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MAINZ archbishopric

  v3.1 Updated 20 September 2016

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                ARCHBISHOPS of MAINZ 747-1419. 2

Chapter 2.                BISHOPS of SPEYER. 11

Chapter 3.                BISHOPS of STRASBOURG. 11

Chapter 4.                BISHOPS of WORMS. 13

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

A review of the families of the princes, dukes and counts who ruled Germany in medieval times would be incomplete without documents devoted to the major archbishoprics.  The bishopric of Mainz, centred on the town of Mainz in Franconia, was elevated to the status of an archbishopric during the reign of Pépin I King of the Franks in the mid-8th century, with jurisdiction including the bishoprics of Speier, Strasbourg and Worms.  Along with the archbishops of Köln and Trier, the archbishops of Mainz played an important role in the election of successive kings of Germany.  By the mid-12th century, the three archbishops had firmly established themselves as the spiritual representatives in the electoral process.  Electoral procedures, the unity of the seven electors including the three archbishops, and the right of election by the majority, were laid down definitively in the Golden Bull of 1356, which is described in some detail by Leuschner[1]

 

By the judicious acquisition of land, through purchase, donation and inheritance, the three archbishoprics of Köln, Mainz and Trier consolidated a powerful temporal, in addition to ecclesiastical, position of power.  The archbishopric of Mainz held extensive territory mainly east of the river Rhine, stretching from the river Main in the north to the river Neckar in the south, lying south of the county of Hanau and north-east of the Rhineland Pfalzgrafschaft.  In addition, it held numerous isolated territories scattered throughout the middle Rhine.  It is likely that the archbishops of Mainz were elected mainly from prominent noble families in the middle Rhine area of Franconia, although as will be seen below in the present document the precise family connections of many of the archbishops cannot be traced with certainty.  The suspicion is that the reigning archbishops frequently groomed their successors from among the members of their own family, often related through the female rather than the male line.  If sufficient information on family relationships was available in primary source documentation, it is expected that it would reveal extensive informal "dynasties" of archbishops which included a limited number of noble families.  In the case of the archbishopric of Köln, such family connections with noble families in the area of the lower Rhine basin, especially the comital families of Altena, Berg, Heinsberg, Hochstaden, Jülich, and Mark, can be demonstrated clearly.  In the case of the archbishopric of Mainz, the available information is less extensive so the family connections do not emerge so clearly from the source material.  It is probable that a similar pattern would emerge in relation to the more important lower level ecclesiastical appointments within each archbishopric. 

 

The present document shows the archbishops of Mainz between 747 and 1419.  The listing is not strictly chronological in the case of incumbents which can be linked by family group.  It is hoped that later versions of this document will set out the bishops of the dioceses which fell under the jurisdiction of the archiepiscopal province of Mainz: Augsburg, Chur, Eichstätt, Halberstadt, Hildesheim, Konstanz, Paderborn, Speyer, Strasbourg, Verden, Worms, and Würzburg. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    ARCHBISHOPS of MAINZ 747-1419

 

 

 

1.         BONIFACIUS (-5 Jun [755]).  Bonifacius records, in a letter to Pope Zacharias dated [Jan/Mar] 742, that he was born “in transmarina Saxonia Lundunensis synodus[2].  Willibald´s Vita S. Bonifacii records that Bonifacius, as a boy (“puerum”), was sent “ad monasterium...Adescancastre”, the editor of the edition consulted noting that this has been interpreted as Exeter[3]Archbishop of Mainz 747. 

 

 

1.         LULLUS (-16 Oct 786).  Archbishop of Mainz 755.

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         RUTGER .  The Traditiones et Antiquitates Fuldenses record that “Rutekar...et frater eius Richolfus episcopus” donated property “in uilla Retlenheim” to Fulda[4]

2.         RICHOLF (-9 Aug 813).  Archbishop of Mainz 787. 

 

 

1.         HAISTOLF (-28 Jan 826).  Archbishop of Mainz 813.

 

 

1.         OTGAR (-21 Apr 847).  Archbishop of Mainz 826.

 

 

1.         RABANUS MAURUS (-4 Feb 856).  Archbishop of Mainz 848.  The Annales Fuldensis record the death 4 Feb 856 of “Rhabanus archiepiscopus Mogontiacensis æcclesiæ” after holding office for 8 years and 1 month[5]

 

 

1.         CHARLES d´Aquitaine, son of PEPIN I King of Aquitaine [Carolingian] & his wife Ringardis --- ([825/30]-Mainz 4 Jun 863, bur Mainz St Alban).  The Miraculis Sancti Genulfi names "Pipinum et Karolum liberos totidemque filias" as children of "Pipinus" and his wife[6].  He was captured in Mar 849 by the Comte de Tours while trying to rejoin his brother, and shut in the abbey of Corbie where he was tonsured in 851.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Karlus Pippinus frater" escaped "a Corbeiensi monasterio" in 854[7].  He escaped to the court of his paternal uncle Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks who appointed him Archbishop of Mainz 8 Mar 856[8].  The Annales Fuldensis record the appointment “IV Id Mar” 856 of “Karolus Pippini regis filius”, who had escaped from custody at Corvey monastery[9].  The Annales Fuldensis record the death “II Non Jun” 863 of “Karlus archiepiscopus Mogontiacensis ecclesiæ[10]

 

 

1.         LIUTBERT (-17 Feb 889).  Archbishop of Mainz 863.  The Annales Fuldensis record the appointment “II Kal Dec” 863 of “Liutbertus” as archbishop of Mainz[11].  The Annales Fuldensis record the death in 889 of “Liutbertus Magontinæ urbis nobilis archiepiscopus[12]

 

 

1.         SUNDEROLD (-killed 27 Jun 891).  Archbishop of Mainz 889.  The Annales Fuldensis record that “Nortmanni” invaded “occidentalium Francorum” and that “Sundarorldus Magonciensis archiepiscopus” was killed[13].  Regino records that “episcopus Magontiacæ urbis Sunzo et Arnolfus comes” were killed “VI Kal Jul” 891 by “Nordmannorum[14].

 

 

1.         HATTO [I] (-18 Jan 913).  Archbishop of Mainz 891.  The Annales Fuldensis record the appointment of “Haddo, abbas Augensis cœnobii” as archbishop of Mainz in 891[15]

 

 

1.         HERIGER (-19 Mar 927).  Archbishop of Mainz 913.  The Continuator of Regino records in 926 the death of “Herigerus...præsul” and the appointment of “Hildibertus Fuldensis abbas[16]

 

 

1.         HILDIBERT (-31 May 937).  Archbishop of Mainz 927.  The Continuator of Regino records in 926 the death of “Herigerus...præsul” and the appointment of “Hildibertus Fuldensis abbas[17].  Widukind records the appointment of “Hildiberhtus, Franco genere, monachus...in Vuldo monasterio” as archbishop of Mainz[18].  The Continuator of Regino records in 936 the death of “Hildibertus archiepiscopus” and the appointment of “Fridericus[19].

 

 

1.         FRIEDRICH (-25 Oct 954).  Archbishop of Mainz 937.  The Continuator of Regino records in 936 the death of “Hildibertus archiepiscopus” and the appointment of “Fridericus[20].  The Continuator of Regino records the death in 954 of “Fridericus archiepiscopus” and the election “in Arnestat” of “regis filius Willihelmus[21]

 

 

1.         WILHELM of Germany, illegitimate son of Emperor OTTO I & his mistress [--- of the Hevelli] (-2 Mar 968)Archbishop of Mainz 954.  Thietmar names Wilhelm as "the offspring of a captured Slavic noblewoman and the king"[22].  The Annales Quedlinburgensis record the installation of "Willihelmus filius regis" as Archbishop of Mainz in 954[23].  The Continuator of Regino records the death in 954 of “Fridericus archiepiscopus” and the election “in Arnestat” of “regis filius Willihelmus[24].  "Otto…imperator augustus" donated property to Aachen Marienkapelle by charter dated 16 Feb 966 which names "Maguntiensis ecclesie archiepiscopus…noster filius Willelmus"[25].  Thietmar records the death of Wilhelm Archbishop of Mainz at Rottleberode on 2 Mar, in the same year as Queen Mathilde died (in 968)[26]. 

 

 

Two siblings: 

1.         HADAMAR (-956).  Abbot of Fulda.  The Chronicle of Marianus Scottus records in 950 “Hadamarus abbas” as thirteenth abbot of Fulda, adding that he was abbot for 28 years[27].  The Chronicle of Marianus Scottus records in 978 the death “VIII Kal Jun” of “Hadamarus abbas Fuldensis[28]

2.         sister .  m ---.  One child: 

a)         HATTO [II] (-18 Jan 970).  Abbot of Fulda 956.  The Chronicle of Marianus Scottus records in 978 the death of “Hadamarus abbas Fuldensis” and the succession of “Hatto filius sororis suæ” who held the post for 11 years and 8 months[29]Archbishop of Mainz 968.  The Chronicle of Marianus Scottus records in 990 the succession of “Hatto abbas Fuldensis” as archbishop of Mainz for two years[30].  The Chronicle of Marianus Scottus records in 992 the death “VI Kal Mai” of “Hatto episcopus Mogontinus” and the succession of “Ruobbertus” for six years and nine months[31]

 

 

1.         RUPRECHT (-13 Jan 975).  Archbishop of Mainz 970.  The Chronicle of Marianus Scottus records in 992 the death “VI Kal Mai” of “Hatto episcopus Mogontinus” and the succession of “Ruobbertus” for six years and nine months[32]

 

 

1.         WILLIGIS (-23 Feb 1011).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "Wiligisus archiepiscopus" was "filius cuiusdam aurige", and founded "Montem sancti Stephani" where he was buried[33]Archbishop of Mainz 975.  The Annales Colonienses record the death in 1011 of "Willegisus Mogotiensis archiepiscopus" and the succession of "Erchinboldus"[34]

 

 

1.         ERCHENBALD (-17 Aug 1021).  Archbishop of Mainz 1011.  The Annales Colonienses record the death in 1011 of "Willegisus Mogotiensis archiepiscopus" and the succession of "Erchinboldus"[35].

 

 

1.         ARIBO, son of ARIBO [I] Pfalzgraf von Bayern & his wife Adela --- (-Como 6 Apr 1031).  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted privileges to Kloster Göss, naming "quidam Iuuauensis ecclesiæ diaconus consanguineus noster atque cappellanus nomine Aribo…quod mater Adala…patre suo Aribone…eiusdem loci abbatissa Cunigundis soror prefati Aribonis", by charter dated 1 May 1020[36].  His precise family relationship with Emperor Heinrich II has not been traced.  He founded Göss in 1020.  Imperial chaplain before 1020.  Archbishop of Mainz 1021.  Wipo names “Aribo natione Noricus nobilis” archbishop of Mainz, adding that “Coloniensem...archiepiscopatum Pilegrinus” was “consanguineus Aribonis archiepiscopi[37].  The necrology of Seeon records the death "VIII Id Apr" of "Aribo Mogontinus archiep fil Aribonis"[38]

 

 

1.         BARDO [von Oppershofen], son of ADALBERO & his wife Christina --- (-10 Jun 1051).  Vulculd´s Vita Bardonis records Bardo´s origin “in Teutonicorum Francia...in pago...Wedereiba...in villa Habprahteshoven” and his parents “pater...Adelbero...mater...Christina[39]Archbishop of Mainz 1031.  The Annales Necrologici Prumienses record the death “III Id Jun” 1051 of “Bardo archiepiscopus[40]

 

 

1.         LIUTPOLD, son of --- (-7 Dec 1059)Archbishop of Mainz 1051.  The Annales Necrologici Prumienses record the death in 1059 of “Lyubpolt archiepiscopus[41]

 

 

1.         SIEGFRIED [I] (-16 Feb 1084)Archbishop of Mainz 1060.  Siegfried Archbishop of Mainz confirmed the foundation of Kloster Ravensgirberg "in comitatu Emichonis comitis" by "Bertoldus comes et uxor eius consanguinea nostra Hadewic" (see the document FRANCONIA NOBILITY) by charter dated 1074[42].  The Annales Necrologici Prumienses record the death in 1084 of “Sigefridus archiepiscopus[43]

 

 

1.         WEZILO (-6 Aug 1088).  Archbishop of Mainz 1084. 

 

 

1.         RUDHARD (-2 May 1109).  Archbishop of Mainz 1088. 

 

 

1.         ADALBERT [I] von Saarbrücken, son of SIGEBERT [I] Graf im Saargau & his wife --- (-23 Jun 1137).  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising names "Friderici comitis de Sarbruch, fratris Alberti episcopi…" when recording the marriage of his niece[44].  Imperial Chancellor 1105.  Provost of Aachen St Maria 1108.  Provost of Maastricht St Servatius 1109.  Archbishop of Mainz 1111. 

2.         FRIEDRICH [I] Graf von Saarbrücken.  Children: 

a)         ADALBERT [II] von Saarbrücken, son of FRIEDRICH [I] Graf im Saargau & his wife Gisela --- (-Erfurt 17 Jul 1141, bur Mainz Cathedral).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Provost of Erfurt St Maria 1128.  Archbishop of Mainz 1138. 

 

 

1.         MARKHOLF (-9 Jun 1142).  Archbishop of Mainz 1141. 

 

 

1.         HEINRICH [I] (-7 Jun 1153).  Archbishop of Mainz 1142. 

... the precise family relationship between Archbishop Heinrich [I] and Frideruna has not been established. 

2.         [FRIDERUNA .  "…Comes Arnoldus de Lurenburc…" witnessed the charter dated 1148 under which Heinrich [I] Archbishop of Mainz confirmed a donation of property to Kloster Ichtershausen by "Frideruna linea nobis consanguinitatis propinqua et filius eius Marquardus de Grumbach"[45].]  m --- von Grumbach, son of ---.  children: 

a)         MARQUARD von Grumbach .  "…Comes Arnoldus de Lurenburc…" witnessed the charter dated 1148 under which Heinrich [I] Archbishop of Mainz confirmed a donation of property to Kloster Ichtershausen by "Frideruna linea nobis consanguinitatis propinqua et filius eius Marquardus de Grumbach"[46]

 

 

1.         ARNOLD von Selenhofen, son of --- (-24 Jun 1160).  Archbishop of Mainz 1153.

 

 

1.         CHRISTIAN [I] von Buch, son of --- von Buch & his wife [--- von Beichlingen] (-25 Jun 1183)Archbishop of Mainz 1160. 

 

 

1.         KONRAD [I] von Wittelsbach, son of OTTO [II] Graf von Scheyern, Pfalzgraf von Wittelsbach & his wife Heilika von Lengenfeld-Hopfenohe-Pettendorf (-Riedfeld [26 Oct] 1200).  The Chronicon Schirense names "Chounradus, primo Magontinus episcopus, post Salzburgensis" as one of the four sons of "Ottonem…palatinus comes"[47].  Canon at Salzburg Cathedral.  Archbishop of Mainz 1161-1177, in exile from 1165.  Cardinal of San Marco 1165.  Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina and Bishop of Sora 1166-1200.  Archbishop of Salzburg 1177-1183.  Archbishop of Mainz 1183-1200.  "…duo fratres mei palatine Fridericus et Otto…" witnessed the charter dated 1189 under which Konrad [I] Archbishop of Mainz confirmed the rights of Nonnenkloster Weende[48].  The necrology of Undensdorf records the death "VII Kal Oct" of "Chunradus de Witlinspach" and his donation of "predium Wrmhershoe"[49].  If this entry refers to Archbishop Konrad it is surprising that no reference is made to his archiepiscopal status.  However, no other known Konrad has yet been identified in the family to whom this could apply.

 

 

1.         LIUTPOLD von Scheinfeld, son of --- (-1208).  Archbishop of Mainz 1200. 

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         GOTTFRIED [I] von Eppstein, son of ---  (-[1220/19 Dec 1223]).  Children: 

a)         GERHARD [II] von Eppstein (-after 28 Nov 1240).  Children: 

i)          WERNER von Eppstein (-Aschaffenburg 2 Apr 1284, bur Mainz Cathedral)Archbishop-Elector of Mainz 1249. 

b)         SIEGFRIED [III] von Eppstein (-Bingen 9 Mar 1249, bur Mainz Cathedral).  "Sifridus sacri imperii per Germaniam Archi-Cancellarius, Arnoldus major prepositus Trevirensis, Bruno de Braunsberg, Thidericus de Isenburg, Godefridus et Grerardus de Eppenstein" reached agreement concerning the inheritance "ex matruum vel avunculorum nostrorum de Wieden, feodaque avunculi nostri Lotharii comitis de Wieden" by charter dated 21 Nov 1240[50]Archbishop of Mainz 1230. 

c)         GOTTFRIED [II] von Eppstein (-[15 Mar/30 Oct] 1278, bur Mainz St Stephan).  Children: 

i)          GERHARD [II] von Eppstein, son of GOTTFRIED [II] Herr von Eppstein & his wife Elisabeth von Isenburg (-25 Feb 1305, bur Mainz Cathedral).  The marriage contract between "Godfridus de Eppinstein" and "Fridericus de Coverna et Novi Castri dominus…et uxoris mee Irmengardis" for the marriage of "pueros nostros Robinum et Lysam…seniori filia mea" is dated [end-May/early Jun] 1272, and names "Godefridus de Eppinstein…fideiussores…Gerhardus frater meus archidiaconus Treverensis…"[51].  Archdeacon of Trier.  "Gerhardus de Eppstein…archidiaconus Trevirensis…" confirmed a sale of property in Klingelbach to Kloster Bleidenstadt by charter dated 11 Jan 1276[52]Archbishop-Elector of Mainz 1289.  Gerhard Archbishop of Mainz confirmed that "Ulricus et Philippus fratres domini de Valckenstein consanguinei nostri" exchanged property with "Katherine relicti Wernheri quondam dicti Rode de Rudinsheim" by charter dated 4 Jul 1299[53]

2.         SIEGFRIED [II] von Eppstein, son of --- (-Erfurt 9 Sep 1230, bur Erfurt)Archbishop of Mainz 1200. 

 

 

1.         CHRISTIAN [II] von Weissenau, son of --- (-1251).  Archbishop of Mainz 1249. 

 

 

1.         GERHARD [I] Wildgraf, son of KONRAD [II] Wildgraf & his wife Gisela von Saarbrücken (-25 Sep 1259)Archbishop-Elector of Mainz 1251.

 

 

1.         HEINRICH [II] "Gürtelknopf" von Isny, son of --- (-17 Mar 1288).  Archbishop-Elector of Mainz 1286. 

 

 

1.         PETER von Aspelt, son of --- (-5 Jun 1320).  Archbishop-Elector of Mainz 1306.  The testament of Peter Archbishop of Mainz, dated 25 Aug 1319, bequeathes property to "Iohanni de Treveri nepoti nostro, canonico Maguntino…filiis fratris nostri…Petro et Paulino ac filiis sororis nostre…Friderico, Henrico et Nycolao dictis Butten…ceteribus nepotibus nostris, de Treveri, de Atspelt et de Ellingen…neptum nostrarum…de Atspelt, de Mulibach, in Lucenburch et in Dubenvelt, et quatuor aliis in Treveri videlicet Katerine, Adelheyde, Lorethe et iterum Katerine…", and names as executors "Eberhardum cantorem, Heinricum de Rodenstein canoncum et camerarium, Iohannem de Treveri dictum Kirchoven, Ernestum prepositum ecclesie Sci Severi Erfordensis nepotes nostros…"[54]

 

 

1.         MATTHIAS von Buchegg, son of --- (-10 Sep 1328)Archbishop-Elector of Mainz 1321. 

 

 

1.         HEINRICH [III] von Virneburg, son of ROBERT [II] Graf von Virneburg & his wife Kunigunde --- (-7 Apr 1353)Archbishop-Elector of Mainz 1328.  "Roprecht grave von Virnenburgh ind von Wede" pledged the Herrschaft Wied, with the consent of "…unsers eirsamen broders heren Henrichs des ertzbuschoffs von Mentze ind Gerhartz unsers broders des chorbuschoffs von Trier ind Johans unsers broders des proistes von Sante…", by charter dated 8 May 1329[55].  Deposed 1346. 

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         ADOLF [I] von Nassau, son of GERLACH [I] Graf von Nassau in Wiesbaden, Idstein and Weilburg & his first wife Agnes von Hessen (1307-Idstein 17 Jan 1370, bur Klarenthal).  He succeeded in 1346 as Graf von Nassau in Wiesbaden und Idstein.  Children: 

a)         ADOLF von Nassau, son of ADOLF [I] Graf von Nassau in Wiesbaden und Idstein & his wife Margareta von Nürnberg ([1345/46]-Heiligenstadt 6 Feb 1390, bur Kloster Eberbach).  Canon at Köln cathedral 1362.  Canon of St Florin at Koblenz 1364/71.  Canon at Bingen and Wetzlar 1366.  Elekt of Mainz and Provost of St Georg at Limburg 1371.  Archbishop-Elector of Mainz 1381. 

b)         JOHANN [II] von Nassau, son of ADOLF [I] Graf von Nassau in Wiesbaden und Idstein & his wife Margareta von Nürnberg ([1360]-Aschaffenburg 23 Sep 1419)Archbishop-Elector of Mainz 1397. 

2.         GERLACH von Nassau, son of GERLACH [I] Graf von Nassau in Wiesbaden, Idstein and Weilburg & his first wife Agnes von Hessen (1322-Aschaffenburg 12 Feb 1371, bur Kloster Eberbach).  Canon at Mainz cathedral 1336.  Canon at Trier cathedral 1343.  Provost of St Marien at Erfurt 1344.  Dominican 1345.  Elect of Mainz 1346.  Elector-Archbishop of Mainz 1354. 

 

 

1.         JEAN [I] de Luxembourg-Ligny, son of JEAN de Luxembourg Seigneur de Ligny & his first wife Alix de Flandre (1342-4 Apr 1373, bur Kloster Eberbach).  Canon at Verdun.  Provost at Wassenberg until 1362.  Canon at Ivoix 1362.  Canon at Cambrai Cathedral 1363.  Canon at Trier Cathedral 1365-1372.  Bishop of Strasbourg 1365-1369.  Archbishop-Elector of Mainz 1371.

 

 

1.         LUDWIG von Meissen, son of FRIEDRICH II "der Ernsthafte" Markgraf von Meissen & his wife Mechtild von Bayern (Wartburg 25 Feb 1341-burned to death Calbe 17 Feb 1382, bur Magdeburg Cathedral).  The Annales Veterocellenses record the birth "1340 in crastino Mathye" of "Ludevic filius domini Friderici marchionis Misnensis"[56].  Cantor at Würzburg cathedral 1357.  Bishop of Bamberg 1366-1374.  Archbishop-Elector of Mainz 1374.  Archbishop of Magdeburg 1381.

 

 

1.         KONRAD [II] von Weinsberg, son of ---  (-19 Oct 1396)Archbishop-Elector of Mainz 1390.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    BISHOPS of SPEYER

 

 

1.         JOHANN von Enzberg, son of ZEIZOLF [III] Graf im Kraichgau & his wife --- ([1062/63]-26 Oct 1104, bur Sunnesheim).  The Annales Spirenses name "episcopi Iohannis Spirensis" as son of "Wolframi comitis Arduenne", specifying that he was "Sunnisheim archidiaconus" and that "Heinricus senior" installed "filio sororis sue" as Bishop of Speyer "dum esset puer[57], although the latter description must be an exaggeration assuming that Johann's age at death is correct as stated in a later passage.  Bishop of Speyer 1090.  "Iohannes…Spirensis ecclesie presul" founded the abbey of Sunnesheim "in proprio allodio meo in pago Elezengowi in comitatu comitis Brunonis", with the support of "herede mea filia…fratris mei comitis Ceizzolfi ibidem sepulti dicta Adelheid", and donated property to the new foundation "in pago Elezengowi…in pago Cregowi, in pago Enzgowi in comitatu comitis Brunonis…in pago Hedenegowe in comitatu comite Godefridi…in pago Spirgowi in comitatu Spirensi episcopi…in pago Nachowi…[et] in pago Wormesfelt in comitatu comitis Emechonis", by charter dated 6 Jan 1100, which names "Wolframmi patris mei, Azele matris mea, Zeizolfi fratris mei, Adelheidis et Iudde filiarum predicti fratris mei"[58].  The Annales Spirenses record the death of "episcopi Iohannis Spirensis" after 16 years in office, and his burial at Sunnesheim with his parents, specifying that he was 41 years old[59].  The necrology of Speyer records the death "VII Kal Oct" of "Iohannes Spir. epus et Wolframus frater eius"[60]

 

 

1.         GEBHARD von Urach, son of --- (-1 Mar 1107, bur Hirsau).  Canon at Strasbourg Cathedral.  Monk at Hirsau before 1091, Prior and Abbot of Hirsau.  “Domnus abba Gebehardus et frater eius comes Egeno de Urach” donated land “ad Owa et ad Atenherd” to Kloster Hirsau, dated to [1091/1105][61].  Abbot of Lorch 1105.  Bishop of Speyer 1105.  The Annales Hildesheimenses record that “abbatem Hirsowecensem” became “episcopum Spirensem” in 1105 “in die...omnium sanctorum[62].  The Annalista Saxo records the death in 1107 of “Gebehardus episcopus Spirensis[63].  The necrology of Speyer records the death “Kal Mar” 1110 of “Gebehardus Spirensis epus[64]

 

 

1.         BRUNO von Saarbrücken, son of SIGEBERT [I] Graf im Saargau & his wife --- (-19 Oct 1123, bur Limburg an der Hardt).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Abbot of Lorsch.  Bishop of Speyer 1107. 

 

 

1.         GÜNTHER von Henneberg, son of GOTEBOLD [II] Graf von Henneberg & his wife Liutgard von Hohenberg (-16 Aug 1161, bur Maulbronn).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Bopponem et Bertoldum comites, Gebehardum Wirzeburgensem Guntherum Spirensem episcopus" as the four sons of "Goteboldus"[65].  Provost of Stift Haug 1137.  Bishop of Speyer 1146. 

 

 

1.         HESSO .  The Codex Hirsaugiensis records that “Esso et filius eius Sigehardus de Welfessleden” donated property “in Tegerloch...Wurmlingen...et in Durinkeim” to Hirsau, undated[66]m ---.  The name of Esso’s wife is not known.  Esso & his wife had one child: 

a)         SIEGHARD von Wolfsölden .  The Codex Hirsaugiensis records that “Esso et filius eius Sigehardus de Welfessleden” donated property “in Tegerloch...Wurmlingen...et in Durinkeim” to Hirsau, and that “Sigehardus” donated property “ad Scadewiler”, undated[67]m ---. The name of Sieghard’s wife is not known.  Sieghard & his wife had three children: 

i)          GOTTFRIED .  The Codex Hirsaugiensis records that “Esso et filius eius Sigehardus de Welfessleden” donated property to Hirsau, and that “Sigefridus Spirensis episcopus, filius predicti Sigehardi” donated “molendinum ad Sulichin” for the soul of “fratre suo Gotfrido”, undated[68]

ii)         SIEGFRIED (-1146).  Bishop of Speyer 1127.  The Codex Hirsaugiensis records that “Conradus de Wiler et frater eius Otto” donated property “ad Gruppenbach” to Hirsau, in the presence of “domni Sigefridi Spirensis episcopi et advocati nostri comitis Adalberti de Calwa”, witnessed by “Adalbertus filius prefati Adalberti, Gerhardus de Schowenburg frater Sigefridi episcopi, Ludewicus et Emmicho frater eius de Wirtenberg”, undated[69].  The Codex Hirsaugiensis records that “Esso et filius eius Sigehardus de Welfessleden” donated property to Hirsau, and that “Sigefridus Spirensis episcopus, filius predicti Sigehardi” donated “molendinum ad Sulichin” for the soul of “fratre suo Gotfrido”, undated (dated to [1127/46])[70]

iii)        GERHARD von Schauenburg .  The Codex Hirsaugiensis records that “Conradus de Wiler et frater eius Otto” donated property “ad Gruppenbach” to Hirsau, in the presence of “domni Sigefridi Spirensis episcopi et advocati nostri comitis Adalberti de Calwa”, witnessed by “Adalbertus filius prefati Adalberti, Gerhardus de Schowenburg frater Sigefridi episcopi, Ludewicus et Emmicho frater eius de Wirtenberg”, undated (dated to [1127/46])[71].  The Codex Hirsaugiensis records that “Gerhardus de Schowenburg cum uxore sua Heilecka et filiis eorum” donated property “in Eltingen...cum quarta parte ecclesie” to Kloster Hirsau, undated[72]m HEILIKA, daughter of ---.  The Codex Hirsaugiensis records that “Gerhardus de Schowenburg cum uxore sua Heilecka et filiis eorum” donated property “in Eltingen...cum quarta parte ecclesie” to Kloster Hirsau, undated[73].  Property in Eltingen was also donated by the Ebersberg family, suggesting a family connection.  Gerhard & his wife had children: 

(a)       children .  The Codex Hirsaugiensis records that “Gerhardus de Schowenburg cum uxore sua Heilecka et filiis eorum” donated property “in Eltingen...cum quarta parte ecclesie” to Kloster Hirsau, undated[74]

 

 

1.         KONRAD von Eberstein, son of EBERHARD [III] Graf von Eberstein & his wife Kunigunde von Andechs (-after 22 Mar 1246)Bishop of Speyer 1237.  "Cunradus…Spirensis episcopus et Bertholdus…eiusdem ecclesie prepositus" confirmed the confirmation of privileges granted to the monastery of All Saints in Schwarzwald by "Hermannum…Marchionem de Baden…ducissa…de Scowenpurg et patre nostro Eberhardo de Eberstein pie recordationis" by charter dated 22 Mar 1246, witnessed by "Eberhardus et Otto fratres nostri de Eberstein, Godefridus de Vehingen et Godefridus de Calwe comites, Hermannus filius marchionis"[75]

 

 

1.         HEINRICH von Leiningen, son of FRIEDRICH [III] von Saarbrücken Graf von Leiningen & his [first] wife [Agnes von Eberstein] (-28 Feb 1271)Bishop of Speyer 1245.  A charter dated 18 Feb 1251 records a dispute between Otterberg and "Heinricus…Spirensis electus, E--- comes de Liningen et --- relicta quondam Friderici comitis de Liningen" concerning property "apud Bockenheim"[76].  Heinrich Bishop of Speyer confirmed the sale of property in Walsheim by "frater noster Emicho et fratruelis noster de Liningen comites" by charter dated 23 Sep 1266[77]

 

 

1.         FRIEDRICH von Bolanden, son of WERNER [IV] von Bolanden & his first wife Kunigunde von Leiningen (-28 Jan 1302, bur Eusserthal).  "Philippus de Falckenstein, Philippus et Wernherus filii sui, Wernherus et Philippus domini de Bolandia, Gerhardus et Fridericus fratres nostri" renounced action against the city of Mainz started by "Dno Wernhero de Bolandia fratri, patruo et patri nostro" relating to the destruction of "castri in Ingelnheim…[et] in Wissenowe" by charter dated 1259[78].  "Wernhero et Friderico fratribus de Bolandia…" witnessed the charter dated 23 Sep 1266 under which Heinrich Bishop of Speyer confirmed the sale of property in Walsheim by "frater noster Emicho et fratruelis noster de Liningen comites"[79]Bishop of Speyer 1272.  Friedrich Bishop of Speyer settled disputes with "Fridericum de Liningen comitem avunculum nostrum", in the presence of "Wernheri de Bolandia fratris nostri…", by charter dated 18 Aug 1278[80]

 

 

1.         BERTHOLD von Buchegg, son of HEINRICH Graf von Buchegg & his wife --- ).  Commendator of the Teutonic Knights.  Bishop of Speyer 1328.  Bishop of Strasbourg . 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    BISHOPS of STRASBOURG

 

 

1.         RATOLD .  Hincmar names “...Rataldus episcopus Stratiburgensis...” as one of the bishops present when Lothaire II King of Lotharingia accepted the return of his wife Teutberga in 865[81]

 

 

1.         UDO, son of UDO Graf im Lahngau und im Rheingau [Konradiner] & his wife [Cunigundis] de Vermandois (-26 Aug 965)Regino records the election as Bishop of Strasbourg in 950 of "Udo filius Udonis comitis"[82].  He was elected Bishop of Strasbourg 13 Aug 950. 

 

 

1.         WERNER, son of LANDOLT [Lanzelin] Graf im Thurgau & his wife Liutgard [von Nellenburg] (-Constantinople 28 Oct 1028, bur Constantinople).  His parentage is indicated by a charter dated 1027 under which "Wernherus Strasburgensis episcopus et castri quod dicitur Habesbur, fundator monasterio in patrimonio meo…Mure…in pago Argoia in comitatu Rore" donated property to Kloster Muri "per manum germani fratris mei Lancelini"[83].  An undated charter which records the foundation of Kloster Muri by "Radeboto comes…uxorem…Itam" states that Ita was "de partibus Lotharingorum…sororem Theodrici ducis ac Wernharii, Argentine civitatis episcopi" and adds that Werner died and was buried at Constantinople "anno 1027"[84]Bishop of Strasbourg 1002.  Imperial envoy at the court of Constantinople.

 

 

1.         WILHELM, son of OTTO Graf im Nahegau Duke of Carinthia [Salier] & his wife Judith --- (-7 Nov 1047).  Wipo names "Hezil et Chuono…Brunone et Willihelmo" as sons of "Ottone duce Francorum", specifying that Wilhelm was made "Argentinensis ecclesiæ episcopus"[85].  Chaplain of Empress Gisela.  He was elected Bishop of Strasbourg in 1029[86].  Jackman speculates that Wilhelm may have been illegitimate[87]

 

 

1.         WERNER von Achalm, son of RUDOLF Graf von Achalm & his wife Adelheid von Wülflingen (-near Pforzheim 14 Sep 1079, bur Strasbourg Cathedral).  Ortlieb's Chronicon of Zwiefalten names (in order) "Couno primogenitus, secundus Liutoldus, tercio Egino, quartus Roudolfus, quinto Hunfridus, sextus Beringerus, septimus Wernherus postea Strasburgensis episcopus" as the seven sons of "Rudolfus [et] Adelheid"[88].  Berthold's Chronicon of Zwiefalten names "Wernhero Argentinensi episcope" brother of "Liutoldus et Couno comites duo germani fratres"[89].  Canon at Speyer Cathedral.  Bishop of Strasbourg 1065. 

 

 

1.         OTTO von Büren, son of FRIEDRICH von Büren Pfalzgraf von Schwaben & his wife Hildegard --- (-3 Aug 1100).  The De Fundatione Monasterii Sancti Fides Sletstatensis names "Fredericus dux Alemannorum [qui fuit Friderici ducis Swevie], qui Romani imperatoris filiæ coniugo, et duo eius fratres Argentinensis episcopus Otto et Conradus", in relation to the foundation of the monastery in the diocese of Strasbourg in 1094[90]Bishop of Strasbourg 1083-1084.  "Hildegardis…cum filiis meis, Ottone…Argentinenis ecclesie episcopo Suevorumque duce Friderico, Lodewico, Walthario, Cunrado et filia mea Adalheida" made a donation to the monastery of St Fides at Schlettstadt in Alsace dated 1094, presumably just before she died[91].  "Ottone Argentinensi…episcopo" and "fratres mei dux…Suetiæ Fridericus, Ledeuvicus et Galtharius" donated property in "Scelstat villa, in pago Alsatiæ et in comitatu Beirricheim" to the abbey of Conques by charter dated 23 Jul 1095, naming "matre…nostra fratreque nostro Conrado…defunctis"[92]

 

 

2.         GEBHARD von Urach, son of EGINO Graf & his wife Kunigunde Gräfin von Urach (-11 Jan 1141).  Ortlieb's Chronicon of Zwiefalten names "Alberta comitis Eginonis filia" as "germana" of "Gebehardi Strazburgensis pontificiso"[93]nepos of Gebhard Bishop of Speyer[94]Bishop of Strasbourg 1131. 

 

 

1.         HEINRICH von Veringen, son of MANEGOLD [I] Graf von Veringen & his wife --- (-9 Mar 1223, bur Strasbourg Cathedral)Bishop of Strasbourg 1202. 

 

 

1.         BERTHOLD von Teck, son of ADALBERT II Herzog von Teck [Baden] & his wife --- (-9 Oct 1244, bur Strasbourg Cathedral).  His parentage is confirmed by the Historia Novientensis Monasterii which records the death of Heinrich von Veringen Bishop of Strasbourg and the succession of “Bertoldus filius ducis de Decke[95].  Archdeacon at Strasbourg 1218.  Bishop of Strasbourg 1223-1244.  Berthold Bishop of Strasbourg granted “feodo castri de Dagesberg”, held by "bone memorie Symundus frater suus", to "consanguineum nostrum et vasallum Fridericum comitem de Liningen" by charter dated Jun 1239[96].  The family relationship between the bishop and Friedrich [IV] Graf von Leiningen has not yet been ascertained. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    BISHOPS of WORMS

 

 

 

1.         ADALBERO, son of [KUNO Graf von Rheinfelden & his wife ---] (-6 Aug 1070).  Monk at St Gallen.  Bishop of Worms 1066.  The Annales of Lambert of Hersfeld record the death in 1065 of “Arnolfus Wormaciæ episcopus” and the succession of “Adalbero monachus ex monasterio sancti Galli, frater Ruodolfi ducis”, noting that the latter had “uno pede omnino debilis” but was nevertheless “vir per omnia dignus spectaculo[97].  The same source records the death in 1070 of “Adalbero Wormaciæ episcopus, propria, ut fertur, crassitudine præfocatus[98].  It is not known whether Adalbero shared both parents with Rudolf. 

 

 

1.         HEINRICH von Saarbrücken, son of SIMON [II] Graf von Saarbrücken & his wife Luitgard von Leiningen (-12 Sep 1234).  "Lukardis comitissa" donated property at Hünerscherre to Kloster Otterburg, with the consent of "filiorum meorum", by undated charter, "Symon comes Sarapontis" confirmed the same donation by "domina et mater mea" by undated charter, and Heinrich Bishop of Worms confirmed the same donation by "mater nostra comitissa de Weyden" by charter dated 22 Nov 1233[99].  Provost of Worms cathedral 1194.  Provost at Wimpfen 1195.  Abbot of Lorsch 1200.  Provost of Neuhausen St Cyriakus 1212.  Bishop of Worms 1217.  

 

 

 



[1] Leuschner, J. (1980) Germany in the Late Middle Ages (North Holland Publishing Company), pp. 155-61. 

[2] Jaffé, P. (ed.) (1866) Bibliotheca rerum germanicarum (Berlin), Tome III, Monumenta Moguntina, (“Monumenta Moguntina (1866)”), 42, p. 114. 

[3] Monumenta Moguntina (1866), Willibaldi Vita S Bonifacii, I, p. 433. 

[4] Dronke, E. F. J. (ed.) (1844) Traditiones et Antiquitates Fuldenses (Fulda), cap. 42, 6, p. 103. 

[5] Ruodolfi Fuldensis Annales, 856, MGH SS I, p. 369. 

[6] Miraculis Sancti Genulfi 6, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1206. 

[7] Annales Bertiniani II 854. 

[8] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 278. 

[9] Ruodolfi Fuldensis Annales, 856, MGH SS I, p. 370. 

[10] Ruodolfi Fuldensis Annales, 863, MGH SS I, p. 375. 

[11] Ruodolfi Fuldensis Annales, 863, MGH SS I, p. 375. 

[12] Annalium Fuldensium pars quinta, 889, MGH SS I, p. 406. 

[13] Annalium Fuldensium pars quinta, 891, MGH SS I, p. 407. 

[14] Reginonis Chronicon, 891, MGH SS I, p. 603. 

[15] Annalium Fuldensium pars quinta, 891, MGH SS I, p. 407. 

[16] Continuator Reginonis, 926, MGH SS I, p. 616. 

[17] Continuator Reginonis, 926, MGH SS I, p. 616. 

[18] Widukindi res gestæ Saxonicæ, Liber II, 1, MGH SS III, p. 437. 

[19] Continuator Reginonis, 936, MGH SS I, p. 617. 

[20] Continuator Reginonis, 936, MGH SS I, p. 617. 

[21] Continuator Reginonis, 954, MGH SS I, p. 623. 

[22] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press), 2.35, p. 118. 

[23] Annales Quedlinburgenses 954, MGH SS III, p. 59. 

[24] Continuator Reginonis, 954, MGH SS I, p. 623. 

[25] D O I 323, p. 437. 

[26] Thietmar 2.18, p. 105. 

[27] Mariani Scotti Chronicon, MGH SS V, p. 554. 

[28] Mariani Scotti Chronicon, MGH SS V, p. 554. 

[29] Mariani Scotti Chronicon, MGH SS V, p. 554. 

[30] Mariani Scotti Chronicon, MGH SS V, p. 554. 

[31] Mariani Scotti Chronicon, MGH SS V, p. 555. 

[32] Mariani Scotti Chronicon, MGH SS V, p. 555. 

[33] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1002, MGH SS XXIII, p. 778. 

[34] Annales Colonienses 1011, MGH SS I, p. 99. 

[35] Annales Colonienses 1011, MGH SS I, p. 99. 

[36] D H II 428, p. 548. 

[37] Wiponis Vita Chuonradi Imperatoris, 1, MGH SS XI, p. 256. 

[38] Necrologium Seonense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 217. 

[39] Monumenta Moguntina (1866), Vulculdi Vita Bardonis, p. 521. 

[40] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 220. 

[41] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 221. 

[42] Gudenus, V. F. de (1743) Codex Diplomaticus Moguntiaca (Goettingen), Tome I, CXLI, p. 377

[43] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 222. 

[44] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.21, MGH SS XX, p. 362. 

[45] Stumpf, K. F. (ed.) (1863) Urkunden zur Geschichte des Erzbisthums Mainz im zwölften Jahrhundert (Acta Maguntina Seculi XII) (Innsbruck) ("Mainz Urkunden 12th Century"), 39, p. 43. 

[46] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 39, p. 43. 

[47] Chounradi, Chronicon Schirense 20, MGH SS XVII, p. 621. 

[48] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 109, p. 110. 

[49] Necrologium Undensdorfense, Freising Necrologies, p. 172. 

[50] Fischer, C. H. H. (1775) Geschlechts-Register der Häuser Isenburg Wied und Runkel (Mannheim) ("Isenburg-Wied-Runkel (1775)"), Urkunden, XLVI, 62. 

[51] Gudenus (1743), Tome I, CCCXXXIV, p. 738. 

[52] Wenck, H. B. (1783) Hessische Landesgeschichte mit einem Urkundenbuch, Band I Katzenelnbogisches Urkundenbuch (Darmstadt) ("Katzenelnbogisches Urkundenbuch"), XLII, p. 42. 

[53] Gudenus, V. F. de (1768) Codex Diplomaticus sive Anecdotorum, res moguntinas, francicas, trevirenses, colonienses, finitimarumque regionum (Frankfurt), Diplomata Minzenbergico-Falckensteiniana, XXVIII, p. 783. 

[54] Gudenus (1751), Tome III, CXXXIII, p. 173. 

[55] Iwanski, W. (1912) Geschichte der Grafen von Virneburg (Coblenz), Beilage I, IX, p. 57. 

[56] Annales Veterocellenses 1340, MGH SS XVI, p. 44. 

[57] Annales Spirenses , MGH SS XVII, p. 82, the date "1090" being inserted in the margin. 

[58] Remling, F. X. (ed.) (1852) Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte des Bischöfe zu Speyer (Mainz) (“ Speyer Urkundenbuch“) 70, p. 89. 

[59] Annales Spirenses, MGH SS XVII, p. 83. 

[60] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Kalendarium Necrologicum Canonicorum Spirensium, p. 325. 

[61] Fürstenbergisches Urkundenbuch, Band I (Tübingen, 1877) (“Fürstenberg Urkundenbuch, Band I (1877)”), 45, p. 47. 

[62] Annales Hildesheimenses, MGH SS III, p. 109. 

[63] Annalista Saxo 1107, MGH SS VI, p. 746. 

[64] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes rerum Germanicarum (Stuttgart), Band IV, Kalendarium necrologicum canonicorum Spirensium, p. 315. 

[65] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 4, MGH SS XXIV, p. 820. 

[66] Codex Hirsaugiensis (1843), p. 33. 

[67] Codex Hirsaugiensis (1843), p. 33. 

[68] Codex Hirsaugiensis (1843), p. 34. 

[69] Codex Hirsaugiensis (1843), p. 61. 

[70] Codex Hirsaugiensis (1843), p. 34. 

[71] Codex Hirsaugiensis (1843), p. 61. 

[72] Codex Hirsaugiensis (1843), p. 81. 

[73] Codex Hirsaugiensis (1843), p. 81. 

[74] Codex Hirsaugiensis (1843), p. 81. 

[75] Schoepflin, J. D. (1765) Historia Zaringo Badensis Codex (Karlsruhe), (“Zaringo-Badensis Codex”), Tome V, CXIX, p. 211. 

[76] Frey, M. & Remling, F. X. (1845) Urkundenbuch des Klosters Otterberg in der Rheinpfalz (Mainz) ("Otterberg"), 237, p. 182. 

[77] Speyer Urkundenbuch 343, p. 311. 

[78] Gudenus, V. F. de (1747) Codex Diplomaticus Moguntiaca (Goettingen), Tome II, XCVIII, p. 132. 

[79] Speyer Urkundenbuch 343, p. 311. 

[80] Speyer Urkundenbuch 390, p. 354. 

[81] Hincmari Remenis Annales, 865, MGH SS I, p. 469. 

[82] Continuator Reginonis Trevirensis 950, MGH SS I, p. 620. 

[83] Baumann, F. L., Meyer von Knonau, G. & Kiem, M. (eds.) (1883) Die ältesten Urkunden von allerheiligen in Schaffhausen, Rheinau und Muri (Basel) ("Schaffhausen, Rheinau und Muri:") Acta Murensia, 1. p. 107. 

[84] Schaffhausen, Rheinau und Muri: Acta Murensia, 2. p. 18. 

[85] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 2, MGH SS XI, p. 258. 

[86] Grote, H. (1877) Stammtafeln (reprint Leipzig, 1984), p. 485.  According to ES I.1 12 Wilhelm was Archbishop of Mainz but he is not mentioned as such in Grote, p. 484. 

[87] Jackman, D. C. (1997) Criticism and Critique, sidelights on the Konradiner (Oxford Unit for Prosopographical Research), p. 86. 

[88] Ortliebi Zwifaltensis Chronicon I.1, MGH SS X, p. 71. 

[89] Bertholdi, Zwifaltensis Chronicon 1, MGH SS X, p. 97. 

[90] De Fundatione Monasterii Sancti Fides Sletstatensis, MGH SS XV.2, p. 997. 

[91] Herrgott, M. (1737) Genealogiæ Diplomaticæ Habsburgicæ (Vienna), Vol. II, Pars 1, CXC, p. 129. 

[92] Desjardins, G. (ed.) (1879) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Conques en Rouergue (Paris) ("Conques"), no. 575, pp. 405-6. 

[93] Ortliebi Zwifaltensis Chronicon I.20, MGH SS X, p. 85. 

[94] ES V 10. 

[95] Boehmer, J. F. (1853) Fontes rerum Germanicarum (Stuttgart), Band III, Historia Novientensis Monasterii, p. 26. 

[96] Schoepflin, J. D. (ed.) (1772) Alsatia Diplomatica (Mannheim) Tome I, CCCCXCVI, p. 383. 

[97] Lamberti Annales, 1065, MGH SS V, p. 171. 

[98] Lamberti Annales, 1070, MGH SS V, p. 179. 

[99] Otterberg, 62, 63 and 64, pp. 46-7.