FLANDERS, counts

  v3.0 Updated 23 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                COUNTS of FLANDERS [863]-1191. 6

A.         ORIGINS.. 6

B.         COUNTS of FLANDERS [863]-1128. 9

C.        COUNTS of FLANDERS 1128-1191 (LORRAINE) 39

Chapter 2.                COUNTS of FLANDERS and COMTES de HAINAUT 1191-1244. 51

Chapter 3.                COUNTS of FLANDERS 1244-1405 (DAMPIERRE) 61

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The county of Flanders took its name from the Carolingian pagus flandrensis, located around Bruges, the countship of which was granted to Baudouin I in 863 by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks whose daughter he had abducted.  Before this date, the senior governing figure in the area was apparently the "forestier", in other words the "controller" of the forests, a post held successively by some of Baudouin's supposed ancestors, although both their existence and, if they did exist, the extent of their authority is subject to debate[1].  The possible ancestry of Baudouin I Count of Flanders is set out in Chapter 1.A below.  None of the individuals named is referred to in surviving contemporary primary sources, although it is impossible to assess whether the later sources were based on earlier documentation which has since disappeared.  Information relating to these individuals is incomplete and, in part, contradictory.  The earlier generations of Count Baudouin's alleged ancestors are referred to as counts at Harlabecce, presumably Harlebeke on the outskirts of Courtrai.  It is assumed that, if they were historical people, they were minor lords whose jurisdiction was limited to a small area.  It is probable that the title "count" was attributed to them retrospectively by the later sources in order to boost the standing of the comital family of Flanders.  No reference to a pagus Harlabeccensis has been found: in particular it is not included among the Flemish pagi which are described by Vanderkindere[2].  Stewart Baldwin, in his detailed analysis of all references to these individuals, has concluded that the ancestry is "legendary" and should be rejected as "an eleventh century invention", although he acknowledges that there is still a chance that the entries in the Annales Blandinienses are based on genuine information[3].  It is also interesting to observe that none of the names of these supposed early counts is found among the descendants of Count Baudouin, although this does not provide conclusive proof of the unreliability of the ancestry.  Although the names and relationships of these individuals are referred to in a wide range of sources, the ancestry is shown in the present document in square brackets, indicating that the information should be treated with caution. 

 

Baudouin I Count of Flanders, and his successors until 1128, are shown in Chapter 1.B of the present document.  Vanderkindere suggests that the original royal grant of territory to Count Baudouin I was limited to the doyennés of Bruges, Oudenburg and Aardenburg[4].  The grant was subsequently expanded to include Ternois, the land of Waas and the lay abbacy of St Peter of Gent[5].  Count Baudouin II expanded his territory into Courtrai, seized control of the counties of Boulogne and Ternois, and acquired the lay abbacy of St Bertin.  Further territorial expansion was undertaken by Arnoul I Count of Flanders, who also seized the abbacy of St Vaast.  These abbacies of St Bertin (near St Omer), St Vaast (in Arras), and St Peter and St Bavo in Gent were founded during the period of gradual christianisation of Flanders and evolved into powerful local communities with extensive landholdings.  This process of evolution was presumably facilitated by their relative remoteness from the headquarters of the French archbishopric of Reims, whose ecclesiastical jurisdiction including the county of Flanders.  The four monasteries claimed immunity from secular control, but the counts of Flanders engineered their own appointment as lay abbots, acquired this control for themselves, and thereby consolidated their own position of power within the county. 

 

The territories of the early Flemish counts were referred to collectively as "Flanders" in contemporary documentation only from the early 1000s.  The county of Flanders developed into an important buffer state between France and Germany, as shown by the numerous high-profile dynastic marriages arranged between the comital family and prominent French and German royal and noble families. 

 

Vanderkindere describes the approximate boundaries of the Carolingian pagi which eventually constituted the county of Flanders[6].  The original pagus Flandrensis covered the three doyennés of Bruges, Oudenburg and Aardenburg referred to above, in which were located the towns of Bruges, Iseghem, Thielt and Thourout.  It is possible that the doyenné and town of Roulers was also included.  The pagus was bound to the north by the North Sea, to the west by the river Yser upstream of Diksmuide, and located west of the town of Gent.  The pagus Gandensis lay east of the pagus Flandrensis, south of Waasland, and north of the river Schelde/Escaut.  The pagus Curtracensis lay to the south between the rivers Escaut and Lys, included the monastery of Blandin, and covered the doyennés of Courtrai, Helchin and Oudenaarde.  The pagus Tornacensis was east of the pagus Curtracensis and the river Escaut/Schelde, south of the river Espierre and north of the rivers Elnon and Pévèle.  The county also included the area known as Mempisque, which comprised the pagus Mempiscus (on the North Sea coast between the rivers Aa and Yser), the pagus Pabula (between the river Marcq in the west, the Scarpe to the south, and the Elno and the pagus Tornacensis to the east), the pagus Caribantus (south of the river Lys, west of the pagus Medenentensis, east of the pagus Leticus, and north of the upper Deule river), and the pagus Medenentensis (east of the pagus Caribantus, west of the river Marcq, south of the river Lys). 

 

The core territory of the county of Flanders remained under the suzerainty of the French kings.  To improve their defence against the kings of Germany, the counts expanded their territory eastwards, into the area between the rivers Schelde and Dender, which included the important abbey of Bavo.  This area was strongly fortified by the counts.  In response, Emperor Otto II dug a canal, known as the "Ottogracht", from Gent to the western Schelde[7], bringing the area of imperial jurisdiction nearer to the town of Gent.  The emperor also claimed the land of Waas on the left bank near the estuary[8]

 

This area to the east of the orignal territory of the county of Flanders evolved into the "march" of Flanders, under imperial jurisdiction, although the precise process of this evolution is far from clear.  Nicholas states that Emperor Otto II established marches on the right bank of the river Schelde, from Valenciennes in the south to Antwerp in the north, to counter the perceived threat from France during the early part of the reign of Arnoul II Count of Flanders[9].  However, this represents a simplification of a complex situation.  There were four areas of "march":

  • the march of Valenciennes in the south, probably established in the 970s/980s, although the precise date is open to debate as discussed further in the introduction to Chapter 2 of the document HAINAUT. 
  • the march of Eenham, in the western part of Brabant, which was awarded to Godefroi Comte de Verdun.  The Epistolæ Bambergenses name "Gottefredus et Arnulfus marchiones" among those who sent contingents for the Italian expedition of 980[10], probably referring to Godefroi Comte de Verdun et de Hainaut as marquis d'Eenham, and Arnoul de Cambrai as marquis de Valenciennes. 
  • the march of Antwerp in the north, which was established several decades later.  The first mention of Antwerp as a county is the charter of Heinrich II King of Germany dated 1008, which names Gozelon (of the family of the comtes de Verdun, see the document UPPER LOTHARINGIA, NOBILITY), as count of Antwerp[11].  By 1023, when Gozelon was installed as duke of Lower Lotharingia, he was referred to in other documentation with the title marchio
  • the march of Flanders itself, whose development will now be discussed briefly. 

Arnoul I Count of Flanders was referred to as "marchisus" from the early 940s, some forty years before the establishment of the marches of Valenciennes and Eenham: "Arnulfus…regis…marchysus" restored property to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 8 Jul 942[12].  The dating clause of this document refers to "regnante Hludowico…filio regis Karoli": it is therefore certain that "regis" in the title attributed to Arnoul refers to the king of the West Franks not the king of Germany.  McKitterick states that, after swearing allegiance to Lothaire King of the West Franks in [962], the latter awarded Count Arnoul I the title marchio[13].  However, the 8 Jul 942 charter indicates that the award was in fact made some two decades earlier.  At that stage, therefore, the title born by the count of Flanders was in no way derived from any occupation of the "march" of Flanders under imperial/German suzerainty.  The earliest reference to a German "march" award is dated to [1045], when Heinrich III King of Germany installed the son of Count Baudouin V as count in the march of Antwerp[14], although it is unclear whether the title "marchio" was conferred on him at the same time.  Although the position was confiscated within five years after a disagreement between the count and the emperor, the counts of Flanders continued to use the title "marchio", which from that time could be said to be derived both from French and German creations.  It is possible that the imperial "march" of Flanders itself developed after the mid-11th century, maybe as a consolidation of territory which was formally part of the other three imperial marches which are referred to above.  Whatever the precise process by which the march of Flanders evolved, by the late 11th century the counts of Flanders were firmly established in that territory and therefore owed allegiance to the French king for the western part of their county and to the German emperor for the eastern part.  The balancing of pressures from these two powerful suzerains provided a constant challenge for the Flemish counts throughout their subsequent history. 

 

The fact of the county of Flanders being pulled in two directions was also reflected in its ecclesiastical development.  No independent Flemish archbishopric was ever created, the county remaining within the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the archbishopric of Reims.  The area of the original county of Flanders lay within the bishoprics of Arras, Cambrai (an archbishopric from the 16th century, when it was subdivided into the bishoprics of Antwerp and Mechelen), Thérouanne (later divided into the bishoprics of Boulogne, Ypres and St Omer) and Tournai (from which Bruges and Gent were established as separate bishoprics in the 16th century)[15].  In imperial Flanders, ecclesiastical jurisdiction lay within the bishopric of Utrecht, under the archiepiscopal province of Köln. 

 

The bipartisan nature of Flanders can be traced to an even earlier period, especially in relation to the language division which persists in present-day Belgium and which is traceable to dual Gallic/Germanic settlement of the area from the 5th century.  From the point of view of the Romans in Gaul, the territory represented the northernmost outpost of their domain and settlement was sparse in consequence.  From the German side, Salian Franks moved westwards into Flanders, settling in the valleys of the Leie and Schelde rivers.  They were followed in the 6th century by Saxons and Frisians from the north.  During these early centuries there appears to have been much overlapping of settlements, which means that the language frontier must at that time have been far from settled.  The early development of the area is summarised by Nicholas[16]

 

The county of Flanders passed through the female line to the family of the dukes of Lorraine in 1128, shown in Chapter 1.C.  This family continued to rule Flanders until 1191 when the county passed, by marriage, to the senior branch of the family of the earliest Flemish counts who ruled as comtes de Hainaut (see Chapter 2).  Another change of dynasty occurred in 1244 when Flanders passed to the seigneurs de Dampierre who maintained power until 1405 (see Chapter 3).  By a series of dynastic marriages, control over Flanders passed to the Valois-Capet dukes of Burgundy (see the document BURGUNDY DUCHY, DUKES), who also acquired control over most of the other counties and duchies in what is today referred to as the Benelux area.  By another dynastic twist, all the Burgundian territories in the Low Countries passed to the Habsburg family as a result of the marriage of Marie, daughter and heiress of the last Valois duke of Burgundy, to Archduke Maximilian in 1477. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    COUNTS of FLANDERS [863]-1191

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

[LIDERIC, son of --- (-[808 or 817], bur Harlebeke).  The existence of Lideric is unknown and, if he did exist, his origin uncertain.  The Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini records that, when the Saracens came from Spain "ad Eudonis mandatum" (referring to Eudes Duke of Aquitaine, whose death is dated to [735]), "miles…iuvenis christianus partibus Ulixibone seu Portugallie, regia stirpe progenitus, Liedricus", from whom "Flandrie comites" descended, joined forces with Charles "Martel", maior domus of Austrasia and Neustria.  The Chronica specifies that Lideric served under Charles "Martel" and his son Pepin King of the Franks, and that later he was given "terram Flandrie" by "Karolus Magnus"[17].  The Introduction to the MGH Scriptores edition of the Chronica dates the work to the third quarter of the 14th century and traces some of the earlier primary sources on which it is based[18].  There is no indication whether the passage recording the alleged Iberian origin of Lideric was based on an earlier source which has since disappeared.  It is impossible to assess the accuracy of the report on the basis of this limited amount of information.  If it is correct, Lideric would presumably have been of Visigothic ancestry.  The death of the last Visigothic king in Iberia is dated to 711.  There appears to be no record of later aristocratic families having established themselves along the western coast of the Iberian peninsula before the mid-9th century[19].  It is interesting to note that a root similar to "-ric" (in the name "Lideric") is reflected in the names of the later Iberian Visigothic kings Witeric, Recared and Recimir.  Whatever the accuracy of the passage, there is clear chronological confusion about the events recorded in the Chronica, assuming that Lideric's date of death as shown above is accurate.  The Annals of St Bavo record that "Lydricus comes Arlebeccensis comitatum Flandrie suscepit" in 794[20].  The Annals do not refer to Lideric's origin, although this is not surprising as they list most events in truncated form and with numerous long gaps in the chronology of events recorded.  The Annals are, however, extremely selective in the non-ecclesiastical events they record.  The reference to Lideric is the only direct report concerning a lay person between the start of the 8th century and 937, indicating how significant the event must have been considered in the monastic records, which in turn suggests that Lideric's existence may have been factual.  Lambert's Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ, dated to the early 12th century, records that "Lidricus Harlebeccensis comes" occupied Flanders, finding it "empty, uncultivated and well-wooded", in 792[21].  The Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin records the death in 808 of "Lidericus Harlebecanus…prefectus", naming him first in the list of rulers of Flanders[22].  The Annales Formoselenses record the death in 817 of "Lidricus comes" and his burial at "Harlabecce"[23].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 836 of "Lidricus comes" specifying that he was buried at "Arlabeka"[24].  The last date falls well outside the likely period of Lideric's active career, which probably covered the later decades of the 8th century and the early 9th century, assuming that he existed at all.  It is therefore probable that the event is misdated, or that the Annales Blandinienses intended to refer to Odacre, supposed grandson of Lideric.] 

m ---.  The name and origin of the wife of Lideric are unknown.  The Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini refers to the marriage of "miles…Liedricus" and "filiam Gerardi de Rossilione"[25], but as the existence of Gérard de Roussillon cannot be confirmed in other primary sources this appears to be pure invention. 

[Lideric & his wife had one child]: 

1.         [ENGUERRAND ([760/80]-825).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, dated to the second decade of the 12th century, names "Ingelramnum" as son of "Lidricus Harlebeccensis comes"[26].  Lambert's Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ, also dated to the early 12th century, names "Ingelramnus comitem" as son of "Lidricus Harlebeccensis comes"[27].  The Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini names "Ingelramnum, militem probum et prudentem" as son of "miles…Liedricus" and his wife, noting that he succeeded his father in Flanders[28].  His wide birth date range shown above is estimated by working backwards from the estimated birth date range of his supposed grandson Count Baudouin I.  The Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin records the death in 825 of "Engerranus Harlebecanus etiam saltuarius", naming him second in its list of rulers of Flanders (without the title count), although it does not specify that Lideric was his father[29].  Stewart Baldwin, in his detailed analysis of the alleged ancestors of Baudouin I Count of Flanders referred to in the Introduction to the present document, suggests that there is confusion between this Count Enguerrand and the Count Enguerrand who is named in several different contemporary sources between 853 and 875[30].  The editor of the MGH Scriptores series suggests that the later references "cannot be other than to the son of Lideric"[31].  However, this is impossible chronologically, assuming that the genealogy as set out in this document is correct.  The only likely possibilities appear to be either that the earlier Enguerrand did not exist at all or that there were two individuals with the same name.  The later Enguerrand and his family are shown in the document CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY.  m ---.  The name and origin of the wife of Enguerrand are unknown.  Enguerrand & his wife had one child]: 

a)         [ODACRE [Audacer/Odoscer] ([800/10]-837).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, dated to the second decade of the 12th century, names "Audacrum" as son of "Ingelrannus"[32].  Lambert's Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ, also dated to the early 12th century, names "Audacer" as son of "Ingelramnus comitem"[33].  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of the estimated birth date range of his son.  The Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin records the death in 837 of "Audacer item saltuarius", naming him third in its list of rulers of Flanders (without the title count), although it does not specify that Enguerrand was his father[34].  It is interesting to note that this list makes no mention of who ruled Flanders between the death of Odacre and the appointment of his son Baudouin as count.  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 836 of "Lidricus comes", specifying that he was buried at "Arlabeka"[35].  As mentioned above, it is unlikely that this entry refers to Lideric, assuming that it is correctly dated, and may be an error for Odacre.]  m ---.  The name and origin of the wife of Odacre are unknown.  Odacre & his wife had [one] child: 

i)          [BAUDOUIN ([830/37]-Arras 879, bur Abbaye de Saint-Bertin near Saint-Omer).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, dated to the second decade of the 12th century, names "Balduinum Ferreum" as son of "Audacer"[36].  He was granted the “pagus Flandrensis” in 863, becoming known to later history as BAUDOUIN I “der Gute/Ferreus/der Eisenarme” Count of Flanders.] 

-         see below, Part B.   

 

 

1.         ODACRE [Audacer] (-after [Jan/Feb] 802).  The Annales Laurissenses name "Grahamannus et Audacrus" as royal missi who were present at the third battle between the Bavarians and the Avars "in campo Iboso" in 788, defeating the invaders[37].  A list of Saxons in Ostphalia dated Jan/Feb 802 records that "Vulferi filium Sieri habuit Audracus comis", presumably indicating that the last named had responsibility for the allegiance sworn to the emperor by the first-named[38].  The similarity of this name to that of the supposed father of Baudouin I Count of Flanders (see above) suggests that a family connection. 

 

 

 

B.      COUNTS of FLANDERS [863]-1128

 

 

BAUDOUIN, son of [ODACRE [Audacer or Odoscer] & his wife ---] ([830/37]-Arras 879, bur Abbaye de Saint-Bertin near Saint-Omer[39]).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, dated to the second decade of the 12th century, names "Balduinum Ferreum" as son of "Audacer"[40].  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ names "Balduinum Ferreum" as son of "Audacer"[41].  He is named as son of Audacer in the list of counts of Flanders recorded in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin, which records his year of death and place of burial[42].  His birth date range is estimated on the assumption that he was a young adult at the time of his marriage, which means that he must have been a child when his father died.  He eloped with his future wife around Christmas 861.  The Annales Blandinienses name "Baldwinum Ferreum filium Audacri" and "Balduvinus filius Audacri" when recording (respectively) his abduction of his wife in 862 and his death in 879[43].  He was granted the “pagus Flandrensis” in 863, and shortly after Ternois, Waas and the lay abbacy of St Peter of Gent[44], although the primary sources on which this is based have not yet been identified.  He is known to history as BAUDOUIN I “der Gute/Ferreus/der Eisenarme” Count of Flanders, but it is improbable that he was referred to as such by contemporaries.  An agreement dated 14 Jun 877 of Emperor Charles II "le Chauve", presumably written with his own death in mind, names "…ex comitibus aut Tedericus, aut Balduinus, sive Chuonradus, seu Adalelmus" as those willing to support the emperor's son[45].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 879 of "Balduvinus, filius Audacri", specifying that he was buried at "Blandinie"[46].  According to legend, he built the church of St Donatien ("Sint Donaatskapittel") at Bruges. 

m (Auxerre 13 Dec 862) as her third husband, JUDITH, widow firstly of ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex and secondly of ÆTHELBALD King of Wessex, daughter of CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks [Carolingian] & his first wife Ermentrudis [d'Orléans] ([844]-after [870]).  She is named as wife of Baudouin in the list of counts of Flanders recorded in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin, which also names her parents and her three sons[47].  She and her father are named by Roger of Hoveden when he records her marriage to King Æthelwulf[48].  Asser records that "Iuthittam, Karoli Francorum regis filiam" married "Æthelbald filius eius [=Æthelwulfo rege]" after the death of her first husband, commenting that it was "cum magna ab omnibus audientibus infamia"[49].  Roger of Hoveden also records this second marriage of Judith[50].  Flodoard names "Balduini comitis et Iudita…Karoli regis filia, Edilvulfo regi Anglorum qui et Edelboldus in matrimonium"[51].  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Iudith et Hildegardim, Hirmintrudim et Gislam" as the four daughters of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina", specifying that Judith married "Balduinus comes"[52].  The Annales Bertiniani record that Judith returned to her father after the death of her second husband, lived at Senlis "sub tuitione paterna", and from there was abducted by "Balduinum comitem" with the consent of her brother Louis, her father consenting to the marriage the following year[53].  The Annales Elnonenses Minores record the marriage in 862 of "Balduinus, Odacri filius" and "Iudith, Caroli regis filiam"[54].  The preceding information is pulled together by the Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ which names "Iudith vidua Adelbaldi regis Anglorum, filia Karoli Calvi regis Francorum" as the wife of "Balduinum Ferreum"[55].  No information has been found in the primary sources so far consulted which throws light on the possible date of death of Judith, although it is unlikely that she died before about 870 at the earliest, assuming that she was the mother of all the children who are named below. 

Count Baudouin I & his wife had [five] children:

1.         CHARLES ([864/65]-young).  "Karolus brevis vite" is named as first of the three sons of Baudouin and his wife Judith in the list of counts of Flanders recorded in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[56].  It is assumed that Charles died young as no other reference to him has been found. 

2.         BAUDOUIN ([865/67]-[10 Sep] 918, bur St Bertin, transferred 929 to Gent, St Pieter).  He is named as second of the three sons of Baudouin and his wife Judith in the list of counts of Flanders recorded in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[57].  He succeeded his father in 879 as BAUDOUIN II "le Chauve" Count of Flanders.  According to Rösch, Baudouin II was nicknamed after his maternal grandfather although it is surprising that such a personal nickname could be so transmitted[58].  From his succession, he came under great pressure from Viking raids, and took refuge in the marshes of Saint-Omer in 883[59].  Baudouin II expanded his territories by occupying the pagi of Mempisc, Courtrai and the Ijzer, seizing control of the counties of Ternois and Boulonnais after 892 as well as the Tournaisis (except for the town of Tournai)[60].  Although Count Baudouin at first supported the election of Eudes as king of France in 888, the latter opposed the count's becoming lay-abbot of St Bertin (in 892, in succession to abbot Rudolf[61]) and pursued the count to Bruges, although the king was unable to capture the town.  The Annales Vedastini record the death "Non Ian 892" of "Rodulfus abba", that "castellani Egfridum comitem" was sent to announce the news to the king, and that in his absence "Balduinum a Flandris…per consilium Evreberti qui nimis fuerat versutissimus" seized the abbacy against the wishes of the king who had promised it to Egfrid[62].  The Annales Vedastini record that "Balduinus" captured Artois in 892[63].  Count Baudouin supported the coronation of Charles III "le Simple" as king of the West Franks in 895, but afterwards supported Zwentibold Duke of Lotharingia.  The Annales Vedastini name "Balduinus…comes et Rodulfus frater eius necnon et Ragnerus" when recording that they joined Zwentibold in 895[64].  Baudouin II invaded Péronne in 899[65] and attacked Vermandois, Artois and Boulogne, but was driven out of Vermandois by 900, although he reconquered it and killed Héribert II Comte de Vermandois in revenge for the death of his brother Raoul[66].  Count Baudouin also controlled the abbeys of St Vaast and St Bertin.  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 918 of "Balduvinus comes", specifying that he was buried at "Blandinio"[67].  An undated charter, dated to [962], recording the last wishes of "marchysi Arnulfi", notes that "pater meus et mater mea" were buried in the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Gand[68].  His territories were divided between his two sons on his death[69]m ([893/99]) ÆLFTHRYTH of Wessex, daughter of ALFRED King of Wessex & his wife Ealhswith of the Gainas ([877]-7 Jun 929, bur Gent, St Pieter).  "Elfthtritham" is named by Roger of Hoveden, third in his list of King Alfred's daughters by Queen Ealhswith[70].  She is called "Æthelswitha" by Asser[71].  "Elftrudis" is named as wife of Count Baudouin II in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin without giving her origin[72].  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ names "filia Edgeri regis Anglorum, nomine Elferudem" as the wife of "Balduinus Calvus"[73], although "Edgeri" is clearly an error for "Alfredi".  This marriage represented the start of a long-lasting alliance between England and Flanders, founded on their common interest in preventing Viking settlements along the coast.  "Elstrudis comitissa…cum filiis suis Arnulfo et Adelolfo" donated "hereditatem suam Liefsham…in terra Anglorum in Cantia" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "senioris sui Baldwini", by charter dated 11 Sep 918[74].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 929 of "filia regis Elftrudis comitissa"[75].  The Memorial of "Elstrudis…Balduini…domini" records her death "VII Iunii"[76].  An undated charter, dated to [962], recording the last wishes of "marchysi Arnulfi", notes that "pater meus et mater mea" were buried in the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Gand[77].  Count Baudouin II & his wife had [five] children:

a)         ARNOUL de Flandres (after [893/99]-murdered 27 Mar 964, bur Gent, St Pieter).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Arnulfum, fratrem eius Adelulfum" as the two sons of "Balduinus"[78].  He succeeded his father in 918 as ARNOUL I "le Grand" Count of Flanders and Artois. 

-        see below

b)         ADALOLF [Æthelwulf] de Flandres (after [893/99]-13 Nov 933, bur Gent St Pieter).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Arnulfum, fratrem eius Adelulfum" as the two sons of "Balduinus"[79].  "Adalolphus" is named son of Count Baudouin II in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin, which specifies that he succeeded his father in 918 as Comte de Boulogne-sur-Mer, de Thérouanne, and lay-Abbot of St Bertin[80].  "Elstrudis comitissa…cum filiis suis Arnulfo et Adelolfo" donated "hereditatem suam Liefsham…in terra Anglorum in Cantia" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "senioris sui Baldwini", by charter dated 11 Sep 918[81].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 933 of "Adalulfus comes", specifying that he was buried "in monasterio sancti Petri"[82]

-        COMTES de BOULOGNE

c)         EALSWID de Flandres.  "Ealhswid" is named as daughter of Count Baudouin and his wife Ælfthryth in the Chronicle of Æthelweard[83]

d)         ERMENTRUDE de Flandres.  "Earmentruth" is named as daughter of Count Baudouin and his wife Ælfthryth in the Chronicle of Æthelweard[84]

e)         [---.  No information has been found concerning this possible fifth child of Count Baudouin II.  If "avunculus" is used in its strict sense in the source cited below, the child was a daughter.  However, it is possible that "avunculus" was used informally as the counterpart of "nepos", the latter being much less precise and possibly indicating a more remote blood relationship.  If Abbot Hildebrand's mother was the sister of Count Arnoul, it is possible that she was the same person as either Ealswid or Ermentrude who are named above.  No information has been found about the father of Hildebrand.  m ---.]  One child: 

i)          [HILDEBRAND (-after 961).  Abbot of Saint-Bertin 950: the cartulaire of Saint-Bertin records that "post Widonem...abbatem...Hildebrando nepoti suo" succeeded as abbot and was ordained “XVI Kal Apr” 950 by “Vuicfrido Taruennensis ecclesiæ episcopo” and that “comes Arnulfus ipsius abbatis avunculus” returned “villam...Arecas” to the monastery[85].  The Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini also records "Hildebrandus…avunculo suo comite Arnulfo"[86].  Abbé de Saint-Bertin et de Saint-Vaast.   No other information has been found to enable a more precise relationship to be identified either between Count Arnoul and Abbot Hildebrand or between Abbot Hildebrand and Abbot Guy.  An indication of Hildebrand´s earlier family background is provided by the cartulaire of Saint-Bertin which records that, when "abbas et comes Arnulfus"  was unwell he accepted the recommendation made by “Gerardum...abbatem” to convert the monks to “regularis vitæ regimen”, adding that “Wido ipsius Gerardi nepos” was consecrated abbot in 947 but later transferred to St Bavo[87].] 

3.         RAOUL ([867/70]-murdered 17 Jun 896).  "Rodolphus Cameracensis comes" is named as third of the three sons of Baudouin and his wife Judith in the list of counts of Flanders recorded in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[88].  The Annales Blandinienses records "Rodulfus comes et abba factus est" in 882[89].  The date when he was installed as Comte de Cambrai is not known.  However, his brother Baudouin II Count of Flanders supported the election of Eudes as king of France in 888, and it is suggested that Raoul's appointment must have taken place around that time.  Baudouin quarrelled with King Eudes over the succession to the lay abbacy of Saint-Bertin in 892, so it is unlikely that the king would have favoured members of the count's family with a comital appointment after this episode.  Raoul supported his brother's attack on the county of Vermandois and captured Arras, Saint-Quentin and Péronne after 5 Jan 892, but was captured by Héribert I Comte de Vermandois and killed[90].  The Annales Vedastini name "Balduinus…comes et Rodulfus frater eius necnon et Ragnerus" when recording that they joined Zwentibold Duke of Lotharingia in 895[91].  The History of Waulsort monastery records that "Cameracensis comes Rodulfus…regalis consanguinitatis" invaded the territory of "quatuor Heriberti filios" with the consent of "rege Francorum…avunculo suo" but was expelled[92], but this source confuses Raoul, son of Baudouin I, with Comte Raoul [II] de Gouy (see the document NORTHERN FRANCE).  The Annales Vedastini record that "Rodulfus comes" disrupted the peace in 896 and took the property of "Heribertus et Erkingerus", that "Odo rex" besieged "castrum sancti Quintini et Peronam" and expelled Raoul's supporters, and that Héribert killed Raoul[93].  The Annales Blandinienses record that "Rodulfus comes" was killed "IV Kal Iul 896"[94].  [m ---.  The name of the possible wife of Comte Raoul is not known.]  Raoul & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [--- de Cambrai .  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[95], Isaac was married to a daughter of Raoul.  The primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  It is possible that it is purely speculative designed to explain the transmission of the county of Cambrai between the two individuals.  m ISAAC Comte de Cambrai, son of --- (-[946/30 Apr 948]).] 

4.         [daughter .  m ---.]  [One possible child]: 

a)         [GAUTHIER .  The History of Waulsort monastery names "Walterus…Rodulfi sororis filius" recording that he attempted to avenge the death of his maternal uncle[96].  No other reference to this person has been found and, because the History of Waulsort monastery is such a confused source, his existence should be treated with caution.]

Incorrectly assigned daughter: 

5.         [GUNHILD [Guinidilde] (-before 19 Feb 904).  Wifredo "el Velloso" and his wife Winidilda donated property to Ripoll monastery by charter dated 27 Jun 875 which names "fratre meo…Seniofredo"[97].  According to Weir[98], the wife of Guifré I Conde de Barcelona was Gunhild, daughter of Baudouin I Count of Flanders.  It is assumed that this is based on the Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium which records that Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks gave an unnamed daughter of the (unnamed) count of Flanders in marriage to "Pilosi" at the same time as granting him the county of Barcelona[99], although this source is unreliable in some points of detail concerning the family of the counts of Barcelona.  Considering that the first count of Flanders was in 877 still in the process of consolidating his position in his newly founded county, it is not clear what contact he would have had with a count whose territory was so distant from his own sphere of activity, or the advantages he would have seen in such a dynastic marriage.  The only known point in common between the two counts appears to have been that King Charles II "le Chauve" was suzerain of both.  Gunhild is not shown among the children of Count Baudouin in Rösch[100].  This supposed Flemish origin is incorrect: Guinidilde´s true parentage is confirmed by charters dated 875, 877 and 878 under which "Winidildes commitissa" donated property "de comparatione de cuondam patrem meum…Seniofredo" to San Juan de Ripoll monastery[101].  A charter of her daughter Emma dated 19 Feb 904 specifies that her mother was dead[102]m (before 27 Jun 875) GUIFRE "el Velloso/el Pilós/the Hairy" Conde de Barcelona, son of SUNIFREDO de Carcassonne, Count in the March of Spain & his wife Ermentrude (-killed in battle near Santa María del Puch [21 Aug 897/31 Dec 898], probably 11 Aug 898, bur Santa María de Ripoll monastery).] 

 

 

ARNOUL de Flandre, son of BAUDOUIN II "le Chauve" Count of Flanders & his wife Ælfthryth of Wessex ([885/890]-murdered 27 Mar 964, bur Gent, St Pieter).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Arnulfum, fratrem eius Adelulfum" as the two sons of "Balduinus"[103].  "Arnulfus" is named as son of Count Baudouin II in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin, which specifies that he succeeded his father in 918 as ARNOUL I "le Grand" Count of Flanders[104].  "Elstrudis comitissa…cum filiis suis Arnulfo et Adelolfo" donated "hereditatem suam Liefsham…in terra Anglorum in Cantia" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "senioris sui Baldwini", by charter dated 11 Sep 918[105].  Count Arnoul I was responsible for a major expansion of Flemish territory to the south.  He and his brother joined the expedition of Raoul King of the Franks against the Normans in 925 and captured Eu.  Count Arnoul inflicted a heavy defeat on the Normans in 926.  In 932, he seized the abbey of St Vaast, as well as Douai in Ostrevant.  In 933, after his brother's death, he seized Boulonnais and Ternois and disinherited his nephews.  Count Arnoul made an alliance with Héribert II Comte de Vermandois in 934, which was sealed by his marriage to the latter's daughter[106].  Responding to raids by Guillaume Comte [de Normandie], Count Arnoul invaded Ponthieu and in 939 captured Montreuil from Herluin Comte de Ponthieu, although the county was later recaptured by Comte Guillaume's forces.  "Arnulfus…regis…marchysus" restored property to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 8 Jul 941, signed by "…Baldwini filii Arnulfi marchysi, Isaac comitis, Arnulfi filii eius, Theoderici comitis, Wenemari advocati…"[107].  After agreeing to meet Count Guillaume in 942 in order to settle the dispute over Montreuil, Guillaume was murdered, presumably at Count Arnoul's instigation[108].  Count Arnoul was secure in his possession of Montreuil by 949[109].  "Arnulfus Flandrie comes et marchisus" granted use of property "Snellenghem in pago Flandrensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for "uxore mea…Adala atque…filio meo Balduino et filia mea Lietgardis" and for deceased "Balduino genitore meo et Elstrudis genetrice mea atque Heeberto filio meo", and returned "in pago Hainau super fluvio Savo villam…Dulciaca", by charter dated 10 Jul 953[110].  After the death of his son in 962, Count Arnoul was obliged to cede Artois, Ostrevant, Ponthieu and Amiens to Lothaire King of the West Franks in order to ensure the latter's support for the succession of Count Arnoul's infant grandson to the county of Flanders[111].  "Arnulfus marchysus" donated property to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 5 May 962, signed by "…Baldwini advocati, Theoderici comitis…"[112].  "Arnulfus…comes" donated "villam Canlin" to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 17 Jun 962, signed by "…Balduini advocati…"[113].  An undated charter, dated to [962], records the last wishes of "marchysi Arnulfi", noting that "pater meus et mater mea" were buried in the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Gand[114].  Comte Arnoul was allegedly murdered by Heluin in revenge for the murder of Guillaume I Comte [de Normandie].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death "VI Kal Apr 964" of "Magnus Arnulfus, restaurator huius Blandiniensis coenobii"[115].  A charter dated 2 Jul 964 records the donation by "bone memorie Arnulfus marchysus" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, signed by "Odgaudi qui susceptor traditionis fuit…Ingelberti advocati…"[116]

[m firstly ---.  Both Rösch[117] and Europäische Stammtafeln[118] state that Count Arnoul had another wife before marrying Adela de Vermandois.  No evidence has been found concerning this supposed first marriage.  However, as discussed below, the estimated birth date of Arnoul´s supposed daughter Hildegard, as well as his own advanced age when he married Adela de Vermandois, both suggest an earlier marriage.  Although logic points to such a first marriage, doubt remains.  The genealogical traces of this family are well marked in numerous contemporary sources.  It is difficult to imagine that all such sources would have ignored an earlier marriage of Comte Arnoul, who was such a prominent figure in his day.] 

m [secondly] (934) ADELA de Vermandois, daughter of HERIBERT [II] Comte de Vermandois [Carolingian] & his wife Adela [Capet] ([915]-[Bruges 10 Oct] 960, bur Gent, St Pieter).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names "Adelam, domni Heriberti comitis filiam" as wife of "comes Arnulfus", specifying that she was "duorum Francorum regum, Odonis atque Rotberti, neptem"[119].  "Adala coniunx Arnulfi" is named in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[120].  The Annales Elnonenses Minores record the marriage [undated between 931 and 949] of "Arnulfus" and "Adelam, filiam Heriberti Vermandorum comitis"[121].  Her marriage was arranged to seal the alliance made in 934 between her father and her future husband[122].  "Arnulfus Flandrie comes et marchisus" granted use of property "Snellenghem in pago Flandrensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for "uxore mea…Adala atque…filio meo Balduino et filia mea Lietgardis" and for deceased "Balduino genitore meo et Elstrudis genetrice mea atque Heeberto filio meo", by charter dated 10 Jul 953[123].  "Adhela comitissa" freed two serfs and granted them to the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "fidelis nostri Amalrici", by charter dated 8 Sep 954, signed by "Balduini comitis…Odacri advocati"[124].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 960 of "Adala comitissa"[125]

Count Arnoul I & his [first] wife had one child:

1.         [HILDEGARD ([before 933]-10 Apr 990, bur Egmond).  The Annales Egmundani name "Hildegardis comitissa" as wife of "Theodericus comes secundus [Hollandensium]" but do not give her origin[126].  The wife of Count Dirk II was the daughter of Count Arnoul according to Rösch, but the author cites no primary source in support of this assertion[127].  Hildegard's naming her two sons Arnulf and Egbert suggests that the affiliation may be correct.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, Hildegard was the daughter of Count Arnoul by Adela de Vermandois and was born in [934][128].  This appears difficult to sustain chronologically if Hildegard's first son was born in [950], although it is not impossible.  Assuming that her sister Liutgard was born in 935, there is little time for the birth of an earlier daughter after Count Arnoul's marriage in 934, assuming also that the latter date is correct.  This suggests that, if Hildegard was the daughter of Count Arnoul, she was born from an earlier otherwise unrecorded marriage.  An alternative parentage is suggested by the Chronologia Johannes de Beke which records that Count Dirk II married "Hildegardim (ut creditor) filiam Ludovici regis Francie"[129].  This is chronologically impossible, assuming that the birth date of Arnoul Count of Holland is correctly estimated as shown in the document HOLLAND.  Hildegard daughter of Louis III King of France would have been too old for the marriage and any daughter of Louis IV King of France would have been too young.  It is also unlikely that the wife of Count Dirk II was a daughter of Charles III "le Simple" King of France, the birth dates of whose daughters are estimated to [908/16].  There therefore seems no possibility that the Chronologia could even be partially correct in assigning this possible Carolingian French origin to Dirk's wife, although it is curious how this origin came to be included in the source.  "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" are named in a charter dated Oct [967/79][130].  "Theoderici et Hildegardis" subscribed a charter dated 30 Sep 975, before "Arnulfi filii eorum [Theoderici et Hildegardis]"[131].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "III Id Apr" of "Hildegardis…sua conthoralis" and her burial at Egmond monastery[132].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "III Id Apr" of "Hildegardis…sua conthoralis" and her burial at Egmond monastery[133].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "IV Id Apr" of "Hildegardis uxor [Theoderici 2 comitis] filia Ludovici regis Francie"[134]Europäische Stammtafeln shows 990 as Hildegarde´s year of death[135], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  m ([945/50]) DIRK II Count Holland, son of DIRK I Count of Holland & his wife Geva --- ([930]-Egmond 6 May 988, bur Egmond).] 

Count Arnoul I & his [second] wife had four children: 

2.         LIUTGARD de Flandre ([935]-962, before 18 Oct).  Boer and Cordfunke refer to a 938 meeting, between Count Dirk I, Count Meginhard of Hamaland, and Count Arnulf I of Flanders and his wife Adela, to arrange the betrothals of Hildegard of Flanders and Count Dirk II (son of Count Dirk I), and of her sister Liutgard and Wichmann of Hamaland (son of Count Meginhard)[136].  The meeting is alleged to be recorded in the Verbrüderungsbuch der Abtei Reichenau, but no trace of this has been found in the copy consulted[137].  "Arnulfus Flandrie comes et marchisus" granted use of property "Snellenghem in pago Flandrensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for "uxore mea…Adala atque…filio meo Balduino et filia mea Lietgardis" and for deceased "Balduino genitore meo et Elstrudis genetrice mea atque Heeberto filio meo", by charter dated 10 Jul 953[138].  This document suggests that Liutgard was not married at the time.  "Wicmannus…comes" donated "mei juris villam Thesla" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "coniugis mee defuncte Lietgardis", by charter dated 18 Oct 962, signed by "comitis Arnulfi patris supradicte Lietgardis comitisse, Theoderici comitis…"[139].  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon records the donation dated 962 by "Wicmannus comes…pro remedio anima coniugis mea Lietgardis…Arnulphi marchisi Flandrie patris" of "villam Thessela…Desselbergine" to "monasterio Sancti Petri in Blandino"[140].  The Annales Blandinienses record the deaths in 962 of "Baldwinus, filius Arnulfi marchisi, et soror eius Liutgardis"[141]m ([after 10 Jul 953]) WICHMANN [V] Graaf van Hamaland, son of --- [Billung] & his wife Gerberga --- ([930]-after 27 Sep 979). 

3.         BAUDOUIN de Flandres ([935/40]-Abbey of St Bertin 1 Jan 962).  His parentage is specified in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[142].  "…Baldwini filii Arnulfi marchysi…" signed the charter dated 8 Jul 941 under which "Arnulfus…regis…marchysus" restored property to Saint-Pierre de Gand[143].  "Arnulfus Flandrie comes et marchisus" granted use of property "Snellenghem in pago Flandrensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for "uxore mea…Adala atque…filio meo Balduino et filia mea Lietgardis" and for deceased "Balduino genitore meo et Elstrudis genetrice mea atque Heeberto filio meo", by charter dated 10 Jul 953[144].  He ruled with his father from 958[145] as BAUDOUIN III joint Count of Flanders and Artois, his father granting him the administration of the south of the county[146].  A charter dated to 20 Jan [958/61] records the peace settlement agreed by "Baulduin…Marquis" between the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Gand and the avoués of Douchy, although this document is unlikely to be contemporary in the form shown in the compilation as it is written in old French[147].  The Annales Blandinienses record the deaths in 962 of "Baldwinus, filius Arnulfi marchisi, et soror eius Liutgardis"[148].  The Annales Egmundani record the death in 962 of "Baldwinus filius Arnulfi marchisi Flandrensium"[149]m ([951/59]) as her first husband, MECHTILD of Saxony, daughter of HERMANN Billung Duke in Saxony & his [first/second] wife [Oda ---/Hildesuit ---] ([942]-Gent 25 May 1008, bur Gent St Peter).  "Mathilda Saxonici generic" is named as wife of Count Baudouin in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[150].  The Annalista Saxo names (in order) "Bennonis ducis, qui et Bernhardus et Liudigeri comitis et Machtildis comitisse" as brothers and sister of "domna Suanehildis [filia] Herimanni ducis de Liuniburh", recording the names of Mechtild's two husbands[151].  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names "Mathildis, filiam principis Herimanni" as wife of "Balduinum [filius comitis Arnulfi]", specifying that it was hoped the couple would have many children[152].  This suggests that their marriage date may have been some years earlier than 961 considering that the Genealogia was supposedly compiled in [951/59], probably during the earlier part of this date range considering which children of Louis IV King of the West Franks are named in the document[153].  Mechtild married secondly ([963]) Godefroi Comte de Verdun [Wigeriche] (-3/4 Sep after 995, bur Gent St Peter).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Mathildis comitissa Saxonie" as wife of "Godefridi Ardennensis"[154].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1008 of "Mathildis comitissa"[155].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "25 May" of "Mattild com"[156].  Baudouin III & his wife had one child: 

a)         ARNOUL de Flandre ([961/62]-30 Mar 987, bur Gent)The Annales Elnonenses Minores record "Arnulfus, filius Balduini ex Matilde"[157] succeeding his grandfather in 964 as ARNOUL II “le Jeune” Count of Flanders

-        see below

Baudouin III had one possible illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:

b)         [ALBERIC [Albert] ([960/62]-1018).  The Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium name "Azelinus, de Truncinis villa, Balduini Flandrensium comitis de concubina filius", specifying that he was later appointed Bishop of Paris, in the passage recording the succession of "Erluinus" as Bishop of Cambrai (in 995)[158]Bishop of Paris 1016.  According to the Dictionnaire de Biographie Française[159], "Albert" was provost at Tronchiennes 951-977 but this is chronologically impossible assuming that the entry refers to the same person.  If the information about his paternity is correct, Baudouin III is the only count of that name in Flanders who could have been Alberic/Albert´s father.  Another possibility is that the chronicle was in error and that he was the illegitimate half-brother of Baudouin IV Count of Flanders, who was count at the time the text was written but who would have been too young to have been Alberic's father.] 

4.         EGBERT de Flandre (-before 10 Jul 953).  "Arnulfus Flandrie comes et marchisus" granted use of property "Snellenghem in pago Flandrensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for "uxore mea…Adala atque…filio meo Balduino et filia mea Lietgardis" and for deceased "Balduino genitore meo et Elstrudis genetrice mea atque Heeberto filio meo", by charter dated 10 Jul 953[160].  Egbert´s absence from the charter dated 8 Jul 941, under which "Arnulfus…regis…marchysus" restored property to Saint-Pierre de Gand, signed by "…Baldwini filii Arnulfi marchysi…"[161], suggests that he must have been a younger son. 

5.         ELSTRUDE de Flandre (-966[162] or after).  The Historia Comitum Ghisnensium names "comes Balduinus sororem…Elstrudem" as wife of "Sifridus"[163].  According to the Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini, the couple were never married[164]m ([960/65]) SIEGFRIED Comte de Guines, son of --- (-[965]). 

 

 

ARNOUL de Flandre, son of BAUDOUIN III Joint Count of Flanders & his wife Mathilde [Billung] of Saxony ([961/62]-30 Mar 987, bur Gent).  The Annales Elnonenses Minores record that "Arnulfus, filius Balduini ex Matilde"[165] succeeded his grandfather in 964 as ARNOUL II “le Jeune” Count of Flanders, under the guardianship of his father's first cousin Baudouin Baldzo [de Boulogne] who made himself Comte de Courtrai.  Taking advantage of the weakness of the county during Count Arnoul's minority, [his uncle] Dirk II Count of [Holland] captured Gent and Waas, and Lothaire King of the West Franks occupied the south-east of the county, ostensibly in the role of protector of the young count[166].  To counter the perceived threat from France, Emperor Otto II established marches on the right bank of the river Schelde, from Valenciennes in the south to Antwerp in the north[167].  "Godefridi comitis, Ingelberti advocati, Arnulfi junioris marchysi…" signed the charter dated 11 Apr 969 under which "Theodericus comes" donated "sui iuris possessionem…Frilingim in pago Flandrensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[168].  "Arnulfus…marchysus" confirmed the possession of "Harnas…in pago Seirbiu" to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 31 Jan 972, signed by "Theoderici comitis…Arnulfi Bononiensis comitis, Engelberti advocati…"[169].  "Arnulfi…junioris marchysi, Herimanni comitis filiis Godefridi comitis, Wiggeri, Ingelberti advocati…" signed the charter dated [21 Jan] 974 under which "Godefridus comes et uxor sua Mathildis" donated "regium fiscum Holinium…in pago Tornacensi…et…Ramelgeis ecclesia…" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[170].  "Arnulfo juniore marchyso…" signed the charter dated 2 Oct 974 under which "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" donated "in villa Haleftra in pago Mempesco sita" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[171].  Arnoul's majority was declared in 976.  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 989 of "Arnulfus marchysus, nepos magni Arnulfii"[172]

m ([968][173]) as her first husband, ROZALA [Suzanne] di Ivrea, daughter of BERENGARIO II ex-King of Italy [Ivrea] & his wife Willa of Tuscany-Arles ([950/960]-13 Dec 1003 or 7 Feb 1004, bur Gent, St Pieter).  Regino records that two of the daughters (unnamed) of ex-King Berengario were brought up in the imperial palace by the empress after being brought to Germany[174].  One of these two daughters was presumably Rozala, bearing in mind that the emperor arranged her marriage.  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "filiam Berengeri regis Langobardorum, Ruzelam quæ et Susanna" as wife of Comte Arnoul[175].  The Annales Elnonenses Minores record the marriage [undated between 950 and 968] of "Arnulfus iunior" and "filiam Beregeri regis Susannam"[176].  Her marriage was presumably arranged by Emperor Otto to increase his influence in Flanders at a time when Lothaire IV King of the West Franks was asserting his own control over the county.  According to Nicholas, Count Arnoul II married Rozala di Ivrea when he reached the age of majority in 976[177], but the source on which this is based has not been identified.  "Baldwinus marchysus cum matre sua Susanna" donated "villam Aflingehem…jacentem in pago Tornacinse" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, after the death of "Arnulfi marchysi", by charter dated 1 Apr 988, signed by "…Waldberto advocato, Theoderico comite, Arnulfo comite, Artoldo comite, Baldwino comite, item Arnulfo comite…"[178].  She married secondly (988 before 1 Apr[179], repudiated [991/92]) as his first wife, Robert Associate-King of France, who succeeded his father in 996 as Robert II King of France.  The Vita Sancti Bertulfi names "Rozala filia…Berengarii Regis Italiæ", specifying that "post mortem Arnulfi [Balduini filius] principis, Roberto Regi Francorum nupsit et Susanna dicta"[180].  Kerrebrouck, presumably basing his supposition on this passage from the Vita Sancti Bertulfi, says that she adopted the name Suzanne on her second marriage[181], but the sources quoted above show that she was referred to by this name earlier.  Hugues "Capet" King of France arranged her second marriage to his son and heir, apparently as a reward for Flemish help when he seized power in 987[182].  She was given Montreuil-sur-Mer by the county of Flanders as her dowry on her second marriage.  Richer records that King Robert repudiated his wife "Susannam…genere Italicam eo quod anus esset" but refused to allow her to retake her castle at Montreuil, whereupon she constructed another nearby[183].  She returned to Flanders after she was repudiated by her second husband, and became one of the principal advisers of her son Count Baldwin IV.  France retained Montreuil-sur-Mer.  "Susanna regina cum filio suo Baldwino" donated "alodem suum…Atingehem…et in Testereph" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "filie sue Mathildis", by charter dated 26 Jun 995[184].  "Susanna regina…cum filio suo Baldwino" donated "alodem suum…in pago Flandrensi…in Holtawa…in Fresnere…in Clemeskirca…in Jatbeka…in Sclefteta…" to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 1 Jun 1003[185].  The Annales Elnonenses Minores records the death in 1003 of "Susanna regina"[186].  The Memorial of "regina Susanna" records her death "VII Feb"[187]

Count Arnoul II & his wife had two children:

1.         MATHILDE de Flandre (-24 Jul, 995 or before).  "Susanna regina cum filio suo Baldwino" donated "alodem suum…Atingehem…et in Testereph" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "filie sue Mathildis", by charter dated 26 Jun 995[188].  It is not known whether Mathilde was older or younger than her brother Baudouin but the estimated birth date range of their mother suggests that Baudouin may have been her younger child.  The Memorial of "Mathildis filia…Arnulfi viri" records her death "IX Kal Aug"[189]

2.         BAUDOUIN de Flandre ([980]-30 May 1035).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "Balduinum Barbatum" as son of "Arnulfus…et…Ruzelam quæ et Susanna"[190].  He succeeded his father in 987 as BAUDOUIN IV "le Barbu/Pulchrae Barbae" Count of Flanders, presumably under a regency considering his youth although the name of the regent has not yet been identified.  Hugues Capet King of France recognised Baudouin's claim to all of Flanders, including the part previously taken by King Lothaire, and also arranged Baudouin´s mother's second marriage to the king´s son and heir, apparently as a reward for Flemish help when he seized power in 987[191].  "Baldwinus marchysus cum matre sua Susanna" donated "villam Aflingehem…jacentem in pago Tornacinse" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, after the death of "Arnulfi marchysi", by charter dated 1 Apr 988, signed by "…Waldberto advocato, Theoderico comite, Arnulfo comite, Artoldo comite, Baldwino comite, item Arnulfo comite…"[192].  After Count Baudouin's mother returned to Flanders following her repudiation, France retained Montreuil-sur-Mer, which provoked Flanders into joining a rebellion against King Hugues.  The result was the return of Artois and Ostrevant to Flanders, although Ponthieu remained with France[193].  Count Baudouin established control over the northern part of the Ternois, including Thérouanne, Fauquembergues and Saint-Omer, which were previously under the suzerainty of the county of Boulogne[194].  "Susanna regina…cum filio suo Baldwino" donated "alodem suum…in pago Flandrensi…in Holtawa…in Fresnere…in Clemeskirca…in Jatbeka…in Sclefteta…" to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 1 Jun 1003[195].  Baudouin captured the march of Valenciennes from Germany in 1006, but lost it in the following year when King Heinrich II invaded Flanders and captured Gent.  Count Baudouin subsequently arranged an alliance with the German king who, in 1012, helped him install a new bishop of Cambrai, and enfeoffed him with the islands of Zeeland and, in 1015, with Valenciennes.  Emperor Heinrich II, however, invaded Flanders again in 1020, supported this time by Robert King of France[196].  Count Baudouin arranged the betrothal of his son to the French king's daughter to help restore good relations[197].  His son rebelled against Baudouin after 1028.  Count Baudouin was forced to take refuge in Normandy, where he married the duke's daughter and from where he returned to Flanders with reinforcements.  His son submitted, but his father permitted him to rule jointly[198].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1035 of "Balduinus, gloriosus marchisus"[199].  The Annales Elnonenses Minores record the death in 1035 of "Balduinus comes filius Susannæ"[200]m firstly ([1012]) OGIVE de Luxembourg, daughter of FRIEDRICH Graf im Moselgau Vogt von Stablo [Wigeriche] & his wife --- heiress of Gleiberg [Konradiner] (-21 Feb or 9 Mar 1030, bur Gent St Peter).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "filiam Gisleberti comitis Odgivam" as wife of "Balduinum Barbatum"[201].  “Gisleberti” in this source is presumably an error for “Friderici”.  As noted in the document LUXEMBOURG, Giselbert brother of Friedrich was recorded as a “youth” when he was killed in battle in 1004.  It is not impossible that he was married with a young child at the time.  However, another version of the Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ names "Adalberto Metensis episcopus, Fredericus dux Lotharingie, Henricus dux Baioarie, Gislebertus comes de Salinis" as brothers of Baudouin´s wife[202].  It is unlikely that the “youth” Giselbert was the father of five children when he died.  In addition, other primary sources confirm that the brothers Heinrich and Adalbero were sons of Friedrich.  It is probable therefore that Ogive was also Friedrich´s daughter.  The marriage was presumably arranged by Emperor Heinrich II as part of the alliance negotiated in 1012.  Her name is confirmed by the Annales Blandinienses which record the death in 1030 of "Odgiva comitissa"[203].  The Memorial of "Odgiva…Balduino domino" records her death "IX Mar"[204]m secondly ([after 1030]) [ELEONORE] de Normandie, daughter of RICHARD II Duke of Normandy & his first wife Judith de Rennes [Brittany].  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana refers to "filiam secundi Ricardi ducis Normannorum" as wife of "Balduinum Barbatum" after the death of Ogive[205].  The Annalista Saxo states that the mother of Judith was "cognatione beati Ethmundi regis", without naming her or giving a more precise origin[206].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that the second (unnamed) daughter of “dux Richardus” and his wife “Goiffredum Britannorum comitem...sororem...Iudith” married “Balduino Flandrensi[207].  She is sometimes named Eléonore in secondary sources but the primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Count Baudouin IV & his first wife had one child:

a)         BAUDOUIN de Flandre ([1012/13]-Lille 1 Sep 1067, bur Lille St Pierre).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "Balduinum Insulanum" son of "Balduinum Barbatum [et] Odgivam"[208].  He succeeded his father in 1035 as BAUDOUIN V "le Pieux/Insulanus" Count of Flanders.   

-        see below

Count Baudouin IV & his second wife had one child:

b)         JUDITH de Flandre ([1033]-[5] Mar 1094, bur St Martin Monastery).  The Annalista Saxo names "Iudhita…amita Rodberti comitis de Flandria ex cognatione beati Ethmundi regis" as husband of "Haroldi" (in error for Tostig) but correctly names her second husband "Welphus filius Azzonis marchionis Italorum"[209].  The Genealogia Welforum names "filiam comitis Flandrie, reginam Anglie, Iuditam nomine" as wife of Welf[210].  Florence of Worcester says that Judith was "daughter of Baldwin Count of Flanders" but does not specify which Count Baldwin, nor is this clear from the context[211].  According to the Vita Ædwardi Regis, Judith was the sister of Count Baudouin V[212].  On the other hand, Alberic de Trois Fontaines asserts that Judith was one of the children of Baudouin V Count of Flanders and his wife Adela de France[213], but there are other clear errors in Alberic's listing of this couple's children so the statement should be viewed with caution.  Judith is also listed as the daughter of Count Baudouin V (after Mathilde) in a manuscript whose attribution to Orderic Vitalis is disputed, which also shows her first marriage[214].  The date of her first marriage is confirmed by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which records that "earl Godwine" fled after the Council of 9 Sep 1051 "with Tostig and his wife who was a kinswoman of Baldwin of Bruges"[215].  Judith moved to Denmark after her first husband was killed.  "Dux Gewelfo eiusque…uxor Iudita" donated property to Kloster Weingarten, with the consent of "filiorum suorum Gwelfonis et Heinrici", dated 12 Mar 1094[216].  The Chronicon of Bernold records the death "1094 IV Non Mar" of "Iuditha uxor ducis Welfonis Baioariæ" and her burial "apud monasterium…Sancti Martini" built by her husband[217].  The necrology of Raitenbuch records the death "III Non Mar" of "Iudinta regina Anglie, filia marchionis de Este uxor Welfonis nostri fundatoris"[218], exaggerating her status resulting from her first marriage and confusing her paternity.  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "III Non Mar" of "Judita dux regina Anglie"[219], also exaggerating her status resulting from her first marriage.  m firstly (before Sep 1051) TOSTIG Godwinson, son of GODWIN Earl of Wessex & his wife Gytha of Denmark ([1025/30]-killed in battle Stamford Bridge 25 Sep 1066).  He was created Earl of Northumbria in 1055[220]m secondly ([1071]) as his second wife, WELF I Duke of Bavaria [Este], son of ALBERTO AZZO II Marchese d'Este & his first wife Kunigunde von Altdorf [Este] ([1030/40]-Paphos Cyprus 9 Nov 1101, bur Cyprus, removed to Weingarten, near Lake Constance). 

 

 

BAUDOUIN, son of BAUDOUIN IV "le Barbu/Pulchrae Barbae" Count of Flanders & his first wife Ogive de Luxembourg ([1012/13]-Lille 1 Sep 1067, bur Lille St Pierre[221]).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "Balduinum Insulanum" as son of "Balduinum Barbatum [et] Odgivam"[222].  After 1028, he led a rebellion against his father who was forced to take refuge in Normandy.  After his father returned with reinforcements, Baudouin submitted but was allowed to rule jointly[223].  He succeeded his father in 1035 as BAUDOUIN V "le Pieux/Insulanus" Count of Flanders.  He acquired overlordship of the county of Lens from the counts of Boulogne[224].  The Liber traditionum of Gant Saint-Pierre commemorates the donations of "Baldwinus junior marchysus filius Baldwini marchysi et Odgevæ comitissæ cum conjuge sua Adala", undated[225].  He took part in the Lotharingian rebellion against Emperor Heinrich III and sacked the imperial palace at Nijmegen.  Emperor Heinrich gathered a large army to wreak revenge in 1049[226], but in practical terms the only loss to Flanders was the march of Antwerp[227].  Count Baudouin returned Valenciennes to Hainaut, and thus indirectly to German suzerainty[228].  He maintained close relations with Godwin Earl of Wessex, first sheltering the latter´s son Svein after he was outlawed in 1049, then Earl Godwin himself when he was exiled from England in 1051.  Emperor Heinrich III invaded Flanders again in 1054 but had to retreat[229].  On the death of Henri I King of France in 1060, Count Baudouin became regent of France for his nephew King Philippe I.  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1067 of "Baldwinus potentissimus marchisus"[230]

m (Amiens 1028) ADELA de France, daughter of ROBERT II King of France & his third wife Constance d'Arles (1009-Messines 8 Jan 1079, bur Messines, Benedictine monastery).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "filiam Rodberti regis Francorum Adelam" wife of "Balduinum Insulanum"[231].  The Genealogiæ Scriptoris Fusniacensis names "Alam comitissam Flandrensem" the daughter of King Robert[232].  Corbie was her dowry[233].  The Liber traditionum of Gant Saint-Pierre commemorates the donations of "Baldwinus junior marchysus filius Baldwini marchysi et Odgevæ comitissæ cum conjuge sua Adala", undated[234].  She founded the Benedictine monastery at Messines near Ypres.  Philippe I King of France donated “villam in pago Parisiacensi sitam...Curtesiolum” to Saint-Denis, at the request of “amita mea soror...patris mei H...Adela”, by charter dated 1060, after 4 Aug[235]The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "VI Id Jan" of "Adelaidis comitissa"[236]

Count Baudouin V & his wife had three children:

1.         BAUDOUIN de Flandre ([1030]-Hasnon Abbey 17 Jul 1070).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Balduinum Haanoniensem, et Robdbertum cognomento postea Iherosolimitanum, et Matilde uxorem Guillelmi regis Anglorum" as the children of "Balduinum Insulanum [et] Adelam"[237].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Balduinum sextum, Robertum cognomento Fresonem, Philippum patrem Guilelmi de Ypra et filias duas Iudith, quam duxit Tostinus comes Nortdanimbronum in Anglia et Mathilda…Normannorum ducissa"[238], which confuses three generations of the family of the counts of Flanders.  Baudouin's father sent him to be educated at the court of Emperor Heinrich III, who installed him as count in the march of Antwerp in [1045], although this was taken away in [1050] after his father opposed the emperor[239].  He succeeded in 1055 as BAUDOUIN I Comte de Hainaut, by right of his wife.  He succeeded his father in 1067 as BAUDOUIN VI Count of Flanders.  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1070 of "Baldwinus marchisus, qui Hasnoni sepultus est"[240].  The Annales Elnonenses Maiores record Baudouin's death "XVI Kal Aug" and his burial "Hasnonie"[241]m (1051) as her second husband, RICHILDE, widow of HERMAN Comte de Hainaut, daughter of --- (-Messines 15 Mar 1087, bur Hanson Abbey).  The Annales Elnonenses date the marriage of "Balduinus iunior Adele filius" to 1051 (although it incorrectly names his wife "Iudita"), specifying that thereby "castellum Monz obtinuit", and recording that the marriage was "consensu patris"[242] which presumably refers to Baudouin's own father, maybe indicating that Baudouin was a minor at the time.  The difficult question of the parentage of Richilde is discussed fully in the document HAINAUT, which sets out her first husband's family.  The Annales Blandinienses record that her husband's uncle Robert, having killed her son Arnoul Count of Flanders, captured his mother "Rikilde"[243].  Richilde married thirdly (1070) as his second wife, Guillaume FitzOsbern Earl of Hereford.  The Annals of Winchester record the marriage in 1070 of “comitissam Flandriæ” and “rex…nepoti suo Willelmo filio Osberni[244].  William of Malmesbury records that Baudouin I comte de Hainaut entrusted the guardianship of his two sons to "Philip king of France…and to William Fitz-Osberne", adding that the latter "readily undertook the office that he might increase his dignity by a union with Richilda"[245].  The Complete Peerage, citing "Annales Flandriæ", states that Richilde was taken in battle where her new husband FitzOsbern was killed[246], but the precise reference has not yet been found to this primary source.  The necrology of Liège Saint-Lambert records the death "XVII Kal Apr" of "Richildis comitisse"[247].  Count Baudouin VI & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         ARNOUL de Flandre ([1055]-killed in battle Cassel 22 Feb 1071, bur Saint-Bertin).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Arnulfum et Balduinem" as sons of "Balduinum Haanoniensem [et] Richelde"[248].  "Arnulfum nepotem suum [Robertus filius Balduini comitis Insulani] occiso" is named in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[249].  He succeeded his father in 1070 as ARNOUL III Count of Flanders, Comte de Hainaut.  "Arnulphus comes Flandrensium…cum matre mea Richilde et…fratre meo Balduino et sorore mea Agnete" donated "allodium…Thaviers in pago Hasbanie" to Ardenne Saint-Hubert, for the souls of "patris mei Balduini et comitis Herimanni", by charter dated 1071[250].  His uncle Robert rebelled against Count Arnoul, defeated him at the battle of Cassel where Arnoul was killed, and seized control of Flanders[251].  Arnoul's younger brother Baudouin was left only with the county of Hainaut. 

b)         BAUDOUIN de Flandre ([1056]-on Crusade 1098, after 8 Jun).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Arnulfum et Balduinem" as sons of "Balduinum Haanoniensem [et] Richelde"[252].  Guibert describes him as "Balduinus comes de Montibus, Roberti Flandrensis comitis iunioris patrui, filius"[253].  "Balduino frater eius [Arnulphum occiso]" is named in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[254].  He succeeded his brother in 1071 as BAUDOUIN II Comte de Hainaut

-        COMTES DE HAINAUT

c)         [AGNES (-after 1071).  "Arnulphus comes Flandrensium…cum matre mea Richilde et…fratre meo Balduino et sorore mea Agnete" donated "allodium…Thaviers in pago Hasbanie" to Ardenne Saint-Hubert, for the souls of "patris mei Balduini et comitis Herimanni", by charter dated 1071[255].  The mention of Comte Herman in this document suggests that Agnes was the same person as the unnamed daughter of "Hermannus filius ducis Thuringie ex Richilde" referred to in the Annales Hanoniæ, which specify in a later passage that she became a nun[256].  If this is correct, she was Arnoul's uterine half-sister.] 

2.         MATHILDE de Flandre ([1032]-Caen 2 Nov 1083, bur Caen, Abbey of Holy Trinity).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Balduinum Haanoniensem, et Rodbertum cognomento postea Iherosolimitanum, et Matilde uxorem Guillelmi regis Anglorum" as the children of "Balduinum Insulanum [et] Adelam"[257].  Orderic Vitalis records the marriage of “Willermus Normanniæ dux” and “Mathildem Balduini ducis Flandrensium filiam, neptem...ex sorore Henrici regis Francorum[258].  Florence of Worcester records that "comitissa Mahtilda de Normannia" came to England 23 Mar [1068] and was crowned "die Pentecostes [11 May]" by Aldred Archbishop of York[259].  Orderic Vitalis also records that she was crowned queen of England 11 May 1068[260], presumably at Westminster Abbey or Winchester Cathedral although this appears to be unrecorded.  Queen Matilda acted as regent in Normandy during her husband's absences in England.  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "IV Non Nov" of "Matildis Anglorum regina"[261].  Florence of Worcester records the death "IV Non Nov" in [1083] of "regina Mahtilda" in Normandy and her burial at Caen[262]m (Eu, Cathedral of Notre Dame [1050/52]) GUILLAUME II Duke of Normandy, illegitimate son of ROBERT II Duke of Normandy & his mistress Herlève --- (Château de Falaise, Normandy [1027/28]-Rouen, Priory of St Gervais 9 Sep 1087, bur Caen, Abbey of St Etienne).  He succeeded in 1066 as WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England.  King William I & his wife had ten children: 

a)         ROBERT “Curthose” (Normandy [1052/4]-Cardiff Castle 3/10/15 Feb 1135, bur Gloucester Cathedral).  William of Malmesbury names Robert as eldest son of King William I[263].  He succeeded his father in 1087 as ROBERT III Duke of Normandy.  One child: 

i)          GUILLAUME de Normandie (Rouen 1101-St Omer, Abbey of St Bertin 27 Jul 1128, bur St Omer, Abbey of St Bertin).  His parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis, who specifies that he was born in Rouen in the third year after his parents' marriage[264].  Following the assassination of Count Charles, Louis VI King of France convened a meeting of Flemish barons at Arras where they elected Guillaume 21 Mar 1127 as GUILLAUME I "Clito" Count of Flanders, although he lacked any hereditary right.  He was opposed by his uncle Henry I King of England who bribed his supporters in Gent and eastern Flanders.  Lille rebelled 1 Aug 1127, and Saint-Omer 8 Feb 1128[265].  Guillaume´s rival Thierry d'Alsace captured Lille, Furnes and Gent[266] and was recognised as Count at Bruges 30 Mar 1128[267].  Guillaume besieged Aalst in Jul 1128, helped by Godefroi Duke of Lower Lotharingia, but was injured and died from his wounds[268].  

b)         other children - see KINGS of ENGLAND

3.         ROBERT ([1035]-13 Oct 1093).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Balduinum Haanoniensem, et Robdbertum cognomento postea Iherosolimitanum, et Matilde uxorem Guillelmi regis Anglorum" as the children of "Balduinum Insulanum [et] Adelam"[269].  He was regent of the county of Holland 1062-1071, during the minority of his stepson.  He succeeded his nephew in 1071 as ROBERT I "le Frison" Count of Flanders

-        see below

 

 

ROBERT de Flandre, son of BAUDOUIN V "le Pieux/Insulanus" Count of Flanders & his wife Adela de France ([1035]-13 Oct 1093).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Balduinum Haanoniensem, et Robdbertum cognomento postea Iherosolimitanum, et Matilde uxorem Guillelmi regis Anglorum" as the children of "Balduinum Insulanum [et] Adelam"[270].  "Robertus filius Balduini comitis Insulani" is named in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[271].  He is recorded by Orderic Vitalis as uncle of Robert de Normandie[272].  The Annales Blandinienses record that in 1063 "Rodbertus, Baldwini potentissimi iunior filius, Frisiam subintrat"[273].  He was regent of the county of Holland 1062-1071, during the minority of his stepson.  He rebelled against his nephew Arnoul III Count of Flanders and defeated him at the battle of Cassel 22 Feb 1071, succeeding as ROBERT I "le Frison" Count of Flanders.  He was recognised as count by Philippe I King of France after Robert transferred Corbie to him, the arrangement being confirmed by the king's marriage to Count Robert's stepdaughter Bertha of Holland[274].  Relations with William I King of England were poor, culminating in Count Robert's planned naval attack in 1085, with his son-in-law Knud II King of Denmark, although the enterprise ended when the latter was assassinated[275].  William of Malmesbury records that Robert made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, dated to between 1086 and 1090[276].  On his way back, he entered the service of Emperor Alexios I[277].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death "III Id Oct 1093" of "Rodbertus, primus huius nominis Flandriæ marchysus"[278]

m (1063) as her second husband, GERTRUD of Saxony, widow of FLORIS I Count of Holland, daughter of BERNHARD II Duke of Saxony [Billung] & his wife Eilika von Schweinfurt (Schweinfurt [1028]-Veurne 18 Jul or 4 Aug 1113, bur Veurne).  "Gertrudis" is named as wife of "Roberti Frisonis" in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin, which does not give her origin[279].  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "filiam Bernardi Saxonum comitis Gertrudem" as wife of "Robertus", specifying that she was "viduam Florentii comitis Fresonum"[280].  The Genealogia ex stirpe Sancti Arnulfi names "Idam Namucensem…uxorem Angelberti marchionis et Gertrudem comitissam Flandrensem" as children of "Bernardum"[281].  The Annales Egmundani specify that Robert acquired "comitatum Hollandiæ et Fresiæ" by marrying Gertrud[282].  The date of her second marriage is based on the Chronologia Johannes de Beke recording that, two years after the death of her first husband, Gertrud married "Roberto iuniori filio Balduini comitis Flandrie", specifying that the latter ruled the county of Holland on behalf of "Theodrici domicelli iunioris adhuc etatis"[283].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XV Kal Aug" of "Gertrudis comitissa"[284].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "IV die Aug" of "Gheertrudis…" and her burial in Flanders[285]

Count Robert & his wife had six children:

1.         ADELA de Flandre ([1065]-Apr 1115).  The Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin specifies that "filia primogenita Robert Frisonis et Gertrudis" was the wife of "Canuti regis Dacie", but does not give her name[286].  The Annales Blandinienses name "Athelæ amitæ [Balduini comes]" as the mother of "Karolus"[287].  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana specifies that "Robertus comes cognomento Frisio" had three daughters "quarum prima nupsit Kanuto regi Danorum, quam postea habuit Rogerus dux Apulie"[288].  Malaterra names the wife of "dux Rogerius" as "neptem Francorum regis Philippi filiam Flandrensium marchionis Roberti…Adalalam"[289].  She was regent in Apulia 1111-1114 for her son Guillaume Duke of Apulia.  The Lamberti Audomariensis Chronica records the death "V Kal Apr" of "Athela ducissa Apuliæ…filia Roberti Flandriæ comitis, uxor Rogerii ducis", although the year is not specified[290]m firstly ([1080]) KNUD II “den Hellige/the Holy” King of Denmark, illegitimate son of SVEND II King of Denmark & his mistress --- (-murdered Odense, St Albans Church 10 Jul 1086, bur Odense, St Albans Church, later called St Knuds Church).  m secondly (1090) ROGER "Borsa/the Purse" Duke of Apulia, son of ROBERT "Guiscard/Weasel" Duke of Apulia & his second wife Sichelgaita di Salerno ([1061]-22 Feb 1111).  Adela & her first husband had three children:

a)         CARL of Denmark ([1084]-murdered Bruges 2 Mar 1127, bur Bruges, St Donatien, later Saint-Sauveur).  "Carolus filius Canuti, regis Dacie, ex filia primogenita Robert Frisonis et Gertrudis" is named in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[291].  "Caroli regis Danorum filii" is named in the donation to Saint-Bertin of "Balduinus Flandrensium marchisus" dated 1119[292].  His mother took him to Flanders for safety after the murder of his father in 1086.  He made a pilgrimage to Palestine in [1107][293].  He was received in Flanders in 1111 by Count Robert II.  The Continuatio Valcellensis of Sigebert's Chronica records in 1115 that “Balduinus comes Flandriæ” captured “castrum Encres” from “Hugone Camdavena”, who had usurped it, and granted it to “Karolo consobrino suo[294].  "Karolo et Wilhelmo nepotibus comitis" were named in the grant to Saint-Bertin of "Balduinus Roberti iunioris filius Flandrensium comes" dated 1119[295].  The Vita Karoli Comitis Flandriæ specifies that Count Charles was given "comitatum Ambianensem cum castello Incrensi" prior to his accession as count[296].  Enjoying close relations with Count Baudouin VII, who designated him as his successor on his deathbed, he succeeded in 1119 as CHARLES "the Good" Count of Flanders.  He was opposed by Dowager Countess Clémence who supported the candidature of Guillaume d'Ypres[297].  Galbert de Bruges records that, during the captivity of Baudouin II King of Jerusalem in 1123/24, a faction hostile to the king offered the throne of Jerusalem to Count Charles, who refused the offer[298].  Count Charles was one of the four candidates (the other three being Friedrich II Duke of Swabia, Leopold III "der Heilige" Markgraf of Austria and Lothar von Süpplingenberg Duke of Saxony) for election to the throne of Germany on the death of Emperor Heinrich V in 1125.  He was supported in particular by Friedrich Archbishop of Köln.  Charles was a popular count in Flanders, releasing grain from his stores to help relieve the severe famine of 1124/25 and making increased use of the courts to settle disputes.  He was opposed by Bertulf, provost of St Donatien in Bruges, chancellor of Flanders, and leader of the Erembald clan about whose servile origins a dispute arose.  The Erembald clan arranged the count's assassination and offered the countship to Guillaume d'Ypres, the whole episode being recorded at length by Galbert de Bruges[299].  The Annals of Saint-Bertin record that Charles was murdered while hearing mass in Bruges church[300]m (before Jul 1119) as her first husband, MARGUERITE de Clermont, daughter of RENAUD Comte de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis & his first wife Adela de Vermandois ([1104/05]-after 1145).  The Vita Karoli Comitis Flandriæ names "nobilem puellam Margaretam, Reinaldi comitis Clarmontensis filiam" as wife of Count Charles, specifying that the marriage took place before his accession[301].  She married secondly ([1128]) as his second wife, Hugues [III] “Candavène” Comte de Saint-Pol, and thirdly Baudouin d’Encre.  The De Genere Comitum Flandrensium, Notæ Parisienses refers to (but does not name) the daughter of "comes de Claromonte" and his wife Adela, specifying that she married firstly Charles Count of Flanders, secondly "Hugo Champdaveine…comes Sancti Pauli" by whom she had "Radulfus Champdaveine et Guod Champdaveine", and thirdly "dominus Balduinus de Encra" by whom she had "domini Galteri de Helli"[302]

b)         -        other children: - DENMARK, KINGS

2.         ROBERT (1065-[5 Oct] 1111, bur Arras St Vaast[303]).  "Roberti filius eius [Robertus Flandrensium comes]" is named in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[304].  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Philippum et Robertum" as sons of "Robertus [et] vidua Gertrude"[305].  He ruled with his father as joint count of Flanders from 1086[306].  He succeeded his father in 1093 as ROBERT II Count of Flanders.  He joined the First Crusade in 1096, and was joint-leader of a contingent with Robert Duke of Normandy and Etienne Comte de Blois[307].  As the crusaders approached Antioch in Oct 1097, a contingent under Count Robert captured Artah to the south-west[308].  After the capture of Jerusalem, he left Palestine for Europe in Sep 1099[309].  He helped Henry I King of England conquer Normandy from his brother Robert in 1106, in accordance with the alliance agreed in the Treaty of Dover in 1103 which was renewed in 1110[310].  Orderic Vitalis records that Count Robert was among the forces of Louis VI King of France which fought Thibaut IV Comte de Blois near Meaux, that he was trampled as the king fled with his men, and died a few days later[311].  According to William of Malmesbury, he was mortally wounded in a tournament[312].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "III Non Oct" of "Rotbertus Flandrensium comes"[313], which is consistent with the date of death of Count Robert II shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[314].  However, it seems more likely that this entry relates to Count Robert I (whose death is recorded on 13 Oct in another source, see above) as the same necrology also records the death "XV Kal Aug" of "Gertrudis comitissa" who may be identified with the wife of the older count Robert[315]m (before 1092) as her first husband, CLEMENCE de Bourgogne, daughter of GUILLAUME I Comte de Bourgogne & his wife Etiennette --- ([1078]-[1133]).  "Clementie Flandrarum comitisse" is named as wife of "Robertus iunior" in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[316].  Orderic Vitalis names her as wife of Count Robert but does not give her origin[317].  Her origin is confirmed by the Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana which names "Clementiam filiam Willelmi comitis Burgundionum cognomento Testahardith" as wife of "Rodbertus Rodberti filius"[318].  Clemence could not have been born much later than 1078, given the birth of her first child (by her first husband) in 1093.  She was appointed regent in Flanders during the absence of her first husband on crusade[319].  She promoted the monastic movement and introduced Cluniac rule into several abbeys in Flanders[320].  She founded Bourbourg Abbey with her first husband in [1103].  "Balduinus Flandrensium comes et Clementia comitissa" confirmed the donation of the church of Saint-Bertin to Cluny made by "dominus meus Rotbertus comes", by charter 12 Apr 1112[321].  She opposed the succession in 1119 of Count Charles, supporting the candidature of Guillaume d'Ypres[322].  She married secondly ([1125]) as his second wife, Godefroi V Duke of Lower Lotharingia.  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.  The Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin records the death in [1133] of "Clementia Roberti iunioris vidua" and specifies that "eatenus pene terciam partem Flandrie dotis loco tenuit"[323], although it is curious that this entry does not mention her second husband who was still alive when his wife died.  Robert II & his wife had three children: 

a)         BAUDOUIN ([1092/93]-Boulers 17 Jun 1119, bur Saint Bertin[324]).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Balduinum et Guillelmum" as sons of "Rodbertus [et] Clementiam"[325].  His parentage is recorded by Orderic Vitalis, who says that he was "still a boy" when he succeeded his father[326] in 1111 as BAUDOUIN VII Count of Flanders.  He refused to return her marriage portion to his mother, who instigated a rebellion of south Flemish barons with the help of Baudouin III Comte de Hainaut, but was forced to submit.  The Continuatio Valcellensis of Sigebert's Chronica records in 1115 that “Balduinus comes Flandriæ” captured “castrum Encres” from “Hugone Camdavena”, who had usurped it, and granted it to “Karolo consobrino suo[327].  The Continuatio Valcellensis of Sigebert's Chronica records in 1117 that “Balduinus comes Flandriæ” besieged “castrum sancti Pauli” held by “Hugo Camdavena”, who had devastated territory, but had returned it after the mediation of “Eustathio comite Boloniæ[328].  William of Malmesbury and Orderic Vitalis record that Count Baudouin supported Guillaume "Clito" de Normandie against Henry I King of England in 1118, invaded Normandy as far as Arques, but in Sep 1118 was wounded "for his helmet being battered with repeated strokes, he received an injury to his brain"[329].  He passed the last ten months of his life in the monastery of St Bertin[330].  He designated Charles of Denmark as his successor on his deathbed[331], although the accuracy of this statement is dubious if his brain injuries were severe.  The Annales Blandinienses record that "Balduinus comes, Rodberti iunioris et Clementiæ filius" was 26 years old when he became a monk after a distinguished military career[332].  The Vita Karoli Comitis Flandriæ records the death "1119 XV Kal Iulii" of Count Baudouin, and his burial at St Bertin[333]m (1110, divorced) HAVISE de Bretagne, daughter of ALAIN IV "Fergant" Duke of Brittany & his second wife Ermengarde d'Anjou.  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana refers to the wife of "Balduinum comitem" as "filiam Alani Fregani comitis Brittaniæ", but does not name her[334].  The Flandria Generosa names "filiam Alani comitis Brittaniæ" as the wife of "Balduinus Inclitus", specifying that they were separated by Pope Pascal II on grounds of consanguinity[335].  The Chronicon Briocensi names "Conanum et Hazevisiam" as the two children of "Alanus filius primogenitus [Hoelli]" and his wife "Ermengardem filiam Comitis Andegavensis"[336].   

b)         GUILLAUME de Flandre (1094-1109, bur Saint-Bertin).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Balduinum et Guillelmum" sons of "Rodbertus [et] Clementiam"[337].  "Guillelmus fratrem meum" is named in the donation to Saint-Bertin of "Balduinus Flandrensium marchisus" dated 1119, which also specifies Guillaume's burial place[338] and in another passage states that he died before his father[339]

c)         --- de Flandre (1095-young).  The Liber de Restauratione Sancti Martini Tornacensis records that "Clementia cum de viro suo comite Roberto genuisset tres filios infra tres annos" but does not name any of them[340]

3.         PHILIPPE de Flandres "de Loo" (-before 1127).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Philippum et Robertum" as sons of "Robertus [et] vidua Gertrude"[341].  "Philippi fratris Roberi iunioris Flandrie comitis" is named in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[342].  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ names "Rodbertum et Philippum" as the two sons of "Rodbertus Barbatus [et] Gertrude", specifying that Philippe was buried at "Bergis"[343].  "Philippus filius Roberti marchionis cognomento Frisonis" transferred rights to the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Loo by charter dated 1093 which also names "fratris mei Roberti comiti Flandrie"[344]Mistress (1): ---.  According to Vanderkindere, Philippe´s mistress was "a wool carder"[345].  Some details about her family are provided by the charter dated 1162 under which Philippe´s illegitimate son "Willelmus de Ipres…cum Leliosa consanguinea mea et cum filia sua Petronilla" donated revenue from land, which "pater ipsius Leliose, Thebaldus…de Aria" held from "patre meo Philippo" and which Guillaume had granted to "Eghellino de Furnis" on his marriage to Leliose with the consent of "Thebaldi junioris fratris Leliose", to the abbey of Bourbourg, signed by "…Theobaldus filius Eghellini de Furnis…"[346].  Galbert of Bruges records that Guillaume d´Ypres was captured "cum fratre suo Thiebaldo Sorel" at Ypres 10 Sep 1127[347].  Presumably Thibaut Sorel was the son of Guillaume´s mother by a subsequent marriage or relationship.  It is possible that he was the same person as "Thebaldus…de Aria" who is named in the 1162 charter, in which case "Leliose" was the niece of Guillaume d´Ypres.  Philippe de Loo had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

a)         GUILLAUME d’Ypres ([1090]-[1165]).  "Willelmus de Lo, ex concubina filius Philippi, fratris Roberti iunioris, Flandrie comitis" is named in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[348].  Orderic Vitalis incorrectly describes him as the son of Robert Count of Flanders[349]"Willelmus Philippi comitis filius" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Loo with the consent of "uxore mea" (unnamed) by charter dated 1093[350], although this charter must be misdated considering Guillaume´s likely birth date.  Guillaume claimed the county of Flanders in 1119 on the succession of Count Charles, supported by Dowager Countess Clémence[351]["Willelmus nepos meus…" signed a charter dated 29 Nov 1121 under which Charles Count of Flanders donated property to the monastery of Bourbourg[352].  It appears unlikely that this subscription could apply to the son of Philippe de Loo, given his opposition to the accession of Charles as count of Flanders.  However, no other individual named Guillaume has yet been identified in the family who could be described as "nepos eius" in reference to Count Charles.]  After learning of the assassination of Count Charles in 1127, Guillaume besieged the castle of Bruges, where the murderers had taken refuge, until the arrival of Louis VI King of France and Guillaume "Clito" de Normandie[353].  He was offered the countship in 1127 by the Erembald clan who had arranged the assassination[354].  Galbert of Bruges records that Guillaume was captured "cum fratre suo Thiebaldo Sorel" at Ypres 10 Sep 1127, taken to Bruges and in Oct to Lille, but was released on promising to help Count Guillaume[355].  The Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin records that Guillaume resisted the succession of Thierry d'Alsace in 1128 from the castle of "Sclusa"[356].  He was presumably reconciled with Count Thierry as "Willelmo filio Philippi comitis" subscribed the charter dated 1130 under which "Theoderici…comitis Flandrie…cum…uxore mea Suanehilda" confirmed the privileges and possessions of the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Loo[357].  The Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin records that Guillaume was expelled from Flanders in [1133] and went to England[358], where he was placed in charge of the Flemish mercenaries in the army of Stephen King of England.  King Stephen granted him land in Kent, where he founded Boxley Abbey in [1144/46].  The Annals of Waverley record that “Willelmo de Ypres” founded Boxley abbey in 1143[359].  The Annals of Bermondsey record that “Willelmus de Ipra” donated income from his property “domino de Tarentford, id est Dertford” to the abbey in 1144[360].  Henry of Huntingdon records that Guillaume led the opposition in Kent after the arrival in England of Empress Matilda[361].  He retained contacts with Flanders as shown by the donation of "Willelmus de Ypra" to the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Loo by charter dated 1148[362].  He went blind towards the end of King Stephen's reign[363]The 1155 Pipe Roll records "Will. de Ipr." at Canterbury in Kent[364]After the accession of King Henry II in 1154, Guillaume left England and retired to his château of Loo[365]"Willelmus de Ipres…cum Leliosa consanguinea mea et cum filia sua Petronilla" donated revenue from land, which "pater ipsius Leliose, Thebaldus…de Aria" held from "patre meo Philippo" and which Guillaume had granted to "Eghellino de Furnis" on his marriage to Leliose with the consent of "Thebaldi junioris fratris Leliose", to the abbey of Bourbourg by charter dated 1162, signed by "Heinricus castellanus de Broborc, Robertus advocatus Bethunie, Rogerus castellanus de Curt, Eustachius de Greneri camerarius, Frumoldus de Ipre castellanus, Jordanus castellanus de DichesmerTheobaldus filius Eghellini de Furnis"[366].  The Flandria Generosa names "Willelmo [de Lo]", specifying that he was buried in "castro suo quod dicitur Lo"[367].  m ---.  "Uxore mea" (unnamed) consented to the donation by "Willelmus Philippi comitis filius" to the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Loo by charter dated 1093[368], although this charter must be misdated considering Guillaume´s likely birth date.  No record has been found in any of the primary sources so far consulted which indicates that the couple had any children. 

4.         [OGIVE] de Flandre (before 1071-Apr before 1141).  The Flandria Generosa refers to a daughter of Count Robert and his wife Gertrude as "apud Mescinas sanctimonialis et abbatissa venerabilis", but does not name her[369].  Galbert of Bruges names "abbatissam Messinis et Gertrudem" as the daughters of Robert I Count of Flanders and his wife Gertrude[370].  The Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini names "Ogieva" as the fourth sister of "Robertus Frisionis"[371].  Although the source mistakes "daughters" for "sisters", it is possible that the first name is correct[372].  Abbess of Messines before 1107. 

5.         [BAUDOUIN de Flandre (-before 1080).  He is named as son of Count Robert in Europäische Stammtafeln[373] but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.] 

6.         GERTRUDE de Flandre (-[1115/26]).  Galbert of Bruges names "abbatissam Messinis et Gertrudem" as the daughters of Robert I Count of Flanders and his wife Gertrude[374].  Her parentage and both her marriages are deduced from the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin which names "Gertrude filia Roberti Frisonis, vidua Henrici Bruselensis" as mother of "Theodericum", who is in turn named "filium Theoderici ducis de Helsath"[375].  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana specifies that "Robertus comes cognomento Frisio" had three daughters and that "tercia Theoderico comiti Alsatie [nupsit]"[376].  A charter dated 1095 records a donation to Flône, notes the approval of "Henricus Lovaniensis comitis" and adds that he married "filie Roberti Flandriensis comitis"[377]m firstly HENRI III Comte de Louvain, son of HENRI II Comte de Louvain & his wife Adela [Adelheid] in der Betuwe (-Tournai 5 Feb 1095).  m secondly (Han-sur-Lesse 15 Aug 1095) as his second wife, THIERRY II Duke of Lorraine, son of GERARD Duke of Upper Lotharingia & his wife Hadwide [de Namur] (-30 Dec 1115).  Gertrud & her second husband had children:

a)         THIERRY de Lorraine ([1099/1101]-17 Jan 1168).  He is named in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin, which also specifies his parentage[378].  He succeeded in 1128 as THIERRY I Count of Flanders

-        see below, Part C COUNTS of FLANDERS 1128-1191 (LORRAINE)

b)         other children - see LORRAINE.  

 

 

 

C.      COUNTS of FLANDERS 1128-1191 (LORRAINE)

 

 

THIERRY de Lorraine, son of THIERRY II Duke of Lorraine & his second wife Gertrude de Flandre ([1099/1101]-Gravelines 17 Jan 1168).  He is named in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin, which also specifies his parentage[379].  After the election of Guillaume de Normandie as count of Flanders in Mar 1127, nobles in Gent invited Thierry d'Alsace to intervene.  Orderic Vitalis records that he captured Lille, Furnes and Gent[380].  He was recognised as count at Bruges 30 Mar 1128[381].  After Count Guillaume died from injuries received at the battle of Aalst 28 Jun 1128, Thierry was generally accepted as THIERRY I Count of Flanders.  He went to Palestine in 1138, and joined Louis VII King of France in Jun 1147 on the Second Crusade[382].  The Annales Blandinienses record that he returned to Palestine in 1157 and in 1164[383], taking part in campaigns with Baudouin III King of Jerusalem during the earlier visit[384].  The Flandria Generosa specifies that "Theodericus comes monarchiam Flandrie" was buried in "cenobio Watinensi"[385].  The necrology of the Prieuré de Fontaines records the death "18 Jan" of "Teodericus comes Flandrie, pater domine Matildis"[386]

m firstly SUANHILDE, daughter of --- (-4 Sep 1132).  "Suavehildis" is named "uxor enim Theoderici comitis" in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin, which records her death and specifies "pro qua ex cognatione consanguinitatis idem erat occulte" without giving further details of the family relationship[387].  The Flandria Generosa names "comitissa etiam Suanildis", when recording her death and the bad luck which resulted from her consanguinity with her husband[388].  No details are known about her parentage so speculation about the precise nature of the family relationship between husband and wife is pointless.  "Theoderici…comitis Flandrie…cum generosa uxore mea Suanehilda" confirmed the privileges and possessions of the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Loo by charter dated 1130, subscribed by "Willelmo filio Philippi comitis"[389]

m secondly (1134) as her second husband, SIBYLLE d’Anjou, divorced wife of GUILLAUME “Clito” de Normandie Count of Flanders, daughter of FOULQUES V Comte d’Anjou & his wife Aremburge de Maine ([1112/16]-Bethany 1165, bur Bethany, Abbey of St Lazarus).  She is named by Orderic Vitalis, who also names her father and specifies that he arranged her (first) marriage as part of the support which he gave to Guillaume de Normandie, on the suggestion of Amaury de Montfort, and that her dowry was the county of Maine[390].  According to Orderic Vitalis, King Henry broke off the marriage "making use of threats and pleas and an enormous quantity of gold and silver"[391].  Both passages in Orderic Vitalis refer only to a betrothal, but a marriage must have taken place otherwise a papal annulment would have been unnecessary.  Her father supported her husband against his uncle Henry I King of England, indignant that the latter retained the dowry of his other daughter Alix, married to King Henry's son who had been drowned in the Blanche Nef [White Ship] in 1120[392].  Orderic Vitalis records Sibylle's second marriage[393], as does William of Tyre (who says that she was her father's older daughter)[394].  The Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin records the marriage of "Sibillam comitis Andegavensis filiam" and Thierry after the death of his first wife[395].  She left France with her second husband in Jun 1147 on the Second Crusade[396].  She accompanied her husband to Palestine in 1157 but refused to return with him to Europe in 1158.  She became a nun at the convent of St Lazarus at Bethany.  After the death of her stepmother Mélisende Queen of Jerusalem in 1161, Ctss Sibylle assumed a position of influence among the royal family of Jerusalem[397].  The Annales Aquicinctini record the death in 1165 of "Sibbilla comitissa Flandrie apud Sanctum Lazarum"[398]

Count Thierry I & his first wife had one child:

1.         LAURETTA de Flandre ([1120]-Abbaye de Voorst, near Brussels 1170).  The Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin records that Count Thierry "ex priori uxore unicam tantum filiam habuit quam Ivanus de Alosto postea sortitus est in conjugium" but does not give her name[399].  The Flandria Generosa names "Laurentiam" as the only daughter of "comitissa etiam Suanildis", specifying that her marriage with "dux de Lemburg" was terminated on grounds of consanguinity, that she subsequently married "Iwanus de Alst", and after the latter's death "Rodulfo comiti Peronensi" and "comiti de Namur", although this report switches her first and second husbands[400].  "Iwanus de Gand…cum uxoris meæ Lauretæ filiæ Theoderici comitis" donated property to "Fratrum Trunciniensis ecclesiæ" near Gand by charter dated 22 Sep 1139[401].  She left her fourth husband before [1163] and refused to return to him despite being excommunicated by the bishop of Cambrai.  She became a nun at Voorst.  m firstly (before 22 Sep 1139) IWAN Graaf van Aalst, son of BOUDEWIJN [II] van Gent & his wife --- (-8 Aug 1145).  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1144 of "Iwainus de Alst"[402]m secondly ([1150], divorced 1152 for reasons of consanguinity) as his second wife, HENRI [II] Comte d'Arlon [HENDRIK II Duke of Limburg], son of WALERAN [III] Comte d'Arlon, Graaf van Limburg, Duke of Lower Lotharingia & his wife Jutta van Wassenburg (-Rome Aug 1167).  m thirdly (1152) as his third wife, RAOUL I "le Vaillant" Comte de Vermandois, son of HUGUES "le Maisné" de France Comte de Vermandois & his wife Adelais Ctss de Vermandois, de Valois et de Crépy ([1094]-13 Oct 1152, bur Priory of Saint-Arnoul de Crépy).  m fourthly ([1152/59], divorced 1163) as his first wife, HENRI "l’Aveugle" Comte de Namur et de Luxembourg, son of GODEFROI Comte de Namur & his wife Ermesinde de Luxembourg (1111-14 Aug 1196, bur Abbaye de Floreffe). 

Count Thierry I & his second wife had seven children:

2.         BAUDOUIN de Flandre (-before 1154).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Balduinum, Philippum, Matheum et Petrum" as the four sons of "comes Flandrie Theodericus [et] Sibillam", specifying that Baudouin "in pueritia mortuo"[403].  "Sibilla Flandrensium comitissa" donated property to Arras St Vaast naming "maritus meus comes Theodericus…cum filio nostro Balduino" dated 1148[404]

3.         PHILIPPE de Flandre (-Acre 1 Jul 1191, bur Acre St Nicholas, transferred to Abbaye de Clairvaux, Jura).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Philippum, Matheum, Petrum et tres filias" as the children of "Theodericus filius ducis Alsatie [et] Sibillam"[405].  He was installed as count of Flanders in 1157 when his father left for Palestine, and continued to handle most administrative matters after his father returned in 1159[406].  He succeeded in [1167] as Comte de Vermandois, by right of his wife.  He succeeded his father in 1168 as PHILIPPE Count of Flanders.  He was in Palestine in 1173, and landed at Acre again in Sep 1177 when his primary aim was to arrange marriages between the daughters of Amaury I King of Jerusalem and the sons of one of his vassals Robert de Béthune.  He took part in the siege of Hama with Raymond Count of Tripoli and in the siege of Harenc with Bohémond III Prince of Antioch, but left Palestine for Constantinople in [May] 1178[407].  He was adviser to Philippe II King of France in 1180 after the latter's accession, and arranged the king's marriage to his niece Isabelle de Hainaut, giving Artois as her dowry.  According to Kerrebrouck, Count Philippe was never appointed regent of France nor guardian of the young French king[408].  On the death of his first wife, Count Philippe refused to relinquish the counties of Vermandois and Valois to her successor, which triggered war with France, settled by the transfer of the territories under the Treaty of Boves in Jul 1185, ratified at Amiens 20 Mar 1186, although Count Philippe was permitted to retain the title Comte de Vermandois for life[409].  He returned to Palestine in 1189, and died of plague during the course of the siege of Acre.  He designated his brother-in-law Baudouin V Comte de Hainaut as his successor but Philippe II King of France claimed that Flanders had escheated to the French crown in default of male heirs[410].  His final illness and death are recorded by William of Tyre (Continuator)[411].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1191 of "Philippus Flandrie et Viromandie comes magnificus"[412].  The Flandria Generosa records his death "Kal Iulii 1191" at Acre, his burial in the "basilica sancti Nicholai" in Acre, and the repatriation of his body, arranged by his widow, to "Claramvallem"[413]m firstly (Beauvais 1156) ELISABETH de Vermandois, daughter of RAOUL I "le Vaillant" Comte de Vermandois et de Valois & his second wife Aélis [Petronelle] d'Aquitaine (1143-Arras 28 Mar 1183, bur Amiens Cathedral).  The Annales Blandinienses record the marriage of "Philippus filius suus [=Theodericus comes]" and "filiam Rodulfi comitis Peronensis"[414].  The Flandria Generosa names "Ysabelem filiam comitis Viromandensis" as wife of "Philippus"[415].  She succeeded her brother in [1167] as Ctss de Vermandois et de Valois on his resignation of the county due to illness[416].  Ralph de Diceto records that "Philippus comes Flandrensis" killed "Walterum de Fontibus…II Id Aug", in 1175 from the context, "so it is said" for having committed adultery with "Isabella comitissa"[417].  The Flandria Generosa records the death in 1182 of "Elisabeth comitissa"  specifying that she was buried "Attrebati in ecclesia beate Maria"[418]m secondly (Aug 1183) as her first husband, Infanta dona MAFALDA de Portugal, Senhora de Montemayor el Viejo e Ourem, daughter of dom AFONSO I King of Portugal & his wife Mathilde de Savoie (1157-drowned off Furnes, Flanders 6 May 1218, bur Abbaye de Clairvaux, Jura).  The De Rebus Hispaniæ of Rodericus Ximene s names "Sancium et Urracam…et aliam filiam…Tarasia" as the children of "Aldefonsum" & his wife, specifying that Teresa married "Philippo Comiti Flandriæ et Hannoniæ" and died childless[419].  Known as TERESA from birth, she adopted the name MAFALDA in [1173/74] after the death of her older sister of that name, and was later known as MATHILDE.  The Flandria Generosa specifies that on her marriage she was given "Insulam et Duacum et plures…villas…iacentes, Caslethuin, Watenes, Bergas, Burburgium, totamque maritimmam regionem"[420].  The Flandria Generosa names "Mathildis regine Portusequalis" as wife of Count Philippe, specifying that she arranged the repatriation of her husband's body to "Claramvallem"[421].  After the death of her husband, she received her widow's portion in southern and coastal Flanders but increased taxes so much that she provoked rebellions at Veurne [Furnes] and the castellany of Bourbourg[422].  She married secondly (1193, separated 1195) as his first wife, Eudes III Duke of Burgundy [Capet].  A charter dated 1195 records an agreement between the French king and "M. regina comitissa Flandrie" which records that the latter promised not to remarry after separating from "Odone duce Burgundie"[423].  The Flandria Generosa records that she was "amita" of "Fernando filio regis Portusequalis" and instrumental in arranging his marriage to her first husband's great-niece Jeanne Ctss of Flanders[424].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1218 of "comitissa vetus de Flandria relicta comitis Philippi" and her burial next to her husband at Clairvaux[425].  She died when her carriage accidentally fell into a marsh near Furnes[426]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Count Philippe's mistress is not known.  Count Philippe had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

a)         THIERRY de Flandre (-after 1207)Thierry was one of the leaders of the Flemish contingent in the Fourth Crusade.  Villehardouin records that "Comte Philippe de Flandre's son Thierry" left with the fleet from Flanders and arrived at Marseille end-1202[427].  William of Tyre (Continuator) names "Bauduins chevalier d'Amienz qui estoit parent de l'empereor" when recording his departure on crusade and marriage at Marseille in 1203[428].  According to the Continuator of William of Tyre, when he arrived in Cyprus, Thierry requested Aimery I King of Cyprus to transfer the island to him, by right of his wife, but he was expelled and left for Armenia[429].  Villehardouin records that "Emperor Henri" placed "his nephew Thierry de Flandre" in charge of a company at Constantinople to fight against the Bulgarians in Jul 1207[430].  m (Marseille 1203) as her second husband, --- Komnene "la Damsel de Chypre", divorced wife of RAYMOND VI Comte de Toulouse, daughter of ISAAKIOS Dukas Komnenos ex-Emperor of Cyprus & his first wife --- of Armenia [Rupenid] ([1177/78]-after 1204).  She is referred to as "fille de l'empereor de Chypre" by William of Tyre (Continuator) when he records her presence at Marseille where she met and married her husband en route to the Crusade[431]

4.         MATHIEU de Flandre ([1137]-killed in battle Driencourt 25 Dec 1173, bur Abbaye de Saint-Josse).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Philippum, Matheum, Petrum et tres filias" as the children of "Theodericus filius ducis Alsatie [et] Sibillam"[432].  The Annales Blandinienses record "Matheus frater eius [=Philippus comes Flandriæ] Boloniensis comes" taking part with his brother in a military expedition against Holland in 1166[433].  He succeeded in 1160 as Comte de Boulogne, by right of his wife.  He led the Flemish contingent of Louis VII King of France against Henry II King of England and was mortally wounded by an arrow at the siege of the château de Driencourt in Normandy[434].  Robert of Torigny records the death in 1173 of "Mathæus comes Boloniæ frater Philippi comitis Flandrensis" from wounds received during the siege of "castri Dringeust"[435].  His burial place is confirmed by the donation by Philippe Count of Flanders for the soul of "fratris Mathei…Bolonie comitis" to the abbey of Saint-Josse by charter dated 1178 which states that the latter was buried in the church[436].  The Flandria Generosa specifies that he was buried "apud Sanctum Iudocum"[437]m firstly (before 1160, annulled 1169/70) MARIE de Blois Ctss de Boulogne, daughter of STEPHEN King of England & his wife Mathilde Ctss de Boulogne-sur-Mer ([1136]-Montreuil 1182, bur Montreuil).  The Flandria Generosa names "Mariam filiam Stephani regis Anglie" as wife of Mathieu[438].  She is named daughter of King Stephen by Matthew Paris, when he records her marriage[439].  The Genealogica comitum Buloniensium names "Mariam abbatissam" as daughter of "Stephano, filio Stephani Blesensis comitis" and his wife Mathilde, specifying that "Matheus filius Theoderici comitis Flandrensis, licet illicite, duxit abbatissam" and that they were parents of two daughters[440].  She became a novice at Lillechurch Priory, Kent, later transferred to Romsey Abbey, Hampshire where she became a nun between 1148 and 1155.  She was elected abbess of Romsey in 1155.  She succeeded her brother in 1159 as MARIE Ctss de Boulogne-sur-Mer.  Her future husband abducted her from the convent and forced her to marry him.  Pope Alexander III wrote to Henri Archbishop of Reims, dated 18 Dec 1161, regarding the abduction and marriage of "M. filius…comitis Flandrensis" and "monialem…abbatissam", but the document does not name the abbey from which she was abducted[441].  After the annulment of her marriage, she became a nun at the Benedictine nunnery of St Austrebert near Montreuil.  m secondly (1171) as her third husband, ELEONORE de Vermandois, widow firstly of GODEFROI de Hainaut Graaf van Oostrevant and secondly of GUILLAUME [V] Comte de Nevers et d'Auxerre, daughter of RAOUL I “le Vaillant” Comte de Vermandois et de Valois & his second wife Aélis [Petronille] d'Aquitaine ([1148/49]-[19/21] Jun 1213, bur Abbaye de Longpont).  The Chronicon Hanoniense names "Aenoram Radulphi comitis Viromandie filiam" as wife of "Godefridum [filium Alidis comitissa Hanonensis…cum viro Balduino comite]", and in a later passage refers to her subsequent marriages to "Willelmo comiti Nivernensi…[et] Matheo comiti Boloniensi…[et] comiti Bellimontis in Francia Matheo"[442].  Robert of Torigny records the marriage in 1170 of "uxorem eius [=Willermo comite Nivernensi] sororem…comitissæ Flandrensis" and "Mathæus frater Philippi comitis Flandrensium comes Boloniæ"[443].  The Flandria Generosa refers to the second wife of Mathieu as "sororem Flandrensis comitisse"[444].  She claimed the succession to Vermandois on the death of her sister in 1183, and succeeded in 1186 as Ctss de Valois.  She succeeded as Ctss de Vermandois in 1192.  She married fourthly ([1175]) Matthieu [III] Comte de Beaumont-sur-Oise.  Comte Matthieu & his first wife had two children: 

a)         IDA de Flandre ([1160/61]-21 Apr 1216, bur Boulogne).  The Flandria Generosa specifies that "frater Philippi secundus natu Matheus" had two daughters by his wife "comitissam Boloniensem", specifying that the older daughter (unnamed) married "Rainaldo comiti de Danmartin" against the wishes of her friends[445].  The Chronicon Hanoniense names "Idam…et Mathildem" as the two daughters of "Matheus [comiti Boloniensi]" & his wife, specifying that Ida married "primus…Gerardo comiti de Ghelra, deinde Bertoldo Cheringiorum duci, postea Rainaldo comiti Dommi-Martini in Francia"[446].  Her first marriage is confirmed by the undated charter under which "Ida comitissa Boloniensis" donated "decimam Alulfi de Ales…in parrochia de Salquele" to Andres, naming "virorum meorum bonæ memoriæ comitum Boloniensium, Matthei…et Geraldi de Gelre"[447].  She succeeded her father in 1173 as Ctss de Boulogne.  The Annales Egmundani record the marriage in 1181 of "filiam comitis Boloniæ Mathei" and "comes Gelrensis…Gerardus" and his death later the same year, specifying that his widow took away by force everything which had been granted to her at the time of the marriage[448].  The date of her fourth marriage is indicated by the charter dated 1185 under which "Albericus comes Domni Martini et Raynaldus filius meus comes Boloniæ et Matildis uxor mea comitissa" donated property to Dammartin Saint-Pierre[449], demonstrating that Ida´s husband already bore the title comte de Boulogne at that date.  However, this date is inconsistent with the date of death of Ida´s third husband, estimated to be 8 Sep 1186, which suggests that either the charter is misdated or that Berthold Herzog von Zähringen died a year earlier.  The Chronica Andrensis records the death in 1216 of "Ida Bolonie comitissa in Flandria" and her burial at Boulogne[450]m firstly MATHIEU, son of --- (-before 1181).  m secondly (1181) GERHARD van Gelre, son of HENDRIK Graaf van Gelre en Zutphen & his wife Agnes von Arnstein ([1140]-1181).  m thirdly (1183) as his second wife, BERTHOLD IV Herzog von Zähringen, son of KONRAD Herzog von Zähringen [Baden] & his wife Clémence de Namur (-8 Sep 1186, bur St Peter im Schwarzwald).  [451]Betrothed ([after 1186]) to ARNOUL de Guines Seigneur d'Ardres, son of BAUDOUIN II Comte de Guines & his wife Christine d'Ardres (-1220).  He succeeded his father in 1205 as ARNOUL II Comte de Guinesm fourthly ([1185 or Apr 1190]) as his second wife, RENAUD de Dammartin, son of AUBRY [II] Comte de Dammartin & his wife Mathilde [Mabille] de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis ([1165/70]-Château de Goulet 21 Apr 1217, bur Boulogne).  He succeeded his father in 1200 as Comte de Dammartin

b)         MATHILDE de Flandre (1170-Louvain 16 Oct 1210, bur Louvain, église collégiale de Saint Pierre).  The Flandria Generosa specifies that "frater Philippi secundus natu Matheus" had two daughters by his wife "comitissam Boloniensem", specifying that the younger daughter (unnamed) married "Henricus dux Brabancie"[452].  The Chronicon Hanoniense names "Idam…et Mathildem" as the two daughters of "Matheus [comiti Boloniensi]" & his wife, specifying that Mathilde married "Henricus dux Lovaniensis"[453].  The Oude Kronik van Brabant records that "Henricus…primus, dux Lotharingie" married "Mechteldim, filiam Mathei Boloniensis comitis"[454].  The marriage contract between "Comitem Flandriæ Philippum…Mathildis neptis comitis" and "ducem Lovaniæ Godefridum…Henrici filii ducis" is dated 1179 at Antwerp[455].  The Oude Kronik van Brabant records that Mathilde was buried "Lovanii…in ecclesia Sancti Petri" with her husband[456]m (contract Antwerp 1179, 1180) as his first wife, HENRI de Brabant, son of GODEFROI VII Duke of Lower Lotharingia, Duc de Louvain, Comte de Brabant & his first wife Margareta van Limburg (1165-Köln 5 Sep 1235, bur Louvain, église collégiale de Saint Pierre) (-5 Oct 1235).  He succeeded in 1180 as HENRI Duke of Lower Lotharingia, in 1183 as Duc de Louvain, and in 1191 as HENRI I "le Guerroyeur" Duke of Brabant

Comte Matthieu & his second wife had one child:

c)         [daughter] (-young).  The Flandria Generosa specifies that Mathieu & his second wife had "liberos…sed omnes infra pueritiam defunctos fuisse"[457].  There is little time between the date of the second marriage of Count Mathieu and the date of his death for more than one child to have been born. 

5.         PIERRE de Flandre (-1176 before Aug).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Philippum, Matheum, Petrum et tres filias" as the children of "Theodericus filius ducis Alsatie [et] Sibillam", specifying in another manuscript that Pierre was "preposituram Brugensem et Audomarensem"[458].  Provost at Bruges and Saint-Omer.  The Flandria Generosa specifies that "tertius frater Petrus…cum esset clericus et electus Cameracensis" but resigned the appointment and married "comitissam de Nevers"[459].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines also records that election of "Petrus frater comitis Flandrie Philippi et comitis Mathei Boloniensis" as Bishop of Cambrai and his resignation, followed by his marriage to "comitissam Nivernensem"[460]Bishop of Cambrai 1167.  The Continuatio of Sigebert's Chronica from Anchin records the death in 1166 of "domnus Nicholaus Cameracensis episcopus” and the succession of “Petrus filius Theoderici Flandrensium comitis[461].  He resigned his ecclesiastical appointments in 1173 after the death of his older brother Mathieu[462]Comte de Nevers 1175 in right of his wife.  Robert of Torigny records the death in 1177 of "Petrus frater Philippi comitis Flandrensium", noting that he had been elected to the episcopate of Cambrai but left the spiritual life[463]m (1176) as her third husband, MATHILDE de Bourgogne, widow firstly of EUDES [II] Seigneur d'Issoudun and secondly of GUY I Comte de Nevers, daughter of RAIMOND de Bourgogne Seigneur de Grignon et de Vitteaux [Capet] & his wife Agnès de Thiers Dame de Montpensier (1150-17 Dec [1219], bur Abbaye de Fontevrault).  Robert of Torigny records the marriage in 1177 of "Petrus frater Philippi comitis Flandrensium" and "comitissa Nivernensis quæ fuerat uxor domini Isoldunensis castri"[464].  Her marriage to Pierre de Flandre is confirmed by the charter dated 1182 under which "Matildis comitissa" donated property to Cîteaux for the souls of "Guidonis comitis Nivernensis, Petri Flandrensis et Odonis" with the consent of "filie mee Agnes…filia comitis Guidonis et Sibilla filia comitis Petri flandrensis"[465].  She married fourthly ([1177/80], annulled on grounds of consanguinity 1181) as his first wife, Robert [II] de Dreux, who succeeded his father in 1184 as Comte de Dreux.  After the annulment of her fourth marriage, Mathilde became a nun at Fontevrault.  Pierre & his wife had one child: 

a)         SIBYLLE de Flandre ([1176/77]-after 1236).  The Flandria Generosa names "Sibillam filiam [Petri et comitissam de Nevers]"[466].  The Chronicon Hanoniense refers to the daughter of "Petrus…fratris…comits Flandrie et Viromandie" as "[uxor] Roberto…de Wavrin" but does not name her[467].  Robert of Torigny records that "Petrus frater Philippi comitis Flandrensium" and his wife had "unam filiam", stating (apparently incorrectly) that she married "Robertus filius comitis Roberti fratris Lodovici regis Francorum"[468] who in other sources is reported as the fourth husband of her mother.  "Matildis comitissa" donated property to Cîteaux for the souls of "Guidonis comitis Nivernensis, Petri Flandrensis et Odonis" with the consent of "filie mee Agnes…filia comitis Guidonis et Sibilla filia comitis Petri flandrensis" by charter dated 1182[469].  Heiress of Saint-Vlaast, Lillers and Vladslo.  "Robertus de Wavrin dominus Lilerii et scenescalcus Flandrie" freed two serfs, with the consent of "uxore mea Sibilia…etiam…fratre meo Hellino et Hildiarde et Maroia et Ada sororibus meus et R. de Senghin et Gossuino patruis meis et A. de Meallens et Y. de Spineto amitis meis", by charter dated 1193[470].  "Sibilla domina de Wavrin" sold revenue from Santes to Lille Saint-Pierre by charter dated 1225[471]m (before 1193) ROBERT [I] de Wavrin Seneschal of Flanders, son of HELIE [III] de Wavrin Seneschal of Flanders & his wife Torsella d'Arras (-before [17] Sep 1196). 

6.         GERTRUDE de Flandre (-3 Mar after 1186)The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Philippum, Matheum, Petrum et tres filias" as the children of "Theodericus filius ducis Alsatie [et] Sibillam", not naming the daughters but specifying that "quarum primogenita nupsit Amico comiti Intermontano"[472].  The Flandria Generosa names (in order) "Gertrudem et Margaretam" as the two daughters of Count Thierry & his second wife[473].  The Flandria Generosa, in a later manuscript, names "Gertrudis primogenita" and her first husband "comiti de Moriana", from whom she was separated, and her second husband "Hugoni de Oisi", specifying that she later became a nun at "Mencinis"[474].  Philippe Count of Flanders, on the point of leaving on crusade, declared that "sororis mee Gertrudis quondam Morianensis comitisse" had renounced her inheritance before becoming a nun, by charter dated [24 Apr/12 Jun] 1177[475].  She became a nun at Messines in [1177].  m firstly ([1155], divorced before 1162) as his second wife, HUMBERT III Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie, son of AMEDEE III Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie & his second wife Mathilde d'Albon [Viennois] (1136-4 Mar 1189).  m secondly (after 1158) as his first wife, HUGUES [III] d'Oisy Châtelain de Cambrai, son of SIMON d'Oisy Châtelain de Cambrai & his wife Ade de la Ferté-Ancoul-sous-Jouarre (-29 Aug 1189). 

7.         MARGUERITE de Flandre ([1145]-15 Nov 1194).  The Flandria Generosa names (in order) "Gertrudem et Margaretam" as the two daughters of Count Thierry & his second wife[476].  The Annales Elnonenses records the wife of "Balduinus comes Hainonie" being "sororem [Philippus comes Flandrie]"[477].  The Flandria Generosa specifies that Marguerite married "Radulfo filio predicti comitis Radulfi" who contracted leprosy and from whom she was separated[478].  The Chronicon Hanoniense records the marriage "tempore Paschali mense April 1169" of "Balduinus" and "Margharetam…Mathie comitis Boloniensis sororem"[479].  Her second marriage was arranged by her brother Count Philippe in order to improve relations with the county of Hainaut.  She succeeded her brother in 1191 as MARGUERITE I Ctss of Flanders.  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1194 of "Margareta comitissa Flandriæ"[480].  The Chronicon Hanoniense records the death in 1194 of "comitissa Marghareta" and her burial at "Brugis in monasterio Sancti Donaciani"[481].  The necrology of Brogne records the death "XV Kal Dec" of "Margareta comitissa Hainonensis"[482].  The Flandria Generosa specifies that she was buried in Bruges St Donat[483]m firstly ([1160], non-consummated, separated) RAOUL [II] Comte de Vermandois, son of RAOUL [I] "le Vaillant" Comte de Vermandois [Capet] & his second wife Aélis [Petronille] d'Aquitaine (1145-17 Jun 1176, bur Abbaye de Longpont).  m secondly (Apr 1169) BAUDOUIN de Hainaut, son of BAUDOUIN IV “le Bâtisseur” Comte de Hainaut & his wife Alice de Namur (1150-Mons 17 Dec 1195).  The Flandria Generosa names "Balduinus comes Hainonie" as husband of "Margaretam sororem Philippi", specifying that he succeeded his brother-in-law as Count of Flanders[484].  He succeeded his father in 1171 as BAUDOUIN V Comte de Hainaut.  He succeeded his brother-in-law in 1191 as BAUDOUIN VIII Count of Flanders.  The necrology of Brogne records the death "XVI Kal Jan" of "Balduinus comes Hannonie"[485]

-        see below, Chapter 2. COUNTS of FLANDERS and COMTES de HAINAUT 1191-1244

8.         MATHILDE de Flandre (-24 Mar [1194]).  Her parentage is confirmed by the necrology of the Prieuré de Fontaines which records the death "18 Jan" of "Teodericus comes Flandrie, pater domine Matildis"[486].  Abbess of Fontevrault.  1187.  The necrology of the Prieuré de Fontaines records the death "24 Mar" of "Domna Mathildis abbatissa"[487]

Count Thierry I had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

9.          GERARD d'Alsace dit de Flandre (-1206).  Provost at Bruges.  Chancellor of Flanders.  He was a member of the Regency Council which was established in [1202] during the absence of Baudouin IX Count of Flanders on Crusade[488]Balduinus...imperator...Romanie...Flandrie et Hainonie comes” notified “avunculo suo Gerardo Brugensium preposito ac Flandrie cancellario et...Willelmo castellano Sancti Audomari et Gilleberto Insulensis, baillivis suis de Flandrie” that he had granted land to “Waltero clerico...de Curtraco” at the request of “Robertus de Sperleka” by charter dated Feb 1204 [O.S.] in palacio nostro Blakerne”, witnessed by “homines mei de Flandria:...Gislebertus de Ipra, Robelote de Waverin...homines nostri de Romania...Cono de Betunia fidelis et consanguineus noster, Gulfridus marescallus Campanie, Milo de Brebant, Manesulus de Insula[489]Balduinus...imperator...Romaniorum...Flandrie et Hainonie comes” notified “avunculo suo Gerardo Brugensium preposito et totius Flandrie cancellario et Wilhelmo advocato Betunie et Wilhelmo Sancti Audomari et Gilleberto Insulensi, castellanis, Balduino de Lobis et Lot--- de Ipris...baillivis suis” of his promise to build a chapel in his castle at Courtrai by charter dated Mar 1204 [O.S.] in palatio nostro Blakerne[490]

10.       GUILLAUME "Bron" (-1167 or before).  Philippe d'Alsace donated property for the soul of "fratris mei W. cognomine Bron" by charter dated 1167 subscribed by "Christiana vidua fratris mei"[491]m CHRISTIANE, daughter of ---.  Philippe d'Alsace donated property for the soul of "fratris mei W. cognomine Bron" by charter dated 1167 subscribed by "Christiana vidua fratris mei"[492].  Guillaume & his wife had one child: 

a)         GUILLAUME Bron (-1202 or after).  Baudouin IX Count of Flanders issued a charter dated 1202 naming "Wilhelmus Brohon consanguineus meus, filius Wilhelmi Brohon"[493]

11.       CONON .  He is named by Du Chesne[494]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    COUNTS of FLANDERS and COMTES de HAINAUT 1191-1244

 

 

BAUDOUIN de Hainaut, son of BAUDOUIN IV “le Bâtisseur” Comte de Hainaut & his wife Alice de Namur (1150-Mons 17 Dec 1195).  The Flandria Generosa names "Balduinus comes Hainonie" as husband of "Margaretam sororem Philippi", specifying that he succeeded his brother-in-law as count of Flanders[495].  He succeeded his father in 1171 as BAUDOUIN V Comte de Hainaut, and as heir to Henri Comte de Namur et de Luxembourg.  He supported Philippe II King of France when war broke out with Philippe Count of Flanders over the inheritance of the counties of Vermandois and Valois in 1183[496].  After the unexpected birth in 1186 of Ermesinde, daughter of Henri Comte de Namur et de Luxembourg, the latter revoked his assurance concerning Baudouin's succession in these two counties.  In 1188, Comte Henri was obliged to reinstate Baudouin as his heir after a verdict in the latter's favour from Heinrich VI King of Germany.  Comte Baudouin attacked Namur, captured Comte Henri and obtained a confirmation of his position from Emperor Friedrich I, who also secretly created him Marquis de Namur.  Under a compromise reached in 1190, Baudouin received Namur immediately, and the expectation of Laroche and Durbuy after the death of Henri; the fate of Luxembourg was not mentioned.  The creation of the Marquisate of Namur, and the elevation of Baudouin as Marquis de Namur, was announced at Worms in 1190[497].  Although designated as successor in Flanders by his brother-in-law Philippe Count of Flanders, Philippe II King of France claimed in 1191 that Flanders escheated to the French crown on the death of Count Philippe in default of male heirs.  The settlement was mediated by the archbishop of Reims and formalised in the Treaty of Arras[498].  Comte Baudouin was eventually enfeoffed as BAUDOUIN VIII Count of Flanders 1 Mar 1192, on payment of 5,000 silver marks to the French king doing homage to Emperor Heinrich VI King of Germany for the imperial part of Flanders[499].  On the death of his wife in 1194, Baudouin lost Flanders which was inherited by their oldest son.  The necrology of Brogne records the death "XVI Kal Jan" of "Balduinus comes Hannonie"[500]

m (Apr 1169) as her second husband, MARGUERITE de Flandre, daughter of THIERRY I Count of Flanders & his second wife Sibylle d'Anjou ([1145]-15 Nov 1194, Bruges St Donat).  The Flandria Generosa names (in order) "Gertrudem et Margaretam" as the two daughters of Count Thierry & his second wife[501].  The Annales Elnonenses records the wife of "Balduinus comes Hainonie" being "sororem [Philippus comes Flandrie]"[502].  The Flandria Generosa specifies that Marguerite married "Radulfo filio predicti comitis Radulfi" who contracted leprosy and from whom she was separated[503].  The Chronicon Hanoniense records the marriage "tempore Paschali mense April 1169" of "Balduinus" and "Margharetam…Mathie comitis Boloniensis sororem"[504].  Her second marriage was arranged by her brother Count Philippe in order to improve relations with the county of Hainaut.  She succeeded her brother in 1191 as MARGUERITE I Ctss of Flanders.  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1194 of "Margareta comitissa Flandriæ"[505].  The Chronicon Hanoniense records the death in 1194 of "comitissa Marghareta" and her burial at "Brugis in monasterio Sancti Donaciani"[506].  The necrology of Brogne records the death "XV Kal Dec" of "Margareta comitissa Hainonensis"[507].  The Flandria Generosa specifies that she was buried in Bruges St Donat[508]

Count Baudouin VIII & his wife had seven children:

1.         ISABELLE de Hainaut (Valenciennes 23 Apr 1170-Paris 14/15 Mar 1190, bur Notre Dame, Paris).  The Chronicon Hanoniense records the birth "mense Aprili 1170" of "filiam Elizabeth" to "Balduinus [et] Margharetam…Mathie comitis Boloniensis sororem"[509].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines in 1191 names "Elizabeth Francie reginam…Hyolenz uxorem Petri Autisiodorensis et Sibiliam domnam Bellioci uxorem Wichardi" as the three daughters of "Balduinus [Haynaco]"[510].  The Chronicon Hanoniense records the betrothal in 1179 of "Elizabeth filia comitis Hanoniensis" and "Henrico filio comitis Trecensis"[511].  The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis name the wife of Philippe II King of France as "Elisabeth regina que fuit soror Balduini comitis Flandrie", when recording the birth of their son Louis in 1187[512].  Her marriage was arranged by her maternal uncle Philippe Count of Flanders while he was adviser to Philippe II King of France in 1180 after the latter's accession, with Artois as her dowry[513].  She was crowned queen of France 29 May 1180 at the abbaye de Saint-Denis.  King Philippe planned to repudiate her in 1186, for lack of a male heir.  The Flandria Generosa records the death in 1189 of "Elisabeth Francorum regina" after giving birth to twins, specifying her burial "in eccleisa beatæ Mariæ Parisius"[514].  The Gestis Philippi II Augusti records the death "1189 Id Mar" of "Elysabeth regina uxor Philippi Francorum regis" and her burial "in ecclesiam beatissime virginis Marie Parisius"[515].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "II Id Mar" of "Isabel regina Francorum"[516]Betrothed (1179) to HENRI de Champagne, son of HENRI I "le Libéral" Comte de Champagne & his wife Marie de France (29 Jul 1166-Acre 10 Sep 1197).  He succeeded his father in 1181 as HENRI II Comte de Champagne.  The Chronicon Hanoniense records the betrothal in 1179 of "Elizabeth filia comitis Hanoniensis" and "Henrico filio comitis Trecensis"[517].  According to Gade[518], Henri II Comte de Champagne was still betrothed to a daughter of Baudouin V Comte de Hainaut when his betrothal to Ermengarde de Namur was arranged.  However, this could not have been Isabelle who was married in 1180.  It is possible that the betrothal was to Isabelle's younger sister Yolande.  m (Abbaye de la Sainte-Trinité, Bapaume, Pas-de-Calais 28 Apr 1180) as his first wife, PHILIPPE II “Auguste” King of France, son of LOUIS VII King of France & his third wife Alix de Champagne (Château de Gonesse, Val d’Oise 21 Aug 1165-Mantes, Yvelines 14 Jul 1223, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  

2.         BAUDOUIN de Hainaut (Jul 1171-in prison in Bulgaria 11 Jun 1205).  The Chronicon Hanoniense records the birth "1171 mense Iulio…Valencenis" of "filium…Balduinum" to "Balduinus [et] Margharetam…Mathie comitis Boloniensis sororem"[519].  He succeeded his mother in 1194 as BAUDOUIN IX Count of Flanders, and his father in 1195 as BAUDOUIN VI Comte de Hainaut.    

-        see below

3.         YOLANDE de Flandre ([1175]-Constantinople 24 or 26 Aug 1219).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines in 1191 names "Elizabeth Francie reginam…Hyolenz uxorem Petri Autisiodorensis et Sibiliam domnam Bellioci uxorem Wichardi" as the three daughters of "Balduinus [Haynaco]"[520].  The Chronicon Hanoniense records the marriage in 1181 of "Yolandem Balduini comitis Hanoniensis filiam" and "Henricus primus comitis Campanensis filius"[521], but this was presumably only a betrothal as such a marriage is unrecorded elsewhere.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Hyolenz…soror comitis Philippi Namucensis" as wife of "comes Petrus Autisiodorensis", specifying that her husband became Comte de Namur by right of his wife[522].  The Historia Episcoporum Autissiodorensium records that Pierre married "Yolandam sororem Henrici Constantinopolitani Imperatoris" as his second wife after the death of "Agnete uxore sua"[523].  She succeeded as YOLANDE Marquise de Namur in 1213.  She was crowned Empress of Constantinople with her husband by the Pope 9 Apr 1217 at Rome[524].  She was appointed regent of the Latin Empire of Constantinople after arriving there safely by sea in 1217, in the absence of her husband whose fate at that time was unknown.  She was able to stop the attacks of Theodoros Emperor in Nikaia, and arranged his marriage to her daughter Marie to seal the peace which was agreed[525]Betrothed (1181, contract broken 1187) to HENRI II Comte de Champagne, son of HENRI I "le Libéral" Comte de Champagne & his wife Marie de France (29 Jul 1166-Acre 10 Sep 1197).  The Chronicon Hanoniense records the marriage in 1181 of "Yolandem Balduini comitis Hanoniensis filiam" and "Henricus primus comitis Campanensis filius"[526], but this was presumably only a betrothal as such a marriage is unrecorded elsewhere.  According to Gade[527], Henri II Comte de Champagne was still betrothed to a daughter of Baudouin V Comte de Hainaut when his betrothal to Ermengarde de Namur was arranged.  Presumably this was Yolande.  m (contract 24 Jul 1193, Soissons 1 Jul 1193) as his second wife, PIERRE [II] Seigneur de Courtenay, Comte de Nevers et d'Auxerre, son of PIERRE de France Seigneur de Courtenay & his wife Elisabeth de Courtenay (after 1158-Epirus after Jun 1219).  He succeeded as Marquis de Namur in 1213, by right of his second wife.  He was elected to succeed his brother-in-law Henri de Flandres in 1216 as PIERRE I Emperor of Constantinople

4.         PHILIPPE de Hainaut (Valenciennes Mar 1174-15 Oct 1212, bur Namur, cathédrale de Saint-Aubin).  The Flandria Generosa names (in order) "Balduinum, Philippum et Henricum" as the three sons of Count Baudouin & his wife Marguerite, specifying that Philippe was later Comte de Namur[528].  He succeeded as PHILIPPE I "le Noble" Comte de Namur in 1195, under the will of his father.  Emperor Heinrich VI transformed Namur into a Marquisate in 1196.  Marquis Philippe was captured by the French in 1199, his brother Count Baudouin being obliged to agree the Treaty of Péronne to secure his release[529].  A charter dated Nov 1209 records that “Philippus marchio Namurcensis” swore homage to "Henricus dux Lotharingie" for "terra Alost", after the death of "avunculi mei…Philippi…comitis Flandriæ, comitis Hannoniensis Balduinus pater meus et mater mea Margareta dicti Philippi soror"[530].  He was a member of the council of regency in Flanders during the absence of his brother Count Baudouin IX on Crusade, and during the minority of his niece Ctss Jeanne until Jan 1212.  He swore allegiance to Philippe II King of France in 1206, his marriage to the king's daughter being arranged at the same time[531].  The necrology of Brogne records the death "VIII Id Oct" of "Philippus comes Namurcensis" who donated "ecclesiam de Flavion"[532][533]Betrothed (1193) to MATHILDE de Courtenay Ctss de Nevers, d'Auxerre et de Tonnerre, daughter of PIERRE II Seigneur de Courtenay & his first wife Agnès Ctss de Nevers et d'Auxerre ([1188]-29 Jul 1257, bur Abbaye de Réconfort, near Monceaux-le-Comte).  m (contract Aug 1206) as her first husband, MARIE de France, daughter of PHILIPPE II "Auguste" King of France & his third wife Agnes von Andechs-Merano (after 1197-15 Aug 1238, bur Louvain, église Saint Pierre).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "filium unum Philippum…et filiam unam Mariam" as children of "Philippus [rex]" and "Mariam filiam ducis Meranie et marchionis Histrie", and in a later passage records their legitimation[534].  The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis records the marriage in 1212 of "Philippe roi de France…Marie sa fille, veuve de Philippe comte de Namur" and "le duc de Brabant"[535].  She married secondly (Soissons, Aisne 22 Apr 1213) as his second wife, Henri I Duke of Brabant.  The Annales Parchenses record the marriage in 1204 of "Heinricus dux Lotharingie" and "filiam regis Francie", naming her "Maria uxor Henrici ducis" in a later passage[536]

5.         HENRI de Hainaut ([1176]-murdered Thessaloniki 11 Jul 1216).  The Flandria Generosa names (in order) "Balduinum, Philippum et Henricum" as the three sons of Count Baudouin & his wife Marguerite, specifying that Henri later succeeded his brother Baudouin as Emperor of Constantinople[537].  He succeeded as HENRI I Emperor of Constantinople in 1206. 

-        LATIN EMPERORS of CONSTANTINOPLE.

6.         SIBYLLE de Hainaut (-9 Jan 1217, bur Cluny).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines in 1191 names "Elizabeth Francie reginam…Hyolenz uxorem Petri Autisiodorensis et Sibiliam domnam Bellioci uxorem Wichardi" as the three daughters of "Balduinus [Haynaco]"[538].  "Guichardus Belli Joci dominus" names "uxor et amica nostra Sibilla" in his testament dated 18 Sep 1216[539]m ([1196/98]) GUICHARD [V] "le Grand" Sire de Beaujeu, son of HUMBERT [IV] Sire de Beaujeu & his wife Agnès de Thiern, dame de Montpensier-en-Auvergne (-27 Sep 1216). 

7.         EUSTACHE de Hainaut (-after 1217).  Villehardouin names "the Emperor's brother Eustache" when recording that Emperor Henri sent him "across the straits to Spiga" after a truce was agreed with Theodoros Laskaris[540].  Military commander 1206/1209.  Regent of the kingdom of Thessaloniki 1210/16.  m (betrothed [Jun/Jul] 1209) --- Angelina, daughter of MIKAEL Komnenos Dukas [Angelos] Lord of Epirus & his [first wife --- Melissene].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Her marriage was arranged by her father to seal his alliance with the Latin Empire of Constantinople[541]

Count Baudouin VIII had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:

8.          GODEFROI (-after 1202).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Provost of St Audomar and St Donat at Bruges 1196.  Provost at Mechelen.  Archdeacon of Cambrai 1198.  Provost of Saint-Amé de Douai 1202.

 

 

BAUDOUIN de Hainaut, son of BAUDOUIN V Comte de Hainaut [BAUDOUIN VIII Count of Flanders] & his wife Marguerite I Ctss of Flanders (Jul 1171-in prison in Bulgaria 11 Jun 1205).  The Chronicon Hanoniense records the birth "1171 mense Iulio…Valencenis" of "filium…Balduinum" to "Balduinus [et] Margharetam…Mathie comitis Boloniensis sororem"[542].  The Flandria Generosa names (in order) "Balduinum, Philippum et Henricum" as the three sons of Count Baudouin and his wife Marguerite, specifying that Baudouin was later emperor of Constantinople[543].  He succeeded his mother in 1194 as BAUDOUIN IX Count of Flanders, and his father in 1195 as BAUDOUIN VI Comte de Hainaut.  Under the Treaty of Dinant 26 Jul 1199, he acquired Namur.  He did homage to Philippe II King of France for Flanders and Hainaut, but then allied himself with Richard I King of England in Sep 1197.  War broke out with France, and by end 1198 Count Baudouin had overrun northern Artois[544].  He was obliged to agree the Treaty of Péronne with France in Jan 1200 in order to secure the release of his brother Philippe de Namur from French custody, agreeing to give up his alliance with England and receiving Saint-Omer, Aire and Guines in return[545].  He was among the first leaders to take the cross following the call of Pope Innocent III.  A Flemish fleet arrived at Acre end 1202 under the command of Jean de Nesle, châtelain de Bruges[546].  After the army of the Fourth Crusade took control of Constantinople 13 Apr 1204, a council of six Venetians and six Franks met to elect a new Latin emperor, as agreed in the Acti Partitio Imperii Romanae the previous March between the crusaders and Venice.  The votes of the Venetian block of electors ensured the success of Count Baudouin over the rival candidate, Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato, Enrico Dandolo Doge of Venice considering Baudouin as the less powerful candidate[547].  At the same time, in accordance with the terms of the March treaty, Tomaso Morosini (from Venice) was installed as first Latin patriarch of Constantinople, his first task being to crown Baudouin as BAUDOUIN I Emperor of Constantinople[548] at St Sophia 16 May 1204.  The constitution which was adopted gave little power to the emperor whose decisions were subject to review by a council of tenants-in-chief which also directed military operations[549].  “Balduinus...imperator...Romanie...Flandrie et Hainonie comes” notified “avunculo suo Gerardo Brugensium preposito ac Flandrie cancellario et...Willelmo castellano Sancti Audomari et Gilleberto Insulensis, baillivis suis de Flandrie” that he had granted land to “Waltero clerico...de Curtraco” at the request of “Robertus de Sperleka” by charter dated Feb 1204 [O.S.] in palacio nostro Blakerne”, witnessed by “homines mei de Flandria:...Gislebertus de Ipra, Robelote de Waverin...homines nostri de Romania...Cono de Betunia fidelis et consanguineus noster, Gulfridus marescallus Campanie, Milo de Brebant, Manesulus de Insula[550]The new patriarch declared the union of the Catholic and Orthodox churches, but the Greek aristocracy in Thrace rebelled.  Kalojan Tsar of Bulgaria intervened, defeated Baudouin near Adrianople 14 Apr 1205, and captured and transported him as a prisoner to Bulgaria where he died in prison soon after[551].  When news of Count Baudouin's death reached Flanders in Feb 1206, Philippe II King of France assumed his right as feudal overlord to the wardship of his two daughters[552]

m (Betrothed 1179, 6 Jan 1186) MARIE de Champagne, daughter of HENRI I “le Libéral” Comte de Champagne & his wife Marie de France ([1174]-Jerusalem 9 Aug 1204).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names the two daughters of "comitissa Maria Campaniensis" as "Colatiam uxorem comitis Guilelmi Matisconensis et Mariam uxorem comitis Balduini Flandrensis"[553].  The Chronicon Hanoniense records the betrothal in 1179 of "filia comitis Henrici Maria" and "filium [comitis Flandrie] Theobaldum", the latter presumably being an error for "Balduinum"[554].  William of Tyre (Continuator) specifies that the sister of Henri II Comte de Champagne was married to comte Baudouin, later Emperor[555].  The Flandria Generosa names "Maria sorore Theobaldi Campaniæ comitis" wife of Count Baudouin[556].  She visited Palestine in 1204 en route to join her husband in Constantinople, received homage from Bohémond IV Prince of Antioch at Acre[557], but died soon after at Jerusalem.  The Flandria Generosa specifies that she died at "Acharon"[558]

Count Baudouin IX of Flanders & his wife had two children:

1.         JEANNE de Flandre (Valenciennes 1200-Marquette near Lille 5 Dec 1244, bur Marquette).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Iohannam et Margaretam" as the two daughters of "Balduinus"[559].  She succeeded her father as JEANNE Ctss of Flanders and Ctss de Hainaut in Feb 1206 when news of his death reached Flanders, under the regency of her uncle Philippe Marquis de Namur.  The latter agreed to the demand of Philippe II King of France to send the countess and her sister to Paris to be educated[560].  King Philippe arranged her first marriage.  The De Rebus Hispaniæ of Rodericus Ximene s records the marriage of "Ferdinandum", other son of "Rex…Sancius", and "Flandriæ Comitissam"[561].  While returning to Flanders after her marriage, she and her husband were captured by Louis, son of King Philippe II, who occupied Aire and Saint-Omer, the occupation being ratified by the Treaty of Pont-à-Vedin 25 Feb 1212 as the price for their release[562].  After her husband's capture in 1214, Philippe II King of France forced on her the Treaty of Paris 24 Oct 1214, under which major fortresses in southern Flanders were destroyed, property restored to French partisans, and Flanders in effect ruled from Paris[563].  King Philippe refused to negotiate her husband's release unless she agreed to the annulment of her marriage and remarriage to Pierre "Mauclerc" Duke of Brittany.  Civil war followed the appearance in 1224 of a hermit who claimed to be Jeanne's father returned from captivity and subsided only after his execution following a confrontation with Louis VIII King of France 30 May 1225[564].  She negotiated the Treaty of Melun in 1226 under which her husband was returned on payment of 50,000 livres ransom[565].  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "Thome fratri comitis Sabaudie" as husband of "Iohanna", whom she married after the death of "Ferrandus"[566].  The Annales Blandinienses record the marriage in 1237 of "Iohannam comitissam Flandrie" with "Thomas avunculus reginarum Francie et Anglie"[567].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1244 of "Iohanna comitissa" and her burial at "Market"[568].  The Necrologio Sanctæ Waldetrudis records the death "Non Dec" of "Iohanne comitisse Flandrie et Hanoie"[569]m firstly ([Paris] 1 Jan 1212) Infante dom FERNANDO de Portugal, son of SANCHO I "o Poblador" King of Portugal & his wife Infanta doña Dulcia de Aragón (24 Mar 1188-Noyon 4 Mar or 26 Jul 1233, bur Marquette near Lille).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "fratrem regis de Portigal, nomine Fernandum" husband of "Iohanna"[570].  He succeeded as FERRAND Count of Flanders and Hainaut in 1212, by right of his wife.  Although the protégé of Philippe II King of France, he exiled several prominent Francophiles after arriving in Flanders and opened negotiations with England.  He refused to participate in King Philippe's projected invasion of England in 1213.  The French army devastated Flanders in revenge, forcing Count Ferrand briefly to seek refuge in Zeeland.  He was captured at the battle of Bouvines 27 Jul 1214, and taken to Paris where he remained a prisoner[571].  He returned to Flanders in 1227 after payment of the ransom under the Treaty of Melun[572].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that on the death in 1229 of "comite Namucensi Henrici puero" his sister "Sibilia comitissa Vienne" occupied "castrum Namuci" against the competing claim of Fernando Count of Flanders[573].  He founded the convent of Marquette near Lille.  The Continuatio Clarimariscensis records the death "1233 VI Kal Aug" of "Fernandus Flandriæ comes"[574].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1233 of "Ferrandus comes Flandrie et Haynonie" and his burial at "Merketo"[575].  The Chronica Andrensis records the death in 1233 "apud Noviomum" of "comes Flandrie Fernandus" and his burial "iuxta Insulam"[576].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1233 of "Fernandus comes Flandrie" and his burial "in abbatia delle Marckete"[577]m secondly (2 Apr 1237, without Papal dispensation despite consanguinity within the prohibited degrees[578]) as his first wife, THOMAS de Savoie, son of THOMAS I Comte de Savoie & his wife Béatrix [Marguerite] de Faucigny (Château de Montmélian 1199-Chambéry 7 Feb 1259, bur Aosta Cathedral).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "Thome fratri comitis Sabaudie" as husband of "Iohanna", whom she married after the death of "Ferrandus"[579].  The Annales Blandinienses record the marriage in 1237 of "Iohannam comitissam Flandrie" with "Thomas avunculus reginarum Francie et Anglie"[580].  He succeeded as THOMAS Count of Flanders and Hainaut in 1237, by right of his wife.  He returned to Savoy after his wife's death[581].  He was given the title Conte di Piemonte in 1247, and succeeded his brother in 1253 as THOMAS II Comte de Savoie, ruling jointly with his nephew.  Jeanne & her first husband had one child: 

a)         Infanta dona MARIA de Portugal ([1231]-[Jun 1235/1236]).  The Chronica Andrensis refers to "comes Flandrie Fernandus" leaving "filia parvula" when he died in 1233 but does not name her[582].  After her father's death, Louis IX King of France demanded that she be sent to Paris for her education[583].  The marriage contract between “J. comitissa Flandrie et Haonie…Mariam filiam nostram” and “Ludovicum regem Francie…Robertus frater ipsius domini regis” is dated Jun 1235[584].  “Alfonsus, filius…regis Portugaliæ, comes Bolonie” recorded his agreements with “Thomam comitem et Johannam eius uxorem comitissam Flandrensem” by charter dated Nov 1241 which names “quondam comes Ferrandus patruus noster et Johanna, quondam eius uxor…et Marie filie ipsius…[585]Betrothed (Jun 1235) to ROBERT de France, son of LOUIS VIII King of France & his wife Infanta doña Blanca de Castilla (Sep 1216-killed in battle Mansurah, Egypt 9 Feb 1250).  He was invested as Comte d'Artois in 1237 by his brother Louis IX King of France. 

2.         MARGUERITE de Flandre (2 Jun 1202-10 Feb 1280)The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Iohannam et Margaretam" as the two daughters of "Balduinus"[586].  The Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini records that "secunda filia Margareta" was born after her parents left on their travels[587].  On the other hand, according to Villehardouin Comtesse Marie stayed behind when her husband left on Crusade, gave birth, and afterwards left for Acre where she died[588].  After her father's death, she was sent to Paris with her sister on the orders of Philippe II King of France[589].  Matthew of Paris names Bouchard as first husband of Marguerite in his description of the background to the war in Flanders in 1254[590].  Her first marriage was arranged by King Philippe II, her husband being a noble from Hainaut whose family had long supported French interests.  Her first husband demanded a share of his late father-in-law's inheritance and, after complaining to Pope Innocent III, the marriage was annulled by the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215 on the grounds that Bouchard d'Avesnes had previously taken holy orders.  The couple remained together until Bouchard was captured by his sister-in-law Ctss Jeanne in 1219.  He was released two years later on condition he separate from his wife[591].  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon records the marriage of "Marghareta" and "Willelmo de Dampetra"[592].  Matthew of Paris names Guillaume as second husband of Marguerite in his description of the background to the war in Flanders in 1254[593].  The Annales Blandinienses record the succession in 1244 of "Margareta soror eius [=Iohanna comitissa}"[594].  She succeeded her sister in 1244 as MARGUERITE II Ctss of Flanders and Ctss de Hainaut, both her husbands having died.  Her children by her first marriage claimed their inheritance, but Louis IX King of France ruled in 1246 that Hainaut should be given to the Avesnes children and Flanders to the Dampierre children[595].  She abdicated 29 Dec 1278 in favour of her son Guy de Dampierre.  The Necrologio Sanctæ Waldetrudis records the death "IV Id Feb" of "Margarete Flandrie et Hanonie…comitisse"[596]m firstly (before 23 Jul 1212, annulled 1215, separated [1221]) BOUCHARD d'Avesnes, son of JACQUES Seigneur d'Avesnes, de Leuze et de Condé & his wife Adeline de Guise ([1180]-1244, bur Clairefontaine).  Matthew of Paris names Bouchard as first husband of Marguerite in his description of the background to the war in Flanders in 1254[597]m secondly ([18 Aug/15 Nov] 1223) GUILLAUME [II] Seigneur de Dampierre, son of GUY [II] Seigneur de Dampierre, Sire de Bourbon & his wife Mathilde de Bourbon, dame de Bourbon (after 1196-3 Sep 1231). 

children of first marriage:

-        SEIGNEUR d'AVESNES, COMTES de HAINAUT

children of second marriage:

-        see below, Chapter 3.  COUNTS of FLANDERS 1244-1283 (DAMPIERRE)

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    COUNTS of FLANDERS 1244-1405 (DAMPIERRE)

 

 

GUILLAUME de Dampierre, son of GUY II Seigneur de Dampierre, Sire de Bourbon & his wife Mathilde de Bourbon, dame de Bourbon (after 1196-3 Sep 1231).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "primogenitus Erchenbaldus…secundus Guilelmus de Moyelen et de Dampetra…tertius Guido" as the three sons of "Guido de Dampetra", specifying that Guillaume married "Margaretam comitisse Flandrie quem Burchardus clericus de Avennis rapuerat"[598].  He succeeded as GUILLAUME II Seigneur de Dampierre

m ([18 Aug/15 Nov] 1223) as her second husband, MARGUERITE de Flandre, separated wife of BOUCHARD d'Avesnes, daughter of BAUDOUIN IX Count of Flanders [BAUDOUIN VI Comte de Hainaut] & his wife Marie de Champagne (2 Jun 1202-10 Feb 1280).  She succeeded her sister in 1244 as MARGUERITE II Ctss of Flanders, Ctss de Hainaut. 

Guillaume & his wife had five children: 

1.         GUILLAUME [III] de Dampierre (1224-Trazegnies 6 Jun 1251, bur Abbaye de Marquette near Lille)The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Guillelmum Guodnem et Iohannem" as the three sons of "Guillelmo domino de Dampetra [et] Margaretæ", specifying that "primo mortuo sine liberis in tornramento apud Trasegnies"[599].  His parentage is specified by Matthew of Paris[600].  He succeeded his father in 1231 as Seigneur de Dampierre.  Seigneur de Courtrai.  After his mother succeeded as Ctss of Flanders in 1244, his half-brother Jean d'Avesnes claimed his inheritance.  Louis IX King of France ruled in 1246 that Hainaut should be given to Jean d'Avesnes while Guillaume de Dampierre should inherit Flanders[601], thereby succeeding as GUILLAUME III Count of Flanders, ruling jointly with his mother.  Willem II Count of Holland, as king of Germany, received homage from Guillaume de Dampierre for imperial Flanders in 1248[602].  Guillaume III died from injuries received during a tournament, his mother suspecting that the allies of the Avesnes family of Hainaut were responsible[603].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1251 of "Willelmus comes Flandrie" and his burial at "Market"[604].  The Necrologio Sanctæ Waldetrudis records the death "III Non Mai" of "Willermi comitis Flandrie"[605]m (Louvain Nov 1247) as her second husband, BEATRIX de Brabant, widow of HEINRICH "Raspe" Landgraf of Thuringia King of Germany, daughter of HENRI II Duke of Brabant & his first wife Maria von Hohenstaufen (1225-11 Nov 1288, bur Abbaye de Marquette near Lille).  The Oude Kronik van Brabant names (in order) "Mechtildim comitissam Atrebatensem et Sancti Pauli, Mariam comitissam palatinam Reni, Beatricem lantgraviam Thuringie postea comitissam Flandrie, et Margaretam sanctiomonialem, postea abbatissam in Valle Ducis" as the daughters of "Henricus secundus et quintus dux Brabancie" and his first wife Marie[606].  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ names "Beatricem filiam Henrichi ducis Brabantie et viduam comitis Turingie" wife of "Willelmus primogenitus [Marghareta [et] Willelmo de Danpetra]"[607].  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon names "Beatricem filiam Henrichi ducis Brabantie et viduam comitis Turingie" as the wife of "Willelmus primogenitus [Willelmi de Danpetra]"[608].  "Domina Beatrix Flandriæ comitissa relicta…Guillelmi quondam Flandriæ comitis" donated property to the abbey of Marquette by charter dated Dec 1264[609]

2.         GUY de Dampierre ([1225/26]-imprisoned Compiègne 7 Mar 1305)The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Guillelmum Guodnem et Iohannem" as the three sons of "Guillelmo domino de Dampetra [et] Margaretæ", specifying that "primo mortuo sine liberis in tornramento apud Trasegnies"[610].  He succeeded his brother in 1251 as GUY joint Count of Flanders, and his mother as sole Count in 1278. 

-        see below

3.         JEAN de Dampierre (-1258).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Guillelmum Guodnem et Iohannem" as the three sons of "Guillelmo domino de Dampetra [et] Margaretæ", specifying that "primo mortuo sine liberis in tornramento apud Trasegnies"[611].  Matthew of Paris specifies that his parents had "two others" when he records the parentage of his brother Guillaume, but does not name the other children[612].  The Annales Blandinienses name "Iohann de Dampetra" as brother of Guy Count of Flanders, when recording the liberation of the two brothers from captivity in Holland[613]Seigneur de Dampierre-sur-l'Aube, de Sompuis et de Saint-Dizier.  Vicomte de Troyes.  Connétable de Champagne. 

-        SEIGNEURS de DAMPIERRE et de SAINT-DIZIER.  

4.         JEANNE de Dampierre (-[1245/46], bur Abbaye de Sainte Hoïlde[614])The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ refers to the two (unnamed) daughters of Marguerite and "Willelmo de Danpetra", specifying that one married "comiti de Baeren"[615].  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon records that, of the two daughters of "Marghareta" and "Willelmo de Dampetra", one "nupsit Christo, altera comiti de Baeren"[616].  “Marguerite dame de Dampierre” and “Huon conte de Retest” agreed the marriage of the latter and “damoisiele Jehane ma fille”, with details of the dowry, by charter dated Nov 1239[617].  The marriage contract between "Guillaumes sires de Dampierre…madame Jehanne ma…suer" and "Thiebaut conte de Bar" is dated 3 May 1243[618].  A charter dated Jul 1245 records an agreement between "Thibaud comte de Bar" and "Jean comte de Rethel" concerning the dowry of "Jeanne veuve de Hugues comte de Rethel" who had married the former[619]m firstly (contract 15 May 1239) as his second wife, HUGUES [III] Comte de Rethel, son of HUGUES [II] Comte de Rethel & his wife Félicité de Broyes dame de Beaufort (before 1200-[May 1242/Jun 1243]).  m secondly (betrothed 3 May 1243, [Mar/Jul] 1245) as his first wife, THIBAUT II Comte de Bar, son of HENRI II Comte de Bar & his wife Philippe de Dreux [Capet], dame de Torcy-en-Brie ([1221]-Oct 1291).  

5.         MARIE de Dampierre (-21 Dec 1302).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ refers to the two (unnamed) daughters of Marguerite & "Willelmo de Danpetra", specifying that one became a nun[620].  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon records that, of the two daughters of "Marghareta" & "Willelmo de Dampetra", one "nupsit Christo, altera comiti de Baeren"[621].  Abbess of Flines, near Douai. 

 

 

GUY de Dampierre, son of GUILLAUME [II] Seigneur de Dampierre & his wife Marguerite II Ctss of Flanders ([1225/26]-Compiègne 7 Mar 1305, bur Abbaye de Flines, near Douai).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Guillelmum Guodnem et Iohannem" as the three sons of "Guillelmo domino de Dampetra [et] Margaretæ", specifying that "primo mortuo sine liberis in tornramento apud Trasegnies"[622].  Matthew of Paris specifies that his parents had "two others" when he records the parentage of his brother Guillaume, but does not name the other children[623].  He succeeded his brother in 1251 as GUY joint Count of Flanders.  Willem II Count of Holland, as king of Germany, pronounced that Count Guy and his mother had forfeited imperial Flanders by failing to do homage to him.  His forces attacked Holland in 1253 and Count Guy was defeated at Westkappel, on the island of Walcheren, in Jul 1253 and captured.  His mother sought help from Charles Duc d'Anjou, who agreed in return for receiving the county of Hainaut which he partially subjugated.  A truce was negotiated between all parties 26 Jul 1254, which included an agreement to submit the dispute to Louis IX King of France for adjudication[624].  Count Guy was ransomed in 1256, when King Louis IX confirmed his 1246 decision regarding the Hainaut/Flanders split between the Avesnes/Dampierre families[625].  Guy bought the rights to Namur 20 Mar 1263 from Baudouin II titular Emperor of Constantinople[626].  He succeeded as sole Count of Flanders on the abdication of his mother 29 Dec 1278.  Following complaints of maladministration, together with commercial difficulties following a long-running trading dispute with England, rebellions broke out in Bruges and Ypres in 1280/81[627].  Conflicts with France arose after the accession in 1285 of King Philippe IV.  In 1290, the emperor enfeoffed Jean d'Avesnes Comte de Hainaut with imperial Flanders, although he lacked the means to enforce it.  Count Guy established closer ties with England, confirmed by the Treaty of Lier 31 Aug 1294 under which his daughter was betrothed to the future Edward II King of England.  Philippe IV King of France summoned Count Guy to Paris, imprisoned him for four months with two of his sons, forced him to abandon the English betrothal, and obliged him to adhere to the French embargo of trade with England[628].  In Mar 1296, Count Guy's acceptance of an invitation from Valenciennes, chief city of Hainaut, to annex it to Flanders provoked Jean d'Avesnes Comte de Hainaut into invading Flanders from Holland.  King Philippe IV declared Flanders forfeit, but restored it on payment of a fine.  Count Guy renounced homage to the French king, who attacked Flanders 15 Jun 1297.  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records that "Karolus comes Valesii" captured "Guido comes Flandrensium...cum duobus filiis Roberto et Guillermo" in 1299[629]He attacked again 6 Jan 1300, incorporated Flanders into the royal domain, took Count Guy and his sons as prisoners to Paris, and appointed Jacques de Châtillon as royal lieutenant.  An uprising followed in Bruges, prompting another French invasion which was heavily defeated at Courtrai 11 Jul 1302.  The French navy defeated the Flemish at Zierikzee in 1304, and an indecisive battle at Mons-en-Pévèle followed 18 Aug 1304[630]The Continuatio of the Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records the death in Feb 1305 of "Guido comes Flandrensis", while still in captivity, the return of his body to Flanders, and his burial "Marguetæ"[631]

m firstly (contract 2 Feb 1246) MATHILDE de Béthune, dame de Béthune, Dendermonde, Richebourg et Warneton, daughter of ROBERT [VII] Seigneur de Béthune & his wife Elisabeth de Morialmes (after 1230-8 Nov 1264).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ names "Mathilde filia Roberti Tenremontensis" as wife of "Guido frater eius [=Willelmus]"[632].  The testament of "Mahaut feme au…Guion comte de Flandre et dame de Béthune", dated Mar 1250, is witnessed by "…monseigneur Robert sénéchal de Flandre, monseigneur Hellyn son frère, monseigr Guillaume de Grimberghes"[633].  The Annales Blandinienses record the wife of Comte Guy as "filiam Roberti advocati Bethunensis", and the death of "Mathildis uxor Widonis comitis" in 1262[634]

m secondly (May 1264) ISABELLE de Luxembourg, daughter of HENRI II Comte de Luxembourg & his wife Marguerite de Bar, dame de Ligny-en-Barrois (-25 Sep 1298).  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon names "Elysabeth filia Henrici comitis de Lucemborch" as the second wife of "Guido", specifying that he obtained the county of Namur through her[635].  The History of the Bishops of Liège written by Jean Hocsemius, canon at Liège, records that "Isabella Flandriæ comitissa soror...comitis Lutzilburgensis" appointed “dominum de Falcomonte” to “terræ dotis suæ Namurcensis” in 1288 after “bellum apud castrum de Waronc” in which her brother was killed[636]

Guy & his first wife had eight children:

1.         ROBERT de Flandre ([1249]-Ypres 17 Sep 1322, bur Ypres Saint Martin, transferred to Ypres Cathedral).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ names (in order) "Robertum, Willelmum, Iohannem episcopum Leodiensum, Balduinem et Philippum" as the sons of "Guido…ex Mathilde filia Roberti Tenremontensis"[637].  He succeeded his father in 1305 as ROBERT III Count of Flanders

-        see below

2.         GUILLAUME de Flandre "Sans-Terre" (after 1249-1311).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ names (in order) "Robertum, Willelmum, Iohannem episcopum Leodiensum, Balduinem et Philippum" the sons of "Guido…ex Mathilde filia Roberti Tenremontensis"[638]The Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records that "Karolus comes Valesii" captured "Guido comes Flandrensium...cum duobus filiis Roberto et Guillermo" in 1299[639]Seigneur de Dendermonde et de Crèvecœur, the former presumably transferred to him by his older brother.  m (1286) as her first husband, ALIX de Clermont Vicomtesse de Châteaudun, dame de Mondoubleau, heiress of Dunois, daughter of RAOUL [III] de Clermont Seigneur de Nesle, Connétable de France & his first wife Alix de Dreux Vicomtesse de Châteaudun (-1330).  The Chronicle attributed to Jean Desnouelles records that "li contes de Flandres...sen fil Guillaume" married "la fille Raul de Neelle connestable de Franche"[640]The Chronique Normande records that "Guillaume filz du conte de Flandres" married "la fille Raoul connestable de France"[641].  She married secondly ([1312]) as his second wife, Jean de Chalon Seigneur d'ArlayHer second marriage is confirmed by the marriage contract between "Robert comte de Boloigne et Robert de Boloigne chevalier son fils" and "Jehan de Chalon Seigneur d´Arlay et Aelis dame de Neele sa femme...et Marie de Flandres fille de ladite dame de Neele", dated Feb 1312[642]According to Europäische Stammtafeln, the daughter of Guillaume de Flandre Heer van Dendermonde was the second wife of Jean de Chalon Sire d'Arlay[643].  The previously quoted source demonstrates that this is incorrect.  Guillaume & his wife had six children: 

a)         GUILLAUME de Flandre (-1320)A document relating to the marriage of "Roberto filio...Roberti comitis Boloniæ" and "Aelis domina de Nigella uxor...Johannis de Cabilone...Mariam filiam suam primogenitam", dated Dec 1312, names "Johannes et Guido de Flandria fratres...et...Guillelmum, Ysabellum et Johannem liberos dictæ dominæ fratres dictorum Johannis et Guidonis de Flandria"[644]He succeeded his father in 1311 as Seigneur de Dendermonde.  He succeeded as Vicomte de Châteaudun, Seigneur de Nesle-en-Picardie, by right of his mother.  m as her first husband, MARIA von Vianden, heiress of Rumpst and Schorisse [Escornaix], daughter of PHILIPP von Vianden Heer van Rumpst & his wife Marie de Cernay.  She married secondly (before 1324) as his first wife, Enguerrand de Coucy Vicomte de Meaux.  

b)         JEAN de Flandre (-killed in battle 2 May 1325).  He succeeded his father in 1311 as Seigneur de Crèvecœur et d'Arleux.  A document relating to the marriage of "Roberto filio...Roberti comitis Boloniæ" and "Aelis domina de Nigella uxor...Johannis de Cabilone...Mariam filiam suam primogenitam", dated Dec 1312, names "Johannes et Guido de Flandria fratres...et...Guillelmum, Ysabellum et Johannem liberos dictæ dominæ fratres dictorum Johannis et Guidonis de Flandria"[645]He succeeded his brother in 1320 as Seigneur de Dendermonde et de Nesle-en-Picardie.  m (1315) BEATRIX de Châtillon, daughter of JACQUES [I] de Châtillon Seigneur de Condé & his wife Catherine de Condé (-after 1350).  The Continuatio of the Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records the marriage "dominica in octabas apostolorum" in 1315 of "Johannes filius Flandrensis ---" and "filiam comitis Sancti Pauli"[646]Jean & his wife had five children: 

i)          JEAN de Flandre (-young).  

ii)         MARIE de Flandre (-[8 Jul 1349/before 1356]).  She succeeded her father as Dame de Dendermonde, de Nesle-en-Picardie et de Mondoubleau.  m (before 1330) as his first wife, ENGUERRAND [I] "le Grand" Sire d'Amboise et de Chevreuse, son of PIERRE [I] Sire d'Amboise & his wife Jeanne dame de Chevreuse et de Maurepas (-before 1373). 

iii)        MARGUERITE de Flandre (-after 3 Jul 1387)m (before 4 May 1341) GUILLAUME de Craon, son of AMAURY [III] Sire de Craon & his second wife Béatrix de Roucy [Pierrepont] (after 15 Apr 1318-8 Jun 1387, bur Châteaudun, Abbaye des Cordeliers). 

iv)       ISABELLE  de Flandre (-after 28 Feb 1387).  Franciscan nun in Paris.

v)        MATHILDE de Flandre .  1369.

c)         GUY de Flandre (after 1286-Apr 1345[647] or after)A document relating to the marriage of "Roberto filio...Roberti comitis Boloniæ" and "Aelis domina de Nigella uxor...Johannis de Cabilone...Mariam filiam suam primogenitam", dated Dec 1312, names "Johannes et Guido de Flandria fratres...et...Guillelmum, Ysabellum et Johannem liberos dictæ dominæ fratres dictorum Johannis et Guidonis de Flandria"[648]Seigneur de Richebourg.  m firstly (after 1315) as her second husband, MARIE d'Enghien, Châtelaine de Gand, Vrouwe van Zotteghem, widow of HUGUES [V] Sire d’Antoing et d'Epinoy, daughter of GERARD [II] van Zotteghem [Enghien], Châtelain de Gand, Heer van Zotteghem & his first wife Marie van Gent (-1318).  m secondly (Oct 1321) as her second husband, BEATRIX van Putten, widow of HUGO van Zotteghem Burchgraeve van Gent, Heer van Zotteghem, daughter and heiress of NIKOLAAS [IV] Heer van Putten & his wife Aleid van Strijen (-18 Jun 1354).  Guy & his first wife had one child: 

i)          ALIX de Flandre ([1316/18]-4 May 1346).  She succeeded her father in [1345] as Dame de Richebourg.  "Iehan de Lucembourc chastellain de Lille et sires de Roussy et Iehan de Neele sires d´Offemont chevalier et conseiller du roy...tuteurs et curateurs de Guy, Waleran, Henry, Iehan, Philippe et Iehanne meneurs d´ans, enfans de nous Iehan de Lucembourc et de feu Aalips de Flandres iadix ma fame" issued letters relating to the children´s succession dated 1 Aug 1347[649]m (contract 10 Jul 1330) as his first wife, JEAN [I] de Luxembourg Seigneur de Ligny, de Beauvoir et de Roussy, son of VALERAN [II] de Luxembourg, Sire de Ligny, de Beauvoir et de Roussy & his wife Guyotte chatelaine de Lille ([1300]-17 May 1364, bur Phalampin).

d)         MARIE de Flandre (-1350)The marriage contract between "Robert comte de Boloigne et Robert de Boloigne chevalier son fils" and "Jehan de Chalon Seigneur d´Arlay et Aelis dame de Neele sa femme...et Marie de Flandres fille de ladite dame de Neele" is dated Feb 1312[650]Vicomtesse de Châteaudun, which she presumably sold in 1340 to her niece's husband Guillaume de Craon.  m (contract Dec 1312) as his second wife, ROBERT [VII] "le Grand" d'Auvergne, son of ROBERT [VI] Comte d´Auvergne et de Boulogne & his wife Beatrix de Montgascon (-St Geraldus 13 Oct 1325, bur Le Bouchet).  He succeeded his father in 1317 as Comte d'Auvergne et de Boulogne.    

e)         ISABELLE de FlandreA document relating to the marriage of "Roberto filio...Roberti comitis Boloniæ" and "Aelis domina de Nigella uxor...Johannis de Cabilone...Mariam filiam suam primogenitam", dated Dec 1312, names "Johannes et Guido de Flandria fratres...et...Guillelmum, Ysabellum et Johannem liberos dictæ dominæ fratres dictorum Johannis et Guidonis de Flandria"[651]1330.  Dame de Brion.

f)          JEANNE de Flandre (-after 1342)A document relating to the marriage of "Roberto filio...Roberti comitis Boloniæ" and "Aelis domina de Nigella uxor...Johannis de Cabilone...Mariam filiam suam primogenitam", dated Dec 1312, names "Johannes et Guido de Flandria fratres...et...Guillelmum, Ysabellum et Johannem liberos dictæ dominæ fratres dictorum Johannis et Guidonis de Flandria"[652]"Gerardus dominus de Diest et castellanus Antverpiensis…necnon…domina Johanna de Flandria eius coniunx" founded the church of Zeelhem, for the souls of "dominæ Mariæ piæ memoriæ dominæ quondam de Diest", by charter dated 1 Feb 1328[653].  1327/42.  m firstly (after 1325) as his second wife, GERHARD Heer van Diest, Burggraaf van Antwerpen, son of ARNOUT [VI] Heer van Diest, Burggraaf van Antwerpen & his wife Elisabeth de Mortagne (-1333).  m secondly (1336) as his third wife, OTTO van Cuyck, Heer van Mierlo en Zeelem, son of JAN [I] van Cuyck, Heer van Merum en Neerloon & his wife Jutta von Nassau (-1350).  No issue by either marriage.  

3.         JEAN de Flandre ([1250]-Anhève 14 Apr 1292, bur Flines-lez-Raches).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ names (in order) "Robertum, Willelmum, Iohannem episcopum Leodiensum, Balduinem et Philippum" the sons of "Guido…ex Mathilde filia Roberti Tenremontensis"[654].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1291 of "Iohannes, filius Guidonis comitis Flandrie et Mathildis de Bethunia eius coniugis, episcopus Leodiensis" specifying his burial at "Felinis" {Flines-lez-Raches, near Douai}[655].  Provost of St Donat at Bruges 1270.  Provost of St Pierre at Lille 1274/77.  Bishop of Metz 1279.  The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensium (Continuatio) records the succession of “filius comitis Flandrensis dominus Johannes” who was later transferred “ad Leodiensem ecclesiam[656]Bishop of Liège 1282.  A letter dated 13 Oct 1291 bears his seal[657].  The Biographie Nationale de Belgique records his death 14 Apr 1292 at Anhève but does not cite the corresponding primary source[658].  The early 17th century artist Antoine Succa sketched some details of his monument[659]

4.         MARGUERITE de Flandre ([1251]-3 Jul 1285, bur Brussels Franciscan Church).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ refers to the three (unnamed) daughters of "Guido…ex Mathilde filia Roberti Tenremontensis", specifying that one (listed first) married "Iohanni duci Brabantie"[660].  The Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Ampliata names "Margaretam filiam Guidonis comitis Flandrie" as the second wife of "Iohannes dux Lothoringie et Brabantie"[661].  The Oude Kronik van Brabant records that "Johannes primus…in ducatu Lotharingie et Brabancie" married secondly "Margareta, filia Guidonis comitis Flandrie"[662].  The Annales Blandinienses name "Margaretha duxissa Brabantie, filia Guidonis comitis Flandrie" when recording her death in 1284 and burial in Brussels[663]Betrothed (Papal dispensation 6 Aug 1266[664]) to PIERRE de Bretagne Seigneur de Dinan, Léon, Hédé, Hennebont et La Roche-Derrien, son of JEAN I Duke of Brittany & his wife Infanta doña Blanca de Navarra [Champagne] (Châteaulin, Finistère 2 Apr 1241-Paris 19 Oct 1268, bur Paris, église des Cordeliers).  m (1273) as his second wife, JEAN I “the Victorious” Duke of Brabant, son of HENRI III "le Pacifique/le Débonnaire" Duke of Brabant & his wife Alix de Bourgogne [Capet] (Brussels 1253-Antwerp 3 May 1294, bur Brussels Franciscan Church).

5.         BAUDOUIN de Flandre ([1252]-1296).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ names (in order) "Robertum, Willelmum, Iohannem episcopum Leodiensum, Balduinem et Philippum" the sons of "Guido…ex Mathilde filia Roberti Tenremontensis"[665]

6.         MARIE de Flandre (1253-[1297], bur Châteauvillain).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ refers to the three (unnamed) daughters of "Guido…ex Mathilde filia Roberti Tenremontensis", specifying that the third married "Willelmo comiti de Ghuleke"[666].  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon refers to the third of the three daughters of "Guido…[et] Mathilde filia Roberti Tenremontensis" as the wife of "Willelmo comiti de Gouleke" and, after her first husband was killed, of "domino de Castello Villico"[667].  “Jehan Sire de Chatiau-Villain et...Jehanne sa femme...et...Simons chevailiers ainnéz fils dou dist seingnour et...Marie fille au conte de Flandre femme au dist Symons” freed the inhabitants of Châteauvillain by charter dated 1286[668].  “Symons ainnez fils Monseignour de Chasteau-vilein...[et] ma...feme Marie fille le Conte de Flandres” acknowledged that they held “mon chasteaul de Bremur” from Robert III Duke of Burgundy by charter dated Apr 1293[669].  The testament of "Marie fille du comte de Flandres femme de Simon de Chasteauvillain seigneur d´Arc" is dated 1294 and a codicil dated 1297[670]m firstly WILHELM von Jülich, son of WILHELM IV Graf von Jülich & his wife Richardis van Gelre (-killed in battle Aachen 16 Mar 1278).  m secondly (contract Jan 1281, before 18 Mar 1285) SIMON [II] Seigneur de Châteauvillain, son of JEAN [I] Seigneur de Châteauvillain & his wife Jeanne --- (-28 Jun 1306). 

7.         BEATRIX de Flandre (1260-23 Mar 1296).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ refers to the three (unnamed) daughters of "Guido…ex Mathilde filia Roberti Tenremontensis", specifying that one (listed second) married "Florentie comiti Hollandie"[671].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Floris and "Beatricem filiam Guidonis Flandrensis comitis"[672].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "1296 X Kal Aug" of "Beatricem conthoralem suam"[673]m ([1279]) FLORIS V Count of Holland, son of WILLEM II Count of Holland, King of Germany & his wife Elisabeth von Braunschweig (Jul 1254-murdered 27 Jun 1296, bur Rijnsburg Monastery).  

8.         PHILIPPE de Flandre ([1263]-in Italy Nov 1318).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ names (in order) "Robertum, Willelmum, Iohannem episcopum Leodiensum, Balduinem et Philippum" the sons of "Guido…ex Mathilde filia Roberti Tenremontensis"[674].  The Annales Blandinienses name "Robbertum comitem Nivernensem et Philipphum" sons of Guy Count of Flanders, when recording their war against Floris Count of Holland in 1290[675].  He was taken to Apulia by Charles I King of Sicily who made him military commander of his campaigns in Sicily[676].  Conte di Teano.  He returned to Flanders in May 1303 to become regent during the imprisonment of his father.  He swore allegiance to Philippe IV King of France at Lille in Sep 1304 and negotiated the Treaty of Athis-sur-Orge which the Flemish were obliged to sign in Jun 1305[677]m firstly (contract Wijnendaele 1284 before 25 Jun) MATHILDE de Courtenay Ctss di Chieti, dame de Pandy et de Neuvy, daughter of RAOUL de Courtenay Seigneur d’Illiers, Conte di Chieti & his wife Alix de Montfort Ctss de Bigorre ([1254]-Naples [after May] 1303).  This marriage was arranged by Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet][678].  A charter dated 1297 records the appointment of arbitrators in the dispute between "Mathildis de Courtenaio comitissa Theati uxor…domini Philippi de Flandria, filii…comitis Flandrensis" and "Lora vicecomitissa Turenne domina de Cabanesio soror dicte domine Mathildis" concerning the county of Bigorre, which they had sold to "domina Johanna regina Francie et Navarre"[679].  A charter dated 1 Mar 1298 records the decision of the arbitrators in the dispute between "domina Matildim comitissam Theauti" and "dominam Loram vicecomitissam Turenne dominam de Cabanesio sororem dicte domine Mathildis" concerning the county of Bigorre, deciding that if the county was ever recovered from "domina Johanna regina Francie et Navarre" it should be held by both parties according to their respective shares[680].  She returned to Flanders with her husband in May 1303[681]m secondly ([1304]) as her third husband, PERNELLE de Milly Ctss di Loretta, widow firstly of ETIENNE [III] de Sancerre Seigneur de Saint-Brisson et de Châtillon-sur-Loing and secondly of GUY de Vaudémont, daughter of GEOFFROY Seigneur de Milly, Seneschal of the kingdom of Naples & his second wife Eléonore --- (-before 1335). 

Guy & his second wife had eight children:

9.         MARGUERITE de Flandre (-1331).  The Liber Pluscardensis records the marriage at Roxburgh in 1279 of "Alexander filius Alexandri tercii et…Margaretæ sororis Edwardi Langschankiæ regis Angliæ" and "filiam comitis Flandreæ"[682].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the marriage "apud Roxburgh…dominica proxima post festum Martini" of "Alexander filius regis Alexandri" and "filiam comitis Flandrie" and the celebration which lasted 15 days, adding that she returned to Flanders after her husband died[683].  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "Rennolt…grave van Gelre" married secondly "dye dochter van dye grave van Flanderen", naming her "Mergreta" in a later passage[684].  The contract of marriage between "Renauls cuens de Ghelre et dus de Lemburgh" and "Guyon conte de Flandre et marchis de Namur et…dame Ysabel se feme…et noble damoisel Margherite fille dou conte et delle contesse devant ditte" is dated 21 Apr 1286[685].  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "dye gravinne van Gelre, Mergreta dochter van Flanderen" died in 1321 and was buried "toe Groenendaell"[686]m firstly (Roxburgh 1279 or 15 Nov 1282) ALEXANDER Prince of Scotland, son of ALEXANDER III "the Glorious" King of Scotland & his first wife Margaret of England (Jedburgh, Roxburghshire 21 Jun 1264-Lindores Abbey, Fife 28 Jan 1283, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  m secondly (Namur 3 Jul 1286) as his second wife, REINALD I Graaf van Gelre, son of OTTO II Graaf van Gelre & his second wife Philippa de Dammartin (-9 Oct 1326). 

10.      JEANNE de Flandre (-1296).  Nun at Flines 1283. 

11.      BEATRIX de Flandre (-after 1307)m (1287) HUGUES [II] de Châtillon, son of GUY [II] de Châtillon-sur-Marne Comte de Saint-Pol & his wife Mathilde de Brabant (1258-1307).  He succeeded as Comte de Blois et de Dunois in 1292. 

12.      JEAN de Flandre (1267-[28 Oct 1329/31 Jan 1330], Bruges, église des Cordeliers).  The Chronique Normande names "Jehan, Guy et Henry" as the three sons of "conte en Flandres…Guy de Dampierre" by his second wife "fille au conte de Luxembourg"[687]His parentage is confirmed by the Continuatio of the Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis which records the marriage in 1308 of "Johannes de Namursio filius Guidonis Flandrensis comitis"[688]His father appointed him as Governor of the County of Namur at Gent 5 Nov 1297, then ceded his rights to the county 2 Oct 1298, whereby he became JEAN I Comte de Namur.     

-        COMTES de NAMUR.  

13.      GUY de Flandre (-Pavia [10/15] Oct 1311)The Chronique Normande names "Jehan, Guy et Henry" as the three sons of "conte en Flandres…Guy de Dampierre" by his second wife "fille au conte de Luxembourg"[689].  Seigneur de Renaix, Graaf van Zeeland 1294.  He was probably killed in battle fighting in the army of Heinrich VII King of Germany[690]m (contract Sierck 31 Mar 1311, Papal dispensation 1 May 1311) as her first husband, MARGUERITE de Lorraine, daughter of THIBAUT II Duke of Lorraine & his wife Isabelle de Rumigny (-[17 Mar 1344/25 Sep 1349], bur [Abbaye d'Orval]).  She married secondly ([25 Jan/22 May] 1313) Louis [III] de Looz, who succeeded his father in 1327 as Comte de Looz et de Chiney. 

14.      HENRI de Flandre (-6 Nov 1337, bur Bruges)The Chronique Normande names "Jehan, Guy et Henry" as the three sons of "conte en Flandres…Guy de Dampierre" by his second wife "fille au conte de Luxembourg"[691].  Conte de Lodi 1325.  m (Jan 1309) MARGARETA von Kleve, daughter of DIETRICH VIII Graf von Kleve & his second wife Margareta von Habsburg-Kyburg (-after 1325, bur Bruges).  Henri & his wife had two children: 

a)         HENRI de Flandre (-1366).  Heer van Ninove.  m firstly MARGARETA von Vianden, daughter of GOTTFRIED [I] Graf von Vianden & his first wife Aleidis van Oudenaarde (-1336).  m secondly (10 Oct 1352) PHILIPPA van Valkenburg heiress of Valkenburg and Sittard, daughter of REINOLD Heer van Valkenburg Seigneur de Montjoie, & his wife Maria van Boutershem.  1352/68.  Henri had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:    

i)          GOSWIN .  Heer van Rymerstech.  Goswin had one illegitimate child by MARGUERITE de Pape, daughter of ---: 

(a)        MARGUERITEm JEAN Paris, son of ---.  

b)         MARGUERITE de Flandre (-8 Jun 1334). 

15.      ISABELLE de Flandre (-1323)m (1307) JEAN [I] de Fiennes Châtelain de Bourbourg Seigneur de Tingry, son of GUILLAUME [II] de Fiennes & his wife Blanche de Brienne (-after 1333). 

16.      PHILIPPINE de Flandre (-Paris 2 Feb 1304).  The Chronique Normande names "Philippe" as the daughter of "conte en Flandres…Guy de Dampierre" by his second wife "fille au conte de Luxembourg", adding that she was betrothed to "le roy d´Angleterre…Edouart son filz"[692].  The Annals of Worcester record the betrothal of “Edwardum filium regis” and “filiam comitis Flandriæ” as part of the treaty agreed between England and Flanders “die Purificationis beatæ Mariæ” (2 Feb) in 1296[693].  The marriage contract between “Edward...Edward nostre...fiuz” and “Guy conte de Flandres et marchis de Namur...Phelippe fille au dit conte” is dated 7 Jan 1296 (O.S.)[694].  Philippe IV King of France obliged her father to abandon the betrothal after summoning him to Paris in 1300 and imprisoning him for four months with two of his sons.  Philippine was sent to Paris for her education[695]Betrothed (contract 7 Jan 1297) to EDWARD of England Prince of Wales, Comte de Ponthieu et de Montreuil, son of EDWARD I King of England & his first wife Infanta doña Leonor de Castilla (Caernarvon Castle 25 Apr 1284-murdered Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire 21 Sep 1327, bur Gloucester Cathedral).  He succeeded his father in 1307 as EDWARD II King of England

 

 

ROBERT de Flandre, son of GUY Count of Flanders & his first wife Mathilde de Béthune ([1249]-Ypres 17 Sep 1322, bur Ypres Saint Martin, transferred to Ypres Cathedral).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ names (in order) "Robertum, Willelmum, Iohannem episcopum Leodiensum, Balduinem et Philippum" as the sons of "Guido…ex Mathilde filia Roberti Tenremontensis"[696].  The Annales Blandinienses name "Robbertum comitem Nivernensem et Philipphum" as sons of Guy Count of Flanders, when recording their war against Floris Count of Holland in 1290[697].  He was installed by his father in 1264 as Seigneur et châtelain de Béthune, Seigneur de Dendermonde, after the death of his mother.  He accompanied his father-in-law Charles Comte d’Anjou in the conquest of Sicily in 1266, fighting at the battle of Benevento[698].  Comte de Nevers in 1272, in right of his second wife.  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records that "Karolus comes Valesii" captured "Guido comes Flandrensium...cum duobus filiis Roberto et Guillermo" in 1299[699]His father appointed him Governor of his lands 3 Nov 1299.  He was captured by the French, but released under the Treaty of Athis-sur-Orge which the Flemish were obliged to sign in Jun 1305[700], a few months after he had succeeded his father as ROBERT III "de Béthune" Count of Flanders.  He was forced to cede Lille, Douai and Orchies to France under the Treaty of Pontoise 11 Jul 1312, and under the terms of the Treaty of Arras in Jul 1313 Courtrai was placed under French rule.  In 1314, Count Robert ejected the French from Courtrai and besieged Lille.  He was preparing to attack Lille again in 1319, but renewed his allegiance to the French crown under the Treaty of Paris 5 May 1320, which was sealed by the betrothal of his grandson to the King of France's daughter[701]

m firstly (1266) BLANCHE d’Anjou, daughter of CHARLES de France Comte d’Anjou, [later CHARLES I King of Sicily] & his first wife Béatrice Ctss de Provence (1250-before 10 Jan 1270, bur Abbaye de Flines near Douai).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ names "Blancham filiam Karoli regis Sicilie" as first wife of "Robertus primogenitus Guidonis"[702].  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon names "Blancham filia Karoli regis Sicilie" as wife of "Robertus primogenitus Guidonis et Mathilde"[703].  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina records that one "ex filiabus" [of Charles I King of Sicily by his first wife] married "filio comitis Flandriæ"[704]An anonymous chronicle of the kings of France, written [1286/1314], records that "[le] filz au conte de Flandres...Robert...avouez de Béthune" married "[la] file à ce conte Charlle"[705].  The testament of "Beatrix…Regina Sicilie, Ducatus Apuliæ et Principatus Capuæ, Andegavensis, Provinciæ et Forcalquerii Comitissa" is dated "die Mercurii in crastino Beatorum Peteri et Pauli Apostolorum" in 1266, with bequests to "…filiam nostram Blancham maritatam Roberto Flandrensi…"[706].  She died in childbirth. 

m secondly (Mar 1272) as her second husband, YOLANDE de Bourgogne Ctss de Nevers, d'Auxerre et de Tonnerre, widow of JEAN “Tristan” de France Comte de Valois, daughter of EUDES de Bourgogne Comte de Nevers, d'Auxerre et de Tonnerre & his wife Mathilde Bourbon [Dampierre] Dame de Bourbon, Ctss de Nevers, d'Auxerre et de Tonnerre ([1248/49]-2 Jun 1280, bur Nevers, église Saint-François).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ names "Yolendem filiam Odonis comitis Nivernensis et viduam Iohannis filii Ludovici regis Francie" as second wife of "Robertus primogenitus Guidonis", specifying that her husband obtained the county of Nevers by this marriage[707].  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon names "Yolandem filiam Odonis comites Nivernensis et viduam Iohannis filii Ludovici…regis Francie" as [second] wife of "Robertus primogenitus Guidonis et Mathilde"[708].  An arrêt of the Parliament dated 1 Nov 1273 addressed “dominus Ioannes de Cabilone miles...de parte Aalesin uxorem suam...Yolandim comitissam Niverrnensem [...Robertum de Flandria eius maritum] et Margaretam reginam Siciliæ sorores suas” in respect of the succession of “Mathildis quondam comitissæ Nivernensis matris suæ”, ordered the partition of “Nivernensi, Altissiodorensi et Tornodorensi comitatib.”, under which Nevers was granted to Yolande, Tonnerre to Marguerite, and Auxerre to Alix[709]

Robert III & his first wife had two children:

1.         CHARLES de Flandre ([1266]-1277, aged 11).  He is named in the Chronicle of Gent which says "he did not long survive"[710]Betrothed (before Sep 1272) to ISABELLE de Bourgogne, daughter of HUGUES IV Duke of Burgundy & his second wife Béatrice de Champagne (-Chambly Aug 1323, bur Paris église des Grands Augustins).  The testament of “Hugo dux Burgundiæ”, dated Sep 1272, bequeathed dowry to “Ysabellam filiam meam” for her marriage to “domino Roberto de Flandria comiti Nivernensi...filium dicti Roberti primogenitum contrahendi[711]

2.         child (Jan 1269-).  No reference has been found to this child, but he/she must have existed, however briefly, if it is correct that Robert III's first wife died in childbirth "before 10 Jan 1269".  Assuming that Robert III's first child Charles was indeed 11 years old when he died in 1277, he could not have been the child in question. 

Robert III & his second wife had five children:

3.         LOUIS de Flandre (-Paris 24 Jul 1322, bur Paris, Frères Mineurs).  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon names "Robertus primogenitus Guydonis, Ludovicus filius"[712]The Chronicle attributed to Jean Desnouelles names "Loys" as older son of "Robers...[et] se femme qui fu fille le duc de Bourgongne et fu contesse de Nevers", adding that he inherited the county of Nevers[713]He succeeded his mother in 1280 as Comte de Nevers.  He succeeded in 1290 as Comte de Rethel, by right of his wife.  He was opposed to all concessions to France.  Philippe IV King of France confiscated Nevers and Rethel, and Louis was jailed in 1311.  He escaped and took refuge in Imperial Flanders[714].  He allied himself with Hainaut and prepared to invade Flanders against the French in 1315 but his army was stopped by torrential rains[715]The Continuation of the Chronicle of Jean de Saint-Victor records the death in 1322 in Paris of "le conte de Nevers", after his release from prison, and his burial "chiez les frères Meneurs à Paris l´endemain de la Magdalène"[716]m (Dec 1290) JEANNE Ctss de Rethel, daughter and heiress of HUGUES [IV] Comte de Rethel & his third wife Isabelle de Grandpré (-[1325]).  The Continuation of the Chronicle of Jean de Saint-Victor specifies that the wife of "le conte de Nevers" returned "à son hyretage de Retest" after the death of her husband and received half the county of Nevers as her dower[717]Louis & his wife had two children: 

a)         JEANNE de Flandre ([1295]-Sep 1374).  She was famed for her gallant defence of Hennebont during her husband's captivity.  She accompanied King Edward III to England in Feb 1343, living in exile at Tickhill Castle, Yorkshire, maybe insane.  m (Chartres Mar 1329) JEAN de Bretagne Comte de Montfort-l’Amaury, son of ARTHUR II Duke of Brittany & his second wife Yolande de Dreux Ctss de Montfort l'Amuary (1293-Château d'Hennebont 26 Sep 1345, bur Quimperlé, église de la Sainte-Croix, later transferred to the couvent des Jacobins).  He succeeded in 1341 as JEAN IV Duke of Brittany

b)         LOUIS de Flandre ([1304]-killed in battle Crécy 25 Aug 1346, bur Bruges).  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon names "Ludovicus filius Ludovici comitis Nivernensis primogeniti Roberti"[718].  He succeeded his father in 1322 as Comte de Nevers et de Rethel, Seigneur de Malines.  He succeeded his grandfather in 1322 as LOUIS I Count of Flanders

-        see below

Louis had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

c)          ISABELLE bâtarde de Flandre (-1357/65).  Dame de Someghem.  m firstly SIMON de Mirabel Seigneur de Perwes (-1346).  m secondly ARNOUT van Huerle Heer van Rumen. 

4.         ROBERT de Flandre (-1331)The Chronicle attributed to Jean Desnouelles names "Robers...de Cassel" as younger son of "Robers...[et] se femme qui fu fille le duc de Bourgongne et fu contesse de Nevers"[719]Comte de Marle, Seigneur de Cassel et de Warneton, Baron d'Alluyes et de Montmirail.  He claimed greater rights in the succession from his father who was obliged to compensate him with an income of 10,000 livres secured in Imperial Flanders[720].  He persuaded his father to arrest his brother Louis in 1320, but the latter escaped and died in exile.  Robert provoked a rebellion in Bruges and, after the death of his father, tried to raise support to exclude his nephew from the succession[721]m (Papal dispensation 22 Nov 1322, St Germain-des-Prés 21 Sep 1323) JEANNE de Bretagne Dame de Nogent-le-Rotrou, daughter of ARTHUR II Duke of Brittany & his second wife Yolande de Dreux Ctss de Montfort l'Amuary (1296-Ypres 24 Mar 1364).  "Yolent Duchesse de Bretaigne Contesse de Montfort, Jehan de Bretaigne fil, damoiselles Jehanne, Beatrix et Aelis filles feu Artur Duc de Bretaigne et de lad. Duchesse, Bouchart Conte de Vandosme, Jehan de Vandosme son frere, Bouchart de Vendosme Seigneur de Bonneval et Thibaut de Danisy Seigneur de Boolon" were present at the marriage contract between “led. Conte de Vendosme” and “lad. damoiselle Aelis”, dated Aug 1320[722].  Pope John XXII granted dispensation for the marriage between “Roberto de Flandria quondam Roberti comitis Flandrie filio” and “Johanne nate quondam Arturi ducis Britanie” for 4o consanguinity, dated 22 Nov 1322[723].  "Domina Johanna de Britannia domina de Casleto, dicti domini…relicta" founded an anniversary for "dominus Robertus de Flandria dominus quondam de Casleto" at Warneton abbey by charter dated 1333[724].  Robert & his wife had two children: 

a)         YOLANDE de Flandre (château d'Alluyes, Eure-et-Loir 2 Feb or 15 Sep 1326 or 1331-château de Nieppe dit de La Motte-au-Bois, Hazebrouck, Nord 12 Dec 1395, bur Bar-le-Duc, église collégiale Saint-Maxe).  She succeeded her brother as Dame de Cassel, Dunkerque, Warneton, Bourbourg, Bergues, Gravelines, Nieppe, Bornem [all in Flanders], and Alluyes, Authon, La Bazoche, Brou and Montmirail [all in Perche].  After the death of her first husband, she governed the county of Bar in the name of her son until he was declared of age 27 Jul 1357.  Her son gave her the Seigneurie de la Puisaye.  She succeeded her mother 1363 as Dame de la baronnie de Nogent-le-Rotrou.  "Consanguinea nostra Yolandis de Flandria comitissa de Barro et domina de Cassello relicta defuncti Henrici quondam comitis de Barro" confirmed that she was the mother of "Roberti filii sui nunc comitis de Barro...nunc unici filii sui", and records “Edvardi primogeniti...tunc viventis”, by charter dated 5 Jun 1353 which also records that “Ioanna de Barro comitissa de Barro” affirmed that “defunctus Henricus quondam comes de Barro, proavusque dicti Roberti comitis” was father of “comitem Edvardum et ipsam comitissam de Garennis”, that “quidem comes Edvardus” was father of “Henricum comitem Barrensem maritum dictæ comitissæ Barrensis”, who was father of “præfati Edvardus comes ultimo defunctus et Robertus comes modernus[725].  The necrology of Nogent-le-Rotrou records the death “IV Non Feb“ of "domine Yolendis de Flandria comitisse de Barro et domine de Nogento” and her bequest of “argenteam sancti Johannis Baptiste...[726]Betrothed (Papal dispensation Avignon 14 Mar 1335) to her first cousin, LOUIS "de Mâle" de Flandre, son of LOUIS I Count of Flanders & his wife Marguerite de France (Maldegem/Mâle near Bruges 25 Nov 1330-9 Jan 1383 or Lille or St Omer 9 Nov 1384).  He succeeded his father in 1346 as LOUIS II Count of Flandersm firstly (dispensation Rome 24 Jun 1339, 1340) HENRI IV Comte de Bar, son of EDOUARD I Comte de Bar & his wife Marie de Bourgogne (-Paris, l'hôtel de Cassel 7 or 24 Dec 1344, bur Bar-le-Duc, église collégiale Saint-Maxe).  m secondly (13 Jun 1353) Infante don FELIPE de Navarra Comte de Longueville, son of FELIPE III King of Navarre Comte d'Evreux & his wife Juana II Queen of Navarre (-Vernon, Eure 29 Aug 1363, bur Notre Dame d'Evreux). 

b)         JEAN de Flandre (-after 1331).  He succeeded his father in 1331 as Seigneur de Cassel. 

5.         JEANNE de Flandre (-1333).  The Anciennes Chroniques de Flandre record that "la seconde [fille]" of "Robert" married "au seigneur de Couchy"[727].  A charter of Rupelmonde records that "Enguerran Sire de Coucy" married "dame Jeanne de Flandres fille aisnée du comte Robert de Flandres" in 1288[728].  She became abbess of Sauvoir near Laon after her husband died[729]m (May 1288) as his third wife, ENGUERRAND [IV] Seigneur de Coucy Vicomte de Meaux, son of ENGUERRAND [III] Seigneur de Coucy & his third wife Marie de Montmirail (-1310). 

6.         YOLANDE de Flandre (-Jan 1313).  The Anciennes Chroniques de Flandre record that "la tierce [fille]" of "Robert" married "au seigneur d´Enghien"[730].  Her parentage is confirmed by the Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello which records that "[il figlio]…[del] conte de Brenna" had one daughter who married "al signor d´Angloin" who was the son "della figlia del conte di Fiandra"[731]m (contract 24 Jul 1287) GAUTHIER [II] Seigneur d'Enghien, son of GAUTHIER [I] Seigneur d'Enghien & his third wife Marie de Rethel ([1267]-1310).  

7.         MATHILDE de Flandre (-after 13 Jan 1331).  The Continuation of the Chronicle of Jean de Saint-Victor records that "monseigneur Mathieu, frère du duc de Loherainne" married "la suer du dit Robert" [referring to Robert, son of Robert III Count of Flanders][732]The Anciennes Chroniques de Flandre record that "la quarte [fille]" of "Robert" married "à Mahieu de Lorraine"[733]m (contract 7 Mar 1314) MATHIEU de Lorraine Seigneur de Varsberg et de Darney, son of THIBAUT II Duke of Lorraine & his wife Isabelle de Rumigny (-1330). 

 

 

LOUIS de Flandre, son of LOUIS de Flandre Comte de Nevers et de Rethel & his wife Jeanne Ctss de Rethel ([1304]-killed in battle Crécy 25 Aug 1346, bur Bruges, St Donat).  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon names "Ludovicus filius Ludovici comitis Nivernensis primogeniti Roberti"[734].  He succeeded his father in 1322 as Comte de Nevers et de Rethel, Seigneur de Malines.  He succeeded his grandfather in 1322 as LOUIS I Count of Flanders.  Although the Flemish cities supported his succession, he was imprisoned in Jan 1323 by Charles IV King of France who confiscated Flanders before returning it to Count Louis and forcing his agreement to peace with Hainaut 6 Mar 1323, which settled the century long Avesnes/Dampierre feud.  Louis renounced his claims to Zeeland, while Guillaume I Comte de Hainaut renounced his claim to imperial Flanders[735].  A rebellion broke out in Bruges in 1324, and Count Louis was taken prisoner in early Jun 1324.  Rivalry also broke out between his uncle Robert de Cassel and his great-uncle Jean Marquis de Namur, who were in turn appointed regent of Flanders during the count's imprisonment.  Count Louis was released by the rebels 30 Nov 1325, and peace was signed at Arques 19 Apr 1326.  Following further disturbances in 1327, Count Louis fled to Paris.  The rebel army submitted to the French near Cassel 23 Aug 1328[736].  Jacob van Artevelde led another revolt from Gent in 1336, which spread to Bruges and Ypres.  Count Louis fled to France again in Dec 1339, and the rebels negotiated an alliance with England, supporting the English king's claim to the French throne.  Edward III King of England entered Gent 26 Jan 1340 and was proclaimed king of France there.  Van Artevelde was finally overthrown and killed in Gent 2 May 1345[737].  Count Louis was killed the following year fighting for the French against the English at Crécy. 

m (contract 21 Jun 1320, 22 Jul 1320) MARGUERITE de France, daughter of PHILIPPE V King of France & his wife Jeanne I Ctss Palatine de Bourgogne & d'Artois (1309-Paris 9 May 1382, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  The Continuatio of the Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records the marriage "in die Magdalenæ" in 1320 of "comes Flandrie...filium" and "unam de filiabus regis"[738]Her marriage was arranged under the Treaty of Paris 5 May 1320, which reaffirmed the loyalty of her future husband's grandfather to the French crown[739].  Ctss d'Artois 1361. 

Louis I & his wife had one child: 

1.         LOUIS de Flandre (Maldegem/Mâle near Bruges 25 Nov 1330-9 Jan 1383 or Lille or St Omer 9 Nov 1384).  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon names "Ludovicus…filius fuit Ludovicus dictus de Male"[740].  He succeeded his father in 1346 as LOUIS II “de Mâle” Count of Flanders, Comte de Nevers et de Rethel, Comte Palatin de Bourgogne, Comte d'Artois. 

-        see below.

Louis I had nine illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

2.          BOUDEWIJN .  1351.  m firstly CATHERINE van der Bisse, daughter of ---.  m secondly CATHERINE de Bailleul, daughter of ---.  Boudewijn & his first wife had two children:

a)         GEERTRUID .  1365.

b)         WILLEM

Boudewijn & his second wife had two children:

c)          LODEWIJK .

d)         GELEIJN

3.          ROBERT (-1360). 

4.          MARIAm (1351) OLIVIER van Poelvoorde, son of ---. 

5.          RUFLARD .

6.          CATHERINE (-1421).  m firstly PIETER Boudins, bailly of Bruges, son of ---.  m secondly CORNELIS van de Eeckhoute, son of --- (-1426). 

7.          LANCELOT .

8.          PERCEVAL

9.          TRISTRAIN .  Heer van Tempel. 

10.       GWIJDE (-[1396]).  Heer van Wendelghem.  m ---, daughter of PIETER van de Zijpe & his wife ---.  Gwijde & his wife had four children: 

a)         LODEWIJK (-after 1396).  m AGNES, daughter of ---.

b)         MARGARETHA (-1411).  m firstly (1396) TRISTRAIN van Messem, son of ---.  m secondly (1397) as his second wife, LOUIS van Temseke, son of --- (-1439).

c)          CLARAm firstly GILLIS Christiaans, son of --- (-1396).  m secondly JORIS Braderix, son of ---. 

d)         GWIJDE (-after 1396).  m CATHERINE, daughter of GILLIS Christiaans & his wife ---.  Gwijde & his wife had one child: 

i)          MARGARETHA (-1448).  Nun at Bruges. 

 

 

LOUIS de Flandre, son of LOUIS I Count of Flanders & his wife Marguerite de France Ctss d'Artois (Maldeghem/Mâle, near Bruges 25 Nov 1330-Saint-Omer 30 Jan 1383, bur Lille Saint-Pierre).  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon names "Ludovicus…filius fuit Ludovicus dictus de Male"[741].  He succeeded his father in 1346 as LOUIS II “de Mâle” Count of Flanders, Comte de Nevers et de Rethel, Comte Palatin de Bourgogne, Comte d'Artois.  After his brother-in-law Wenzel I Comte de Luxembourg, Duke of Brabant, initiated negotiations with his brother concerning the latter's eventual inheritance of the childless Wenzel's properties, Count Louis occupied Mechelen and Duke Wenzel was forced to flee to Limburg.  The dispute was settled by the peace of Ath under which Mechelen and Antwerp were transferred to Flanders, and Count Louis was granted the right to bear the title Duke of Brabant[742]

Betrothed (Papal dispensation Avignon 14 Mar 1335) to his first cousin, YOLANDE de Flandre, dame de Cassel, daughter of ROBERT de Flandre, Comte de Marle, Seigneur de Cassel & his wife Jeanne de Bretagne, dame de Nogent-le-Rotrou (château d'Alluyes, Eure-et-Loir 2 Feb or 15 Sep 1326 or 1331-château de Nieppe dit de La Motte-au-Bois, Hazebrouck, Nord 12 Dec 1395, bur Bar-le-Duc, église collégiale Saint-Maxe). 

Betrothed (before 1347, renewed 13 Mar 1347, terminated before 6 Jun 1347) to ISABELLA of England, daughter of EDWARD III King of England & his wife Philippa de Hainaut (Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire 16 Feb or [Mar] or 16 Jun [1332 or 1334]-[15 Mar/4 May] 1379 or [17 Jun/5 Oct] 1382, bur Greyfriars Church, Newgate, London).  A charter dated 13 Mar 1346 (O.S.) records the renewal of the contract for the marriage between “Loys contes de Flandres, de Nevers et de Rechest” and “Edward...Roi d´Engleterre...Ysabel ainsnee fille[743]

m (Saint-Quentin 6 Jun 1347) MARGUERITE de Brabant, daughter of JEAN III Duke of Brabant & his wife Marie d'Evreux (9 Feb 1323-1368, bur Lille Saint-Pierre).  The Oude Kronik van Brabant names "Johannam, Margaretam comitissam Flandrie, et Mariam coniugem Reynaldi Grossi ducis Ghelrie secundi" as the three daughters of "Johannes tertius" and his wife "Mariam filiam Ludowici comitis Eboracensis"[744]

Louis II & his wife had one child: 

1.         MARGUERITE de Flandre (Mâle near Bruges 1350, chr 13 Apr 1350-Arras 16 Mar 1405, bur Lille, église Saint-Pierre).  The marriage contract between “Philippes Duc de Bourgongne” and “Marguerite de Flandres” is dated 21 Mar 1356 (O.S.)[745].  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon records the marriage of "filiam comitis nostri Ludovici de Male Margaretam" and "Philippus filius regis Francie"[746].  A charter dated 20 Jul 1364 records negotiations for the marriage between “nostre...cousin le conte de Flandres...Margarete duchesse de Burgoigne file au dit conte” and “nostre...filz Esmon de Langele[747].  The contract for the marriage between “Edward...roi Engleterre...messieur Esmon counte de Cantebrigg filz au dit roi” and “Loys counte de Flandres, duc de Brabant, counte de Nyvers et de Rechest et sire de Malynes...dame Margarete duchesse de Burgoigne sa fille[748].  The Chronicon Angliæ records the betrothal of “Edmundus de Langley filius regis Edwardi” and “filiam et heredem...comitis Flandriæ”, adding that “rex Franciæ Karolus” blocked the marriage, dated to 1364 from the context[749].  She succeeded her father in 1383 as MARGUERITE III Ctss of Flanders, Ctss d'Artois, Ctss de Nevers and Rethel, Ctss Palatine of Burgundy.  Dss of Brabant and Limburg, Markgravine of Antwerp, Dame de Malines 1404.  m firstly (Papal dispensation 31 Jan 1356, contract Paris 21 Mar 1357, Arras, église Saint-Vaast 14 May 1357, not consummated) PHILIPPE I "de Rouvres" Duke of Burgundy, son of PHILIPPE "Monsieur" de Bourgogne [Capet], Comte d'Artois, Comte Palatin de Bourgogne, Comte d'Auvergne et de Boulogne & Jeanne I Ctss d'Auvergne et de Boulogne (château de Rouvres, Côte d'Or end Aug 1346-château de Rouvres 21 Nov 1361, bur Abbaye de Cîteaux).  Betrothed (19 Oct 1364) to EDMUND of Langley, son of EDWARD III King of England & his wife Philippa de Hainaut (Abbot’s Langley, Hertfordshire 5 Jun 1341-King’s Langley, Hertfordshire 1 Aug 1402, bur King’s Langley, Church of the Dominican Friars).  This betrothal was arranged under the Treaty of Dover 19 Oct 1364, but the French persuaded Pope Urban V to refuse a dispensation on grounds of consanguinity[750]m secondly (by proxy 12 Apr 1369, in person Gent 19 Jun 1369) PHILIPPE II "le Hardi" Duke of Burgundy, son of JEAN II "le Bon" King of France & his first wife Bonne de Luxembourg (Pontoise 15 Jan 1342-Hall 27 Apr 1404, bur Dijon). 

Louis II had fifteen illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

2.          LOUIS "le Haze" (-killed in battle Nicopolis 28 Sep 1396).  m --- de Landas, daughter of ---.  Louis & his wife had two children: 

a)         [751]RENAUD .  1397. 

b)         daughter .  m (1419) ---. 

3.          LOUIS "Friese" (-killed in battle Nicopolis 28 Sep 1396).  m as her second husband, MARIA van Ghistelles, widow of JEAN de Halewyn, daughter of ROGER van Ghistelles & his wife --- (-after 1431). 

-        HEEREN van PRAET[752]. 

4.          JEAN "Sans Terre" (-killed in battle Nicopolis 28 Sep 1396).  Seigneur de Drinckham.  m ([1388]) WILHELMINE van Nevele, daughter of WILLEM van Nevele & his wife Wilhelmine de Halewyn. 

-        HEEREN van DRINCKAM en WISSAERT[753]

5.          ROBERT (-21 Jan 1434).  Seigneur d'Everdinghe et de Vlamertinghe.  m (1419) as her second marriage, ANASTASIE d'Oultre Vicomtesse d'Ypres, widow of ELUARD Seigneur de Poulques, daughter of BAUDOUIN d'Oultre & his wife Anastasia van Moorslede (-Ypres 22 Sep 1455).  Robert & his wife had one child: 

a)         KARL (-1491).  m KATHARINA van Werdeghem, daughter of --- (-2 Mar 1485).  Karl & his wife had one child: 

i)          daughter .  m OMER de Craene

6.          VICTOR (-1442).  Seigneur d'Urselle.  A Burgundian admiral.  m (15 Sep 1420) as her second husband, JOHANNA van Gavre, widow of PIERRE d'Aumont, daughter of ARNOUT [VI] van Gavre Baron van Schornisse & his wife ---.  Victor had two illegitimate children by ALIX van Boyeghem, daughter of ---:

a)         LOUISm JACQUELINE de Wilde, daughter of --- (-Apr 1482).  Louis & his wife had two children: 

i)          JOSSE (-young). 

ii)         MARGARETAm firstly LOUIS van Baenst, son of ---.  m secondly ADRIAN van Schouteten, son of ---. 

b)         JAN

Victor had one illegitimate child by GERTRUD van Lindekens, daughter of ---: 

c)          ADAM

7.          PETER (-1376). 

8.          RENNEKIN .  1394. 

9.          GENNEKIN .  1394. 

10.       MARGUERITE (-28 Apr 1415).  m firstly (23 Dec 1373) FLORIS van Maldeghem, son of --- (-10 Nov 1374).  m secondly HECTOR van Voorhoute [Werchoute] , son of ---.  m thirdly ([1391]) SIGER van Gent, son of ---. 

11.       JEANNEm THIERRY de Hondeschote, son of --- (-killed in battle Agincourt 25 Oct 1415). 

12.       BEATRIXm ROBERT Tencke le Marechal, son of ---.  1374/1384. 

13.       MARGUERITE (-1388).  m ROBERT Seigneur de Wavrin et de Lillers, son of --- (-killed in battle Agincourt 25 Oct 1415). 

14.       MARGUERITE .  Abbess of Peteghem 1414.

15.       CATHERINEm (1390) ---. 

16.       CATHERINE .  Nun. 

 



[1] Bertin, J. and Vallée G. (1876) Etude sur les forestiers de Flandre et l'établissement du comté héréditaire de Flandre, reviewed in Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes Tome 38 (1877), p. 622, and Wauters 'Les forestiers de Flandre' Bulletin Académique 2e série tome XXVI and 3e série tome IX, p. 181, cited in Vanderkindere, A. (1902) La formation territoriale des principautés belges au moyen-âge (Brussels), Vol. 1, p. 37.  Neither of these works has yet been consulted. 

[2] Vanderkindere (1902), Vol. 1, p. 279. 

[3] Stewart Baldwin, postings to soc.genealogy.medieval, 6 Jun 2006, available at <http://tinyurl.com/rdwj6, http://tinyurl.com/mzgoh, http://tinyurl.com/mb7xp and http://tinyurl.com/nlwba> (16 Jul 2006). 

[4] Vanderkindere (1902), Vol. 1, p. 36.

[5] Nicholas, D. (1992) Medieval Flanders (Longman), p. 17. 

[6] Vanderkindere (1902), Vol. 1, pp. 279-84.

[7] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 8, MGH SS XXV, p. 563. 

[8] Nicholas (1992), p. 44. 

[9] Nicholas (1992), p. 44. 

[10] Epistolæ Bambergenses, Bibliotheca rerum germanicarum V, p. 472, quoted in Vanderkindere (1902), Vol. II, p. 75. 

[11] D H II 186, p. 221. 

[12] Gand Saint-Pierre, 14, p. 20, and Fayen, A. (1906) Cartulaire de la ville de Gand, Chartes et documents T. I, Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis (Gand) ("Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis"), 65, p. 68.  

[13] McKitterick, R. (1983) Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987 (Longman, London and New York), p. 322. 

[14] Nicholas (1992), pp. 49-50. 

[15] Sinclair, S. (1985) Atlas de Géographie Historique de la France et de la Gaule (Paris), p. 182. 

[16] Nicholas (1992), pp. 1-11. 

[17] Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini auctore Iohanne Longo de Ipra 4, MGH SS XXV, p. 764. 

[18] Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini auctore Iohanne Longo de Ipra, Introduction, MGH SS XXV, pp. 736-8. 

[19] Mattoso, J. (1994, 4th edn.) A Nobreza Medieval Portuguesa, A Família e o Poder (Lisbon), pp. 108-55. 

[20] Annales S. Bavonis Gandensis 693-937, MGH SS II, p. 187. 

[21] Lamberti Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ 1, MGH SS IX, p. 309 "videns Flandriam vacuam et incultam ac nemorosam". 

[22] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Bertin (Paris) ("Saint-Bertin"), p. 11. 

[23] Annales Formoselenses 817, MGH SS V, p. 35. 

[24] Annales Blandinienses 836, MGH SS V, p. 23. 

[25] Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini auctore Iohanne Longo de Ipra 4, MGH SS XXV, p. 764. 

[26] Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, MGH SS IX, p. 305. 

[27] Lamberti Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ 1, MGH SS IX, p. 309. 

[28] Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini auctore Iohanne Longo de Ipra 4, MGH SS XXV, p. 764. 

[29] Saint-Bertin, p. 11. 

[30] Stewart Baldwin, postings to soc.genealogy.medieval, 6 Jun 2006, available at <http://tinyurl.com/rdwj6, http://tinyurl.com/mzgoh, http://tinyurl.com/mb7xp and http://tinyurl.com/nlwba> (16 Jul 2006). 

[31] MGH SS IX, p. 305 footnote 6. 

[32] Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, MGH SS IX, p. 305. 

[33] Lamberti Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ 1, MGH SS IX, p. 309. 

[34] Saint-Bertin, p. 11. 

[35] Annales Blandinienses 836, MGH SS V, p. 23. 

[36] Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, MGH SS IX, p. 305.  

[37] Annales Laurissenses 788, MGH SS I, p. 174. 

[38] Mandatum de Saxonibus Obsidibus, MGH LL 1, p. 89. 

[39] Saint-Bertin, p. 11.  Also included in Annales Vedastini 879, MGH SS II, p. 197. 

[40] Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, MGH SS IX, p. 305. 

[41] Lamberti Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ 1, MGH SS IX, p. 309. 

[42] Saint-Bertin, p. 11.  Also included in Annales Vedastini 879, MGH SS II, p. 197. 

[43] Annales Blandinienses 862 and 879, MGH SS V, p. 24. 

[44] Nicholas (1992), p. 17. 

[45] Karoli II Imp. Conventus Carisiacensis, MGH LL 1, p. 537. 

[46] Annales Blandinienses 879, MGH SS V, p. 24. 

[47] Saint-Bertin, p. 11. 

[48] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1868) Chronica, Magistri Rogeri de Houedene (London) ("Roger of Hoveden") I, p. 37. 

[49] Asserii Gestis Ælfredi MGH SS XIII, p. 121. 

[50] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 37. 

[51] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ III.12, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 218. 

[52] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[53] Annales Bertiniani auct Hincmari Remensis 862 and 863, MGH SS I, pp. 456 and 462. 

[54] Annales Elnonenses Minores 862, MGH SS V, p. 19. 

[55] Lamberti Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ 1, MGH SS IX, p. 309. 

[56] Saint-Bertin, p. 11. 

[57] Saint-Bertin, p. 11. 

[58] Rösch, S. (1977) Caroli Magni Progenies (Verlag Degener & Co, Neustadt an der Aisch), p. 117. 

[59] Nicholas (1992), p. 37. 

[60] Nicholas (1992), pp. 17-18. 

[61] Annales Blandinienses 892, MGH SS V, p. 24. 

[62] Annales Vedastini 892, MGH SS II, p. 527.  . 

[63] Annales Vedastini 892, MGH SS II, p. 527.  . 

[64] Annales Vedastini 895, MGH SS I p. 529. 

[65] Annales Vedastini 899, MGH SS II, p. 209. 

[66] Nicholas (1992), p. 19. 

[67] Annales Blandinienses 918, MGH SS V, p. 24. 

[68] Lokeren, A. van (1868) Chartes et documents de l´abbaye de Saint Pierre au Mont Blandin à Gand (Gand) ("Gand Saint-Pierre"), 29, p. 33. 

[69] Saint-Bertin II.73, 918, p. 138. 

[70] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 41. 

[71] Asser, Part II. 

[72] Saint-Bertin II.73, 918, p. 138. 

[73] Lamberti Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ 2, MGH SS IX, p. 309. 

[74] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 60, p. 52. 

[75] Annales Blandinienses 929, MGH SS V, p. 24. 

[76] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 298. 

[77] Gand Saint-Pierre 29, p. 33. 

[78] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[79] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[80] Saint-Bertin II.73, 918, p. 138. 

[81] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 60, p. 52. 

[82] Annales Blandinienses 933, MGH SS V, p. 25. 

[83] Campbell, A. (ed.) (1962) Chronicon Æthelweardi (New York), 1-2. 

[84] Campbell, A. (ed.) (1962) Chronicon Æthelweardi (New York), 1-2. 

[85] Saint-Bertin (Guérard) Liber II, LXXVIII, p. 146. 

[86] Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini auctore Iohanne Longo de Ipra 26.2, MGH SS XXV, p. 775. 

[87] Saint-Bertin (Guérard) Liber II, LXXVII, p. 145. 

[88] Saint-Bertin, p. 11. 

[89] Annales Blandinienses 882, MGH SS V, p. 24. 

[90] Rösch (1977), p. 118. 

[91] Annales Vedastini 895, MGH SS I p. 529. 

[92] Historia Walciodorensis Monasterii 6, MGH SS XIV, p. 508. 

[93] Annales Vedastini 896, MGH SS II, p. 530.  . 

[94] Annales Blandinienses 896, MGH SS V, p. 24. 

[95] ES II 5. 

[96] Historia Walciodorensis Monasterii 8, MGH SS XIV, p. 509. 

[97] Bofarull y Mascaró, P. de (1836) Los Condes de Barcelona Vindicados (Barcelona) Tomo I, p. 4, citing Real Archivo, armario de S. Juan de las Abadesas num. 1 and 2. 

[98] Weir, A. (2002) Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (Pimlico), p. 6. 

[99] Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium I, RCGF 9, p. 68. 

[100] Rösch (1977), p. 99. 

[101] Bofarull y Mascaró (1836) Tomo I, p. 17, citing Real Archivo, armario de S. Juan de las Abadesas num. 1, 2, 3 and 4. 

[102] Quoted in Settipani, C. (2004) La Noblesse du Midi Carolingien. Etudes sur quelques grandes familles d'Aquitaine et du Languedoc du IXe au XIe siècles (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Oxford), p. 51. 

[103] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[104] Saint-Bertin II.73, 918, p. 138. 

[105] Gand Saint-Pierre 18, p. 24, and Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 60, p. 52. 

[106] Nicholas (1992), p. 40. 

[107] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 65, p. 68. 

[108] Felice Lifshitz (ed.) Dudo of St Quentin's Gesta Normannorum, Chapter 26, The Online Reference Book for Medieval Sources, <http://orb.rhodes.edu/ORB_done/Dudo/dudindex.html> (6 Jan 2003). 

[109] Nicholas (1992), p. 40. 

[110] Gand Saint-Pierre 22, p. 28. 

[111] Nicholas (1992), p. 42. 

[112] Gand Saint-Pierre 30, p. 34, and Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 69, p. 75. 

[113] Gand Saint-Pierre 31, p. 34. 

[114] Gand Saint-Pierre 29, p. 33. 

[115] Annales Blandinienses 964, MGH SS V, p. 25. 

[116] Gand Saint-Pierre 37, p. 40, and Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 72, p. 77. 

[117] Rösch (1977), p. 138. 

[118] ES II 5. 

[119] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[120] Saint-Bertin II.76, 938, p. 141. 

[121] Annales Elnonenses Minores [931-949], MGH SS V, p. 19. 

[122] Nicholas (1992), p. 40. 

[123] Gand Saint-Pierre 22, p. 28. 

[124] Gand Saint-Pierre 23, p. 29. 

[125] Annales Blandinienses 960, MGH SS V, p. 25. 

[126] Annales Egmundani, MGH SS XVI, p. 444. 

[127] Rösch (1977), p. 138. 

[128] ES II 5. 

[129] Bruch, H. (ed.) (1973) Chronologia Johannis de Beke (The Hague), 33a, p. 61, available at < http://www.inghist.nl/Onderzoek/Projecten /KroniekVanJohannesDeBekeTot1430/latijn> (31 Aug 2006). 

[130] Koch, A. C. F. (ed.) (1970) Oorkondenboek van Holland en Zeeland tot 1299 (Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague) ("OHZ"), 45, p. 84. 

[131] OHZ 43, p. 80. 

[132] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 36, p. 69. 

[133] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 36, p. 69. 

[134] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 106. 

[135] ES II 5. 

[136] Boer, D. E. H. de and Cordfunke, E. H. P. (1995) Graven van Holland (Walburg Pers, Zutphen), reference provided by Kees Nieuwenhuijsen in a private email to the author dated 3 Oct 2006. 

[137] Autenrieth, J. (ed.) (1979) Das Verbrüderungsbuch der Abtei Reichenau (MGH, Hannover), consulted at <http://www.dmgh.de/> (10 Oct 2006). 

[138] Gand Saint-Pierre 22, p. 28. 

[139] Gand Saint-Pierre 32, p. 35. 

[140] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon, MGH SS XXV, p. 564. 

[141] Annales Blandinienses 962, MGH SS V, p. 25. 

[142] Saint-Bertin II.76, 938, p. 141. 

[143] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 65, p. 68. 

[144] Gand Saint-Pierre 22, p. 28. 

[145] Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 (Villeneuve d'Asq), p. 61, footnote 35. 

[146] Nicholas (1992), p. 42. 

[147] Gand Saint-Pierre 26, p. 31. 

[148] Annales Blandinienses 962, MGH SS V, p. 25. 

[149] Annales Egmundani 962, MGH SS XVI, p. 445. 

[150] Saint-Bertin II.78, p. 153. 

[151] Annalista Saxo 1002. 

[152] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 304. 

[153] MGH SS IX, p. 302, Introduction to Witgeri Genealogia Arnulfi Comitis

[154] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1005, MGH SS XXIII, p. 778. 

[155] Annales Blandinienses 1008, MGH SS V, p. 25. 

[156] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[157] Annales Elnonenses Minores 964, MGH SS V, p. 19. 

[158] Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium I.110, MGH SS 7, p. 448. 

[159] Dictionnaire de Biographie Française, Vol. 3, pp. 1238-40, cited by Baldwin, S. The Henry Project, <http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/baldw002.htm> (2 Jan 2005).. 

[160] Gand Saint-Pierre 22, p. 28. 

[161] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 65, p. 68. 

[162] When she gave birth to her husband's posthumous child. 

[163] Historia Comitum Ghisnensium 11, MGH SS XXIV, p. 568. 

[164] Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini auctore Iohanne Longo de Ipra 27.2, MGH SS XXV, p. 776. 

[165] Annales Elnonenses Minores 964, MGH SS V, p. 19. 

[166] Nicholas (1992), p. 43. 

[167] Nicholas (1992), p. 44. 

[168] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 77, p. 80. 

[169] Gand Saint-Pierre 45, p. 44. 

[170] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 86, p. 85. 

[171] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 87, p. 86. 

[172] Annales Blandinienses 989, MGH SS V, p. 25. 

[173] ES II 5, and Rösch (1977), p. 167. 

[174] Reginonis Chronicon 965, MGH SS I, p. 627. 

[175] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[176] Annales Elnonenses Minores [950-968], MGH SS V, p. 19. 

[177] Nicholas (1992), p. 44. 

[178] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 96, p. 92. 

[179] Date of a charter in which she is called "regina", cited in Vanderkindere, I, p. 295, citing Van Lokeren, Chartes de l'abbaye de Saint-Pierre I, no. 64. 

[180] Vita Sancti Bertulfi Abbatis Renticensis, RCGF 10, p. 365. 

[181] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 60 footnote 32. 

[182] Nicholas (1992), p. 45. 

[183] Guadet, J. (ed.) (1845) Richeri Historiarum (Paris) IV.LXXXVII, p. 270. 

[184] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 102, p. 96. 

[185] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 107, p. 101. 

[186] Annales Elnonenses Minores 1003, MGH SS V, p. 19. 

[187] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 299. 

[188] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 102, p. 96. 

[189] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 298. 

[190] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[191] Nicholas (1992), p. 45. 

[192] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 96, p. 92. 

[193] Nicholas (1992), p. 46. 

[194] Murray, A. V. (2000) The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: a dynastic history 1099-1125 (Prosopographica & Genealogica), p. 28. 

[195] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 107, p. 101. 

[196] Nicholas (1992), p. 46. 

[197] Nicholas (1992), p. 46. 

[198] Nicholas (1992), p. 48. 

[199] Annales Blandinienses 1035, MGH SS V, p. 26. 

[200] Annales Elnonenses Minores 1035, MGH SS V, p. 19. 

[201] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[202] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 318. 

[203] Annales Blandinienses 1030, MGH SS V, p. 26. 

[204] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 299. 

[205] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis, MGH SS IX, p. 307, footnote 19 naming her "Alienoram", without specifying the primary source on which this is based. 

[206] Annalista Saxo 1066. 

[207] Willelmi Gemmetensis monachi Historiæ Normannorum, Du Chesne, A. (1619) Historiæ Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui (Paris) (“Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619)”), Liber V, XIII, p. 255. 

[208] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[209] Annalista Saxo 1066. 

[210] Genealogia Welforum 9, MGH SS XIII, p. 734. 

[211] Forester, T. (trans.) (1854) The Chronicles of Florence of Worcester with two continuations (London) (“Florence of Worcester”), 1051, p. 152. 

[212] Barlow, F. (1992) The Godwins: the Rise and Fall of a Noble Dynasty (Longman), p. 38. 

[213] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium, MGH SS XXIII, p. 792. 

[214] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. IV, Appendix I, p. 350. 

[215] Garmonsway, G. N. (trans) (1972) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Dent), D, 1052 [1051]. 

[216] Wirtembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band IV (Stuttgart, 1883) ("Württembergisches Urkundenbuch"), Anhang, Zwei Weingartner Codices, I, p. VIII. 

[217] Bernoldi Chronicon 1094, MGH SS V, p. 457. 

[218] Necrologium Raitenbuchense, Freising Necrologies, p. 105. 

[219] Necrologium Weingartense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 221. 

[220] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1055. 

[221] Annales Elnonenses Maiores 1067, MGH SS V, p. 13, which records his death "Kal Sept" and his burial "Insulæ". 

[222] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[223] Nicholas (1992), p. 48. 

[224] Murray (2000), p. 28. 

[225] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 113, p. 105. 

[226] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle C, 1047, and D 1048 [1047]. 

[227] Nicholas (1992), p. 50. 

[228] Nicholas (1992), p. 46. 

[229] Nicholas (1992), p. 51. 

[230] Annales Blandinienses 1067, MGH SS V, p. 26. 

[231] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[232] Genealogiæ Scriptoris Fusniacensis 2, MGH SS XIII, p. 252. 

[233] Nicholas (1992), p. 52. 

[234] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 113, p. 105. 

[235] Prou, M. (ed.) (1908) Recueil des actes de Philippe I roi de France (Paris), IV, p. 13. 

[236] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 307.       

[237] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[238] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1060, MGH SS XXIII, p. 792. 

[239] Nicholas (1992), pp. 49-50. 

[240] Annales Blandinienses 1070, MGH SS V, p. 26. 

[241] Annales Elnonenses Maiores 1067, MGH SS V, p. 13, which records his death "16 Kal Aug" and his burial "Hasnonie". 

[242] Annales Elnonenses Maiores 1051, MGH SS V, p. 13. 

[243] Annales Blandinienses 1071, MGH SS V, p. 26. 

[244] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1865) Annales Monastici Vol. III, Annales de Wintonia, Annales de Waverleia (London), Annales de Wintonia, p. 29. 

[245] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989), 256, p. 242. 

[246] Annales Flandriæ, cited in CP VI 448 footnote m. 

[247] Marchandisse, A. (ed.) (1991) L'obituaire de la cathédrale Saint-Lambert de Liège (Brussels), p. 36. 

[248] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[249] Saint-Bertin I.21, p. 197. 

[250] Foppens, J. (1748) Diplomatum Belgicorum nova collectio, sive supplementum ad opera diplomatica Auberti Miræi (Brussels), Tome IV, Pars II, XIV, p. 185. 

[251] Annales Blandinienses 1071, MGH SS V, p. 26. 

[252] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[253] Guiberto Historia quæ dicitur gesta dei per Francos, RHC, Historiens occidentaux, IV ("Guibert") II.XII, p. 147. 

[254] Saint-Bertin I.21, p. 197. 

[255] Foppens (1748), Tome IV, Pars II, XIV, p. 185. 

[256] Iacobi de Guisia Annales Hanoniæ XV.II and XV.III, MGH SS XXX Part 1, pp. 190 and 192. 

[257] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[258] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, VI, p. 92. 

[259] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus II (London) (“Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon”), p. 2. 

[260] "On Whit Sunday in the second year of King William's reign", Orderic Vitalis, Vol. 2, Book IV, p. 215. 

[261] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 330.       

[262] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 17. 

[263] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989) III, 274, p. 254, and Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (London) (“MP”), Vol. II, 1086, p. 21. 

[264] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 279. 

[265] Nicholas (1992), pp. 64-5. 

[266] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 373. 

[267] Nicholas (1992), pp. 64-5. 

[268] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 373. 

[269] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[270] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[271] Saint-Bertin I.21, p. 197. 

[272] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 103. 

[273] Annales Blandinienses 1063, MGH SS V, p. 26. 

[274] Nicholas (1992), p. 52. 

[275] Nicholas (1992), p. 57. 

[276] Malmesbury, 257, pp. 242-3. 

[277] Runciman, S. (1978) A History of the Crusades (Penguin), Vol. 1, p. 166. 

[278] Annales Blandinienses 1093, MGH SS V, p. 27. 

[279] Saint-Bertin II.92, p. 288. 

[280] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[281] Genealogia ex stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 7, MGH SS XXV, p. 384. 

[282] Annales Egmundani 1063, MGH SS XVI, p. 447. 

[283] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 46, p. 87. 

[284] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 321.       

[285] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 107. 

[286] Saint-Bertin II.92, p. 288. 

[287] Annales Blandinienses 1119, MGH SS V, p. 28. 

[288] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis (Cod. Divion. et Cisterc. addunt), MGH SS IX, p. 307. 

[289] Pontiari, E. (ed.) (1927-8) De rebus gestis Rogerii Calabriæ et Siciliæ comitis et Roberti Guiscardi ducis fratris eius (Bologna) (“Malaterra”), IV.20, p. 98. 

[290] Lamberti Audomariensis Chronica 1113, Catalogus Regum Langobardorum et Imperatorum, MGH SS V, p. 66. 

[291] Saint-Bertin II.92, p. 288. 

[292] Saint-Bertin II.45, p. 256. 

[293] Murray (2000), p. 144. 

[294] Sigeberti Continuatio Valcellensis 1115, MGH SS VI, p. 459. 

[295] Saint-Bertin II.28, p. 239. 

[296] Vita Karoli Comitis Flandriæ 7, MGH SS XII, p. 542, footnote 15 specifying that this was Encres in Picardy and that his predecessor Count Baudouin had given it to him in 1115. 

[297] Nicholas (1992), p. 62. 

[298] Pirenne, H. (1891) Histoire du meurtre de Charles le Bon Comte de Flandre par Galbert de Bruges (Paris) ("Galbert de Bruges"), 5, p. 10, discussed in Murray (2000), pp. 139-45. 

[299] Nicholas (1992), pp. 62-3, and Galbert de Bruges. 

[300] Saint-Bertin II.1, 1127, p. 297. 

[301] Vita Karoli Comitis Flandriæ 7, MGH SS XII, p. 542. 

[302] De Genere Comitum Flandrensium, Notæ Parisienses MGH SS, p. 257. 

[303] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 163, and Annales Elnonenses Maiores 1111, MGH SS V, p. 14, "Atrebato sepelitur". 

[304] Saint-Bertin I.29, p. 205. 

[305] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[306] Annales Blandinienses 1086, MGH SS V, p. 26. 

[307] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 166. 

[308] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 215. 

[309] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 298. 

[310] Nicholas (1992), p. 58. 

[311] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 161. 

[312] William of Malmesbury 257, p. 243. 

[313] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 328.       

[314] ES II 5. 

[315] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 321.       

[316] Saint-Bertin II.57, p. 266. 

[317] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 163. 

[318] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[319] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 166. 

[320] Nicholas (1992), p. 58. 

[321] Cluny Tome V, 3899, p. 249. 

[322] Nicholas (1992), p. 62. 

[323] Saint-Bertin II.11, p. 298. 

[324] Annales Elnonenses Maiores 1119, MGH SS V, p. 14. 

[325] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[326] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 163. 

[327] Sigeberti Continuatio Valcellensis 1115, MGH SS VI, p. 459. 

[328] Sigeberti Continuatio Valcellensis 1115, MGH SS VI, p. 459. 

[329] William of Malmesbury, 403, p. 351, and Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 191. 

[330] William of Malmesbury, p. 351, footnote 2. 

[331] Nicholas (1992), pp. 57-8. 

[332] Annales Blandinienses 1119, MGH SS V, p. 28. 

[333] Vita Karoli Comitis Flandriæ 6, MGH SS XII, p. 541. 

[334] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[335] Flandria Generosa 25, MGH SS IX, p. 323, which traces the relationship between the couple back to Guillaume II "le Libérateur" Comte de Provence.  .   

[336] Ex Chronico Briocensi, RHGF XII, p. 566. 

[337] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[338] Saint-Bertin II.45, p. 256. 

[339] Saint-Bertin II.92, p. 288. 

[340] Herimanni, Liber de Restauratione Sancti Martini Tornacensis 18, MGH SS XIV, p. 283. 

[341] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[342] Saint-Bertin II.11, 1127, p. 298. 

[343] Lamberti Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ 8, MGH SS IX, p. 311. 

[344] Weissenbruch, M. (ed.) (1870) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Pierre de Loo 1093-1794 ("Loo Saint-Pierre") I, p. 1. 

[345] Vanderkindere (1902), Vol. 1, p. 301, "une cardeuse de laine". 

[346] Duvivier, C. (1898) Actes et documents anciens interéssant la Belgique (Brussels), p. 241. 

[347] Galbert de Bruges, 86, p. 131. 

[348] Saint-Bertin II.11, 1127, p. 298. 

[349] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 375. 

[350] Loo Saint-Pierre IV, p. 6. 

[351] Nicholas (1992), p. 62. 

[352] Duvivier, C. (1898) Actes et documents anciens interéssant la Belgique (Brussels), p. 237. 

[353] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book VIII, p. 371. 

[354] Nicholas (1992), pp. 62-3. 

[355] Galbert de Bruges, 86, p. 131. 

[356] Saint-Bertin II.11, p. 300. 

[357] Loo Saint-Pierre VIII, p. 14. 

[358] Saint-Bertin II.11, p. 300. 

[359] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1865) Annales Monastici Vol. III, Annales de Wintonia, Annales de Waverleia (London), Annales de Waverleia, p. 230. 

[360] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1866) Annales Monastici Vol. III, Annales Prioratus de Dunstaplia, Annales Monasterii de Bermundeseia (London), Annales de Bermundeseia, p. 437. 

[361] Greenway, D. (2002) Henry of Huntingdon: The History of the English People 1000-1154 (Oxford), p. 81. 

[362] Loo Saint-Pierre IX, p. 15. 

[363] Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. (2002) Domesday Descendants: A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents 1066-1166. II. Pipe Rolls to Cartæ Baronum (Boydell) (“Domesday Descendants”), pp. 795-6. 

[364] Hunter, J. (ed.) (1844) The Great Rolls of the Pipe for the second, third and fourth years of the reign of King Henry II 1155-1158 (London) Pipe Roll 2 Hen II (1155), Kent, p. 65. 

[365] Nicholas (1992), p. 70. 

[366] Duvivier, C. (1898) Actes et documents anciens interéssant la Belgique (Brussels), p. 241. 

[367] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 325.   

[368] Loo Saint-Pierre IV, p. 6. 

[369] Flandria Generosa 16, MGH SS IX, p. 321, footnote 77 naming her "Otgiva seu Maria" without specifying the source on which this is based.   

[370] Galbert de Bruges, 68, p. 109. 

[371] Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini auctore Iohanne Longo de Ipra 38.4, MGH SS XXV, p. 785. 

[372] MGH SS XXV, p. 785, footnote 7 states that she is named "Maria" in a later edition of the Chronicæ Flandrensis

[373] ES II 5. 

[374] Galbert de Bruges, 68, p. 109. 

[375] Saint-Bertin II.11, p. 299. 

[376] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis (Cod. Divion. et Cisterc. addunt), MGH SS IX, p. 307, where the second daughter is incorrectly referred to as the wife of Philippe II King of France. 

[377] Evrard, M. (ed.) ´Documents relatifs à l´abbaye de Flône´, Analectes pour servir à l´histoire ecclésiastique de la Belgique, Tome XXIII (Louvain, 1892) ("Flône"), II, p. 285. 

[378] Saint-Bertin II.11, p. 299. 

[379] Saint-Bertin II.11, p. 299. 

[380] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 373. 

[381] Nicholas (1992), pp. 64-5. 

[382] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 262. 

[383] Annales Blandinienses 1157 and 1164, MGH SS V, p. 29. 

[384] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 349. 

[385] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 325.   

[386] Obituaires de Sens Tome IV, Prieuré de Fontaines, p. 188.       

[387] Saint-Bertin II.11, p. 300. 

[388] Flandria Generosa 32, MGH SS IX, p. 324.   

[389] Loo Saint-Pierre VIII, p. 14. 

[390] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 165, and Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 333. 

[391] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 167. 

[392] William of Malmesbury, 419, p. 365. 

[393] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 379. 

[394] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") (“WT”) XIV.I, p. 607. 

[395] Saint-Bertin II.11, p. 300. 

[396] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 262. 

[397] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 361. 

[398] Annales Aquicinctini 1165, MGH SS XVI, p. 504. 

[399] Saint-Bertin II.11, p. 300. 

[400] Flandria Generosa 32, MGH SS IX, p. 324.   

[401] Miraeus (Le Mire), A. (1723) Opera diplomatica et historica, 2nd edn. (Louvain), Tome I, XCVI, p. 104. 

[402] Annales Blandinienses 1144, MGH SS V, p. 29. 

[403] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis (Cod. Divion. et Cisterc. addunt), MGH SS IX, p. 307. 

[404] Guesnon, A. (ed.) (1896) Un Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Vaast d'Arras, codex du XII siècle (Paris) ("Arras St Vaast") 3, p. 34. 

[405] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis, MGH SS IX, p. 307. 

[406] Nicholas (1992), p. 71. 

[407] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 416. 

[408] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 114, footnote 14. 

[409] Kerrebrouck (2000), pp. 106 and 542. 

[410] Nicholas (1992), p. 74. 

[411] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer"), Continuator (“WTC”) XXVI.IV and VI, p. 179-82. 

[412] Annales Blandinienses 1191, MGH SS V, p. 30. 

[413] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis) 8, MGH SS IX, p. 329. 

[414] Annales Blandinienses 1157, MGH SS V, p. 29. 

[415] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 325.   

[416] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 325.   

[417] Ex Radulfi de Diceto imaginibus historiarum, RHGF XIII, p. 198. 

[418] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis) 4, MGH SS IX, p. 327.  The date "28 Mar" is inserted in the margin by the editor. 

[419] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VII, 5, RHGF XII, p. 382. 

[420] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis) 9, MGH SS IX, p. 329. 

[421] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis) 8, MGH SS IX, p. 329. 

[422] Nicholas (1992), p. 74. 

[423] Teulet, A. (ed.) (1863) Layettes du trésor des chartes (Paris), Vol. I, 428, p. 181. 

[424] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis) 13 and 14, MGH SS IX, pp. 330-1. 

[425] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1218, MGH SS XXIII, p. 907. 

[426] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 575. 

[427] Shaw, M. R. B. (trans.) (1963) Joinville and Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades (Penguin) (“Villehardouin”), p. 52.   

[428] WTC XXVIII.V, p. 256. 

[429] WTC XXVIII, V, p. 256.   

[430] Villehardouin, pp. 157-8. 

[431] WTC XXVIII.V, p. 256. 

[432] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis, MGH SS IX, p. 307. 

[433] Annales Blandinienses 1166, MGH SS V, p. 29. 

[434] Annales Blandinienses 1172, MGH SS V, p. 29, and Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 541. 

[435] Delisle, L. (ed.) (1872) Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbé de Mont-Saint-Michel (Rouen), Vol. II, p. 40. 

[436] Cartulaire de Saint-Josse, Bibl. nat, Collection Moreau, Vol. 82 fol. 43, quoted in Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 40 footnote 1. 

[437] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis) 2, MGH SS IX, p. 327.   

[438] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis), MGH SS IX, p. 326.   

[439] MP, Vol. II, 1160, p. 216.  He also specifies that two daughters were born from this marriage. 

[440] Genealogica comitum Buloniensium MGH SS IX, p. 301. 

[441] Migne Patrologia Latina, Vol. 200, Alexander III Epistolæ et Privilegia, CXIV, col. 0184D. 

[442] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, pp. 509 and 514. 

[443] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 20. 

[444] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis), MGH SS IX, p. 327.   

[445] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 325.   

[446] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, pp. 515-16. 

[447] Spicilegium (1669), Tome IX, p. 469. 

[448] Annales Egmundani 1181, MGH SS XVI, p. 469. 

[449] Toussaint du Plessis (1731) Histoire de l´Eglise de Meaux (Paris), Tome II, CLX, p. 73. 

[450] Willelmi Chronica Andrensis 202, MGH SS XXIV, p. 758. 

[451] Poull, G. (1991) La Maison ducale de Lorraine (Nancy), p. 361. 

[452] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 325.   

[453] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, pp. 515-16. 

[454] Oude Kronik van Brabant, Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus, Second Series (Utrecht 1855), deerde deel, Part 1, p. 62. 

[455] Butkens, C. (1724) Trophées tant sacrés que profanes du duché de Brabant (The Hague), Vol. I, Preuves, p. 43. 

[456] Oude Kronik van Brabant, p. 64. 

[457] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis), MGH SS IX, p. 327.   

[458] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis, MGH SS IX, p. 307, and Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis (Cod. Divion. et Cisterc. addunt), MGH SS IX, p. 307. 

[459] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 325.   

[460] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1175, MGH SS XXIII, p. 855. 

[461] Sigeberti Continuatio auctarium Aquicinense 1166, MGH SS VI, p. 398. 

[462] Nicholas (1992), p. 72. 

[463] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 65. 

[464] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 64. 

[465] Marilier, J. (ed.) (1961) Chartes et documents concernant l'abbaye de Cîteaux 1098-1182 (Rome) 248, p. 196. 

[466] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 325.   

[467] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 513. 

[468] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 64. 

[469] Cîteaux 248, p. 196. 

[470] Hautcour, E. (ed.) (1894) Cartulaire de l´église collégiale de Saint-Pierre de Lille (Paris, Lille) ("Lille Saint-Pierre"), Tome I, LI, p. 57. 

[471] Lille Saint-Pierre, Tome I, CCVI, p. 188. 

[472] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis, MGH SS IX, p. 307. 

[473] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis), MGH SS IX, p. 326.   

[474] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis) 1, MGH SS IX, p. 327.   

[475] Duvivier, C. (1903) Actes et documents anciens interéssant la Belgique, Nouvelle série (Brussels), 46, p. 89. 

[476] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis), MGH SS IX, p. 326.   

[477] Annales Elnonenses Maiores 1191, MGH SS V, p. 16. 

[478] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis) 1, MGH SS IX, p. 327.   

[479] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 518. 

[480] Annales Blandinienses 1194, MGH SS V, p. 30. 

[481] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 589. 

[482] Barbier, J. (ed.) ´Obituaire de l´abbaye de Brogne ou de Saint-Gérard´, Analectes pour servir à l´histoire ecclésiastique de la Belgique, Tome XVIII (2e série, Tome II) (Louvain, 1882) ("Brogne Necrology"), p. 353. 

[483] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 326.   

[484] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 326.   

[485] Brogne Necrology, p. 358. 

[486] Obituaires de Sens Tome IV, Prieuré de Fontaines, p. 188.       

[487] Obituaires de Sens Tome IV, Prieuré de Fontaines, p. 190.       

[488] Nicholas (1992), p. 76. 

[489] Mussely, C. & Molitor, E. (eds.) (1880) Cartulaire de l´ancienne église collégiale Notre Dame à Courtrai (Gand) (“Courtrai Notre-Dame”), XXI, p. 22. 

[490] Courtrai Notre-Dame, XXIII, p. 26. 

[491] Vanderkindere, p. 313, citing De Coussemaker Documents relatifs à la Flandre maritime, 58. 

[492] Vanderkindere, p. 313, citing De Coussemaker Documents relatifs à la Flandre maritime, 58. 

[493] Vanderkindere, p. 313, citing De Coussemaker Documents relatifs à la Flandre maritime, 58. 

[494] Vanderkindere (1901), Vol. I, p. 313, citing Du Chesne, A. (1639) Histoire généalogique de la maison de Béthune, Preuves, 40 (not yet consulted). 

[495] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 326.   

[496] Nicholas (1992), p. 73. 

[497] Gade, J. A. (1951) Luxemburg in the Middle Ages (Leiden), pp. 66-. 

[498] Nicholas (1992), p. 74. 

[499] Nicholas (1992), p. 74. 

[500] Brogne Necrology, p. 358. 

[501] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis), MGH SS IX, p. 326.   

[502] Annales Elnonenses Maiores 1191, MGH SS V, p. 16. 

[503] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis) 1, MGH SS IX, p. 327.   

[504] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 518. 

[505] Annales Blandinienses 1194, MGH SS V, p. 30. 

[506] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 589. 

[507] Brogne Necrology, p. 353. 

[508] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 326.   

[509] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 519. 

[510] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1191, MGH SS XXIII, p. 868. 

[511] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 528. 

[512] Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 1187, MGH SS V, p. 46. 

[513] Count Philippe was never appointed regent of France nor guardian of the young king, see Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 114, footnote 14. 

[514] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis) 7, MGH SS IX, p. 329. 

[515] Rigordi Gestis Philippi II Augusti 1189, MGH SS XXVI, p. 291. 

[516] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 312.       

[517] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 528. 

[518] Gade (1951), p. 66. 

[519] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 519. 

[520] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1191, MGH SS XXIII, p. 868. 

[521] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 530. 

[522] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1214, MGH SS XXIII, p. 899. 

[523] Ex Historia Episcoporum Autissiodorensium LVIII, RHGF XVIII, p. 728. 

[524] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 457. 

[525] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (Paris), p. 489. 

[526] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 530. 

[527] Gade (1951), p. 66. 

[528] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 326.   

[529] Nicholas (1992), p. 75. 

[530] Miraeus (1723), Tome I, Donationes Belgicæ, Liber I, LXXXVI, p. 407. 

[531] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 110. 

[532] Brogne Necrology, p. 346. 

[533] 'La Chronique de Gislebert de Mons', Recueil de textes pour server à l'étude de l'histoire de Belgique, ed. L. Vanderkindere (Bruxelles, 1904), pp. 285-6, cited in Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 458. 

[534] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1196 and 1201, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 872 and 878. 

[535] Guizot, M. (ed.) (1825) Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis, Collection des Mémoires relatifs à l'histoire de France (Paris) ("Guillaume de Nangis"), p. 109. 

[536] Annales Parchenses 1214 and 1235, MGH SS XVI, p. 607. 

[537] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 326.   

[538] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1191, MGH SS XXIII, p. 868. 

[539] Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 4, Tome III (1857), p. 161. 

[540] Villehardouin, 19, p. 147. 

[541] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 67. 

[542] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 519. 

[543] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 326.   

[544] Nicholas (1992), p. 75. 

[545] Nicholas (1992), p. 75. 

[546] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 101. 

[547] Sturdza (1999), p. 477. 

[548] His title was Basileus Romaion, the same as borne by his predecessor Emperors of Byzantium, see Sturdza (1999), p. 488. 

[549] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 125. 

[550] Courtrai Notre-Dame, XXI, p. 22. 

[551] Fine (1994), pp. 81-2. 

[552] Nicholas (1992), p. 76. 

[553] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1198, MGH SS XXIII, p. 876. 

[554] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 528. 

[555] WTC XXVI.XIV, p. 195. 

[556] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Gislenensis), MGH SS IX, p. 326.   

[557] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 136.  According to Sturdza (1999), p. 476, she assumed that she was rejoining her husband in Palestine not knowing of the crusade's diversion to Constantinople and his election as Emperor. 

[558] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Claromariscensis) 12, MGH SS IX, p. 330. 

[559] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Marchianensis, MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[560] Nicholas (1992), p. 151. 

[561] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VII, 5, RHGF XII, p. 383. 

[562] Nicholas (1992), p. 152. 

[563] Nicholas (1992), pp. 153-4. 

[564] Nicholas (1992), p. 155. 

[565] Nicholas (1992), pp. 155-6. 

[566] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis (Cod. Divion. et Cisterc. addunt), MGH SS IX, p. 308. 

[567] Annales Blandinienses 1237, MGH SS V, p. 31. 

[568] Annales Blandinienses 1244, MGH SS V, p. 31. 

[569] Necrologio Sanctæ Waldetrudis, MGH SS XXI, p. 619. 

[570] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Marchianensis, MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[571] Nicholas (1992), pp. 152-3. 

[572] Nicholas (1992), p. 156. 

[573] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1229, MGH SS XXIII, p. 924. 

[574] Hugonis Continuatio Clarimariscensis 1233, MGH SS XXIV, p. 101. 

[575] Annales Blandinienses 1233, MGH SS V, p. 30. 

[576] Willelmi Chronica Andrensis 252, MGH SS XXIV, p. 772. 

[577] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1233, MGH SS XXIII, p. 933. 

[578] Sturdza (1999), p. 490. 

[579] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis (Cod. Divion. et Cisterc. addunt), MGH SS IX, p. 308. 

[580] Annales Blandinienses 1237, MGH SS V, p. 31. 

[581] Nicholas (1992), p. 156. 

[582] Willelmi Chronica Andrensis 252, MGH SS XXIV, p. 772. 

[583] Nicholas (1992), p. 156. 

[584] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 2387, p. 293. 

[585] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 2947, p. 460. 

[586] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Marchianensis, MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[587] Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini auctore Iohanne Longo de Ipra 46.11, MGH SS XXV, p. 824. 

[588] Villehardouin, 15, p. 111. 

[589] Nicholas (1992), p. 151. 

[590] MP, Vol. V, 1254, p. 434. 

[591] Nicholas (1992), pp. 156-7. 

[592] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 19, MGH SS XXV, p. 574. 

[593] MP, Vol. V, 1254, p. 434. 

[594] Annales Blandinienses 1244, MGH SS V, p. 31. 

[595] Nicholas (1992), p. 157. 

[596] Necrologio Sanctæ Waldetrudis, MGH SS XXI, p. 619. 

[597] MP, Vol. V, 1254, p. 434. 

[598] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1216, MGH SS XXIII, p. 904. 

[599] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis (Cod. Divion. et Cisterc. addunt), MGH SS IX, p. 308. 

[600] MP, Vol. V, 1254, p. 435. 

[601] Nicholas (1992), p. 157. 

[602] Nicholas (1992), p. 157. 

[603] Bayley, C. C. (1949) The Formation of the German College of Electors in the mid-Thirteenth Century (Toronto), p. 39. 

[604] Annales Blandinienses 1244, MGH SS V, p. 31. 

[605] Necrologio Sanctæ Waldetrudis, MGH SS XXI, p. 619. 

[606] Oude Kronik van Brabant, p. 65. 

[607] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[608] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 19, MGH SS XXV, p. 574. 

[609] Foppens (1748), Tome IV, Pars II, XCIII, p. 246. 

[610] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis (Cod. Divion. et Cisterc. addunt), MGH SS IX, p. 308. 

[611] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis (Cod. Divion. et Cisterc. addunt), MGH SS IX, p. 308. 

[612] MP, Vol. V, 1254, p. 435. 

[613] Annales Blandinienses 1256, MGH SS V, p. 31. 

[614] Poull, G. (1994) La Maison souveraine et ducale de Bar (Nancy), p. 229. 

[615] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[616] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 19, MGH SS XXV, p. 574. 

[617] Saige, G., Lacaille, H. and Labande, L. H. (1902) Trésor des chartes du comté de Rethel (Monaco) (“Chartes Rethel”), Tome I, LXXXVI, p. 139. 

[618] Lesort, A. (ed.) (1904) Les chartes du Clermontois conservées au musée Condé à Chantilly (1069-1352) (Paris) ("Chartes du Clermontois"), XXIII, p. 85. 

[619] Delisle (1867), 68, p. 26. 

[620] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[621] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 19, MGH SS XXV, p. 574. 

[622] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis (Cod. Divion. et Cisterc. addunt), MGH SS IX, p. 308. 

[623] MP, Vol. V, 1254, p. 435. 

[624] Bayley (1949), p. 39. 

[625] Nicholas (1992), p. 157. 

[626] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 462. 

[627] Nicholas (1992), pp. 181-4. 

[628] Nicholas (1992), pp. 187-8. 

[629] RHGF XX, Chronicon Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 582. 

[630] Nicholas (1992), pp. 189-95. 

[631] RHGF XX, Continuatio Chronici Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 591. 

[632] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[633] La Gorgue-Rosny, L. E. de (1877) Recherches généalogiques sur les comtés de Ponthieu, de Boulogne, de Guines et pays circonvoisins, Documents inédits (Boulogne-sur-Mer), p. 79. 

[634] Annales Blandinienses 1250 and 1262, MGH SS V, p. 31. 

[635] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 19, MGH SS XXV, p. 575. 

[636] Du Chesne, A. (1631) Histoire généalogique de la maison royale de Dreux (Paris), Luxembourg, Preuves, p. 85. 

[637] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[638] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[639] RHGF XX, Chronicon Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 582. 

[640] RHGF XXI, Extraits de la Chronique attribuée à Jean Desnouelles, p. 184. 

[641] Molinier, A. & E. (eds.) (1882) Chronique normande du XIV siècle (Paris) ("Chronique Normande (14th century)"), p. 3. 

[642] Baluze, S. (1708) Histoire généalogique de la maison d´Auvergne (Paris) ("Baluze (1708) Auvergne"), Tome II, p. 155. 

[643] ES II 8 and ES II 60. 

[644] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 159. 

[645] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 159. 

[646] RHGF XX, Continuatio Chronici Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 614. 

[647] The date of his testament, ES VII 79 (Les Seigneurs d'Enghien II). 

[648] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 159. 

[649] Du Chesne (1631), Luxembourg, Preuves, p. 94. 

[650] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 155. 

[651] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 159. 

[652] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 159. 

[653] Foppens, J. F. (1734) Diplomatum Belgicorum nova collectio, sive supplementum ad opera diplomatica Auberti Miræi (Brussels), Tome III, Pars I, CLXXX, p. 157. 

[654] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[655] Annales Blandinienses 1291, MGH SS V, p. 34. 

[656] Gesta Episcoporum Mettensium Continuatio tertia, 4, MGH SS X, p. 551. 

[657] Archives départementales du Nord, AND B-3229, information provided by Dominque Delgrange in a private email to the author dated 23 Mar 2011. 

[658] Biographie Nationale de Belgique, Tome X (Bruxelles, 1888/1889), p. 348 [available at Internet Archive (24 Mar 2011)]. 

[659] Catalogue Bibliothèque royale, Bruxelles, exposition 1977, information provided by Dominque Delgrange in a private email to the author dated 23 Mar 2011. 

[660] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[661] Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Ampliata 14, MGH SS XXV, p. 397. 

[662] Oude Kronik van Brabant, p. 68. 

[663] Annales Blandinienses 1284, MGH SS V, p. 33. 

[664] Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens (Villeneuve d´Ascq), p. 361, citing Pocquet du Haut-Jussé, B. A. (1928) Les papes et les ducs de Bretagne. Essai sur les rapports du Saint-Siège avec un Etat (Paris), Tome I, p. 167 n. 1 [not yet consulted]. 

[665] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[666] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[667] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 19, MGH SS XXV, p. 575. 

[668] Carnandet, J. (1856) Notes et documents pour servir à l´histoire de Châteauvillain (Paris), p. 98. 

[669] Plancher, U. (1741) Histoire générale et particulière de Bourgogne (Dijon), Tome II, Preuves, CXXXIII, p. lxxxii. 

[670] Du Chesne (1631) Dreux, Broyes et Châteauvillain, Preuves, p. 38. 

[671] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[672] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 74e, p. 227. 

[673] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 75c, p. 241. 

[674] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[675] Annales Blandinienses 1290, MGH SS V, p. 33. 

[676] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 472. 

[677] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 472. 

[678] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 472. 

[679] Merlet, L. ´Procès pour la possession du comté de Bigorre (1254-1503)´, Bibliothèque de l´Ecole des Chartes, Vol. 18, no. 1 (1857), Pièces Justificatives, XII, p. 321, quoting Cartulaire de Bigorre, ch. 34. 

[680] Merlet ´Procès´, Pièces Justificatives, XIII, p. 321, quoting Cartulaire de Bigorre, ch. 35. 

[681] Gent, p. 48. 

[682] Skene, F. J. H. (ed.) (1877) Liber Pluscardensis, Historians of Scotland Vol. VII (Edinburgh) Vol. I, Liber VII, CXXX, p. 108. 

[683] Turnbull, W. B. (1842) Extracta e Variis Cronicis Scocie, from the Ancient Manuscript in the Advocates Library at Edinburgh (Edinburgh) ("Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie"), p. 114. 

[684] Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus, Second Series (Utrecht 1860), vijfde deel, pp. 188 and 190. 

[685] Ernst, S. P. (1847) Histoire de Limbourg, Tome VI (Liège), CCLXIX, p. 331. 

[686] Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, p. 190. 

[687] Chronique Normande (14th century), p. 1. 

[688] RHGF XX, Continuatio Chronici Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 597. 

[689] Chronique Normande (14th century), p. 1. 

[690] Poull (1991), p. 93. 

[691] Chronique Normande (14th century), p. 1. 

[692] Chronique Normande (14th century), p. 1. 

[693] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1869) Annales Monastici Vol. IV, Annales de Oseneia, Chronicon Thomæ Wykes, Annales de Wigornia (London), Annales de Wigornia, p. 529. 

[694] Rymer (1745), Tome I, Pars III, p. 170. 

[695] Nicholas (1992), pp. 187-8. 

[696] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[697] Annales Blandinienses 1290, MGH SS V, p. 33. 

[698] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 250. 

[699] RHGF XX, Chronicon Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 582. 

[700] Nicholas (1992), pp. 189-95. 

[701] Nicholas (1992), pp. 196-7. 

[702] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[703] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon, MGH SS XXV, p. 575. 

[704] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, IV, XX, Re, G. del (ed.) (1868) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 2 (Naples), p. 291. 

[705] RHGF XXI, Chronique anonyme des rois de France, p. 87. 

[706] Spicilegium Tome III, p. 660. 

[707] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[708] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon, MGH SS XXV, p. 575. 

[709] Du Chesne, A. (1628) Histoire géneálogique des ducs de Bourgogne de la maison de France (Paris), Preuves, p. 88. 

[710] Chronicle of Gent, p. 84. 

[711] Du Chesne (1628), Preuves, p. 78. 

[712] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 19, MGH SS XXV, p. 583. 

[713] RHGF XXI, Extraits de la Chronique attribuée à Jean Desnouelles, p. 184. 

[714] Nicholas (1992), p. 196. 

[715] Nicholas (1992), p. 197. 

[716] RHGF XXI, Continuation anonyme de la Chronique de Jean de S. Victor, p. 677. 

[717] RHGF XXI, Continuation anonyme de la Chronique de Jean de S. Victor, p. 677. 

[718] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 19, MGH SS XXV, p. 583. 

[719] RHGF XXI, Extraits de la Chronique attribuée à Jean Desnouelles, p. 184. 

[720] Nicholas (1992), p. 197. 

[721] Nicholas (1992), p. 210. 

[722] Morice, H. (1742) Mémoires pour servir de preuves à l´histoire ecclesiastique et civile de Bretagne, Tome I (Paris), col. 1293. 

[723] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1330. 

[724] Diocesis of Bruges (ed.) (1852) Chronicon abbatiæ Warnestoniensis (Bruges), Appendix, p. 34. 

[725] Du Chesne (1631), Bar, Preuves, p. 50. 

[726] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Collégiale de Nogent-le-Rotrou, p. 386.       

[727] Anciennes Chroniques de Flandre, RHGF XXII, p. 343. 

[728] Du Chesne, A. (1631) Preuves de l´Histoire des maisons de Guines, d´Ardres, Gand et Coucy (Paris) (“Du Chesne (1631), Guines, Preuves”), p. 381. 

[729] ES VII 80. 

[730] Anciennes Chroniques de Flandre, RHGF XXII, p. 343. 

[731] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 118. 

[732] RHGF XXI, Continuation anonyme de la Chronique de Jean de S. Victor, p. 678. 

[733] Anciennes Chroniques de Flandre, RHGF XXII, p. 343. 

[734] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 19, MGH SS XXV, p. 583. 

[735] Nicholas (1992), p. 210. 

[736] Nicholas (1992), p. 215. 

[737] Nicholas (1992), pp. 217-24. 

[738] RHGF XX, Continuatio Chronici Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 625. 

[739] Nicholas (1992), p. 197. 

[740] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 19, MGH SS XXV, p. 583. 

[741] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 19, MGH SS XXV, p. 583. 

[742] Gade (1951), p. 181. 

[743] Rymer (1740), Tome III, Pars I, p. 8. 

[744] Oude Kronik van Brabant, p. 72. 

[745] Du Chesne (1628), Preuves, p. 127. 

[746] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 19, MGH SS XXV, p. 583. 

[747] Rymer (1740), Tome III, Pars II, p. 89. 

[748] Rymer (1740), Tome III, Pars II, p. 90. 

[749] Thomson, E. M. (1874) Chronicon Angliæ 1328-1388 (London) (“Chronicon Angliæ 1328-1388 (1874)), p. 55. 

[750] Nicholas (1992), p. 227. 

[751] Illegitimate, according to Cahiers de Saint Louis 30, p. 14.

[752] ES III 294, extinct in the male line in 1545. 

[753] ES III 294, extinct in the male line in 1481.