Vols. I, II (Edinburgh) ("Joannis de Fordun (Goodall)"), Vol. II, Lib. IX, Cap. XLVII, p. 58. 

[304] Chronicle of Melrose, 1230, p. 59. 

[305] Maitland Club (1839) Chronicon de Lanercost (Edinburgh) ("Lanercost Chronicle"), 1229, p. 40. 

[306] Stevenson, J. (1870) Documents illustrative of the History of Scotland (Edinburgh), Vol. I, pp. 410 and 414. 

[307] MP, Vol. IV, 1240, p. 8. 

[308] Annales de Dunstaplia, p. 152. 

[309] Annales Cambrić, p. 84. 

[310] MP, Vol. IV, 1244, p. 295. 

[311] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 331. 

[312] MP, Vol. IV, 1244, pp. 316-7. 

[313] MP, Vol. IV, 1244, pp. 316-7. 

[314] Annales Cambrić, p. 85. 

[315] Stapleton, T. (ed.) (1849) Chronicon Petroburgense (London) ("Peterborough Chronicle"), p. 26. 

[316] Annales Cambrić, p. 85. 

[317] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus II (London) (“Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon ”), Continuatio, p. 225. 

[318] Annales Cambrić, p. 105. 

[319] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 227. 

[320] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 216. 

[321] Annales Cambrić, p. 105. 

[322] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 219. 

[323] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 226. 

[324] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 365. 

[325] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 226. 

[326] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 365. 

[327] MP, Vol. IV, 1244, pp. 316-7. 

[328] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 225. 

[329] Annales Cambrić, p. 105. 

[330] Annales de Dunstaplia, p. 298. 

[331] Annales Cambrić, p. 105. 

[332] MP, Vol. IV, 1244, pp. 316-7. 

[333] Peterborough Chronicle, p. 26. 

[334] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 349. 

[335] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 25. 

[336] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. III, p. 167. 

[337] Annales Cambrić, p. 21. 

[338] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 31. 

[339] Annales Cambrić, p. 19. 

[340] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 25. 

[341] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 29. 

[342] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 31. 

[343] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. III, p. 167. 

[344] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 29. 

[345] Annales Cambrić, p. 20. 

[346] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 29. 

[347] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 35. 

[348] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 33. 

[349] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 39. 

[350] Annales Cambrić, p. 20. 

[351] Annales Cambrić, p. 21. 

[352] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 35. 

[353] Annales Cambrić, p. 22. 

[354] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 29. 

[355] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 31. 

[356] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 31. 

[357] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 33. 

[358] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 41. 

[359] Annales Ecclesić Menevensis, p. 648. 

[360] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 31. 

[361] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 39. 

[362] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 41. 

[363] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 125. 

[364] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[365] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 81. 

[366] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 37. 

[367] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 37. 

[368] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 29. 

[369] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 41. 

[370] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 45. 

[371] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 37. 

[372] Annales Cambrić, p. 23. 

[373] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 255. 

[374] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39. 

[375] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 45. 

[376] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 41. 

[377] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 125. 

[378] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[379] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 81. 

[380] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 45. 

[381] Forester, T. (trans.) (1854) The Chronicles of Florence of Worcester with two continuations (London) ("Florence of Worcester"), 1053, p. 155, and Garmonsway, G. N. (trans) (1972) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Dent), D, 1052, the latter not specifying the crimes of which he was accused. 

[382] Stevenson, J. (trans.) (1855) The Historical Works of Simeon of Durham (London) (“Simeon of Durham”), Vol. II, pp. 537-8. 

[383] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 55. 

[384] Simeon of Durham, Vol. II, p. 543. 

[385] Simeon of Durham, Vol. II, p. 543. 

[386] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 45. 

[387] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39. 

[388] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 45. 

[389] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39. 

[390] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[391] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[392] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[393] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[394] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[395] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 45. 

[396] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 125. 

[397] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 51. 

[398] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39. 

[399] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle C, 1046.

[400] Florence of Worcester, 1055, p. 157. 

[401] Florence of Worcester, 1056, p. 158. 

[402] Florence of Worcester, 1063, p. 164. 

[403] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 57. 

[404] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 45. 

[405] Simeon of Durham, Vol. II, p. 543. 

[406] Florence of Worcester, 1064, p. 166, and Barlow, F. (2002) The Godwins: the Rise and Fall of a Noble Dynasty (Longman), p. 68. 

[407] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 41. 

[408] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 51. 

[409] Le Prévost, A. (1840) Orderici Vitalis Historić Ecclesiasticć (Paris) ("Orderic Vitalis (Prévost)"), Vol. II, Liber III, p. 119. 

[410] Freeman, E. A. (1875) The History of the Norman Conquest of England, its causes and its results 2nd Edn. (Oxford), Vol. III, Appendix, Note K, p. 638.

[411] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 45. 

[412] Annales Cambrić, p. 26. 

[413] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 47. 

[414] Annales Cambrić, p. 26. 

[415] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 47. 

[416] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, p. 119. 

[417] Darlington, R. R. (ed.) (1968) The Cartulary of Worcester Cathedral Priory (Register I) (London, Pipe Roll Society NS Vol. 38) ("Worcester Cathedral, I"), 148, p. 83. 

[418] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 141. 

[419] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 59. 

[420] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 89. 

[421] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 141. 

[422] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 77. 

[423] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 89. 

[424] Annales Cambrić, p. 37. 

[425] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 143. 

[426] Annales Cambrić, p. 37. 

[427] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 153. 

[428] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 133. 

[429] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 143. 

[430] Annales Cambrić, p. 37. 

[431] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 153. 

[432] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 143. 

[433] Annales Cambrić, p. 36. 

[434] Annales Cambrić, p. 37. 

[435] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 153. 

[436] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 153. 

[437] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 197. 

[438] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. III, p. 167. 

[439] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. II, pp. 166-7. 

[440] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. II, pp. 166-7. 

[441] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 125. 

[442] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 125. 

[443] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 115. 

[444] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 125. 

[445] Annales Cambrić, p. 28. 

[446] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 65. 

[447] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 51. 

[448] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. II, p. 167. 

[449] Annales Cambrić, p. 28. 

[450] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 53. 

[451] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 31. 

[452] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 55. 

[453] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 81. 

[454] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 71. 

[455] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), pp. 81-87. 

[456] Giraldus Cambrensis, Itinerarium Kambrić, Rolls Series, p. 130, quoted in CP XI Appendix D, p. 110 footnote a. 

[457] Dimock, J. F. (ed.) (1867) Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. V, Topographia Hibernica, Expugnatio Hibernica (London) Expugnatio Hibernica I, II, p. 229. 

[458] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 213. 

[459] Expugnatio Hibernica II, XIX, p. 346. 

[460] Expugnatio Hibernica II, XX, p. 349. 

[461] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 119. 

[462] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 121. 

[463] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 71. 

[464] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 71. 

[465] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 119. 

[466] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 51. 

[467] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. II, p. 167. 

[468] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 68. 

[469] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 98. 

[470] Annales Cambrić, p. 41. 

[471] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 161. 

[472] The History of Gruffyd ap Cynan, 8. 

[473] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 113. 

[474] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 185. 

[475] Annales Cambrić, p. 46. 

[476] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 183. 

[477] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 221. 

[478] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 113. 

[479] Annales Cambrić, p. 42. 

[480] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 115. 

[481] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 227. 

[482] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 227. 

[483] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 227. 

[484] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 227. 

[485] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 113. 

[486] Annales Cambrić, p. 46. 

[487] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 51.  

[488] Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. VI, Descriptio Kambrić, Liber I, Cap. II, p. 167. 

[489] Annales Cambrić, p. 60. 

[490] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 221. 

[491] Annales Cambrić, p. 61. 

[492] Annales Cambrić, p. 62. 

[493] Annales Cambrić, p. 57. 

[494] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 267. 

[495] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 269. 

[496] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 269. 

[497] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 319. 

[498] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 323. 

[499] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 353. 

[500] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 241. 

[501] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 327. 

[502] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 331. 

[503] Annales Cambrić, p. 82. 

[504] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 241. 

[505] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 323. 

[506] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 305. 

[507] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 317. 

[508] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 331. 

[509] Wrottesley, G. [1905] Pedigrees from the Plea Rolls, De Banco, Trinity 36.E.3. m 170 dorso, p. 84. 

[510] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 359. 

[511] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 349. 

[512] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 367. 

[513] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 367. 

[514] Wrottesley [1905], De Banco, Trinity 36.E.3. m 170 dorso, p. 84. 

[515] Wrottesley [1905], De Banco, Trinity 36.E.3. m 170 dorso, p. 84. 

[516] Wrottesley [1905], De Banco, Trinity 36.E.3. m 170 dorso, p. 84. 

[517] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 359. 

[518] Annales Cambrić, p. 62. 

[519] Annales Cambrić, p. 59. 

[520] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 239. 

[521] Annales Cambrić, p. 61. 

[522] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 319. 

[523] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 319. 

[524] Annales Cambrić, p. 89. 

[525] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 353. 

[526] Annales Cambrić, pp. 88-9. 

[527] Annales Cambrić, p. 90. 

[528] Bridgeman (1876), p. 148. 

[529] Annales Cambrić, p. 59. 

[530] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 241. 

[531] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 261. 

[532] Annales Cambrić, p. 76. 

[533] Annales Cambrić, p. 81. 

[534] Annales Cambrić, p. 88. 

[535] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 227. 

[536] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 231. 

[537] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 227. 

[538] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 221. 

[539] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 353. 

[540] Bridgeman (1876), p. 148. 

[541] Bridgeman (1876), p. 149. 

[542] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 363. 

[543] Meyrick, S. R. (ed.) (1846) Heraldic Visitations of Wales...by Lewys Dwnn (Llandovery), Vol. II, p. 54. 

[544] Bridgeman (1876), p. 153, quoting Rot. Wall, 6-9 Edw I, m. 12 in dorso de ao sexto. 

[545] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 367. 

[546] Bridgeman (1876), p. 240, citing “Orig. MS. G. H. T. p. 49”. 

[547] Meyrick (1846), Vol. II, p. 54. 

[548] Bridgeman (1876), p. 240. 

[549] Bridgeman (1876), p. 240, citing “Orig. MS. G. H. T. p. 49”. 

[550] Bridgeman (1876), p. 240, citing “Orig. MS. G. H. T. p. 49”. 

[551] Meyrick (1846), Vol. II, p. 54. 

[552] Meyrick (1846), Vol. II, p. 54. 

[553] Meyrick (1846), Vol. II, p. 54. 

[554] Bridgeman (1876), p. 264. 

[555] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 367. 

[556] Bridgeman (1876), p. 149. 

[557] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 367. 

[558] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 373. 

[559] Bridgeman (1876), p. 149. 

[560] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 367. 

[561] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 13. 

[562] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 13. 

[563] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 15. 

[564] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 19. 

[565] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 23. 

[566] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 21. 

[567] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 21. 

[568] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 23. 

[569] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 43. 

[570] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 39. 

[571] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 39. 

[572] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 41. 

[573] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 41. 

[574] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 39. 

[575] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[576] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 53. 

[577] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 41. 

[578] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 41. 

[579] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 43. 

[580] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 45. 

[581] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 45. 

[582] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 23. 

[583] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 33.  

[584] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 41. 

[585] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[586] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 41. 

[587] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[588] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 53. 

[589] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 41. 

[590] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 43. 

[591] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[592] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 75. 

[593] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 43. 

[594] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39. 

[595] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[596] Annales Cambrić, p. 23. 

[597] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39. 

[598] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[599] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39. 

[600] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 61. 

[601] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 47. 

[602] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 49. 

[603] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), pp. 41-3. 

[604] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), pp. 41-3. 

[605] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 53. 

[606] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 49. 

[607] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), pp. 41-3. 

[608] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 53. 

[609] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 43. 

[610] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 55. 

[611] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 57. 

[612] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 57. 

[613] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 47. 

[614] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 61. 

[615] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 125. 

[616] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 125. 

[617] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 189. 

[618] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 189. 

[619] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 211. 

[620] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 211. 

[621] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 211. 

[622] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 217. 

[623] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 211. 

[624] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 225. 

[625] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 225. 

[626] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 213. 

[627] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 39. 

[628] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 45. 

[629] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39. 

[630] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[631] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 41. 

[632] Annales Cambrić, p. 22. 

[633] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 41. 

[634] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 53. 

[635] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 41. 

[636] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 51. 

[637] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 45. 

[638] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39. 

[639] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[640] Annales Cambrić, p. 23. 

[641] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39. 

[642] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[643] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 47. 

[644] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 57. 

[645] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 47. 

[646] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 47. 

[647] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 61. 

[648] Williams, A. & Martin, G. H. (eds.) (2003) Domesday Book, a complete translation (Penguin Classics) ("Domesday Translation"), Worcestershire, XXXI, p. 517. 

[649] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 47. 

[650] Annales Cambrić, p. 22. 

[651] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 51. 

[652] Annales Cambrić, p. 22. 

[653] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 51. 

[654] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[655] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 9. 

[656] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 9. 

[657] Annales Cambrić, p. 13. 

[658] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 13. 

[659] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 15. 

[660] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 11. 

[661] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[662] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[663] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 11. 

[664] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[665] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[666] Maund (2000), pp. 39 and 150, citing Jesus College MS 20, Bartrum (1966), p. 46, available at available at The Celtic Literature Collection, <http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/jesus20gen.html> (16 Feb 2010). 

[667] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 11. 

[668] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 41. 

[669] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 59. 

[670] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 141. 

[671] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 125. 

[672] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 47. 

[673] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 81. 

[674] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 141. 

[675] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 81. 

[676] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 81. 

[677] Florence of Worcester, 1064, p. 166. 

[678] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 47. 

[679] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 81. 

[680] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 141. 

[681] Florence of Worcester, 1064, p. 166. 

[682] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 47. 

[683] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 47. 

[684] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 81. 

[685] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 53. 

[686] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 55. 

[687] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 63.  

[688] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 69. 

[689] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 109. 

[690] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 141. 

[691] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 139. 

[692] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 139. 

[693] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 139. 

[694] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 141. 

[695] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 63. 

[696] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 63. 

[697] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 85. 

[698] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 89. 

[699] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 81. 

[700] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 81. 

[701] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 109. 

[702] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 93. 

[703] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 139. 

[704] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 97. 

[705] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 141. 

[706] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 141. 

[707] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 139. 

[708] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 141. 

[709] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 105. 

[710] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 151. 

[711] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 139. 

[712] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 139. 

[713] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 105. 

[714] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 141. 

[715] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 151. 

[716] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 153. 

[717] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 105. 

[718] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 153. 

[719] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 155. 

[720] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 125. 

[721] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 125. 

[722] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 53. 

[723] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 53. 

[724] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 87. 

[725] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 93. 

[726] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 87. 

[727] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 97. 

[728] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 151. 

[729] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 153. 

[730] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 69. 

[731] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 69. 

[732] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 87. 

[733] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 97. 

[734] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 109. 

[735] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 97. 

[736] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 69. 

[737] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 81. 

[738] Annales Cambrić, p. 39. 

[739] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 157.  

[740] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 177. 

[741] Annales Cambrić, p. 48. 

[742] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 195. 

[743] Annales Cambrić, p. 49. 

[744] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 195. 

[745] Jesus College MS 20, Bartrum (1966), pp. 46-7, available at available at The Celtic Literature Collection, <http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/jesus20gen.html> (16 Feb 2010). 

[746] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 141. 

[747] Annales Cambrić, p. 38. 

[748] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 155. 

[749] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 177. 

[750] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 177. 

[751] Annales Cambrić, p. 42. 

[752] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 237. 

[753] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 325. 

[754] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 357. 

[755] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 357. 

[756] Letters Henry III Vol. I, CCLII, p. 306. 

[757] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 251. 

[758] Meyrick (1846), Vol. II, p. 54. 

[759] Meyrick (1846), Vol. II, p. 54. 

[760] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 177. 

[761] Fśdera (1816), Vol. I, Part I, p. 101. 

[762] Eyton, R. W. (1858) Antiquities of Shropshire (London), Vol. VII, p. 15. 

[763] Close Rolls Henry III 1227-1231 (1902), p. 164. 

[764] Close Rolls Henry III 1227-1231 (1902), p. 492. 

[765] Close Rolls Henry III 1227-1231 (1902), p. 164. 

[766] Maxwell Lyte, H. C. (ed.) (1903) Calendar of the Charter Rolls preserved in the Public Record Office, Vol. I, Henry III 1226-1257 (London) ("Charter Rolls Henry III 1226-1257"), p. 266. 

[767] Eyton, R. W. (1860) Antiquities of Shropshire (London), Vol. X, p. 274, which gives no citation for the document. 

[768] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartć I, p. 615. 

[769] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartć I, p. 615. 

[770] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, p. 613. 

[771] Martčne, E. and Durand, U. (eds.) (1724) Veterum Scriptorum et Monumentorum Historicorum, Dogmaticorum, Moralium, Amplissima Collectio (Paris) ("Veterum Scriptorum"), Tome III, col. 577. 

[772] CP I, p. 19. 

[773] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartć I, p. 615. 

[774] Veterum Scriptorum III, col. 578. 

[775] Hunt, W. (ed.) (1893) Two Chartularies of the Priory of St Peter at Bath (London) ("Bath St Peter") 41, p. 44. 

[776] Bath St Peter 40, p. 43. 

[777] Bath St Peter 42, p. 46. 

[778] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartć I, p. 615. 

[779] Veterum Scriptorum III, col. 578. 

[780] Veterum Scriptorum III, col. 578. 

[781] Veterum Scriptorum III, col. 578. 

[782] Hall, H. (ed.) (1896) The Red Book of the Exchequer (Liber rubeus de Scaccario) (London) ("Red Book Exchequer"), Part I, Certificationes factć de feodis militum, p. 281. 

[783] Round, J. H. (1901) Studies in Peerage and Family History (New York), IV, The Family of Ballon and the Conquest of South Wales, p. 201. 

[784] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Godestow Nunnery, Oxfordshire, VII, p. 364.   

[785] Bevan, R. ´Lost in Time: The Other Daughter of Hamelin de Ballon´, Foundations, Vol. 3, no. 3 (Jan 2010), pp. 194-211. 

[786] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartć I, p. 615. 

[787] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartć I, p. 615. 

[788] Bath St Peter 41, p. 44. 

[789] Veterum Scriptorum III, col. 578. 

[790] Bath St Peter 40, p. 43. 

[791] Bath St Peter 42, p. 46. 

[792] Bath St Peter 49, p. 51. 

[793] Hart, W. H. (ed.) (1863) Historia et Cartularium Monasterii Sancti Petri Gloucestrić (London) ("Gloucester St Peter"), Vol, I, Historia monasterii sancti Petri Gloucestrić, p. 76. 

[794] Gloucester St Peter, Vol, I, Historia monasterii sancti Petri Gloucestrić, p. 61. 

[795] Veterum Scriptorum III, col. 578. 

[796] Gloucester St Peter, Historia monasterii sancti Petri Gloucestrić, p. 76. 

[797] Gloucester St Peter, Vol, I, Historia monasterii sancti Petri Gloucestrić, p. 61. 

[798] Round, J. H. (1901) Studies in Peerage and Family History (New York), IV, The Family of Ballon and the Conquest of South Wales, p. 195, citing Dugdale Baronage I, 435. 

[799] Domesday Descendants, p. 303, citing BL Harley 4757 (ext. from Cart. Bermondsey) fols. 2v, 7v-9. 

[800] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1866) Annales Monastici Vol. III, Annales Prioratus de Dunstaplia, Annales Monasterii de Bermundeseia (London), Annales de Bermundeseia, p. 431. 

[801] Gurney, D. (1858) The record of the House of Gournay, Supplement, 196, p. 1064. 

[802] Round (1901), IV, The Family of Ballon, p. 195, citing Dugdale Baronage I, 435. 

[803] Round (1901), IV, The Family of Ballon, p. 195, citing Dugdale Baronage I, 435. 

[804] Domesday Descendants, p. 616.  

[805] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartć I, p. 615. 

[806] Hunt, W. (ed.) (1893) Two Chartularies of the Priory of St Peter at Bath (London) ("Bath St Peter") 41, p. 44. 

[807] Gloucester St Peter, Vol. I, p. 60. 

[808] Gloucester St Peter, Vol. I, p. 61. 

[809] Gloucester St Peter, Vol, I, Historia monasterii sancti Petri Gloucestrić, p. 122. 

[810] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartć I, p. 615. 

[811] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartć I, p. 615. 

[812] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartć II, p. 616. 

[813] Round, J. H. (ed.) (1888) Ancient Charters Royal and Private prior to A.D. 1200 (London) ("Ancient Charters (Round)"), Part I, 26, p. 43. 

[814] CP I 19-20. 

[815] CP I 19-20. 

[816] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartć I, p. 615. 

[817] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartć I, p. 615. 

[818] Bath St Peter 57, p. 56. 

[819] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VI, p. 255. 

[820] Le Prévost, A. (1840) Orderici Vitalis Historić Ecclesiasticć (Paris) ("Orderic Vitalis (Prévost)"), Vol. II, Liber VI, p. 38. 

[821] Chronicon Monasterii de Bello (London, 1846), p. 34. 

[822] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Battle Abbey, Sussex, IX, p. 244. 

[823] Gloucester St Peter, Vol, I, Historia monasterii sancti Petri Gloucestrić, p. 64. 

[824] Gloucester St Peter, Historia monasterii sancti Petri Gloucestrić, p. 80. 

[825] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 24. 

[826] Dugdale Monasticon III, Brecknock Priory II, p. 264.   

[827] Dugdale Monasticon I, Gloucester Monastery, XIV, p. 551.   

[828] Dugdale Monasticon III, Brecknock Priory I, Qućdam de Loco, et Dominis eius Historica, p. 263.   

[829] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartć I, p. 615. 

[830] Chronicon Monasterii de Bello (London, 1846), p. 34. 

[831] Dugdale Monasticon III, Brecknock Priory II, p. 264.   

[832] Dugdale Monasticon III, Brecknock Priory I, Qućdam de Loco, et Dominis eius Historica, p. 263.   

[833] Ancient Charters (Round), Part I, 6, p. 8. 

[834] Dugdale Monasticon III, Brecknock Priory I, Qućdam de Loco, et Dominis eius Historica, p. 263.   

[835] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartć I, p. 615. 

[836] Dugdale Monasticon VI, Lanthony Abbey, Gloucestershire, III, p. 136. 

[837] Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, Vol. I (1834), XX, p. 168. 

[838] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, I, p. 596. 

[839] Marchegay, P. (ed.) (1879) Chartes anciennes du prieuré de Monmouth en Angleterre (Les Roches-Baritaud) ("Monmouth"), II, p. 16, and Davis, H. W. C. (ed.) (1913) Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum (Oxford), Vol. I, 227, p. 60. 

[840] Monmouth, III, p. 17. 

[841] Lobineau, G. A. (1707) Histoire de Bretagne (Paris), Tome II, col. 133. 

[842] Monmouth, III, p. 17. 

[843] La Bigne Villeneuve, P. de (ed.) `Cartulaire de l´abbaye de Saint-Georges de Rennes`, Bulletin et mémoires de la société archéologique de département d´Ille-et-Vilaine, Tome IX (Rennes, 1870) ("Rennes Saint-Georges"), XXII, p. 251. 

[844] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, I, p. 596. 

[845] Monmouth, II, p. 16, and Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum (1913), Vol. I, 227, p. 60. 

[846] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, II, p. 596. 

[847] Rennes Saint-Georges, XXII, p. 251. 

[848] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, I, p. 596. 

[849] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, I, p. 596. 

[850] Monmouth, VI, p. 19. 

[851] Saint-Florent Saumur (Chartes normandes), 19, p. 687. 

[852] Monmouth, XVIII, p. 27. 

[853] Monmouth, XVII, p. 27. 

[854] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, I, p. 596. 

[855] Rennes Saint-Georges, XXII, p. 251. 

[856] Rennes Saint-Georges, XXII, p. 251. 

[857] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, I, p. 596.  

[858] Monmouth, III, p. 17. 

[859] Monmouth, VI, p. 19. 

[860] Domesday Translation, Hampshire, L, p. 118, Gloucestershire, XXXII, p. 460. 

[861] Marchegay, M. P. (ed.) ´Chartes normandes de l´abbaye de Saint-Florent prčs Saumur´, Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires de la Normandie, Tome XXX (1880) ("Saint-Florent Saumur (Chartes normandes)"), 19, p. 687. 

[862] Round, J. H. (ed.) (1899) Calendar of Documents preserved in France illustrative of the history of Great Britain and Ireland Vol I 918-1206 (London) 1136, p. 408. 

[863] Monmouth, III, p. 17. 

[864] Monmouth, VI, p. 19. 

[865] Monmouth, III, p. 17. 

[866] Monmouth, VI, p. 19. 

[867] Monmouth, III, p. 17. 

[868] Monmouth, VI, p. 19. 

[869] Monmouth, XI, p. 23. 

[870] Monmouth, XIII, p. 25. 

[871] Monmouth, XVIII, p. 27. 

[872] Monmouth, XV, p. 26. 

[873] Monmouth, XI, p. 23. 

[874] Monmouth, XIII, p. 25. 

[875] Monmouth, XIII, p. 25. 

[876] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, II, p. 596. 

[877] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, III, p. 596. 

[878] Monmouth, XVIII, p. 27. 

[879] Domesday Descendants, p. 591. 

[880] Red Book Exchequer, Part I, Knights fees, p. 41. 

[881] Willelmi Gemmetensis monachi Historić Normannorum, Du Chesne, A. (1619) Historić Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui (Paris) (“Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619)”), Liber VIII, XXXVII, p. 312. 

[882] Dugdale Monasticon II, Thorney Monastery, Cambridgeshire, X, p. 601.   

[883] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, III, p. 596. 

[884] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, II, p. 596. 

[885] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, IV, p. 597. 

[886] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, II, p. 596. 

[887] Pipe Roll Society, Vol. XXVI (1905) The Great Roll of the Pipe for the 23rd year of King Henry II (London) ("Pipe Roll 23 Hen II (1176/77)"), Gloucestershire, p. 44. 

[888] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, III, p. 596. 

[889] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, IV, p. 597. 

[890] Monmouth, XVII, p. 27. 

[891] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, IV, p. 597. 

[892] Monmouth, XV, p. 26. 

[893] Monmouth, VI, p. 19. 

[894] Maxwell Lyte, H. C. (ed.) (1901) Patent Rolls of the reign of Henry III preserved in the Public Record Office 1215-1225 (London), p. 47. 

[895] Patent Rolls Henry III 1215-1225 (1901), p. 419. 

[896] Patent Rolls Henry III 1215-1225 (1901), p. 47. 

[897] Inquisitions Post Mortem, Vol. I, Henry III, 371, p. 101. 

[898] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, IX, p. 598. 

[899] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, IX, p. 598. 

[900] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, X, p. 598. 

[901] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Monmouth Priory, IX, p. 598. 

[902] Regesta Regem Anglo-Normannorum (1956), Vol. II, Appendix, CCCIX, p. 386, quoting P.R.O. Curia Regis Roll (K.B. 26/88, m 3d, extract). 

[903] Regesta Regem Anglo-Normannorum (1956), Vol. II, Appendix, CCCIX, p. 386, quoting P.R.O. Curia Regis Roll (K.B. 26/88, m 3d, extract). 

[904] Dugdale Monasticon VI, Barnwell Priory, Cambridgeshire, II, De Morte Pagani Peverell, pp. 86-7. 

[905] Clark, J. W. (ed.) (1907) Liber Memorandum Ecclesie de Bernewelle (Cambridge), I, 22, p. 47. 

[906] Duffus Hardy, T. (ed.) (1835) Rotuli de Oblatis et Finibus in Turri Londinensi asservati tempore Regis Johannis (London) ("Rotuli de Oblatis et Finibus"), 7 John, p. 288. 

[907] CP V table after p. 72.