BYZANTIUM 395-1057

  v3.0 Updated 29 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                ROMAN EMPERORS in the EAST 395-717. 6

A.         EMPERORS 395-491. 6

B.         FAMILY of EMPEROR ANASTASIOS 491-518. 16

C.        FAMILY of EMPEROR IUSTINIAN I 518-578. 21

D.        FAMILY of EMPEROR TIBERIOS II 578-582. 32

E.         FAMILY of EMPEROR MAURITIUS 582-602. 34

F.         FAMILY of EMPEROR FOKAS 602-610. 43

G.        FAMILY of EMPEROR HERAKLEIOS 610-711. 44

H.        EMPERORS 695-717. 59

Chapter 2.                EMPERORS 717-802 (ISAURIAN DYNASTY) 62

Chapter 3.                EMPERORS 802-813 (DYNASTIES of NIKEFOROS and RANGABE) 74

A.         FAMILY of NIKEFOROS 802-812. 74

B.         FAMILY of RANGABE 811-813. 77

Chapter 4.                EMPEROR 813-820 (ARMENIAN DYNASTY) 80

Chapter 5.                EMPERORS 820-867 (DYNASTY of AMORION) 87

A.         EMPERORS 820-867. 87

B.         FAMILY of AUGUSTA THEODORA.. 95

Chapter 6.                EMPERORS 867-1057 (MACEDONIAN DYNASTY) 99

Chapter 7.                EMPERORS 920-945 (LEKAPENOS) 123

Chapter 8.                EMPEROR 963-969 (FOKAS) 131

Chapter 9.                EMPEROR 969-976 (TZIMISKES) 139

Chapter 10.              ANTI-EMPEROR 978 (SKLEROS) 143

Chapter 11.              EMPEROR 1028-1034 (ARGYROS) 150

Chapter 12.              EMPERORS 1034-1042 (from PAPHLAGONIA) 161

Chapter 13.              EMPEROR 1042-1055 (MONOMACHOS) 165

Chapter 14.              EMPEROR 1056-1057 (STRATIOTIKOS) 170

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The name "Byzantium", as applied to the empire which developed around the city of Constantinople, is a misnomer.  However, there appears to be no other expression which should more appropriately be used.  Cyril Mango has described the word as a "term of convenience when it is not a term of inconvenience", emphasising that it was never applied to the empire while it existed and only became commonly used in English in the twentieth century[1].  This is not entirely correct as Ioannes Kantakouzenos regularly refers to "Βυζάντιον" in his work, for example when recording the arrival from Savoie of Empress Anna for her marriage in 1326 to Emperor Andronikos III[2], but this appears to be an exception among primary sources.  The emperor in Constantinople originally bore the title imperator augustus, emphasising his status as direct successor to the Roman emperors and therefore as the only "emperor" in the only "empire" for which no geographical epithet was needed.  After the victory of Emperor Herakleios over the Persians in 630, the emperor adopted the title basileus, although the empresses still bore the title augusta.  From about the time Byzantium recognised Charlemagne's title as "emperor" at Aix-la-Chapelle in 812, it appears that the emperors in Byzantium more frequently used the title Βασιλεύς Ρωμαίων ["Roman Emperor"], presumably to distinguish themselves from the emperor in the west[3].  The emperor added autokrator to his title after Symeon of Bulgaria was crowned Tsar and Autocrat of the Bulgarians at Constantinople in 913 by the Patriarch[4]

 

The emperor was elected, his election being confirmed by acclamation of the people and (until the accession of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos in 1081) by the senate.  The custom developed of the emperor nominating his future successor and associating him in the government as co-emperor, during his lifetime.  The first example was the coronation in 741 of the future Emperor Leon IV by his father Emperor Konstantinos V.  During the late 11th century, the practice became regular, following the coronation in 1092 of the future Emperor Ioannes II as co-emperor with his father Emperor Alexios I. 

 

Political power in the empire shifted between dynasties, and within each dynasty, frequently, in most cases reflecting the military strength of the most powerful imperial candidate of the time.  Corruption and profligacy were a constant feature of the different imperial families, rising to unprecedented levels during the rule of the Angelos dynasty during the late 12th and early 13th centuries.  The weakened empire, unable to withstand powerful pressures from east and west, its military might negligible following years of neglect and under-spending, fell to the armies of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 to be replaced by the equally ineffective Latin empire of Constantinople.  The Byzantine imperial tradition was maintained in the truncated imperial centres of Nikaia in Asia Minor, and Thessaloniki and Epirus in mainland Greece.  By the time the Palaiologos dynasty recaptured Constantinople from the Latins in 1261, it was too late to revive the political force of the Byzantine empire.  Imperial territory was gradually eaten away until, by the time Constantinople fell to the Ottomans in 1453, little land remained under imperial administration apart from the city itself. 

 

A complicated hierarchy of titles developed in the empire, complementing the equally rigid hierarchy of functions within the imperial government.  According to the Kleterologos, composed in the 9th century by Philoteos, functions were divided into three categories, relating to the imperial army, the provincial army and the civil administration, with corresponding titles for each level of function within each category.  As an individual rose in the hierarchy of functions, he changed his title according to the pre-set rules.  The new system of titles invented by Emperor Alexios I was based on the hierarchy of family relationship with the emperor.  The first class comprised the emperor and his immediate family (wife, mother, co-emperor), the sébastokrator (sons, brothers, paternal uncles and great-uncles of the emperor, and the gambroi, sons-in-law, brothers-in-law, those married to the emperor's paternal aunts).  The second class consisted of the sébastos, which included all sons of a sébastokrator

 

Family names evolved into a symbol of nobility, leading to individuals adding the family names of spouses, mothers or grandmothers to their own paternal family names, although the process does not appear to have followed any particular rules.  The practice developed over time into adopting multiple names from any members of an individual's family, with extremely confusing results which create difficulties in reconstructing the agnatic family to which a person belonged. 

 

The present document shows the descendants in the male line of all Roman and Byzantine families which at some point in time provided an emperor or anti-emperor in the east between 395 and 1057.  Later imperial families are treated in the separate documents BYZANTIUM 1057-1204 and BYZANTIUM 1261-1453.  Byzantine nobles families which never rose to imperial rank are set out in the document BYZANTINE NOBILITY. 

 

Byzantine sources are numerous.  The focus has been on extracting information which relates primarily to establishing the relationships in the Byzantine imperial and noble families, although brief reference is also made to the principal political and administrative events in Byzantine history.  Where the information in different sources is the same, generally only a single source has been quoted.  Where the sources contradict or complement each other, every effort has been made to include information from all relevant documentation.  The sources consulted are principally those included in the nineteenth century Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ series.  The extracts are quoted from the Latin translations rather than the original Greek (unless a conflict is obvious), because it is assumed that more users of Medieval Lands will be familiar with Latin than Greek (also because the compiler´s knowledge of the Greek language is limited). 

 

The main primary sources which have so far been consulted in detail for the preparation of the present document are Iordanes (History of the Romans)[5], the Chronicle of Marcellinus[6], the Chronicle of Cassiodorus[7], the Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon[8], the Chronographia of Theophanes[9], the Chronographia of Ioannes Malalas[10], Procopius's History of the Wars[11], the History of Patriarch Nikeforos[12], the Historia of Theophylactus Simocattæ[13], the Chronographia of Leo Grammaticus[14], De Ceremoniis[15] and De Administrando Imperio[16] of Emperor Konstantinos VII Porphyrogennetos, the Regum of Genesius[17], Theophanes Continuatus[18], the Annales of Symeon Magister (Pseudo-Symeon)[19], the Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum of Georgius Monachus[20], the Michælis Ducæ Nepotis Historia[21], the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellos[22], the Historia of Leo Diaconus[23], the Historia of Niketas Choniates[24], and the Historia of Nikeforos Briennios[25].  References in western primary sources to the Byzantine emperors and their families have also been incorporated. 

 

Reference has also been made to the CD Rom Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire I (641-867)[26], both to cross-check primary source material and for direct quotes from less well-known sources.  However, some caution is needed when consulting prosopographical compilations of this sort.  Although they are of great use in identifying and comparing sources, it can be more difficult for them to reflect the context in which the information is included in the original primary sources.  The result is that erroneous information in the original documents may not be identified as such.  The on-line Prosopography of the Byzantine World database (2006.02) produced by King's College, London[27] has also been consulted, especially for seals.  During the course of compiling the Byzantine series of documents in Medieval Lands, the information has been extracted page by page from the original published sources.  While it cannot be guaranteed that all relevant information has been identified during this process, every attempt has been made to highlight and explain inconsistencies which became apparent as the work progressed. 

 

An earlier version of this document was reviewed in detail by Morris Bierbrier, with additions and corrections where indicated (marked "[MB]"), in particular providing reference numbers from the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire ("PLRE")[28] and Prosopographie der mittelbyzantinischen Zeit ("PmbZ")[29], which have not yet been consulted directly.  I am grateful for his helpful collaboration. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    ROMAN EMPERORS in the EAST 395-717

 

 

 

A.      EMPERORS 395-491

 

 

ARCADIUS, son of Emperor THEODOSIUS I & his first wife Placilla --- (end 377-1 May 408, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes names "Arcadius…et Honorius" as the sons of "magnus Theodosius" and his first wife[30].  Iordanes names "Archadium Honoriumque" as the children of Emperor Theodosios and his first wife, recording in a later passage that they later divided the empire, Arcadius ruling in Constantinople for 13 years after the death of their father[31].  His father proclaimed him co-Emperor ARCADIUS at Constantinople 19 Jan 383.  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Arcadius" was proclaimed emperor "Constantinopoli a patre suo Theodosio Augusto in Tribunali Hebdomi…XIV Kal Feb"[32].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that Theodosios installed “Arcadium filium suum” as emperor in 383[33].  He succeeded as Emperor in the East in 395.  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the death in 408 of "Arcadius imperator"[34].  Cedrenus records the death of "Arcadius", aged 31, after ruling for 14 years and seven days, and his burial "in templo Apostolorum…cum Eudoxia uxore"[35].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Arcadii et filii eius, Theodosii, et Eudoxiæ…uxor Arcadii et mater Theodosii" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[36]

m (27 Apr 395) EUDOXIA, daughter of --- (-6 Oct 404, bur 12 Oct Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Eudoxiam Arcadii uxorem” was converted to Catholicism from Arianism by “Constantinopoli Joannes Episcopus[37].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "nobilissima Eudoxia" was created augusta "Id Jan" in 400[38].  Cedrenus records the death of "Eudoxia…uxor Arcadii", adding that she was "mulier barbara et ferox"[39].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the death in 404 of "Eudoxia uxor Arcadii"[40].  The Chronicon Paschale records the death "pridie Non Oct" in 404 of "Eudoxia Augusta" and her burial "in sede Sanctorum Apostolorum…IV Id Oct"[41].  She died after a miscarriage[42].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Arcadii et filii eius, Theodosii, et Eudoxiæ…uxor Arcadii et mater Theodosii" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[43]

Emperor Arcadius & his wife had five children: 

1.         FLACILLA (17 Jun 397-[young]).  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the birth in 397 of "Flaccilla Arcadio…filia"[44].  Cedrenus names "Pulcheriam, Falcillam, Arcadiam et Marinam…Theodosium ultimum", adding that the daughters were all celibate[45].  The Chronicon Paschale records the birth "XV Kal Jul" in 397 of "Flaccilla nobilissima junior"[46].  It is presumed that she died young as no further record of her has been found. 

2.         PULCHERIA (19 Jan 399-Jul 453).  The Chronicon Paschale records the birth "XIV Kal Feb" in 399 of "Pulcheria nobilissima"[47].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the birth in 399 of "Pulcheria Arcadio altera filia" and, in a later passage, that she was called Augusta in 414[48].  Cedrenus names "Pulcheriam, Falcillam, Arcadiam et Marinam…Theodosium ultimum", adding that the daughters were all celibate[49].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Pulcheria soror Theodosii iunioris" was named augusta "IV Non Jul" in 414[50].  She exercised a dominant influence over her brother Emperor Theodosios II[51].  She governed alone after her brother's death, but brought out of retirement Marcianus, a military officer, whom she proclaimed emperor and married[52].  Iordanes records the marriage of "Pulcheriam germanam Theodosii, quæ in palatio iam matura mulier virginitatem servaverat" and Marcianus after he succeeded as emperor[53]Ioannes Malalas records that "Pulcheria Augusta" died two years after her marriage[54].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records the death in Jul 454 of “Regina…Pulcheria” in the third year of her husband´s reign[55].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Marcianus et uxor eius Pulcheria" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[56]m (450 after Aug) as his second wife, MARCIANUS --- (-26 Jan 457).  He succeeded as Emperor MARCIANUS, Emperor in the East in 450. 

3.         ARCADIA (3 Apr 400-444).  The Chronicon Paschale records the birth "III Non Apr" in 400 of "nobilissima Arcadia"[57].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the death in 444 of "Arcadia soror Theodosii"[58].  Cedrenus names "Pulcheriam, Falcillam, Arcadiam et Marinam…Theodosium ultimum", adding that the daughters were all celibate[59]

4.         THEODOSIUS (Constantinople 10 Apr 401-28 Jul 450, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the birth "401 IV Id Apr" of "Theodosius iunior patre Arcadio"[60].  The Chronicon Paschale records the birth "IV Id Apr" in 401 of "nobilissimus Arcadii filius" and the proclamation of "Theodosius junior…Augustus Constantinopoli in Hebdomo in Tribunali by Arcadio patre…IV Id Jan" in 402[61].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records the birth in 403 of “Theodosius Arcadii filius[62].  Cedrenus names "Pulcheriam, Falcillam, Arcadiam et Marinam…Theodosium ultimum", adding that the daughters all lived celibate[63].  Iordanes names "Theodosius iunior Archadii filius…aduliscens egregius" when recording that he succeeded his father and ruled 43 years[64].  His father named him co-Emperor THEODOSIUS II, Emperor in the East 10 Jan 402, ruling jointly with his father until the latter's death in 408.  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Theodosius iunior" was created cæsar "in loco pater patruusque suus" in 402[65].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the death in 450 of "Theodosius imperator"[66].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Arcadii et filii eius, Theodosii, et Eudoxiæ…uxor Arcadii et mater Theodosii" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[67]m (7 Jun 421) ATHENAIS, daughter of LEONTIOS [Heraclitus] & his wife --- ([392/93]-Jerusalem 460).  Ioannes Malalas records the marriage of "Athenais…quæ et postea Eudocia vocata est, Leontii, Philosophi Atheniensis…filiam" and Emperor Theodosios after the death of her father, also naming her brothers "Valerium et Gesium"[68].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Theodosius" married "puella Græcanica…Athenais…Heracliti Philosophi filia…VII Id Jun" in 421 and that she was then called "Eudocia"[69].  The emperor's sister Pulcheria arranged this marriage to the daughter of a professor of rhetoric in Athens, after which she was baptised EUDOKIA[70].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the marriage in 421 of "Theodosius imperator" and "Eudociam Achivam"[71].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Eudocia" was named augusta "IV Non Jan" in 423[72].  She left court after disagreements in [444], continuing to use the title Augusta until her death[73].  Theophanes records the death of "Eudocia" in Jerusalem[74].  Emperor Theodosius & his wife had three children: 

a)         EUDOXIA (422-after 462).  The Chronicon Paschale records the birth in 422 of "Athenaide seu Eudocia filiam…Eudociam"[75].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the birth in 422 of "Theodosius imperator Eudoxiam filiam"[76].  The same source records the betrothal in 424 of "Valentinianus cæsar" and "Theodosii imperatoris Eudoxiam filiam" and, in a later passage, their marriage in 437[77].  Theophanes records the marriage of "Valentinianus Gallæ Placidiæ et Constantini filius" and "Eudoxiam Theodosii imperatoris filiam ex Eudocia coniuge" in 426[78].  The Chronicon Paschale records the marriage "Constantinopolim…XII Kal Nov" in 437 of "Valentinianus junior Augustus" and "Eudoxia filia Theodosii et Eudocæ Augustæ"[79]Ioannes Malalas records the marriage of "Valentinianus iunior…Constantii Imperatoris et Placidiæ magnæ filius" and "Theodosio…filiam Eudoxiam…ex Eudocia Augusta, Philosophi filia"[80]Augusta 439.  After the murder of her first husband, she was forced to marry his successor, but was captured during the Vandal invasion and taken to north Africa with her two daughters[81]Ioannes Malalas records the marriage of "Eudoxia Augusta, Valentiniani Regis vidua" and "Maximo Tyranno"[82].  She was later allowed to return to Constantinople with one daughter[83]m firstly (betrothed 424, 437) Emperor VALENTINIAN III, son of CONSTANTIUS & his wife Galla Placida (2 Jul 419-murdered 16 Mar 455).  m secondly ([Mar] 455) PETRONIUS MAXIMUS, son of --- (-murdered 27 May 455).  He succeeded in 455 as Emperor PETRONIUS MAXIMUS, Emperor in the West. 

b)         ARCADIUS (Apr ---- -Dec after 439).  The Chronicorum 511 records the birth "539 IIII" of "Arcadio in Oriente filius Theodosius iunior" and in a later passage the death "549 XII" of "Arcadius parco filio Theodosiano Orientis imperium dereliquens"[84].  He was alive in 439[85]

c)         FLACILLA (-431).  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the death in 431 of "Flaccilla Theodosii Augusti filia"[86]

5.         MARINA (12 Feb 403-449).  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the birth "403 III Id Feb" of "Marina patre Arcadio"[87].  The Chronicon Paschale records the birth "IV Id Feb" in 403 of "nobilissima Marina"[88].  Cedrenus names "Pulcheriam, Falcillam, Arcadiam et Marinam…Theodosium ultimum", adding that the daughters were all celibate[89].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the death in 449 of "Marina Theodosii regis soror"[90]

 

 

1.         MARCIANUS ([391/92]-27 Jan 457, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  His birth date is estimated from his being recorded as dying aged 65.  An officer who served as aide-de-camp of two generals in the army of Emperor Theodosios II, he was brought out of retirement by Pulcheria after the death of her brother, and proclaimed as Emperor MARCIANUS, Emperor in the East, 25 Aug 450.  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Marcianus" was proclaimed emperor "a Circensibus seu Factionibus in Hebdomo…VIII Kal Sep" in 450[91].  He was crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople, the first emperor to be crowned[92].  Iordanes records Marcianus ruling as emperor for 6 years and 6 months[93].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the death in 457 of "Marcianus imperator"[94]Ioannes Malalas records that "Marcianus" died aged 65[95].  The Chronicon Paschale records the death in 457 of "Marcianus Augustus" aged 65[96].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Marcianus et uxor eius Pulcheria" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[97]m firstly ---.  Ioannes Malalas records that "Marcianus filiam" was born "ex priore uxore"[98].  The name of Marcianus's first wife is not known.  m secondly (450 after Aug) PULCHERIA, daughter of Emperor ARCADIUS & his wife Eudoxia --- (19 Jan 399-Jul 453, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Iordanes records the marriage of "Pulcheriam germanam Theodosii, quæ in palatio iam matura mulier virginitatem servaverat" and Marcianus after he succeeded as emperor[99]Ioannes Malalas records that "Pulcheria Augusta" died two years after her marriage[100].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records the death in Jul 454 of “Regina…Pulcheria” in the third year of her husband´s reign[101].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Marcianus et uxor eius Pulcheria" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[102].  Emperor Marcianus & his first wife had one child: 

a)         MARCIA EUPHEMIA Ioannes Malalas records the marriage of "Marcianus filiam ex priore uxore" and "Anthimio"[103].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m ([453]) ANTHEMIUS, son of PROCOPIUS & his wife Lucina ---.  He succeeded in 467 as Emperor ANTHEMIUS, Emperor in the West. 

 

 

1.         LEON (Thrace [400/01]-18 Jan 474, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  His birth date is estimated from his being recorded as aged 73 when he died[104].  Iordanes records the accession of "Leo Bessica ortus progenie Asparis patricii" as emperor[105].  He succeeded in 457 as Emperor LEON I, Emperor in the East.  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Leo Magnus" was buried in the church of the Holy Martyrs[106]m VERINA, sister of BASILICUS, daughter of --- (-484).  Iordanes names "Basiliscum…fratrem Augustæ Verenæ" when recording that her brother led an army to Africa[107].  Iordanes records that "Verina Augusta socrus sua [Zenonis]" tried to arrange the accession of her brother Basiliscus as emperor in opposition to her son-in-law[108].  Cedrenus records that "Basiliscus" installed "Marcum filium" as cæsar and "Zenodiam uxorem" crowned as augusta[109].  Emperor Leon & his wife had three children: 

a)         ARIADNE (before 457-[515], bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Zonaras names "Ariadnam et Leontiam" as the two daughters of Emperor Leon and his wife Verina[110].  Iordanes names "Ariagne" as the daughter of Emperor Leon I when recording the accession of her son as emperor[111].  Cedrenus records the marriage of "Zenonis" and "Ariadnæ Leonis filiæ", dating the event to the second year of her father´s reign[112].  Theophanes records the second marriage of "Areadna imperatrice" and "Anastasius"[113].  Cedrenus records the death of "Ariadna Augusta" in the twenty-fifth year of her second husband´s reign[114].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anastasium Dicorum et eius uxorem Ariadnam" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[115]m firstly ([466/67]) as his second wife, TARSICODISSA [ZENON], son of --- & his wife Lallis ([425/26] or [430/31]-9 Apr 491).  Iordanes names "Patriciolum Zenonis generi sui [Leonis]" when recording that he ordered the murder of Emperor Anthemius[116].  He succeeded in 474 as Emperor ZENON, Emperor in the East.  m secondly (491) ANASTASIOS, son of [DYRRACHENUS] & his wife Arriana --- ([430/31]-8 Jun 518).  He succeeded in 491 as Emperor ANASTASIOS, Emperor in the East. 

b)         LEONTIA .  Zonaras names "Ariadnam et Leontiam" as the two daughters of Emperor Leon and his wife Verina[117].  Her first marriage is recorded[118].  Theophanes names "Marcianus" son of "Anthemii, qui Romæ imperavit", husband of "Leontiæ, Verinæ quidem filiæ, imperatricis…Areadnæ sororis", when recording his rebellion against Emperor Zenon[119]m firstly (divorced 474) IULIUS, son of ASPAR & his wife ---.  He is recorded as consul in 459 and cæsar in 470-71, the marriage being dissolved after the murder of Iulius's father[120]m secondly MARCIANUS, son of Emperor ANTHEMIUS, Emperor of the West & his wife Ælia Marcia Euphemia ---.  The Chronicon Paschale names "Zenone et Marciano" as consuls in 469 and "Marciano et Festo" as consuls in 472[121]

c)         son (463-463).  He died aged 5 months.  He is referred to in the Vita of Daniel Stylites and also a horoscope of Rhetorius which records the death of a son of the emperor aged five months[122]

2.         EUPHEMIA .  Georgius Codrinus records that "Euphemia germana eius soror" erected the statue of "magni Leonis Macelæ"[123]

 

 

1.         RUSUMBLADEOTES .  He is named by Photius who records how, according to the History of Candidus (work now lost), Emperor Leon I agreed an alliance with "the Isaurians through Tarasicodissas, the son of Rusumbladeotes, whose name was changed to Zeno when he became Leon´s son-in-law"[124]m LALLIS, daughter of ---.  Lallis is named as mother of Zenon[125].  Theophanes records that "Illus et Leontius" released "Longinum Zenonis fratrem et eius matrem" from the castle where they were held in custody[126].  Lallis is named as mother of Flavius Longinus and recorded as having entered a convent in 492, with his daughter and his wife[127], although she must have been very old at that date if it is correct that Zenon and Flavius Longinus were full brothers.  Rusumbladeotes & his wife had three children: 

a)         TARSICODISSAS [ZENON] ([425/26] or [430/31]-9 Apr 491, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Photius records how, according to the History of Candidus (work now lost), Emperor Leon I agreed an alliance with "the Isaurians through Tarasicodissas, the son of Rusumbladeotes, whose name was changed to Zeno when he became Leon´s son-in-law"[128].  The Chronicon Paschale names "Zenone et Posthumiano" as consuls in 448 and "Zenone et Marciano" as consuls in 469[129].  Iordanes names "Patriciolum Zenonis generi sui [Leonis]" when recording that he ordered the murder of Emperor Anthemius (in 472)[130].  He succeeded in 474 as Emperor ZENON, Emperor in the East.  The Chronicle of Cassiodorus records that "Zeno" succeeded "Leo senior" in 474 and ruled for 17 years[131].  Iordanes records that "Zenon natione Isaurus gener Leonis imperatoris" ruled for 17 years[132].  The Chronicle of Cassiodorus records the death in 491 of Zenon[133].  John Malalas records the death of Zenon aged 60 years and nine months[134].  The Chronicon Paschale records the death in Apr 491 of "Zeno" aged 65 years and nine months[135].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon records the death in 491 of "Zenon imperator" aged 42[136], although this age is well out of the range recorded by the Greek sources.  m firstly [ARCADIA], daughter of ---.  Zenon is named as son of Zenon by his first marriage[137].  The name of Zenon's first wife is not known.  Georgius Codrinus names "Arcadiæ secundæ uxoris Zenonis" when recording her statue "prope gradus…Topi in regione Michaelis archangeli, in thermis Arcadiani"[138].  It is unclear whether this passage in fact refers to Zenon´s first wife, although the text also refers to Ariadne as his first wife so the author may simply have transposed the two.  m secondly ([466/67]) as her first husband, ARIADNE, daughter of Emperor LEON I & his wife Aelia Verina (before 457-[515]).  Iordanes names "Ariagne" as the daughter of Emperor Leon I when recording the accession of her son as emperor[139].  Cedrenus records the marriage of "Zenonis" and "Ariadnæ Leonis filiæ", dating the event to the second year of her father´s reign[140].  She married secondly (491) Anastasios, who succeeded in 491 as Emperor ANASTASIOS, Emperor in the East.  Theophanes records the second marriage of "Areadna imperatrice" and "Anastasius"[141].  Cedrenus records the death of "Ariadna Augusta" in the twenty-fifth year of her second husband´s reign[142].  Emperor Zenon & his first wife had one child: 

i)          ZENON .  Zenon is named as son of Zenon by his first marriage and recorded as having predeceased his father[143]

Emperor Zenon & his second wife had one child: 

ii)         LEON ([467]-after 527).  Cedrenus records that "rex" declared "Zenonis et suæ filiæ Ariadnæ filium Leonem" as cæsar, dating the event to the seventeenth year of his reign[144].  The Chronicle of Cassiodorus records that "Leo nepotem suum Leonem" as co-emperor in 473[145].  Iordanes names "Leo Leonem iuniorem ex Ariagne filia nepotem suum" when recording that he succeeded his maternal grandfather as emperor[146].  He succeeded his maternal grandfather in 474 as Emperor LEON II, Emperor in the East.  Deposed in Nov 474.  The sources are contradictory regarding the date of Leon´s death.  The Chronicon Paschale states that "Nestorianus" records the death of "Leo junior" in Nov (presumably in 474) aged 17[147], although the age must be incorrect.  On the other hand, the Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon records that "Zenon imperator" sought to kill his son Leo in 475 but that the latter survived until the time of Emperor Iustinian[148]

b)         CONON .  Zonaras names "Cononem" as brother of Emperor Zenon, adding that he was "flagitiosiorem, hominem sanguinarium"[149]

c)         LONGINUS (-Alexandria 499).  Theophanes records that "Illus et Leontius" released "Longinum Zenonis fratrem et eius matrem" from the castle where they were held in custody[150].  Theophanes names "Zenone…Longino…fratre ipsius" when recording that his candidacy for the imperial throne was rejected after his brother died[151].  The Chronicon Paschale names "Longino et Decio" as consuls in 486 and "Longino et Fausto" as consuls in 490[152].  Longinus, brother of Zenon, is recorded as consul in 486 and 490, as candidate for the throne in 491[153].  Zonaras records that Emperor Anastasios, after his accession (491), banished "Longinum…Zenonis fratrem" to Alexandria where he died "presbyter electus"[154]m VALERIA, daughter of --- (-after 492).  Valeria is named as wife of Longinus and recorded as having entered a convent in 492, with his daughter and his mother[155].  Longinus & his wife had one child: 

i)          LONGINA (-after 492).  Longina is named as daughter of Flavius Longinus and recorded as having entered a convent in 492, with his wife and his mother[156]

 

 

 

B.      FAMILY of EMPEROR ANASTASIOS 491-518

 

 

1.         --- .  m ARRIANA, daughter of ---.  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon records that "Ariagne Augusta Zenonis relicta" designated "Anastasium silentiarium Illyricianum patre Dyrracheno matre Arriana" as emperor in 491[157], although it is likely that "Dyrracheno" indicates that Anastasios's father was a native of Dyrrachium[158].  The issue is clarified by Ioannes Malalas who names "Anastasius Dicorus…ex Silentiariis…ex Dyrrachio Novæ Epirus oriundus"[159].  [Seven] children: 

a)         ANASTASIOS ([430/31]-8 Jun 518, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  He succeeded in 491 as Emperor ANASTASIOS, Emperor in the East.  The Chronicon Paschale records the coronation in Apr 491 of "Anastasius Dicorus, ex Novæ Epiri Provincia oriundus, Ex-Silentario"[160].  The Chronicle of Cassiodorus records that Anastasios succeeded Zenon as emperor in 491[161].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon records that "Ariagne Augusta Zenonis relicta" designated "Anastasium silentiarium Illyricianum patre Dyrracheno matre Arriana" as emperor in 491 and that he reigned for 27 years[162], although it is likely that "Dyrracheno" indicates that Anastasios's father was a native of Dyrrachium[163].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon records that "Anastasius imperator" died ignominiously, aged 88, struck by lightening after he had fled to his bedroom in terror of the storm[164].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anastasium Dicorum et eius uxorem Ariadnam" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[165]m (491) as her second husband, ARIADNE, widow of Emperor ZENON, daughter of Emperor LEON I & his wife Aelia Verina (before 457-[515], bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Iordanes names "Ariagne" as the daughter of Emperor Leon I when recording the accession of her son as emperor[166].  Theophanes records the second marriage of "Areadna imperatrice" and "Anastasius"[167].  Cedrenus records the death of "Ariadna Augusta" in the twenty-fifth year of her second husband´s reign[168].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anastasium Dicorum et eius uxorem Ariadnam" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[169]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Anastasios´s mistress is not known.  Anastasios had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

i)          son (-killed Constantinople 507).  Theophanes records "Anastasii filius ex pellice" among those killed during an insurrection at the hippodrome, dated to 507[170].  The name of this son is not known. 

b)         PAULUS (-496 or after).  Paulus, brother of Anastasios, is recorded[171].  The Chronicon Paschale names "Paulo" as sole consul in 496[172].  The Chronicon Paschale names "Paulo et Musciano" as consuls in 512[173]

c)         [son .  Theophanes names "Hypatius imperatoris ex fratre nepos" among those present at ecumenical council meetings[174].  It is not known whether "ex fratre nepos" in this passage may have been an error for "ex sorore nepos" (in which case Hypatius could have been the same person as the son of Secundinus, see below), or whether the text is correct and refers to a second Hypatius who was the son of one of Emperor Anastasios´s brothers.  m ---.  One possible child:] 

i)          [HYPATIUS (-after 515).  Theophanes names "Hypatius imperatoris ex fratre nepos" among those present at ecumenical council meetings[175].  It is not known whether "ex fratre nepos" in this passage may have been an error for "ex sorore nepos" (in which case this would have been the same person as Hypatius son of Secundinus, see below), or whether the text is correct and refers to a second Hypatius who was the son of one of Emperor Anastasios´s brothers.] 

d)         MAGNA .  Her parentage is confirmed by the Chronographia Brevis of Patriarch Nikeforos which names (her daughter) "Irenes…quæ Magnæ Anastasii Imp. sororis filia fuit" when recording her marriage[176]m ---.  The name of Magna´s husband is not known.  One child: 

i)          EIRENE .  The Chronographia Brevis of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "Olybrius", son of "Placidia, Areobindi uxor", married "Irenes…quæ Magnæ Anastasii Imp. sororis filia fuit"[177]m OLYBRIUS, son of AREOBINDUS & his wife Anicia Iuliana [daughter of Emperor Olybrius].  Ioannes Malalas names "Consule Olybrio, Ariobindi filio"[178].  He is recorded as consul in 491[179]

e)         CÆSARIA .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Theophanes who names (her son) "Hypatius, Secundini et sororis Anastasii imperatoris filius"[180].  A later passage in the same source names "Secundianus patricius Anastasii ex sorore gener et Hypatii pater" when recording that he freed his son Hypatius from imprisonment "in Mysia" with the help of Vitalianus[181].  She is named in PLRE[182].   m SECUNDINUS, son of ---.  The Chronicon Paschale names "Secundino et Felice" as consuls in 511[183].  Secundinus & his wife had two children: 

i)          HYPATIUS (-executed 532).  Procopius names “Hypatius Augusti [=Anastasius] ex sorore nepos” as one of the “quatuor…belli Imperatores[184].  The Chronicon Paschale names "Patricio et Hypatio" as consuls in 500[185].  Theophanes names "Hypatius, Secundini et sororis Anastasii imperatoris filius" among the "missi duces" who accompanied "Areobindo Dalagaiphi filio…[consul]" with the army of Emperor Anastasios against "Gotthorum, Bessorum et aliarum Thracicarum nationum"[186].  He must have been captured during this campaign as a later passage in the same source records that "Secundianus patricius Anastasii ex sorore gener et Hypatii pater" freed his son Hypatius from imprisonment "in Mysia" with the help of Vitalianus[187].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Hypatius" was proclaimed emperor during the Nika riots in 532[188].  Theophanes records the execution of "Hypatius et Pompeius eius frater"[189].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Hypatius et Pompeius patricii" were killed in 532 and their bodies thrown into the sea[190]m MARIA, daughter of ---.  Procopius names "Hypatius…uxore Mariæ"[191]

ii)         POMPEIUS (-executed 532).  Procopius names “Hypatio et Pompeio Anastasii Augusti ex sorore nepotibus[192].  The Chronicon Paschale names "Pompeio et Avieno" as consuls in 501[193].  Theophanes records the execution of "Hypatius et Pompeius eius frater"[194].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Hypatius et Pompeius patricii" were killed in 532 and their bodies thrown into the sea[195][196]m ANASTASIA, daughter of ---.  Pompeius & his wife had one child: 

(a)       IOANNES (-before [566/67]).  Procopius names "Ioannes filius Pompeii, qui frater fuit Hypatii” when recording his marriage[197]m ([546/48]) as her second husband, PRÆIECTA, widow of AREOBINDUS, daughter of DULCIDIUS & his wife Vigilantia ---.  Procopius names “Areobindus…et Preiectam uxorem, filiam Vigilantiæ, sororis Iustiniani Aug.[198].  Procopius records that “Preiectam" married "Ioannes filius Pompeii, qui frater fuit Hypatii”, dated to [546] from the context[199]

f)          [daughter .  Her parentage is confirmed by Procopius who names “Probum Imperatoris Anastasii a sorore nepotem…patricium[200].  It is possible that this daughter was either Magna or Cæsaria named above.  m ---.  One child: 

i)          PROBUS (-542 or after).  Procopius names “Probum Imperatoris Anastasii a sorore nepotem…patricium[201].  The Chronicon Paschale names "Probo et Avieno" as consuls in 502, "Clementino et Probo" in 513, and "Philoxeno et Probo" as consuls in 525[202].  Probus is recorded as alive in 542[203]

g)         [--- .  m ---.]  [One child:] 

i)          [--- .  m ---.]  [One child:]

(a)       MAGNUS [Flavius Anastasios Paulus Moschianus Probus] .  His family origin is confirmed by the Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus which names "Juliana…daughter of the consul Magnes…descended from king Anastasius" when recording her marriage[204].  Emperor Anastasios is not recorded as having surviving descendants (see above), so it is probable that Magnus was a descendant of one of the emperor´s brothers or sisters.  It appears chronologically possible for him to have been the emperor´s great-nephew, but no primary source has yet been found which confirms that this is correct.  His name suggests descent from the emperor´s sister Magna (see above).  The Chronicon Paschale names "Magno" as sole consul in 518[205]m ---.  Magnus & his wife had one child: 

(1)       IULIANA .  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that "Juliana…daughter of the consul Magnes…descended from king Anastasius" married "the brother of King Justin", adding that she was placed in a nunnery "upon the straits of Chalcedon"[206]m MARCELLUS, son of DULCIDIUS & his wife Vigilantia (-after 565). 

 

 

The precise relationship between the following family group and the family of Emperor Anastasios has not yet been ascertained: 

1.         --- .  His family origin is confirmed by the Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus which names "John…descended from king Anastasius…the son…of queen Theodora´s daughter"[207]m ---, daughter of [Emperor IUSTINIAN I] & [his wife] Theodora ---.  Procopius´s Anecdota record that "Anastasio ex filia nepoti [Theodoram]" married "Ioanninam Belisarii filius"[208].  The notes in the edition consulted, written by Nicolas Alemann, interpret this passage as meaning that Anastasios´s mother was the emperor´s legitimate daughter by his wife[209].  However, the passage in question does not refer to this daughter´s father.  Procopius´s Anecdota records that Theodora had an illegitimate son "Ioannem" by an Arab father[210], presumably born before her marriage, so it is not impossible that she also had an illegitimate daughter.  No record has been found of her son Anastasios claiming the imperial throne, which it is likely he would have done if he had been the son of Emperor Iustinian´s legitimate daughter.  Her marriage is confirmed by the Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus which names "John…descended from king Anastasius…the son…of queen Theodora´s daughter"[211].  Two children: 

a)         ANASTASIOS ([545/50]-).  Procopius´s Anecdota record that "Anastasio ex filia nepoti [Theodoram]" married "Ioanninam Belisarii filius"[212].  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that "Athanasius the son of Theodora´s daughter" joined the sect of Philoponus and spent his "great wealth…in obtaining converts"[213]m IOANNINA, daughter of BELISARIUS [Byzantine general in Italy] & his wife Antonina ---.  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus names "Antonina the wife of the patrician Belisarius and the bosom friend and confidante of the unworthy Theodora" as mother of Photius by her first husband[214]

b)         IOANNES ([545/50]-).  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus names "John…descended from king Anastasius…the son…of queen Theodora´s daughter"[215]m ---, daughter of --- & his wife Antipatra ---.  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus names "Antipatra…mother-in-law of John…descended from king Anastasius…the son…of queen Theodora´s daughter", adding that she was placed in a nunnery "upon the straits of Chalcedon"[216].  

 

 

 

C.      FAMILY of EMPEROR IUSTINIAN I 518-578

 

 

Two siblings, parents not known. 

1.         IUSTINUS ([450/52]-1 Aug 527, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Procopius records that "during the rule of the Emperor Leo in Constantinople, three young farmers of Illyrian birth…Zimarchus, Ditybistus and Justin of Bederiana, after a desperate struggle with poverty, left their homes to try their fortune in the army"[217].  This provides the basis for his estimated birth date range.  An indication of a humble background is provided by Zonaras who records the accession of "Justinus Thraci, parentibus ortus ignobilius et obscuris" as emperor[218].  He succeeded in 518 as Emperor IUSTINUS I.  Iordanes records that "Iustinus comite Scubitorum" was elected emperor by the senate and ruled for 9 years[219].  Cedrenus records the death in Aug "quinta indictione" of "Justinus" and his burial "in mansione Augustæ, iuxta uxorem Euphemiam"[220].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon records that "Iustinus…Illyricianus" reigned 8 years and 9 months[221].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Iustinus Imp. et Euphemia uxor eius" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[222]m LUPICINA, daughter of --- (-before 1 Aug 527, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Procopius´s Anecdota name "Lupicinæ…serva eaque barbara", bought for Iustinus, as his wife[223].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon names "Lupicina" as the wife of "Iustinus…Illyricianus", specifying that she was later called EUPHEMIA on her accession as empress[224].  Procopius records that the empress "adopted the name Euphemia when she came to the palace", the text suggesting that she died before her husband[225].  Georgius Codrinus records that a statue of "Euphemiæ uxoris Iustini Thracis" was placed "in templo S. Euphemiæ"[226].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Iustinus Imp. et Euphemia uxor eius" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[227]

2.         [BIGLENIZA] .  The notes in the edition of Procopius´s Anecdota which has been consulted, written by Nicolas Alemann, state that the mother of Emperor Iustinian is named in Theofilos´s Vita Iustiniani[228], but the latter work has not yet been consulted.  Her relationship to Emperor Iustinus is confirmed by the Pauli Historiæ Romanæ which records the accession of "Iustinianus sororis Iustini filius" as emperor[229].  Her marriage is confirmed by Procopius´s Anecdota which refer to Emperor Iustinian´s mother as "Sabbatii coniugis"[230].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   m SABBATIUS, son of ---.  Sabbatius & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         PETRUS SABBATIUS (Tauresium 11 May 482-14 Nov 565).  He was later known as IUSTINIAN.  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ records the accession of "Iustinianus sororis Iustini filius" as emperor[231].  Procopius records that "his nephew Justinian, while still a youth, was the virtual ruler" after the accession of Emperor Iustinus[232].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon records that "Iustinianus nepos Iustini" was appointed magister militum ordinarius in 520, installed as cæsar by the senate in 525 and succeeded as emperor in 527, ruling for 39 years and 7 months[233].  Procopius records that Iustinian seized power from his uncle after obliging him to change the law to permit Iustinian to marry the courtesan Theodora, and ascended the throne with her three days before Easter[234].  Cedrenus records that "Justinianum sororis suæ filium" was crowned 14 Apr (in 527) and ruled four months with "Justinus"[235].  He succeeded as Emperor IUSTINIAN I, sole emperor from his maternal uncle's death in 527.  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon records the death in 567 of "Iustinianus"[236].  Cedrenus records that Iustinian ruled for thirty-eight years, seven months and thirteen days[237]m ([526/Mar 527]) THEODORA, daughter of AKAKIOS "the Bearkeeper" & his wife --- (-Jun or 11 Jul 548, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon names "Theodora" as wife of Emperor Iustinian I and, in a later passage, her death from cancer in 549 at the synod of Calchedon[238].  Procopius records that "Acacius…the keeper of wild beasts used in the amphitheatre in Constantinople…nicknamed the Bearkeeper" died during the reign of Emperor Anastasios leaving "three daughters…Comito, Theodora and Anastasia, of whom the eldest was not yet seven years old", that "their mother [later] put them on the stage", and that Iustinian "fell violently in love with" Theodora[239].  Procopius records that Iustinian seized power from his uncle after obliging him to change the law to permit Iustinian to marry the courtesan Theodora, and ascended the throne with her three days before Easter[240].  Theophanes records the death "mense Iunio, indictione undecima" of "imperatrix Theodora"[241].  Cedrenus records the death in 11 Jul of "Theodora Augusta" in the twenty-first year of her husband´s reign[242].  Procopius´s Anecdota records that Theodora had an illegitimate son "Ioannem" by an Arab father[243], presumably born before her marriage.  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Theodora, Magni Iustiniani uxor" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[244].  Iustinian I & his wife had [one possible child]: 

i)          [daughter .  Procopius´s Anecdota record that "Anastasio ex filia nepoti [Theodoram]" married "Ioanninam Belisarii filius"[245].  The notes in the edition consulted, written by Nicolas Alemann, interpret this passage as meaning that Anastasios´s mother was the emperor´s legitimate daughter by his wife[246].  However, the passage in question does not refer to this daughter´s father.  Procopius´s Anecdota records that Theodora had an illegitimate son "Ioannem" by an Arab father[247], presumably born before her marriage, so it is not impossible that she also had an illegitimate daughter.  No record has been found of her son Anastasios claiming the imperial throne, which it is likely he would have done if he had been the son of Emperor Iustinian´s legitimate daughter.  Her marriage is confirmed by the Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus which names "John…descended from king Anastasius…the son…of queen Theodora´s daughter"[248].]  m ---, of the family of Emperor Anastasios, son of ---. 

Iustinian I had [one possible illegitimate son by an unknown mistress]: 

ii)         [THEODOROS "Tzirus" (-after [573]).  Photius records that, according to the History of Theophanes of Byzantium (work now lost), Emperor Iustinus II appointed "Theodore the son of Justinian surnamed Tzirus" to command the emperor´s army against the Persians after dismissing "Marcian cousin of the emperor", dated to after "the eighth year of Justin´s reign"[249].  The text does not identify Theodoros´s father precisely.  He may have been the son of Emperor Iustinian I or alternatively the son of Iustinianus, son of Germanus (see below).  The latter possibility assumes that he was young when granted the army command.  If Theodoros was the emperor´s son, he must have been illegitimate as there is no reference to his having been a candidate for the imperial throne.] 

b)         VIGILANTIA .  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon names "Vigiliantiæ sororis Iustiniani Augusti" as mother of "Iustinus iunior"[250].  Georgius Codrinus records that "Portus Sophianus" was built by "Iustino curopalate, marito Sophiæ cognomento Lobes" with four statues of "Sophiæ nempe et Iustini, Arabiæ et Vigiliantiæ matris eius"[251]m DULKIDIUS, son of ---.  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon names "Dulcidio" as husband of "Vigiliantiæ sororis Iustiniani Augusti" and father of "Iustinus iunior"[252].  Dulkidius & his wife had [six] children: 

i)          IUSTINUS ([510/20]-5 Oct 578).  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon names "Iustinus iunior Vigiliantiæ sororis Iustiniani Augusti filius, patre Dulcidio natus" when recording his succession[253].  Theophylactus names "Iustinus iunior, Iustiniani ex sorore nepos" when recording that he succeeded his maternal uncle[254].  His approximate birth date range is based firstly on the likely birth date of his mother assuming that she was born soon before or soon after the birth of her brother Emperor Iustinian II, and secondly on the assumption that he was young adult when recorded as consul in 540.  He succeeded in 565 as Emperor IUSTINUS II

-         see below

ii)         MARCELLUS (-after 565).  Corippus names "Marcellus" as brother of Emperor Iustinus II[255].  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that, at the beginning of his reign, Emperor Mauritius granted his father and brother "the entire property of the great patrician Marcellus, brother of the late king Justin"[256]m IULIANA, daughter of consul MAGNUS & his wife ---.  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that "Juliana…daughter of the consul Magnes…descended from king Anastasius" married "the brother of King Justin", adding that she was placed in a nunnery "upon the straits of Chalcedon"[257]

iii)        BADUARIUS .  Theophanes records that "Baduarium fratrem suum" rebelled against Emperor Iustinus II in 565[258].  same person as…?  BADUARIUS (-in Italy 576).  The unusual name "Baduarius" suggests that the husband of Emperor Iustinus´s daughter [Arabia] may have been the same person as the emperor´s brother, and so her paternal uncle.  If this is correct, the marriage may have taken place after Baduarius´s rebellion against his brother, as part of the arrangements to restore peace in the family.  m ([after 565]) [ARABIA], daughter of Emperor IUSTINUS II & his wife Sofia --- (-after 578).  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica names "Baduarius gener Iustini principis" when recording that he was defeated in battle by the Lombards in Italy and died soon after[259].  Arabia is the only daughter of Emperor Iustinus who is named: Georgius Codrinus records the position of the statues of "Sophiæ uxoris Iustini Thracis et Arabiæ filiæ eius et Helenæ consobrinæ eius"[260], and records that "Portus Sophianus" was built by "Iustino curopalate, marito Sophiæ cognomento Lobes" with four statues of "Sophiæ nempe et Iustini, Arabiæ et Vigiliantiæ matris eius"[261].  It is therefore assumed that all these sources refer to the same daughter, although this is not beyond all doubt.  Baduarius [& his wife] had [one possible daughter]: 

(a)       FIRMINA .  She is named as daughter of Baduarius[262], but it is not known whether her mother was Arabia. 

iv)       PRÆIECTA .  Procopius names “Areobindus…et Preiectam uxorem, filiam Vigilantiæ, sororis Iustiniani Aug.[263].  Procopius records that “Preiectam" married "Ioannes filius Pompeii, qui frater fuit Hypatii”, dated to [546] from the context[264]m firstly AREOBINDUS, son of --- (-killed Carthage 545).  m secondly ([546/48]) IOANNES, son of POMPEIUS & his wife ---. 

v)        [son/daughter .  His or her parentage is confirmed by Theophanes who records that Emperor Iustinus II sent "nepotem suum et militiæ magistrum Marcianus" as commander of an army to fight "Mauris" in Africa, dated to [565][265], assuming that "nepos" can be interpreted as nephew in this passage.  There is no indication whether Marcianus´s father or mother was the blood relative of the emperor, nor whether he/she was one of the brothers and sister named above.]  m ---.  One child: 

(a)       MARCIANUS (-after [565]).  Theophanes records that Emperor Iustinus II sent "nepotem suum et militiæ magistrum Marcianus" as commander of an army to fight "Mauris" in Africa, dated to [565][266].  Photius records that, according to the History of Theophanes of Byzantium (work now lost), Emperor Iustinus II appointed "Theodore the son of Justinian surnamed Tzirus" to command the emperor´s army against the Persians after dismissing "Marcian cousin of the emperor", dated to after "the eighth year of Justin´s reign"[267]. 

vi)       [son/daughter .  His or her parentage is confirmed by Georgius Codrinus records the position of the statues of "Sophiæ uxoris Iustini Thracis et Arabiæ filiæ eius et Helenæ consobrinæ eius"[268].  The Latin translation of this passage is inaccurate as Helena is called "ανεψιας" in the Greek original, more precisely translated as "neptis".  For the purposes of the present family reconstruction, it has been assumed that "niece" is the appropriate English translation, although this is not beyond all doubt.  There is no indication whether Helena´s father or mother was the blood relative of the emperor, nor whether he/she was one of the brothers and sister named above.]  m ---.  One child: 

(a)       HELENA .  Georgius Codrinus records the position of the statues of "Sophiæ uxoris Iustini Thracis et Arabiæ filiæ eius et Helenæ consobrinæ eius"[269].  The Latin translation of this passage is inaccurate as Helena is called "ανεψιας" in the Greek original, more precisely translated as "neptis".  It has been assumed for the purposes of the present family reconstruction that "niece" is the appropriate English translation, although this is not beyond all doubt. 

c)         [son (-[515/30]).  Although Iordanes names Germanus as "fratruelis" of Emperor Iustinian, he does not name his parents[270].  It is not certain that "fratruelis" indicates that one of Germanus's parents was the brother or sister of the emperor but this appears likely.  The relationship is chronologically possible, although tight considering the emperor's birth date in 482 and the birth of Germanus's daughter in [527].  The relationship appears confirmed by Procopius who names “imperator Germanum, fratris sui filium[271].  If it is correct that Germanus´s father was Emperor Iustinian´s brother, his absence from the records suggests that he died before or soon after the emperor´s accession (in 527).]  m ---.  Three children: 

i)          GERMANUS ([500/10]-[551]).  Iordanes names Germanus as "fratruelis" of Emperor Iustinian[272].  Procopius names “imperator Germanum, fratris sui filium[273].  Procopius records the death of "Germanus…dux”, dated to [551] from the context[274]m firstly PASSARA, daughter of ---.  Procopius names "Passara” as first wife of Germanus when recording his second marriage after she died[275]m secondly (542) as her second husband, MATASUNTHA, widow of VITIGIS King of Italy, daughter of EUTHARICH & his wife Amalasuintha Queen of Italy ([518]-).  Iordanes names "Athalaricum et Matesuentham" as children of "Amalasuentham…de Eutharico viro suo", specifying that Matasuntha married firstly "Vitigis" by whom she was childless and secondly "Germanus patricius fratruelis Iustiniani imp"[276].  Procopius records that Germanus married secondly "Amalasuntha Theoderici filia Matasuntham” after the death of Vitigis[277].  Germanus & his first wife had three children: 

(a)       IUSTINUS (-murdered 568).  Procopius names "Germanum…filios…maior natu Iustinus[278].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "Iustinus filius Germani patricii consobrinus Iustini imperatoris" was murdered in Alexandria on the instructions of "Sophiæ Augustæ"[279]

(b)       IUSTINIANUS (-after 578).  Procopius records that the emperor sent "altero Germani filio Iustiniano” to Dalmatia with the army after the death of his father, dated to [551] from the context[280].  Theophylactus names "Iustinianus Germani filius" when recording his appointment as dux[281].  Paulus Diaconus records that Empress Sofia incited "Iustinianum, Iustini nepotem" against Emperor Tiberios after his accession (in 578), but that the emperor was reconciled with Iustinianus and agreed that his daughter should marry Iustinianus´s son and that his son should marry Iustinianus´s daughter[282]m ---.  The name of Iustinianus's wife is not known.  Iustinianus & his wife had two children: 

(1)       son (-after 578).  Paulus Diaconus records that Emperor Tiberios was reconciled with Iustinianus and agreed that his daughter should marry Iustinianus´s son and that his son should marry Iustinianus´s daughter[283].  [same person as…?  THEODOROS "Tzirus" (-after [573]).  Photius records that, according to the History of Theophanes of Byzantium (work now lost), Emperor Iustinus II appointed "Theodore the son of Justinian surnamed Tzirus" to command the emperor´s army against the Persians after dismissing "Marcian cousin of the emperor", dated to after "the eighth year of Justin´s reign"[284].  The text does not identify Theodoros´s father precisely.  He may have been the son of Emperor Iustinian I (presumably illegitimate) or alternatively the son of Iustinianus, son of Germanus.  The latter possibility assumes that he was young when granted the army command.]

(2)       daughter (-after 578).  Paulus Diaconus records that Emperor Tiberios was reconciled with Iustinianus and agreed that his daughter should marry Iustinianus´s son and that his son should marry Iustinianus´s daughter[285]

(c)       IUSTINA ([527]-).  She is named as daughter of Germanus[286].  Procopius records that “Ioannem Vitaliani [ex sorore] nepotem" married "filiam Germani…imperatoris nepos ex fratre”, dated to [545] from the context[287]m ([545]) IOANNES, son of --- & his wife --- [sister of Vitalianus]. 

Germanus & his second wife had one child: 

(d)       GERMANUS ([551]-).  Iordanes names "Germanum" as son of Matasuntha & her second husband, specifying that he was born posthumously[288].  His fate is not known, but it would be chronologically consistent if he was the same person as Germanus patrikios, whose daughter married the son of Emperor Mauritius (see below). 

ii)         BORAIDES (-548).  Procopius names “Boraides et Iustus, Iustiniani Aug. ex frater nepotes[289]m ---.  The name of Boraides's wife is not known.  Boraides & his wife had one child:

(a)       daughter .  Procopius records that "Germanus, imperatoris ex fratre nepos, fratrem…Boraidem” and his wife had an only daughter whom he disinherited[290]

iii)        IUSTUS (-544).  He is named as brother of Germanus[291].  Procopius names “Boraides et Iustus, Iustiniani Aug. ex frater nepotes[292].  Procopius records the death of “Iustus Imperatoris a fratre nepos[293]

 

 

IUSTINUS, son of DULKIDIUS & his wife Vigilantia --- ([510/20]-5 Oct 578).  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon names "Iustinus iunior Vigiliantiæ sororis Iustiniani Augusti filius, patre Dulcidio natus" when recording his succession[294].  Theophylactus names "Iustinus iunior, Iustiniani ex sorore nepos" when recording that he succeeded his maternal uncle[295].  His approximate birth date range is based firstly on the likely birth date of his mother assuming that she was born soon before or soon after the birth of her brother Emperor Iustinian II, and secondly on the assumption that he was young adult when recorded as consul in 540.  The Chronicon Paschale names "Justino Juniore" as sole consul in 540[296].  Georgius Codrinus records that "Portus Sophianus" was built by "Iustino curopalate, marito Sophiæ cognomento Lobes" with four statues of "Sophiæ nempe et Iustini, Arabiæ et Vigiliantiæ matris eius"[297].  He succeeded in 565 as Emperor IUSTINUS II.  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that Emperor Iustin, towards the end of his reign, appointed Tiberios as cæsar and adopted him as a son, renaming him "Constantine"[298].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "Iustinus iunior" reigned for 11 years and, in a later passage, his death[299].  The Chronicon Paschale records the death 5 Oct 578 of "Justinus Augustus"[300]

m SOFIA, niece of Empress THEODORA, daughter of [TZITAS & his wife Cometo ---] or daughter of [--- & his wife Anastasia ---] (-after [601], bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon names "Sophia Theodoræ Augustæ neptis" as the wife of "Iustinus iunior"[301].  Her alternative parentage is deduced as follows: Procopius names "Comito, Theodora and Anastasia" as the three daughters of "Acacius…the keeper of wild beasts used in the amphitheatre in Constantinople…nicknamed the Bearkeeper"[302]; Theophanes records that Emperor Iustinian I arranged the marriage of "Tzitam" and "sororem…augustæ Theodoræ…Cometo"[303]; no source has been found to indicate whether Sofia´s mother was Cometo or Anastasia.  Georgius Codrinus records the position of the statues of "Sophiæ uxoris Iustini Thracis et Arabiæ filiæ eius et Helenæ consobrinæ eius"[304].  Georgius Codrinus records that "Portus Sophianus" was built by "Iustino curopalate, marito Sophiæ cognomento Lobes" with four statues of "Sophiæ nempe et Iustini, Arabiæ et Vigiliantiæ matris eius"[305].  Theophanes records that Emperor Mauritius granted crowns to "Sophia Augusta Iustini coniux et Constantina Mauricii…uxor" 26 Mar "indictione quarta", dated to 601[306].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Sophia uxor Iustini" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[307]

Emperor Iustinus & his wife had two children: 

1.         IUSTUS (-[before 565]).  Theophanes records the burial of "filius eius Iustus", referring to Emperor Iustinus, dated to before his accession in 565[308]

2.         ARABIA (-after 578).  Georgius Codrinus records the position of the statues of "Sophiæ uxoris Iustini Thracis et Arabiæ filiæ eius et Helenæ consobrinæ eius"[309].  Georgius Codrinus records that "Portus Sophianus" was built by "Iustino curopalate, marito Sophiæ cognomento Lobes" with four statues of "Sophiæ nempe et Iustini, Arabiæ et Vigiliantiæ matris eius"[310].  Her marriage is confirmed by the Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica which names "Baduarius gener Iustini principis" when recording that he was defeated in battle by the Lombards in Italy and died soon after[311].  The source does not specify that Baduarius´s wife was the emperor´s daughter Arabia but no record of any other daughter has yet been identified.  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that Tiberios, after his accession, was pressured to repudiate his wife and marry "Sophia…or her daughter, who was also then a widow", which he refused to do[312].  The reference to the daughter being a widow suggests that she was the same person as the wife of Baduarius, whose death is recorded shortly before.  m ([after 565]) [her paternal uncle,] BADUARIUS, son of [DULKIDIUS & his wife Vigilantia ---] (-in Italy 576).  The unusual name "Baduarius" suggests that the husband of Emperor Iustinus´s daughter [Arabia] may have been the same person as the emperor´s brother (see below), and so her paternal uncle.  If this is correct, the marriage may have taken place after Baduarius´s rebellion against his brother, as part of the arrangements to restore peace in the family.  Baduarius & his wife had one child: 

 

 

The relationship, if any, between the following individuals and the family of Emperor Anastasios is not known.  However, the repeated use of the name Germanus suggests that they may have been members of the same family. 

 

1.         GERMANUS (-after 582).  Theophanes records that "Germano" was declared "cæsar" when he married Emperor Tiberios´s daughter[313].  It is not known whether he was related to the family of Emperor Iustinian I (see above), although his name suggests that this is a possibility.  m (582) CHARITO, daughter of Emperor TIBERIOS II & his wife Anastasia.  Theophanes names "Charitonem et Constantinam" as the two daughters of "Tiberius" and his wife, adding in a later passage that "alteram filiam…Charito" married "Germano" who was declared "cæsar"[314]

 

2.         GERMANUS (-murdered 605 or [607]).  Patrikios.  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Germanus patricius, Theodosii Mauricii filii socer" was tonsured in 603[315].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "ex-imperatrice Constantina" was beheaded "in Portu Eutropii ad Chalcedonem" in 605 with "Mauricii liberi sequioris sexus, Anastasia, Theoctista et Cleopatra…cum Germani filia, Theodosii uxore" and "ipseque Germanus"[316].  Theophanes records that "Germanumque cum eius filia" were killed "ad Proten insulam" in 599 (adjusted to [607] after taking into account the date discrepancy in the source)[317]m LEONTIA, daughter of ---.  Theophanes names "Germanus…Leontiam uxorem" when recording that she took the imperial crown during her husband´s rebellion[318].  Germanus & his wife had one child:

a)         daughter (-murdered 605 or [607]).  Theophanes records the marriage "Nov indictione 5" of "Mauricius imperator filium" and "filiæ Germani patricii"[319].  Cedrenus records that "Mauricius filio suo Theodosio" married "Germani patricii filiam" in the twentieth year of his father´s reign[320].  Theophylactus records the marriage "anno imperii Mauricii decimo nono" of "Theodosio filio imperator" and "Germani…senatoris filiam"[321].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "ex-imperatrice Constantina" was beheaded "in Portu Eutropii ad Chalcedonem" in 605 with "Mauricii liberi sequioris sexus, Anastasia, Theoctista et Cleopatra…cum Germani filia, Theodosii uxore" and "ipseque Germanus"[322].  Theophanes records that "Germanumque cum eius filia" were killed "ad Proten insulam" in 599 (adjusted to [607] after taking into account the date discrepancy in the source)[323]m (Nov 601) THEODOSIOS, son of Emperor MAURITIUS & his wife Constantina (4 Aug [584/85]-murdered Calicratia Nov 602, bur [Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles]). 

 

3.         IUSTINIANUS (-killed 668).  Patrikios.  Theophanes records that "Iustinianum patricium" was killed in 668[324]m ---.  The name of Iustinianus´s wife is not known.  Iustinianus & his wife had one child: 

a)         GERMANUS ([643/48]-730).  Theophanes records that "Iustinianum patricium" was killed in 668, adding that he was father of "Germani" who later became Patriarch[325].  Zonaras states that Germanus was "iam pubertatis annos" when his father was killed and that he himself was castrated at the time[326].  Theophanes records that "Germanus Cyzici" succeeded "Ioannes" as Patriarch of Constantinople, a post he held for 15 years until replaced "sub imperatoris Leonis annum decimum tertium" by "Anastasius"[327]

 

 

 

D.      FAMILY of EMPEROR TIBERIOS II 578-582

 

 

1.         TIBERIOS CONSTANTINUS ([532]-14 Aug 582).  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that Emperor Iustin, towards the end of his reign, appointed Tiberios as cæsar and adopted him as a son, renaming him "Constantine"[328].  He succeeded in 578 as Emperor TIBERIOS II.  His birth date is estimated from Paulus Diaconus recording the accession of the 50 year old "Tiberius Constantinus" after the death of "Iustino"[329].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records the accession of Tiberios on the death of Emperor Iustinus II, that he reigned 6 years and, in a later passage, that he died in 582[330].  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that "the lavishness of Tiberius had exhausted the treasures which Justin had stored up in the palace"[331]Betrothed to ---, daughter of IOANNES & his wife Anastasia.  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus names the wife of Tiberios cæsar as "Ino", adding that she had previously been married to "some military officer at a place called Daphnudii Castra" by whom she bore a daughter who was betrothed to Tiberios but died[332]m as her second husband, ANASTASIA, widow of IOANNES, daughter of --- (Daphnudium [530/35]-[593]).  Theophanes names "Anastasia" as wife of "Tiberius"[333].  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus names the wife of Tiberios cæsar as "Ino", adding that she had previously been married to "some military officer at a place called Daphnudii Castra" by whom she bore a daughter who was betrothed to Tiberios, that her husband and daughter had died, and that she had then married Tiberios herself[334].  Anastasia is unlikely to have been born much later than [535], assuming that her daughter by her first marriage was old enough for betrothal before she married Tiberios and bearing in mind that Anastasia´s daughter by her second marriage is recorded as having given birth to her first child in [584/85].  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that Tiberios, after his accession, was pressured to repudiate his wife and marry "Sophia…or her daughter, who was also then a widow", which he refused to do[335].  Georgius Codrinus records that "Tiberios vero Thrax cum Anastasia uxore" restored "ecclesia SS. quadraginta martyrum prætorium"[336].  Theophanes records the death of "Anastasia augusta socrus Mauricii, Tiberii…imperatoris coniux" in 586 (adjusted to [593] after taking into account the dating discrepancy of the source) and her burial next to her husband[337].  Emperor Tiberios & his wife had three children: 

a)         CHARITO .  Theophanes names "Charitonem et Constantinam" as the two daughters of "Tiberius" and his wife, adding in a later passage that "alteram filiam…Charito" married "Germano" who was declared "cæsar"[338].  Cedrenus records that "alteram [filiam] Charito" married "Germano duci"[339]m (582) GERMANUS, son of ---.  He is recorded as cæsar in 582[340].  It is not known whether he was related to the family of Emperor Iustinian I (see above), although his name suggests that this is a possibility. 

b)         CONSTANTINA (-murdered Chalcedon 605 or [607], bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes names "Charitonem et Constantinam" as the two daughters of "Tiberius" and his wife, adding in a later passage that "Constantina filia" married "Mauricio" who was declared "cæsar"[341].  Theophylactus records that "Mauricius" married "filia Constantina [Tiberii]"[342].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records the marriage of "Mauricio magistro militum Orientis" and "Tiberius imperator…filiam suam"[343].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Tiberius…Constantinus" granted his daughter to "Mauricium, genere Cappadocem" when nominating him as his successor[344].  Theophanes records that Emperor Mauritius granted crowns to "Sophia Augusta Iustini coniux et Constantina Mauricii…uxor" 26 Mar "indictione quarta", dated to 601[345].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "ex-imperatrice Constantina" was beheaded "in Portu Eutropii ad Chalcedonem" in 605 with "Mauricii liberi sequioris sexus, Anastasia, Theoctista et Cleopatra…cum Germani filia, Theodosii uxore" and "ipseque Germanus"[346].  Theophanes records that "Constantinam…cum tribus filiabus" were killed "ad Europii portus" in 599 (adjusted to [607] after taking into account the date discrepancy in the source)[347]m (582 before 14 Aug) MAURITIUS, son of PAULOS & his first wife --- (-murdered Chalcedon 27 Nov 602).  He succeeded 13 Aug 582, named the day before his predecessor's death, as Emperor MAURITIUS.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Tiberius…Constantinus" named "Mauricium, genere Cappadocem" as his successor with the advice of "Sophiæ augustæ" as he felt death approaching after a reign of seven years[348]

c)         child .  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that "Tiberius cæsar" had three children by his wife, but the third child must have died young as the same passage also records that his wife "and his two daughters" were given "the house of Hormisdas as a residence" after coming to Constantinople[349]

 

 

 

E.      FAMILY of EMPEROR MAURITIUS 582-602

 

 

1.         PAULUS (-Constantinople [593]).  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that, at the beginning of his reign, Emperor Mauritius sent for "his father…Paul,and his mother and his brother…Peter and his two sisters, one of whom was a widow and the other the wife of Philippicus", adding that he made his father "head of the senate and chief of all the patricians"[350].  Theophanes records the death in Constantinople of "Paulus imperatoris pater" in 586 (adjusted to [593] after taking into account the dating discrepancy of the source)[351]m firstly --- (-[13 Aug 582/583]).  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that, at the beginning of his reign, Emperor Mauritius sent for "his father…Paul, and his mother and his brother…Peter and his two sisters, one of whom was a widow and the other the wife of Philippicus"[352].  The name of the emperor´s mother is not known.  Du Cange names her "Ioanna sister of Bishop Arabisus"[353].  He bases this speculation on the Pratum spirituale of Joannes Moschus (dated to the early 7th century, and included in Vitæ Patrum, compiled in 1628 by Heribert Rosweyde SJ) which names "Amma [abbatissa] Damiana, a solitary, the mother of Athenogenus the bishop of Petra" when recording alleged miracles which she reported, including one in which she refers to "a niece of mine, and of the…Emperor Mauritius"[354], and in a later passage "Athenogenus the bishop of Petra" recording that "avia mea [translated in the version consulted as "my aunt", but presumably more accurately rendered as "my grandmother"] Joanna had a brother called Adelphus bishop of Arabessus, she herself was abbess of a monastery of women"[355].  Du Cange concluded that this text means that Damiana was the sister of Emperor Mauritius and that Joanna was their mother[356].  However, this conclusion appears to be only one of the possible interpretations of the family relationship which is suggested by the passages ("niece" presumably being a translation of the imprecise "neptis"), and maybe not the most probable.  It is likely that the 7th century writer added a reference to the emperor for the purpose of adding credibility, in the minds of his 7th century audience, to his report.  If that is correct, the reference would presumably have been more precise if the emperor had been Damiana´s brother.  In any case, even if Damiana and Emperor Mauritius were sister and brother, the text is also consistent with "Ioanna" having been the bishop´s paternal grandmother and so not related to the emperor at all.  All this information is not precise enough to conclude that Paulus´s first wife was Joanna.  m secondly ([Sep 582/583]) ---.  Theophanes records that "Mauricius" celebrated the marriage of "Pauli patri sui" shortly after his accession[357].  Paulus & his first wife had [five] children: 

a)         MAURITIUS ([538/39]-murdered Chalcedon 27 Nov 602, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  His parentage is confirmed by Theophanes who names "Mauricius" and "Pauli patri sui", adding that Mauritius was 43 years old when he began his reign[358].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Emperor Mauritius was "Cappadocien du village d'Arpsous"[359].  He succeeded 13 Aug 582, named the day before his predecessor's death, as Emperor MAURITIUS

-        see below

b)         PETRUS (-executed [Chalcedon 27] Nov 602).  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that, at the beginning of his reign, Emperor Mauritius sent for "his father…Paul,and his mother and his brother…Peter and his two sisters, one of whom was a widow and the other the wife of Philippicus", adding that he granted Paul and Peter "the entire property of the great patrician Marcellus, brother of the late king Justin"[360].  Theophylactus names "Petrus…dux, imperatoris frater"[361].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "Pierre frère de Maurice" revealed to his brother a plot against his life[362].  Georgius Codrinus records that "Petrus magister et curopalata, germanus frater Mauricii imperatoris" built "ecclesiam S. deiparæ cognominatam Areobindi"[363].  The Chronicon Paschale records that ""Petrus…curopalata, Mauricii frater" was captured and killed in Nov 602, the passage suggesting that he was killed with his brother[364]

c)         THEOCTISTE .  Pope Gregory I wrote to "Theoctistam sororem imperatoris"[365].  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that, at the beginning of his reign, Emperor Mauritius sent for "his father…Paul,and his mother and his brother…Peter and his two sisters, one of whom was a widow and the other the wife of Philippicus"[366].  The name of her husband is not known.  m --- (-before 582). 

d)         GORDIA .  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "Mauricii imperatoris…sororem" was the wife of "Philippicum"[367].  Theophanes records the marriage "20 Dec, indictione secunda" of "Philippicum" and "Gordia sorore [Mauricii]" and the promotion of Philippicus as "orientis ducem"[368].  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that, at the beginning of his reign, Emperor Mauritius sent for "his father…Paul,and his mother and his brother…Peter and his two sisters, one of whom was a widow and the other the wife of Philippicus", adding that he appointed Philippicus "comes excubitorum and subsequently…commander-in-chief of all the armies in the East"[369]m (20 Dec 583) PHILIPPICUS, son of --- (-[614], bur Chrysopolis).  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Emperor Mauritius sent "Philigdion mari de sa sœur" to lead troops against "la ville de Mouphargin", which the Persians had captured from the Greeks, and that he retook the town[370].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Philippicus patricius et comes excubitorum" was tonsured in 603[371].  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that Emperor Herakleios appointed "Philippicum" to succeed Priskus in part of his positions, but that he died soon after and was buried "in…templo…Chrysopoli", dated to 614 from the context[372]

e)         [DAMIANA .  The Pratum spirituale of Joannes Moschus (dated to the early 7th century, and included in Vitæ Patrum, compiled in 1628 by Heribert Rosweyde SJ) names "Amma [abbatissa] Damiana, a solitary, the mother of Athenogenus the bishop of Petra" when recording alleged miracles which she reported, including one in which she refers to "a niece of mine, and of the…Emperor Mauritius"[373].  The same source quotes "Athenogenus the bishop of Petra" who records that "avia mea [translated in the version consulted as "my aunt", but presumably more accurately rendered as "my grandmother"] Joanna had a brother called Adelphus bishop of Arabessus, she herself was abbess of a monastery of women"[374].  Du Cange concluded that this text means that Damiana was the sister of Emperor Mauritius[375].  However, this conclusion appears to be only one of the possible interpretations of the family relationship which is suggested by the text ("niece" presumably being a translation of the imprecise "neptis"), and maybe not the most probable.  It is likely that the 7th century writer added a reference to the emperor for the purpose of adding credibility, in the minds of the 7th century audience, to his report.  If that is correct, the reference would presumably have been more precise if the emperor had been Damiana´s brother.  m ---.  The name of Damiana´s husband is not known.]  Damiana & her husband had one child: 

i)          ATHENOGENUS .  Bishop of Petra.  No reference to this bishop has been found apart from the Pratum spirituale quoted above. 

 

 

The precise relationship between the following family group and Emperor Mauricius is not known: 

1.         PETRUSm ---.  The name of Petrus's wife is not known.  Petrus & his wife had one child: 

a)         DOMITIANUS (-12 Jan 602).  He is named as son of Petrus and archbishop of Melitene[376].  Theophylactus records that "Domitianum cognatum suum" (referring to Emperor Mauritius) was appointed "ecclesiæ Melitenensis antistitem"[377].  The Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus records that, before his accession, Emperor Mauritius had made "one relative…Domitian, metropolitan of Melitene…in Cappadocia", adding that he became the emperor´s chief counsellor after his accession "head of the senate and chief of all the patricians"[378]

 

 

MAURITIUS, son of PAULUS & his first wife --- ([538/39]-murdered Chalcedon 27 Nov 602, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  His parentage is confirmed by Theophanes who names "Mauricius" and "Pauli patri sui", adding that Mauritius was 43 years old when he began his reign[379].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Emperor Mauritius was "Cappadocien du village d'Arpsous"[380].  He succeeded 13 Aug 582, named the day before his predecessor's death, as Emperor MAURITIUS.  Theophylactus records that "Mauricius" succeeded "Tiberio Augusto"[381].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Tiberius…Constantinus" named "Mauricium, genere Cappadocem" as his successor with the advice of "Sophiæ augustæ" as he felt death approaching after a reign of seven years[382].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "Mauricius" succeeded on the death of Emperor Tiberios in 582 and reigned 20 years[383].  Paulus Diaconus states that "Mauricius augustus" ruled for 21 years and was murdered by "Focate…strator Prisci patricii" with his sons[384].  Fredegar records that "Fogas dux et patricius" returned from a victory against the Persians, killed Emperor Mauritius and installed himself as emperor in his place[385].  He fled Constantinople 22 Nov 602[386].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Emperor Mauritius fled to "Chalcédoine" where he was killed[387].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Mauricius Tiberius cum uxore Constantina, et novem liberis sex masculis…Theodosio, Tiberio, Petro, Paulo, Justino et Justiniano, et tribus filiabus Anastasia, Theoctiste et Cleopatra" fled 2 Nov 602[388].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Mauricii uxor cum liberis…[et] Mauricii Imperatoris" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[389].  Georgius Codrinus records that the statues of "Mauricii eiusque uxoris et liberorum" were placed "ad portam æream"[390]

m (582 before 14 Aug) CONSTANTINA, daughter of Emperor TIBERIOS II & his wife Anastasia (-murdered Chalcedon 605 or [607], bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes names "Charitonem et Constantinam" as the two daughters of "Tiberius" and his wife, adding in a later passage that "Constantina filia" married "Mauricio" who was declared "cæsar"[391].  Theophylactus records that "Mauricius" married "filia Constantina [Tiberii]"[392].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records the marriage of "Mauricio magistro militum Orientis" and "Tiberius imperator…filiam suam"[393].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Tiberius…Constantinus" granted his daughter to "Mauricium, genere Cappadocem" when nominating him as his successor[394].  Theophanes records that Emperor Mauritius granted crowns to "Sophia Augusta Iustini coniux et Constantina Mauricii…uxor" 26 Mar "indictione quarta", dated to 601[395].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Mauricius Tiberius cum uxore Constantina, et novem liberis sex masculis…Theodosio, Tiberio, Petro, Paulo, Justino et Justiniano, et tribus filiabus Anastasia, Theoctiste et Cleopatra" fled 2 Nov 602[396].  Theophylactus records that "Constantinam…Tiberii imperatoris filiam…cum tribus filiabus" retired to "privatum domum Leonis" after her husband was killed[397].  According to the Georgian Chronicle, the father of Emperor Mauritius's wife was "Kasre II king of Iran" who sought revenge when the emperor was killed and "went to the country of the Byzantines, destroyed many districts, captured Jerusalem"[398], but this is inconsistent with the other sources quoted.  The Chronicon Paschale records that "ex-imperatrice Constantina" was beheaded "in Portu Eutropii ad Chalcedonem" in 605 with "Mauricii liberi sequioris sexus, Anastasia, Theoctista et Cleopatra…cum Germani filia, Theodosii uxore" and "ipseque Germanus"[399].  Theophanes records that "Constantinam…cum tribus filiabus" were killed "ad Europii portus" in 599 (adjusted to [607] after taking into account the date discrepancy in the source)[400].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Mauricii uxor cum liberis…[et] Mauricii Imperatoris" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[401]

Emperor Mauritius & his wife had [ten] children: 

1.         THEODOSIOS (4 Aug [584/85]-murdered Calicratia Nov 602, bur [Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles]).  Theophanes records the birth of "imperatori…filius…Theodosium", dated to [584/85] after adjustment for the dating inaccuracy of the source[402].  Theodosios was the first child born porphyrogennetos to the imperial families since the founding of the Empire in the East.  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica names "Mauricius Theodosium filium suum ex filia Tiberi imperatoris" when recording that his father installed him as cæsar in 587 and as emperor in 588[403].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Emperor Mauritius installed "son fils Theotos" as cæsar[404].  Theophanes records the installation "26 Mar, indictione octava" of "Theodosius Mauricii imperatoris supreme filius" as emperor[405].  Theophylactus records that "Theodosius filiorum natu maximum" governed "Constantinopolis…cum administratione Orientis"[406].  Paulus Diaconus names "Theudosio et Tiberio et Constantino" as the sons of "Mauricius augustus" when recording that they were murdered with their father[407].  Theophanes records that "filio…imperatoris…Theodosium" went to "Calicratiam cum Germano socero" where he fell ill with poisoning, suspicion falling on his father-in-law[408].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Mauricius Tiberius cum uxore Constantina, et novem liberis sex masculis…Theodosio, Tiberio, Petro, Paulo, Justino et Justiniano…" fled 2 Nov 602, adding that "Theodosius Mauricii filius" was killed "ad Diadromos juxta Acritam"[409].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Mauricii uxor cum liberis…[et] Mauricii Imperatoris" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[410].  It is not known which of Emperor Mauricius's children were buried there.  m (Nov 601) ---, daughter of GERMANUS patrikios & his wife Leontia --- (-murdered Chalcedon 605 or [607]).  Theophanes records the marriage "Nov indictione 5" of "Mauricius imperator filium" and "filiæ Germani patricii"[411].  Cedrenus records that "Mauricius filio suo Theodosio" married "Germani patricii filiam" in the twentieth year of his father´s reign[412].  Theophylactus records the marriage "anno imperii Mauricii decimo nono" of "Theodosio filio imperator" and "Germani…senatoris filiam"[413].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "ex-imperatrice Constantina" was beheaded "in Portu Eutropii ad Chalcedonem" in 605 with "Mauricii liberi sequioris sexus, Anastasia, Theoctista et Cleopatra…cum Germani filia, Theodosii uxore" and "ipseque Germanus"[414].  Theophanes records that "Germanumque cum eius filia" were killed "ad Proten insulam" in 599 (adjusted to [607] after taking into account the date discrepancy in the source)[415]

2.         TIBERIOS (-murdered 22 Nov 602).  Theophylactus records that "Tiberio", implying but not stating expressly that he was the son of Mauricius, governed "Romam veterem cum Italia et insulis in mari Tyrrheno"[416].  Paulus Diaconus names "Theudosio et Tiberio et Constantino" as the sons of "Mauricius augustus" when recording that they were murdered with their father[417].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Mauricius Tiberius cum uxore Constantina, et novem liberis sex masculis…Theodosio, Tiberio, Petro, Paulo, Justino et Justiniano…" fled 2 Nov 602[418]

3.         PETROS (-murdered Chalcedon 27 Nov 602).  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Mauricius Tiberius cum uxore Constantina, et novem liberis sex masculis…Theodosio, Tiberio, Petro, Paulo, Justino et Justiniano…" fled 2 Nov 602, adding that "Mauricius Tiberius…cum Petro, Justino et Justiniano" were killed 27 Nov "iuxta Chalcedonem"[419].  Paulus Diaconus names "Theudosio et Tiberio et Constantino" (apparently incorrectly naming the third son) as the sons of "Mauricius augustus" when recording that they were murdered with their father[420]

4.         PAULOS (-murdered Nov 602).  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Mauricius Tiberius cum uxore Constantina, et novem liberis sex masculis…Theodosio, Tiberio, Petro, Paulo, Justino et Justiniano…" fled 2 Nov 602[421]

5.         IUSTINOS (-murdered Chalcedon 27 Nov 602).  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Mauricius Tiberius cum uxore Constantina, et novem liberis sex masculis…Theodosio, Tiberio, Petro, Paulo, Justino et Justiniano…" fled 2 Nov 602, adding that "Mauricius Tiberius…cum Petro, Justino et Justiniano" were killed 27 Nov "iuxta Chalcedonem"[422]

6.         IUSTINIANOS (-murdered Chalcedon 27 Nov 602).  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Mauricius Tiberius cum uxore Constantina, et novem liberis sex masculis…Theodosio, Tiberio, Petro, Paulo, Justino et Justiniano…" fled 2 Nov 602, adding that "Mauricius Tiberius…cum Petro, Justino et Justiniano" were killed 27 Nov "iuxta Chalcedonem"[423]

7.         ANASTASIA (-murdered Chalcedon 605 or 607).  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Mauricius Tiberius cum uxore Constantina, et novem liberis sex masculis…et tribus filiabus Anastasia, Theoctiste et Cleopatra" fled 2 Nov 602[424].  Theophylactus records that "Constantinam…Tiberii imperatoris filiam…cum tribus filiabus" retired to "privatum domum Leonis" after her husband was killed[425].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "ex-imperatrice Constantina" was beheaded "in Portu Eutropii ad Chalcedonem" in 605 with "Mauricii liberi sequioris sexus, Anastasia, Theoctista et Cleopatra…cum Germani filia, Theodosii uxore" and "ipseque Germanus"[426].  Theophanes records that "Constantinam…cum tribus filiabus" were killed "ad Europii portus" in 599 (adjusted to [607] after taking into account the date discrepancy in the source)[427]

8.         THEOKTISTE (-murdered Chalcedon 605 or 607).  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Mauricius Tiberius cum uxore Constantina, et novem liberis sex masculis…et tribus filiabus Anastasia, Theoctiste et Cleopatra" fled 2 Nov 602[428].  Theophylactus records that "Constantinam…Tiberii imperatoris filiam…cum tribus filiabus" retired to "privatum domum Leonis" after her husband was killed[429].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "ex-imperatrice Constantina" was beheaded "in Portu Eutropii ad Chalcedonem" in 605 with "Mauricii liberi sequioris sexus, Anastasia, Theoctista et Cleopatra…cum Germani filia, Theodosii uxore" and "ipseque Germanus"[430].  Theophanes records that "Constantinam…cum tribus filiabus" were killed "ad Europii portus" in 599 (adjusted to [607] after taking into account the date discrepancy in the source)[431]

9.         KLEOPATRA (-murdered Chalcedon 605 or 607).  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Mauricius Tiberius cum uxore Constantina, et novem liberis sex masculis…et tribus filiabus Anastasia, Theoctiste et Cleopatra" fled 2 Nov 602[432].  Theophylactus records that "Constantinam…Tiberii imperatoris filiam…cum tribus filiabus" retired to "privatum domum Leonis" after her husband was killed[433].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "ex-imperatrice Constantina" was beheaded "in Portu Eutropii ad Chalcedonem" in 605 with "Mauricii liberi sequioris sexus, Anastasia, Theoctista et Cleopatra…cum Germani filia, Theodosii uxore" and "ipseque Germanus"[434].  Theophanes records that "Constantinam…cum tribus filiabus" were killed "ad Europii portus" in 599 (adjusted to [607] after taking into account the date discrepancy in the source)[435]

10.      [MARIA .  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Emperor Mauritius married "sa fille Marie" to "Khosrov" who built three churches in her honour[436].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "l'empereur Maurice…donna sa fille en mariage" to "Kasré-Ambarwez", who had sought refuge in Greece after being expelled from Persia, and gave him troops which enabled him to recapture his kingdom from "Bahram Tchoubin"[437].  A possible indirect indication of the marriage is also contained in the Georgian Chronicle (13th century), a possibly more reliable source, as discussed in the introduction to the document GEORGIA, which states that, after the murder of Emperor Mauritius, "wife's father, Kasre king of Iran" became angered and invaded "the country of the Byantines, destroyed many districts, captured Jerusalem and the Lord's cross"[438].  The translator of the edition consulted assumed that the phrase "wife's father" meant Emperor Mauritius's wife's father, which is inconsistent with the parentage of Mauritius's known wife Constantina as reported in other primary sources (see above).  However, it could be a garbled reference to the Persian king's own wife's father being the deceased emperor.  m ([601]) KHOSRO-PARVIZ King of Persia, son of ORMIZDAS King of Persia.] 

 

 

 

F.      FAMILY of EMPEROR FOKAS 602-610

 

 

1.         --- .  m DOMENTIA, daughter of ---.  Domentia is named as mother of Emperor Fokas[439].  Three children: 

a)         FOKAS (547-4 Oct 610).  Fredegar records that "Fogas dux et patricius", returned from a victory against the Persians, killed Emperor Mauritius and installed himself as emperor in his place[440].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Emperor Mauritius fled to "Chalcédoine" where he was killed by soldiers who installed "leur general Phocas" as emperor[441].  He was crowned 23 Nov 602 as Emperor FOKAS after Emperor Mauricius fled the city 22 Nov  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records the rebellion of "germani duo Heraclius et Gregorius" governors of Africa against Emperor Fokas[442]m LEONTIA, daughter of ---.  Theophylactus records that "tyrannus" (referring to Fokas) was married to "Leontiam"[443].  Leontia was crowned Augusta 25 Nov 602[444].  Fokas & his wife had one child: 

i)          DOMENTIA .  Theophanes records the marriage of "Phocas…filiam Domentiam" and "Prisco patricio et excubitorum comiti" celebrated "in Marinæ palatio" in 599 (adjusted to [607] after taking into account the date discrepancy in the source)[445].  Leo Grammaticus records that "Crispus gener Phocæ" was present at and consented to the coronation of "Heraclius"[446]m ([607]) KRISPUS [Priskus], son of --- (-Chora Monastery [613]).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos names "imperatoris gener Crispus" as prefect of Constantinople at the time of the rebellion of "germani duo Heraclius et Gregorius" governors of Africa, recording that he opposed the choice of Herakleios as emperor by the senate[447].  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that Krispus was sent to "monasterio…Choræ" where he died after one year, dated to 613 from the context[448]

b)         DOMENTIOLUS (-executed 610).  Theophanes records that Emperor Herakleios imprisoned "Phocas…Domentiolum fratrem magistrum" at "Longos muros"[449].  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records the execution of "Domentiolum Phocæ fratrem", dated to 610 from the context[450]

c)         --- .  m ---.  One child: 

i)          DOMITIOLUS .  He and his wife are named, and their three sons recorded[451]m EIRENE, daughter of ---.  Du Cange names Domitius (confusing him with Domentiolus brother of Emperor Fokas) and his wife Irene, adding that the couple had three sons, but the primary source which he quotes has not yet been consulted[452].  Domitiolus & his wife had three children: 

(a)       three sons. 

 

 

 

G.      FAMILY of EMPEROR HERAKLEIOS 610-711

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         HERAKLEIOS (-[610]).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records the rebellion of "germani duo Heraclius et Gregorius", appointed governors of Africa under Emperor Mauricius, against Emperor Fokas[453]m EPIFANIA, daughter of --- (-Constantinople [612], bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes records that "Epiphania Heraclii matre" died at Constantinople soon after Herakleios´s wife, adding that they were both buried "in imperiali monasterio…Novæ pœnitentiæ"[454].  Herakleios & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         [MARIA ([570/80]-).  Her parentage and two marriages are confirmed by the History of Patriarch Nikeforos which names "Martino" as first husband of "Heraclius…Mariæ sororis" and also names her second husband "Eutropium"[455].  Some confusion about the precise relationship is suggested by Zonaras who names Heraclius´s second wife as "Martina vero fratris filia"[456].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian also records that Emperor Herakleios married "Martine fille de son frère"[457].  Cedrenus records the ermperor´s "incestissimis nuptiis" with "consobrina sua Martina"[458].  The Latin translation of this passage is inaccurate as Helena is called "ανεψιας" in the Greek original, more precisely translated as "neptis".  If Maria was the full sister of Emperor Herakleios, she was probably considerably older than her brother, considering the estimated birth dates of Martina and Herakleios which are shown below.  It has been assumed for the purposes of the presentation of the present family reconstruction that Martina´s mother was Herakleios´s sister, but square brackets have been added to highlight that is not beyond all doubt.  A more remote family relationship could explain why other sources, in particular Theophanes, do not mention that the emperor and his second wife´s mother were related.  Some possibilities are that Maria was the daughter of either Herakleios senior or his wife Epiphania by an earlier marriage, or even that she was the step-daughter of Herakleios senior by an earlier otherwise unrecorded marriage and brought up with Herakleios as his older sister.]  m firstly MARTINOS, son of ---.  [459]m secondly EUTROPIUS, son of ---.  Maria & her first husband had one child: 

i)          MARTINA ([590/600]-after [641/42]).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records the marriage of "Heraclius" and "Mariæ sororis filiam Martinam…Martino patrem natam", adding that such a marriage was "contra ius omne ac Romanorum leges"[460].  Cedrenus refers to the ermperor´s "incestissimis nuptiis" with "consobrina sua Martina"[461].  The Latin translation of this passage is inaccurate as Helena is called "ανεψιας" in the Greek original, more precisely translated as "neptis".  Zonaras names Heraclius´s second wife as "Martina vero fratris filia"[462].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian also records that Emperor Herakleios married "Martine fille de son frère"[463].  Theophanes records that the marriage of "Heraclius" and "Martinam…augustam" was announced, dated to the third year of his reign, but makes no mention either of the blood relationship between the two or of Martina´s parentage[464].  Paulus Diaconus names Martina as mother of "Heraclones eius filius" when recording that he succeeded his father[465].  Martina is unlikely to have been born much later than 600 considering that she gave birth to her first child soon after her marriage.  Theophanes records that "Heracleonas Martinæ filius" obtained power four months after the death of his father but that the senate expelled "Heracleonam, matrem eius Martinam et Valentinum" the following year, and that Martina´s tongue was cut out[466].  No other reference has been found to "Valentinus" but the context of this passage suggests that he was Martina´s lover at the time.  Cedrenus refers to Martina´s death and burial when recording that her son Herakleonas was buried "cum matre Martina…in dominico monasterio", implying that he was killed soon after being exiled which suggests that his mother shared the same fate[467]m (614) as his second wife, Emperor HERAKLEIOS, son of HERAKLEIOS & his wife Epiphania --- (575-11 Mar 641, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles). 

Maria & her second husband had one child: 

ii)         STEFANOS (-after [626]).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that Emperor Herakleios gave "Ioannem cognomento Atalaricum naturalem filium ex concubina natum, et Stephanum consobrinum Mariæ sororis filium, et Eutropium, necnon et Ioannem alterum Boni patricii filium…spurium" as hostages to the Persians, dated to 626 in the edition consulted[468]

b)         HERAKLEIOS ([580/90]-11 Mar 641, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "germani duo Heraclius et Gregorius", governors of Africa under Emperor Mauricius, sent "filios suos…Heraclium Heraclii filium…et…Nicetam Gregorii filium" with armed forces to Byzantium in rebellion against Emperor Fokas[469].  His birth date range is estimated on the obvious assumption that he was adult at the time of the rebellion in 610, but still sufficiently young not to have been married.  He succeeded in 610 as Emperor HERAKLEIOS

-        see below

c)         THEODOROS (-[Heliopolis, Syria [651/52], bur Constantinople]).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that Emperor Herakleios appointed "Theodorum fratrem suum…curopalatem" to succeed Crispus, dated to 613 from the context[470].  The Continuator of Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum names "Theodorus Eraclii Augusti germanus"[471].  Theophanes records that Emperor Herakleios sent "Theodorum proprium fratrem" to negotiate peace with "rege Persarum Siroe" who had invaded "Persas Edessæ…Palestina, Hierosolymis", dated to [626/29][472].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Emperor Herakleios sent "son frère Theotorigé" to fight in Mesopotamia where he arrived "à Ourha"[473].  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "Theodorum", previously ruling "comitem…Trithurium", was appointed by his brother to succeed on the death of "Sergius" as "ducem Orienti", dated 634 in the edition consulted[474].  Theophanes records the death at "Heriopoli" of "imperatoris Heraclii frater Gregorius" and the repatriation of his body to Constantinople preserved in myrrh, dated to [652/53][475].  It is likely that this entry refers to Theodoros, brother of Emperor Herakleios, and that "Gregorius" was a mistake in the passage.  No other reference has been found to a brother of Herakleios named Gregoras.  In addition, the preceding paragraph in the same source names "Gregorio Theodori filio" (see below) at Damascus, which suggests that father and son may have been on campaign together.  No other reference has been found to the death of Theodoros.  m ---.  The name of Theodoros´s wife is not known.  Theodoros & his wife had one child: 

i)          [GREGORAS] [Theodoros] (-after [651/52]).  Magister.  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "Atalarichum filium et Theodorum magistrum, Theodori fratris filium" rebelled against Emperor Herakleios, dated to [635/37] from the context, adding that Theodoros was exiled to "insulam Gaudomeleten"[476].  Theophanes records that "Gregorio Theodori filio" besieged Damascus, dated to [651/52][477].  There appears little doubt that these two entries refer to the same person.  It is likely that his name was Gregoras, also called Theodoros, in the same way that his first cousin Emperor Konstantinos III is recorded in primary sources with the alternative name Herakleios.  The usual naming convention among Byzantine nobility dictated that a son was not named after his father.  However, these two examples suggest that a variant may have been practised in the family of Emperor Herakleios. 

d)         [GREGORAS (-Heliopolis, Syria [652/53], bur Constantinople).  Theophanes records the death at "Heriopoli" of "imperatoris Heraclii frater Gregorius" and the repatriation of his body to Constantinople preserved in myrrh, dated to [652/53][478].  As noted above, it is likely that this entry refers to Theodoros, brother of Emperor Herakleios, and that "Gregorius" was a mistake in the passage.  No other reference has been found to a brother of Herakleios named Gregoras.  In addition, the preceding paragraph in the same source names "Gregorio Theodori filio" (see below) at Damascus, which suggests that father and son may have been on campaign together.  No other reference has been found to the death of Theodoros.] 

2.         GREGORAS (-after 610).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records the rebellion of "germani duo Heraclius et Gregorius", appointed governors of Africa under Emperor Mauricius, against Emperor Fokas[479]Patrikiosm ---.  The name of Gregoras's wife is not known.  Gregoras & his wife had one child: 

a)         NIKETAS (-before [629/30]).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "germani duo Heraclius et Gregorius", governors of Africa under Emperor Mauricius, sent "filios suos…Heraclium Heraclii filium…et…Nicetam Gregorii filium" with armed forces to Byzantium in rebellion against Emperor Fokas[480].  Theophanes records that "Heraclio patricio Africæ duci Heraclium filium et Gregoræ patricii…filium Nicetam" rebelled against Emperor Fokas[481]Patrikios.  His death is dated from a passage in the History of Patriarch Nikeforos which records the marriage of his daughter Gregoria, noting that her betrothal had been agreed "adhuc vivo parente illius", dated to [629/30] from the context[482]m ---.  The name of Niketas's wife is not known.  Niketas & his wife had three children: 

i)          GREGORAS (-after [645/48]).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that Emperor Herakleios promoted "Nicetæ filiumad patriciatum", the passage suggesting that his father had recently died, dated to [629/30] from the context[483]Patrikios.  Theophanes records that "Gregorius patricius" rebelled in Africa, dated to [645/48][484]

ii)         GREGORIA .  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "Heraclium sive Constantinum", son of Emperor Herakleios, married "filiam…Gregoriam…Nicetæ patricio", a later passage recording their marriage, dated to [629/30] from the context, noting that their betrothal had been agreed "adhuc vivo parente illius"[485]m ([629/30]) her second cousin, Emperor KONSTANTINOS III, son of Emperor HERAKLEIOS & his first wife Evdokia [Fabia] --- (3 May 612-23 Jun 641). 

iii)        NIKE .  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records the marriage of "Nicetæ…eiusdemque filiam Nicen" and "Theodosio" son of Emperor Herakleios "ex Martina", dated to [629/30] from the context[486]m ([629/30]) her second cousin, THEODOSIOS, son of Emperor HERAKLEIOS & his second wife Martina (-before 641). 

 

 

HERAKLEIOS, son of HERAKLEIOS & his wife Epiphania --- ([580/90]-11 Mar 641, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "germani duo Heraclius et Gregorius", governors of Africa under Emperor Mauricius, sent "filios suos…Heraclium Heraclii filium…et…Nicetam Gregorii filium" with armed forces to Byzantium in rebellion against Emperor Fokas[487].  His birth date range is estimated on the obvious assumption that he was adult at the time of the rebellion in 610, but still sufficiently young not to have been married.  Theophanes records that "Heraclio patricio Africæ duci Heraclium filium et Gregoræ patricii…filium Nicetam" rebelled against Emperor Fokas[488].  Theophylactus confirms his parentage when he names "Heraclius Heracli Augusti pater" when recording his military campaigns[489].  He succeeded in 610 as Emperor HERAKLEIOS.  The Continuator of Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records the coronation of "Eraclius" and his reign of 30 years[490].  Emperor Herakleios instituted the themata, military administrative units of Asia Minor, from [619], named after θέμα [troop division], initially Armeniakon, Anatolikon, Opsikion and Karavisian (of the Fleet), each of which was governed by a strategos.  Theophanes records the death in March "indictione decima quarta" of "imperator Heraclius" from "hydropis morbo" after reigning for 30 years and ten months[491].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Heraclius Magnus" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[492]

m firstly (7 Oct 610) FABIA, daughter of ROGATUS AFRIS & his wife --- (-Constantinople 12 Aug 612, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Leo Grammaticus records that "Heraclius" was crowned with "sponsa eius Fabia, quod nomen mutatum est in Eudociam, Augusta"[493].  She was named EVDOKIA from her coronation.  Theophanes names "Eudocia Rogati Afri filia" as the betrothed ("desponsa", although the word is used to mean wife in a later passage quoted below) of Herakleios, but adds that she soon died at Constantinople and was buried "in imperiali monasterio…Novæ pœnitentiæ", a later passage dating her death to 14 Aug in the same year as the birth of her son Constantinus[494].  Theophanes records that "desponsa…Eudocia" was installed as "augusta" when Herakleios was crowned emperor[495].  Theophanes records that "Augusta" died in the same year that he son was born[496].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Fabia, uxor Heraclii" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[497].  Cedrenus records that "alteram [filiam] Charito" married "Germano duci"[498]

m secondly (614) MARTINA, daughter of MARTINOS & his wife Maria (-after [641/42]).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records the marriage of "Heraclius" and "Mariæ sororis filiam Martinam…Martino patrem natam", adding that such a marriage was "contra ius omne ac Romanorum leges"[499].  Cedrenus refers to the ermperor´s "incestissimis nuptiis" with "consobrina sua Martina"[500].  The Latin translation of this passage is inaccurate as Helena is called "ανεψιας" in the Greek original, more precisely translated as "neptis".  Zonaras names Heraclius´s second wife as "Martina vero fratris filia"[501].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian also records that Emperor Herakleios married "Martine fille de son frère"[502].  Theophanes records that the marriage of "Heraclius" and "Martinam…augustam" was announced, dated to the third year of his reign, but makes no mention either of the blood relationship between the two or of Martina´s parentage[503].  Paulus Diaconus names Martina as mother of "Heraclones eius filius" when recording that he succeeded his father[504].  Martina is unlikely to have been born much later than 600 considering that she gave birth to her first child soon after her marriage.  Theophanes records that "Heracleonas Martinæ filius" obtained power four months after the death of his father but that the senate expelled "Heracleonam, matrem eius Martinam et Valentinum" the following year, and that Martina´s tongue was cut out[505].  No other reference has been found to "Valentinus" but the context of this passage suggests that he was Martina´s lover at the time.  Cedrenus refers to Martina´s death and burial when recording that her son Herakleonas was buried "cum matre Martina…in dominico monasterio", implying that he was killed soon after being exiled which suggests that his mother shared the same fate[506]

Emperor Herakleios & his first wife had two children: 

1.         EPIFANIA [Evdokia] (Jul 611-after [631]).  Theophanes records the birth "Iulio mense eadem indictione" of "filiam ex Eudocia…Epiphaniam imperator" and her baptism 15 Aug "in Blachernis" by Patriarch Sergius, in a passage which immediately follows the report of the emperor´s coronation[507].  Theophanes records the coronation 4 Oct "indictione prima" of "Epiphania imperatoris Heraclii filia" as augusta by Patriarch Sergius "in oratorio sancti Stephani, quod in palatio"[508].  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that Emperor Herakleios sent ambassadors to "Turcarum principem" to propose his marriage to "Eudociæ filiæ", dated to 625 in the edition consulted, adding in a later passage that she was sent to "Turcorum principi" for the marriage but that he had been killed "de barbari" and so was sent back, dated to 631 in the edition consulted[509].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Emperor Herakleios sent ambassadors to "le roi du Nord le Khakan" proposing his marriage to "sa fille Eudocie"[510]Betrothed ([625/31]) to --- "Prince of the Turks" (-killed in battle [631]). 

2.         KONSTANTINOS [Herakleios] (3 May 612-23 Jun 641, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes records the birth 3 May "indictione 15" of "ex Eudocia imperatori…filius Heraclius iunior, qui et novus Constantinus cognominatus est"[511].  He was crowned as augustus 22 Jan 613[512].  He succeeded in 641 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS III

-        see below

Emperor Herakleios & his second wife had ten children: 

3.         KONSTANTINOS (615-[631]).  Theophanes records the birth of "Constantinus alter ex Martina coniuge imperatori" and his baptism "in Blachernis" by Patriarch Sergius, dated to the year after the emperor´s marriage to Martina was announced[513].  Theophanes records that "Constantinum minorem…Martina genitum" was declared "cæsarem", dated to the second year after his birth ("indictione quinta")[514]Cæsar.  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "duo…filius…totidemque filiæ" of Emperor Herakleios died while the emperor was in Persia, dated 631 in the edition consulted[515].  None of these children are named, but it is possible that the sons were two out of Konstantinos, Flavius and Theodosios.  It is likely that cæsar Konstantinos was one of these deceased children as the subsequent passage in the same source records that the emperor´s son Herakleios was created cæsar later in the same year. 

4.         FLAVIOS [Fabius] (-[631]).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos names "alteri Flavio alteri Theodosio" as the two sons of Emperor Herakleios by his wife "Mariæ sororis filiam Martinam…Martino patrem natam"[516].  Zonaras names "Fabium qui et Heraclonam vocavit et Davidem" as the two sons of Emperor Heraclius by his wife Martina[517].  None of the other sources consulted hint that the son named Flavios/Fabius may have been the same person as the son named Herakleios/Herakleonas.  The chronology of the emperor´s marriages suggests that he must have been born from his second marriage.  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "duo…filius…totidemque filiæ" of Emperor Herakleios died while the emperor was in Persia, dated 631 in the edition consulted[518].  None of these children are named, but it is possible that the sons were two out of Konstantinos, Flavius and Theodosios. 

5.         daughter (-[631]).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "duo…filius…totidemque filiæ" of Emperor Herakleios died while the emperor was in Persia, dated 631 in the edition consulted[519]

6.         daughter (-[631]).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "duo…filius…totidemque filiæ" of Emperor Herakleios died while the emperor was in Persia, dated 631 in the edition consulted[520]

7.         THEODOSIOS (-before 641, maybe [631]).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos names "alteri Flavio alteri Theodosio" as the two sons of Emperor Herakleios by his wife "Mariæ sororis filiam Martinam…Martino patrem natam"[521].  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "duo…filius…totidemque filiæ" of Emperor Herakleios died while the emperor was in Persia, dated 631 in the edition consulted[522].  None of these children are named, but it is possible that the sons were two out of Konstantinos, Flavius and Theodosios.  m ([629/30]) his second cousin, NIKE, daughter of NIKETAS Patrikios & his wife ---.  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records the marriage of "Nicetæ…eiusdemque filiam Nicen" and "Theodosio" son of Emperor Herakleios "ex Martina", dated to [629/30] from the context[523]

8.         HERAKLEIOS [Herakleonas] (Lazes province, Persia [622]-after 641).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "ex Martina…filius…Heraclium" was born to Emperor Herakleios in "Lazorum provinciam in Persidem", dated to 622 in the edition consulted, later passages adding that "Heraclium…ex Martina genitum" was created "cæsarem" (dated 631 in the edition consulted) and "consulem" (641)[524].  Zonaras names "Fabium qui et Heraclonam vocavit et Davidem" as the two sons of Emperor Heraclius by his wife Martina[525].  None of the other sources consulted hint that the son named Flavius/Fabius may have been the same person as the son named Herakleios/Herakleonas.  Theophanes records that "Heraclonas Martinæ filius" succeeded his half-brother as emperor but was expelled with his mother, recording in a later passage that her tongue was cut and his nose[526].  He succeeded in 641 as Emperor HERAKLEONAS, deposed in 641.  Theophanes records that "Heracleonas Martinæ filius" obtained power after his half-brother was killed, but that the senate expelled "Heracleonam, matrem eius Martinam et Valentinam" the following year and that Herakleonas´s nose was cut off[527].  Paulus Diaconus records the accession of "Heraclones eius filius…cum matre Martina" after the death of "Eraclio augusto" and his reign of two years[528].  Cedrenus records that Herakleonas was buried "cum matre Martina…in dominico monasterio", implying that he was killed soon after being exiled[529]

9.         DAVID ([Asia Minor] 7 Nov 630-641 or after).  Theophanes records the birth 7 Nov "indictione quarta…in oriente" of "Heraclio…David filius"[530].  Zonaras names "Fabium qui et Heraclonam vocavit et Davidem" as the two sons of Emperor Heraclius by his wife Martina[531].  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "Davidem et Marinum alios liberos" were created "cæsares" by Emperor Herakleios[532].  He is recorded as cæsar 4/7 Jul 638, Augustus in 641 and being exiled and mutilated in 641[533]

10.      MARINOS (-641 or after).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "Davidem et Marinum alios liberos" were created "cæsares" by Emperor Herakleios[534].  He is recorded as cæsar and being exiled and mutilated in 641[535]

11.      AUGUSTINA .  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "Augustinam et Martinam filias" were created "augustas" by Emperor Herakleios[536].  She was appointed Augusta in 638[537]

12.      MARTINA .  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "Augustinam et Martinam filias" were created "augustas" by Emperor Herakleios[538].  She was appointed Augusta in 638[539]

Emperor Herakleios had one illegitimate child by a barbarian concubine: 

13.       IOANNES [Athalric] .  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that Emperor Herakleios gave "Ioannem cognomento Atalaricum naturalem filium ex concubina natum, et Stephanum consobrinum Mariæ sororis filium, et Eutropium, necnon et Ioannem alterum Boni patricii filium…spurium" as hostages to the Persians, dated to 626 in the edition consulted[540].  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "Atalarichum filium et Theodorum magistrum, Theodori fratris filium" rebelled against Emperor Herakleios, dated to [635/37] from the context, adding that Athalric was exiled to "insulam…Principum"[541].  He is named in Nicephoros Breviarum and Sebeos History of Heraclius[542]

 

 

KONSTANTINOS [Herakleios], son of Emperor HERAKLEIOS & his first wife Evdokia [Fabia] --- (3 May 612-23 Jun 641, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes records the birth 3 May "indictione 15" of "ex Eudocia imperatori…filius Heraclius iunior, qui et novus Constantinus cognominatus est"[543].  He was crowned as augustus 22 Jan 613[544].  Theophanes records that "Constantinus iunior, qui et Heraclius Heraclii filius" was declared "consul" 1 Jan "indictione quinta"[545].  The Continuator of Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records the accession of "Constantinus filius Eraclii Romani imperii"[546].  He succeeded in 641 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS III.  Theophanes records that "Constantinus eius filius" held "imperium" for four months after the death of his father but that he died poisoned through the machinations of "Martinæ novercæ, Pyrrhique patriarchæ"[547].  Paulus Diaconus names "Constantius germanus eiusdem alias filius Heraclii" when recording that he succeeded his brother Herakleonas, stating that he reigned for six months[548].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Constantinus nepos Heraclii, pater Constantini Pogonati" (although other sources indicate that Konstantinos was the son, not nepos, of "Heraclii") was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[549]

m ([629/30]) his second cousin, GREGORIA, daughter of NIKETAS & his wife ---.  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records that "Heraclium sive Constantinum", son of Emperor Herakleios, married "filiam…Gregoriam…Nicetæ patricio", a later passage recording their marriage, dated to [629/30] from the context, noting that their betrothal had been agreed "adhuc vivo parente illius"[550]

Emperor Konstantinos & his wife had two children: 

1.         KONSTANS [Herakleios] (7 Nov 630-murdered Siracusa, Sicily 15 Jul 668, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes records the birth 7 Nov "indictione quarta" of "Heraclius Heraclii iunioris Constantini dicti filius, magni Heraclii nepos" and his baptism by Patriach Sergius 3 Nov "in Blachernis"[551].  He succeeded in 641 as Emperor KONSTANS II.  Theophanes records that "Constantem Constantini filium et Heraclii nepotem" succeeded after the expulsion of Herakleonas and ruled for 27 years[552].  The Continuator of Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records the accession of "Constans Constantini filius" and his reign of 27 years[553].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Constantinus eiusdem filius" succeeded his father and reigned for 28 years[554].  Theophanes records that Emperor Konstans decided to transfer "imperii sedi" to Rome and left Constantinople for Syracusa in Sicily with "uxorem suam tresque liberos, Constantinum, Heraclium atque Tiberium", dated to [660/63][555].  Paulus Diaconus records that Emperor Constans besieged Benevento but was obliged to withdraw to Naples by Grimoald King of the Lombards[556].  Paulus Diaconus records the death in Sicily of "Constante augusto"[557].  Theophanes records that Emperor Konstans was killed at "Syracusis Siciliæ in balneo…Daphne", dated to [668/70][558].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Emperor Constans was killed "dans le bain par Atréas, gouverneur militaire de Sirmi"[559].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Constantini Pogonati" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[560]m FAUSTA, daughter of --- (-bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes records that Emperor Konstans decided to transfer "imperii sedi" to Rome and left Constantinople for Syracusa in Sicily with "uxorem suam tresque liberos, Constantinum, Heraclium atque Tiberium", dated to [660/63][561].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Fausta uxor Constantini Pogonati" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[562].  Emperor Konstans & his wife had three children: 

a)         KONSTANTINOS (648-14 Sep 685).  Theophanes records that Emperor Konstans decided to transfer "imperii sedi" to Rome and left Constantinople for Syracusa in Sicily with "uxorem suam tresque liberos, Constantinum, Heraclium atque Tiberium", dated to [660/63][563].  Paulus Diaconus names "Constantinus, Constantii augusti filius" when recording that he succeeded his father and reigned for 17 years[564].  He was crowned in Apr 654, and succeeded in 668 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS IV.  Theophanes records that "Armenium quondam Mizizium" was invested as emperor after the murder of Emperor Konstans II but that "Constantinus" sailed for Sicily after learning of his father´s death and assumed the throne, administering with "fratribus Tiberio et Heraclii"[565].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that, after the murder of Emperor Constans, "le patrice Mejmej…arménien de nation" was installed as emperor, but killed by "Constantin fils de Gosdos", although "le fils de Mejmej" pursued Konstantinos for seven months until he was killed[566].  Theophanes records that Emperor Konstantinos removed "fratres suos Heraclium et Tiberium" from "imperii dignitate" and henceforth ruled only with "Iustiniano filio", dated to [681/83][567].  Theophanes records that Emperor Konstantinos died after reigning for 17 years[568]m ANASTASIA, daughter of --- (-after 711).  Theophanes names "Anastasiam imperatricem augustam" as mother of Emperor Iustinian II[569].  Theophanes names "Anastasiam, patris eius matrem" as being alive when her grandson Tiberios was murdered[570].  Zonaras records that "Tiberius" fled "cum avia materna Anastasia" to "templum Blachernium", was extracted and killed, but makes no comment about Anastasia´s fate[571].  Emperor Konstantinos & his wife had two children: 

i)          IUSTINIAN ([669/70]-murdered 4/24 Nov 711, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes records that Emperor Konstantinos removed "fratres suos Heraclium et Tiberium" from "imperii dignitate" and henceforth ruled only with "Iustiniano filio", dated to [681/83][572].  He succeeded in 685 as Emperor IUSTINIAN II., deposed in 695, restored 21 Aug 705.  Theophanes records that "Iustinianum eius filium" succeeded after the death of "Constantinum" and ruled for 10 years[573].  Paulus Diaconus records that "eius minor filius Iustinianus" succeeded Emperor Konstantinos and reigned for 10 years before being deposed by "Leo" and taking refuge "in Ponto"[574].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "Aptelmelek" made peace with Emperor Justinian II, under which the latter agreed to send "mille tahégans, un esclave et un cheval" each year and the island of Cyprus would be shared between the Arabs and the Byzantines, but that Justinian raided Cyprus and broke the treaty[575].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that the Arabs defeated the Byzantines "à Pouschérig" in 694[576].  Theophanes records that Emperor Iustinian was expelled by "Leontium tyrannide" who ruled for three years, then "Tiberium qui etiam Apsimarus" who ruled for seven years, before Iustinian was restored for a further six years[577].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Emperor Iustinian was captured and his nose cut, and imprisoned, but escaped after ten years and fled to "le Khakan des Khazirs"[578].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Iustinianus" captured and murdered the usurpers "Leonem quoque et Tiberium" with the help of "Terobelli Bulgarum regis" and recovered his throne[579].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Filippicus" was declared emperor by part of the army, invaded Constantinople and deposed Emperor Iustinian whom he murdered, recording that "Iustinianus cum filio Tiberio" reigned for six years during this second period[580].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "Philigos" killed "Justinien et son fils Tibère" and seized the throne[581].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Iustinianus minor" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[582]m firstly EUDOKIA, daughter of --- (- before [702], bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Eudocia, uxor Iustiniani minoris [alias Rhinotmeti]" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[583]m secondly ([702], repudiated 705) THEODORA, sister of --- Khan of the Khazars, daughter of --- (-before 711).  Theophanes records that "Iustinianus" married "Chazarorum…Chaganus…germanam sororem Theodoram" but that she was sent back to her brother after Iustinian attempted to regain the imperial throne[584].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Emperor Iustinian married "le Khakan des Khazirs…sa fille", and that the emperor sent for "sa femme et son fils Tibère" after he was restored to the throne[585].  Her original Khazar name is not known.  It is assumed that Theodora was her baptismal name on her marriage.  Zonaras records that "Theodora mater" predeceased her son[586].  Emperor Iustinian & his first wife had one child: 

(a)       daughter .  Theophanes records that Emperor Iustinian II promised the hand of "propria filia" to "Terbelem Bulgariæ dominum" in return for his help in regaining the throne[587].  As this is recorded in the same paragraph which records Iustinian's second marriage, it is assumed that this daughter was born from the emperor's first marriage. 

Emperor Iustinian & his second wife had one child: 

(b)       TIBERIOS ([703]-murdered 711).  Theophanes records that "Theodoram coniugem…eius filium Tiberium" ruled with Emperor Iustinian during his second reign[588].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Emperor Iustinian married "le Khakan des Khazirs…sa fille", and that the emperor sent for "sa femme et son fils Tibère" after he was restored to the throne[589].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Iustinianus cum filio Tiberio" reigned for six years during his second reign[590].  Zonaras records that "filius eius Tiberius" fled "cum avia materna Anastasia" to "templum Blachernium", adding that "Theodora mater" had already died, but was extracted and killed[591].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "Philigos" killed "Justinien et son fils Tibère" and seized the throne[592]

ii)         HERAKLEIOS (-after [684/85]).  The Liber Pontificalis records that locks of the hair of "domni Iustiniani et Heraclii filiorum…principis" were sent to Pope Benedict II in Rome in [684/85][593]

b)         HERAKLEIOS (-after [681/83]).  Theophanes records that Emperor Konstans decided to transfer "imperii sedi" to Rome and left Constantinople for Syracusa in Sicily with "uxorem suam tresque liberos, Constantinum, Heraclium atque Tiberium", dated to [660/63][594].  Theophanes records that "Armenium quondam Mizizium" was invested as emperor after the murder of Emperor Konstans II but that "Constantinus" sailed for Sicily after learning of his father´s death and assumed the throne, administering with "fratribus Tiberio et Heraclii"[595].  Theophanes records that Emperor Konstantinos removed "fratres suos Heraclium et Tiberium" from "imperii dignitate" and henceforth ruled only with "Iustiniano filio", dated to [681/83][596]

c)         TIBERIOS (-after [681/83]).  Theophanes records that Emperor Konstans decided to transfer "imperii sedi" to Rome and left Constantinople for Syracusa in Sicily with "uxorem suam tresque liberos, Constantinum, Heraclium atque Tiberium", dated to [660/63][597].  Theophanes records that "Armenium quondam Mizizium" was invested as emperor after the murder of Emperor Konstans II but that "Constantinus" sailed for Sicily after learning of his father´s death and assumed the throne, administering with "fratribus Tiberio et Heraclii"[598].  Theophanes records that Emperor Konstantinos removed "fratres suos Heraclium et Tiberium" from "imperii dignitate" and henceforth ruled only with "Iustiniano filio", dated to [681/83][599]

2.         THEODOSIOS (-murdered [659/60]).  Theophanes records that "Constans" killed "Theodosium fratrem germanum", dated to [659/60][600].  The source gives no background to the murder.  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Emperor Constans "ayant conçu des soupcons contre son frère Théotoride, le fit périr"[601]

 

 

 

H.      EMPERORS 695-717

 

 

1.         LEONTIOS (-murdered Constantinople [Aug 705/Feb 706]).  Strategos of the theme of Anatolikan.  He succeeded 695-698 as Emperor LEONTIOS.  Theophanes records that Emperor Iustinian was expelled by "Leontium tyrannide" who ruled for three years, then "Tiberium qui etiam Apsimarus" who ruled for seven years, before Iustinian was restored for a further six years[602].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Leo" deposed Emperor Iustinian and reigned for 3 years[603].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Iustinianus" captured and murdered the usurpers "Leonem quoque et Tiberium in medio circo coram omni populo" and recovered his throne[604].  He was executed between Aug 705 and Feb 706[605]

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         TIBERIOS [Apsimarus] (-murdered Constantinople [Aug 705/Feb 706]).  He succeeded in 698 as Emperor TIBERIOS III.  Theophanes records that Emperor Iustinian was expelled by "Leontium tyrannide" who ruled for three years, then "Tiberium qui etiam Apsimarus" who ruled for seven years, before Iustinian was restored for a further six years[606].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Tiberius" deposed "Leo"[607].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Iustinianus" captured and murdered the usurpers "Leonem quoque et Tiberium in medio circo coram omni populo" and recovered his throne[608].  He was executed between Aug 705 and Feb 706[609]m ---.  The name of Tiberios's wife is not known.  Emperor Tiberios & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         THEODOSIOS (-762 or after).  Theophanes names "Theodosius Ephesi episcopus, Apsimari filius" when recording a meeting of bishops during the reign of Emperor Konstantinos V[610].  He is named "Theodosios" in the Vita Stephani iunioris which records that he was one of the iconoclast leaders who was sent by Emperor Konstantinos V to interview Stefanos at Chrysopolis[611]

b)         [HERAKLEIOS .  He is recorded as brother of Theodosios[612], although it is not known whether he was the son of Emperor Tiberios.] 

2.         HERAKLEIOS (-after [704/05]).  Theophanes names "Heraclium…germanum fratrem suum", referring to "Absimari", recording that he was sent to govern Cappadocia and, in a later passage, that he fought in Arabia in the sixth year of his brother's reign[613].  Zonaras records that "Apsimarus sive Tiberius" sent "fratrem suum Heraclium…in Orientem contra Agarenos" and that he was victorious[614]

 

 

1.         NIKEFOROSPatrikiosm ---.  The name of Nikeforos's wife is not known.  Nikeforos & his wife had one child: 

a)         PHILIPPICUS [Bardanes] (-20 Jan [714]).  Theophanes records that Emperor Tiberios sent "Philippicum Nicephori patricii filium" to "Cephaloniam"[615].  Leo Grammaticus names "Philippicum filium Nicephori patricii"[616].  He succeeded in 711 as Emperor PHILIPPICUS.  Theophanes records that "Bardanem qui et Philippicus nominabatur" was acclaimed as emperor and deposed and murdered Emperor Iustinian II[617].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Filippicus" was declared emperor by part of the army, invaded Constantinople and deposed Emperor Iustinian whom he murdered, in a later passage naming him "Filippicus qui et Bardanis dictus est" when recording that he reigned for one year and six months before he was deposed by "Anastasius qui et Artemius dictus est", blinded and killed[618].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "Philigos" killed "Justinien et son fils Tibère" and seized the throne[619].  He was blinded 3 Jun 713.  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "Philigos" was blinded and banished in the second year of his reign[620]

 

 

1.         ANASTASIOS [Artemios] (-Kynegion 1 Jun 719, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  He succeeded in 713 as Emperor ANASTASIOS II.  Theophanes records that "Artemius…Anastasius cognominatus" deposed Emperor Philippicus[621].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Anastasius qui et Artemius dictus est" deposed, blinded and killed Emperor Philippicus[622].  Paulus Diaconus records that part of the army chose "Theodosium" as emperor on its return from Alexandria on campaign for Emperor Anastasios, and that he defeated the latter in battle[623].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that Anastasios fled to Nikaia after he was deposed[624].  He is recorded as a cleric in 715, he rebelled in 719 and was executed at Kynegion 1 Jun 719[625].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anastasius alias Artemius" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[626]m --- (bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  The name of Anastasios's wife is not known.  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anastasii Artemii uxor" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[627]

 

 

1.         THEODOSIOS (-717).  He succeeded in 716 as Emperor THEODOSIOS III.  Paulus Diaconus records that part of the army chose "Theodosium" as emperor on their return from Alexandria on campaign for Emperor Anastasios, and that he defeated the latter in battle[628].  He became a monk[629]m ---.  The name of Theodosios's wife is not known.  Theodosios & his wife had one child: 

a)         son .  Theophanes records that the future Emperor Leon III captured "Theodosii filium" at Nikomedia, before negotiating the emperor's abdication at Chrysopolis[630].  He became a monk[631]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    EMPERORS 717-802 (ISAURIAN DYNASTY)

 

 

1.         LEON "the Isaurian" (Germanikeia [685]-18 Jun 741, bur Mausoleum of Justinian, Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantinople).  His parentage is not known.  Theophanes records that "Leo Germanicia…Isauria oriundus" succeeded as emperor, adding that he had been transferred to Mesembria in Thrace by Emperor Iustinianus II during his first reign (presumably as part of the colonisation encouraged by the emperor), and was appointed "spatharium" (προτοσπαθάριος, commander of the σπαθαριοδης or sword-bearers, who were part of the imperial bodyguard) by the emperor[632].  Theophanes records that "Conon" was his baptismal name[633].  After a successful military campaign in the Caucasus, Emperor Anastasios II appointed Leon as strategos of the Anatolikon, the largest and most powerful of the themes in Asia Minor.  After the fall of Emperor Anastasios, Leon rebelled against Emperor Theodosios III, allying himself with Artabasdos (strategos of the theme of Armeniakon, who later married Leon's daughter) and also the Arabs.  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that the emperor discovered that "Leon général des Grecs" had been negotiating for support from the Arabs and captured "les parents de Leon" but later released them when Leon threatened "Amoun"[634].  He marched westwards, captured the emperor's son at Nikomedia, and at Chrysopolis negotiated the emperor's abdication and retirement to the monastery of Ephesus[635].  He entered Constantinople and was crowned at Santa Sofia 25 Mar 717 as Emperor LEON III .  Paulus Diaconus records the accession of "Leo augustus" after the death of Emperor Theodosios[636].  Within six months the Arabs besieged Constantinople, but Emperor Leon forced the withdrawal of their fleet 15 Aug 718 and Bulgarian troops forced their land army's retreat to Syria[637].  During the following years the Arabs continued their attacks, although on a lesser scale, recapturing Cæsarea after 726 and besieging Nikaia.  The emperor agreed an alliance with the Khazars against their common enemy the Arabs, sealed by the marriage in 732 of his son Konstantinos with the daughter of a Khazar Khan[638].  Leon III finally defeated the Arabs at Akroinon, near Amorium in 740.  Emperor Leon successfully executed administrative reforms, including the new legal code Ekloga in 726[639], and created new, smaller themata to streamline bureaucracy while reducing the power of potential rivals.  The theme of Karavisian was divided into the two themes of Cibyrrheotes (on the southern shore of Asia Minor) and Aegeon Pelagos (the islands in the Aegean sea) some time between 710 and 732.  The new theme of Thrakesion, named after the Thracian troops garrisoned there, was split from Emperor Leon's previous theme of Anatolia[640].  The theme of Crete was also created around the same time.  Leon's reign was marked by persecution of the Jews, and from 726 the promotion of iconoclasm, a movement which had originated in the eastern part of the empire possibly as a reflection of Islam's rejection of the cult of the image[641].  The unpopularity of iconoclasm, particularly in the western parts of the empire, triggered revolts in Constantinople and even the appointment of an anti-emperor, in the theme of Hellas, whose attempted invasion of Constantinople was crushed by Emperor Leo[642].  Papal opposition to iconoclasm prompted Leon III to confiscate the incomes from the churches of Sicily and Calabria in 731.  Pope Gregory III excommunicated all destroyers of images at a synod 1 Nov 731.  Emperor Leon retaliated by transferring the religious provinces of Greece and southern Italy from the see of Rome to that of Constantinople[643].  Although Leon left the empire secure from outside enemies, his religious policies created bitter divisions which were to endure for more than a century.  Theophanes records his death 18 Jun "quinta indictione" and that he had reigned for 24 years, two months and 25 days[644]m MARIA, daughter of ---.  Her origin is not known.  Theophanes records the coronation 15 Oct of "Maria eius uxor" as "Augusta" in the third year of Leon´s reign as emperor[645].  Emperor Leon III & his wife had four children:

a)         ANNA ([705/10]-after [772]).  Theophanes records that "Leo" promised "Anna filia" to "Artabasdum Armenicorum ducem"[646].  Anna must have been several years older than her brother Konstantinos.  Assuming her son Niketas was at least in his mid-teens when his father appointed him commander-in-chief of his army in [742/43], Anna could not have been born much later than 710.  It is therefore not at all certain that she shared the same mother as her brother Konstantinos.  Her marriage was arranged to seal her father's alliance prior to usurping the Byzantine throne.  She was banished with her husband and nine children to the monastery of Chora[647].  According to the Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane, thirty years after the rebellion her brother Emperor Konstantinos forced her to return to the monastery of Chora, dig up her husband's bones, place them in her cloak (pallium), and throw them into the so-called tombs of Pelagius, charnel pits, among the bodies of executed criminals[648]m (betrothed 715, after Mar 717) ARTABASDOS, son of --- (-before [772], bur Chora Monastery).  His parentage is not known.  Strategos of the theme of Armeniakon.  His future father-in-law allied himself with Artabasdos in his bid for the throne, promising him his daughter's hand and the title kouropalates, the third highest honour in the empire, after cæsar and nobilissimus, usually reserved for members of the imperial family.  Emperor Leon appointed him strategos (governor) of the theme of Opsikion: an undated seal records “Artavasde patrice curopalate et comte de l´Opsikion impérial gardé de Dieu[649].  After the accession of his brother-in-law Konstantinos V in 741, Artabasdos rebelled against the new emperor, routed his army in Opsikion and proclaimed himself emperor in 742.  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that "Artahuasdus…Nicephorum æque filium suum" was crowned "mense…Maio cum Artahuasdus"[650].  As the declared champion of the cult of images, he gathered support in Constantinople where he was crowned by the patriarch Anastasios.  He was supported by the themes of Thrace, Opsikion and Armeniakon, and recognised as emperor by Rome.  Konstantinos's army defeated him at Sardis in Lydia in May 743.  After Emperor Konstantinos re-entered Constantinople in Nov 743, Artabasdos and his two sons were blinded (a punishment, practised throughout the eastern Mediterranean area during medieval times, inflicted because blindness was considered an impediment to ruling and therefore constituted an effective way of disempowering an opponent short of killing him, although many did succumb as a result of the treatment).  Theophanes records that "Artahuasdus cum duobus filiis suis" were captured and blinded[651].  They were banished to the monastery of Chora on the outskirts of Constantinople with his wife and other children[652].  Artabasdos had nine children:

i)          NIKETAS (-after Nov 743).  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that "Artahuasdus…Nicetam filium" was appointed "monostrategum" over the theme of Armeniakon[653].  His army was defeated by Emperor Konstantinos in Aug 743 near Modrina before he could regroup with his father.  He was blinded on the orders of Emperor Konstantinos V after the latter re-entered Constantinople in Nov 743[654].  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that "Artahuasdus cum duobus filiis suis" were captured and blinded[655]

ii)         NIKEFOROS (-after Nov 743).  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that "Artahuasdus…Nicephorum æque filium suum" was crowned "mense…Maio cum Artahuasdus"[656].  He is named after his brother Niketas by Patriarch Nikeforos[657], implying that Nikeforos was the younger brother.  Speck speculates[658] that his appointment as co-emperor in place of Niketas was because Nikeforos was the son of Artabasdos by his wife Anna, Niketas having been born from an earlier marriage.  He was blinded on the orders of Emperor Konstantinos V after the latter re-entered Constantinople in Nov 743[659].  Theophanes records that "Artahuasdus cum duobus filiis suis" were captured and blinded[660]

iii)        seven other children.  Artabasdos was banished with his nine children to the monastery of Chora[661], although the names of these other seven children are not known. 

b)         KONSTANTINOS (Jul 718-14 Sep 775, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes records that "Leoni principi filius…Constantinus" was born in the third year of his reign as emperor[662].  He was crowned co-emperor by his father at Easter 720.  He succeeded his father in 741 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS V "Kopronymos"

-        see below

c)         KOSMO (bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Cosmo et Irene, sorores Caballini" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[663]

d)         EIRENE (bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Cosmo et Irene, sorores Caballini" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[664]

 

 

KONSTANTINOS, son of Emperor LEON III & his wife Maria --- (Sep 718-Strongylon 14 Sep 775, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes records that "Leoni principi filius…Constantinus" was born in the third year of his reign as emperor[665].  He was crowned co-emperor [συμβασιλεύς] by his father at Easter 31 Mar 720.  He succeeded his father in 741 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS V "Kopronymos", his nickname "Dung-named" accorded from his allegedly having defecated in the font at the time of his baptism aged 6 months 25 Dec 718[666].  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records his coronation "XIV Kal Iul"[667].  Having left Constantinople on campaign against the Arabs, his brother-in-law Artabasdos revolted and proclaimed himself emperor in Constantinople in 742.  Emperor Konstantinos sought refuge in Amorium, the chief city of the theme of Anatolia which supported Emperor Konstantinos along with the Thracian theme, but defeated the anti-emperor at Sardis in Lydia in May 743.  Emperor Konstanti nos re-entered Constantinople after a short siege 2 Nov 743, and inflicted a terrible revenge against the rebel's supporters.  A successful campaigner, he consolidated his position to the east with military victories against the Umayyads, reconquering northern Syria including Germanikeia in 746, routing the Arab fleet at Alexandria the following year, and temporarily recapturing Melitene and Theodosiopolis in 752[668].  The transfer of the capital of the Caliphate from Damascus to Baghdad by the Abbasids reduced the pressure felt by Byzantium from its Arab neighbours.  The scene of military pressure switched to the northern frontier of the European part of the empire.  Provoked by Konstantinos V's refortification of the area, the Bulgars invaded Byzantium in 756, were defeated 30 Jun 763 at Anchialos on the Black Sea coast, but continued to be a source of military irritation for the remainder of Konstantinos V's reign[669].  Emperor Konstantinos created the theme of Bucellarion in [767] by splitting the powerful theme of Opsikion.  A more fanatical iconoclast than his father, he persecuted and tortured his religious opponents.  After forbidding the use of images by civil order of an imperial council, Konstantinos summoned a carefully constituted assembly of bishops to issue similar orders in 754.  The orders were applied severely, but opposition to iconoclasm did not diminish.  The monks and monasteries, at first simply the focus of iconophile opposition, over time became objects of persecution themselves.  Monasteries were closed and their confiscated assets transferred to the emperor.  In addition, the emperor's fanaticism spread from mere images to the cult of saints and the Virgin Mary, bringing him into opposition with his own religious council[670].  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that Emperor Konstantinos V died during one of his campaigns against the Bulgars, on board ship after landing at the port of Strongylon[671].  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records his death "XVIII Kal Oct" and that he had reigned for 34 years, three months and two days[672].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Leonis Isauri filius, Constantinus, vulgo Caballinus [Καβαλλίνος] dictus" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[673]

m firstly ([731/32]) [CHICHEK], daughter of [BIHEROS] Khan of the Khazars (-[750/6 Jun 751], bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes records the marriage of "Leo imperator…Constantino filio suo" and "filiam Chagani Scytharum principis" and that she was baptised as EIRENE[674].  She is named Chichek in Europäische Stammtafeln, but the primary source which confirms this name (and the name of her father) has not yet been identified.  This marriage was arranged by Emperor Leon III to confirm his alliance with the Khazars against their common enemy the Arabs[675].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Irene uxor Constantini Caballini" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[676]

m secondly ([751/52]) MARIA, daughter of --- (-[751/52]).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records the death of "Mariæ Augustæ", dated to 750 in the edition consulted[677].  Her origin is not known. 

m thirdly EVDOKIA, daughter of ---.  Theophanes records that "Eudociam tertiam coniugem" was crowned augusta 2 Apr, dated to [768/69][678].  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records the coronation "indictione 7, mense Aprili, sabbato sancto" of "Constantinus Eudociam coniugem" as "augusta", dated to 768 in the edition consulted[679].  She was related to Theodotos Melissenos who was appointed Patriarch of Constantinople by Emperor Leon V in 815[680]

Emperor Konstantinos V & his first wife had one child:

1.         LEON (25 Jan 750-8 Sep 780, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes records the birth 25 Jan "tertia…indictione" of "imperatori Constantino ex filia Chagani Chazariæ…filius…Leo"[681].  He was crowned co-emperor by his father in 751.  He succeeded his father in 775 as Emperor LEON IV

-        see below.   

Emperor Konstantinos V & his third wife had six children:

2.         NIKEFOROS ([753/63]-after 812).  Theophanes records that "liberos duos ex [Eudociam]…Christophorum et Nicephorum" were appointed cæsar 2 Apr, dated to [768/69][682].  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records the appointment "indictione 7, mense Aprili, sabbato sancto" of "Constantinus…liberis suis Christophorum et Nicephorum" as "cæsares", dated to 768 in the edition consulted[683].  Theophanes records that in May [776] "Nicephorus cæsar et imperatoris frater" was accused of plotting against the emperor and exiled[684].  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records another plot ("VI Id Sep" in 780) in favour of "Nicephorum" after which he was forcibly tonsured and exiled[685].  Theophanes records that (in Aug 792) Nikeforos was the focus of yet another conspiracy by those angered by the weakness of his nephew in allowing his mother to resume her position as co-empress.  This plot was brutally suppressed by Emperor Konstantinos VI, who ordered Nikeforos blinded and his brothers to have their tongues cut out, and all of them to be confined to the palace of Therapia[686].  In Oct 797, another plot was formed and Nikeforos and his brothers went to Hagia Sofia where a crowd gathered, but were then exiled to Athens[687].  He and his brothers were alive under guard on the island of Panormos in 812, when a faction in Constantinople planned to rescue them in order to seize the throne.  This time they were exiled to Aphousia in the Sea of Marmara[688]

3.         CHRISTOFOROS ([753/63]- after 812).  Theophanes records that "liberos duos ex [Eudociam]…Christophorum et Nicephorum" were appointed cæsar 2 Apr, dated to [768/69][689].  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records the appointment "indictione 7, mense Aprili, sabbato sancto" of "Constantinus…liberis suis Christophorum et Nicephorum" as "cæsares", dated to 768 in the edition consulted[690].  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that Empress Eirene obliged him and his brothers to be tonsured in 780, after the plot in favour of their oldest brother Nikeforos[691].  Theophanes records that, after the plot (in Aug 792), Emperor Konstantinos VI ordered "Christophorum atque Nicetam Anthimimumque atque Eudocium" to have their tongues cut out and confined to the palace of Therapia[692].  A further plot in 799 resulted in him and his four brothers being blinded[693]

4.         NIKETAS (763-after 812).  Theophanes records that "liberos duos ex [Eudociam]…Christophorum et Nicephorum" were appointed cæsar, and "Nicetæ…eorum fratri" as "nobilissimum", 2 Apr, dated to [768/69][694].  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records the appointment "indictione 7, mense Aprili, sabbato sancto" of "Constantinus…liberis suis…Niketam" as "nobilissimum", dated to 768 in the edition consulted[695].  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that Empress Eirene obliged him and his brothers to be tonsured in 780, after the plot in favour of their oldest brother Nikeforos[696].  Theophanes records that, after the plot (in Aug 792), Emperor Konstantinos VI ordered "Christophorum atque Nicetam Anthimimumque atque Eudocium" to have their tongues cut out and confined to the palace of Therapia[697].  A further plot in 799 resulted in him and his four brothers being blinded[698]

5.         ANTHIMOS ([768/69]-after 812).  The History of Patriarch Nikeforos records the birth "indictione deinde septima" of "Constantino filius…Anthimum", dated to 768 in the edition consulted[699].  Theophanes records that Emperor Konstantinos invested "Anthimum" as "nobilissimum"[700].  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that Empress Eirene obliged him and his brothers to be tonsured in 780, after the plot in favour of their oldest brother Nikeforos[701].  Theophanes records that, after the plot (in Aug 792), Emperor Konstantinos VI ordered "Christophorum atque Nicetam Anthimimumque atque Eudocium" to have their tongues cut out and confined to the palace of Therapia[702].  A further plot in 799 resulted in him and his four brothers being blinded[703]

6.         EVDOKIMOS (-after 812).  Theophanes records that Emperor Leon invested "Eudocimum fratrem suum" as "nobilissimum"[704].  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that Empress Eirene obliged him and his brothers to be tonsured in 780, after the plot in favour of their oldest brother Nikeforos[705].  Theophanes records that, after the plot (in Aug 792), Emperor Konstantinos VI ordered "Christophorum atque Nicetam Anthimimumque atque Eudocium" to have their tongues cut out and confined to the palace of Therapia[706].  A further plot in 799 resulted in him and his four brothers being blinded[707]

7.         ANTHOUSA .  She is said to have refused an offer from Empress Eirene to share the government of the empire.  She lived in the monastery of Homonoia until she died aged 52[708]

 

 

LEON, son of Emperor KONSTANTINOS V & his first wife Eirene [Chichek] of the Khazars (25 Jan 750-8 Sep 780, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes records the birth 25 Jan "tertia…indictione" of "imperatori Constantino ex filia Chagani Chazariæ…filius…Leo"[709].  He was crowned co-emperor by his father in 6 Jun 751, after the death of his mother[710].  He succeeded his father in 775 as Emperor LEON IV "the Khazar".  Though still supporting iconoclasm, his short reign represented a return to religious stability and marked the end of the extreme persecutions of his father[711].  Theophanes records that "Leo filius Constantini" died in Sep after reigning for five years less six days[712].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Leo Chazarus, filius Constantini Caballini" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[713]

[714]Betrothed (765, contract broken 766) to GISELA of the Franks, daughter of PEPIN "le Bref" King of the Franks & his wife Bertrade [Berta] "au Grand Pied" (757-Chelles 30 Jul 810). 

m (betrothed 3 Nov 769, Oratory of St Stefanos, Daphne 17 Dec 769) EIRENE, niece of KONSTANTINOS Sarantapechos [strategos of the theme of Hellas][715], daughter of --- ([750/55]-Lesbos 9 Aug 803, bur Church of Hagia Theotokos, Prinkipo island, transferred to Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes records that "imperatoris Leonis" married "Irene Athenis" 3 Sep and that she was crowned augusta 17 Dec, dated to [769][716].  Originating from iconophile Athens, she venerated images herself.  On her husband's death in 780, she became regent for her son, and was recognised as co-empress.  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that "Heirene…cum filio suo Constantino" accepted "imperium…VI Id Sep" after the death of Emperor Leon IV[717].  Tribute was exacted from the Slavs of northern Greece in 783, where the theme of Macedonia (consisting mainly of Western Thrace rather than present-day Macedonia, the strategos resided at Adrianople ) was formed in May 784 as part of the policy of resettling ex-Slav territory.  From 784, Eirene openly started manoeuvring to re-establish the cult of images.  She suffered a setback 31 Jul 786 when the still largely iconoclast army forced the closure of an ecclesiastical council being held at Constantinople to discuss the issue.  On the pretext of a campaign against the Arabs, she moved the iconoclast troops to Asia Minor and in May 787 summoned another ecumenical council in Nikaia which declared the return of images.  A compromise which pardoned ex-iconoclasts who abjured their heresy was passed, despite opposition from zealot Monachists.  Preoccupied with internal problems, the empire suffered severe military defeat at the hands of the Arabs who were able to force financial tribute as the price of peace.  Jealous for power, Eirene attempted to impose herself as primary empress in 790, thereby demoting her son to co-emperor, with support from troops of European origin.  Her move back-fired, as with support from troops from the theme of Armeniakon her son was acclaimed sole emperor in Oct 790, and Eirene was obliged to leave the imperial palace[718].  Ever manipulating, she effected a return as co-empress in Jan 792.  Taking advantage of her son's absence from Constantinople, after he fled to the theme of Anatolikon in May 797 in an attempt to escape his mother's machinations, she declared herself EIRENE sole Empress.  In at least one of her Novels, she used the title βασιλεΰς not βαςίλισσα[719].  She ordered the capture of her son, who was confined in the Porphyra and blinded.  In an attempt to curry favour, she dissipated the finances of the State with concessions granted to inhabitants of Constantinople and to the monasteries.  She brutally suppressed another plot in 799 in favour of her husband's half-brothers.  Ambassadors from Pope Leon III brought her a marriage proposal from Emperor Charlemagne but, while they were still in the city awaiting a final answer, Nikeforos assumed power 31 Oct 802[720].  Empress Eirene was exiled to Prinkipo Island, and in Nov 802 to Lesbos where she died the following year.  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Irene, uxor Leonis Chazari" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[721].  She was later canonised for her efforts in restoring icons. 

Emperor Leon IV & his wife had one child:

1.         KONSTANTINOS (14 Jan 771-Prinkipo Island [15 Aug 797/before 806][722], bur Constantinople, Monastery of St Euphrosyne).  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that "Heirene…cum filio suo Constantino" accepted "imperium…VI Id Sep" after the death of Emperor Leon IV[723].  He was crowned co-emperor by his father 14 Apr 776.  He succeeded his father in 780 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS VI, under the regency of his mother.  Even after attaining the age of majority, he was unable to shake his mother's hold on power.  However, her conspiracy to have herself declared sole empress failed, and with support from troops from the theme of Armeniakon Konstantinos was acclaimed sole emperor in Oct 790.  He conducted a disastrous military campaign against the Bulgars, suffering a humiliating defeat at Markellai in Jul 792 where his principal generals were captured and he was forced to flee.  Konstantinos permitted his mother to return as co-empress 15 Jan 792, which triggered another rebellion in favour of his uncle Nikeforos which he brutally repressed.  Emperor Konstantinos suffered further loss of support, especially from orthodox monastic zealots, by his repudiation of his first wife and extravagant celebration of his adulterous second marriage.  In an attempt to escape his mother's continual plotting, he took refuge in the theme of Anatolikon in May 797.  However, during his absence, his mother declared herself sole empress, ordered the capture of Konstantinos, who after being brought back to Constantinople was confined in the Porphyra palace and blinded.  He may have died in exile on the island of Prinkipo.  Leo Grammaticus records that, shortly after his accession, Emperor Nikeforos befriended Constantine in an attempt to discover the whereabouts of a treasure hidden in the palace[724].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Constantinus, a matre Irene excœcatus, et uxor eius Maria…et duæ filiæ" were buried in "monasterio Cyræ seu Dominæ Euphrosynæ dicto"[725]Betrothed (781, contract broken 788[726]) to HROTHRUDIS [Rotrud] of the Franks, daughter of CHARLES I King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegardis ([775]-6 Jun 810).  Theophanes records that Empress Eirene sent ambassadors to "Carolum Francorum rege" to negotiate the betrothal of "filiæ eius Erythrus" and "filio suo Constantino", dated to 781[727].  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that Empress Eirene sent "Costahim sacellarium et Mamalum primicerium" to "Carolum regem Francorum" to arrange the betrothal of "filiam suam…[et] imperatori Constantino filio suo", in the second year of their joint reign[728].  The betrothal of "Hruodrudem…quæ filiarum eius primogenita" with "Constantino, Græcorum imperatore" is recorded by Einhard[729].  The Annales Fuldenses record the betrothal of "Hruodtrudis filia regis" and  "Constantino imperator" in 787[730].  She was given the name ERYTHRO in Greek.  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that the betrothal was terminated in the ninth year of Empress Eirene's reign[731]m firstly (Nov 788, repudiated Jan 795) MARIA, daughter of --- & his wife Hypatia (Amnia, Paphlagonia [770/75]-after 823, bur Constantinople, Monastery of St Euphrosyne).  Theophanes records that Empress Eirene terminated the treaty with France and arranged the marriage of "Constantino imperatori filio suo" and "puellam ex Armeniacis…Maria Amnia oriundum"[732]Zonaras records that Konstantinos married "ex Oriente puellam…ex Armeniaca provincial…Philareti…filiam"[733].  The Vita Philareti by Niketas of Amnia provides more details of Maria´s ancestry, naming Hypatia as eldest daughter of Philaretos, states that she was a widow when the family moved to Constantinople (dated to 788), and was the mother of Maria, Myranthia, Euanthia and Petronas[734].  Theophanes records that her husband took a dislike to her, probably because of the machinations of his mother, and that she was forced to become a nun[735].  She was forced to become a nun by her husband and retired to the monastery on the island of Prinkipo, founded by her mother-in-law, with her two daughters.  Theodore the Studite addressed a letter to "Maria basilissa"[736].  She protested at the marriage of her daughter to Emperor Mikhael II in 823[737].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Constantinus, a matre Irene excœcatus, et uxor eius Maria…et duæ filiæ" were buried in "monasterio Cyræ seu Dominæ Euphrosynæ dicto"[738]m secondly (Constantinople, Palace of St Mamas Sep 795) THEODOTE, sister of SERGIOS hypatos, daughter of --- & his wife Anna --- (780-after 797).  A koubikoularia [lady-in-waiting] to Emperor Konstantinos VI's mother Empress Eirene, she became the mistress of Emperor Konstantinos.  Theophanes records that Konstantinos crowned "Theodoten cubiculariam" as augusta in Aug and married her in Sep "indictione quarta"[739].  She was a cousin of Theodoros the Stoudite to whom her husband persuaded her to send gold to try to end his opposition to their marriage[740].  She fled Constantinople mid-797 to escape her mother-in-law's plotting, retiring to a monastery where she bore a posthumous son[741].  The validity of this marriage was recognised retrospectively by the Church in Jan 809, a decision which was reversed under Emperor Mikhael Rangabé[742].  Emperor Konstantinos VI & his first wife had two children:

a)         EIRENE (-after Jul 796, bur Constantinople, Monastery of St Euphrosyne).  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Constantinus, a matre Irene excœcatus, et uxor eius Maria…et duæ filiæ, nempe Euphrosyna, uxor Michaelis, et eius soror Irene" were buried in "monasterio Cyræ seu Dominæ Euphrosynæ dicto"[743].  Theodore the Studite addressed a letter to "Irenæ et Euphrosynæ monialibus", although the text does indicate their parentage[744].  He also addresses several letters to "Euphrosynæ præpositæ", which suggests that Eirene was no longer alive and had died early during the time when they were both nuns. 

b)         EUFROSYNE (790-after 836, bur Constantinople, Monastery of St Euphrosyne).  Genesius records that "Michael imperator" married "Euphrosynam Constantini filiam"[745].  Niketas Choniates names the two wives of Emperor Mikhael II as "Thecla et Euphrosyne"[746]Theophanes Continuatus records that, from childhood, she lived as a nun in a convent on the island of Prinkipo[747].  Theodore the Studite addressed a letter to "Irenæ et Euphrosynæ monialibus", although the text does indicate their parentage[748].  Her marriage was controversial because she was a nun.  Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Theofilos obliged "Eurphrosynam novercam" to return to the monastery she had left to marry his father[749].  She gave food, drink and clothing to Mikhael Synkellos when he was imprisoned in the Praitorion by Emperor Theofilos in 836[750].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Constantinus, a matre Irene excœcatus, et uxor eius Maria…et duæ filiæ, nempe Euphrosyna, uxor Michaelis, et eius soror Irene" were buried in "monasterio Cyræ seu Dominæ Euphrosynæ dicto"[751]m (823) as his second wife, Emperor MIKHAEL II "the Amorian", son of --- (Amorion, Phrygia [775]-2 Oct 829, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles). 

Emperor Konstantinos VI and his second wife had two children:

c)         LEON (Brusa 7 Oct 796-1 May 797).  Theophanes records the birth in Oct "quintæ indictionis" of "imperator…filium…Leonem…ex coniugem" and his death 1 May in the following year[752]

d)         son (posthumously [797/98]-after 802).  He is referred to in a letter of Theodoros the Stoudite dated 808[753]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    EMPERORS 802-813 (DYNASTIES of NIKEFOROS and RANGABE)

 

 

 

A.      FAMILY of NIKEFOROS 802-812

 

 

[Two] brothers, parents not known: 

1.         STAVRAKIOS (-3 Jun 800).  Patrikios.  Theophanes records that Empress Eirene sent "Stauracium patricium et celeris cursus logothetam" in command of an army against "Sclavinorum nationes" and that he returned victorious in Jan "indictione septima", stating in an earlier passage that he was a eunuch[754].  Theophanes records that in Sep "ineiunte indictione 10" the empress sent "Stauracio patricio et publici cursus logotheta" to Thrace to gather support for her[755].  Theophanes records the rebellion in Feb "indictione octava" of "Stauracius scholariorum et excubitorum unique ductorum"[756]

2.         [NIKEFOROS ([740/50]-killed in battle near Pliska 26 Jul 811).  He was a native of Cappadocia[757], described as a swineherd by his opponents[758].  He was said to be descended from Gabbala, a Christian Arab king who fled with his companions from Caliph Omar to settle in Cappadocia and retain his faith[759].  His birth date is estimated from the supposed birth date of his daughter Prokopia.  The fact that he named his son Stavrakios suggests that he was the brother of Stavrakios patrikios, but no confirmation has been found that this is correct in any of the primary sources so far consulted.  In particular, no information has been found linking Stavrakios to Cappadocia.  He rebelled against Empress Eirene 31 Oct 802, assuming power after surrounding the palace in Constantinople.  He was crowned as Emperor NIKEFOROS I 31 Oct 802 in Hagia Sofia[760].  He re-established the financial stability of the empire, reversing the policy of donations and fiscal concessions pursued by his predecessor Empress Eirene.  He pursued the resettlement of the theme of Macedonia with immigrants from Asia Minor as a means of suppressing the native Slav population.  Following successful conquests of territory, new themes were created in Peloponnesus in [802] and Kefalonia in [809].  Arab incursions into imperial territory followed the suspension by Emperor Nikeforos in 803 of the payment of annual tribute to the Caliphate, but the emperor was forced to make peace with Harun al-Rashid in 806 and restore the payments[761].  Emperor Nikeforos was an iconophile, emphasising this by the marriage of his son to a relative of his predecessor Empress Eirene, but his installation of the historian Nikeforos as Patriarch of Constantinople in 806 caused opposition among the zealots.  The retrospective recognition of the validity of the second marriage of Emperor Konstantinos VI in Jan 809 caused an open break with the monks of the Studion[762].  After the Bulgar sack of Sardika [Sofija] in 809, Emperor Nikeforos captured the Bulgar capital Pliska in 811.  The Annales Fuldenses record that Emperor Charlemagne sent "Haitonem Basilensem episcopus et Hug comitem Turonicum et Aio Langobardum de Aquileia" as missi to Constantinople in 811 to confirm the peace "cum Niceforo"[763].  After marching south-west, the emperor's forces were ambushed 26 Jul 811 by Bulgar troops led by Krum Khan of the Bulgars, and the emperor was killed[764].  Krum displayed the emperor's head on a pole for several days and then had it made into a drinking cup[765].]  m ---.  The name of Emperor Nikeforos I's wife is unknown.  Emperor Nikeforos I & his wife had two children:

a)         STAVRAKIOS (-11 Jan 812, bur Monastery of the Holy Trinity, or Monastery of Ta Hebraïka, Constantinople).  Theophanes records the coronation in Dec "indictione duodecima" of "Nicephorus filium suum Stauracii"[766].  Theophanes records that "filius Nicephori Stauracius" was seriously wounded in the battle in which his father was killed[767].  He escaped to Adrianople and was proclaimed in 811 as Emperor STAVRAKIOS, and taken on a litter to Constantinople.  As he was dying from his wounds, he abdicated after his brother-in-law was proclaimed emperor 2 Oct 811.  He became a monk and died soon after.  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Stauracius Imp. et Theophano, uxor eius" were buried in "monasterio S. Trinitatis, Stauracii cognominato"[768]m (20 Dec 807) THEOFANO, daughter of --- Sarantapechos [from Athens] & his wife --- (-after 812, bur Monastery of the Holy Trinity).  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that "XIII Kal Ian" the emperor married "Stauracium filium suum" to "Theophanam Atheniensem, agnatam B. Heirenæ" after "multam electionem virginum", although she was betrothed to and living with another man at the time[769].  Her precise relationship with Empress Eirene is not known.  She opposed the accession of her brother-in-law Mikhael Rangabé as emperor in 811, hoping to seize power herself[770].  She became a nun and founded the monastery of Ta Hebraïka where her husband was buried[771].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Stauracius Imp. et Theophano, uxor eius" were buried in "monasterio S. Trinitatis, Stauracii cognominato"[772]

b)         PROKOPIA ([770/75] -after 813).  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records "Procopiam sororem suam", referring to Stavrakios, and "Michaelem sororis suæ maritum"[773].  Her birth date range is estimated based on the birth of her eldest son in [792/93].  According to the Chronicle of 813, she was suspected of poisoning her brother to enable her husband to become emperor[774], but this is unlikely to be correct as her husband seized power while her brother was still alive.  She was crowned Augusta in the triklinos of the Augustaion 12 Oct 811[775].  She is said to have been the dominant person in deciding affairs of state[776].  She accompanied her husband on campaign against the Bulgars but her presence aroused discontent among the troops.  She opposed her husband's wish to abdicate after his defeat.  Theophanes Continuatus records that, after Leon V was proclaimed emperor, Prokopia fled with her husband and children to the church of the Theorokos, known as Pharos, separated from her husband and was confined to a monastery[777]m (before 793) MIKHAEL, son of THEOFILAKTOS droungarios (commander of a droungos [body of infantry]) in the Dodekanes & his wife --- ([770]-Prote 11 Jan 844, bur Island of Prote, transferred to Monastery of Satyros).  He was appointed kouropalates by his father-in-law.  He succeeded as Emperor MIKHAEL I in 811[778].  

 

 

 

B.      FAMILY of RANGABE 811-813

 

 

1.         RANGABEm ---.  The name of Rangabe´s wife is not known.  Rangabe & his wife had one child: 

a)         THEOFILAKTOS (-after [780]).  Theophanes names "Bardas nuper Armeniacorum dux, Constantinus vicarii spatharius et excubitorum domesticus, Theophylactus Rangabe filius et Duodecim insularum drungarius" as conspirators against Emperor Leon IV in favour of his half-brother Nikeforos (in 780) and records their exile[779]Droungarios (commander of a droungos [body of infantry]) in the Dodekanes.  m ---.  The name of Theofilaktos´s wife is not known.  Theofilaktos & his wife had one child: 

i)          MIKHAEL ([770]-Prote 11 Jan 844, bur Island of Prote, transferred to Monastery of Satyros).  The Vita Ignatii names Mikhael as son of Theofilaktos[780].  He was appointed kouropalates by his father-in-law.  He succeeded as Emperor MIKHAEL I in 811[781]

-         see below

 

 

MIKHAEL, son of THEOFILAKTOS & his wife --- ([770]-Prote 11 Jan 844, bur Island of Prote, transferred to Monastery of Satyros).  The Vita Ignatii names Mikhael as son of Theofilaktos[782].  He was appointed kouropalates by his father-in-law.  The army and senate, worried by the instability threatened by the expected death of Emperor Stavrakios, proclaimed him 2 Oct 811 as Emperor MIKHAEL I, crowned later the same day at Hagia Sofia by patriarch Nikeforos after signing a document concerning the faith and promising not to persecute Christians or use violence against clergy or monks[783]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Michael…Curopalata…gener Nicephori, Rangabæ ortus prosapia" was crowned emperor in Oct[784].  A weak emperor, his short reign was characterised by distributions of money to the army, at court and to the clergy.  He was an iconophile, recalled the monks of Studion from exile, and reversed the decision of 809 recognising the marriage of Emperor Konstantinos VI[785].  Byzantine ambassadors finally recognised Charlemagne's title as "Emperor" at Aix-la-Chapelle 812, from which time it appears that the Byzantine emperors more frequently used the title Βασιλεύς Ρωμαίων ["Roman Emperor"], presumably to distinguish themselves from the emperor in the west[786].  Rejecting an offer of peace from Krum Khan of the Bulgars, his forces suffered a crushing defeat 22 Jun 813 at Versinikia against the Bulgars[787], which led to Emperor Mikhael's deposition 11 Jul 813 by Leon "the Armenian", strategos of the Anatolikon theme, who succeeded as Emperor Leon V.  Theophanes Continuatus records that he yielded the throne without a struggle to avoid bloodshed, fled with his wife and children to the church of Theotokos, and was exiled to a monastery on the island of Prote where he became a monk as ATHANASIOS, died 11 Jan "mundi anno 6032" and was buried in the church (on the island)[788]

m (before 793) PROKOPIA, daughter of NIKEFOROS [later Emperor NIKEFOROS I] & his wife --- ([770/75]-after 813).  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records "Procopiam sororem suam", referring to Stavrakios, and "Michaelem sororis suæ maritum"[789].  Her birth date range is estimated based on the birth of her eldest son in [792/93].  According to the Chronicle of 813, she was suspected of poisoning her brother to enable her husband to become emperor[790], but this is unlikely to be correct as her husband seized power while her brother was still alive.  She was crowned Augusta in the triklinos of the Augustaion 12 Oct 811[791].  She is said to have been the dominant person in deciding affairs of state[792].  She accompanied her husband on campaign against the Bulgars but her presence aroused discontent among the troops.  She opposed her husband's wish to abdicate after his defeat.  Theophanes Continuatus records that, after Leon V was proclaimed emperor, Prokopia fled with her husband and children to the church of the Theorokos, known as Pharos, separated from her husband and was confined to a monastery[793]

Emperor Mikhael I & his wife had five children: 

1.         THEOFILAKTOS ([792/93]-15 Jan 849, bur Island of Prote).  The Vita Ignatii names (in order) Theofilaktos, Stavrakios, Niketas as three of the five children of Emperor Mikhael[794].  He was crowned emperor by patriarch Nikeforos 25 Dec 811 at Hagia Sofia.  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that his father approached Emperor Charles I (Charlemagne) about a marriage for "Theophylactum filium suum"[795]Theophanes Continuatus records that "cum eo" (indicating ex-Emperor Mikhael I) "Eustratius eius filius" was tonsured (indicating from this passage that Theofilaktos adopted the name EUSTRATIOS) with his parents and castrated on the orders of Emperor Leon V, stating that he was about twenty years old, died 15 Jan "anni 6037" five years after his father, and was buried in the church (on the island of Prote)[796].  It is assumed that this passage relates to Theofilaktos, although the text does not make the connection expressly. 

2.         STAVRAKIOS (793-[811/13]).  The Vita Ignatii names (in order) Theofilaktos, Stavrakios, Niketas as three of the five children of Emperor Mikhael, adding that Stavrakios died young while his father was still emperor[797]

3.         NIKETAS (Constantinople[797/98]-23 Oct 877, bur Church of the Archangel Michael).  The Vita Ignatii names (in order) Theofilaktos, Stavrakios, Niketas as three of the five children of Emperor Mikhael[798]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Nicetas quoque" (in the sentence directly following the one which describes the fate of Eustratios, son of ex-Emperor Mikhael I, so implying that Niketas was a younger son of the ex-emperor),  who had as an adolescent administered "Icanatorum præfecturam", was tonsured, adopting the name IGNATIOS, was castrated on the orders of Emperor Leon V, was later installed as Patriarch of Constantinople, and many years later was buried "in monasterio quod Satyri vocant"[799].  He was installed as Patriarch of Constantinople in 847 by Empress Theodora.  He was deposed 23 Oct 858 by Bardas, chief adviser of Emperor Mikhael III whom he had excommunicated, because of his immoral way of life and exiled to the island of Terebinthos where he was tortured.  He was taken to the Noumera prison, and in Aug 859 exiled to the island of Mitylene, returning to Terebinthos in Feb 860.  He was recalled as patriarch 26 Sep 867 by Emperor Basileios I.  The Life of Ignatios was written in the 10th century by Niketas David, Bishop of Dadybra in Paphlagonia, known as Niketas Paphlagon. 

4.         GEORGIO .  The Vita Ignatii names (in order) Georgio and Theofano as the two daughters of Emperor Mikhael, adding that they became nuns[800].  Either she or her sister assisted victims of the persecution of iconophiles during the reign of Emperor Theofilos (829-842)[801]

5.         THEOFANO .  The Vita Ignatii names (in order) Georgio and Theofano as the two daughters of Emperor Mikhael, adding that they became nuns[802]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    EMPEROR 813-820 (ARMENIAN DYNASTY)

 

 

The family origins of Emperor Leon V have been the subject of debate, both regarding his remote ancestry and his more immediate parentage.  The distant ancestry of the family of Emperor Leon V is hinted at by Georgius Monachus who records that Leon was "ex Armenia…oriundus…ex Assyriorum gentis…natus…ex Sennacherib…sobole…qui cum imperio olim Assyriis præfuit"[803].  This passage appears to have provided the basis on which Theophanes Continuatus states that it is said that Leon was from Armenia "genus partim ex Assyris partim ex ipsis Armeniis propagatum fuit"[804].  These alleged Assyrian antecedents of Emperor Leon V were discussed in detail by Adontz[805].  He quotes biblical, other pre-Christian era sources, and Armenian legends in an attempt to assess the likelihood that Leon descended from Sennecherim, whose reign as Assyrian king is dated to the end of the 7th century B.C.  Adontz also discusses Emperor Leon´s more recent Armenian ancestry, but manages to conclude that "l´empereur Léon V descendait de la famille princière arménienne des Arzrounides.  Cela est certain" without speculating on a precise line of royal descent[806].  It is true that, if it is decided that Leon descended from Armenian royal stock, the tradition of Assyrian ancestry follows as a matter of course.  This would be consistent with Armenian belief that their early medieval royal dynasties descended from Assyrian exiles.  It is also true that the names of Leon´s known immediate family members are typically Armenian.  However, Adontz does not appear to consider the possibility that either the emperor or his father may have risen through the ranks from relatively obscure, at least non-royal, origins.  Genesius records Emperor Leon´s father as having held the Byzantine title patrikios[807].  This confirms his elevated position in the Byzantine administrative hierarchy.  However, the title could have been granted as a reward for successful military service (under Emperor Konstantinos VI, who also had strong Armenian family connections, see above), rather than in recognition of a royal family background.  If Emperor Leon V had been closely related to the Armenian kings, it is likely that the contemporary sources which have provided details.  As it is, they only hint at an illustrious ancestry with the oblique references which are quoted above.  An alternative perspective is provided by Jenkins, who suggests[808] that "Assyrians" in fact meant "Syrians" and that this alleged ancestry was suggested by Emperor Leon's religious opponents, the iconophiles as a means of denigrating the emperor.  Whatever the truth of the situation, the data now available in surviving primary sources is insufficient to be conclusive about any of these hypotheses.  However, it seems clear that Emperor Leon´s ancestry is far less "certain" than Adontz suggests. 

 

1.         BARDAS .  Theophanes names "Bardas nuper Armeniacorum dux, Constantinus vicarii spatharius et excubitorum domesticus, Theophylactus Rangabe filius et Duodecim insularum drungarius" as conspirators against Emperor Leon IV in favour of his half-brother Nikeforos (in 780) and records their exile[809]same person as…?  BARDAS (-killed in battle Markellai 20 Jul 792).  Patrikios.  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that "Michael magistratus, Lachanodraco et Bardas patricius ac Stephanus protospatharius…" among those killed in battle "XII Kal Aug", in the second year of the reign of Emperor Konstantinos VI (792), at "castrum Marcellorum" in Thrace against the Bulgars[810]same person as…?  BARDASPatrikios.  Genesius names "Leo…imperator, Bardæ quidam patricii filius, sed genus ducens ex Armenia"[811].  It is not certain that these three references are to the same person but it looks likely.  In particular, it appears probable that only one individual of the name Bardas would have held the dignity of patrikios at any one time.  m --- (-after 820).  The name of Bardas´s wife is not known.  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Leonem…eius mater oblata" supposedly had a vision in which the Patriarch threatened her son if he continued attacking icons and pleaded with him to change his policy[812]Theophanus Continuatus records that, after her son was murdered, Leon´s mother was sent to the monastery of the Despotai with Leon´s widow[813].  Bardas & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         [KONSTANTINOS .  Theophanes names "…Constantinus spatharius et imperatoris protostrator, Bardanis patricii filius…" among the leading nobles involved in a rebellion against Emperor Konstantinos V (in 766), and may have been one of those recorded as having been blinded and sent into exile[814].  Theophanes names "Bardas nuper Armeniacorum dux, Constantinus vicarii spatharius et excubitorum domesticus, Theophylactus Rangabe filius et Duodecim insularum drungarius" as conspirators against Emperor Leon IV in favour of his half-brother Nikeforos (in 780) and records their exile[815].  It is not known whether "patricii Bardanis" (Bardanes), father of Konstantinos, was the same person as patrikios Bardas, the father of Emperor Leon V.  The answer depends on the possible interchangeability of the names Bardas and Bardanes (it appears from the two quotes from Theophanes that they are different grammatical forms of the same proper noun), although the unlikelihood of two different persons with such similar names each bearing the same title at the same time suggests that they might inidicate the same person.]   

b)         LEON "the Armenian" (-murdered Constantinople 24 Dec 820).  Genesius names "Leo…imperator, Bardæ quidam patricii filius, sed genus ducens ex Armenia"[816].  He succeeded in 813 as Emperor LEON V. 

-        see below.   

 

 

The precise relationship between the following person and Emperor Leon V is not known: 

1.         GREGORIOS "Pterotos", son of --- (-executed [822/23]).  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Gregorius Pterotus…Leonis imperatoris consobrinus", exiled on the island of Skyros after the emperor's death, joined the rebellion of Thomas the Slav who appointed him commander of a force of 10,000 at the siege of Constantinople[817].  The same source records that, judging Thomas incompetent, Gregorios began negotiations with Emperor Mikhael II and led part of the army to attack Thomas, although the latter defeated, captured and executed Gregorios[818]m ---.  Theophanes Continuatus records that Gregorios's wife and children were held in custody by Emperor Mikhael II after he joined the rebellion of Thomas the Slav[819].  Gregorios & his wife had --- children: 

a)         children .  Theophanes Continuatus records that Gregorios's wife and children were held in custody by Emperor Mikhael II after he joined the rebellion of Thomas the Slav[820]

 

 

The following individual was also a possible relative of Emperor Leon V but the precise relationship is not known: 

1.         BARDANES [Vardan] "the Turk/Turkos" (-after 813).  Bryennios is described as the son of "Tourkos" and cousin of Emperor Leon V in the Vita Ioannicii[821], but it is not known whether this means that Bardanes Turkos was the brother of Bardas or whether "cousin" indicates a more remote relationship than first cousin.  Of Armenian origin.  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records that Emperor Konstantinos VI sent "Bardanio patricio et scholarum domestico" in 796 to bring the hegoumenos of Sakkoudion to Constantinople[822]Strategos of the theme of Anatolikon.  Genesius records that "Bardanio patricio, cui Turcus cognomen" was "orientis themati præfectus"[823]Theophanes Continuatus records that "ducem Bardanium cognomento Turcum" governed "quinque Orientalium thematum", but rebelled (in Jul 803)[824].  He marched into Bithynia, en route for Nikomedeia, but was met by a large force sent by Emperor Nikeforos.  He withdrew to Malagina and asked for forgiveness.  Genesius records that "Bardanio patricio, cui Turcus cognomen" was allowed to withdraw to his property on the island of Prote[825]Theophanes Continuatus records that he then went to Kios in Bythinia where he was tonsured, before returning to Prote where he assumed the name SABBAS and lived the life of an ascetic, but in [803/04] was blinded by agents sent by the emperor[826]m DOMENIKA, daughter of ---.  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Dominicam coniugem cum filia liberisque" were confined to a monastery after her husband was exiled[827].  Bardanes & his wife had [three or more] children: 

a)         daughter .  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Dominicam coniugem cum filia liberisque" were confined to a monastery after her father was exiled[828].  The curious expression "…cum filia liberisque" suggests that Bardanes's daughter had some different status from his older children.  This may have been because she was the oldest child, and the only one who was no longer an infant.  In addition, it is possible that she was born from an earlier marriage, maybe considerably older than her half-siblings. 

b)         sons .  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Dominicam coniugem cum filia liberisque" were confined to a monastery after their father was exiled[829].  It is not known how many "liberisque" there may have been. 

c)         [BRYENNIOS.  The Vita Ioannicii names him as son of "Tourkos", and cousin of Emperor Leon V[830].  There is some doubt that Bryennios was the son of Bardanes as the latter and all his children were enclosed in a monastery when he fell from grace.]

 

 

LEON "the Armenian", son of BARDAS & his wife --- (-murdered Constantinople 24 Dec 820).  Genesius records Leon´s immediate ancestry, naming "Leo…imperator, Bardæ quidam patricii filius, sed genus ducens ex Armenia"[831].  Genesius records that Leon grew up at Pidra in the theme of Anatolikon[832]Theophanes Continuatus records that Leon served under "ducem Bardanium cognomento Turcum", who governed "quinque Orientalium thematum", but deserted to Emperor Nikeforos after Bardanes rebelled (in Jul 803) and was appointed commander of the foederati, defeating the Arabs in many encounters[833].  According to Symeon Magister, Leo was "homo statura pusillus" and therefore called "Chamæleon"[834].  The Anastasii Historia Ecclesiastica ex Theophane records "Leonem patricium et prætorem Orientalium", at the end of his work, in the first year of the reign of Emperor Mikhael I[835].  He helped contribute to Emperor Mikhael I's defeat at the hands of the Bulgars at Versinikia by withdrawing his troops instead of following the emperor[836].  He was appointed patrikios and strategos of the theme of Anatolikon by Emperor Mikhael I[837], who proposed Leon as emperor before accepting the throne himself[838] although, according to Theophanes, Leon remained in exile until after Mikhael became emperor.  He was pressed by his troops to depose Emperor Mikhael after the latter's defeat by the Bulgarians, at first refused but agreed when the Bulgars approached Constantinople and was proclaimed Emperor LEON V, entered Constantinople 11 Jul 813 and was crowned 12 Jul 813 at Hagia Sofia[839].  He was faced with continuing threats from the powerful Bulgarian army, which sacked Adrianople and advanced as far as Constantinople.  Emperor Leon finally negotiated a thirty year peace with the Bulgarian leader Omurtag[840].  He profited from this new found peace to resurrect the iconoclast movement.  He appointed Theodotos Melissenos as Patriarch of Constantinople 1 Apr 815, and a synod led by the latter reversed the declarations of Nikaia and reverted to the decisions of the iconoclast council of 754, ordering the destruction of the icons once more[841].  He was murdered in front of the altar of Santa Sofia by supporters of Mikhael of Amorium, who succeeded as Emperor Mikhael II.  Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Leon died in Dec after reigning seven years and five months[842].  His corpse was removed in cheap rags to the island of Prote[843]

m (before Jul 813) THEODOSIA, daughter of ARSABER patrikios & his wife --- (-after [824]).  Theophanes Continuatus names "Theodosia…Arsaberis filia" as the wife of Emperor Leon V[844].  Genesius names "Augusta Theodosia…Arsaberis filia, patricii…et quæstoris"[845].  It is probable that her marriage took place before her husband's accession, assuming that her son Symbatios was not a new-born baby when crowned co-emperor in Apr 814.  If Symbatios had been new-born at the time, it is likely that he would have been baptised Konstantinos immediately and referred to in the sources as porphyrogennetos.  As it is, "Symbatios" (=Smbat) is one of the typically Armenian names which Leon would have used for his children before his accession.  Genesius records that "uxor eius Procopia" (referring to the wife of Emperor Mikhael I) referred to the wife of Emperor Leon as "Barcam" (boat) after her husband's accession[846], presumably as a term of derision.  Genesius records that "coniuge et quatuor filiis…" were sent "in Proten insulam"[847]Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Mikhael II sent "Leonis…uxorem…cum quattuor liberis…" to the island of Prote in exile[848].  She and her son Basileios were joint addressees of a letter from Theodoros the Stoudite written to her in [821/24] after her exile in which her father is named[849].  Zonaras records that, during her exile, she and her sons were allowed to live on the revenues from some of their estates and to have attendants[850]

Emperor Leon V & his wife had four children: 

1.         SYMBATIOS (before Apr 814-847 or after).  Zonaras names "Sabbatium…Basilium, Gregorium et Theodosium" as the four sons of Emperor Leon, adding that "Sabbatios" was renamed "Constantini" when his father succeeded as emperor[851].  His father crowned him co-emperor in 16 Apr 814 when "still small", whereupon he adopted the name KONSTANTINOS.  He was present at the iconoclast council called by his father after Easter 815[852].  Genesius records that "coniuge et quatuor filiis, Sabbatio, qui in inauguratione imperatoris Constantinus fuit dictus, Basilio…Gregorio…Theodosio" were sent "in Proten insulam" and castrated[853]Theophanes Continuatus records the same event in virtually the same words[854].  He is cited in 847, but the primary source in question has not been identified. 

2.         BASILEIOS (-after 847).  Zonaras names "Sabbatium…Basilium, Gregorium et Theodosium" as the four sons of Emperor Leon[855].  Genesius records that "coniuge et quatuor filiis, Sabbatio, qui in inauguratione imperatoris Constantinus fuit dictus, Basilio…Gregorio…Theodosio" were sent "in Proten insulam" and castrated[856]Theophanes Continuatus records the same event in virtually the same words[857].  He was joint addressee of the letter sent to his mother in [821/24] by Theodoros the Stoudite[858].  Genesius records that "Basilio et Gregorio, filiis Leonis imperatoris" supported the choice of Ignatios as Patriarch of Constantinople[859], dated to 847. 

3.         GREGORIOS (-after 847).  Zonaras names "Sabbatium…Basilium, Gregorium et Theodosium" as the four sons of Emperor Leon[860].  Genesius records that "coniuge et quatuor filiis, Sabbatio, qui in inauguratione imperatoris Constantinus fuit dictus, Basilio…Gregorio…Theodosio" were sent "in Proten insulam" and castrated[861]Theophanes Continuatus records the same event in virtually the same words[862].  Genesius records that "Basilio et Gregorio, filiis Leonis imperatoris" supported the choice of Ignatios as Patriarch of Constantinople[863], dated to 847. 

4.         THEODOSIOS (-[26/31 Dec 820/early 821]).  Zonaras names "Sabbatium…Basilium, Gregorium et Theodosium" as the four sons of Emperor Leon[864].  Genesius records that "coniuge et quatuor filiis, Sabbatio, qui in inauguratione imperatoris Constantinus fuit dictus, Basilio…Gregorio…Theodosio" were sent "in Proten insulam" and castrated, recording that Theodosios died as a result[865]Theophanes Continuatus records the same event in virtually the same words[866]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    EMPERORS 820-867 (DYNASTY of AMORION)

 

 

 

A.      EMPERORS 820-867

 

 

MIKHAEL, son of --- (Amorion, Phrygia [775]-2 Oct 829, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  His parentage is unknown.  Settipani refers to Arab sources which name his father as Georgios, but points out the possible confusion with the Greek γεωργός [peasant or farmer][867].  He was brought up in Amorion in great poverty.  Theophanes Continuatus records that Bardanes appointed Mikhael, together with the future Emperor Leon V, to his personal bodyguard (in 803) but that they deserted to Emperor Nikeforos after Bardanes rebelled (in Jul 803) and that Mikhael was appointed komes of the korte, defeating the Arabs in many encounters[868]Theophanes Continuatus records that Mikhael became the close confidant of the future Emperor Leon V (in 811)[869].  Zonaras and Skylitzes records that he was appointed protostrator, and later komes of the exkoubita[870].  He was accused of plotting against the emperor, imprisoned and sentenced to death, but his life was saved by the intervention of Empress Theodosia[871].  His supporters murdered Emperor Leon V 25 Dec 820 and proclaimed him Emperor MIKHAEL II "the Stammerer", although there is some doubt whether the new emperor was implicated in the plot personally[872]Theophanes Continuatus records that Mikhael was crowned by the Patriarch in Hagia Sofia[873].  The religious persecution ceased after his accession: Mikhael II did not restore the images, but simply forbade discussion of the subject[874].  The empire was weakened during his reign by civil war triggered by a previous supporter, Thomas the Slav from Asia Minor, whose rebellion was supported by the Arabs and who was crowned emperor by the patriarch of Antioch.  Thomas laid siege to Constantinople in Dec 821, which was relieved after he was attacked by troops sent by Omurtag Khan of the Bulgars.  Thomas was finally caught and killed in spring 823[875].  Emperor Mikhael lost Crete to Arabs from Egypt.  Symeon Magister records that Emperor Mikhael died from kidney disease and inability to pass water[876].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Michael Balbus" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[877]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Michaelis Balba" ruled for nine years eight months[878]

m firstly ([803]) THEKLA, daughter of --- (-[821/823], bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes Continuatus records that the future Emperor Mikhael II entered the service of an unnamed local strategos, whose unnamed daughters he and another unnamed person married[879].  Niketas Choniates names the two wives of Emperor Mikhael II as "Thecla et Euphrosyne"[880].  Zonaras records that she died after her husband succeeded as emperor[881].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Thecla, uxor Michaelis Balbi" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[882]

m secondly (823) EUFROSYNE, daughter of Emperor KONSTANTINOS VI & his first wife Maria --- (790-after 836, bur Constantinople, Monastery of St Euphrosyne).  Symeon Magister records that "Romanorum imperator Michael Balbus" married "Euphrosynam, Constantini eius qui matris imperio cæcatus fuit filiam"[883].  Genesius records that "Michael imperator" married "Euphrosynam Constantini filiam"[884].  Niketas Choniates names the two wives of Emperor Mikhael II as "Thecla et Euphrosyne"[885]Theophanes Continuatus records that, from childhood, she lived as a nun in a convent on the island of Prinkipo[886]Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Theofilos obliged "Eurphrosynam novercam" to return to the monastery she had left to marry his father[887].  She gave food, drink and clothing to Mikhael Synkellos when he was imprisoned in the Praitorion by Emperor Theofilos in 836[888].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Constantinus, a matre Irene excœcatus, et uxor eius Maria…et duæ filiæ, nempe Euphrosyna, uxor Michaelis, et eius soror Irene" were buried in "monasterio Cyræ seu Dominæ Euphrosynæ dicto"[889]

Emperor Mikhael II & his first wife had [two] children: 

1.         THEOFILOS (before 813-20 Jan 842).  Genesius names "Michael…Theophilum filium"[890].  He succeeded his father in 829 as Emperor THEOFILOS

-        see below

2.         [HELENA .  The primary sources conflict concerning Helena's parentage.  Georgius Monachus Continuatus records that Emperor Theofilos married "Theophobum" to "uxoris sorore"[891].  On the other hand, Genesius records that Emperor Theofilos granted "adolescentem Theophobum patricia dignitate" and his sister's hand in marriage[892]Theophanes Continuatus names "Theophobus alteri nomen Manuel…ex Persarum stirpe natus" when recording that Theofilos arranged his marriage with "sibi sororem"[893].  Theofobos, husband of Helena, is called brother-in-law of Emperor Theofilos[894]m THEOFOBOS, son of --- (-executed [840/42]).  Patrikios.  Genesius records that Emperor Theofilos granted "adolescentem Theophobum patricia dignitate" and his sister's hand in marriage[895].  According to Genesius, on his deathbed Emperor Theofilos was told that Theofobos planned a rebellion against his heirs, and ordered his imprisonment in the palace of Boukoleon where he was secretly murdered (his death being so secret that he was believed among the Persians still to be alive[896]

Emperor Mikhael II & his second wife had [one possible child]:

3.         [son (-before 829).  His mother is alleged to have been determined to rear her son free from Jewish influences, but he died young[897].  According to the Chronicle of Theodoros Skutariotes, Emperor Mikhael's second marriage was childless.] 

 

 

Two persons related to the above family, the precise relationships have not yet been ascertained: 

1.         --- Martiniakos Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Theofilos compelled "Martinacem…ipsi affinitate coniunctum" to become a monk and convert his house into a monastery after a prophecy that his family would shortly rule the empire[898].  Settipani speculates[899] that he was the ancestor of Konstantinos Martiniakos, whose daughter Theofano was the first wife of Emperor Leon VI. 

 

2.         KATAKYLAS .  Genesius names "Catacylas…Michaelis imperatoris patruelis, et ipse patricius"[900]

 

 

THEOFILOS, son of Emperor MIKHAEL II & his first wife Thekla --- (before 813-20 Jan 842, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Genesius names "Michael…Theophilum filium"[901]Theophanes Continuatus records that he was the godson of the future Emperor Leon V[902], which places his birth to before 813.  According to Symeon Magister, Theofilos was "filium suum [Michaelis] ex Euphrosyna"[903], but this appears difficult to sustain from a chronological point of view.  Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Theofilos obliged "Eurphrosynam novercam" to return to the monastery she had left to marry his father[904], which indicates that Theofilos was born from his father's first marriage.  He was crowned emperor by his father in late 820[905] and succeeded his father in 829 as Emperor THEOFILOS.  He was the last emperor to support iconoclasm, persecution of iconophiles being resumed in [833], although his attitude moderated towards the end of his life[906] and his widow claimed, when addressing the Iconophile Council in 843, that he had repented on his death-bed[907].  He founded the theme of Klimata, with its capital at Cherson, regrouping the Byzantine settlements on the northern coast of the Black Sea[908].  The theme of Thessaloniki was first mentioned in [836][909], and was presumably therefore founded by Emperor Theofilos.  From 830, Caliph Mamum resumed attacks on Byzantine territory, capturing Palermo in 831.  His successor Caliph Mutasim launched a major campaign in Asia Minor in 838, taking Amorium 12 Aug 838.  Emperor Theofilos sought help from France and Venice[910]Theophanes Continuatus records that he composed hymns and stichera which he allegedly paid the clergy in Hagia Sofia to perform when he was emperor[911].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Theophilus imperator" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[912]

m ([823]) THEODORA, daughter of MARINOS drongarios in Paphlagonia & his wife Theoktiste [Florina] (815-after 23 Sep 867, bur Monastery of Ta Gastria).  Theophanes Continuatus records the marriage of Emperor Theofilos and "Theodora…Augusta…Paphlagoniam patriam…oppidum Ebissam", naming her parents "Marinum patrem…drungarius…matrem…Theoctistam cognomento Florinam"[913].  Genesius names "Theodora" as mother of Emperor Mikhael III[914]Symeon Magister records that Theofilos married "Theodora" after a bride show organised by "eius mater Euphrosyna"[915].  She was crowned in the Oratory of St Stephen[916].  She ruled jointly with her son Emperor Mikhael III from 842 to 856.  A synod proclaimed the restoration of images in March 843, but the empress followed a policy of moderation with respect to the previous supporters of iconoclasm.  Her chief adviser Theoktistos led energetic, though frequently unsuccessful, military campaigns against the Arabs.  He failed to recapture Crete in 844, but captured the fortress of Damietta in Egypt in 853[917].  The regency was brought to an end by a coup d'état in 856 when Emperor Mikhael III assumed direct power.  Theodora was exiled to the monastery of Ta Gastria in 858 after she plotted unsuccessfully to resume power[918].  She was imprisoned in the palace of Karianos and tonsured with her daughters[919]Theophanes Continuatus records that Theodora died during the reign of Emperor Basileios I who transferred her body to the monastery of Ta Gastria where her daughters were also sent to live[920].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "S. Theodora, uxor Theophili, et eius tres filiæ Thecla, Anastasia et Pulcheria" were buried in "monasterii, ta Gastria vel Gastriorum dicti, ecclesia"[921]Theophanes Continuatus names "Augustæ frater Bardas"[922]

Mistress (1): ---.  Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Theofilos made "unius ex Theodoræ puellis" his mistress[923]

Emperor Theofilos & his wife had seven children[924]:

1.         KONSTANTINOS (-shortly after 830).  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Constantinus, filius Theophili" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[925].  Further evidence for his existence is found in his father's coins[926]

2.         THEKLA (831-Blachernai after 867)Theophanes Continuatus names (in order) "Thecla et Anna Anastasiaque et Pulcheria et Maria" as the five daughters of Emperor Theofilos and his wife[927].  In a later passage, Theophanes Continuatus names "Thecla eius filiarum natu maxima"[928].  She was co-ruler with her mother for her younger brother in 845[929].  Her name is recorded on coinage during the reigns of her father and her brother[930].  She was exiled to the monastery of Ta Karianou in 856 with her sisters Thekla and Anna, and later with her sister Pulcheria to the monastery of Ta Gastria where they were all tonsured[931].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "S. Theodora, uxor Theophili, et eius tres filiæ Thecla, Anastasia et Pulcheria" were buried in "monasterii, ta Gastria vel Gastriorum dicti, ecclesia"[932].  According to Settipani[933], she, or one of her younger sisters, was betrothed ([842/43], contract broken) to Louis of the Franks "le Jeune", son of Emperor Lothaire I, who in 844 was crowned as King of Italy and in 850 as Emperor Louis II.  According to the Continuata Constantinopolitana, the negotiations did not get as far as a formal betrothal[934]Symeon Magister records that Emperor Mikhael III have "Theclam…sororem suam" to "Basilio" as his mistress at the same time as his marriage to Evdokia Ingerina, in eleventh year of the reign of Emperor Mikhael III[935]Georgius Monachus Continuatus records that "Thecla imperatoris soror" confessed that "Neatocometes" was her lover[936]Mistress (865) of BASILEIOS, son of --- & his wife Pankalo --- ([813] or [835]-29 Aug 886, bur Constantinople, church of the Holy Apostles).  He succeeded in 867 as Emperor BASILEIOS I

3.         ANNA (832-, bur Constantinople, Monastery of Euphrosyne).  Theophanes Continuatus names (in order) "Thecla et Anna Anastasiaque et Pulcheria et Maria" as the five daughters of Emperor Theofilos and his wife[937].  Her name appears on the coinage of her father[938].  She was exiled to the monastery of Ta Karianou in 856 with her sisters Thekla and Anna, and later with her sister Poulcheria to the monastery of Ta Gastria where they were all tonsured[939].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anna, filia Theophili Imperatoris" was buried in "monasterio Cyræ seu Dominæ Euphrosynæ dicto"[940].  It is unclear why she was buried in a different monastery from her supposed mother and three sisters.  It may possibly indicate that she was the daughter of Emperor Theofilos by an otherwise unknown first wife. 

4.         ANASTASIA (833-, bur Monastery of Ta Gastria).  Theophanes Continuatus names (in order) "Thecla et Anna Anastasiaque et Pulcheria et Maria" as the five daughters of Emperor Theofilos and his wife[941].  Her name appears on the coinage of her father[942].  She was exiled to the monastery of Ta Karianou in 856 with her sisters Thekla and Anna, and later with her sister Poulcheria to the monastery of Ta Gastria where they were all tonsured[943].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "S. Theodora, uxor Theophili, et eius tres filiæ Thecla, Anastasia et Pulcheria" were buried in "monasterii, ta Gastria vel Gastriorum dicti, ecclesia"[944].  

5.         POULCHERIA (836-, bur Monastery of Ta Gastria).  Theophanes Continuatus names (in order) "Thecla et Anna Anastasiaque et Pulcheria et Maria" as the five daughters of Emperor Theofilos and his wife[945].  She was exiled with her mother to the monastery of Ta Gastria with her mother, later joined there by her sisters[946].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "S. Theodora, uxor Theophili, et eius tres filiæ Thecla, Anastasia et Pulcheria" were buried in "monasterii, ta Gastria vel Gastriorum dicti, ecclesia"[947]

6.         MARIA ([837/38]-before 842, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles)Theophanes Continuatus names (in order) "Thecla et Anna Anastasiaque et Pulcheria et Maria" as the five daughters of Emperor Theofilos and his wife[948]Theophanes Continuatus records that "quinque filias…ex illis natu minimam…Mariam" married "ex Crenitarum gente, Armenius patria, Alexius cognomento Moseles", who was invested as "patricii primum ac proconsulis…tum…etiam magister, ac demum cæsar" by his father-in-law[949].  As Maria must have been a young child at the time of this recorded marriage, it is possible that the ceremony was one of betrothal only.  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Maria, filia Theophili" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[950].  [m] [Betrothed] ([836/37]) ALEXIOS Mousele, son of --- (-842 or after, bur Chrysopolis, Bythinia, Monastery of Anthemios).  The emperor installed him as stratelates and dux of Sicily but he was accused of betraying the Christian cause to the Arabs and of plotting to take the throne.  He was brought back to Constantinople, beaten and imprisoned[951]Theophanes Continuatus records that he retired to Chrysopolis and founded the monastery of Anthemios[952]Theophanes Continuatus names "eius germanus Theodosius", referring to Alexios Mousele, and that he was installed as patrikios and buried in the monastery founded by his brother[953]

7.         MIKHAEL (19 Jan 840[954]-murdered 23/24 Sep 867, bur Monastery of Chrisopolis, transferred 886 to Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Genesius names "Mikhael" as son of "Theodora" and Emperor Theofilos[955].  He was crowned emperor by his father in Hagia Sofia and succeeded his father in 842 as Emperor MIKHAEL IIITheophanes Continuatus records that "Michael eius filius" was "annos tres natus" when he succeeded his father, ruling under the regency of "Theoctistus eunuchus…caniclio præfectus ac dromi logothetes" and "Bardas…patricius ac Augustæ frater, necnon Manuel magister ex Armeniis oriundus, qui et Augustæ patruus erat"[956].  He ruled jointly with his mother until 856.  His mother separated him from his mistress Evdokia Ingerina and forced him to marry.  Emperor Mikhael brought the regency to an end in 856 and appointed as chief adviser his maternal uncle Bardas, who was awarded the title cæsar 6 Apr 858 and became the real power behind the throne.  Mikhael III ordered the murder of his mother's adviser Theoktistos[957].  The theme of Dyrrachium was first mentioned in [845/56][958], but may have been formed under Emperor Nikeforos I[959].  Bardas founded a university which attracted leading mathematicians and scientists, the reign of Mikhael III representing an expansion in the cultural life of Byzantium.   Emperor Mikhael's maternal uncle Petronas, strategos of the theme of Thrakesion, captured Amida and Tephrike in Asia Minor in 856.  The emperor further strengthened his position in Asia Minor by improving the fortification of Nikaia, and in 863 Petronas's forces defeated Omar Emir of Melitene which marked a turning point in Byzantium's wars with the Arabs[960].  Basileios the Macedonian, formerly a groom in the imperial stables, became the emperor's favourite and murdered Bardas 21 Apr 865 during a campaign against the Arabs in Crete[961].  Mikhael III adopted Basileios and gave him the title magistros.  He crowned Basileios co-emperor 26 May 866, but Basileios ordered the murder of Emperor Mikhael in the following year and succeeded as sole emperor.  Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Mikhael died 24 Sep "anni 6376" after reigning for fourteen years with his mother, alone for eleven years, and with Basileios one year and three months[962].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that the body of "Michael Imp. filius Theophili" was transferred to the church of the Holy Martyrs by Emperor Leon VI on his accession[963]m (Constantinople, Church of St Stephen 855) EVDOKIA Dekapolitissa, daughter of --- Dekapolites & his wife ---.  Symeon Magister records that Emperor Mikhael III married "Eudociam Decapolitæ filiam" in "S Stephani templo…in Daphne", after his mother forced him to separate from "Eudociæ Ingeris filiæ"[964]Mistress: EVDOKIA Ingerina, daughter of INGER [965][of the Martiniakos family] & his wife --- (-882, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Symeon Magister records that Emperor Mikhael III married "Eudociam Decapolitæ filiam" in "S Stephani templo…in Daphne", after his mother forced him to separate from "Eudociæ Ingeris filiæ"[966].  According to Settipani, Evdokia Ingerina married[967] firstly Bardas, cæsar, son of Marinos [Marianos], drongarios in Paphlagonia, & his wife Theoktista Phlorina.  However, in a later passage discussing Bardas and his family he does not mention Evdokia Ingerina as Bardas's second wife[968].  He does mention an Evdokia as the wife of Bardas's young son, after whose death she became the mistress of Bardas himself.  The theory was first propounded by Kislinger[969], but appears to be based on a confusion between two different individuals named Evdokia.  She married [secondly] (865) as his second wife, Basileios, her husband's favourite, to whom Emperor Mikhael gave her, and who later succeeded as Emperor BASILEIOS I.  Emperor Mikhael III had one possible illegitimate child by his mistress: 

a)         [KONSTANTINOS (Sep 866-).  Symeon Magister records the birth in Sep (in 866 from the context) of "Constantinus ex Michaele imperatore et Eudocia Ingerina"[970].  As explained below, it is more likely that Konstantinos was the same person as the son of the future Emperor Basileios I of the same name.  His birth is recorded after his mother's marriage to Basileios, and no other reference has been found to the birth of Basileios's son Konstantinos.  It is assumed that Basileios acknowledged him as his own son after he succeeded to the throne in 867.] 

 

 

 

B.      FAMILY of AUGUSTA THEODORA

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         MARINOSDrongarios in Paphlagonia.  Theophanes Continuatus names "Marinum patrem…drungarius…matrem…Theoctistam cognomento Florinam" as parents of "Theodora…Augusta…Paphlagoniam patriam…oppidum Ebissam" when recording their daughter's marriage[971].  Zonaras records that the empress´s father´s homeland was "Paphlagonia"[972]m THEOKTISTE [Florina], daughter of ---.  Theophanes Continuatus names "Marinum patrem…drungarius…matrem…Theoctistam cognomento Florinam" as parents of "Theodora…Augusta…Paphlagoniam patriam…oppidum Ebissam" when recording their daughter's marriage[973].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Petronæ…quondam domesticus scholarum et frater modo dictæ B. Imperatricis Theodoræ…[et] Theoctista mater S. Theodoræ Imperatricis" were buried in "monasterii, ta Gastria vel Gastriorum dicti, ecclesia"[974].  The fact that she named one of her sons Petronas suggests that Theoktiste may have been related to Maria, first wife of Emperor Konstantinos VI, whose brother was also named Petronas.  Marinos & his wife had six children: 

a)         BARDAS (-murdered Kepoi, Thrakesion 866).  Theophanes Continuatus names "Augustæ frater Bardas"[975]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Michael eius filius" succeeded his father Emperor Theofilos, ruling under the regency of "Theoctistus eunuchus…caniclio præfectus ac dromi logothetes" and "Bardas…patricius ac Augustæ frater, necnon Manuel magister ex Armeniis oriundus, qui et Augustæ patruus erat"[976]Symeon Magister records that Emperor Mikhael III invested "Bardam avunculum" as "cæsaris"[977]Symeon Magister names "Marianus eius frater [Basilii], Symbatius cæsaris gener, Bardas quoque frater Symbatii et Petrus Bulgarus et Leo Assyrius eius consobrinus, Ioannes quoque Chaldes et Constantinus Toxaras…" as those involved in the plot to murder Bardas cæsar in 866[978]m (divorced [858]) ---.  The name of Bardas's wife is not known.  Theophanes Continuatus records that Bardas divorced his wife without justification[979].  Bardas & his wife had two children: 

i)          son .  Symeon Magister records that Emperor Mikhael III found a wife for "Bardæ…alterumque eius filium" in the same passage which records the exploits of his brother Antigonos[980]m ([863] ---.  The name of his wife is not known. 

ii)         daughter Theophanes Continuatus names "Symbatius…Bardæ ex filia gener", recording that he was appointed "dromi logotheta"[981]m SYMBATIOS, son of ---.  Symeon Magister names "…Symbatius cæsaris gener, Bardas quoque frater Symbatii…" as those involved in the plot to murder Bardas cæsar in 866[982]

iii)        ANTIGONOS ([853/54]-).  Theophanes Continuatus names "Bardæ…filius…Antigonus" stating that he was around nine or ten years old (in [863]) and "prætorianorum ac scholarum dux"[983]

b)         PETRONAS (-865, bur Monastery of Ta Gastria).  Theophanes Continuatus names "Petrona fratre, Thracensium duce" referring to Bardas[984]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Michael et Barda" sent "Petrona illius fratre ipsam cum filiabus attonsam ad Cariani…palatia"[985].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Petronæ…quondam domesticus scholarum et frater modo dictæ B. Imperatricis Theodoræ…[et] Theoctista mater S. Theodoræ Imperatricis" were buried in "monasterii, ta Gastria vel Gastriorum dicti, ecclesia"[986]m ---.  The name of Petronas's wife is not known.  Petronas & his wife had one child: 

i)          MARINOSSymeon Magister names "Mariano præfecto Petronæ filio"[987]

c)         THEODORA (815-after 23 Sep 867, bur Monastery of Ta Gastria)Theophanes Continuatus records the marriage of Emperor Theofilos and "Theodora…Augusta…Paphlagoniam patriam…oppidum Ebissam", naming her parents "Marinum patrem…drungarius…matrem…Theoctistam cognomento Florinam"[988].  Genesius names "Theodora" as mother of Emperor Mikhael III[989]Symeon Magister records that Theofilos married "Theodora" after a bride show organised by "eius mater Euphrosyna"[990].  She was crowned in the Oratory of St Stephen[991].  She ruled jointly with her son Emperor Mikhael III from 842 to 856.  A synod proclaimed the restoration of images in March 843, but the empress followed a policy of moderation with respect to the previous supporters of iconoclasm.  Her chief adviser Theoktistos led energetic, though frequently unsuccessful, military campaigns against the Arabs.  He failed to recapture Crete in 844, but captured the fortress of Damietta in Egypt in 853[992].  The regency was brought to an end by a coup d'état in 856 when Emperor Mikhael III assumed direct power.  Theodora was exiled to the monastery of Ta Gastria in 858 after she plotted unsuccessfully to resume power[993].  She was imprisoned in the palace of Karianos and tonsured with her daughters[994]Theophanes Continuatus records that Theodora died during the reign of Emperor Basileios I who transferred her body to the monastery of Ta Gastria where her daughters were also sent to live[995].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "S. Theo dora, uxor Theophili, et eius tres filiæ Thecla, Anastasia et Pulcheria" were buried in "monasterii, ta Gastria vel Gastriorum dicti, ecclesia"[996]m ([823]) THEOFILOS, son of Emperor MIKHAEL II & his first wife Thekla --- (804 or [812/13]-20 Jan 842, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  He was crowned emperor by his father in late 820[997] and succeeded his father in 829 as Emperor THEOFILOS

d)         MARIA .  Cedrenus names "Sophiam, Mariam et Irenem" as the three sisters of Empress Theodora, adding that Maria married "Arsaber magister"[998]Theophanes Continuatus names "Kalomaria…et Sophia ac Irene" as the three sisters of Empress Theodora, recording that Kalomaria married "Arsaber tum patricius ac deinde magister"[999].  m ARSABER, son of ---.  PatrikiosMagister

e)         SOFIA .  Cedrenus names "Sophiam, Mariam et Irenem" as the three sisters of Empress Theodora, adding that Sofia married "Constantino Babutzico…magistri"[1000]Theophanes Continuatus names "Kalomaria…et Sophia ac Irene" as the three sisters of Empress Theodora, recording that Sofia married "Constantino Babutzico"[1001]m KONSTANTINOS Babutzikos, son of ---. 

f)          EIRENE Theophanes Continuatus names "Kalomaria…et Sophia ac Irene" as the three sisters of Empress Theodora, recording that Eirene married "Irenes matris Photii (eius qui postea patriarcha fuit) fratri" and was mother of two sons "Stephano magistro et Barda…magistro", stating that "Constantini patricii et Siciliæ prætoris (qui et Contumites)" was son-in-law of the latter[1002].  Cedrenus names "Sophiam, Mariam et Irenem" as the three sisters of Empress Theodora, adding that Eirene married "Sergii patricii, fratris Photii…patriarcha"[1003].  This latter passage appears confused.  It appears unlikely that there were two different couples named Sergios and Eirene at the same time.  It is possible that the husband of Eirene, daughter of Marinos, had another name and that the passage in Cedrenus is a corrupted version of an earlier source since lost.  m [SERGIOS], son of ---.  Two children: 

i)          STEFANOSTheophanes Continuatus Eirene was mother of two sons "Stephano magistro et Barda…magistro", stating that "Constantini patricii et Siciliæ prætoris (qui et Contumites)" was son-in-law of the latter[1004]

ii)         BARDASTheophanes Continuatus Eirene was mother of two sons "Stephano magistro et Barda…magistro", stating that "Constantini patricii et Siciliæ prætoris (qui et Contumites)" was son-in-law of the latter[1005]m ---.  The name of Bardas´s wife is not known.  Bardas & his wife had one child: 

(a)       daughter .  Theophanes Continuatus Eirene was mother of two sons "Stephano magistro et Barda…magistro", stating that "Constantini patricii et Siciliæ prætoris (qui et Contumites)" was son-in-law of the latter[1006]m KONSTANTINOS Kontumites, son of ---. 

2.         MANOUEL (-before 865).  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Michael eius filius" succeeded his father Emperor Theofilos, ruling under the regency of "Theoctistus eunuchus…caniclio præfectus ac dromi logothetes" and "Bardas…patricius ac Augustæ frater, necnon Manuel magister ex Armeniis oriundus, qui et Augustæ patruus erat"[1007]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    EMPERORS 867-1057 (MACEDONIAN DYNASTY)

 

 

The following brief outline of the family of Emperor Basileios I is mainly based on information set out in two works by Basileios I's grandson, Emperor Konstantinos VII, which were composed during the 940s[1008].  It is not known what original source material may have been available to Emperor Konstantinos at the time he was writing.  However, the author must have been tempted to glorify his own ancestry, especially if there was no way in which his assertions could be contradicted.  In this respect, the omission of the name of Emperor Basileios's own father, and any details about his father's life, is telling.  It is not impossible that, at the time Emperor Konstantinos was writing, some individuals still alive may have had personal recollections of information about the emperor´s paternal great-grandfather.  It would therefore have been unwise for Emperor Konstantinos to have embellished the story as it related to Basileios´s parents, the safer course of action being to omit precise information.  The emperor would have been on safer ground if he wished to exaggerate the status of more remote ancestors, who no-one alive at the time would have known.  But the result, which identifies the paternal grandparents of Emperor Basileios as Hmayeak/Maiktes and the daughter of "Leon", appears improbable if it is correct that Basileios was of peasant origins as asserted by Liudprand and Zonaras.  According to Liudprand, "Basilius imperator augustus…Macedonia humili fuerat prosapia oriundus" but he gives no further details[1009].  Zonaras states that "Basilius" was "ex Macedonia, parentibus obscuris ortus", but adds that chronicles written about him "contrive" his descent "ab Arsacidis"[1010]

 

 

[HMAYEAK.  Of Armenian origin, allegedly descended from the Arsacids although this appears dubious if the origins of Emperor Basileios were modest as discussed above in the introduction to the present chapter.  Known as MAIKTES in Greek, the Vita Basilii records that he left Asia Minor for Macedonia during the reign of Emperor Konstantinos VI [780/97] and married in Macedonia during that time[1011].  The primary source which confirms his Armenian name has not yet been identified.  

m ---, daughter of LEON & his wife ---.  The Vita Basilii records that "Leonem…filiarum unam" married "Maictes"[1012].  According to Cedrenus, "Maictes" married "Leonem…unamque ex eius filiabus"[1013].  Settipani refers to the theory this Leon was the same person as the future Emperor Leon V, a hypothesis originally proposed by Adontz[1014].  This would be difficult to sustain chronologically if Emperor Basileios I was born in 813.  Settipani suggests that he was actually born in [836].  He cites no source on which this is based[1015], but the hypothesis is inconsistent with the family´s capture by Krum Tsar of the Bulgarians which is recorded in the Vita Basilii (see below).  The alleged connection appears dubious if it is correct that the origins of Emperor Basileios were modest.] 

Hmayeak/Maiktes & his wife had [two possible children]: 

1.         [---.  Cedrenus records that "Basilii pater" was the son of "Maictes" and his wife "Leonem…unamque ex eius filiabus"[1016].  The name of the father of Emperor Basileios I is unknown.  The Vita Basilii records that "Basilius imperator" and his parents were captured by the Bulgars while Krum was "Bulgarorum princeps" (died in 814)[1017].  The Vita Basilii records that the father of "Basilius imperator" was a farmer but died when Basileios was approaching manhood[1018].]  m PANKALO, daughter of --- (-bur Constantinople, Monastery of St Euphemia).  Zonaras records that Basileios´s mother survived his father "ultra paupertatis incommoda" and that she went to Constantinople with her son[1019].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Pancalo, mater Basilii Imperatoris" was buried in "monasterio S. Euphemiæ dictæ Formosæ"[1020].  Three children: 

a)         BASILEIOS of Macedonia ([813] or [825]-29 Aug 886).  The Vita Basilii records that "Basilius imperator" was "ex regione Macedonum…originem…ad Armenios, Arsacidæ genere"[1021].  He succeeded as Emperor BASILEIOS I

-        see below.   

b)         SYMBATIOS [Smbat] (-bur Constantinople, monastery of St Euphemia).  Georgius Monachus Continuatus names "Bardas…Basilii rectoris pater et Symbatius Basilii frater, eiusdemque patruelis Asylaeon, nec non Constantinus Toxaras" as those who conspired with the future Emperor Basileios I to murder Emperor Mikhael III[1022].  Emperor Konstanti nos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Marianus, olim domesticus scolarum, et Symbatius, ambo fratres Basilii…Imperatoris" were buried in "monasterio S. Euphemiæ dictæ Formosæ"[1023]

c)         MARIANOS (-bur Constantinople, monastery of St Euphemia).  Symeon Magister names "Marianus eius frater [Basilii], Symbatius cæsaris gener, Bardas quoque frater Symbatii et Petrus Bulgarus et Leo Assyrius eius consobrinus, Ioannes quoque Chaldes et Constantinus Toxaras…" as those involved in the plot to murder Bardas cæsar in 867[1024].  He was appointed domestikos of the Scholai after 21 Apr 866 until before 872[1025].  He died from an infection of a wound in his foot sustained when falling from his horse[1026].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Marianus, olim domesticus scolarum, et Symbatius, ambo fratres Basilii…Imperatoris" were buried in "monasterio S. Euphemiæ dictæ Formosæ"[1027]

2.         [---.  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         LEON [Asylaion].  Georgius Monachus Continuatus names "Bardas…Basilii rectoris pater et Symbatius Basilii frater, eiusdemque patruelis Asylaeon, nec non Constantinus Toxaras" as those who conspired with the future Emperor Basileios I to murder Emperor Mikhael III[1028]

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known.  Their names suggest Armenian origin.  Theodosios of Melitene describes Marianos, Bardas (father of Basileios rector) and Symbatios as brothers of Emperor Basileios I[1029].  If this is correct, "Symbatios cæsaris gener" (see Symeon Magister, below) would be the same person as "Symbatius Basilii frater" (Georgius Monachus Continuatus, see above) and "…Symbatius…[fratris] Basilii…Imperatoris" (Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ, also see above).  However, the wording of the passage in Symeon Magister appears to exclude this possibility as it only refers to "Marianus" as the future emperor´s brother.  However, the possibility that Theodosios of Melitene was correct cannot be excluded.  The family group is therefore shown with the emperor´s family to draw attention to the possible connection. 

1.         SYMBATIOS [Smbat] (-after 867)Symeon Magister names "Marianus eius frater [Basilii], Symbatius cæsaris gener, Bardas quoque frater Symbatii et Petrus Bulgarus et Leo Assyrius eius consobrinus, Ioannes quoque Chaldes et Constantinus Toxaras…" as those involved in the plot to murder Bardas cæsar in 867[1030]m ---, daughter of BARDAS & his wife ---.  Theophanes Continuatus names "Symbatius…Bardæ ex filia gener", recording that he was appointed "dromi logotheta"[1031]

2.         BARDAS (-after 867).  Symeon Magister names "Marianus eius frater [Basilii], Symbatius cæsaris gener, Bardas quoque frater Symbatii et Petrus Bulgarus et Leo Assyrius eius consobrinus, Ioannes quoque Chaldes et Constantinus Toxaras…" as those involved in the plot to murder Bardas cæsar in 867[1032]Georgius Monachus Continuatus names "Bardas…Basilii rectoris pater et Symbatius Basilii frater, eiusdemque patruelis Asylaeon, nec non Constantinus Toxaras" as those who conspired with the future Emperor Basileios I to murder Emperor Mikhael III[1033]m ---.  The name of Bardas´s wife is not known.  Bardas & his wife had one child:

a)         BASILEIOS .  His parentage is confirmed by Georgius Monachus Continuatus who names "Bardas…Basilii rectoris…" among those who conspired with the future Emperor Basileios I to murder Emperor Mikhael III[1034].  Rector.  m ---.  The name of Basileios´s wife is not known.  Basileios & his wife had one child: 

i)          BARDAS .  His parentage is shown by Werner Seibt, citing the Chronicle of Theodore Skutariotes[1035]m ---.  The name of Bardas´s wife is not known.  Bardas & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GREGORIA .  Her parentage is shown by Werner Seibt, citing the Chronicle of Theodore Skutariotes[1036]m PANTHERIOS [Photeinos] Skleros, son of ---.  

 

 

BASILEIOS, son of --- & his wife Pankalo --- ([813] or [825]-29 Aug 886, bur Constantinople, church of the Holy Apostles).  The Vita Basilii records that "Basilius imperator" was "ex regione Macedonum…originem…ad Armenios, Arsacidæ genere", recording in a later passage that he and his parents were captured by the Bulgars while Krum was "Bulgarorum princeps" (died in 814)[1037].  Settipani suggests that Basileios was born in [836].  He cites no source on which this is based[1038], but the hypothesis is inconsistent with the family´s capture by Krum Tsar of the Bulgarians which is recorded in the Vita Basilii (see above).  Symeon Magister records that "Basilius genere Macedo" was 25 years old when he is first introduced into the narrative[1039].  It is not possible to date this text with any accuracy, but, on the assumption that Basileios arrived at the royal palace in the early 850s, he must have been born much later than before the death of Krum Tsar of Bulgaria if the passage is correct.  Basileios went to Constantinople where he was a groom in the imperial stables and became the favourite of Emperor Mikhael III.  Basileios murdered Bardas (the emperor's maternal uncle and chief adviser) 21 Apr 865 during a campaign against the Arabs in Crete.  Mikhael III created Basileios parakoimomenos (equivalent to Lord Chamberlain, literally "one who sleeps near [the emperor]") in 865, and magistros in 866 when he also adopted him.  Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Mikhael invested "Basilium" with "magistri dignitate"[1040].  He crowned him co-emperor 26 May 866[1041], but Basileios ordered the murder of Emperor Mikhael in the following year and succeeded 24 Sep 867 as Emperor BASILEIOS I.  He recalled Ignatius, installed him as Patriarch of Constantinople 23 Nov 867, and re-established relations with the Church of Rome.  His fleet relieved the siege of Dubrovnik by the Arabs in 868, after which Emperor Basileios formed an alliance with Emperor Ludwig II, sealed by the betrothal of his son to Emperor Ludwig's daughter, with a view to prevent further Arab advances in Italy and Dalmatia[1042].  After this alliance broke down, Basileios turned his attention eastwards, capturing Zapetra and Samosate in the Euphrates region in 873, but suffering a defeat at Melitene[1043].  In administrative affairs, he conceived a project to rewrite the legal codes of Justinian which, although never finalised, formed the basis for his son's subsequent legislative work.  He was mortally wounded in a hunting accident[1044].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Basilium et eius uxorem Eudociam et filiam Alexandrum" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[1045]

m firstly (repudiated 865) MARIA, daughter of --- (-after 865).  Symeon Magister records that "Basilium" repudiated "Mariam coniugem" in the eleventh year of the reign of Emperor Mikhael III, and that she was sent back with gold to her country of origin[1046]Georgius Monachus Continuatus records that "Basilium…uxore Maria" was sent back "in Macedoniam ad suos" after her divorce[1047]

m secondly (865) EVDOKIA Ingerina, daughter of INGER [of the Martiniakos family[1048]] (-882, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Symeon Magister records that "Basilium" married "Eudocia Ingerina" in the eleventh year of the reign of Emperor Mikhael III[1049]. She was previously the mistress of Emperor Mikhael III, from whom Empress Theodora obliged her to separate in 855.  Presumably she was the mistress of Basileios before eventually marrying him.  The Vita Basilii names "Ingeris filia" and in a later passage "uxor…Eudocia"[1050].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Basilium et eius uxorem Eudociam et filiam Alexandrum" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[1051]

Mistress (865) THEKLA, daughter of Emperor THEOFILOS & his wife Theodora --- (831-Blachernai after 867).  Symeon Magister records that Emperor Mikhael III have "Theclam…sororem suam" to "Basilio" as his mistress at the same time as his marriage to Evdokia Ingerina, in eleventh year of the reign of Emperor Mikhael III[1052]Georgius Monachus Continuatus records that "Thecla imperatoris soror" confessed that "Neatocometes" was her lover[1053]

Emperor Basileios I & his [first/second] wife had two children:

1.         BARDAS (-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.    Settipani suggests that his Armenian name probably indicates that he was born before his father's accession to the imperial throne, and therefore was presumably from the emperor's first marriage[1054].  However, by that time Bardas had become a common Byzantine name.  There is no indication whether Bardas was older or younger than his brother Emperor Leon, although if he had been the younger brother he would presumably have been referred to as porphyrogenitus in the sources. 

2.         ANASTASIA ([860/65]-before [905/12], bur Constantinople Monastery of St Euphemia).  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anastasia, filia Basilii Imperatoris" was buried in "monasterio S. Euphemiæ dictæ Formosæ"[1055].  Settipani suggests that Anastasia must have been the daughter of Emperor Basileios by his first marriage because, unlike her porphyrogenneta sisters, she is not referred to in the inscription "at the Golden Horn"[1056].  However, in another passage he says that this inscription refers to the children of Emperor Leon VI and his brother co-Emperor Alexander[1057].  The citations are therefore mutually contradictory.  To complicate matters further, in the table on another page, Anastasia is shown as the daughter of Emperor Basileios I's second marriage[1058].  Morris Bierbrier suggests that the inscription (which reads "May God help Leo despotes, Alexander, Constantine, Anna, Helena, and Maria" and which he states must be dated to [905/12]) refers to Leo VI, his brother Alexander, his son Constantine VII, and Leo's three surviving sisters, especially as it was produced at Petrion where the sisters were all nuns[1059].  This suggests that Anastasia must have predeceased this inscription.  Her burial in a separate part of the monastery of St Euphemia, away from her sisters Anna and Helena, also suggests that she may have been born from a different marriage.  If she was the daughter of Emperor Basileios by his second wife, Anastasia was presumably born before their marriage and was therefore illegitimate.  Nun at the convent of St Euphemia at Petrion.  [m (before 872) CHRISTOFOROS, son of ---.  Symeon Magister records that Emperor Basileios sent "Christophorum generum suum in Tephricam", in the fifth year of the emperor's reign[1060]Domestikos of the Scholai 872.  Settipani states that Christoforos was cited as the son-in-law [γαμβρος] of Emperor Basilieos I in 872, although not as the husband of Anastasia, although the author points out that the term γαμβρος could also mean brother-in-law[1061].  Tougher suggests that Christoforos was the brother-in-law not son-in-law of Emperor Basileios, maybe married to a sister of Evdokia Ingerina[1062].  Morris Bierbrier suggests that, as Anastasia is cited as a nun at the convent of St Euphemia at Petron, it is unlikely that she was married[1063].] 

Emperor Basileios I & his second wife had six children:

3.         KONSTANTINOS ([Sep 866]-3 Sep 879).  The Vita Basilii names "uxor…Eudocia cum liberis Constantino et Leone"[1064]Cedrenus names "Constantinus, filiorum Basilii natu maximus" when recording his death[1065]Symeon Magister records the birth in Sep (maybe in 866 from the context) of "Constantinus ex Michaele imperatore et Eudocia Ingerina"[1066].  It is more likely that this Konstantinos was the same person as the son of the future Emperor Basileios I of the same name.  His birth is recorded after his mother's marriage to Basileios, and no other reference has been found to the birth of Basileios's son Konstantinos.  It is assumed that Basileios acknowledged him as his own son after he succeeded to the throne in 867, although the report of his death in Symeon Magister (see below) suggests that this was not the case.  It should be noted that Georgius Monachus Continuatus records the birth in Sep of "Leo imperator ex Michaele et Eudocia Ingerina", but does not mention the birth of Konstantinos[1067].  It is not known whether this relates to a birth in the same year, and if this is correct what the true identity of the son was.  Tougher cites several sources which imply that Konstantinos was the son of Evdokia Ingerina because of the allegations that he, Leon and Alexander were all illegitimate children of Emperor Mikhael III[1068].  His father crowned him co-emperor 6 Jan 868, which demonstrates that he must have been Basileios´s oldest son.  Symeon Magister records the death in the thirteenth year of the reign of Emperor Basileios of "Constantinus Michaelis filius ex Eudocia…vulgique opinion Basilii filius"[1069][1070]Betrothed (869, contract broken Autumn 869) to ERMENGARDIS, daughter of Emperor LOUIS II King of Italy & his wife Engelberga --- ([852/55]-896 before 2 Jun, bur Vienne, Isère, cathédrale de Saint-Maurice).  This betrothal sealed the alliance between the fathers of the two parties, but was annulled after the alliance broke down in 871[1071].  The primary source on which it is based has not yet been identified. 

4.         LEON (-11 May 912, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles)The Vita Basilii names "uxor…Eudocia cum liberis Constantino et Leone"[1072]His father crowned him co-emperor in 869.  He succeeded his father in 886 as Emperor LEON VI "the Wise/the Philosopher". 

-                 see below

5.         STEFANOS (870-893).  The Vita Basilii names "filiorum…novissimum Stephanum" who was offered to the church[1073]Symeon Magister records the baptism of "imperator…filium suum Stephanum", in the paragraph preceding the one which records events in the third year of the emperor's reign[1074].  He was appointed Patriarch of Constantinople in Dec 886 by his brother Emperor Leon VI.  The Vita Basilii records that "Leo…imperator" appointed "Stephanum…fratrem suum" as patriarch[1075]Symeon Magister records that "Stephanum…fratrum" was appointed patriarch by his brother Emperor Leon VI, lived six years and five months, and was buried "in Siceorum monasterio"[1076]

6.         ALEXANDER (Nov 872-6 Jun 913, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Symeon Magister records the birth of "Alexander imperator ex Eudocia Ingerina, Basilii legitima proles", in Nov of the fifth year of the emperor's reign[1077].  The Vita Basilii names "Alexandrum filiorum tertium Augusti"[1078].  His father crowned him co-emperor 879 after the death of his older half-brother.  He continued as co-emperor during the reign of his brother Emperor Leon VI[1079].  He succeeded his brother in 912 as Emperor ALEXANDERTheophanes Continuatus records that "Alexander…cum Constantino Leonis filio" succeeded after the death of Emperor Leon VI and ruled for one year and 22 days[1080].  He restored Nikolaos Mysticus as Patriarch of Constantinople, dismissed by Emperor Leon VI for refusing to accept the latter's fourth marriage.  He triggered war with Bulgaria in 913 by refusing to pay the annual tribute agreed under the peace of 896[1081].  His reputation as an incompetent, debauched drunkard is based on contemporary sources, although it is suggested that these may be biased and inconsistent[1082]Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Alexander died 6 Jun[1083].  He died from a cerebral haemorrhage.  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Basilium et eius uxorem Eudociam et filiam Alexandrum" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[1084]Symeon Magister records that Emperor Alexander was buried with his father[1085]

7.         ANNA Porphyrogenneta (-[905/12] or after, bur Constantinople Monastery of St Euphemia).  Nun at the convent of St Euphemia, Petron.  The so-called inscription "at the Golden Horn", produced at Petron and which must be dated to [905/12], reads "May God help Leo despotes, Alexander, Constantine, Anna, Helena, and Maria", which Morris Bierbrier suggests refers to Leo VI, his brother Alexander, his son Constantine VII, and Leo's three surviving sisters[1086].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anna et Helena, eiusdem Basilii filiæ" were buried in "monasterio S. Euphemiæ dictæ Formosæ"[1087]

8.         HELENA Porphyrogenneta (-[905/12] or after, bur Constantinople Monastery of St Euphemia).  Nun at the convent of St Euphemia, Petron.  The so-called inscription "at the Golden Horn", produced at Petron and which must be dated to [905/12], reads "May God help Leo despotes, Alexander, Constantine, Anna, Helena, and Maria", which Morris Bierbrier suggests refers to Leo VI, his brother Alexander, his son Constantine VII, and Leo's three surviving sisters[1088].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anna et Helena, eiusdem Basilii filiæ" were buried in "monasterio S. Euphemiæ dictæ Formosæ"[1089]

9.         MARIA Porphyrogenneta (-[905/12] or after, bur Constantinople Monastery of St Michael).  Nun at the convent of St Euphemia, Petron.  The so-called inscription "at the Golden Horn", produced at Petron and which must be dated to [905/12], reads "May God help Leo despotes, Alexander, Constantine, Anna, Helena, and Maria", which Morris Bierbrier suggests refers to Leo VI, his brother Alexander, his son Constantine VII, and Leo's three surviving sisters[1090].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Maria filia Basilii" was buried in "monasterio Archistrategi seu S. Michaelis, de auctore Promoti cognominati"[1091].  Her burial in a separate monastery from her supposed mother and sisters Anna and Helena suggests that she may have been born from a different marriage of Emperor Basilieios. 

 

 

LEON, son of Emperor BASILEIOS I & his second wife Evdokia Ingerina ([Sep 867]-11 May 912, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles)The Vita Basilii names "uxor…Eudocia cum liberis Constantino et Leone"[1092]Liudprand names "Leo Porphyrogenitus, Basilii imperatoris filius"[1093]Georgius Monachus Continuatus records the birth in Sep of "Leo imperator ex Michaele et Eudocia Ingerina"[1094].  It should be noted that Symeon Magister records the birth in Sep (maybe in 866 from the context) of "Constantinus ex Michaele imperatore et Eudocia Ingerina", but does not mention the birth of Leon[1095].  It is not known whether this relates to a birth in the same year, and if this is correct what the true identity of the son was.  Settipani discusses at length the legitimacy of Emperor Leon VI, concluding that he was the son of Emperor Mikhael III by Evdokia Ingerina who continued to be the emperor's mistress (he says) until his death in 867, when his widow was married to co-Emperor Basileios to preserve appearances[1096].  There appears to be no way of confirming or denying this.  Emperor Basilieios crowned him co-emperor in 869.  He succeeded his father in 886 as Emperor LEON VI "the Wise/the Philosopher".  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Leo…imperator" was 25 years and eight months old when he succeeded his father[1097].  He composed a large number of poems and orations.  His major administrative achievement was the 60 volumes of new legal codes, τα βασιλικά, based on the work started by his father.  In contrast, Leo's foreign policy was disastrous.  Following the removal of the Bulgarian market from Constantinople to Thessaloniki, engineered by Stylianos Zautzes who gained from the move commercially, Symeon I Prince of Bulgaria invaded Byzantium in 894[1098].  Leon VI agreed an alliance with the Magyars to effect a counter-attack on Bulgaria's northern frontier.  Following an invasion by Byzantine general Nikeforos Fokas, and a blockade of the Danube by the Byzantine fleet, Symeon was forced to conclude an armistice.  However, Symeon secretly allied himself with the Pechenegs for a joint attack on the Magyars, subsequently renewing his attack on Byzantium.  The Byzantines were defeated at Bulgarophygon in 896, and obliged to pay tribute to Bulgaria[1099].  The Arabs virtually completed their conquest of Sicily by 902, and attacked Armenia and Cilicia in the east.  Thessaloniki fell to them 31 Jul 904.  These disasters were followed by the reconstruction of the Byzantine fleet, some successes in the eastern Mediterranean, but final defeat at Chios in Spring 912.  Emperor Leo's series of marriages triggered major conflicts with the church.  He dismissed Patriarch Nikolaos Mysticus who refused to recognise his fourth marriage[1100], turning to Rome for a dispensation which was granted by Pope Sergius III in 907, but this inevitably worsened his difficulties with the Orthodox church.  Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Leon died 11 May[1101].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "imperator Leo Sapiens Basilii filius et filius eius Constantinus Porphyrogenitus" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[1102]

m firstly (Manaura [883/84], repudiated [893/94]) THEOFANO, daughter of KONSTANTINOS Martiniakos & his wife --- (-10 Nov 897, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Symeon Magister records the marriage in the sixteenth year of the reign of Emperor Basileios of "Constantinus Leonis imperatorem" and "Theophanonem Martinacii filiam"[1103]Georgius Monachus Continuatus records that "Leoni imperatori" married "Martinacii filiam…in Manaura"[1104].  Settipani speculates[1105] that an ancestor of Theofano's father married a sister of Emperor Mikhael II.  Symeon Magister records that Emperor Leon fell in love with "Zoem Zautzæ filiam" in the third year of his reign, and married her in the seventh year of his reign when "prima…eius uxor Theophano" retired "in sancta Soro Blachernarum"[1106]Theophanes Continuatus names "Theophano…imperatoris uxor" and in a later passage records her death after twelve years in power[1107]Symeon Magister records that "Theophano Augusta" died "cum imperasset annos duodecim"[1108].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "S. Theophano, prima uxor B. Leonis et eius filia Eudocia" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[1109].  She was venerated as a saint by the Orthodox church. 

m secondly ([893/94]) as her second husband, ZOE Zautzina, widow of THEODOROS Gouniatzizes, daughter of STYLIANOS Zautzes & his wife --- (-May 899, bur Constantinople St Zoe).  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Zautzam…Zoes eius filiæ" was Emperor Leon's mistress after "viro illius Theodoro, cognomento Guniazitze" was poisoned[1110]Symeon Magister records that Emperor Leon fell in love with "Zoem Zautzæ filiam" in the third year of his reign, and married her in the seventh year of his reign when "prima…eius uxor Theophano" retired "in sancta Soro Blachernarum"[1111].  Her father became Emperor Leon VI's principal adviser, holding the new post of basileopator until his death in 896.  Symeon Magister records that Emperor Leon crowned "alteram coniugem suam Zoem Zautzæ filiæ" after his first wife died[1112]Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Leon crowned "Zoem Zautzæ filiam" and married her after the death of his wife, but that she lived one year and eight months "in imperio"[1113]Symeon Magister records that "Zoem Zautzæ filiæ" was buried in May "exstructo templo titulo Sancta Zoe", dated to 899 from the context[1114].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Zoe, secunda eiusdem Leonis uxor" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[1115]

m thirdly (Spring 900) EVDOKIA "Baïana", from Phrygia, daughter of --- (-12 Apr 901).  Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Leon married "puellam ex Opsicii themate…Eudociam" and her coronation as "Augusta", recording that she died giving birth to a male child[1116].  This third marriage was contrary to Byzantine law, Emperor Leon himself having confirmed the prohibition of third marriages by special law some year earlier, and triggered conflict between the emperor and the Church[1117].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Eudocia, Baïni cognominata, tertia eiusdem Domini Leonis uxor" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[1118]

m fourthly (9 Jan 906) ZOE Karbonopsina, daughter of --- (-after 918, bur Constantinople Monastery of St Euphemia).  Theophanes Continuatus records Emperor Leon's fourth marriage to "Zoe" and, in a later passage, that a marriage ceremony was performed after the birth of their son Konstantinos, when she was proclaimed "Augustam"[1119].  The mother of "[Constantini] Porphyrogeniti" is named Zoe by Liudprand[1120]Symeon Magister records that Emperor Leon married his fourth wife "Zoem…Carbunopsinam" in the seventeenth year of his reign, that the couple's son was born in the twentieth year of his father's reign, and that their marriage was blessed in the twenty-first year of his reign when Zoe was proclaimed Augusta[1121].  It is assumed that this source should be interpreted as meaning that Zoe became the emperor's mistress in the seventeenth year of his reign, in [903].  She was Emperor Leo's mistress from [902].  He installed her in the imperial palace 11 May 903[1122].  He had been unwilling to marry her for fear of risking even greater conflict with the Church, after the difficulties he had experienced over his prohibited third marriage, but eventually did so in order to legitimise his son Konstantinos as his heir.  He named her Augusta three days after the wedding[1123].  She was sent to a convent in 912 by her husband's successor Emperor Alexander.  She replaced Patriarch Nikolaos as regent for her minor son in 913.  Cedrenus records that "mater Zoe ac tutores" administered the government for "Constantinus imperator Leonis filius" and that she was helped by "Constantinus cubicularius" who had married her sister and against whom "Leo Phocas magister et scholarum domesticus orientalium" plotted[1124].  Following the disastrous war with Bulgaria, she was set aside in 918 by Romanos Lekapenos.  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Zoe mater…Porphyrogeniti Constantini…Imperatoris, nepotis Basilii" was buried in "monasterio S. Euphemiæ dictæ Formosæ"[1125]

Emperor Leon VI & his first wife had one child:

1.         EVDOKIA ([890/90]-893, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Evdokia is named in the Vita St Theophano, the life of her mother[1126].  It is assumed that she was conceived before the start of her father's relationship with his future second wife (dated to [889/90], see above).  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "S. Theophano, prima uxor B. Leonis et eius filia Eudocia" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[1127]

Emperor Leon VI & his second wife had [two] children:

2.         ANNA (-[901/early 904])Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Leon crowned "Annam Zoes filiam Zantzæ neptem" as "Augusta", recorded in the passage which follows the record of her mother's death and before the text which mentions her father's remarriage, presumably therefore dated to early 900[1128].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records "Anna et Eudocia, filiæ beati eiusdem Leonis ex [secunda uxore] Zoe", the Greek text specifying "Aννα και Aννα" although the editor suggests that "Ευδοκία" be substituted for the second Anna (without giving his reasons: this may result from confusion with Anna's older half-sister of that name), were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[1129].  It is not known whether this is an error, but in any case both daughters named Anna (assuming that there were two) must have died young.  The basis for her betrothal is a letter written by Nikolaos Mystikos, which Settipani quotes in French translation, recalling the writer's admonishing Emperor Leon VI for his unsuitable third marriage (dated to Spring 900), excused because of "l'accord…conclu avec le Franc…tu lui destinais comme épouse ta fille unique…[au] cousin de Berta auquel il est arrive l'infortune que l'on sait"[1130].  The date, the relationship with "Berta" (assuming, as Settipani proposes, that this is Berta daughter of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia who married Adalberto Marchese of Tuscany), and "l'infortune" (his blinding) are consistent with "le Franc" being identified with Louis III King of Italy (his title in 900).  Settipani assumes that the marriage actually took place.  However, the translation only refers to a proposed marriage ("…tu lui destinais…") and provides no proof that the marriage ever happened or, if it did occur, that the bride ever left Byzantium for Provence.  Her burial in Constantinople suggests that she never left her father's court.  Anna is not named in any of the surviving charters of Emperor Louis, nor has any mention of her been found in any of the primary sources so far consulted.  This would have been the first marriage between the families of the eastern and western emperors as no previous betrothal resulted in a marriage.  This absence from contemporary western documentation is therefore striking.  It also contrasts sharply with the extensive records which relate the Byzantine origin of Theofano, wife of Emperor Otto II, even though Theofano's precise ancestry is still a mystery (although it is recognised that Anna's career was cut short by a premature death in contrast to Theofano's).  Traditional genealogies[1131] show Emperor Louis III's son, Charles Constantin, as the child of this alleged first marriage of Emperor Louis, presumably because of his grandiose name.  However, another possible explanation is that the name was a symbol of the emperor's hope that his son would one day unite the two successor parts of the ancient Roman empire, in the name of his illustrious predecessors Emperors Charlemagne and Constantine I "the Great", completely independent of his mother's maternal ancestry.  Tougher suggests that Anna was legitimate, born after her parents' marriage, and that the marriage to King Louis did not take place[1132].  If he is correct about her legitimacy at birth, this excludes her from being the mother of King Louis's son Charles Constantin.  Betrothed ([Jun/Jul] 900) LOUIS King [of Provence], son of BOSON King [of Provence] & his second wife Ermengardis [Carolingian] (late 882 or after-Arles 5 Jun 928).  He was recognised in 900 as LOUIS III King of Italy, in opposition to Berengario I Marchese of Friulia.  He was crowned Emperor LUDWIG III in 901, deposed in 902. 

3.         [EVDOKIA [Anna] (-bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records "Anna et Eudocia, filiæ beati eiusdem Leonis ex [secunda uxore] Zoe", the Greek text specifying "Aννα και Aννα" although the editor suggests that "Ευδοκία" be substituted for the second Anna (without giving his reasons: this may result from confusion with Anna's older half-sister of that name), were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[1133].  It is not known whether there were two daughters named Anna or one named Anna and the younger named Evdokia.  In any case, the dates of marriage and death of their supposed mother (see above) leave little time for the birth of two children.] 

Emperor Leon VI & his third wife had one child:

4.         son (Apr 901-[901]).  Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Leon's wife "puellam ex Opsicii themate…Eudociam…Augusta" died giving birth to a male child[1134]same person as…?  BASILEIOS (-bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Basilius frater Constantini Porphyrogeniti" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles, but gives no indication of the name of his mother[1135].  This text suggests that Basileios may have been the emperor's full brother, as his sisters are named in the same passage by reference to their mothers, but on the other hand the passage in Theophanes Continuatus suggests that Basileios was probably the unnamed male child born to the emperor's third wife as no other record has been found of the birth of a third son to the emperor.  

Emperor Leon VI & his fourth wife had one child (legitimated by the subsequent marriage of his parents):

5.         KONSTANTINOS (905-9 Nov 959, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles)Theophanes Continuatus records the birth of "Leo ex Zoe quarta uxore sua filium Constantinum" and his baptism "die sacro luminum"[1136].  He succeeded his paternal uncle in 913 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS VII, under a council of regency headed by Patriarch Nikolaos. 

-        see below

 

 

KONSTANTINOS, son of Emperor LEON VI & his fourth wife Zoe Karbonopsina (905-9 Nov 959, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles)Theophanes Continuatus records the birth of "Leo ex Zoe quarta uxore sua filium Constantinum" and his baptism "die sacro luminum"[1137]Symeon Magister records that "Constantini Leonis filii ex Zoe" was born in the twentieth year of his father's reign[1138].  He is named "Constantinum, Leonis imperatoris filium" by Liudprand[1139]Symeon Magister records that "Constantinum filium suum in Porphyra natum (πορφυρογέννητον)" was crowned "die sancto pentecostes" in the twentieth year of his father's reign[1140]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Leo imperator filium Constantinum" was crowned "Augustum"[1141]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Alexander…cum Constantino Leonis filio" succeeded after the death of Emperor Leon VI and ruled for one year and 22 days[1142].  He succeeded his paternal uncle in 913 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS VII, under a council of regency headed by Patriarch Nikolaos.  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Constantinus" ruled for seven years with his mother after the death of his paternal uncle Alexander, a further 26 years "cum Romano socero suo…subiectus", and 15 years alone[1143].  Following his predecessor's refusal to pay the annual Bulgarian tribute, Symeon Prince of Bulgaria invaded Byzantium and arrived at Constantinople Aug 913.  After demanding the imperial crown, Symeon was obliged to compromise faced with the impenetrability of the city's defences, and was crowned Tsar and Autocrat of the Bulgarians at Constantinople 913 by the Patriarch[1144]Theophanes Continuatus records the invasion by "Symeon Bulgariæ princeps", his arrival at Constantinople, his meeting with Patriarch Nikolaos and his return to Bulgaria[1145].  The concessions granted to Symeon triggered a palace revolution in which Patriarch Nikolaos was replaced as regent in 913 by Emperor Konstantinos's mother Zoe, who cancelled the betrothal of Symeon's daughter to her son.  Symeon invaded Byzantium once more, Adrianople submitting to him in Sep 914.  He defeated the Byzantine fleet at Anchialos on the Black Sea coast 20 Aug 917[1146], and the army at Katasyrtai near Constantinople in early 918, moving on to capture most of Greece north of Corinth.  Following this disastrous war, Empress Zoe was replaced as regent by Romanos Lekapenos, whose history of more successful military campaigns provided a good basis for optimism that he could contain Bulgarian expansion.  He married his daughter to the emperor, and was crowned co-emperor in Dec 920, Konstantinos VII being in effect demoted [20 May 921/Apr 922] although his name still appeared first on protocol lists[1147].  After Emperor Romanos I was deposed and banished by his sons 16 Dec 944, Konstantinos VII succeeded in imposing himself once more as sole emperor and in turn arrested and banished Stefanos and Konstantinos Lekapenos 27 Jan 945[1148]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Constantinus…Romani gener" became emperor again in Dec "anno 6454"[1149].  A prolific writer, he composed among other works an encyclopaedia The Book of Ceremonies, a history of the provinces of the empire De administrando imperio, and a biography of his grandfather Emperor Basileios I.  Cedrenus records the death 15 Nov of Emperor Konstantinos aged 54 years and two months and his burial "juxta patrem suum"[1150]Theophanes Continuatus records the death 15 Nov of "Constantinus Porphyrogennetus imperator" aged 55 years and two months[1151].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "imperator Leo Sapiens Basilii filius et filius eius Constantinus Porphyrogenitus" were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[1152], although this presumably represented the emperor´s plans for burial assuming that he was the author of this part of the text. 

Betrothed (913, contract broken 913) to --- of Bulgaria, daughter of SYMEON I Prince of Bulgaria & his second wife --- (before 913-).  The betrothal of this unnamed daughter, at the same time as her father's coronation as Tsar, is referred to by Fine, who says that it was arranged as part of the negotiated settlement with Prince Symeon after he invaded Byzantium, but was annulled by Empress Zoe after she seized the regency[1153].  The primary source which confirms this daughter´s parentage and betrothal has not yet been identified.  It is assumed that the daughter would have been little more than a child at the time of her betrothal, considering the birth date of her betrothed.  It is therefore likely that she was born from her father's second marriage. 

m ([Apr] 919) HELENA Lekapene, daughter of ROMANOS Lekapenos [later Emperor ROMANOS I] & his [second] wife Theodora --- ([915]-19 Sep 961).  Theophanes Continuatus records the marriage in Apr of "Constantino imperatore" and "Helenæ Romani filiæ…tertiaque paschæ", dated to just after the Bulgarian war of 918[1154].  "Romanos…filiam suam Helena" is named as wife of Emperor Konstantinos by Liudprand[1155].  No record has been found of her age at the time of her marriage.  It is likely that she was very young as her son was born nearly twenty years after her marriage.  Her father arranged this marriage to increase his influence with Emperor Konstantinos.  Theophanes Continuatus records the death 19 Sep of "Helena Augusta" (in 961)[1156]

Emperor Konstantinos VI & his wife had six children: 

1.         ZOETheophanes Continuatus names "Zoen et Theodoram et Agatham" as daughters of "Helena Augusta"[1157]Theophanes Continuatus names "sorores Zoen Theodoram Agatham Theophanonem Annamque" when recording that they were banished to the convent of Kanikleion (in 959), and that Zoe, Theodora and Theofano were later sent to "Antiochi monasterio"[1158].  She was banished to the convent of Kanikleion in 959, later to Antiochus with her sisters Theofano and Theodora. 

2.         ROMANOS ([938/39]-15 Mar 963)Theophanes Continuatus records that "Romanus imperator" was 21 years old when he succeeded "patre suo Constantino Porphyrogenneto"[1159].  He was crowned co-emperor 6 Apr 945.  He succeeded his father in 959 as Emperor ROMANOS II

-        see below

3.         THEODORATheophanes Continuatus names "Zoen et Theodoram et Agatham" as daughters of "Helena Augusta"[1160]Theophanes Continuatus names "sorores Zoen Theodoram Agatham Theophanonem Annamque" when recording that they were banished to the convent of Kanikleion (in 959), and that Zoe, Theodora and Theofano were later sent to "Antiochi monasterio"[1161].  She was banished to the convent of Kanikleion in 959, later to Antiochus with her sisters Zoe and Theofano.  Leo Diaconus records the marriage of "Ioannes" and "Theodoram, Constantini Porphyrogeniti Imp. filiam" in Nov, in 971 from the context[1162]m (Nov 971) as his second wife, Emperor IOANNES I Tzimiskes, son of --- Tzimiskes & his wife --- Kourkouas (-10 Jan 976).   

4.         AGATHATheophanes Continuatus names "Zoen et Theodoram et Agatham" as daughters of "Helena Augusta"[1163]Theophanes Continuatus names "sorores Zoen Theodoram Agatham Theophanonem Annamque" when recording that they were banished to the convent of Kanikleion (in 959), and that Zoe, Theodora and Theofano were later sent to "Antiochi monasterio"[1164].  She was banished to the convent of Kanikleion in 959, later to Myrelaion with her sister Anna. 

5.         THEOFANOTheophanes Continuatus names "sorores Zoen Theodoram Agatham Theophanonem Annamque" when recording that they were banished to the convent of Kanikleion (in 959), and that Zoe, Theodora and Theofano were later sent to "Antiochi monasterio"[1165]

6.         ANNATheophanes Continuatus names "sorores Zoen Theodoram Agatham Theophanonem Annamque" when recording that they were banished to the convent of Kanikleion (in 959), and that Zoe, Theodora and Theofano were later sent to "Antiochi monasterio"[1166].  She was banished to the convent of Kanikleion in 959, later to Myrelaion with her sister Agatha. 

 

 

ROMANOS, son of Emperor KONSTANTINOS VII & his wife Helene Lekapene ([938/39]-15 Mar 963)Theophanes Continuatus records that "Romanus imperator" was 21 years old when he succeeded "patre suo Constantino Porphyrogenneto"[1167].  Liudprand names Romanos as son of Constantine when recording his marriage to the daughter of Ugo King of Italy[1168].  He was crowned co-emperor 6 Apr 945.  He succeeded his father in 959 as Emperor ROMANOS II.  He left the government entirely in the hands of Nikeforos Fokas, supreme commander of the army.  Nikeforos Fokas captured Crete in 961, and Anazarbus and Marash in Germanicia, Asia Minor in 962[1169].  As recompense, he was crowned co-emperor.  Cedrenus records the death 15 Mar "indictione 6" of "Romanus imperator" aged 24 after ruling for three years, 4 months and 5 days, worn out by "luxuriosa et voluptatibus dedita vita", other said by poison[1170]

m firstly (Sep 944) BERTA, illegitimate daughter of UGO King of Italy Comte de Vienne & his mistress Pezola --- ([927/30]-Autumn 949).  Liudprand specifies that the wife of Romanos was the illegitimate daughter of King Ugo, "the Greeks not enquiring about the nobility of her mother"[1171], and in a later passage names her Berta "filiam suam quam ex meretrice Pezola ipse genuerat" specifying that she was called EVDOKIA in Byzantium [1172]Theophanes Continuatus records the marriage in Sep of "Hugonem regem Franciæ…filiam" and "Romanus imperator…Romano Constantini generi sui filio", stating that she lived five years with her husband[1173], which confuses the identity of Berta's father.  Cedrenus records that "filia Hugonis", married to "Romano", died a virgin[1174]

m secondly (957) as her first husband, ANASTASIA, daughter of KRATEROS (the wine seller) & his wife --- (943-after 969)Theophanes Continuatus names "Anastasiam…Crateri filiam" as wife of "Romano filio suo" (referring to Emperor Konstantinos VII), stating that she adopted the name THEOFANO on her marriage [1175].  Cedrenus records that Romanos married secondly "genere…plebeio, ortam parentibus cauponibus…Anastasiam", adding that she adopted the name "Theophano"[1176]Leo Diaconus names "Theophano, obscuro loco nata" when recording that she was regent for "filii eius Basilius et Constantinus infantes" after the death of her first husband, recording her second marriage in a later passage[1177].  Regent in 963 for her infant sons Emperors Basileios II and Konstantinos VII, they were set aside by Nikeforos Fokas who was crowned emperor and married Theofano as her second husband.  Cedrenus records that "Nicephorus imperator" married "Theophanonem" 20 Sep after becoming emperor (in 963)[1178].  Zonaras records that Nikeforos took "Theophanonen…cum liberis eius" with him when he invaded Cilicia in the second year of his reign[1179].  She became the mistress of Ioannes Tzimiskes, and betrayed her husband.  Cedrenus records that Patriarch Polyeuktes required Emperor Ioannes to send "Theophanonem" in "Proconnesum", but that she was rescued by "Basilio cubiculario" and sent "in provinciam Armenicam…in Damidis monasterium", while "mater…Theophanonis" was exiled "in Mantineum"[1180].  

Emperor Romanos II & his second wife had three children:

1.         BASILEIOS (959-15 Dec 1025, bur Constantinople, Monastery of St John Evangelist in the Hebdemon[1181], transferred 1259 to Selymbria, Monastery of the Saviour[1182]).  Psellos names "Basil and Constantine, the sons of Romanus", clarifying that Basil was the elder[1183].  He nominally succeeded his father in 963 as Emperor BASILEIOS II, co-emperor with his brother, under the regency of their mother.  He was set aside by Nikeforos Fokas who was acclaimed emperor by his troops in Cæsarea, entered Constantinople 14 Aug 963, was crowned 16 Aug, and married his predecessor's widow.  On the death of Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes in 976, Basileios was restored as emperor, under the guidance of his great uncle Basileios Lekapenos, who assumed a position of great power.  He was immediately faced with the revolt of Bardas Skleros, who was proclaimed emperor by his troops in Summer 976 and who conquered most of Asia Minor.  Skleros approached Constantinople in early 978, but was defeated 24 Mar 979 by Bardas Fokas in the plain of Pankaleia near Amorium.  Basileios's troops were unsuccessful in crushing the 976 rebellion in Macedonia of the Kometopulos brothers, the imperial army suffering its final defeat there in Aug 986 and losing the areas of Bulgaria which Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes had conquered in 971[1184].  In 985, the emperor assumed personal rule and banished Basileios Lekapenos[1185].  Bardas Fokas rebelled and was acclaimed emperor by his troops 15 Aug 987 at Chresianus[1186], supported by major land-owners in Asia Minor.  Fokas agreed to partition the empire with the exiled Bardas Skleros, under which Fokas would keep Constantinople and the European provinces while Skleros would take Asia Minor[1187], but Skleros rebelled and proclaimed himself emperor at the same time, although he was captured by Fokas at Tyropaeum 14 Sep 987.  Bardas Fokas approached Constantinople in early 988.  Emperor Basileios allied himself with Vladimir Grand Prince of Kiev, confirmed by Vladimir's marriage to Basileios's sister Anna which was agreed on condition that Vladimir accepted baptism.  With his new allies, the emperor defeated Fokas at Chrysopolis in summer 988 and at Abydos 13 Apr 989.  Bardas Skleros rebelled again in 989, after which he was blinded, accepted the title curopalates, and died in retirement[1188].  From the 990s, Basileios was faced with invasions on two fronts, from the Bulgarian empire of Samuil Kometopoulos, and from the Fatimid empire in Syria.  He request Venetian help to defend his interests in Dalmatia, granting the Doge the title dux of Dalmatia and the honorary position of proconsul, and recognising him as Byzantium's official representative[1189].  Against the Fatimids, he restored Byzantine suzerainty over Aleppo in 995, and marched down the coast as far as Tripoli in 999.  In 1001, he concluded a ten-year truce with the Fatimid Caliph, which fixed the frontier between the two states and guaranteed that Aleppo remained within Byzantine territory, although the Mirdasite dynasty established there in 1023 soon obtained de facto independence from Byzantium[1190].  In [1000/1001], Emperor Basileios started a counter-offensive against Bulgaria, recapturing Sardika [Sofija] (1001), Macedonia and Thessaly, Vidin and Skopje (1004), and Durazzo (1005).  Emperor Basileios finally defeated Samuil Tsar of Bulgaria in Jul 1014 at Clidion, near Strymon[1191].  Basileios proceeded to conquer the remaining parts of the Bulgarian empire, which was annexed by Byzantium in 1018.  The Venetian civil war of 1024 also enabled Byzantium to reassert its authority over its Dalmatian towns[1192].  Before he died, Emperor Basileios appointed his brother Konstantinos as his successor[1193].  Basileios lived alone, and ruled as an autocrat without advisers.  Psellos records that he died "in his seventy-second year"[1194], but this is inconsistent with the marriage date of his parents. 

2.         KONSTANTINOS (Constantinople 961-15 Nov 1028).  Cedrenus records the birth "in Fontano palatio" of "filius…Constantinum" in the year after the coronation of Emperor Romanos II[1195].  He succeeded his father in 963 as co-emperor with his brother, under the regency of their mother.  He succeeded his brother in 1025 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS VIII

-        see below

3.         ANNA (13 Mar 963-[1008/11] or [1022], bur Kiev, church of the Palace).  Cedrenus records that "filiam…Annæ" was born two days before the death of Emperor Romanos II[1196].  The Primary Chronicle names "Anna, sister of Emperors Basil and Constantine", recording her brothers agreement to her marriage to Vladimir on condition that he accepted baptism, and her arrival and marriage at Kherson[1197].  Zonaras records that "Uladimero ducem [Russorum]" married "sorore Anna" (referring to Basileios and Konstantinos)[1198].  The marriage marked the start of considerably increased influence for the Greek Orthodox church in Russia, as the new Russian church reported to the Patriarch of Constantinople.  The sources are contradictory regarding the dating of Anna´s death.  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Anna wife of Vladimir, dated to [1008/11] from the context[1199].  Cedrenus records that "Anna imperatoris sorore" died "in Rossia", adding that her husband had already died, in a passage following the record of events dated to [1022], adding that "Chrysochir quidam Bladimeri cognatus" (not yet identified) sailed for Constantinople after she died but was defeated and killed at Lemnos by "Davido Achridensi Sami præfecto ac Nicephoro Cabasila duce Thessalonicæ"[1200]m (Kherson 988) as his second wife, VLADIMIR I "Velikiy/the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev, son of SVIATOSLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev & his mistress Malusha [Malfred] ([960]-Berestov 15 Jul 1015). 

 

 

KONSTANTINOS, son of Emperor ROMANOS II & his second wife Theofano [née Anastasia] (Constnatinople 961-15 Nov 1028).  Cedrenus records the birth "in Fontano palatio" of "filius…Constantinum" in the year after the coronation of Emperor Romanos II[1201].  Psellos names "Basil and Constantine, the sons of Romanus", clarifying that Basil was the elder and stating that Constantine "appeared to be apathetic, lazy and devoted to a life of luxury"[1202].  He succeeded his father 963 as co-emperor with his brother, under the regency of their mother.  He was set aside by Nikeforos Fokas along with his brother.  On the death of Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes in 976, he was restored as co-emperor with his brother but renounced most of his privileges in favour of his older brother, according to Psellos[1203].  He succeeded his brother in 1025 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS VIII, after which he "devoted himself to a life of luxury" according to Psellos who, in a later passage, gives a detailed description of his character and personal characteristics[1204].  Psellos records that Emperor Konstantinos hastily arranged the marriage of his second daughter to "Romanus" when dying, and that he "survived just long enough to see the marriage ceremony performed"[1205]

m HELENA, daughter of ALYPIUS & his wife ---.  Psellos records the marriage of Emperor Konstantinos "while still a young man" to "Helena [daughter of] the renowned Alypius…a leading man in the city, and a member of a noble family held in high repute"[1206].  Cedrenus refers to the wife of Emperor Konstantinos VIII as "filia patricii" but does not name her[1207]

Emperor Konstantinos VIII & his wife had three children:

1.         EVDOKIA .  Psellos names "the eldest [sister] Eudocia" when recording that she "begged her father to dedicate her to the service of God" and that he "readily agreed", in an earlier passage stating that "in childhood she had been attacked by some infectious illness, and her looks had been marred ever since"[1208]

2.         ZOE (980-1050).  Psellos records that Emperor Konstantinos hastily arranged the marriage of his second daughter to "Romanus…Argyropulos" when dying, calling her "Zoe" in a later passage and stating that she was "in her fiftieth year when she married him" and that "he was more than twenty years older than she was"[1209].  Psellos states that, after her first marriage, "two things…vexed  her: the fact that Romanus did not love her, and that herself was unable to squander money" because of his controls[1210].  Ioannes the Orfanotrophos introduced the royal couple to his brother Mikhael, who became Empress Zoe's lover.  Psellos records that "a certain eunuch, a man of mean and contemptible fortune, but endowed with an extremely active and ingenious mind" introduced his "brother…in his early manhood" to the emperor and empress "who at once fell victim to his charms"[1211].  Emperor Romanos drowned in his bath[1212], presumably murdered on the orders of his wife and her lover, whom she married as her second husband later the same day.  While Emperor Mikhael IV was dying, his nephew Mikhael Kalafatis was escorted to the palace by his uncles to ensure his succession[1213].  Having gained the support of Empress Zoe, he was proclaimed emperor as Mikhael V.  He exiled Empress Zoe to Prinkipo island in the sea of Marmora 18 Apr 1042 on fabricated charges[1214].  During the general uprising which followed in Constantinople, her younger sister Theodora was proclaimed empress[1215].  Putting aside her rivalry with her sister, Zoe accepted her as co-empress but took precedence herself[1216], and was confirmed by the senate as Empress ZOE in [late Apr] 1042.  The joint rule started with a period of extravagance, largesse being distributed widely.  However, Empress Zoe saw the need for another powerful man with whom to share the throne.  Her first choice was Konstantinos Katapanos "Artoclinas" (although he was then married), whom Emperor Mikhael IV had imprisoned as a potential rival and Emperor Mikhael V had compelled to enter the church.  Psellos records that he was recalled from exile, but died suddenly, possibly poisoned by his wife[1217].  Her second choice was Konstantinos Monomachos, whom she recalled from exile on Lesbos and married, despite the Byzantine church's prohibition of third marriages[1218].  His coronation the next day marked the end of Empress Zoe's personal rule as empress regnant.  Psellos records her death at the age of 72 but does not name the year[1219]m firstly (12 Nov 1028) as his second wife, ROMANOS Argyros, son of --- (968-murdered 11 Apr 1034).  He succeeded his father-in-law in 1028 as Emperor ROMANOS III.  He was murdered by his wife and her lover, whom Empress Zoe married later the same day.  m secondly (11 Apr 1034) MIKHAEL, son of --- (-Monastery of the Holy Anagyroi 10 Dec 1041, bur Monastery of the Holy Anagyroi).  He succeeded as Emperor MIKHAEL IV immediately on his marriage.  m thirdly (11 Jun 1042) as his third wife, KONSTANTINOS Monomachos, son of THEODOSIOS Monomachos & his wife --- ([1005/10]-11 Jan 1055).  He was crowned 12 Jun 1042 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS IX.      

3.         THEODORA ([980]-31 Aug 1056).  Psellos names Theodora as younger sister of Empress Zoe[1220].  Her sister Empress Zoe exiled Theodora to the convent of Petrion during the reign of Emperor Romanos III[1221].  Zonaras records that Emperor Romanos Argyros suspected "Prusianum magistrum, Bulgarum" of conspiring with "Theodora Zoes Augustæ sorore" and exiled her "in Petrium"[1222].  During the general uprising against Emperor Mikhael V which followed the latter's banishment of her older sister Empress Zoe, the mob under the leadership of Konstantinos Kabasilas forcibly removed Theodora from her convent and proclaimed her Empress THEODORA 20 Apr 1042[1223].  Putting aside her rivalry with Theodora, Empress Zoe accepted her sister as co-Empress but with herself taking precedence, which was confirmed by the Senate[1224].  Empress Theodora once more retired from public life on the coronation as emperor of her sister's third husband Konstantinos Monomachos 12 Jun 1042[1225].  Empress Theodora succeeded as sole empress in Jan 1055 on the death of her brother-in-law Emperor Konstantinos IX.  She designated Mikhael Stratiotikos, who was the logothetis stratiotikou, as her successor.  Psellos records that the empress died "four months before the year's end"[1226]

 

 

1.         [MARIA.  According to Snorre's King Harald's Saga, she was the "beautiful young niece" of Empress Zoe, whom Harald Sigurdson (later Harald III "Hardråde" King of Norway) wanted to marry when he lived in Constantinople [1035],  he "carried her away by force" while he made his escape from Constantinople but allowed her ashore "with a good retinue to escort her back to Constantinople"[1227]Morkinskinna recounts the same story but refers to her as “the maiden Maria” without specifying any relationship to the empress[1228].  William of Malmesbury alludes to the same episode when he says that Harald "was exposed to a lion, for having ravished a woman of quality, [and] strangled the beast by the bare strength of his arms"[1229].  Her precise relationship, if any, to the Macedonian dynasty is not known, although there must be considerable doubt about her existence which is not corroborated in Byzantine sources.] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    EMPERORS 920-945 (LEKAPENOS)

 

 

THEOFILAKTOS "Abastasos/the Unbearable" Lekapenos .  According to Ostrogorsky, he was an Armenian peasant[1230]Symeon Magister records that "Theophylactus Abastasctus…Romani pater eius qui postea imperatorum tenuit" served Emperor Basileios I in the fifth year of the emperor's reign[1231]

m ---.  The name of the mother of Emperor Romanos I is unknown. 

Theofilaktos & his wife had one child: 

1.         ROMANOS Lekapenos ([880]-Prote Island 15 Jun 948, bur Monastery Prote Island)Symeon Magister names "Theophylactus Abastasctus" as father of "Romani…qui postea imperatorum tenuit"[1232].  No precise information has been found concerning the birth date of Romanos Lekapenos.  However, given the likely chronology of the births of his children it is improbable that he was born much later than [880].  Drongarios of the fleet.  He manoeuvred himself into a position of power, replaced Empress Zoe as regent in 918, married his eldest daughter to Emperor Konstantinos VII, and was granted the title basileopatorTheophanes Continuatus records that "Romanus" was granted "cæsaris…dignitate" 24 Sep (in 920), and crowned as Emperor ROMANOS I 17 Dec 920[1233].  He became primary emperor [20 May 921/Apr 922][1234].  His successful military campaigns contained Bulgarian expansion.  Peter Tsar of the Bulgarians renewed the war with Byzantium after his accession in 927 and raided Thrace, but in Sep/Oct he made peace under which Byzantium confirmed recognition of Bulgaria's borders established by the 897 and 904 treaties and Peter's own title of Tsar.  The treaty was sealed by Peter's marriage to the emperor's granddaughter[1235].  After the peace agreement with Bulgaria, Emperor Romanos turned his attention to Asia Minor, where he recaptured Melitene in 931 and 934[1236].  Rus traders attacked coastal areas near Constantinople in 941 led by a "king named Inger"[1237] who negotiated renewal of privileged trading terms with Byzantium in [944], the text being incorporated into the Primary Chronicle[1238].  Emperor Romanos was deposed by his sons 16 Dec 944 and deported to the isle of Proti where he became a monk[1239]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Romanus imperator" was deposed by "Stephanum filium"[1240]Theophanes Continuatus records the death 15 Jun "in insula…Proten" of "Romanus imperator" and his burial in the monastery there[1241].  Cedrenus records the death in July "sextæ indictionis" of "Romanus" and his burial "in Myrelæo"[1242]m [firstly] ([900]) ---.  The primary source which indicates that Emperor Romanos married twice has not yet been identified.  If there was an earlier marriage, the name and origin of the first wife are not known.  However, Kresten and Müller point out that Symeon Magister refers to Christoforos, domestikos of the Scholai, as gambros of "the emperor".  They argue that the latter must have been the reigning emperor at the time, who would have been Romanos I, whose first wife could therefore have been the daughter of this Christoforos, which would explain the introduction of this name into the Lekapenos family.  They also suggest that her name may have been Maria, the name given by Christoforos to his daughter (on the assumption that she was his eldest daughter)[1243].  Zonaras records that "Christophori uxor Sophia" became augusta after "Romani uxore Theodora Augusta" died[1244].  This passage does not specify that Theodora was the mother of Christoforos: a comment to that effect would have been natural if that had been the case.  m [secondly] THEODORA, daughter of --- (-20 Feb 922, bur Myrelæus).  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Romanus" crowned "uxorem suam Theodoram" as "Augustam" in Jan "anno 6428" (921)[1245]Symeon Magister names "Nicetas…Romani socer", which appears to refer to the father-in-law of Romanos Lekapenos, when recording that he ejected "Nicolaum patriarcham" from his palace[1246].  However, Georgius Monachus Continuatus records that "Nicetas…patricius, Romani consocer" ejected "Nicolaum patriarcham" from his palace[1247], which clarifies that Niketas was the father-in-law of Romanos's son (see below).  According to the Vita Basil, the patriarch Theofilaktos was the son of Emperor Romanos's second marriage to Theodora[1248].  Vannier interprets the same phrase to mean that Emperor Romanos had two wives, both named Theodora[1249]Theophanes Continuatus records the death 20 Feb, in 922 from the context, of "Theodora Romani coniux"[1250].  Cedrenus records the death 20 Feb "indictione decima" of "uxor Romani Theodora" and her burial "in Myrelæ"[1251]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Romanos's mistress is not known.  However, her origin is indicated by Leo Diaconus who names her son "Basilius Nothus, Romani quondam Augusti ex Scythica femina filius"[1252].  Emperor Romanos I & his [first/second] wife had [five] children:

a)         CHRISTOFOROS Lekapenos (before [905]-14 Aug 932).  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Romanum" installed "eius filio Christophoro" as "hetæriarcha", recorded in a passage which follows the report of his sister's marriage to Emperor Konstantinos VII, probably therefore dated to 919[1253].  Liudprand names Christoforos as "Romanos…primogenito"[1254].  His birth date is estimated from his daughter Maria Lekapene having married in 927.  Even if she was an infant at the time, it is unlikely that her father could have been born much later than [905] at the latest.  Cedrenus records the death 14 Aug of "Christofer Cæsar" and his burial "in monasterio patris sui"[1255].  The monastery in question has not yet been identified.  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Romanus" crowned "filium suum Christophorum" as "imperatorem" 17 May "anno 6428" (921)[1256].  He became second emperor and heir to the throne when his father became primary emperor in [921/22], displacing Emperor Konstantinos VII.  Theophanes Continuatus records the death in Aug of "Christophorus…imperator" and his burial "in patris sui monasterio", in a passage before the record of his brother's ordination as Patriarch (in Feb 933)[1257]m (before [919]) SOFIA, daughter of NIKETAS magister & his wife ---.  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Sophia Christopheri imperatoris uxor" was crowned in Feb, in 922 from the context[1258]Georgius Monachus Continuatus records that "Nicetas…patricius, Romani consocer" ejected "Nicolaum patriarcham" from his palace, dated to [919] from the context[1259]Symeon Magister names "Nicetas magister, Christophori imperatoris socer" when recording that he rebelled, was banished and became a monk[1260].  Zonaras records that "Christophori uxor Sophia" became augusta after "Romani uxore Theodora Augusta" died[1261]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Sophia Augusta Christophori imperatoris uxor" was a nun at the convent of Kanikleion to which the sisters of Emperor Romanos II were banished (in 959)[1262].  Co-Emperor Christoforos & his wife had three children:

i)          MARIA Lekapene ([920/25]-before 15 Mar 963 or [965])Theophanes Continuatus records the marriage of "Christophori imperatoris filia Maria" and "Petri"[1263].  The wife of Tsar Peter is the (unnamed) daughter of Christoforos according to Liudprand, the marriage taking place just after the Tsar's accession after which she adopted the name IRINA[1264].  Considering the chronology of the births of her father and paternal grandfather, it is likely that Maria can have been no more than an infant at the time of her marriage in 927. The marriage was arranged to seal the peace agreed between her future husband and Byzantium[1265].  Her date of death is estimated from Zonaras recording that "Petrus Bulgarorum princeps, uxore sua mortua" sent their sons to Byzantium as hostages to renew the treaty[1266].  Cedrenus records the same event just after his passage recording the death of Emperor Romanos II (in 963)[1267]m (Constantinople 8 Oct 927) PETER Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of SYMEON I Tsar of the Bulgarians & his second wife --- [Sursuvul]  (after [912]-29/30 Jan 969). 

ii)         ROMANOS Lekapenos (-after 931).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He died young. 

iii)        MIKHAEL Lekapenos (-after 944).  Theophanes Continuatus names "Michaelem Christophori imperatoris filium", recording that Emperor Konstantinos VII invested him as "clericum et magistrum ac rectorem" after his restoration as emperor (in 944)[1268].  The Chronicon of Constantinos Manasses records that Emperor Romanos and "filios…suos, et cum eis Christophorum ex primogenito nepotem" renounced the imperial titles[1269].  Cedrenus records that, after his restoration (944), Emperor Konstantinos VII had "Michaelum, Christiferi Cæsaris filium" tonsured[1270]m ---.  The name of Mikhael´s wife is not known.  Mikhael & his wife had two children: 

(a)       HELENA Lekapene ([940/45]-).  Eustathios Romanos names Helena as wife of Pancratios Taronites[1271].  Her parentage is confirmed by a 14th century manuscript, preserved at the convent of St Stefanos in Thessaly, which names Helena and Sofia as the two daughters of Mikhail magistros and rector, and adds that Helena married "Pankratio Taronites"[1272].  Given the chronology of this family, Helena could not have been born much before [940].  m BAGRAT Taronites, son of ASHOT Bagratuni & his wife --- (-after 975). 

(b)       SOFIA Lekepene .  Her parentage is confirmed by a 14th century manuscript, preserved at the convent of St Stefanos in Thessaly, which names Helena and Sofia as the two daughters of Mikhail magistros and rector, and adds that Sofia married "Konstantinos protospatharios Radinos" by whom she was mother of Anna who married "Ioannes protospatharios Parsakountinos" and gave birth to Theofano who married Theofilaktos[1273]m KONSTANTINOS Radinos protospatharios, son of ---. 

b)         STEFANOS Lekapenos (-Mytilene 18 Apr 963)Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Romanos crowned "filios suos Stephanum et Constantinum…in magna ecclesia" 25 Dec, in 924 from the context[1274].  "Constantinus et Stephanus" are named as the two sons of "Romanos maior" by Liudprand[1275].  Together with his brother Konstantinos, he deposed his father 16 Dec 944[1276].  They were arrested by Emperor Konstantinos VII 27 Jan 945, and banished.  Zonaras records that Emperor Konstantinos VII ordered the castration of "filium…imperatoris Stephani Romanum juniorem"[1277].  Cedrenus records that "Stephani Romani filium" died "in festivitate magni Sabbati divinis" at "Methymnæ" from an unknown cause, dated to 963 from the context[1278]m ([933]) ANNA, daughter of --- Gabalos & his wife ---.  Theophanes Continuatus records the marriage of "Romanus…imperator Stephano filio" and "Gabalæ filiam, Catacylæ neptim, Annam", in a passage after the record of his brother's ordination as Patriarch (in Feb 933)[1279].  Cedrenus records the marriage of "Romanus…filio suo Stephano" and "Annam Gabalæ filiam", adding that the bride was crowned augusta[1280].  Stefanos & his wife had one child: 

i)          ROMANOS Lekapenos .  Cedrenus records that, after his restoration (944), Emperor Konstantinos VII had "Romanum Stephani filium" castrated, but that he was later made "Augustifer"[1281]

c)         AGATHA Lekapene Theophanes Continuatus records that "Romanus imperator Agatha filia" married "Romanum…Leonis filium", dated to 921 from the context[1282].  Cedrenus records that "Romanus filiam suam Agatham" married "Leoni Argyri filio"[1283]m (921) ROMANOS Argyros, son of LEO Argyros & his wife ---. 

d)         --- Lekapene .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Cedrenus who names "magistri Romani Moselis, prognati a Romano sene", dated to [962] from the context[1284]m --- Mousele, son of ---. 

e)         --- Lekapene .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Cedrenus who names "magister Romanus Saronita, gener senis Romani" when recording that he divided his property between his children and retired to "monasterium Elegmon" where he lived for years, dated to [962] from the context[1285]m ROMANOS Saronites, son of ---. 

Emperor Romanos I & his [second] wife had [three] children:

f)          THEOFILAKTOS Lekapenos ([913/15]-27 Feb 956).  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Theophylactum eius filium" (referring to Emperor Romanos I) was tonsured and ordained as sub-deacon, in a passage after the record of his brothers' coronation (25 Dec, in 924 from the context)[1286].  According to the Vita Basil, the patriarch Theofilaktos was Emperor Romanos's son by his second marriage to Theodora[1287]Theophanes Continuatus records the appointment of "Theophylactus Romani filius maturæ ætatis annos attingeret" as Patriarch, and his ordination as such in Feb (933) in a later passage[1288].  His birth date is estimated from Stankovic who cites sources which state that, although Emperor Romanos wanted to install Theofilaktos as patriarch when he was aged 16, the emperor delayed his son's installation until he was 18 or 19[1289].  Cedrenus records the death 27 Feb "indictione 14" of "Theophylactus patriarcha" after ruling as patriarch for 23 years and 25 days[1290]

g)         HELENA Lekapene ([915]-19 Sep 961)Theophanes Continuatus records the marriage in Apr of "Constantino imperatore" and "Helenæ Romani filiæ…tertiaque paschæ", dated to just after the Bulgarian war of 918[1291].  "Romanos…filiam suam Helena" is named as wife of Emperor Konstantinos by Liudprand[1292].  No record has been found of Helena's age at the time of her marriage.  However, it is likely that she was very young, as her son was born nearly twenty years after she married.  If this is correct, she was probably born after her brother Theofilaktos and therefore was also born from her father's presumed second marriage.  Her father arranged this marriage to increase his influence with Emperor Konstantinos.  Theophanes Continuatus records the death 19 Sep of "Helena Augusta" (in 961)[1293]m ([Apr] 919) Emperor KONSTANTINOS VII, son of Emperor LEON VI & his fourth wife Zoe Karbonopsina (905-9 Nov 959, bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles). 

h)         KONSTANTINOS Lekapenos (-948).  Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Romanos crowned "filios suos Stephanum et Constantinum…in magna ecclesia" 25 Dec, in 924 from the context[1294].  The same source records that he was his father's youngest son in the passage which records his two marriages (see below).  Cedrenus names him "Constantino tertio Romani filio" when recording his marriages[1295].  It is assumed that this should be interpreted as "third surviving son", as the emperor´s eldest son Christoforos was already dead by then.  "Constantinus et Stephanus" are named as the two sons of "Romanos maior" by Liudprand[1296].  Together with his brother Stefanos, he deposed his father 16 Dec 944.  They were arrested by Emperor Konstantinos VII 27 Jan 945, and banished.  m firstly ([939]) HELENA, daughter of ADRIANOS patrikios & his wife --- (-14 Jan [940]).  Cedrenus records the marriage of "Constantino tertio Romani filio" and "puella Helena, Adriani patricii filia, stirpis Armeniacæ", adding that the bride died soon after[1297]Symeon Magister records the death 14 Jan of "Romanus uxorem iuniori filio suo Constantino gentis Armeniacæ, patricii Adriani filiam" and his second marriage 2 Feb to "ex Mamonis illius genere, Theophano"[1298]Theophanes Continuatus records the death of "Romanus imperator Constantino filiorum natu minimo uxorem Helenam, Adriani patricii filiam stirpis Armeniacæ" in Feb, in a passage following the record of the marriage of her brother-in-law Stefanos[1299]m secondly (2 Feb [940]) THEOFANO Mamas, daughter of ---.  Symeon Magister records the death 14 Jan of "Romanus uxorem iuniori filio suo Constantino gentis Armeniacæ, patricii Adriani filiam" and his second marriage 2 Feb to "ex Mamonis illius genere, Theophano"[1300].  Cedrenus records the second marriage of "Constantino tertio Romani filio" and "Theophano a Mamante genus" soon after the death of his first wife[1301]Theophanes Continuatus records the marriage of "Romanus imperator Constantino filiorum natu minimo" and "Theophanonem…Mamantis illius stirpe satam" in the same month of February in which his first wife died, in a passage following the record of the marriage of her brother-in-law Stefanos[1302].  Konstantinos & his [first/second] wife had one child: 

i)          ROMANOS Lekapenos (-after [970/72]).  Theophanes Continuatus names "Romano nepoti ex Constantino filio" when recording that his paternal grandfather discussed his possible marriage to "Ioannes magister et scholarum domesticus…Curcuæ filiæ Euphrosyne"[1303].  Cedrenus records that Emperor Romanos wanted "nepoti suo Romano, Constantini natu filiorum minimi" to marry "Joannem…Curcunam domesticum scholarum…eius filiam Euphrosynam", but that the potential bride´s father objected, dated to [943/44] from the context[1304].  Cedrenus records "Romanum…patricium, Constantini Cæsaris filium Romani senioris" as an army commander under Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes, dated to [970/72][1305]

Emperor Romanos I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

i)           BASILEIOS (-985).  Theophanes Continuatus names "Basilium protovestiarium…Romanique decessoris imperatoris naturalem ex pellice filium"[1306]Psellos states that the "parakoimomenos…Basil" was "born of the same father as the father of [Emperors] Basil [II] and Constantine [VIII]", which suggests incorrectly that he was the son of Emperor Konstantinos VII, and "on his mother's side he came from different stock"[1307].  Psellos records that "in early infancy he had suffered castration - a natural precaution against a concubine's offspring"[1308]Zonaras records that Emperor Konstantinos VII ordered the castration of "Romani senioris filium Basilium, ex ancilla procreatum"[1309].  Cedrenus records that, after his restoration (944), Emperor Konstantinos VII had "Basilium, Romano seni e serva natum" castrated[1310].  He was in charge of civil administration under Emperor Nikeforos Fokas in 963, and granted the new title proedrosLeo Diaconus records that "Basilius Nothus, Romani quondam Augusti ex Scythica femina filius" was granted "præsidis dignitate" by Emperor Nikeforos[1311].  In 976, he became chief adviser [parakoimomenos] to the restored Emperor Basileios II[1312].  Psellos records that In 985, the emperor assumed personal rule and banished Basileios Lekapenos who soon after died "his limbs…paralysed and he a living corpse"[1313]. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    EMPEROR 963-969 (FOKAS)

 

 

The source for the early part of the pedigree of the Fokas family is Gustave Schlumberger[1314]

 

 

NIKEFOROS Fokas (-[885/95]).  The Vita Basilii names "Nicephorus Phocas"[1315].  Cedrenus records that "Nicephorus, Nicephori imperatoris avus" campaigned in Sicily and for a brief time expelled "Saracenos" from Italy[1316]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Nicephorus" was reinstalled as "dux in Thracesiorum themate" after a long absence but died soon after, during the reign of Emperor Leon VI[1317]

m ---.  The name of the wife of Nikeforos Fokas is not known. 

Nikeforos Fokas & his wife had [three] children: 

1.         LEON Fokas (-919 or after).  Theophanes Continuatus names "Barda et Leonis" as children of "Nicephorus…dux in Thracesiorum themate"[1318]MagisterDomestikos of the Scholai.  Cedrenus records that "Leo Phocas magister et scholarum domesticus orientalium" plotted to replace "Constantinus cubicularius" as chief adviser to Zoe, mother of Emperor Konstantinos VII, dated to [912/19] from the context[1319]Theophanes Continuatus names "magistro Leone Phoca scholarum domestico" as commander of the army defeated by Simeon Tsar of the Bulgarians in 918[1320]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Leonem…Phocam" rebelled against Emperor Romanos I (in 919)[1321].  He was blinded in 919 by Emperor Romanos following a rebellion.  m ---, sister of KONSTANTINOS kubicularios, daughter of ---.  Zonaras records that "Leo Phocas, legionum domesticus" married "Constantino eunucho cubiculario…sororem"[1322].  Leon & his wife had one child: 

a)         NIKOLAOS (-killed in battle [919]).  Symeon Magister names "Leo scholarum dux eiusque filius Nicolaus" when recording their part in the Bulgarian war after the accession of Emperor Konstantinos VII[1323]Georgius Monachus Continuatus records that "Nicolaus Ducis filius" was killed in battle during the defeat at the hands of the Bulgarians, which presumably refers to the same person[1324]

2.         BARDAS Fokas (-969, bur Constantinople, Monastery Ta Gastria)Theophanes Continuatus names "Barda et Leonis" as children of "Nicephorus…dux in Thracesiorum themate"[1325]

-        see below

3.         [daughter Leo Diaconus indicates that "Ioannes…prosapia…materna" was "Nicephoro Augusto consobrinus"[1326], which would mean that his maternal grandmother was the aunt of Emperor Nikeforos if "consobrinus" is interpreted strictly.  m THEOFILOS Kourkouas, son of ---.]   

 

 

BARDAS Fokas, son of NIKEFOROS Fokas & his wife --- (-969, bur Constantinople, Monastery Ta Gastria)Theophanes Continuatus names "Barda et Leonis" as children of "Nicephorus…dux in Thracesiorum themate"[1327]Theophanes Continuatus names "Bardas Phokas" during the account of the war with Bulgaria (in 918)[1328].  Cedrenus records that, after his restoration (944), Emperor Konstantinos VII appointed "Bardum Phocam" to "magistri honore" and "domesticum scholarum Orientis"[1329]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Constantinus… Romani gener" invested "Bardam Phocæ filium" with "magistri dignitate" and as "scholarum domesticum", dated to the year of his restoration (944)[1330].  Zonaras records that "Nicephori pater Phocas Bardas" sought refuge "in Magnam Dei ecclesie", during the build-up to his son´s taking over as emperor from the context[1331].  Zonaras records that Emperor Nikeforos installed "Bardas…pater" as cæsar[1332].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Irene, filia Bardæ Cæsaris…[et] Cæsaris Bardæ" were buried in "monasterii, ta Gastria vel Gastriorum dicti, ecclesia"[1333]

m ---, sister of MIKHAEL Maleinos, daughter of ---.  Her marriage and family origin are confirmed by Cedrenus who names "Michaele monacho Maleino" as "avunculo" of Emperor Nikeforos Fokas[1334]

Bardas Fokas & his wife had three children:

1.         NIKEFOROS Fokas (-murdered 10/11 Dec 969).  Zonaras records that Emperor Konstantinos VII appointed "Nicephorum filius eius, qui post [imperator]" as "prætorem Orientis" when he installed his father "Phocam Bardam magistrum"[1335].  Cedrenus records that, after his restoration (944), Emperor Konstantinos VII appointed "Bardum Phocam" to "magistri honore" and "domesticum scholarum Orientis", "Nicephorum et Leonem eius filios" as "Orientalium ducem" and "Cappadociæ…ducem" respectively, and "Constantinum tertium eius filium" as "Seleuciæ [præfectus]"[1336]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Nicephoro Niceta (Phoca nuncupato)" was created "magister et scholarum domesticus"[1337].  He succeeded his father end-954 as supreme commander of the Byzantine army, domestikos of the Eastern ScholaiTheophanes Continuatus records that "Nicephorum patricium ac ducem Asiaticorum eiusdem filium" succeeded "Bardas Phocas" as "domesticum"[1338].  Emperor Romanos II left the government entirely in the hands of Nikeforos Fokas, the latter capturing Crete in 961, and Anazarbus and Marash in Germanikaia in 962[1339].  He was acclaimed Emperor NIKEFOROS II by his troops in Cæsarea.  He entered Constantinople 14 Aug 963, was crowned 16 Aug, and married his predecessor's widow.  Runciman calls Emperor Nikeforos a "grim, unlovable man"[1340], he was an ardent admirer of Saint Athanasios whom he financed to build the monastery on Mount Athos[1341].  He legislated against the growth of ecclesiastical property in 964, bringing to an end the founding of new monasteries.  Seeing the fight against Islam as a sacred mission, he pursued his campaigns in the east, conquering Cilicia in 965, Cyprus in 966, and large parts of Syria including Antioch 29 Oct 969[1342].  He refused to pay the annual tribute to Bulgaria, which he claimed was voided by the death of Maria Lekapene who had married Tsar Peter.  Emperor Nikeforos attacked Bulgarian border fortresses, then summoned Sviatoslav Grand Prince of Kiev to attack Bulgaria.  The Grand Prince exceeded the terms of his mission by conquering Bulgaria[1343].  Cedrenus records how his wife "Theophano Augusta" conspired with "Tzimiscam", dated to [968/69] from the context, and how Niekphoros was murdered "nocte 11 Decembris, indictione 13"[1344]m firstly --- (-before 963).  The name of Nikeforos's first wife is not known.  Leo Diaconus records the death of "uxorisque ac filii Bardæ" (referring to Nikeforos) before he became emperor[1345]m secondly (20 Sep 963) as her second husband, THEOFANO, widow of Emperor ROMANOS II, daughter of KRATEROS (the wine seller) & his wife --- (943-after 969).  Leo Diaconus names "Theophano, obscuro loco nata" when recording that she was regent for "filii eius Basilius et Constantinus infantes" after the death of her first husband, recording her second marriage in a later passage[1346].  Cedrenus records that "Nicephorus imperator" married "Theophanonem" 20 Sep after becoming emperor (in 963)[1347].  Regent in 963 for her infant sons by her first marriage co-Emperors Basileios II and Konstantinos VII.  They were set aside by Nikeforos Fokas who was crowned emperor and married Theofano.  Zonaras records that Nikeforos took "Theophanonen…cum liberis eius" with him when he invaded Cilicia in the second year of his reign[1348].  She became the mistress of Ioannes Tzimiskes, and betrayed her husband.  Cedrenus records how "Theophano Augusta" conspired with "Tzimiscam", dated to [968/69] from the context[1349].  Cedrenus records that Patriarch Polyeuktes required Emperor Ioannes to send "Theophanonem" in "Proconnesum", but that she was rescued by "Basilio cubiculario" and sent "in provinciam Armenicam…in Damidis monasterium", while "mater…Theophanonis" was exiled "in Mantineum"[1350].  Nikeforos & his first wife had one child: 

a)         BARDAS (-killed in battle before 963).  Leo Diaconus records the death of "uxorisque ac filii Bardæ" (referring to Nikeforos) before he became emperor, stating that Bardas was killed in battle[1351].  Cedrenus records that "Nicephorus imperator…Bardas ex priore coniuge filius" died "in campo equitans" while sparring "cum patruele suo Pleusa"[1352]

2.         LEON Fokas (-[969/70]).  Cedrenus records that, after his restoration (944), Emperor Konstantinos VII appointed "Bardum Phocam" to "magistri honore" and "domesticum scholarum Orientis", "Nicephorum et Leonem eius filios" as "Orientalium ducem" and "Cappadociæ…ducem" respectively, and "Constantinum tertium eius filium" as "Seleuciæ [præfectus]"[1353]

-        see below

3.         KONSTANTINOS Fokas (-murdered 969).  Cedrenus records that, after his restoration (944), Emperor Konstantinos VII appointed "Bardum Phocam" to "magistri honore" and "domesticum scholarum Orientis", "Nicephorum et Leonem eius filios" as "Orientalium ducem" and "Cappadociæ…ducem" respectively, and "Constantinum tertium eius filium" as "Seleuciæ [præfectus]"[1354].  He was captured in 953 by Saif-ad-Daulah when the latter reconquered Germanikaia from Byzantium.  Cedrenus records that "Constantinum, tertium Phocæ filium" was captured by "Chabdanus" and taken to "Chalepum"[1355]

4.         EIRENE (-bur Constantinople, Monastery Ta Gastria).  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Irene, filia Bardæ Cæsaris…[et] Cæsaris Bardæ" were buried in "monasterii, ta Gastria vel Gastriorum dicti, ecclesia"[1356]

5.         [son/daughter .  Leo Diaconus records that "Theodorum Bardam et Nicephorum patricios atque fratres…Bardæ ducis consobrini" supported the rebellion of "Bardas Dux, Leonis curopalatæ filius, Nicephori Augusti ex fratre nepos" after the death of his uncle[1357], which would mean that one of the parents of the three brothers was an uncle/aunt of Bardas, assuming that "consobrinus" is interpreted strictly.  It is not impossible that the relationship was through Bardas's maternal family.  However, the names Bardas and Nikeforos suggest a connection with the Fokas family.  m ---.]  Three children: 

a)         THEODOROSLeo Diaconus records that "Theodorum Bardam et Nicephorum patricios atque fratres…Bardæ ducis consobrini" supported the rebellion of "Bardas Dux, Leonis curopalatæ filius, Nicephori Augusti ex fratre nepos" after the death of his uncle[1358]

b)         BARDASLeo Diaconus records that "Theodorum Bardam et Nicephorum patricios atque fratres…Bardæ ducis consobrini" supported the rebellion of "Bardas Dux, Leonis curopalatæ filius, Nicephori Augusti ex fratre nepos" after the death of his uncle[1359]

c)         NIKEFOROSLeo Diaconus records that "Theodorum Bardam et Nicephorum patricios atque fratres…Bardæ ducis consobrini" supported the rebellion of "Bardas Dux, Leonis curopalatæ filius, Nicephori Augusti ex fratre nepos" after the death of his uncle[1360]

 

 

The precise relationship between the following person and the Fokas family has not been ascertained: 

1.         PLEUSIS .  Cedrenus records that "Nicephorus imperator…Bardas ex priore coniuge filius" died "in campo equitans" while sparring "cum patruele suo Pleusa"[1361]

 

 

LEON Fokas, son of BARDAS Fokas & his wife --- (-[969/70])Theophanes Continuatus names "Leonem patricium Bardæ Phocæ filium magistrum", recording that he was the deputy of "fratris sui Nicephori" in the army[1362]Leo Diaconus names "Leonem Phocam Nicephori fratrem" when recording that Emperor Romanos I sent him to "Chambdanum"[1363].  Zonaras records that "alter filius Leo" joined his brother when "Nicephori pater Phocas Bardas" sought refuge "in Magnam Dei ecclesie", during the build-up to his son´s taking over as emperor from the context[1364].  He was appointed curopalates, domestikos of the west, by his brother.  Zonaras records that Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes exiled "Leone curopalate et filio eius Nicephoro" to Lesbos and "alteri eius filio Bardæ" to "Amasia"[1365].  Cedrenus records that Emperor Ioannes exiled "Leonem curopalatam" to "Lesbum"[1366].  Zonaras records that "Leo cum altero filio Nicephoro" left Lesbos for Thrace but were captured and blinded on the orders of Emperor Ioannes[1367]

m ---.  The name of the wife of Leon Fokas is not known. 

Leon Fokas & his wife had three children:

1.         NIKEFOROS Fokas (-[969/70]).  Zonaras records that Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes exiled "Leone curopalate et filio eius Nicephoro" to Lesbos and "alteri eius filio Bardæ" to "Amasia"[1368].  Cedrenus records that Emperor Ioannes exiled "Nicephorum Bestin eius filium" to "Imbrun"[1369].  Zonaras records that "Leo cum altero filio Nicephoro" left Lesbos for Thrace but were captured and blinded on the orders of Emperor Ioannes[1370]

2.         BARDAS Fokas (-Abydos 13 Apr 989).  Zonaras records that Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes exiled "Leone curopalate et filio eius Nicephoro" to Lesbos and "alteri eius filio Bardæ" to "Amasia"[1371].  Cedrenus records that Emperor Ioannes demoted "Bardam Ducæ filium iuniorem, qui tum Chaldiæ et Coloniæ præerat" as "magistratu Amasiam"[1372]Leo Diaconus names "Bardas Dux, Leonis curopalatæ filius, Nicephori Augusti ex fratre nepos" when recording his rebellion after the death of his uncle, supported by "Theodorum Bardam et Nicephorum patricios atque fratres…Bardæ ducis consobrini"[1373].  Psellos names Bardas Fokas as "nephew of the Emperor Nicephorus"[1374], but does not name his father.  Zonaras records that "Bardas Phocas Leonis filius" left Amasia and occupied "Cæsaream Cappadociæ" but was deserted by his supporters, defeated by Bardas Skleros, sought refuge in "castellum Tyropæum", and was tonsured and sent to exile on the island of Khios[1375].  Bardas Fokas, appointed general by Emperor Basileios II in 976, defeated the revolt of Bardas Skleros[1376] 24 May 979 in the plain of Pankaleia near Amorium.  Resentful of being sidelined by Basileios Lekapenos and Emperor Basileios II, Bardas Fokas rebelled and was acclaimed emperor by his troops 15 Aug 987 at Chresianus[1377], with the support of major land-owners in Asia Minor.  Bardas Fokas agreed to partition the empire with the exiled Bardas Skleros, the agreement providing that Fokas would keep Constantinople and the European provinces while Skleros would take Asia Minor[1378].  However, Skleros rebelled against Fokas and proclaimed himself emperor at the same time, although he was captured by Fokas at Tyropaeum 14 Sep 987.  Bardas Fokas approached Constantinople in early 988, but was defeated with the help of Emperor Basileios II's Kievan allies at Chrysopolis in summer 988 and at Abydos 13 Apr 989, where Bardas died, maybe from a heart attack.  Psellos states that, during the battle, he "suddenly slipped from his saddle and was thrown to the ground", recording that different reports suggested that he was killed by the javelin-throwers, was overcome by the effects of a stomach disorder, or that he was poisoned[1379]m ---.  The name of Bardas Fokas's wife is not known.  After her husband's death she released Bardas Skleros[1380].  Bardas Fokas & his wife had one child: 

a)         NIKEFOROS Fokas (-killed [1022]).  Zonaras names "Nicephorus Bardæ Phoca filius" when recording his military victory "in Abasgiam"[1381].  Cedrenus records that "Nicephoro patricio, filio Bardæ Phocæ" commanded the army sent by Emperor Basileios II against "Georgius Abasgiæ dux" but was killed[1382]m ---.  The name of Nikeforos's wife is not known.  Nikeforos & his wife had one child: 

i)          BARDAS Fokas .  Yahya of Antioch names Bardas as son of Nikeforos[1383].  Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), blinded "Bardæ…patricio, Barda magistro Phoca prognato"[1384]

3.         SOFIA Fokas Leo Diaconus records that "Constantinus patricius Scleri frater" was the husband of "sororem Phocæ"[1385].  Her name is confirmed by Cedrenus who records that "Sophia Phocæ soror" married "Constantino Duri fratri"[1386]m KONSTANTINOS Skleros, son of PANTHERIOS Skleros & his wife Gregoria ---. 

Leon Fokas had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

4.          PETROS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  A eunuch. 

5.          MANUEL [Fokas] (-killed in battle).  Cedrenus names "Manuelum patricium, spurium filium Leonis patrui sui…" when recording that Emperor Nikeforos sent him on campaign in Sicily "contra Saracenos" in the first year of his reign ([963/64])[1387]Patrikios.  A document entitled Luitprandi Legatio ad Nicephorum Phocam records Luitprand's mission on behalf of Emperor Otto I to negotiate a marriage between "filiam Romani imperatoris et Theophanæ imperatricis" and "domino meo filio suo Ottoni Imperatori Augusto" names "Manuele Patricio, Nicephori nepote" recording his war exploits "in mari Siculo"[1388].  Leo Diaconus records that "Manuel" was killed in battle[1389]

 

 

The precise relationship between the following person and the Fokas family is not known. 

1.         daughter.  The wife of Constantine was "descended from Bardas Phokas", according to the Chronicle of Aleppo[1390], although the precise relationship is unknown.  From a chronological point of view, it is more likely that she was the great-granddaughter of Bardas Fokas, assuming that she was related to him at all.  She is not referred to in Greek sources[1391]m CONSTANTINE Lord of Vaghka and Partzerpert, son of RUPEN Lord of Gobidar and Goromosl [Armenia-Rupen] & his wife --- ([1040/45]-24 Jan 1102, bur Castalon). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    EMPEROR 969-976 (TZIMISKES)

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         IOANNES Kourkouas (-after [943/44]).  MagisterDomestikus of the Scholæ.  Zonaras records the successful military campaigns of "legionum domesticum Curcua et fratre eius Theophilo, Joannis…postea [imperatoris] avo"[1392].  Cedrenus names "Joannes Curcuas, scholarum domesticus" when recording that he recaptured "castello Paipertis", dated to [922/23] from the context[1393].  Cedrenus records that "Joannes Curcuas, magister et scholarum domesticus Syriæ" captured many fortresses and arrived at "Melitenam", dated to [927/28] from the context[1394].  Cedrenus records that Emperor Romanos replaced "Joannem…Curcunam" as "domesticum scholarum" following a dispute about a projected marriage to Ioannes´s daughter (see below), dated to [943/44] from the context[1395]m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had two children: 

a)         ROMANOS Kourkouas .  Cedrenus records that "Romanus patricius, Joannis domestici filius" was "exercitui præpositus", captured many fortresses[1396]Patrikios, magister, doux Orientism ---.  The name of Romanos´s wife is not known.  Romanos & his wife had one child: 

i)          IOANNES Kourkouas (-killed in battle 971).  Cedrenus records "Joanni magistro, Romani Curcuæ filio" in the war against "Scythæ", dated to [970/72][1397].  Leo Grammaticus records that a conspiracy against Emperor Basileios II by "Ioanne Curcua Icanotorum domestico" was uncovered by "protovestiario Curcua"[1398].  He was killed in battle against the Russians.  m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had [one child]: 

(a)       [ROMANOS Kourkouas (-1026 or after).  Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), blinded "Romano Curcuæ"[1399].  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  However, it is reasonable to suppose that he was the son of Ioannes Kourkouas, named after his grandfather Romanos.]  m --- of Bulgaria, daughter of IVAN VLADISLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians & his wife Marija ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Cedrenus who records that "Romano Curcuæ" married "sororem Prusiani"[1400]

b)         EUPHROSYNETheophanes Continuatus names "Romano nepoti ex Constantino filio" when recording that his paternal grandfather discussed his possible marriage to "Ioannes magister et scholarum domesticus…Curcuæ filiæ Euphrosyne"[1401].  Cedrenus records that Emperor Romanos wanted "nepoti suo Romano, Constantini natu filiorum minimi" to marry "Joannem…Curcunam domesticum scholarum…eius filiam Euphrosynam", but that the potential bride´s father objected, dated to [943/44] from the context[1402].  As the projected bridegroom could have been no more than a child (assuming that he was the legitimate son of his father´s first marriage), Euphrosyne would probably have been considerably younger than her brother Romanos, who is recorded as an army commander in the subsequent passage in the same source. 

2.         THEOFILOS Kourkouas Dux of Chaldia.  Theophanes Continuatus names "patricii ac Chaldiæ ducis Theophili" as brother of "magistri…ac scholarum domestici Ioannes", and records that Theofilos led the army in Mesopotamia and later left it to "Ioannem Tzimiscem nepotem"[1403].  Cedrenus records that "Joannem…Curcunam domesticum scholarum…Theophilius…frater eius, avus Johannis [postea imperator]" was "Mesopotamiæ præfectus"[1404].  Zonaras records the successful military campaigns of "legionum domesticum Curcua et fratre eius Theophilo, Joannis…postea [imperatoris] avo"[1405]m [--- Fokas, daughter of --- Fokas & his wife ---].  Leo Diaconus indicates that "Ioannes…prosapia…materna" was "Nicephoro Augusto consobrinus"[1406], which would mean that his maternal grandmother was the aunt of Emperor Nikeforos if "consobrinus" is interpreted strictly.  The name of Theofilos's wife is not known.  Theofilos & his wife had one child: 

a)         daughter .  Theophanes Continuatus indicates that Ioannes Tzimiskes was the grandson of Theofilos Kourkas when he records that Theofilos led the army in Mesopatamia and later left it to "Ioannem Tzimiscem nepotem"[1407].  It is assumed that the relationship was through the mother of Ioannes, otherwise he would have been referred to as "Kourkas".  m --- Tzimiskes, son of ---.  Leo Diaconus indicates that "Ioannes…prosapia…paterna" was "stirpe nobilis ex partibus Orientis"[1408].  One child: 

i)          IOANNES Tzimiskes (-10 Jan 976)Theophanes Continuatus refers to "Ioannem Tzimiscem nepotem" of "patricii ac Chaldiæ ducis Theophili"[1409].  Of Armenian origin.  Cedrenus records that Emperor Nikeforos Fokas appointed "Joannem Tzimiscem" as "magistrum domesticum scholarum Orientis"[1410].  Empress Theofano became his mistress, betraying her husband who was murdered by supporters of Ioannes Tzimiskes.  He succeeded in 969 as Emperor IOANNES I.  The Patriarch Polyeuktes insisted on penance for the murder of the emperor's predecessor and that Ioannes expel his mistress from the palace before he would crown him emperor.  He also required the new emperor to withdraw his predecessor's laws against ecclesiastical property.  Faced with the continuing perceived threat of invasion by Grand Prince Sviatoslav, Emperor Ioannes marched into Bulgaria, fighting Sviatoslav at Arcadiopolis[1411].  The emperor pushed further into Bulgaria in 971, captured Preslav and defeated the Kievans at Silistria, before negotiating Sviatoslav's withdrawal[1412].  Emperor Ioannes at first recognised Boris II as Prince of Bulgaria, but then proceeded to annex the country converting it into a theme of the empire, abolished the Bulgarian patriarchy and took Boris back to Constantinople as a prisoner[1413].  Emperor Ioannes sealed an alliance with the Holy Roman Empire by the marriage of his relative Theofano to Emperor Otto II.  After his successful Bulgarian campaign, Ioannes returned in 974 to the eastern front to fight the Arabs, captured Nisibin in eastern Mesopotamia and reduced Mosul to vassalage.  In Spring 975, he captured Damascus, Tiberias, Nazareth, Acre, Cæsarea, Beirut and Sidon from the Fatimid dynasty[1414].  Returning to Constantinople, he died from [typhus] caught during the campaign.  He promised the throne to his brother-in-law Bardas Skleros on his deathbed[1415]m firstly MARIA Skleraina, daughter of PHOTEINOS Skleros & his wife Gregoria ---.  Leo Diaconus records that "Bardam cognomento Sclerum…cuius sororem Mariam" was previously the wife of "Ioannes"[1416]Mistress: THEOFANO née Anastaso, widow of Emperor ROMANOS II, wife of Emperor NIKEFOROS II Fokas, daughter of KRATEROS the wine seller & his wife --- (943-after 969).  Cedrenus records how "Theophano Augusta" conspired with "Tzimiscam", dated to [968/69] from the context[1417].  Cedrenus records that Patriarch Polyeuktes required Emperor Ioannes to send "Theophanonem" in "Proconnesum", but that she was rescued by "Basilio cubiculario" and sent "in provinciam Armenicam…in Damidis monasterium", while "mater…Theophanonis" was exiled "in Mantineum"[1418]m secondly (Nov 971) THEODORA, daughter of Emperor KONSTANTINOS VII & his wife Helene Lekapene.  Leo Diaconus records the marriage of "Ioannes" and "Theodoram, Constantini Porphyrogeniti Imp. filiam" in Nov, in 971 from the context[1419]

ii)         [daughter .  Cheynet refers to the sister of Ioannes Tzimiskes, married to Roamos Balatios[1420], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  m ROAMOS Balatios, son of ---.] 

 

 

1.         THEOFANO ([955/60]-Nijmegen 15 May 991, bur Köln St Pantaleon).  A document entitled Luitprandi Legatio ad Nicephorum Phocam records Luitprand's mission on behalf of Emperor Otto I to negotiate a marriage between "filiam Romani imperatoris et Theophanæ imperatricis" and "domino meo filio suo Ottoni Imperatori Augusto"[1421].  Her name is not given in the document.  It is unlikely, given the date of the marriage of Emperor Nikeforos Fokas and Theofano (in 963) that any daughter of theirs would have been considered marriageable in the late 960s by Emperor Otto.  It is therefore likely that the document was prepared before Luitprand's visit, in ignorance of the details of the emperor's family members.  The identity of the proposed bride is therefore not certain.  Prior to Luitprand's arrival in Constantinople, Emperor Nikeforos was murdered.  According to Thietmar, his successor Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes sent his niece Theofano back to Germany "not the desired maiden…accompanied by a splendid entourage and magnificent gifts"[1422].  Western sources consistently refer to Theofano as "neptis" of Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes, for example the charter dated 14 Apr 972 under which "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property to "Theophanu, Iohannis Constantinopolitani imperatoris neptim"[1423].  Her exact relationship to Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes is unknown.  It is possible that she was a relative of the emperor's wife rather than of the emperor himself.  Davids suggests that she was the daughter of Konstantinos Skleros and his wife Sofia[1424], who was probably the sister of the first wife of Emperor Ioannes.  An indication that this may be correct is that Theofano's second daughter was named Sophie, normal Byzantine practice being to name the first daughter after the paternal grandmother and the second after the maternal grandmother[1425].  It also appears to be chronologically sustainable.  However, too little is known about the families of Emperor Ioannes and his wife to propose this as the only plausible hypothesis, especially as the word "neptis" could cover a wide variety of relationships.  In addition, it cannot even be assumed that the wife of Konstantinos Skleros was the only individual named Sofia in these families at the time.  "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property to "Theophanu, Iohannis Constantinopolitani imperatoris neptim" dated 14 Apr 972[1426].  Lay Abbess of Nivelles.  She was regent during the minority of her son 984-991.  Thietmar records the death of Empress Theofano at Nijmegen on 15 Jun and her place of burial[1427].  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "15 Jun" of "Theophanu imperatrix"[1428]m (Rome 14 Apr 972) OTTO co-Emperor and King of Germany, son of Emperor OTTO I "der Große" King of Germany & his second wife Adelheid of Burgundy [Welf] (955-Rome 7 Dec 983, bur Rome St Peter's).  He succeeded his father in 973 as OTTO II King of Germany.  On his accession, he claimed Byzantium's possessions in Italy as part of his wife's dowry.  He campaigned in Italy to support his claims, but was defeated in 982 by a Byzantine/Muslim alliance near Stilo in Calabria. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10.  ANTI-EMPEROR 978 (SKLEROS)

 

 

 

1.         LEON Skleros (-after 811).  The Historia Leone Bardæ Armenii filio ("Scriptor Incertus") names "Leonem Scleri cognominatum" who was expelled from the palace by Emperor Mikhael I (in [811]) and installed as "Peloponnesiaci tractus ducem"[1429]

 

 

1.         PANTHERIOS [Foteinos] Skleros .  He is named only in Arabic sources such as Munir[1430].  [Cedrenus records that Emperor Romanos appointed "Pantherius Romani imperatoris cognatus" as "domesticum scholarum" after dismissing "Joannem…Curcunam", dated to [943/44] from the context[1431].  It is not known whether "Pantherius" was Pantherios Skleros, although no other Pantherios has yet been identified in the primary sources.  If this co-identity is correct, his relationship to the Lekapenos family has not been traced.]  m GREGORIA, daughter of BARDAS & his wife ---.  Her parentage is shown by Werner Seibt, citing the Chronicle of Theodore Skutariotes[1432].  Photeinos Skleros & his wife had three children:

a)         BARDAS Skleros (-6 Mar 991).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  General of his brother-in-law Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes.  Zonaras records that "Skleros" crushed the rebellion of "Bardas Phocas Leonis filius" at the beginning of the reign of Emperor Ioannes[1433].  He was promised the throne in 976 by his brother-in-law on his deathbed[1434].  Psellos records that "the notorious…Skleros" rebelled twice early in the reign of Emperor Basileios II, stating that he was "a competent planner…extremely clever…possessed of vast wealth…with the prestige of royal blood"[1435], the last point presumably being explained by his mother being a relative of Emperor Basileios I.  He was defeated by Bardas Fokas 24 May 979 in the plain of Pankaleia near Amorium and fled to King Chosroes at Baghdad[1436].  Joining the rebellion of Bardas Fokas against Emperor Basileios II, Skleros and Fokas agreed to partition the empire between them,  the agreement providing that Fokas would keep Constantinople and the European provinces while Skleros would take Asia Minor[1437].  Skleros rebelled against Fokas and proclaimed himself emperor at the same time, although he was captured by Fokas at Tyropaeum 14 Sep 987.  After Fokas's death at the battle of Abydos 13 Apr 989, Bardas Skleros was released by Fokas's widow[1438].  Bardas Skleros rebelled again in 989, after which he was blinded, accepted the title curopalates, and died in retirement[1439]m ---.  The name of the wife of Bardas Skleros is not known.  Bardas Skleros & his wife had one child:

i)          ROMANOS Skleros .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

-         see below.  

b)         KONSTANTINOS Skleros .  His parentage is indicated by Leo Diaconus when he records the marriage of "Constantinus patricius Scleri frater"[1440]m SOFIA, daughter of LEON Fokas & his wife ---.  Leo Diaconus records that "Constantinus patricius Scleri frater" was the husband of "sororem Phocæ"[1441].  Her name is confirmed by Cedrenus who records that "Sophia Phocæ soror" married "Constantino Duri fratri"[1442]

c)         MARIA Skleraina Leo Diaconus records that "Bardam cognomento Sclerum…cuius sororem Mariam" was previously the wife of "Ioannes"[1443]m as his first wife, IOANNES Tzimiskes, son of --- Tzimiskes & his wife --- Kourkouas (-10 Jan 976).  He succeeded in 969 as Emperor IOANNES I

 

 

ROMANOS Skleros, son of BARDAS Skleros & his wife --- .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

m ([978]) [---, relative of ABU TAGHLIB Emir of Mosul, daughter of ---.  Arabic sources mention a marriage alliance between the Skleros family and the family of the Emir of Mosul without specifying the parties.  It seems unlikely that a Muslim would give a relative to a Christian Greek unless he converted to Islam, which Romanos did not.  If the report is correct, she may have been a female relative married into the Emir's family[1444].] 

Romanos Skleros & his wife had [two] children:

1.         BASILEIOS Skleros (-after 1033).  Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), sent "Romani Sclyri filio, patricio Basilio" against "Prusianum Bulgarorum magistrum ac bucellariorum præfectum"[1445].  A seal dated to [1025] names "Basileios Skleros patrikios"[1446].  A seal dated to [1025/55] names "Basileios Skleros, magistros vestes and strategos of Anatolikon"[1447].  Cedrenus records that Emperor Romanos Argyros installed "Romanum Sclerum" (presumably an error for "Basilium"), blinded by Emperor Konstantinos VIII, as magister[1448].  Psellos records that he was blinded[1449].  Cedrenus records that "Basileus…Skleros…sororis imperatoris maritus…magister" was sent into exile "cum uxore", dated to [1033][1450]m POULCHERIA Argyre, sister of Emperor ROMANOS III, daughter of --- Argyros & his wife --- (-[1033/34]).  Cedrenus records that "Romanum Sclerum" was "sororis suæ maritum" (referring to Emperor Romanos Argyros)[1451].  Psellos names "Pulcheria, the emperor's sister, a woman of great spirit…who contributed not a little to her brother's success", when recording that she controlled the over-spending of her brother's second wife[1452].  Psellos records that "his sister Pulcheria" was enraged by Empress Zoe's love affair with Mikhael, but that she "died not long after"[1453].  Her husband's name is confirmed by Psellos when he records the second marriage of Konstantinos Monomakhos, arranged by Romanos Argyros before he became emperor, to "the daughter of his sister Pulcheria, who in the past had been married to Basil Sclerus"[1454].  This text implies that the marriage was terminated.  Basileios Skleros & his wife had one child:

a)         daughter (-before 1034).  Psellos records the second marriage of Konstantinos, arranged by Romanos Argyros before he became emperor, to "the daughter of his sister Pulcheria, who in the past had been married to Basil Sclerus", stating that she was her parents' only child[1455].  Zonaras records that, after the death of his first wife, Konstantinos married "imperatoris Romani nepte ex fratre"[1456].  According to Psellos, she died before her husband's exile to Lesbos[1457]m (before 1025) as his second wife, KONSTANTINOS Monomachos, son of THEODOSIOS Monomachos & his wife --- ([1005/10]-11 Jan 1055, bur Monastery of Mangana).  He succeeded in 1042 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS IX

2.         [--- Sklerosm ---.]  [Two children:]

a)         [ROMANOS Skleros (-after 1057).  Zonaras names "Sclerus Romanus, adamatæ mulieris frater" (referring to "Monomachum"), stating that the emperor had awarded him "magistri et protostratoris honorem"[1458].  Skylitzes names Romanos as brother of Maria[1459].  Emperor Konstantinos IX chose him as one of his personal advisers after his accession in 1042[1460].  Cedrenus names "Romanus Sclerus, Burtza, Botaneiates, Basilii Argyrii filii" among the supporters of Isaakios Komnenos, in 1057[1461].]  m ---.  The name of Romanos's wife is not known.  Romanos & his wife had one child: 

i)          --- Sklerosm ---.  One child: 

(a)       --- Skleros .  Psellos refers to Skleros, a grandson of Romanos Skleros in a letter[1462]

b)         [MARIA [Skleraina] (-[1044], bur Monastery of Mangana[1463]).  Zonaras records that, after the death of his second wife, Konstantinos was unable to marry a third time but took as his mistress "consobrina uxoris suæ…adulescentula…et nobili Sclerorum familia orta"[1464].  Psellos records that "the niece of his late wife" became mistress of Konstantinos Monomakhos, the future Emperor Konstantinos IX, after the death of his second wife, being unable to marry her because of the Orthodox church's prohibition of third marriages[1465].  As Psellos, in an earlier passage, records that the second wife of Konstantinos was her parents' only child[1466], the word "niece" cannot be interpreted in its strict sense in this text.  The editor of the edition of Psellos which has been consulted states that she was the sister of Romanos Skleros and granddaughter of Bardas (children of an otherwise unrecorded brother of Basileios Skleros), but the primary source on which this is based has not so far been identified[1467].  If this is correct, she and her brother must have been born from an otherwise second marriage of Basileios Skleros.  Psellos hints that this might be correct when he refers to her in later passages as "Sclerena"[1468].  Another possibility is that one of Maria's parents was the daughter or son of either Pulcheria Argyre or Basileios Skleros (the parents of Konstantinos's first wife) by a second marriage: Psellos does suggest that Pulcheria and Basileios's marriage terminated early when he states that "…Pulcheria…in the past had been married to Basil Sclerus"[1469].  The primary source which confirms her name has not so far been identified.  She followed Konstantinos Monomachos into exile on Lesbos in 1034.  She was recalled to Constantinople after her husband's accession, but was unpopular, her presence causing a riot 9 Mar 1044.  Eventually, she was introduced openly to the Palace as her husband's mistress, acting as a junior consort and granted the title Augusta[1470].  Psellos records the death of "Sclerena" and the emperor's grief[1471]Mistress: (before 1034-[1044]) of KONSTANTINOS Monomachos, son of THEODOSIOS Monomachos & his wife --- (-11 Jan 1055, bur Monastery of Mangana).  He succeeded in 1042 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS IX.  He was unable to marry Maria as the Orthodox church prohibited third marriages[1472].] 

 

 

1.         THEODOTOS Skleros (-after [1000]).  A seal dated to [1000] names "Theodotos Skleros patrikios"[1473]

 

2.         PANTHERIOS Skleros .  A seal dated to [1048] names "Pantherios Skleros"[1474].  A seal dated to [1052] names "Pantherios Skleros, anthypatos and patrikios"[1475]

 

3.         IOANNES Skleros (-after [1050]).  A seal dated to [1050] names "Ioannes Skleros, patrikios anthypatos and strategos of Peloponnesos"[1476]

 

 

Two siblings, parents not known: 

1.         NIKOLAOS Skleros .  A seal dated to [1060] names "Nikolaos Skleros, magistros and epi ton deeseon"[1477].  A seal dated to [1063] names "Nikolaos Skleros, vestes and krites of Boukellarion"[1478].  A seal dated to [1075] names "Nikolaos Skleros, magistros vestes and epi ton deeseon"[1479]

2.         --- .  m ---.  One child: 

a)         ANASTASIOS Lisikos .  Psellos refers to Anastasios as ανεψιόν of Nikolaos Skleros in a letter[1480], naming him Anastasios Lisikos in other letters[1481], and giving him the titles krites, patrikios and vestarches in others[1482]

 

 

1.         KONSTANTINOS Skleros (-after [1088]).  A seal dated to [1050] names "Konstantinos Skleros, protospatharios krites of the hippodrone and…Moglena"[1483].  A seal dated to [1070] names "Konstantinos Skleros, magistros and vestes"[1484].  A seal dated to [1075] names "Konstantinos Skleros, vestarches and krites of Thrace and Macedonia"[1485].  A seal dated to [1088] names "Konstantinos Skleros, protoproedros and krites of Thrace and Macedonia"[1486]

 

2.         LEON Skleros (-after [1085]).  Three seals dated to [1065] name "Leon Skleros, vestarches and krites of Anatolikon" (two) and "Leon Sk leros, vestarches and krites of Opsikion"[1487].  Two seals dated to [1070] name "Leon Skleros, magistros and praetor of Opsikion"[1488].  A seal dated to [1073] names "Leon Skleros, magistros and praetor of Boukellarion"[1489].  A seal dated to [1080] names "Leon Skleros, magistros and epi tou vestiariou"[1490].  A seal dated to [1085] names "Leon Skleros, magistros vestes vestarches and krites of Aegean Sea"[1491]

 

3.         THEODOROS Skleros (-after [1084]).  A seal dated to [1084] names "Theodoros Skleros vestes and oikistikos"[1492]

 

4.         ANDRONIKOS Skleros (-after 1094).  A seal dated to [1084] names "Andronikos Skleros"[1493].  The synod of 1094 names Andronikos Skleros, logothetis tou dromou, protonobelissimos[1494]

 

5.         MIKHAEL Skleros [I] (-after 1094).  Two seals dated to [1080] and [1083] name "Michael Skleros, protoproedros, krites and exisotes of the West"[1495].  Two seals dated to [1050] and [1085] name "Michael Skleros protoproedros and anagrapheus of Drogoubiteia"[1496].  The synod of 1094 names Mikhael Skleros, kouropalates[1497]

 

6.         MIKHAEL Skleros [II] (-after [1120]).  From a chronological point of view, it is likely that this Mikhael Skleros was a different person from the preceding Mikhael Skleros.  A seal dated to [1100] names "Michael Skleros nobelissimos"[1498].  A seal dated to [1100] names "Michael Skleros protoproedros"[1499].  A seal dated to [1120] names "Michael Skleros proedros and doux of Bodena and Sthlanitza"[1500]

 

7.         [IGNATIOS] Skleros (-after [1100]).  A seal dated to [1100] names "Ignatios Skleros monk"[1501].  It is possible that Ignatios was his monastic name and he is the same person as one of the other individuals named Skleros who are shown in this document. 

 

8.         ROMANOS Skleros (-after [1133]).  Two seals dated to [1133] name "Romanos Skleros"[1502]

 

9.         THEODORA (-after [1133]).  A seal dated to [1133] names "Theodora Skleraina"[1503]

 

10.      NIKOLAOS Skleros (-after [1178]).  A seal dated to [1178] names "Nikolaos Skleros, protoproedros megas skeuophylax of Blachernai and protos tes presbeias"[1504]

 

11.      ROMANOS Skleros (-after [1200]).  A seal dated to [1200] names "commander…Romanos Skleros"[1505]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11.  EMPEROR 1028-1034 (ARGYROS)

 

 

The main source for the Argyros family is Jean-François Vannier[1506]

 

 

1.         LEON [I] Argyros (-after [838/44]).  Theophanes Continuatus names "Argyri ducisque filii", early in the reign of Emperor Mikhael III[1507]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Leo Argyrorum", who founded "monasterio S Elisabet…in Charsiani themate", was the first in his family and he had fought for "Michaele imperatore"[1508]m ---.  The name of Leo´s wife is not known.  Leo [I] & his wife had one child:  

a)         [EUSTATHIOS Argyros ([830/50]-[910]).  His parentage is confirmed by Theophanes Continuatus which names "Potus ac Leo" as the children of "Eustathium cognomento Argyrum", recording that they transferred their father's body to "monasterio S Elisabet…in Charsiani themate" which had been founded by "Leone tribuno illorum avo"[1509].  However, Cedrenus names "Eustathium magistrum drungarium" and "avus eius Leo…primus Argyrorum", adding that the latter founded the monastery of St Elisabeth[1510], which indicates a missing generation in the account recorded by Theophanes Continuatus.  It is not possible to decide conclusively which version may be correct as the birth date range estimated for Eustathios, consistent with the birth date ranges estimated for his descendants, could be consistent with either version.  However, Eustathios naming his older son Leon is consistent with his father bearing the same name, in line with the Byzantine convention of naming the eldest son after the paternal grandfather.  For this reason it has been decided in this document to omit the possible additional generation in this family.  Strategos of the theme of Charsianon [907].  Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Leo VI deprived "Eustathium cognomento Argyrum" of his position of "excubiarum drungarii" and sent him back "ad Charsianum", but that he was poisoned on the journey, died "ad Aran" and was buried "in Spunino, quod ipsius Aran vertex est"[1511].]  m ---.  The name of Eustathios´s wife is not known.  Eustathios & his wife had two children:   

i)          LEON [II] Argyros ([860/75]-after 922)Theophanes Continuatus names "Potus ac Leo" as the children of "Eustathium cognomento Argyrum", recording that they transferred their father's body to "monasterio S Elisabet…in Charsiani themate" which had been founded by "Leone tribuno illorum avo"[1512].  His birth date range is estimated based on the birth date range estimated for his son Romanos.  Domestikos of the Scholai and magister

-         see below

ii)         POTHOS Argyros (-after 958).  Theophanes Continuatus names "Potus ac Leo" as the children of "Eustathium cognomento Argyrum", recording that they transferred their father's body to "monasterio S Elisabet…in Charsiani themate" which had been founded by "Leone tribuno illorum avo"[1513]Domestikos of the ScholaiSymeon Magister names "Pothus Argyri filius scholarum domesticus"[1514]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Leone et Potho Argyris" fought in the Bulgarian war, dated to [921/22] from the context, but that they were both forced to flee[1515]Theophanes Continuatus names "Pothum Argyrum patricum ac excubitorum domesticum", recording that he was sent with his legions "ducisque bucelariorum et Opsicii ac Thracesiorum", in the late 950s from the context[1516]

 

 

LEON Argyros, son of EUSTATHIOS Argyros & his wife --- ([860/75]-after 922)Theophanes Continuatus names "Potus ac Leo" as the children of "Eustathium cognomento Argyrum", recording that they transferred their father's body to "monasterio S Elisabet…in Charsiani themate" which had been founded by "Leone tribuno illorum avo"[1517].  His birth date range is estimated based on the birth date range estimated for his son Romanos.  Domestikos of the Scholai and magister.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Leo Argyri, Eustathii filius, qui magister postea et scholarum domesticus" when recording that he was sent to Larissa[1518]Theophanes Continuatus records that "Leone et Potho Argyris" fought in the Bulgarian war, dated to [921/22] from the context, but that they were both forced to flee[1519]

m ---.  The name of the wife of Leo Argyros is not known. 

Leo & his wife had two children: 

1.         MARIANOS Argyros (-killed Constantinople 16 Aug 963).  Cedrenus records that, after his restoration (944), Emperor Konstantinos VII appointed "Marianum Argyrum" as "comitem stabuli"[1520]Theophanes Continuatus names "Marianus patricius Argyrus" recording that he led the army of Emperor Konstantinos VII to Naples "cum Romano"[1521].  Strategos of the theme of Calabria and Longobardia 955-959.  He was killed opposing the army of Nikeforos Fokas.  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Marianus patricius Argyri filius…ducis potestate Macedonum legioni præfectus Occidentique præpositus" fought in battle against the Turks in Thrace, dated to the early 960s from the context[1522]

2.         ROMANOS Argyros ([890/900]-)Theophanes Continuatus names "Romanus Argyrus ducis…eiusque frater Leo" during the account of the war with Bulgaria (in 918)[1523].  Cedrenus names "Romanus et Leo Argyri filii"[1524].  His birth date range is estimated from his marriage date.  A later passage in Theophanes Continuatus names "Romanum…Leonis filium" when recording his marriage[1525], which suggests that "frater" in the earlier passage was an error for "pater".  From a chronological point of view, it appears more likely that Romanos was the son of Leon rather than his brother.  m (921) AGATHA Lekapene, daughter of Emperor ROMANOS I Lekapenos & his [first] wife ---.  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Romanus imperator Agatha filia" married "Romanum…Leonis filium", dated to 921 from the context[1526].  Cedrenus records that "Romanus filiam suam Agatham" married "Leoni Argyri filio"[1527].  Romanos & his wife had one child: 

a)         --- Argyre .  His existence is confirmed by Yahya of Antioch who records that Emperor Romanos was the grandson of Romanos[1528]

-        see below

 

 

1.         [IOANNES] Argyros (-after [1000]).  A seal dated to [1000] names "[Ioannes] Argyros imperial protospatharios epi tou Chrysotriklinou"[1529]

 

2.         --- [Argyre] .  This marriage of Melus is not attested.  However, his son is consistently named "Argyro" in primary sources (see SICILY), presumably a family name (no mention has been found of his baptismal name) and one which it is reasonable to suppose that he inherited from his mother.  There is no indication that Melus was a member of the Argyros family himself.  m MELUS, son of --- (-Bamberg 23 Apr 1020, bur Bamberg). 

 

3.         POTHOS Argyros (-killed 3 Mar 1032).  A seal dated to [1000] names "[Petros] Argyros patrikios and strategos of Chaldia"[1530], which may possibly refer to Pothos as no other reference to the name Petros has been found in the Argyros family.  Lupus Protospatarius records that "Potho catepani" arrived in Jul 1029 and fought "cum Raycha" at Bari, and in 1031 fought "cum Sarracenis, et cediderunt Græci"[1531].  A seal dated to [1030] names "Pothos Argyros, protospatharios and katepano of Italy"[1532].  Cedrenus records that "Potho Argyro" captured an Arab "Musaraphus" who was taken in chains to Antioch but released by "Spondyles Antiochiæ dux", dated to [1032][1533]

 

 

--- Argyros, son of ROMANOS Argyros & his wife Agatha Lekepene .  His existence is confirmed by Yahya of Antioch who records that Emperor Romanos was the grandson of Romanos[1534]

m ---.  The name of his wife is not known. 

--- Argyros & his wife had [eight] children: 

1.         ROMANOS Argyros (968-Constantinople 12 Apr 1034).  Yahya of Antioch records that Emperor Romanos was the grandson of Romanos[1535].  Psellos records that "Romanus…Argyropulos" was "more than twenty years older than" his second wife[1536].  City Prefect [eparkhos] of Constantinople.  He was hastily married to Zoe by his father-in-law a few days before the latter's death.  He succeeded his father-in-law in 1028 as Emperor ROMANOS III.  Under pressure from the nobility, he abolished the allelengyon system of taxation, introduced by Emperor Basileios II, under whch the nobles bore the tax burden of the poor[1537].  After launching a military campaign against the Saracens in Asia Minor, his army was defeated in 1030 at Aleppo[1538].  He had more success in 1031, when his general Giorgios Maniakes captured Edessa[1539].  He came to despise Empress Zoe, living openly with his mistress[1540].  He suffered from a wasting disease which caused his hair and beard to fall out[1541].  Emperor Romanos drowned in his bath[1542], presumably murdered on the orders of his wife and her lover, whom she married later the same day.  Lupus Protospatarius records that "Argiro Barensis" died in Constantinople in 1034[1543]m firstly (repudiated 1028) HELENA, daughter of ---.  Psellos records that the first wife of "Romanus…Argyropulos" was sent to a nunnery to permit his second marriage to the emperor's daughter, but does not name her[1544].  Cedrenus records that "Romano Argyro" repudiated his first wife (unnamed) to marry the emperor´s daughter[1545].  Skylitzes names Helena as the first wife of Emperor Romanos III[1546]m secondly (1028) as her first husband, ZOE, daughter of Emperor KONSTANTINOS VIII & his wife Helena --- (980-1050).  Psellos records that Emperor Konstantinos hastily arranged the marriage of his second daughter to "Romanus…Argyropulos" when dying, calling her "Zoe" in a later passage and stating that she was "in her fiftieth year when she married him" and that "he was more than twenty years older than she was"[1547].  She succeeded in 1042 as Empress ZOEMistress: ---.  Her existence is confirmed by Psellos, who records that Emperor Romanos came to despise his second wife and lived openly with his mistress[1548].  Romanos & [his first wife] had one child: 

a)         THEOFANO Argyre .  A seal names "Theophano daughter of Romanos Argyros patrikios"[1549], presumably dated to before Romanos became emperor in 1028. 

2.         POULCHERIA Argyre (-[1033/34]).  Psellos names "Pulcheria, the emperor's sister, a woman of great spirit…who contributed not a little to her brother's success", when recording that she controlled the over-spending of her brother's second wife[1550].  Cedrenus records that "Romanum Sclerum" was "sororis suæ maritum" (referring to Emperor Romanos Argyros)[1551].  It is likely that Pulcheria was considerably younger than her brother Romanos, assuming that the marriage of her parents-in-law is correctly dated to [978].  Psellos records that "his sister Pulcheria" was enraged by Empress Zoe's love affair with Mikhael, but that she "died not long after"[1552].  m BASILEIOS Skleros, son of ROMANOS Skleros & his wife ---. 

3.         BASILEIOS Argyros (-[1017]).  Zonaras names "ex fratre Basilio" (referring to Emperor Romanos III) when recording the marriage of his daughter[1553].  Governor of Samos.  Cedrenus records that "Basilium Argyrum Sami et Contoleonem Cephalleniæ præfectos" were defeated by "Meles" whom Emperor Basileios had sent them to attack in southern Italy[1554]Lupus Protospatarius records that "rebellio" started in southern Italy in May 1009, that "Curcus" (Kourkouas, Byzantine katepan) died in 1010 and that "Basilius catepanus Marsedonici" arrived in Mar 1010[1555].  The Annales Barenses record that "catepano Basilio cognomento Sardonti" besieged Bari in Apr 1013 for 61 days before the town surrendered[1556].  Governor of Vaspurakan.  Cedrenus records that Emperor Basileios II appointed "Basilium patricium Argyrum" as governor of "Aspracaniæ" after Senekerim Prince of Vaspurakan submitted to the emperor, but that Basileios was removed from office "ob rem male gestam"[1557].  A seal dated to [1035] names "Basileios Argyros, patrikios and strategos of Thrace"[1558].  Strategos of the theme of Samos, and katepan of Italy until 1016.  Lupus Protospatarius records that "Marsedonici catepanus" died "in Butruntio" in 1017 and that "Leo frater Argiro" was killed in Nov 1017[1559].  Strategos of the theme of Vaspurakan 1016-1019.  A seal dated to [1025] names "Basileios Argyros, patrikios"[1560].  A seal dated to [1035] names "Basileios Argyros, patrikios and strategos of Thrace"[1561]m ---.  Basileios & his wife had [three or more] children: 

a)         HELENA Argyre (-Kouthathis [1033]).  Cedrenus records that "Abasgiæ princeps Georgius…filio suo Pancratio" married "imperator…Helenamque sui fratris filiam", dated to [1032][1562].  Zonaras records that, after the death of "Georgio Albasgiæ principe", his widow renewed the treaty with Byzantium and that "Helena ex fratre Basilio nepte" was sent "in Abasgiam" and that "Pancratium curopalatem" was chosen as her husband, clarifying in a later passage that she was "Romanus imperator…neptem"[1563].  The Georgian Chronicle records that "Heghine from the line of the Greek kings" was sent to marry Bagrat, presumably at the same time as his mother negotiated the peace treaty in Constantinople[1564].  If the latter negotiation is correctly dated to [1031/32], this was during the reign of Emperor Romanos III, which suggests that the first wife of Bagrat must have belonged to the Argyros family.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "la reine Eléné" died "à Kouthathis"[1565]m ([1032]) as his first wife, BAGRAT IV King of Abkhazia and Kartvelia, son of GIORGI I King of Georgia & his wife Mariam of Vaspurakan ([1017/18]-24 Nov 1072). 

b)         sons (-after 1057).  Cedrenus names "Romanus Sclerus, Burtza, Botaneiates, Basilii Argyrii filii" among the supporters of Isaakios Komnenos, in 1057[1566].  The number of sons of Basileios Argyros is not known. 

4.         LEO (-killed Italy Nov 1017).  Lupus Protospatarius records that "Marsedonici catepanus" died "in Butruntio" in 1017 and that "Leo frater Argiro" was killed in Nov 1017[1567].  The fact that the same source records the death of "Argiro Barensis" (which must indicate Emperor Romanos III) in Constantinople in 1034 suggests that the future emperor may have been the same person as the brother of Leo[1568]

5.         son .  It is not known whether this son was the same person as Basileios or Leo named above, or a different person.  m ---.  One child: 

a)         daughter .  Zonaras refers to "vestacharum dignitate…a Duca Sardicæ dux", indicating the future Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes, whose father married "Romani Argyri neptem ex fratre"[1569].  Cedrenus records that the wife of "Constantinus Diogenes" was "fratre imperatoris nata"[1570]m KONSTANTINOS Diogenes, son of --- (-[1032]). 

6.         [--- .  m ---.]  [One child]: 

a)         daughter .  Skylitzes states that the wife of Smbat King of Armenia was ανεψιάν of Emperor Romanos III[1571].  The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record the "Romain donne en marriage sa fille à notre roi Iohannès" in 1032[1572]m (1032) SMBAT III King of Armenia, son of GAGIK I "the Great" King of Armenia & his wife Katramide of Siwnik (-1041). 

7.         [MARIA Argyre (-Venice 1005, bur San Zaccaria).  Cedrenus records the marriage of "principi Venetiæ" and "filiam Argyri, sororem…Romani [postea imperator]"[1573].  The Chronicon Venetum refers to "filiam Argiropoli, imperiali editam stirpe…imperatorum videlicet neptis" as wife of "Iohannem ducem" when recording their marriage, the reference to Giovanni's title suggesting that the marriage took place after he was associated in the Dogeship by his father.  In a later passage, she is named "domna vero Maria, Greca ductrix"[1574].  No more precise indication of her parentage has been found in any of the other primary sources so far consulted.  If she was a member of the Argyros family, it is chronologically consistent for her to have been a younger sister of the future Emperor Romanos III, but the relationship may have been more distant.  It is assumed that the reference in the Chronicon Venetum to Maria having been "…imperatorum…neptis" was hyperbole for Venetian audiences.  Basileios II was Byzantine emperor at the time of the marriage and no reference has been found of any relationship between the imperial family and the Argyros family.  Indeed, such a relationship is unlikely in view of the subsequent marriage between Empress Zoe, the niece of Emperor Basileios, and Emperor Romanos III Argyros, no mention having been found in the Byzantine primary sources so far consulted to this marriage having been within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity.  The Chronicon Venetum records the death of Maria and her husband from plague, as well as their burial place[1575]m ([1003]) GIOVANNI Orseolo, son of PIETRO Orseolo [II] Doge of Venice ([983]-Venice 1005, bur San Zaccaria).  His father associated him with the Dogeship.  He, his wife and young son died from plague.] 

8.         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Cedrenus who records that Emperor Romanos sent "sororis suæ maritum Constantinum patricium Carantenum" with an army to Syria, dated to [1029/32][1576]m KONSTANTINOS Karantenos, son of --- (-after [1032]).  Cedrenus records that Emperor Romanos appointed "Constantinum Carantenum, sororis suæ maritum" as doux of Antioch in succession to "Spondyles Antiochiæ dux", dated to [1032][1577]

 

 

The precise relationship between the following persons and the main Argyros family are not known. 

 

1.         MIKHAEL Argyros (-after [1040]).  A seal dated to [1040] names "Michael Argyros"[1578]

 

2.         POTHOS Argyros (-after [1055]).  A seal dated to [1050] names "Pothos Argyros, patrikios"[1579].  A seal dated to [1055] names "Pothos Argyros, magistros"[1580]

 

3.         NIKEFOROS Argyros (-after [1050]).  A seal dated to [1040] names "Nikephoros Argyros, protospatharios"[1581].  A seal dated to [1050] names "Nikephoros Argyros, protospatharios"[1582]

 

4.         IOANNES Argyros (-after [1050]).  A seal dated to [1050] names "Ioannes Argyros, protospatharios epi tou Chrysotriklinou and imperial notarios of the receipts of the sekreton of the ephoros"[1583]same person as…?  IOANNES Argyropoulos (-after [1050]).  A seal dated to [1050] names "Ioannes Argyropoulos patrikios"[1584]

 

5.         KONSTANTINOS Argyros (-after [1050]).  A seal dated to [1050] names "Konstantinos Argyros, patrikios and strategos"[1585]

 

6.         LEON Argyros (-after [1050]).  A seal dated to [1050] names "Leon Argyros, patrikios"[1586]

 

7.         NIKETAS Argyros (-after [1065]).  A seal dated to [1065] names "Niketas Argyros, magistros and praetor of Byzantium"[1587]

 

8.         --- Argyre (-before Oct 1077).  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Alexium Comnenum" married "filia Argyri…viri nobilis" as his first wife[1588]m ([1075]) as his first wife, ALEXIOS Komnenos, son of IOANNES Komnenos, kuropalates and domestikos & his wife Anna Dalassena ([1048/57]-15 Aug 1118).  He succeeded in 1081 as Emperor ALEXIOS I

 

9.         [--- Argyre.  Kosztolnyik refers to (unnamed) Byzantine sources which record the Byzantine marriage of Imre[1589], suggesting that "the terminology of the Greek text of the founding charter of the monastery for women at Veszprém" supports the position[1590].  It is not clear whether these sources specify that she was a member of the Argyre family, but this appears unlikely to be correct.  If Prince Imre did marry a Byzantine princess, the marriage may have been arranged by Emperor Basileios II.  Although Romanos Argyros (later Emperor Romanos III) held office during the later years of the emperor's reign (he was city prefect of Constantinople), the absence of detailed information in Greek primary sources about the Argyros family suggests that it was not at that time especially prominent among the noble families of the empire.  If that is correct, a member of the Argyros family would seem a surprising choice as bride for the heir to the Hungarian throne.  This difficulty would not arise if the marriage took place after the accession of Emperor Romanos in 1028.  If this Byzantine marriage is correct, it is possible that her father-in-law founded the Greek monastery in Veszprém valley for his son's wife[1591].  An alternative possible marriage of Prince Imre is mentioned in the Annales Sanctæ Crucis Polonici which record that "Stephanus rex…filium…Emrich" married "Meszkone rege Polonie…filiam"[1592]m IMRE of Hungary, son of ISTVÁN I King of Hungary & his wife Gisela of Bavaria ([1007]-killed Bihar 2 Nov 1031).] 

 

10.      ROMANOS Argyros (-after [1050]).  A seal dated to [1050] names "Romanos Argyros, protospatharios megas chartoularios imperial krites of the hippodrome"[1593]same person as…?  ROMANOS Argyropoulos (-after [1050]).  A seal dated to [1075] names "Romanos Argyropolos, patrikios and imperial notarios"[1594]

 

11.      STEFANOS Argyros .  Two documents at Lavra names Stefanos Argyros, with the titles chartoularios of the nea (of Thessaloniki), klerikos of Hagia Sofia (Thessaloniki), kouboukleisios, libellesios, primikerios of the notarioi of Thessaloniki, and primikerios of the taboullarioi, dated to the late 11th century[1595]

 

12.      LEON Argyros (-after [1100]).  Two seals dated to [1100] name "Leon Argyros"[1596]

 

13.      IOANNES Argyros (-after [1125]).  A seal dated to [1125] names "Ioannes Argyros"[1597]

 

 

(It is not certain that the Argyropoulos family was the same as the Argyros family.) 

 

1.         MIKHAEL Argyropoulos (-after [1083]).  A seal dated to [1083] names "Michael Argyropolos, proedros"[1598]

 

2.         GEORGIOS Argyropoulos (-after [1095]).  A seal dated to [1090] names "Georgios Argyropoloulos, magistros"[1599].  A seal dated to [1095] names "Georgios Argyropoloulos, proedros"[1600]

 

3.         MARIA (-after [1095]).  A seal dated to [1095] names "Maria Argyropoulena, kouropalatissa"[1601]

 

4.         KONSTANTINOS Argyros [Argyropoulos] .  A seal dated to [1075] names "Konstantinos Argyropoloulos, magistros and strategos of Samos"[1602].  A seal dated to [1095] names "Georgios Argyropoloulos, proedros"[1603].  Konstantinos Argyros, magistros at Thessaloniki, witnessed a document at Docheiariou, dated to the early 12th century[1604]

 

5.         IOANNES Argyropoulos .  Ioannes Argyropoulos, magistros at Thessaloniki, witnessed a document at Docheiariou, dated to the early 12th century[1605].  A seal dated to [1150] names "Ioannes Argyropoulos"[1606]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12.  EMPERORS 1034-1042 (from PAPHLAGONIA)

 

 

---.  A peasant in Paphlagonia, who had six known children: 

1.         IOANNES Orfanotrophos ([990/1000]-murdered Marikatis 13 May 1043).  Cedrenus names "Joanne" and "ei fratres Michaelus, Niceta, Constantinus et Georgius"[1607].  Zonaras names "regis frater…Ioannes…soror eius Maria, Michaelis Calaphatæ…mater"[1608].  He must have been considerably older than his younger brother Emperor Mikhael IV.  A eunuch, he was protonotary under Emperor Basileios II.  At the imperial court, he became the virtual administrator of the empire.  He procured the succession of his younger brother as Emperor Mikhael IV and, after the death of the latter, that of his nephew as Emperor Mikhael V.  Psellos records that "a certain eunuch, a man of mean and contemptible fortune, but endowed with an extremely active and ingenious mind" introduced his "brother…in his early manhood" to the emperor and empress "who at once fell victim to his charms", naming him "John" in a later passage[1609].  Psellos records that, after the accession of Emperor Mikhael V, Ioannes was banished to the monastery of Monobatae in early 1042[1610].  Cedrenus records that "orphanotrophus" was blinded "postridie Kal Mai…in loco…Marycatis" and died 13 May[1611].  Psellos records that Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos ordered his death after banishing him to Mitylene[1612]

2.         MARIA ([990/95]-Ephesus May [1041/42]).  Zonaras names "regis frater…Ioannes…soror eius Maria, Michaelis Calaphatæ…mater" and as wife of "Stephano patricio"[1613].  Cedrenus records the death in May "indictione 8" of "soror imperatoris Maria, Cæsaris mater" at Ephesus[1614], although the dating must be incorrect as her brother is recorded as emperor.  m STEFANOS, son of --- (-[1039/41]).  Psellos records that the father of Emperor Mikhael V "came from some absolutely deserted country place or from some other odd corner of the world" and "looked to the sea for his living", working "in the ship-building line…he very skilfully smeared the assembled parts with pitch"[1615].  He led the Byzantine fleet which sailed for Sicily in 1038.  He was attacked by general Maniakis, leader of the Byzantine forces, who blamed him for the escape of Abdullah Emir of Palermo.  It appears that Stefanos engineered the general's recall to Constantinople[1616].  His date of death is estimated from Psellos recording that John Orfanotrophos proposed to Emperor Mikhael IV that he appoint "our sister's son Michael" as cæsar, a post which he would have granted to "our brother [if he] were not dead"[1617].  Maria & Stefanos had one child:

a)         MIKHAEL ([1015/20]-after Apr 1042).  Zonaras names "regis frater…Ioannes…soror eius Maria, Michaelis Calaphatæ…mater" and as wife of "Stephano patricio"[1618].  Psellos records that John Orfanotrophos proposed to Emperor Mikhael IV that he appoint "our sister's son Michael", who had been entrusted with the command of Empress Zoe's bodyguard, as cæsar and that the empress should adopt him[1619].  His birth date range is estimated on the assumption that he was a young adult at the time: Psellos describes him as a "young man" when he succeeded to the throne[1620].  While Emperor Mikhael IV was dying, Mikhael was escorted to the palace by his uncles to ensure his succession[1621].  Having gained the support of Empress Zoe, he was proclaimed and crowned in 1041 as Emperor MIKHAEL V "Kalafatis".  Having spent the previous years cultivating his relationship with his uncle Ioannes the Orfanotrophos to ensure his own succession, Emperor Mikhael banished him.  The population was hostile to the emperor's arrogance and indignant when he exiled Empress Zoe to Prinkipo island in the sea of Marmora 18 Apr 1042 on fabricated charges[1622].  A general uprising followed in Constantinople, Emperor Mikhael recalled Empress Zoe, but under the leadership of Konstantinos Kabasilas the mob forcibly removed the empress's younger sister Theodora from her convent and proclaimed her empress[1623].  Emperor Mikhael fled to the monastery of Studion with his uncle Konstantinos, but they were hounded out of the church by the mob and blinded 21 Apr 1042.  The emperor was banished to the monastery of Elcimon[1624]

3.         MIKHAEL ([1012] or after-Monastery of the Holy Anagyroi 10 Dec 1041, bur Monastery of the Holy Anagyroi).  Cedrenus names "Joanne" and "ei fratres Michaelus, Niceta, Constantinus et Georgius"[1625].  Mikhael Glykas names "Michaelus, Nicetas, Constantinus et Georgius" as brothers of Ioannes[1626].  Psellos records that "a certain eunuch, a man of mean and contemptible fortune, but endowed with an extremely active and ingenious mind" introduced his "brother…in his early manhood" to the emperor and empress "who at once fell victim to his charms"[1627].  His birth date is estimated on the assumption that Psellos is accurate ikn describing him as "in his early manhood" when introduced to the empress.  Emperor Romanos drowned in his bath[1628], presumably murdered on the orders of his wife and her lover, whom she married later the same day.  He was proclaimed Emperor MIKHAEL IV immediately after the marriage.  He led campaigns in Serbia to crush rebellions.  He launched the expedition to Sicily in summer 1038 to reconquer the island from the Muslims, under the command of general Georgios Maniakes.  After triumphing at Syracuse, restoring the eastern half of the island to Byzantine control, Maniakis was recalled to Constantinople, apparently engineered by the emperor's brother-in-law whom he had attacked.  Emperor Mikhael's troops suppressed the Bulgarian rebellion of Peter Deljan in 1041, helped by Peter's [supposed] second cousin Alusian who, after at first joining the rebellion, defected to Constantinople[1629].  An epileptic, the emperor's condition became progressively worse.  In an attempt to seek forgiveness for his sins, he founded a new hospice for beggars [ptochotropheium] and an asylum for reformed prostitutes[1630].  As a dying gesture, he became a monk in the monastery which he had built, but died later the same day[1631]m (11 Apr 1034) as her second husband, ZOE, daughter of Emperor KONSTANTINOS VIII & his wife Helena --- (980-1050).  Psellos records that "a certain eunuch, a man of mean and contemptible fortune, but endowed with an extremely active and ingenious mind" introduced his "brother…in his early manhood" to the emperor and empress "who at once fell victim to his charms"[1632].  On the deposition of Emperor Mikhael V in 1042, she succeeded as Empress ZOE, with her sister as Co-Empress. 

4.         NIKETAS (-[before summer 1038]).  Cedrenus names "Joanne" and "ei fratres Michaelus, Niceta, Constantinus et Georgius"[1633].  Mikhael Glykas names "Michaelus, Nicetas, Constantinus et Georgius" as brothers of Ioannes[1634].  Zonaras records that Emperor Mikael IV installed "fratri Ioanni" as dux at Antioch and that, after "Antiocheno duce Niceta" died, "Constantinus…ipse regis frater…altero eius fratre protovestiario" succeeded him, in a passage which precedes the description of the Sicilian campaign of Georgios Maniakes (which began in summer 1038)[1635]

5.         KONSTANTINOS (-after 21 Apr 1042).  Cedrenus names "Joanne" and "ei fratres Michaelus, Niceta, Constantinus et Georgius"[1636].  Mikhael Glykas names "Michaelus, Nicetas, Constantinus et Georgius" as brothers of Ioannes[1637].  Zonaras records that "Constantinus…ipse regis frater…altero eius fratre protovestiario" succeeded as dux at Antioch after the death of his brother Niketas[1638].  Psellos records that, after the death of Emperor Mikhael IV, his "other two surviving brothers…escorted the cæsar his nephew to the palace", naming one of them "Constantine" in a later passage[1639].  He was appointed nobilissimus, and encouraged his nephew Emperor Mikhael V to banish his older brother Ioannes the Orfanotrophos[1640].  He stood by his nephew during the general uprising which followed the banishment of Empress Zoe to Prinkipo island 18 Apr 1042, and fled with him to the monastery of Studion from where they were hounded out by the mob and blinded 21 Apr 1042.  Konstantinos's subsequent fate is unknown[1641]

6.         GEORGIOS.  Cedrenus names "Joanne" and "ei fratres Michaelus, Niceta, Constantinus et Georgius"[1642].  Mikhael Glykas names "Michaelus, Nicetas, Constantinus et Georgius" as brothers of Ioannes[1643].  Psellos records that, after the death of Emperor Mikhael IV, his "other two surviving brothers…escorted the cæsar his nephew to the palace", naming one of them "Constantine" in a later passage but leaving the other unnamed[1644]

 

 

The precise relationship between the following individual and the above family has not yet been established: 

1.         KONSTANTINOS (-after 1041).  Cedrenus names "Constantinus patricius, patruelis imperatoris" (referring to Emperor Mikhael IV) as strategos of Thessaloniki, when recording that Peter Deljan Tsar of Bulgaria attacked the city, dated to [1041] from the context[1645]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 13.  EMPEROR 1042-1055 (MONOMACHOS)

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         THEODOSIOS Monomachos .  A seal dated to [1025] names "Theodosios Monomachos, protospatharios epi tou koitonos and parathalassites"[1646].  A seal dated to [1030] names "Theodosios Monomachos, [magistros vestes and epi tes sakelles]"[1647].  A seal dated to [1030] names "Theodosios Monomachos, [magistros and ephoros]"[1648]m ---, daughter of ---.  The name and origin of the wife of Theodosios Monomachos is not known.  A clue is provided by Psellos who records that "the emperor [Konstantinos IX] had a second cousin on the maternal side…Leo, a member of the Tornician family…who lived in Adrianopolis"[1649].  Zonaras names "Leone Tornicio…materno imperatoris cognato"[1650].  Theodosios Monomachos & his wife had three known children:

a)         KONSTANTINOS Monomachos ([1005/1010]-11 Jan 1055, bur Monastery of Mangana).  Psellos names "Constantine the son of Theodosius…the last scion of the ancient family of the Monomachi in the male line" when recording that Empress Zoe chose to marry him[1651].  His birth date is estimated from Psellos describing him as a "young man" at the time of the accession of Emperor Romanos III[1652].  Although well-born and held in respect, neither Emperor Basileios II nor Emperor Konstantinos VIII promoted him to office, for they were suspicious about his relations with the Skleros family after his second marriage[1653].  Nevertheless, Konstantinos appears to have enjoyed a close relationship with Empress Zoe, especially during the reign of Emperor Mikhael IV, although the latter fabricated charges against him and exiled him to the island of Lesbos.  After her joint accession with her sister, Empress Zoe recalled Konstantinos from exile and married him, despite the Byzantine church's prohibition of third marriages[1654].  He was crowned 12 Jun 1042 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS IX.  He started his reign with another flush of largesse, which exhausted his treasury[1655].  His general Giorgios Maniakis recaptured the eastern part of Sicily from the Arabs, but was ordered to withdraw by the emperor before he could push his advantage further.  Resentful of this treatment, Maniakis rebelled and was acclaimed emperor by his troops, but was killed in battle in 1043 en route to Constantinople.  Leon Tornikios (who had courted Emperor Konstantinos's sister Euprepia) rebelled, was proclaimed emperor Sep 1047, and besieged Constantinople but he was captured and blinded[1656].  After several years of lengthy dispute over the standardisation of the liturgy, the Patriarch Mikhael Cerularios in 1055 excommunicated the papal legates in Constantinople (who had just pronounced his own excommunication) and triggered the final separation of the Orthodox church from the Roman Catholic.  Emperor Konstantinos suffered from a debilitating illness which attacked his joints and produced partial paralysis[1657].  Cedrenus records the burial of Emperor Konstantinos the day he died "in Manganis"[1658]m firstly ---.  Psellos records that "Constantine the son of Theodosius…the last scion of the ancient family of the Monomachi in the male line" had "in the first place [become] the son-in-law to the outstanding member of court society but his wife fell ill and died"[1659].  There is no indication in the text who this might indicate.  m secondly (before 1025) --- Skleraina, daughter of BASILEIOS Skleros & his wife Pulcheria Argyre (-before 1034).  Psellos records the second marriage of Konstantinos, arranged by Romanos Argyros before he became emperor, to "the daughter of his sister Pulcheria, who in the past had been married to Basil Sclerus", stating that she was her parents' only child[1660].  Zonaras records that, after the death of his first wife, Konstantinos married "imperatoris Romani nepte ex fratre"[1661].  According to Psellos, she died before her husband's exile to Lesbos[1662]m thirdly (11 Jun 1042) as her third husband, Empress ZOE, widow firstly of Emperor ROMANOS III and secondly of Emperor MIKHAEL IV, daughter of Emperor KONSTANTINOS VIII & his wife Helena --- (980-1050).  Mistress (1): MARIA [Skleraina], daughter of --- (-[1044], bur Monastery of Mangana[1663]).  Zonaras records that, after the death of his second wife, Konstantinos was unable to marry a third time but took as his mistress "consobrina uxoris suæ…adulescentula…et nobili Sclerorum familia orta"[1664].  Psellos records that "the niece of his late wife" became mistress of Konstantinos Monomakhos, the future Emperor Konstantinos IX, after the death of his second wife, being unable to marry her because of the Orthodox church's prohibition of third marriages[1665].  As Psellos, in an earlier passage, records that the second wife of Konstantinos was her parents' only child[1666], the word "niece" cannot be interpreted in its strict sense in this text.  The editor of the edition of Psellos which has been consulted states that she was the sister of Romanos Skleros and granddaughter of Bardas (children of an otherwise unrecorded brother of Basileios Skleros), but the primary source on which this is based has not so far been identified[1667].  If this is correct, she and her brother must have been born from an otherwise second marriage of Basileios Skleros.  Psellos hints that this might be correct when he refers to her in later passages as "Sclerena"[1668].  Another possibility is that one of Maria's parents was the daughter or son of either Pulcheria Argyre or Basileios Skleros (the parents of Konstantinos's first wife) by a second marriage: Psellos does suggest that Pulcheria and Basileios's marriage terminated early when he states that "…Pulcheria…in the past had been married to Basil Sclerus"[1669].  The primary source which confirms her name has not so far been identified.  She followed him into exile on Lesbos in 1034.  She was recalled to Constantinople after her husband's accession but was unpopular, her presence causing a riot 9 Mar 1044.  Eventually, she was introduced openly to the Palace as her husband's mistress, acting as a junior consort, and was granted the title Augusta[1670].  Psellos records the death of "Sclerena" and the emperor's grief[1671]Mistress (2): (after 1044) GORANDUXT of Georgia, daughter of GIORGI I King of Georgia & [his wife Mariam of Vaspurakan].  Psellos records that the emperor "fell in love with…one of our hostages from Alania…the daughter of the king there"[1672].  She became the emperor's mistress and was granted the title Augusta[1673].  Zonaras records that, after the death of Empress Zoe, Emperor Konstantinos fell in love with "adulescentulam quondam Alani principis filiam, obsidem Romanis datam" and installed her as "Augustam"[1674].  The Georgian Chronicle records that Emperor Konstantinos IX requested "of Bagrat his sister Goranduxt"[1675].  The Georgian Chronicle records that "Georgi" died leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters"[1676].  The source contains no indication of the name of the mother of the two daughters. 

b)         POULCHERIA (-after [1043/44]).  Psellos names the emperor's "own sister Pulcheria…one of the cleverest women of our generation" when recording that she advised her brother not to recall his mistress from exile[1677].  In another passage, Psellos states that "Constantine had two sisters, the elder…Helena, the younger Euprepia"[1678].  It is not known whether one of these may have been the same person as Pulcheria. 

c)         HELENA (-[1050]).  Psellos states that "Constantine had two sisters, the elder…Helena, the younger Euprepia", in a later passage recording that she urged her brother to flee at the time of the rebellion of Leon Tornikios in 1047[1679].  Psellos records "his sister Helena's death" around the same time as the death of Empress Zoe[1680]

d)         EUPREPIA (-after 1055).  Psellos states that "Constantine had two sisters, the elder…Helena, the younger Euprepia"[1681].  It is assumed that she must have been considerably younger than her brother, as Psellos records that she was courted by her second cousin on her mother's side, Leon Tornikios, a military magnate in Macedonia whom her brother appointed as governor of Iberia [in Georgia] to remove him from Constantinople and terminate their affair.  Zonaras names "Leone Tornicio…materno imperatoris cognato" and "soror imperatoris Euprepia"[1682]Leon was eventually forced to become a monk.  He rebelled, was proclaimed emperor in Sep 1047, and besieged Constantinople but was captured and blinded[1683].  Psellos, when recording "his sister Helena's death", implies that "his other sister" outlived Emperor Konstantinos[1684]

2.         [--- Monomachos .  His parentage is confirmed by Cedrenus who records that "Theodosius præses, patruo Monomachi natus" opposed the succession of "Michaelum Stratioticum" as emperor (in 1056)[1685], on the assumption that "patruus" should be interpreted in its strict sense of paternal uncle, although this is not beyond all doubt.  It is should be noted that neither of the sources cited below refer to his son as "Monomachos".]  m ---.  One child: 

a)         THEODOSIOS [Monomachos] (-after 1056).  Cedrenus records that "Theodosius præses, patruo Monomachi natus" opposed the succession of "Michaelum Stratioticum" as emperor (in 1056)[1686].  Zonaras names "regis Constantini Monomachi patruelis, Theodosius", recording he failed in his attempt to seize the throne in 1056[1687].  Cedrenus records that "Theodosius præses, patruo Monomachi natus" sought refuge "cum filio" in Hagia Sofia (in 1056)[1688]m ---.  The name of Theodosios's wife is not known.  Theodosios & his wife had one child: 

i)          --- [Monomachos] (-after 1056).  Cedrenus records that "Theodosius præses, patruo Monomachi natus" sought refuge "cum filio" in Hagia Sofia (in 1056)[1689]

 

 

Possible relative of Emperor Konstantinos IX, the precise relationship (if any) is not known: 

1.         [MARIA] [Irena] ([1030/35])-1067).  The Primary Chronicle refers to the wife of Vsevolod as "the Greek princess" but does not name her or give her origin[1690].  The primary source which states her name has not so far been identified.  Apparently she and her marriage are not referred to in Greek sources.  No doubt her belonging to the Monomachos family has been assumed, firstly because her son is generally known as "Vladimir Monomakh", and secondly because Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos ruled in Byzantium at the date of her marriage, but no information has been found to corroborate this.  It is unlikely that she was the daughter of the Emperor Konstantinos himself as he is not recorded in Greek sources as having had children by any of his wives or mistresses, although her birth date range (estimated from the birth of her son in 1053) would be consistent with her having been the daughter of his second marriage.  In particular, Psellos mentions no children in his detailed review of the events of his reign.  The primary source which corroborates the date of her marriage has not so far been identified.  m (1046) as his first wife, VSEVOLOD Iaroslavich of Kiev, son of IAROSLAV I Vladimirovich "Mudriy/the Wise" Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Ingigerd Olafsdottir of Sweden (1030-13 Apr 1093, bur Kiev St Sofia).  In accordance with the terms of his father's testament, he succeeded in 1054 as Prince of Pereiaslavl.  He was appointed to succeed his brother Sviatoslav as Prince of Chernigov 1073.  He succeeded his brother in 1076 as VSEVOLOD I Grand Prince of Kiev, but was deposed in 1077 by his older brother Iziaslav, restored in 1078 after Prince Iziaslav's death. 

 

 

The family relationship between the following individuals and the main Monomachos family is not known. 

 

1.         POTHOS Monomachos (-after [1020]).  A seal dated to [1020] names "Pothos Monomachos, orphanotrophos and krites of Armeniakon"[1691].  A seal dated to [1020] names "Pothos Monomachos, orphanotrophos and krites of the hippodrome of Armeniakon"[1692].  Two seals dated to [1020] name "Pothos Monomachos, protospatharios and krites of the hippodrome"[1693]

 

2.         THEODOROS Monomachos (-after [1163]).  A seal dated to [1163] names "Theodoros Monomachos, magistros"[1694]

 

3.         GEORGIOS Monomachos .  Georgios Monomachos is among those who signed the document of the sekreton of the sea handing over a new ship to the monastery of Patmos, dated to the late 12th/early 13th centuries[1695]

 

4.         MANUEL Monomachos (-after [1250]).  A seal dated to [1250] names "Manuel Monomachos"[1696]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 14.  EMPEROR 1056-1057 (STRATIOTIKOS)

 

 

Two possible brothers, parents not known: 

1.         MIKHAEL Stratiotikos (-after Aug 1057)Logothetis stratiotikou.  The leader of the court party, he was opposed by the noble families who controlled the army[1697].  Empress Theodora designated him as her successor and he succeeded when she died in 1056 as Emperor MIKHAEL VI.  Zonaras records that Empress Theodora designated "Michaelis Stratiotikus, vir Byzantiussenex" as her successor and that he succeeded after she died[1698].  Cedrenus records that "eunuchi…et Leo Syncellus" declared "Michaelum Stratioticum" as emperor 31 Aug (in 1056), opposed by "Theodosius præses, patruo Monomachi natus"[1699].  The army was dissatisfied, and acclaimed Isaakios Komnenos as emperor on the plain of Gunaria in Paphlagonia 8 Jun 1057.  Isaakios's army marched on Constantinople, and Emperor Mikhael VI abdicated before Isaakios entered the city 1 Sep 1057.  He died soon after his abdication[1700]

2.         [--- .  m ---.  One child:] 

a)         MIKHAEL [Ouranos] .  Cedrenus records that Emperor Mikhael VI Stratiotikos appointed "Michaelum patruelem suum" to replace "Catacalo Ambustus" as "dux Antiochiæ", adding that he adopted the name "Uranum" to indicate his descent from "antiquo illo Urano genus"[1701].  Zonaras names "Michaelem…ducem Antiochiæ…Urani cognomento" as "ανεψιόν" of Emperor Mikhael, commenting that he was given the name "Uranus" to make it appear he was descended from "veterum illum Uranum"[1702].  dux of Antioch. 

 

 



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[56] De Ceremoniis Book II, ch. 42, p. 642. 

[57] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 567. 

[58] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 444, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 81. 

[59] Cedrenus I, col. 635. 

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[61] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 568.  

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[63] Cedrenus I, col. 635. 

[64] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 41. 

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[68] Ioannes Malalas XIV, pp. 353-5. 

[69] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, pp. 576 and 578. 

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[71] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 421, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 75. 

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[73] Maurice Bierbrier, in a private e-mail to the author dated 27 Aug 2006. 

[74] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5947/447, p. 169. 

[75] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 578. 

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[78] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5926/426, p. 142. 

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[106] De Ceremoniis Book II, ch. 42, p. 642. 

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[108] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 44. 

[109] Cedrenus I, col. 690. 

[110] Migne, J. P. (1864) Ioannes Zonaræ Annales, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXXIV (Paris) ("Zonaras I"), Liber XIV, I, col. 1206. 

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[112] Cedrenus I, col. 662. 

[113] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5983/483, p. 210. 

[114] Cedrenus I, col. 670. 

[115] De Ceremoniis Book II, ch. 42, p. 642. 

[116] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 43. 

[117] Zonaras I, Liber XIV, I, col. 1206. 

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[120] PLRE 2, 842-3 [MB]. 

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[127] PLRE 2, 689-90 [MB]. 

[128] Photius Bibliotheca or Myriobiblon, p. 79.  

[129] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, pp. 586 and 598. 

[130] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 43. 

[131] Cassiodori Senatoris Chronica 474, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 158. 

[132] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 44. 

[133] Cassiodori Senatoris Chronica 476, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 159. 

[134] PLRE 2, 1200-2 [MB]. 

[135] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 607. 

[136] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 491, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 191. 

[137] PLRE 2, 1198 [MB]. 

[138] Georgius Codinus, De Signis, statuis…Constantinopoli, p. 33. 

[139] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 43-4. 

[140] Cedrenus I, col. 662. 

[141] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5983/483, p. 210. 

[142] Cedrenus I, col. 670. 

[143] PLRE 2, 1198 [MB]. 

[144] Cedrenus I, col. 667. 

[145] Cassiodori Senatoris Chronica 473, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 158. 

[146] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 43-4. 

[147] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 599. 

[148] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 464, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 187. 

[149] Zonaras I, Liber XIV, III, col. 1215. 

[150] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5975/475, p. 201. 

[151] Theophanes 5982/482, p. 78.  

[152] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, pp. 605 and 606. 

[153] PLRE 2, 689-90 [MB]. 

[154] Zonaras I, Liber XIV, II, col. 1210. 

[155] PLRE 2, 689-90 [MB]. 

[156] PLRE 2, 689-90 [MB]. 

[157] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 491, MGH Auct. ant. XI, pp. 191-2. 

[158] PLRE 2, 78-80 [MB]. 

[159] Ioannes Malalas XVI, p. 392. 

[160] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 607. 

[161] Cassiodori Senatoris Chronica 476, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 159. 

[162] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 491, MGH Auct. ant. XI, pp. 191-2. 

[163] PLRE 2, 78-80 [MB].  

[164] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 518, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 196. 

[165] De Ceremoniis Book II, ch. 42, p. 642. 

[166] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 43-4. 

[167] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5983/483, p. 210. 

[168] Cedrenus I, col. 670. 

[169] De Ceremoniis Book II, ch. 42, p. 642. 

[170] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5997/497, p. 227. 

[171] PLRE 2, 853 [MB]. 

[172] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 607. 

[173] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 609. 

[174] Theophanes, Vol. I, 6005/505, p. 245. 

[175] Theophanes, Vol. I, 6005/505, p. 245. 

[176] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1839) Georgius Syncellus et Nicephoros Cp., Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Sancti Nicephori Patriarchæ Constantinopolitani Chronographia Brevis ("Nicephori Chronographia Breve"), p. 755.