GERMANY, KINGS & emperors

  v2.2 Updated 06 November 2013

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                KINGS of the EAST FRANKS (GERMANY) 843-911, Carolingian Dynasty. 6

Chapter 2.                KING of GERMANY 911-918, KONRADINER. 17

Chapter 3.                KINGS of GERMANY 918-1024, SAXON DYNASTY (LIUDOLFINGER) 18

Chapter 4.                KINGS of GERMANY 1024-1125, SALIAN FRANKISH DYNASTY. 35

Chapter 5.                ANTI-KING of GERMANY 1077-1079, RHEINFELDEN. 48

Chapter 6.                ANTI-KING of GERMANY 1081-1088, LUXEMBOURG, WIGERICHER. 48

Chapter 7.                KING of GERMANY 1125-1137, SÜPPLINGENBURG. 49

Chapter 8.                KINGS of GERMANY 1138-1254, HOHENSTAUFEN. 50

Chapter 9.                KING of GERMANY 1198-1218, WELF. 79

Chapter 10.              ANTI-KING of GERMANY 1246-1247, THURINGIA. 80

Chapter 11.              KING of GERMANY 1247-1256, HOLLAND. 80

Chapter 12.              KING of GERMANY 1257-1272, CORNWALL. 81

Chapter 13.              ANTI-KING of GERMANY 1257-[1273], CASTILE. 81

Chapter 14.               KINGS of GERMANY 1273-1291, 1298-1308, 1314-1330 and from 1440, HABSBURG. 82

Chapter 15.              KINGS of GERMANY 1291-1298, NASSAU. 84

Chapter 16.              KINGS of GERMANY 1308-1437, LUXEMBOURG. 84

Chapter 17.                KINGS of GERMANY 1314-1346 and 1400-1410, WITTELSBACH. 86

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The kingdom of Germany emerged in the late 9th and early 10th centuries as the successor to the kingdom of the East Franks, which had been formed when the Carolingian empire was partitioned under the Treaty of Verdun in Aug 843.  The term "Germany" or "Deutschland" was not widely used before the 16th century[1].  The territory had been part of the Frankish empire founded in 800 by Emperor Charles I "Charlemagne" and ruled by his descendants until their extinction in the male line in 911.  The Franks had been only one of a number of tribes living in the area now identified as Germany.  The others included the Saxons, Frisians, Thuringians, Swabians and Bavarians. 

 

Ludwig II "der Deutsche", son of Emperor Louis I, was the first member of the Carolingian dynasty to be installed as a ruler in Germany when he received the kingdom of Bavaria in 825.  In 831, he was also granted Thuringia, Saxony, Frisia and the northernmost lands west of the Rhine.  His half-brother Charles received Alemannia, Alsace and lands along the upper Meuse and Moselle.  Under the final division agreed by the Carolingian family under the Treaty of Verdun, the first east Frankish kingdom was created which included all German land east of the river Rhine (except Frisia which was included in the kingdom of Lotharingia) and the west bank territories of the bishoprics of Mainz, Speyer and Worms. 

 

As the Carolingian Frankish empire weakened, local entities acquired positions of greater political and military importance.  The power of the king in Germany came to depend increasingly on support from the German dukes in Bavaria, Carinthia, Franconia, Lotharingia, Saxony and Swabia.  After the election of King Heinrich I in 919, the new monarch secured his position by negotiating what amounted to friendship treaties with the local dukes in Bavaria, Lotharingia and Swabia[2].  His success is demonstrated by his ability to intervene in securing the appointment of Hermann [Konradiner] as duke of Swabia in 926, the first of many such grants to the nobility as a reward for service and support.  Continuing to hold the office was dependent on the appointee's continued loyalty, and offices were frequently withdrawn by the king at will. 

 

Although the king of Germany was head of the feudal hierarchy of nobility, the extent of the personal power of each king depended on the amount of land which he himself held.  For instance, King Heinrich III retained the duchies of Bavaria, Swabia, and Carinthia in his own hands.  By contrast, King Heinrich IV retained little personal territory.  The process resulted in the creation of rival centres of power which challenged the central regal authority, particularly apparent during the reign of King Heinrich IV when two anti-kings emerged.  At the same time, the centres of power fluctuated between the various families, depending on which held the most titles and property.  During the 12th century, the old tribal provinces evolved into stable duchies, the succession to which became hereditary within the same families.  Nevertheless, during the 11th to 13th centuries, Germany achieved a degree of political and territorial integrity as a unit which was not to be repeated until the proclamation of the German Empire in 1871. 

 

Succession to the German crown was elective.  Although the elevations of Konrad I in 911 and Heinrich I in 919 were described as "elections", the oath of allegiance and acclamation appear to have been the key elements of the procedure.  With the accession of the Ottonian kings, the elective element declined even further, especially as each king started nominating his successor during his lifetime.  The accessions of Heinrich II in 1002, and his successor Konrad II in 1024, appear to have combined a hereditary and an elective element, although on each occasion there was some competition for the post as the primary sources name several unsuccessful candidates.  The elective principle was first truly established in 1077 with the selection as king (by the German magnates alone, without the intervention of the Pope) of Rudolf von Rheinfelden, who was obliged to recognise the non-hereditary nature of his appointment.  While the accession of King Heinrich V in 1106 does not appear to have been elective, the principle was reaffirmed in 1125 with the selection of his successor Lothar von Süpplingenburg Duke of Saxony.  On that occasion, ten representatives were selected from each of the ancient German tribal divisions, Bavaria, Franconia, Saxony and Swabia, on the suggestion of Adalbert Archbishop of Mainz who dominated the proceedings[3].  King Konrad III was elected in 1138 without Saxon or Bavarian representation, with the Archbishop of Trier playing the dominant role[4]

 

By the mid-12th century, the archbishops of Köln, Mainz and Trier had firmly established themselves as the spiritual representatives in the electoral process.  The temporal representation was not as clear.  Eike von Repgau, in his compilation of customary law written in the early 1220s, recognised six electors, specifically excluding the king of Bohemia[5].  However, even as late as the election of Konrad IV in 1237, eleven princes were involved, without any indication of an inner circle with special electoral powers[6].  The dual election of 1257 highlighted the need for more specific procedures, aimed at avoiding subsequent challenge from competing candidates.  The 13 Jan 1257 electoral decree of Konrad Archbishop of Köln, issued at the time of the election of Richard Earl of Cornwall in 1257, required the "presence of all persons having right of election"[7], although it failed to specify the individuals in question, no doubt due to uncertainty about which princes would finally support his candidate.  An extreme example of the lack of definition is provided by King Alfonso's first election in Mar 1256, in which the Pisans proclaimed him elected "on behalf of all the subjects of the empire"[8].  The first formal statement concerning the number of electors is provided by Richard of Cornwall's submission to the papal enquiry which preceded the Papal Bull Qui Cœlum dated 27 Aug 1263, which refers to seven electoral princes[9].  The "Bavarian" vote seems to have become attributed to the position of Pfalzgraf, both titles being held by Otto II Duke of Bavaria when he voted as such for the first time in 1237, but the process by which this occurred is far from clear.  An additional vote was granted to Heinrich I Duke of Lower Bavaria in the 1273 election of King Rudolf I, as a practical solution to the opposition of Otakar II King of Bohemia.  This represented a temporary revival of the original "Bavarian" vote.  The Bohemian vote was confirmed by King Rudolf in a royal declaration dated 4 Mar 1289[10].  The final composition of the electoral college thus evolved through a combination of ancient custom, temporary expediency and the personalities of particular princes and prelates.  It finally comprised the archbishops of Köln, Mainz and Trier, together with the rulers of Bohemia, Brandenburg, the Rhineland Palatinate and Saxony.  Electoral procedures, the unity of the seven electors, and the right of election by the majority, were laid down definitively in the Golden Bull of 1356, which is described in some detail by Leuschner[11]

 

From the early 12th century, weaker candidates to the kingship in Germany were preferred, the more powerful nobility hoping to avoid the creation of another successful dynasty which would challenge their power.  Nevertheless, the strong personalities of individual kings did at times result in the royal title becoming virtually hereditary within certain families, in particular the Hohenstaufen, Luxembourg and Habsburg dynasties. 

 

The title attributed in contemporary documentation to the king of Germany was originally rex Francorum or simply rex.  King Otto I was the first ruler to style himself rex Francorum et Langobardorum, adopting the title first used by Charles I King of the Franks from 774, reflecting his ambitions in Italy.  He was styled imperator augustus Romanorum et Francorum when crowned emperor in 962.  Emperor Otto II used the title Romanorum imperator augustus from Mar 982.  King Heinrich II returned to using rex Francorum et Langobardorum after his coronation at Pavia in 1004, but Kings Konrad II and Heinrich III re-emphasised the connection with Rome by using rex Romanorum which became the normally used title[12].  In the present document, the titles "King of the East Franks" (until 911) and "King of Germany" (thereafter) have been used throughout instead of "King of the Franks" and "King of the Romans", reflecting the geographical and political reality of the situation rather than the titles used by the kings in contemporary documentation. 

 

The title "emperor" had no territorial significance for the kings of Germany.  The king governed within his realm whether or not he had been crowned emperor.  Kings Konrad I, Heinrich I, Konrad III and Philipp were never crowned emperor, and Kings Otto I and Heinrich IV were only crowned emperor after they had reigned as kings of Germany for 26 and 28 years, respectively.  However, the imperial title gave immense international political prestige to the holder.  The kings therefore went to extraordinary lengths to be crowned emperor by the Pope in Rome, including grasping control of the papal election process itself.  Once the king had been crowned emperor, it was usual practice for him to install his heir as king of Germany in his place.  King Friedrich III was the last German king to be crowned by the Pope in Rome, in 1452.  His successor Maximilian I assumed the title emperor in 1508 without a coronation, his planned journey to Rome for the ceremony being frustrated by the Venetians.  All Emperor Maximilian's successors assumed the imperial title at the time of their coronation at Aachen, although Karl V was in addition crowned at Bologna in 1530 by Pope Clement VII[13]

 

The kings of Germany had no central residence or capital but continually moved around their lands to impose their authority.  The result was an inability to build a lasting central power base, in contrast to the Capetian kings of France who gradually extended their royal domains from their Ile-de-France base.  In Germany, powerful nobility were therefore free to develop their political influence in their own regions, either centred around a powerful castle as in the cases of the Staufen and Habsburg dynasties, or on a town like the Welf dynasty at Ravensburg and the Zähringer at Freiburg im Breisgau.  This process developed without royal involvement.  In contrast to the distribution of titles and lands in the early part of the 11th century, the king had no control over the establishment and development of these local lordships in the 12th century.  The process was accelerated by the creation of new duchies out of the territories of the original duchies of Bavaria and Saxony.  In southern Germany, the duchies of Austria and Styria were created in 1156 and 1180 respectively, and the duchy of Westfalia (granted to the archbishop of Köln) was created in 1180 in the north.  These changes were apparently motivated by a desire to break the historic power blocks which, particularly when in the hands of the dukes from the Welf dynasty, represented a significant challenge to central royal authority.  This fragmentation of territories was to have a profound effect on the future development of Germany until the 19th century. 

 

The descendants of the Carolingian kings of the East Franks, and the Saxon, Salian Frankish, and Hohenstaufen dynasties of kings of Germany, are shown in full in the present document.  Details concerning the parentage, wives and families of the kings of Germany from other dynasties can be accessed by hyperlink to the corresponding documents which show the families to which they belonged. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of the EAST FRANKS (GERMANY) 843-911, Carolingian Dynasty

 

 

 

LOUIS, son of Emperor LOUIS I "le Pieux" & his first wife Ermengard --- ([806]-Frankfurt-am-Main 28 Aug 876, bur Kloster Lorsch).  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Louis and his wife Ermengard[14].  Under the Ordinatio Imperii promulgated by Emperor Louis in 817, Louis received "Baioariam et Carentanos, et Beheimos et Avaros, atque Sclavos qui ab orientali parte Baioariæ sunt…et duas villas…in pago Nortgaoe Luttraof et Ingoldesstat", specifying that he was to be named king[15].  He fought with his father and his brothers, joining the rebellions in 831 and 833.  In the settlement of 833, he received Alemannia, Alsace and Rhetia (taken from his half-brother Charles II "le Chauve", as well as Thuringia and Saxony.  His father obliged him to leave these additional territories in 839, confining his rule once more to Bavaria.  Following the accession of his brother Lothaire as sole emperor after their father's death in 840, Ludwig allied himself with his half-brother Charles II "le Chauve".  Together they defeated Emperor Lothaire at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye, near Auxerre 25 Jun 841.  Under the partition of territories agreed under the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, Louis was installed as LUDWIG II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks.  When Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks was faced with widespread rebellion, King Ludwig II invaded his kingdom in Aug 858 but was defeated 15 Jan 859 in the Laonnais and forced to withdraw.  In 865, King Ludwig agreed with King Charles "le Chauve" the future division of the territories of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia, but on the latter's death in 869 King Charles invaded Lotharingia before Ludwig could assert his rights.  A settlement was reached at Meerssen in Aug 870 under which Ludwig received Alsace and other territory along the Rhine[16], in effect succeeding as LUDWIG I King of Lotharingia [part].  The necrology of Prüm records the death "876 5 Kal Sep" of "Ludvicus imperator frater Ludvici imperatoris"[17].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Zurich records the death "V Kal Aug" of "Ludovicus rex fundator monasterii"[18]

m (827) EMMA, daughter of WELF [I] Graf [von Altdorf] & his wife Heilwig --- (-31 Jan 876, bur Regensburg St Emmeran).  The Annales Xantenses record the marriage in 827 of "Ludewicus rex" and "sororem Iudith imperatricis" but do not name her[19].  This appears to be the only primary source in which her origin is specified.  "Ludowicus…rex" made a donation to St Felix & Regula in Zurich naming "filia nostra Bertha…[et] coniugis nostræ Hemmæ" by charter dated 29 Oct 863[20].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Hemma quoque regina" became paralysed in 874, died at Regensburg in 876 and was buried in the church of St Emmeran[21].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "II Kal Feb" of "Hemma regina hic sepulta"[22].  The necrology of Augia Divis records the death "II Kal Feb" of "Hemma regina"[23].  The necrology of Nonnberg records the death "2 Kal Jan" of "Hemma imperatrix sor na"[24].    

King Ludwig II & his wife had seven children:

1.         HILDEGARD (828-23 Dec 856, bur [Zurich]).  Abbess of Schwarzach-am-Main, near Wurzburg [after 844]-853.  Abbess of Zurich 21 Jul 853.  "Ludowicus…rex" made a donation to St Felix & Regula, Zurich confirming "filiæ nostræ Hildigardæ" as its abbess by charter dated 21 Jul 853[25].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "X Kal Jan" of "Hildigarda virgo Christi et domni Hludowici regis filia" specifying her burial "in ecclesia S Regulæ et Felicis martyrum Christi in castello Turago"[26]

2.         KARLOMAN ([830]-Altötting, Bavaria 12 Mar or 29 Sep 880).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karlomannum Hludovicum et Karolum" as children of "Hludovicus rex…ex Emma regina"[27].  He revolted against his father in 861 and 864.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Carlomannus, Hlodowici regis Germaniæ" joined forces with "Resticio Winidorum regulo", captured a large part of his father's kingdom as far as the River Inn in 861, but was expelled by his father[28].  On the death of his father in 876, he succeeded as KARLOMAN King of the East Franks, receiving Bavaria, Pannonia, Carinthia, Bohemia and Moravia under the partition of territories agreed with his brothers.  On the death of Emperor Louis II King of Italy, he was called to Italy by Queen Engelberga and members of the Italian nobility.  He was able to expel his rival King Charles II "le Chauve" from Italy and entered Pavia in Oct 877.  However, he was struck by paralysis and had to be returned to Germany, where he was deposed in favour of his brother Louis "le Jeune" in 879.  He founded the monastery of Altötting in 877[29].  The necrology of Prüm records the death "880 XI Kal Apr" of "Karlomannus frater Ludvici et Karoli"[30].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death "880 XI Kal Apr" of "Carlmannus frater Hludowici et Karoli"[31].  Regino records the death "880 VII Non Apr" of "Carolomannus rex paralysi" and his burial "in Baioaria…Hodingas"[32]m (before 861) --- [im Nordgau], daughter of ERNST Graf [im Nordgau] & his wife --- (-after 8 Jul 879).  Her parentage and marriage are deduced from the Annales Bertiniani which name "socerum Karlomanni…Arnustum" when recording that Ludwig II King of Germany deprived him of his honours in 861 at the time of his son's rebellion[33].  "Karlomannus…rex" confirmed immunities to San Salvatore in Brescia "pro nobis coniuge et prole misericordiam dei iugiter exhorare" by charter dated 8 Jul 879[34], the wording of which suggests that he was at that date married but still childless by this marriage.  Jackman suggests that Liutswindis, concubine of King Karloman and mother of Emperor Arnulf, is co-identified with this unnamed daughter of Graf Ernst[35].  He bases this on the assumption that King Karloman's childless wife must have predeceased the king, after which he married Liutswindis by whom he had already had his son Arnulf.  However, this appears to ignore the curiously worded 8 Jul 879 charter referred to above.  There would have been sufficient time after mid-879 and before Karloman's death the following year, for his first wife to have died and for Karloman to have remarried.  However, if this was the case it is surprising that contemporary records do not mention the fact.  In any case, it would probably have depended on the extent of the paralysis which afflicted King Karloman from 879.  It is of course not impossible that "socerum" in the Annales Bertiniani was used to describe the informal relationship between King Karloman and his concubine's father, and that the Annales do not refer to the king's legitimate wife at all.  Mistress (1): LIUTSWINDIS, daughter of --- (-before 9 Mar 891).  "Arnolfus…rex" gave property at "Ardienga…in ripa fluvioli…Semita" previously owned by "mater nostra bonæ memoriæ Liutswind" to the church of Salzburg by charter dated 9 Mar 891[36].  King Karloman had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

a)         ARNULF ([850]-Regensburg 8 Dec 899, bur Regensburg St Emmeran).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names "Arnulfum regem" son of "Karlomannus rex"[37].  He was invested with the March of Pannonia and Carinthia in [870].  During the illness of his father, he administered Bavaria but was obliged to transfer the territory to his uncle Ludwig III on his father's death, in return receiving the duchy of Carinthia.  During the rebellion against Emperor Charles III "le Gros", he was offered the crown and was proclaimed ARNULF King of the East Franks at Frankfurt-am-Main in Nov 887 after the emperor was deposed. 

-        see below

3.         ERMENGARDIS (-Frauenwörth 16 Jul 866).  "Hludowicus…rex" confirmed an exchange between "filia nostra Irmingart" and abbot Folkwin of Reichenau in a charter dated 28 Apr 857[38].  Abbess of Buchau am Federsee.  Abbess of Chiemsee (Frauenwörth) 28 Apr 857.  The Annales Formoselenses record the death in 866 of "Karoli regis soror Irmingard"[39].  This is corroborated by the Annales Alamannicorum[40].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "XVII Kal Aug" of "Irmingarda Hludowici regis filia et sanctimonialis"[41]

4.         GISELA .  Her existence is deduced from the Libri confraternitatum Sancti Galli which lists (in order) "Hemma regina, Hiltigart, Irmingart, Gisla, Perhta…"[42], apparently referring to the wife of King Ludwig II and their four daughters, the existence of three of whom is corroborated by other sources.  No other primary source has so far been identified which names Gisela. 

5.         LUDWIG ([835]-Frankfurt-am-Main 20 Jan or Sep 882, bur Kloster Lorsch).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karlomannum Hludovicum et Karolum" as children of "Hludovicus rex…ex Emma regina"[43].  He occupied Lotharingia with his brother Charles in 876.  On the death of his father, he defeated the invading forces of King Charles II "le Chauve" at Andernach 7/8 Oct 876.  He succeeded his father as LUDWIG III King of the East Franks, agreeing a division of territories with his brothers in Nov 876, under which Ludwig received Franconia, Thuringia, Saxony and Frisia, as well as those parts of Lotharingia which had been annexed by his father, succeeding as LUDWIG II King of East Lotharingia.  He obliged his brother Karloman to abandon the government of Bavaria to him in 879.  He gained western Lotharingia under the Treaty of Ribémont in 880, in settlement of the dispute which arose on the death of King Louis II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks, and thereupon succeeded as sole king of Lotharingia[44].  The Annales Fuldenses records the death in "882 XIII Kal Feb" of "Hludowicus"[45]Regino records the death "882 XIII Kal Sep" at Frankfurt of "Hludowicum rex" and his burial "iuxta patrem in Lorasham cœnobio"[46]Betrothed (865) to ---, daughter of ADELHARD [I] & his wife ---.  The Annales Bertiniani record that the son of Ludwig II King of Germany became betrothed to "filiam Adelardi" against his father's will but did not marry her[47].  This could only refer to Ludwig as his brothers Karloman and Karl are recorded in other sources as already being married at that date.  m (before 29 Nov 874) LIUTGARD, daughter of Graf LIUDOLF & his wife Oda (-30 Nov 885, bur Aschaffenburg).  "Hludowicus…rex" made a donation of property in "villa…Winenheim" to Kloster Lorsch in the name of "comiti…Werinhario" by charter dated 4 Jan 877, naming "coniuge nostra Liutgarda"[48].  Widukind names "Liudgardam sororem Brunonis ac magni ducis Oddonis" as wife of "orientales Francos imperantium Hluthowicus"[49].  The exact date of death and burial place of "Liudgardis regina" are recorded in the Annalista Saxo[50]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of King Ludwig III's mistress is not known.  King Ludwig III & his wife had two children:

a)         HILDEGARD ([875/76]-after 899).  Her parentage is confirmed by the Annales Fuldenses which record that "Hildigardis filia Hludowici Francorum regis" was accused of treason in 895 and confined to "Baioaria quadam insula palude Chiemiese"[51].  It is assumed that she was adult at the time, which suggests that Hildegard must have been her parents' older child.  Hildegard is named in three charters which all state that she was "neptis" of Emperor Arnulf but which do not name her parents.  "Arnolfus…rex" granted property "in Franciæ…quas…homines Deotrih…et Gozuuin antea…habuerunt [et] in pago Puohunna…in comitatu filiorum Heimrici comitis in loco Toftaha" to Wigand vassal of "neptis nostræ Hiltigardæ" by charter dated 9 Feb 888[52].  "Arnolfus rex" donated land "in Cruft et in Claechheim et in Hliurithi in comitatu Irmenfredi" to Kloster Gandersheim on the intervention of "coniugis sue Otæ…et Hildigarde…neptis eius" by an undated charter, placed in the compilation among charters dated [891/92][53].  "Arnolfus…rex" returned land in "pago Nortgowe in comitatu Cheldionis", previously taken by "Hildigardis neptis nostra et Engeldichd comes…et Sigo vicarius eius", to "Megingozo vasallo…Erkenboldi episcopi" by charter dated 5 May 895[54].  The close connection with Graf Engildeo, shown by this last charter, is curious.  In addition, the Annales Fuldensis record the confiscation of the properties of both Engildeo and Hildegard in the same paragraph, but give no explanation or reason for the punishment.  The connection is best explained by a close family relationship, but this has not been identified.  A love affair between the two appears less likely, although not impossible, in view of the considerable age difference: Graf Engildeo was presumably already adult in 878, the date of the first of the charters in which he is named.  Hildegard's properties were restored to her in 899[55]

b)         LUDWIG ([877/78]-Frankfurt-am-Main [Nov] 879).  Regino names "Hludowicum" as the only son of "Hludowicum rex" and his wife Liutgard when recording his death at the palace of Frankfurt after accidentally falling from a window[56]

King Ludwig III had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

c)          HUGO ([855/60]-killed in battle Thun 2 Feb 880, or Scheldt River 880, bur Abbey of Lorsch).  The Erchanberti Breviarum records that "Ludovicus rex Franciæ" had one son "Hug…de concubina" who [in 880] fought the Vikings "cum Theoderico et Marcwardo…episcopis et Bardone fratre Liutkardæ reginæ"[57].  The precise date of this battle is determined from Thietmar who records that "Duke Bruno…great uncle" of Bruno Archbishop of Köln, was drowned in a flooded river on 2 Feb while on an expedition against the Danes, although he does not mention Hugo[58].  If this is correct, "Bardone" in the Erchanberti Breviarum  was presumably an error for "Brunone".  The Annales Fuldenses provide a slightly different version of these events, recording that "Hugo filius regis" was killed in battle in 880 while trying to expel "Nordmannos" from the Scheldt river area which they had occupied "longo tempore"[59].  The Annales Fuldenses separate this event from the battle in Saxony in which Bruno and others were killed. 

6.         BERTA (-26 Mar 877).  "Ludowicus…rex" confirmed the grant of the abbey of Schwarzach-am-Main to "Berethæ sororis suæ [filiæ nostræ Hildigardæ]" in a charter dated 27 Mar 857[60].  She succeeded her sister Hildegard as Abbess of Schwarzach-am-Main in 853.  Abbess of Zurich 856.  The Annales Alamannicorum record the death in 877 of "Berchta filia regis"[61].  The Annales Weingartenses record the death in 877 of “Berta filia Regis Hludovvici[62].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Zurich records the death "VII Kal Mar" of "Berchta filia Ludwici regis fundatoris nostri monasterii et abba eiusdem"[63]

7.         CHARLES (839-Neudingen an der Donau 13 Jan 888[64], bur Kloster Reichenau).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karlomannum Hludovicum et Karolum" as children of "Hludovicus rex…ex Emma regina"[65].  On the death of his father in 876, he succeeded as KARL III King of the East Franks, agreeing a division of territories with his brothers in Nov 876 under which Karl received Alemannia, Alsace and Rhetia.  After his brother Karloman was obliged by illness to leave Italy, Pope John VIII called for help from Karl III.  He occupied northern Italy in Nov 879.  He was crowned Emperor KARL III "der Dicke" in Rome 12 Feb 881 by Pope John VIII.  On the death of his older brother King Ludwig III, he inherited Germania, Franconia, Saxony and Bavaria.  On the death of Carloman King of the West Franks 12 Dec 884, he was offered the West Frankish throne at Ponthion in Jun 885.  In mid-887, he received Ermengard, widow of Boson King [of Provence], and adopted her son Louis as his son and presumably heir[66].  In Nov 887, his nephew Arnulf Duke of Carinthia led a powerful army of Carinthians and Slavs against Emperor Karl who was soon deserted on all sides, and ceased to rule as King of the East Franks [17/27] Nov 887[67].  Reuter highlights the absence of evidence of a formal deposition[68].  He was given estates in Alemannia as a pension, but died a few weeks later[69]Regino records the death "888 pridie Id Ian" of "Carolus imperator" and his burial "in Augea monasterio"[70]m ([1 Aug] 862, divorced 887) as her first husband, RICHARDIS, daughter of Graf ERCHANGER [II] & his wife --- (-Abbey of Andlau, Alsace 18 Sep before [906/11]).  "Ludowicus…rex" made a grant of property "in Alamannia in pago…Brisahgawe" to "filius noster Karolus" as dowry for his unnamed wife dated 1 Aug [862][71].  The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 862 of "Hludowicus…Karolo filio" and "Ercangarii comitis filiam"[72].  Abbess of Andlau in Alsace 887.  At the time of their divorce, the couple both declared that the marriage had never been consummated.  The Annales Argentinenses record that "Richarda imperatrix, Karoli regis uxor" was accused of adultery with "Liutwardo Vercellensi episcopo", but that she was confirmed to be a virgin at the time of her divorce[73].  The Chronicon of Bernold also records that "Richgarda imperatrix" was accused of adultery with "Liutwardo Vercellensi episcopo" but was later proved to be a virgin[74].  She married secondly Gauzelin ex-Bishop.  Regino names "Gozzelino eiusdem urbis [=Paris?] episcopo" in 887, recording that he left the church and married "Richardem sic enim Augusta vocabatur"[75]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Emperor Karl III's mistress is not known.  Emperor Karl III had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

a)         BERNHARD ([876]-murdered 891).  The Annales Alamannicorum name "Berenhart filius Karoli" when recording his escape from Rhetia in 890[76].  The Annales Fuldenses record that the emperor wanted to appoint "Bernhartum filiuum suum ex concubina" as his successor in 885[77].  Bernhard became the focus of opposition in Alemannia to the rule of his cousin King Arnulf and in 891 led a rebellion, together with Ulrich Graf der Linzgau and Bernhard Abbot of St Gallen[78].  The Annales Laubacenses record that "Perenhart filius Karoli" escaped "de Retia" in 890[79].  He was murdered by Rudolf Count of Rhetia[80].  The Annales Alamannicorum record that "Perenhart filius Karoli" was killed by "Ruodulfo" in 891[81]. 

 

 

The relationship between the following individual and the above family has not been established.  It is also possible that she was a relative of Emperor Arnulf on his mother's side of the family. 

1.         ROTRUD (-[9 Jul/27 Nov] 889).  "Arnolfus…rex" made a donation to Kloster St Arnulf at Metz of property in "in pago Mosellensi et in comitatu Scarponsense in villa Arcus" at the request of "Roddrudæ…consanguinæ nostræ…et Ottonis…comitis nostri" by charter dated 9 Jul 889[82].  "Arnolfus…rex" made a donation of property at "Bruochmagat in Elisatia" to Kloster Lorsch after the death of "Roddrudis…consanguinea nostra" by charter dated 27 Nov 889[83]

 

 

ARNULF, illegitimate son of KARLOMAN King of the East Franks & his mistress Liutswindis --- ([850]-Regensburg 8 Dec 899, bur Regensburg St Emmeran).  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ record the death in 880 of "Karlomannus rex" leaving "regnum cum ducatu Bawarie" to "Arnolfo, filio suo ex concubina nobili de Karinthia"[84].  "Arnolfus…rex" donated the abbey of Herrieden to Eichstätt by charter dated 23 Feb 888 in which he names "Karlomanni patris nostri"[85].  He is called "Arnulfum filium spurium Carolomanni" when recording his accession in 887[86].  He was invested with the March of Pannonia and Carinthia in [870].  During the illness of his father, he administered Bavaria but was obliged to transfer the territory to his uncle Ludwig III on his father's death, in return for receiving the duchy of Carinthia.  He led a powerful army of Carinthians and Slavs against Emperor Karl III in early Nov 887, and 27 Nov 887 issued his first charter as ARNULF King of the East Franks.  Reuter highlights the absence of evidence concerning the manner in which Arnulf assumed power in place of his uncle[87].  Fulco Archbishop of Reims came to Worms in Jun 888 to invite him to claim the kingdom of the West Franks, challenging Eudes who had recently been elected king.  Arnulf won a decisive victory over the Vikings at the River Dyle in 891, after which Viking raids in the east Frankish kingdom all but ceased[88].  Called by the Pope to fight Guido I Duke of Spoleto, Arnulf crossed the Alps in 894 and subjugated northern Italy, but was forced to withdraw by Italian resistance.  Returning to Italy after Guido’s death in 895, he was crowned Emperor ARNULF at Rome 22 Feb 896 by Pope Formosus.  He marched against Lambert of Spoleto, but was struck by paralysis and obliged to return to Bavaria[89]Regino records the death "899 III Kal Dec" of "Arnulfus imperator" and his burial "in Odingas ubi et pater eius tumulatus est"[90].  The necrology of Prüm records the death "900 III Kal Dec" of "Arnoldus imperator"[91].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "V Kal Dec" and "VI Id Dec" of "Arnolfus imperator fundator huius loci"[92]

m (before end 888) ODA, daughter of --- (-after 30 Nov 903).  "Arnolfus…rex" names "coniugis nostræ Otæ" in his donation of property "in comitatu Aribonis in loco…Scalaha in villa Obrinindorf" to Snello abbey dated 3 May 889[93].  No indication has been found about the origin of Oda.  Settipani suggests that she may have been related to the future Konrad I King of Germany[94].  However, he bases this on King Arnulf's charter dated 19 May 891 in which he names "Chonradi…comitis et nepotis nostri"[95].  However, a relationship between Arnulf and Konrad can be identified through Konrad's mother, who was the niece of King Arnulf's paternal grandmother, without the need to speculate on a connection through Queen Oda.  Herimannus records "Outa regina adulterii crimine cum quibusdam viris infamata 72 principum iuramento Ratisponæ in conventu absoluta est"[96]

[Mistress (1): ([870]) [WINBURG, daughter of --- (-after 18 May 898).  "Arnolfus…imperator augustus" confirmed an exchange of land "que dicitur Nordilinga in pago Retiensi" between Bishop Tuto of Regensburg and "femina quedam nobilis Uuinpurc" by charter dated 18 May 898 which names "filii sui Zuentipulichi"[97].  It has been assumed that the Zwentibold named in this charter was the illegitimate son of King Arnulf but this is not certain.  There was a second Zwentibold at the time, son of Zwentibold [Swatopulk] King of Moravia who died in 894, as shown by the charter of "Arnolfus imperator augustus" dated 31 Aug 898 under which the emperor granted property in "Charentariche in comitatu ipsius consanguinei nostri [Liutbaldi]…Gurca…et…in Gurcatala et in alia loco qui dicitur Zulszah" to "viro progenie bonæ nobilitatis exorto Zuentibolch…Liutbaldi…propinqui ac illustris nostri marchionis vassallo" at the request of "Iringi et Isangrimi…comitum nostrorum"[98].  It is improbable that the Zwentibold named in this latter charter was Arnulf's son, who in all his known charters during the period 895/900 is referred to as "rex" (as king of Lotharingia).  In addition, the charter in question specifies no relationship between the emperor and Zwentibold, in contrast to the explicitly mentioned more remote relationship between the former and Markgraf Luitpold.] 

Mistress (2): ([870/75]) ELLINRAT, daughter of --- (-after 23 May 914).  "Chuonradus…rex" confirmed an exchange of property "in villa Punninchoua…et in villa Unolcinchoua" between "matrona…Ellinrat, concubina…Arnulfi regis" and Kloster St Emmeram at Regensburg by charter dated 24 May 914 which excepts certain property "in Ergoltinga" held by "iuniori Ellinratæ"[99]

Mistress (3): ---.  The name of King Arnulf's third mistress is not known. 

King Arnulf & his wife had one son:

1.         LOUIS (Altötting Jul 893-in Bavaria 24 Sep 911, bur Regensburg).  The Annales Fuldenses record the birth in 893 of Arnulf's son "nomine avi sui Hludowicum"[100].  He was proclaimed as his father's successor 4 Feb 900 at Forchheim as LUDWIG IV "das Kind" King of the East Franks, without a regent despite the king's youth although Hatto Archbishop of Mainz and Adalbero Bishop of Augsburg fulfilled the role unofficially.  Reuter highlights that charters were issued in the name of King Ludwig as if he was adult, although they were counter-signed by many more magnates acting as "intervenors" than had previously been usual[101].  After his half-brother Zwentibold was deposed as king of Lotharingia, he was recognised as LUDWIG III King of Lotharingia at Thionville and at Aix-la-Chapelle in Mar 900.  He fought unsuccessfully against the invasion of the Magyars.  On his death, Konrad Duke of Franconia was elected king of Germany at Forchheim, Bavaria [6/11] Nov 911.  Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks was chosen as king of Lotharingia[102].  The Annales Lobienses record the death in 911 of "Loduwicus rex, filius Arnulfi"[103]Herimannus records the death in 911 of "Ludowicus rex adolescens" and his burial in Regensburg[104].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "XII Kal Feb" of "Ludowicus rex filius Arnulfi imperatoris"[105], although from the date it is more likely that this entry relates to King Ludwig III who died 22 Jan. 

King Arnulf had one illegitimate son by [Mistress (1)]: 

2.          ZWENTIBOLD ([870/71]-killed in battle 13 Aug 900, bur Abbey of Echternach).  "Filiumque suum rex Arnulfus…nomine Tuendebolebum" in named in the Annales Vedastini [106]Regino records that, when Arnulf King of the East Franks granted "ducatum Behemensium" to "Zuendiboldo Marabensium Sclavorum regi", his son was baptised with "nomine suo Zuendibold"[107].  Regino records that "Arnolfi Zvendiboldo filio" was given the honours of "Megingaudi comitis" in 892[108].  He was installed as ZWENTIBOLD King of Lotharingia in May 895 by his father, crowned [14/30] May.  "Zendeboldus…rex" signed 28 charters between 895 and 900[109]His position in Lotharingia was seriously weakened after 898 when he quarrelled with Graf Reginar who was one of his main supporters[110].  He was deposed on the death of his father in 899 and replaced by his legitimate half-brother.  He was killed trying to recapture his kingdom[111].   Regino specifies that "Zuantibold" was killed in battle "900 Id Aug" by "comitibus Stephano, Gerardo et Matfriedo circa Mosam"[112]The necrology of Prüm records the death "901 Id Aug" of "Zuindibolt in prælio interficitur"[113]m ([Worms] [27 Mar/13 Jun] 897) as her first husband, ODA, daughter of OTTO “des Erlauchten” [Duke of Saxony] & his wife Hedwig ([884]-[2 Jul] after 952).  Regino records the marriage in 897 of "Ottonem comitem…filiam Odam" and King Zwentibold[114]Jackman speculates that Oda must have been born in [884], although this appears to be designed to fit with his theory about Oda's supposed third marriage[115]. "Zuendeboldus…rex" granted immunities to Kloster St Maximin at Trier by charter dated 13 Jun 897 which names "coniugis nostræ Uodæ"[116].  Regino records that "Gerhard comes" married "Odam uxorem Zuendiboldi regis" after killing her first husband in battle in 900[117]She married secondly (900) Graf Gerhard [Matfriede] (-killed in battle 22 Jun 910), her first husband’s enemy, and [maybe thirdly Eberhard Graf im Oberlahngau, Pfalzgraf].  Jackman speculates on this possible third marriage for onomastic reasons, the name of Eberhard's supposed daughter Ingeltrud being that of Oda's maternal grandmother[118].  [King Zwentibold & [his wife] had three children:]

a)         [BENEDICTA .  The Gesta Episcoporum Leodensium names "filie…Ceindeboldi Regis Benedicta et Cecilia" and records their burial at Süsteren[119].  Abbess at Süsteren.  This is the only reference to any children of King Zwentibold.  Their existence is improbable, especially given the speculative birth date (shown above) of Oda wife of Zwentibold, although it is possible that they were illegitimate.  Their names are not, however, typical of the late 9th century in Germany and their absence from any contemporaneous primary sources is surprising if they did exist, considering the number of references to King Zwentibold himself.] 

b)         [CÄCILIE .  The Gesta Episcoporum Leodensium names "filie…Ceindeboldi Regis Benedicta et Cecilia" and records their burial at Süsteren[120].  Abbess at Süsteren.] 

c)          [RELENDIS .  The Gesta Episcoporum Leodensium names "sancto virgo Relendis filia…dicit regis [=Xeindeboldi regis]"[121].  The same comments apply to this daughter as the alleged daughters Benedicta and Cäcilie.] 

King Arnulf had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (2): 

3.          ELLINRAT (-after 23 May 914)The Annales Fuldenses records in 893 that "Engilscalcus iuvenili audatia vir" later "rapta de concubina filia regis"[122].  The passage does not name the king's daughter.  Ellinrat is the only daughter who is named elsewhere, but the text may refer to an otherwise unknown daughter of Emperor Arnulf.  "Chuonradus…rex" confirmed an exchange of property "in villa Punninchoua…et in villa Unolcinchoua" between "matrona…Ellinrat, concubina…Arnulfi regis" and Kloster St Emmeram at Regensburg by charter dated 24 May 914 which excepts certain property "in Ergoltinga" held by "iuniori Ellinratæ"[123].  [Mistress of:  ENGELSCHALK [II] Markgraf in Pannonia, son of [ENGELSCHALK [I] Markgraf in Pannonia & his wife ---.] 

King Arnulf had one illegitimate son by Mistress (3): 

4.          RATOLD ([889]-after 896).  Herimannus names "Ratoldo filiis suis [=Arnolfus] ex concubina natis"[124]He was appointed sub-king in Italy after his father's return to Germany in 896[125]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KING of GERMANY 911-918, KONRADINER

 

 

1.         KONRAD, son of KONRAD Graf [in der Wetterau] & his wife Glismut --- (19 Oct or 23 Dec 918, bur Fulda)Regino records that "Chuonradus comes" sent "filium suum Chuonradum" against "Gerardum et fratrem eius Matfridum" in 906[126].  Graf im Hessengau 908: "Hludowicus…rex" granted property to Kloster Hersfeld built "in pago Hassionum in comitatu Chuonrati" by charter dated 17 Dec 908[127].  "Hludowicus…rex" granted property to the church of Salzburg by charter dated 17 Dec 908 which names "Chonradi comitis nostri atque propinqui"[128].  "Hludouuicus…rex" confirmed the foundation of St Georg at Limburg-an-der-Lahn at the request of "Chuonrati ducis et fidelis neptis nostri, cuidam Chuonrato…comiti nostro filio Eberhardi in pago Loganahe in suo comitatu" by charter dated 10 Feb 910[129].  Graf im Keldachgau 910: "Hludowicus…rex" granted property to "presbitero Foldger" at the request of "Chuonradus comes ac propinquus noster…in pago Keldocense in comitatu ipsius Chuonradi" by charter dated 26 Jul 910[130].  "Hludowicus…rex" granted property to "presbitero Gozbold" at the request of "Chuonradi et Eberhardi comitum" by charter dated 16 Jun 911[131].  He was elected as KONRAD I King of Germany at Forchheim [7/10] Nov 911, with support from "Franks, Saxons, Alemans and Bavarians"[132].  He was opposed by his brother-in-law Erchanger who rebelled in 915, and by Arnulf Duke of Bavaria[133].  He was wounded on an expedition against Duke Arnulf, which led to his death[134].  On his deathbed he nominated Heinrich of Saxony as his successor as king of Germany[135].  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 918 of "Cuonradus rex"[136].  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 918 of "Cuonradus rex"[137]Regino records the death of "Chuonradus rex" in 919 and his burial in Fulda monastery[138].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "X Kal Jan" of "Chuonradi regis"[139].  Thietmar records his death on 19 Oct, and his "funeral obsequies…at Weilburg"[140].  The Annalista Saxo records that "sepultus est in civitate sua Wilinaburh"[141]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    KINGS of GERMANY 918-1024, SAXON DYNASTY (LIUDOLFINGER)

 

 

HEINRICH, son of OTTO "der Erlauchte" Graf [im Südthüringau] & his wife Hedwig [Babenberg] ([876]-Memleben[142] 2 Jul 936, bur Quedlinburg Stiftskirche).  Thietmar records that Heinrich was "born of the noble lineage of Otto and Hadwig"[143].  According to the Annalista Saxo, he was son of the unnamed sister of Adalbert [Babenberg], with whom he and his brothers fought against the Konradiner family, his complete parentage being recorded in a later passage[144].  He was elected as HEINRICH I "der Vogelsteller/the Fowler" King of Germany at Fritzlar 6 May 919, but Thietmar reports that he refused unction offered by Heriger Archbishop of Mainz[145].  King Heinrich re-established Saxon domination over the Slavs after successful campaigns against the Hevelli in 928 and against the Daleminzi and Bohemians in 929[146].  Thietmar records that he founded Meissen in [928/29][147], and defeated "Knud I" King of Denmark[148].  Widukind records that he defeated the Magyars at the battle of Riade near Merseburg in 933, their first major setback in their raids on western Europe[149].  The necrology of Fulda records the death "936 Kal Iul" of "Heinrih rex"[150].  Thietmar records the death of King Heinrich 2 Jul 936 at Memleben "in the…sixtieth year of his life" and his burial at Quedlinburg "which he himself had constructed from the ground up"[151].  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "2 Jul" of "Heinricus rex pater magni Oddonis"[152]

m firstly (906, divorced 909) as her second husband, HATHEBURG, widow of ---, daughter of EBERWIN & his wife ---.  Thietmar names Hatheburg as daughter of "lord Erwin", specifying that she was widowed (without naming her first husband), when recording her marriage to Heinrich[153].  Widukind records the mother of "Thancmari" as "filia materteræ Sigifridi"[154].  She had become a nun after the death of her first husband, which presumably provided the reason for "the outrage perpetrated through this marriage" and the basis for the couple's separation which is not explicitly expressed as such by Thietmar[155]

m secondly (Wallhausen 909) MATHILDE, daughter of Graf THEODERICH [Immedinger] & his wife Reginlind --- ([896]-Quedlinburg 14 Mar 968, bur Quedlinburg Stiftskirche).  Widukind names "Mahthilda" as wife of King Heinrich, also naming her father and three brothers[156].  Thietmar names Mathilde as daughter of "Dietrich and Reinhild" when recording her marriage to Heinrich, specifying the was "a descendant of the lineage of King Widukind"[157].  Her alleged descent from Widukind is also referred to in the Vita Mahthildis[158].  Thietmar records that Quedlinburg was bestowed on Mathilde as part of her dower 16 Sep 929[159], and that she established the convent there thirty days after the death of her husband[160].  She played an active part in encouraging the rebellion of her son Heinrich in 939 and was included in the reconciliation of 941[161].  Lay Abbess of Nivelles.  Thietmar records the death of Queen Mathilde on 14 Mar, without specifying the year[162].  The necrology of Fulda records the death "968 2 Id Mar" of "Mahthild regina"[163]

King Heinrich & his first wife had one child:

1.         THANKMAR ([907/09]-murdered Eresburg 28 Jul 938).  Widukind names "Thancmari" as son of King Heinrich, when recording his rebellion against King Otto, and in a later passage names his mother[164].  Thietmar records the birth of "Tammo"[165].  He was considered illegitimate on the basis that his mother had taken the veil before her second marriage, which was therefore invalid[166].  Thietmar records the rebellion of "Tammo son of the king and Liudgard", and that Thankmar claimed the inheritance of Siegfried Graf [von Merseburg], Pfalzgraf von Sachsen (who was his mother's first cousin).  He was besieged in Eresburg, forced into the church of St Peter where he was killed 28 Jul by Maginzo before the altar, his murderer being punished with a cruel death by the king "later, in the second year of his reign"[167].  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "28 Jul" of "Thancmar frater magni Oddonis"[168]

King Heinrich & his second wife had five children: 

The number and names of these children appear definitive (apart from any who died in infancy) as shown by a list of names in the Libri Confraternitatum Sancti Galli which sets out (in order) "Heinrich, Mathilt, Otto, Heinrich, Prun, Kerbrich, Adawi, Kysilbref", no doubt referring to King Heinrich, his wife, children and son-in-law[169].  The list is undated but was presumably written during the period [929/36] as King Heinrich's other son-in-law Hugues Duc des Francs (who married in 937) is not included. 

2.         OTTO (23 Nov 912-Memleben 7 May 973, bur Magdeburg cathedral).  Widukind names (in order) "Oddonem, Heinricum, Brunonem" as sons of King Heinrich & his second wife[170].  Associate King of Germany, with his father, in 930.  He was elected OTTO I "der Große" King of Germany 7 Aug 936, installed at Aachen. 

-        see below.   

3.         GERBERGA (Nordhausen [913/14]-Reims 5 May 984, bur Abbaye de Reims).  Liutprand states that the wife of "Gislebertum Lotharingorum ducem" was "regis sororem"[171].  Flodoard names her "Gerbergam" when recording her second marriage[172].  Her first husband had been a rival of King Heinrich I and maybe planned to establish himself as independent ruler in Lotharingia in 920[173].  As the marriage coincided with Giselbert being created dux, it was presumably arranged to confirm Giselbert's submission to King Heinrich.  King Louis married Gerberga without the permission of her brother Otto I King of Germany, probably to increase his hold on Lotharingia (ruled by her first husband).  Gerberga was active in the defence of Laon in 941 and of Reims in 946, accompanied her husband on expeditions to Aquitaine in 944 and Burgundy in 949, and was active during his period of imprisonment in 945/46[174].  An educated person, she commissioned from Adso of Moutier-en-Der the De ortu et tempore antichristi[175].  Her second husband gave her the abbey of Notre-Dame de Laon in 951, taken from his mother on her second marriage.  Abbess of Notre Dame de Soissons in 959[176].  "Gerberga…Francorum regina" donated "alodo…Marsnam in comitatu Masaugo" to Reims Saint-Rémy, confirmed by "comitibus Emmone et Ansfrido", for the souls of "senioris nostri piæ memoriæ Gisleberti suique…patris…et matris Rageneri et Albradæ", by charter dated 10 Feb 968, signed by "Arnulfi comitis…Emmonis comitis, Ansfridi comitis…"[177]m firstly ([928/29]) GISELBERT Graf [von Maasgau], son of REGINAR [I] "Langhals" Graaf [van Maasgau] Comte de Hainaut & his wife Alberada --- (-drowned in the River Rhine Oct 929).  He was created dux in 928 by Heinrich I King of Germany, which effectively created him GISELBERT Duke of Lotharingiam secondly (end 939) LOUIS IV "d'Outremer" King of the West Franks, son of CHARLES III "le Simple" King of the West Franks & his second wife Eadgifu [Ogive] of England ([10 Sep 920/10 Sep 921]-Reims Oct 954, bur Reims St Remy).

4.         HEINRICH ([Dec 919/22 Apr 922]-Regensburg 1 Nov 955, bur Regensburg St Emmeran).  Widukind names (in order) "Oddonem, Heinricum, Brunonem" as sons of King Heinrich & his second wife[178].  "Henrici ducis, fratris primi Ottonis" is named in the Annalista Saxo[179].  "Henricus…rex" granted property to Paderborn cathedral by charter dated 9 May 935 which names "Heinrici æquivoci ac filii nostri et Hadeuui filiæ nostræ" by charter dated 9 May 935[180].  Thietmar records that he was captured by Eberhard Duke of Franconia in 938 and "held in chains".  He rebelled against his brother King Otto in 939 and took part in a campaign of pillaging along the Rhine, joined by Eberhard ex-Duke of Franconia and Giselbert Duke of Lotharingia [Hainaut][181].  They were defeated at Birten and Andernach[182].  After Duke Giselbert was drowned, Heinrich was installed as HEINRICH Duke of Lotharingia in [940], but was unable to establish himself there and soon returned to Saxony[183].  Thietmar records that he was installed as HEINRICH I Duke of Bavaria in 947 by his older brother[184].  Thietmar records that he was expelled from Regensburg by his nephew Liudolf Duke of Swabia, during the course of the latter's rebellion against his father, but restored by his brother King Otto in [955][185]Regino records the death of "Heinricus frater regis" in 955[186].  The necrology of Fulda records the death "955 Kal Nov" of "Heinrichus dux"[187].  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "1 Nov" of "Heinricus dux avus imperatoris Heinrici"[188].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "Kal Nov" of "Heinricus dux Baioaria hic sepultus"[189].   

a)         other children: see BAVARIA

b)         HEINRICH (951-Gandersheim 28 Aug 995, bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche[190]).  He succeeded his father in 955 as HEINRICH II "der Zänker" Duke of Bavaria

i)          other children: see BAVARIA

ii)         HEINRICH (6 May [973]-Pfalz Grona 3 Jul 1024, bur Bamberg Cathedral).  He succeeded his father in 995 as HEINRICH IV Duke of Bavaria.  He was elected as HEINRICH II "der Heilige" King of Germany at Mainz 7 Jun 1002, crowned at Aachen 8 Sep 1002.  He was crowned Emperor HEINRICH I at Rome 14 Feb 1014.  King Heinrich II was, strictly speaking, Emperor Heinrich I as his great-grandfather King Heinrich I was never crowned emperor.  However, he and subsequent emperors named Heinrich were normally referred to by the ordinal number attached to them as kings of Germany even after their imperial coronations. 

5.         HEDWIG ([922]-9 Jan [958 or after 965]).  Rodulfus Glaber names "sororem [primis Ottonis] Haduidem" as wife of "Hugo dux Francorum cognomento Magnus"[191].  "Henricus…rex" granted property to Paderborn cathedral by charter dated 9 May 935 which names "Heinrici æquivoci ac filii nostri et Hadeuui filiæ nostræ" by charter dated 9 May 935[192].  "Hugues abbé de Saint-Martin" donated "son alleu de Lachy…dans le comté de Meaux", inherited from "comte Aledramnus", to Tours Saint-Martin by charter dated 14 Sep 937 which names "sa femme Havis"[193].  Flodoard refers to "sororem Othonis regis Transfhenensis, filiam Heinrici" as the wife of "Hugo princeps, filius Roberti", without naming her, recording the marriage in 938[194].  The Annales Nivernenses record in 958 that "rex et mater sua et Ugo filius Ugonis et mater sua" attended a hearing "apud Marziacum vicum iuxta Nevernis…contra Guillelmum comitem Aquitaniæ post missa sancti Martini"[195].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "V Id Jan" of "Hadhuidis comitissa"[196]m ([9 May/14 Sep] 937) as his third wife, HUGUES "le Grand" Duc des Francs, son of ROBERT I King of France & his second wife Béatrix de Vermandois ([898]-Dourdan, Essonne Jun 956, bur Saint-Denis).

6.         BRUNO (May 925-Reims 11 Oct 965, bur Köln St Pantaleon).  Widukind names (in order) "Oddonem, Heinricum, Brunonem" as sons of King Heinrich & his second wife[197].  "Brun archiepiscopus Agrippinæ civitatis" is named "frater imperatoris", when recording his death in 965[198].  Chancellor of Germany 940-953.  "Otto…rex" granted property to the church of Cambrai at the request of "germani nostri Brunonis et Cuonradi ducis atque Herimanni ducis" by charter dated 30 Apr 948[199].  Abbot of Lorsch 948/50.  Archbishop of Köln 953.  Flodoard records in 953 the death of “Wicfredus Coloniensis antistes” and the ordination of “Bruno frater regis Ottonis” to whom “rex Otto” also granted “regnum Lothariense[200].  The Continuator of Regino records the death in 953 of “Wigfridus Coloniensis ecclesiæ archiepiscopus” and the appointment of “Brun frater regis”, adding that the latter acquired “totius Lothariensis regni ducatum et regimen cum episcopatu[201].  Thietmar records that, in 953, he was installed as BRUNO Duke of Lotharingia by his brother King Otto[202].  According to Thietmar, Archbishop Bruno plotted against his brother, offering the crown of Germany to his brother-in-law Hugues "le Grand", but repented of his scheme and was forgiven by King Otto[203].  In 959, Bruno divided Lotharingia into Upper and Lower Lotharingia, installing comte Frederic (husband of his niece Béatrix de France) as Duke of the former[204].  The Continuator of Regino records the death “V Id Oct” in 965 of “Brun...archiepiscopus germanus imperatoris[205].  Thietmar records the death of Archbishop Bruno on 11 Oct "in the thirteenth year after his ordination"[206].  The Kalendarium of Köln Cathedral records the death “V Id Oct” of “Bruno archiepiscopus[207]

 

 

The precise relationships between the following individuals and Emperor Otto I have not been identified.  In each case, the primary sources report an indirect family relationship either between these persons, or members of their families, and the emperor.  The connection is not necessarily through the agnatic side: a likely possibility is through the numerous family of Mathilde, second wife of Heinrich I King of Germany, about whom little definite information is known. 

1.         [--- .  As explained further in the document HOLLAND & FRISIA, it is possible that this husband of the sister of Robert Archbishop of Trier was the possible sister who married the unnamed son of Eberhard Graaf van Veluwe[208]m ---, sister of ROBERT Archbishop of Trier, daughter of ---.  The Gesta Treverorum records that "Rubertus archiepiscopus" came from "regno quod Lotharingium vocatur" adding that "soror eius imperatori in matrimonio iuncta fuit"[209].  The existence of a relationship between this family and the Ottonian emperors is confirmed by the Vita Richardi abbatis S Vidoni Virdunensis which names "comes Lietardus, Ottonis imperator consanguineus"[210].]

 

1.         BERENGAR (-11 Aug [958 or 959])Bishop of Verdun 939.  The Annales Sancti Vitoni Virdunensis record the death in 941 of “Bernoinus episcopus Virdunensis” and the succession of “Berengarius Ottonis imperatoris consanguineus[211].  The necrology of Verdun Cathedral records the death "III Id Aug" of "Berengerus episcopus qui dedit fratribus Beslanevillam"[212].  The necrology of Verdun Saint-Vanne records the death "II Id Aug DCCCCLIX" of "dominus Berengarius episcopus Virdunensis"[213].  The Annales Sancti Vitoni Virdunensis record the death in 958 of “Berengarius episcopus Virdunensis” and the succession of “Wicfridus qui fundavit ecclesiam sancti Pauli Virdun[214]

 

1.         MATHILDE .  "Otto…rex" confirmed a donation to Kloster Hilwarthausen of "villam Hrethon…in pago Hassia ac comitatu Dodichonis comitis" made by "Ida matrona" by charter dated 20 Jan 990 on the petition of "neptis nostræ Mathhildis Astnidensis ecclesiæ abbatissæ"[215]

 

1.         --- (-killed in battle 945).  Dudo of Saint-Quentin records that a nepos (unidentified) of King Otto was killed in the battle, which followed the king´s unsuccessful expedition against Rouen in 945 after members of the local nobility had arranged the escape of Richard I Comte [de Normandie] from his captivity by Louis IV King of the West Franks, his brother-in-law[216]

 

 

OTTO, son of HEINRICH I "der Vogelsteller/the Fowler" King of Germany & his second wife Mathilde --- (23 Nov 912-Memleben 7 May 973, bur Magdeburg Cathedral).  Widukind names (in order) "Oddonem, Heinricum, Brunonem" as sons of King Heinrich & his second wife[217].  Associate King of Germany, with his father, in 930.  He was elected as OTTO I "der Große" King of Germany 7 Aug 936, crowned at Aachen.  After his accession, the Bohemians and the Abotrites withheld payment of tribute.  A revolt in Bavaria was led by Duke Eberhard, whom King Otto deposed and banished.  Otto's half-brother Thankmar rebelled in Saxony with other magnates dissatisfied with the king's distribution of offices.  His brother Heinrich rebelled in 939, was joined by Louis IV King of the West Franks and Giselbert Duke of Lotharingia, but was defeated at Birten and Andernach[218].  Thietmar records that he founded the monastery of Magdeburg (later Magdeburg Cathedral), encouraged by his first wife, to which the relics of St Innocent were brought[219].  He sent armed forces which were unsuccessful in taking reprisals against Rouen in 945, after members of the local nobility had arranged the escape of Richard I Comte [de Normandie] from his captivity by Louis IV King of the West Franks, his brother-in-law, a nepos (unidentified) of King Otto being killed in the battle[220].  Thietmar records that he invaded Italy in 951, using the ill-treatment of his future second wife as an excuse, entered Pavia 23 Sep 951 and proclaimed himself king of Italy.  His predecessor Berengario di Ivrea proposed himself as Otto's viceroy in Italy, which was accepted by the Council of Augsburg in Aug 952.  King Otto's son Liudolf rebelled in 953, but was pardoned in 954.  Thietmar records that King Otto defeated the Magyars in battle at Lechfeld near Augsburg in 955[221], which marked the end of their marauding in Europe.  Berengario King of Italy abused his position, and Otto sent Liudolf to Italy to restore order.  After several further years of Berengario's tyrannical rule in Italy, Otto invaded in Aug 961 in response to requests for intervention from Pope John XII and Hubert [de Provence] Duke of Spoleto, one of Berengario's main vassals.  King Otto forced Berengario's retreat to the fortress of San Leo near Montefeltro 962, finally capturing him in 963.  Thietmar records that he was crowned Emperor at Rome 2 Feb 962 by Pope John XII[222].  The necrology of Fulda records the death "973 Non Mai" of "Otto imp"[223].  Thietmar records his death at Memleben on 7 May in the thirty-eighth year after his consecration and his burial at Magdeburg[224].  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "7 May" of "Otto maior magnus imperator"[225]

m firstly (Sep 929) EADGYTH of Wessex, daughter of EDWARD "the Elder" King of Wessex & his second wife Ælfleda --- (-26 Jan 946[226], bur Magdeburg Cathedral).  The Book of Hyde names "Edgitham et Elgimam" as fifth and sixth of the six daughters of King Eadweard by his first wife "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda", specifying that they were both sent to "Henrico Alemanorum imperatori" and that the former married "filio sui Othoni"[227].  Thietmar names "Edith…daughter of King Edmund of England" when recording her marriage during the lifetime of Otto's father, in a later passage stating that she urged her husband to begin establishing the city of Magdeburg[228].  The Annalista Saxo records the wife of Otto as "Ediht filiam Ehtmundi regis Anglorum"[229].  Thietmar records her death 26 Jan "in the eleventh year" of the reign of her husband, after 19 years of marriage, and her place of burial[230]

m secondly (Pavia [Oct/Nov] 951) as her second husband, ADELAIS of Burgundy, widow of LOTHAR King of Italy, daughter of RUDOLF II King of Upper Burgundy [Welf] & his wife Berta of Swabia ([928/33]-Kloster Selz, Alsace 16 Dec 999, bur Kloster Selz).  Luitprand names "Adelegidam" daughter of Rudolf and Berta, when recording her marriage to "regi Lothario"[231].  Her birth date range is estimated from having given birth to one child by her first marriage before the death of her husband in 950.  She claimed the kingdom of Italy on the death of her husband, as the daughter of one of the rival claimants for the throne earlier in the century.  Willa, wife of Berengario di Ivrea who had been proclaimed king at Pavia 15 Dec 950, ordered Adelais's imprisonment at Como 20 Apr 951 and "afflicted her with imprisonment and hunger" according to Thietmar[232].  Otto I King of Germany used her ill-treatment as an excuse to invade Italy in Sep 951, although Adelais had succeeded in escaping 20 Aug 951 to Reggio[233].  King Otto entered Pavia 23 Sep 951, proclaimed himself king of Italy, and married Adelais as her second husband.  The Annalista Saxo records "Adelheidam reginam" as "coniuge rege Lothario" when she married Otto[234].  Flodoard refers to "uxorem quoque Lotharii regis defuncti, filii Hugonis, sororem Chonradi regis" when recording her second marriage[235].  Thietmar records that she was crowned empress at Rome with her husband 2 Feb 962[236].  "Aleidis sororis" is named in the charter of "Chuonradus rex" dated 8 Apr 962[237].  "Adelheidis imperatrix cum filia Athelheidhe abbatissa in Italiam profecta est propter quasdam discordias inter se et filium factas", although it is unclear to whom "filia Athelheidhe" refers unless this is an error for her daughter Mathilde[238].  Thietmar records that she replaced her daughter-in-law as regent for her grandson King Otto III in 991[239].  The necrology of Fulda records the death "999 17 Kal Ian" of "Adalheid imperatrix"[240]

Mistress (1): (before 929) --- [of the Hevelli], daughter of [BAÇLABIČ [Václav] Fürst der Stodoranen & his wife ---].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[241], she was the daughter of Baçlabić.  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  She was a "captured Slavic noblewoman" according to Thietmar, who gives neither her name nor her parentage[242]

King Otto I & his first wife had two children:

1.         LIUDOLF ([930]-Piomba 6 Sep 957, bur St Alban, near Mainz[243]).  The Annales Quedlingburgenes name "Liudolfo et Liutgarde" as the two children of King Otto I and Eadgyth[244].  His birth date is estimate from Widukind stating that he "was still a tender youth no more than seventeen years of age" when his mother died[245].  His father installed him as Duke of Swabia in 950, in succession to Liudolf's father-in-law[246].  "Otto…rex" donated property "in pago Brisehguue in comitatu filii nostri Liutolfi" to Kloster Einsiedeln by charter dated 9 Aug 952[247].  Thietmar records that he rebelled against his father, together with his brother-in-law Konrad Duke of Lotharingia, was besieged at Mainz, but escaped to capture Regensburg and expel his uncle Heinrich Duke of Bavaria[248].  Thietmar also records that his father deposed him in 954 as Duke of Swabia, but ultimately forgave his rebellion[249].  His father sent him to Italy to control Berengario di Ivrea, Viceroy in Italy, who was attempting to reassert his independence, but Liudolf died there of a fever.  Thietmar places a different slant on the event, stating that Liudolf had once more rebelled against his father and left for Italy[250].  Thietmar records the death of Liudolf in Italy 6 Sep, "after scarcely a year" following his departure from his homeland, but does not specify the year[251].  The Annales Necrologici Fuldenses record the death "957 VIII Id Sep" of "Liutolf filius regis"[252].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "6 Sep" of "Liuidolfus regis filius"[253]Regino specifies that he died in Italy and was buried in Mainz St Alban[254]m ([27 Oct 947/7 Apr 948][255]) IDA of Swabia, daughter of HERMANN I Duke of Swabia [Konradiner] & his wife Regelinda of Swabia (-17 May 986).  Widukind names "ducis Herimanni filiam Idam" as wife of Liudolf[256]Regino records the marriage of "filiam Herimanni ducis" and "Liutolfus filius regis" in 947[257].  "Otto…rex" granted property "in comitatu Herimanni ducis Rehzia" to "abbati nostro Hartberto" at the request of "filie nostre Ite…et Hermanni comitis" by charter dated 7 Apr 948[258].  "Otto…rex" confirmed a donation by "Liutolfo nostro filio eiusque…coniuge Ita" to Kloster Reichenau for the soul of "ducis nostri beate memorie Herimanni" by charter dated 1 Jan 950[259].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Einsiedeln records in May the donation of "Siernza" by "domina Ita…uxor Luitolfi ducis"[260].  Liudolf & his wife had two children: 

a)         MATHILDE (end 949-6 Nov 1011, bur Rellinghausen).  The Gesta Oddonis of Hrotsvith records that “dux Liudulfus” left “prolis geminæ” but does not name the two children[261]Regino records the birth of "Mathildis filia Liutolfo" at the end of 949[262].  Abbess of Essen [965].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Einsiedeln records in May the donation of "Gruonowa" by "domina Mechthilt ducissa, Liutolfi ducis et Itæ ducisse filia"[263]

b)         OTTO (954-Lucca 31 Oct 982, bur Aschaffenburg St Peter and Alexander).  The Gesta Oddonis of Hrotsvith records that “dux Liudulfus” left “prolis geminæ” but does not name the two children[264]Regino records the birth of "Liutolfo filius Otto" in 954[265].  He was appointed OTTO Duke of Swabia in 973 by his uncle Emperor Otto II in succession to Duke Burkhard III.  "Otto…imperator augustus" confirmed donations of property "de locis Ozenheim, Tetingen…in pago Moiinegouwe in comitatu Eberhardi comitis" by "nobis nepos et equivocus noster Otto dux Sweuorum" to "sancti Petri Ascaffaburg" by charter dated 29 Aug 975[266].  Thietmar records that Emperor Otto installed him as OTTO Duke of Bavaria in [976], after confiscating it from his cousin Heinrich II "der Zänker" Duke of Bavaria[267], although Carinthia and the Italian marches were taken from the duchy and made into the new duchy of Carinthia.  "Otto…imperator augustus" donated property in Regensburg to Friedrich Archbishop of Salzburg by charter dated 21 Jul 976 after consulting "Ottonis Bauariorum ducis, nostri…fratris filii"[268].  He campaigned in Italy with his uncle Emperor Otto.  Thietmar records that he took part in the capture of Tarento, and in the battle 13 Jul 982 at which the German army was defeated by a Byzantine/Muslim alliance near Stilo in Calabria[269].  The death of "Otto dux egregius, filius Liudolfi, fratruelis Ottonis secundi", soon after this defeat, is recorded in the Annalista Saxo[270].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "II Kal Nov" of "Ottonis ducis Alamannie"[271].  He is presumably the "Otto dux Sueuorum" whose death is recorded "1 Nov" in The necrology of Merseburg[272]

2.         LIUTGARD ([931]-18 Nov 953, bur St Alban, near Mainz).  The Annales Quedlingburgenes name "Liudolfo et Liutgarde" as the two children of King Otto I and Eadgyth[273].  Widukind records her marriage to "Conrado"[274].  According to Thietmar, Liutgard was accused by "a certain Cono" of adultery but her name was cleared after Graf Burkhard fought her accuser in combat in her name[275].  "Otto…rex" granted property confiscated from "Hatto Aladramque fratres…in villis Bechi et Auici situm in pago Ganipi in comitatu Arnulfi" to the church of St Florin, Koblenz at the request of "ducis nostri Cuonradi eius coniugis filiæ nostræ Liutgartæ" by charter dated 22 Nov 949[276]Regino records the death of "Liutgarda filia regis" in 953[277].  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "18 Nov" of "Liudgard filia imperatoris Ottonis"[278].  Thietmar records her burial in "the church of…Alban at Mainz"[279]m ([947]) KONRAD "der Rote" Graf in Franconia Duke of Lotharingia [Salian], son of WERNER Graf im Nahe-, Speyer- und Wormsgau & his wife --- [Konradiner] (-killed in battle Lechfeld 10 Aug 955, bur Worms Cathedral[280]).  "Conradus dux" is named as husband of Liutgard when recording their marriage in 949[281].  He rebelled against his father-in-law, together with his brother-in-law Liudolf Duke of Swabia, but was ultimately forgiven although deposed as Duke of Lotharingia.  Thietmar records that Duke Konrad, son-in-law of Emperor Otto I, was killed fighting the Magyars near Augsburg and that he was buried at Worms[282]

King Otto I & his second wife had [five] children:

3.         HEINRICH ([end 952/early 953]-7 Apr [954]).  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "7 Apr" of "Heinricus filius Oddonis regis"[283].  Although the year is not indicated, Heinrich's years of birth and death must be approximately as estimated here in view of the tight chronology of the births of King Otto's children. 

4.         BRUNO ([end 953/early 954]-8 Sep 957).  The Annales Necrologici Fuldenses record the death "957 VI Id Sep" of "Brun parvulus filius regis"[284]

5.         MATHILDE (early 955-6 Feb 999, bur Quedlinburg Stiftskirche).  "Otto…rex" donated property "in Thuringia in comitatu Vuillihelmi" to Kloster Quedlinburg "pro filia nostra Mahthilda" by charter dated 956[285].  "Machtild unica filia…patre Otto imperatore et matre Athelheida imperiatrice" was installed as Abbess of Quedlinburg in 966[286].  She is referred to as "sorore imperatoris abbatissa Quidelingeburgensi", but not named, when the Annalista Saxo records her presence with her brother and his wife celebrating Christmas at Rome in 981[287].  She is named "Machtilda Quidelingeburgensi abbatissa" in a later passage[288].  Thietmar records that Emperor Otto II bequeathed one quarter of his treasure to his sister Mathilde "who presided over the abbey at Quedlinburg"[289].  The Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ was dedicated to "Mathildam Imperatoris filiam"[290].   Thietmar records that Mathilde was regent for her nephew Otto III during his absence from Germany in Rome, her death 6 Feb and her burial at Quedlinburg[291]

6.         OTTO (end 955-Rome 7 Dec 983, bur Rome St Peter's[292])Regino records the birth of "Otto filius regis" at the end of 955[293].  "Ottone fratre [Machtild unica filia…patre Otto imperatore et matre Athelheida imperiatrice]" was recorded by Annalista Saxo[294].  He was elected associate King of Germany at Worms and crowned at Aachen 26 May 961.  He was crowned associate Emperor 25 Dec 967 at Rome[295].  He was elected OTTO II "Rufus"[296] King of Germany at Worms early May 973, crowned at Aachen 26 May 973.  His rule was challenged by the rebellions of his cousin Heinrich II "der Zänker" Duke of Bavaria in 974 and 976/78.  On his accession, he claimed Byzantium's possessions in Italy as part of his wife's dowry.  He left for Italy in Nov 980 to press his claims, conquered Tarento, but was defeated in 982 by a Byzantine/Muslim alliance near Stilo in Calabria[297].  His chancery adopted the title "imperator Romanorum augustus" in 982[298].  After holding court at Verona, where his son was elected associate king, Otto II left for Rome where he died of malaria[299].  The necrology of Fulda records the death "983 VII Id Dec" of "Otto imperator"[300]m (Rome 14 Apr 972[301]) THEOFANO, niece of Emperor IOANNES Tzimiskes, daughter of --- ([955/60]-Nijmegen 15 Jun 991[302], bur Köln St Pantaleon).  A document entitled Luitprandi Legatio ad Nicephorum Phocam records Luitprand's mission on behalf of Emperor Otto I to negotiate a marriage between "filiam Romani imperatoris et Theophanæ imperatricis" and "domino meo filio suo Ottoni Imperatori Augusto"[303].  Her name is not given in the document.  It is unlikely, given the date of the marriage of Emperor Nikeforos Fokas and Theofano (in 963) that any daughter of theirs would have been considered marriageable in the late 960s by Emperor Otto.  It is therefore likely that the document was prepared before Luitprand's visit, in ignorance of the details of the emperor's family members.  The identity of the proposed bride is therefore not certain.  Prior to Luitprand's arrival in Constantinople, Emperor Nikephoros was murdered.  According to Thietmar, his successor Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes sent his niece Theofano back to Germany "not the desired maiden…accompanied by a splendid entourage and magnificent gifts"[304].  Western sources consistently refer to Theofano as "neptis" of Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes, for example the charter dated 14 Apr 972 under which "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property to "Theophanu, Iohannis Constantinopolitani imperatoris neptim"[305].  Her exact relationship to Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes is unknown.  It is possible that she was a relative of the emperor's wife rather than of the emperor himself.  Davids suggests that she was the daughter of Konstantinos Skleros and his wife Sofia[306], who was probably the sister of the first wife of Emperor Ioannes.  An indication that this may be correct is that Theofano's second daughter was named Sophie, normal Byzantine practice being to name the first daughter after the paternal grandmother and the second after the maternal grandmother[307].  It also appears to be chronologically sustainable.  However, too little is known about the families of Emperor Ioannes and his wife to propose this as the only plausible hypothesis, especially as the word "neptis" could cover a wide variety of relationships.  In addition, it cannot even be assumed that the wife of Konstantinos Skleros was the only individual named Sofia in these families at the time.  "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property to "Theophanu, Iohannis Constantinopolitani imperatoris neptim" dated 14 Apr 972[308].  Lay Abbess of Nivelles.  She was regent during the minority of her son 984-991.  Thietmar records the death of Empress Theofano at Nijmegen on 15 Jun and her place of burial[309].  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "15 Jun" of "Theophanu imperatrix"[310].  Emperor Otto II & his wife had five children: 

a)         ADELHEID ([973/74]-1045).  The birth of a daughter of "Ottoni inperatori et Theophanu auguste…quam nominee matris sue imperatricis insignivit" is recorded in the Annalista Saxo in 977[311], but this appears incorrect assuming that the approximate birth dates of her sisters Sophie and Mathilde are correct and that Adelheid was her parents' oldest daughter as recorded by Thietmar, who also confirmed that she became a nun at Quedlinburg[312].  Thietmar records that Adelheid was abducted from the fortress of Ala (which belonged to Count Ekbert) by the forces of Duke Heinrich "der Zänker" during his rebellion against her brother King Otto III[313].  She succeeded her paternal aunt as abbess of Quedlinburg in 999, according to Thietmar who in one part of the text calls Adelheid sister of her predecessor Mathilde and in another part sister of Otto III[314].  Abbess of Gernrode and Verden 1014, and Gandersheim 1039. 

b)         SOPHIE (Oct 975-[27/31] Jan 1039).  The Vita Godehardi names "Sophia, secundi imperatoris Ottonis filia" when recording that she was brought up at Gandersheim[315].  Thietmar records that Sophie was Theofano's second daughter, and that she became a nun at Gandersheim[316].  Canoness at Gandersheim, elected abbess in 1001, installed 1002.  Abbess of Essen [1012].  The Annalista Saxo records the death of "domna Sophia…Gandersheimensis abbatissa" in 1039, specifying that she was sister of "Adelheit Quidilingeburgensis abbatissa"[317]

c)         MATHILDE (Summer 978-Echtz 4 Dec 1025, bur Brauweiler Abbey).  The Vita Godehardi names "Mahtildis domnæ Sophiæ sororis" as wife of "Ezonis palatine comitis"[318].  Thietmar records that "Mathilde the emperor's sister married Ezzo, who was the son of Hermann the count palatine", commenting that "this displeased many"[319].  Piligrim Archbishop of Köln confirmed the donation of "allodium suum in Brunwilre" to the abbey of St Nicholas made by "Erenfridus comes palatinus […et frater eius comes Hecelinus]…cum coniuge sua domna Mathilde" by charter dated 10 Oct 1028[320].  The Annales Brunwilarenses record the death in 1025 of "domna nostra Mathilda"[321]m (before 15 Jun 991) EZZO [Erenfried] Graf im Auel- und Bonngau [Ezzonen], son of HERMANN Pfalzgraf & his wife Heilwig --- (-Saalfeld 21 May 1034).  He succeeded as EZZO Pfalzgraf of Lotharingia in 1020.

d)         daughter (-990 before 8 Oct).  The primary source which records the existence of this daughter has not so far been identified. 

e)         OTTO (Kessel [end Jun/early Jul] 980-Paterno, near Civita Castellano 23/24 Jan 1002, bur Aachen Cathedral).  Thietmar records that Otto son of Emperor Otto III was born in the forest of Kessel[322].  He was elected OTTO III associate King of Germany at Verona in May 983, consecrated at Aachen 25 Dec 983, before learning of the death of his father[323].  His cousin Duke Heinrich "der Zänker" rebelled against him, gained support in Bavaria, but was obliged to concede at Rohr 29 Jun 984[324].  His accession was confirmed at Quedlinburg at Easter 985[325].  He ruled through the regency of his mother until her death in 991, and under that of his paternal grandmother until Sep 994, when he was declared of age at Sohlingen[326].  Crowned Emperor at Rome 21 May 996.  He died of a fever, probably smallpox.  The necrology of Fulda records the death "1002 IX Kal Feb" of "Otto imperator"[327].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "X Kal Feb" of "Ottonis imperatoris adolescentis"[328].  Thietmar records the death of the emperor on 24 Jan at Paterno and his burial at Aachen[329].  [m (after Feb 998, divorced [998/1000]) [THEODORA], widow of CRESCENTIUS [II] Nomentanus Senator of Rome, daughter of --- (-before 1006).  Rodulfus Glaber recounts that Emperor Otto III married the widow of Crescentius Senator of Rome but "dismissed her by divorce" shortly afterwards[330].  No corroborative sources have been identified, and the report appears unlikely, not only because of what must have been an evident age difference between the parties but also the unlikelihood that the young emperor would appear to condone his enemy's treachery by marrying his widow.  She was named as deceased in a document dated 1006[331], although it remains to be clarified whether this is a reference to Theodora, widow of Crescentius [II]'s older brother Ioannes [I] Crescentius.]  [Betrothed to HELENA, daughter of ---.  Thietmar records that "Helena from the Greeks" who later married "the king of the Russians Vladimir" had formerly been betrothed to Otto III "but was then denied to him through fraud and cunning"[332].  This betrothal is unlikely or the report of it at best confused.  The marriage of Anna of Byzantium, wife of Grand Prince Vladimir, took place in 988 and there is no indication in other sources of her earlier betrothal to Otto.  A "Helena" is not known in the Byzantine imperial family at the time Otto III ruled.] 

7.         [RICHLIND (-[after 1 Nov 1007]).  The Historia Welforum names "filia Ottonis magnis imperatoris…Richlint" as wife of "Couno comes"[333].  "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property by the spurious charter dated 13 Jan 965 to the church of Oehningen, built according to the document by "domnus Chono comes de Oningen" with the consent of "uxoris sui Richlinde…"[334].  She may be "domna Rilint" from whom "Heinricus…rex" acquired property "in Halla in pago Salzburcgouui in comitatu Thiemonis comitis", which he donated to the bishopric of Bamberg by charter dated 1 Nov 1007[335].  Jackman[336] identifies her as daughter of Liudolf [of Saxony] Duke of Swabia, son of Emperor Otto I, but the question is not without controversy.  In view of the clear statement in the Historia Welforum and the spurious charter, it has been decided to show her here as the child of Emperor Otto I despite the unreliability of these sources, but in square brackets to indicate doubt.  If this is correct, she must presumably have been the child of the emperor's second marriage, unless she was illegitimate.  m ([968][337]) KONRAD [Kuno] von Öhningen, son of --- (-20 Aug 997).  He succeeded in 983 as KONRAD Duke of Swabia.] 

King Otto had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

8.          WILHELM (929-Rottleberöde 2 Mar 968, bur St Alban, near Mainz).  Thietmar names Wilhelm as "the offspring of a captured Slavic noblewoman and the king"[338].  The Annales Quedlinburgensis record the installation of "Willihelmus filius regis" as Archbishop of Mainz in 954[339]The Continuator of Regino records the death in 954 of “Fridericus archiepiscopus” and the election “in Arnestat” of “regis filius Willihelmus[340].  "Otto…imperator augustus" donated property to Aachen Marienkapelle by charter dated 16 Feb 966 which names "Maguntiensis ecclesie archiepiscopus…noster filius Willelmus"[341].  Thietmar records the death of Wilhelm Archbishop of Mainz at Rottleberode on 2 Mar, in the same year as Queen Mathilde died (in 968)[342]

King Otto had one possible illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:

9.          [SICCO [Siegfried] (-after 981).  A list of those sent by Emperor Otto II to Italy, dated 981, records “domnus Sicco imperatorius frater ducat XX[343].  The phrase “imperatorius frater” appears meaningless.  If it represents an error for “imperatoris frater”, Sicco must have been a son of Emperor Otto I, presumably illegitimate.  No other reference to this Sicco has been identified.  Two other nobleman named Siegfried have been identified at the time: Siegfried Comte de Luxembourg and Siegfried later Graf von Northeim.  The reference to “imperatorius” suggests that it is unlikely that this entry could refer to either of them.  In addition, in the case of Comte Siegfried, he would have been referred to in such a list with his comital title, and in any case the list in question includes in another section a Lotharingian contingent in which he would have been placed if he had been sent to Italy.] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    KINGS of GERMANY 1024-1125, SALIAN FRANKISH DYNASTY

 

 

KONRAD of Franconia, son of HEINRICH Graf [im Wormsgau] & his wife Adelheid [Matfriede] ([990]-Utrecht 4 Jun 1039, bur Speyer cathedral).  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" renewed the privileges of Kloster Fulda by undated charter, placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1020, witnessed by "Godifridi ducis, Berinhardi ducis, Thiederici ducis, Welphonis comitis, Cunonis comitis, Kunrati comitis, Ottonis comitis, Adilbrahtis comitis, Bobonis comitis, Friderici comitis, Bezilini comitis, Ezonis comitis palatini"[344], the order of witnesses presumably giving some idea of the relative importance of these named nobles at the court of Emperor Heinrich II at the time.  Herimannus names "Counradus senior, filius Heinrici et Adalheidæ" when recording his candidacy to succeed as king of Germany in 1024[345].  Thietmar names "Konrad who had illegally married his own cousin, the widow of Duke Ernst" when recording that he was wounded when Gerhard Graf von Metz (his maternal uncle) met Godefroi II Duke of Lower Lotharingia for "a judicial duel" 27 Aug 1017[346].  Wipo, in his description of the election of Konrad II King of Germany in 1024, calls him "Cuono of Worms Duke of the Franks" and "Cuono the Younger"[347].  He was elected as KONRAD II King of Germany at Chamba, Rheingau 4 Sep 1024, crowned at Mainz 8 Sep 1024.  Crowned King of Italy at Milan in Mar 1026.  Crowned Emperor KONRAD I at Rome 26 Mar 1027.  Rudolf III King of Burgundy in 1032 bequeathed his kingdom to Emperor Konrad, who was crowned king of Burgundy at Payerne 2 Feb 1033[348].  Konrad's succession in Burgundy was challenged by his wife's first cousin Eudes II Comte de Blois, with support from Géraud Comte de Genève, but he consolidated his position by 1037 when he proclaimed a law which established the basis for the inheritance of titles and offices in the kingdom[349].  Founded Kloster Limburg 1024-1032.  The necrology of Prüm records the death "II Non Iun" of "Cuonradus imperator"[350].  The Annales Spirenses record his burial at Speyer[351]

m ([31 May 1015/Jan 1017]) as her third husband, GISELA of Swabia, widow firstly of BRUNO Graf [von Braunschweig], secondly of ERNST Duke of Swabia [Babenberg], daughter of HERMANN II Duke of Swabia & his wife Gerberga of Upper Burgundy (11 Nov 990-Goslar 15 Feb 1043, bur Speyer cathedral).  The Annalista Saxo names her three husbands, although the order of her first and second marriages is interchanged which appears impossible chronologically[352].  She was crowned Queen of Germany at Köln 21 Sep 1024.  Crowned empress, with her husband, at Rome 26 Mar 1027.  The Annalista Saxo records the death of "Gisla imperatrix mater Heinrici regis" on "XVI Kal Martii" and her burial at Speyer[353].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "XV Kal Feb" of "Gisila imperatrix"[354]Herimannus records her death at Goslar[355].  The Annales Spirenses record the burial at Speyer of "Heinricus senior [=Heinricus IV] et aviam suam"[356], the latter assumed to be his paternal grandmother Gisela rather than his maternal grandmother. 

Emperor Konrad & his wife had three children: 

1.         HEINRICH (Oosterbecke [Ostrebeck] 28 Oct 1017-Burg Bodfeld im Harz 5 Oct 1056, bur Speyer Cathedral).  "Cunradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted property to the church of Paderborn by charter dated 7 Apr 1027, naming for the first time "filii nostri Heinrici"[357].  He was crowned as HEINRICH III King of Germany at Aachen 14 Apr 1028 and crowned Emperor HEINRICH II at Rome 25 Dec 1046.   

-        see below

2.         BEATRIX (-24 Sep 1036).  "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property to the church of Worms with "filii nostri Heinrici Regis, filie quoque nostre Beatricis" for the souls of "parentum nostrorum defunctorum atavi nostri ducis Chuonradi, avie nostre Iudithe, patris nostri Heinrici, patrui nostri ducis Chuonradi eiusque coniugis Mathildis, sororis etiam nostre Iudithe" by charter dated 30 Jan 1034[358].  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "24 Sep" of "Beatrix filia Cuonradi imperatoris"[359].  "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property to Kloster Quedlinburg "pro remedio animæ filiæ nostræ Beatricis" by charter dated 25 Oct 1036[360]

3.         MATHILDE ([Oosterbecke] 1027[361]-Worms 1034 [after 30 Jan], bur Worms Cathedral).  Wipo names "filia imperatoris Chuonradi et Giselæ, Mahthilda" when recording her death and burial at Worms in 1034, specifying that she was betrothed to "Heinrico regi Francorum"[362].  Her marriage was arranged to confirm a peace compact agreed between Henri I King of France and Emperor Konrad at Deville in May 1033[363].  Her absence from the list of deceased relatives in the donation of "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" to the church of Worms by charter dated 30 Jan 1034 suggests that Mathilde died after that date, while her absence from the list of the children of Emperor Konrad named in the same charter is explainable on the basis of her youth[364]Betrothed (May 1033) to HENRI I King of France, son of ROBERT II " le Pieux" King of France & his third wife Constance d'Arles [Provence] ([end 1009/May 1010]-Palais de Vitry-aux-Loges, forêt d’Orléans, Loiret 4 Aug 1060, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). 

 

 

HEINRICH, son of KONRAD II King of Germany [Emperor KONRAD I] & his wife Gisela of Swabia (Oosterbecke [Ostrebeck] 28 Oct 1017-Burg Bodfeld im Harz 5 Oct 1056, bur Speyer Cathedral).  "Cunradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted property to the church of Paderborn by charter dated 7 Apr 1027, naming for the first time "filii nostri Heinrici"[365].  Wipo names "Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris" when recording his first marriage in 1036[366].  He was installed in 1027 as HEINRICH VI Duke of Bavaria, until 1042 when he granted the duchy to Graf Heinrich [Luxembourg].  He was crowned as HEINRICH III King of Germany at Aachen 14 Apr 1028.  Duke of Swabia 1038-1045.  He was installed as king of Burgundy by his father in Autumn 1038.  Regent of the duchy of Carinthia 1039-1047.  He resumed possession of the duchy of Bavaria from 1047 to 1049.  He deposed the three rival Popes Benedict IX, Sylvester III and Gregory VI in 1046, nominating in their place Suidger Bishop of Bamberg, who succeeded as Pope Clement II and crowned him Emperor HEINRICH II at Rome 25 Dec 1046.  At the same time Emperor Heinrich received the rank of patricius as a hereditary title, which carried the right to cast the first vote in a papal election, the power of which was reflected in the election of six German popes during the following decade[367].  Emperor Heinrich faced internal opposition in Germany from several powerful magnates, Godefroi II Duke of Lotharingia, Konrad de Luxembourg Duke of Bavaria, Welf III Duke of Carinthia, and Bernhard Billung Duke in Saxony, all of whom were anxious to prevent the centralisation of power in the hands of the king/emperor[368].  A deeply religious man, Emperor Heinrich renewed the ban on clerics taking oaths in court proceedings, refused to follow the practice of bestowing church offices for payment, and laid great emphasis on the sacral character of kingship[369].  He founded the convent of St Simon and Jude at Goslar before 1050.  He died of a fever.  The Annales Spirenses record his burial at Speyer[370].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "III Non Oct" of "Heinrici imperatoris"[371]

m firstly ([29] Jun 1036) GUNHILD [Æthelfryth] of Denmark, daughter of KNUD I King of Denmark and England & his wife Emma de Normandie ([1020]-in Italy 18 Jul 1038, bur Limburg Klosterkirche).  Adam of Bremen records that the daughter of King Knud married "imperator filio suo"[372].  Her parentage is given by Orderic Vitalis, who also refers to her marriage[373].  Wipo names "Chnutonis regis Anglorum filiam, nomine Chunehildem" as wife of "Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris" when recording their marriage in 1036[374].  The Annalista Saxo records that the wife of King Heinrich III was "filiam Cnud regis Danorum", specifying that the marriage was arranged by Unwan Archbishop of Bremen[375], although this seems unlikely as Archbishop Unwan died in 1029[376]Herimannus names "Chunihildem, Cnutonis Danorum et Anglorum regis filiam" when recording her marriage to "Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris" in 1036[377].  She adopted the name KUNIGUND on her marriage.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "uxor imperatoris Henrici Gunhildis imperatrix de Anglia" was accused of adultery, that she was defended in trial by combat, but that after her champion's victory she disdained the success and became a nun[378].  William of Malmesbury also recounts that she was accused of adultery and retired to a convent[379].  She died during her husband's expedition to Italy[380], the death of "regina Conihild" being recorded in the Annalista Saxo "XV Kal Aug"[381].  The necrology of Speyer records the death "XV Kal Aug" of "Cunehilt regina"[382]

m secondly (Ingelheim 20 Nov 1043) AGNES de Poitou, daughter of GUILLAUME V "le Grand" Duke of Aquitaine [GUILLAUME III Comte de Poitou] & his third wife Agnès de Mâcon [Bourgogne-Comté] ([1025]-Rome 14 Dec 1077, bur Rome, St Peter's).  Herimannus names her "Agnetam, Willehelmi Pictaviensis filiam" when recording her marriage[383].  The Chronicæ Sancti Albini records the marriage "1043 XII Kal Nov…apud Vesbrianim" of "Henricus imperator…filiam Willelmi comitis Pictavorum et Agnetis"[384].  She was crowned empress with her husband at Rome 25 Dec 1046.  She was regent during the minority of her son from 1056.  Her husband's old adviser, Gerhard von Eichstätt by then Pope Victor II, who was in Germany when her husband died, remained in Germany until Spring 1057 as the chief adviser of Agnes and ensured a smooth transition of power[385].  She also installed herself as AGNES Duchess of Bavaria in 1056, until 1061 when she appointed Otto von Northeim as duke.  In 1062, Anno [II] Archbishop of Köln kidnapped her son King Heinrich IV and took him from Kaiserswerth to Köln.  Agnes resigned as regent and went to Rome[386].  According to the Preface of Vitæ Heinrici et Cunegundis Imperatores, "Agnes imperatrix eius [Chunigundis imperatricis] consanguinea, obiit Idus Decembris"[387], although the exact relationship between Agnes and Empress Kunigund (widow of Emperor Heinrich I [Heinrich II King of Germany]) has not been traced.  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "XIX Kal Jan" of "Agnes imperatrix"[388].  The necrology of Speyer records the death "XIX Kal Jan" of "Agnes imperatrix"[389]

Emperor Heinrich & his first wife had one child:

1.         BEATRIX (1037-13 Jul 1061, bur Quedlinburg Stiftskirche, transferred 1161 to Kloster Michaelstein).  Wipo records that "regina Chunehildis" left a single daughter (unnamed) specifying that she later became a nun[390].  The source which names her has not yet been identified.  Abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim 1045.  

Emperor Heinrich & his second wife had six children:

2.         MATHILDE (end 1045-12 May 1060).  At the end of the passage dealing with 1045, Herimannus records the birth of a daughter to "Agnes regina" but does not name her[391].  This presumably refers to Mathilde, probably her parents' oldest child given the date of her marriage.  The Annales of Berthold record the marriage in 1059 of "Roudolfus Alemmanorum dux" and "Mahthildam, Heinrici regis sororem" and the death in 1060 of "Mahthilt soror regis"[392].  The Annales Sancti Blasii record the marriage in 1059 of "Roudolfus dux" and "Mahtildam regis sororem" and the death of "Mahtilt uxor Roudolfi ducis" in 1060[393]m (1059) RUDOLF von Rheinfelden, son of Graf KUNO & his wife --- (-killed in battle near Hohenmölsen near Merseburg [15/16] Oct 1080, bur Merseburg cathedral).  Duke of Swabia 1057-1079.  He was one of the nobles opposed to his brother-in-law King Heinrich IV.  He was elected anti-king of Germany at Forcheim in Feb 1077 by the German nobility who were affronted by Pope Gregory VI's withdrawal of the order of excommunication against King Heinrich[394].  The Pope remained neutral at the time but after repeating his excommunication order against King Heinrich in 1080, he declared support for Rudolf as anti-king[395]

3.         ADELHEID ([1046/47]-11 Jan 1096, bur Quedlinburg Stiftskirche).  The Annalista Saxo names "sorore regis Adelheida Quidelingeburgensi abbatissa"[396].  Abbess of Gandersheim 1061.  Abbess of Quedlinburg 1063. 

4.         GISELA ([1048]-6 May [before 1058]).  The necrology of Speyer records the death "II Non Mai" of "Gisela imperatricis Agnetis filia"[397]

5.         HEINRICH ([Goslar] 11 Nov 1050-Liège 7 Aug 1106, bur Speyer cathedral).  The Annalista Saxo records the birth of "Heinrico inperatori filius quartus Heinricus"[398].  He succeeded his father in 1056 as HEINRICH IV King of Germany.  Crowned Emperor HEINRICH III at Rome 31 Mar 1084. 

-        see below

6.         KONRAD ([Sep/Oct] 1052-10 Apr 1055).  He was installed as KONRAD II Duke of Bavaria in 1054 when his older brother was crowned associate King of Germany.  The Annales Necrologici Fuldenses record the death in 1055 of "Cuonrad infans filius imperatoris"[399]The Breve Chronicon Ex MS. Prumiensi records the death of “Cuonradus puer filius imperatoris” in 1055[400]The necrology of Speyer records the death "IV Id Apr" of "Cunradus Agnetis imperatricis filius"[401].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property "Rotenuels in pago Uffgouwe in comitatu Vorcheim Herimanni comitis" to Speyer cathedral by charter dated 15 Feb 1102 "pro animarum…fratris nostre Cunradi, filieque nostre Adelheidis et filii nostri Heinrici"[402]

7.         JUDITH [Maria/Sophia] ([1054]-14 Mar [1092/96]).  The Annales of Berthold record the betrothal in 1059 of "Andreas Pannoniæ rex…filio suo Salomoni adhuc puero" and "sororem eius [Heinrici regis] minorem Iuditham"[403].  The Annales Yburgenses refer to the wife of "Ungariam…[rex] Salemannum" as "regis Heinrici sororem" but do not name her[404].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that King András forced the marriage of "Salomoni regi" and "Henricus imperator…Sophiam suam filiam", specifying that she had earlier been betrothed to "filio regis Franciæ"[405].  Having left Hungary for Germany after her husband was deposed in 1074, she was living in Regensburg when her husband attempted to reclaim the Hungarian throne.  She refused to receive him when he returned in 1083.  Her second marriage is confirmed by the Chronicæ Polanorum which records that King Władysław married "sororem imperatoris tertii Henrici, uxorem prius Salemonis Ungariæ regis"[406].  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum specifies her name "Iudite"[407].  The necrology of Weltenburg records the death "II Id Mar" of "Iudita de Polonia soror Heinrici imperatoris IV"[408].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "II Id Mar" of "Iudita regina"[409].  The necrology of Speyer records the death "II Id Mar" of "Iudda regina imperatricis filia"[410].  [Betrothed ([1055/59]) to PHILIPPE de France, son of HENRI I King of France & his second wife Anna Iaroslavna of Kiev (1052-château de Melun, Seine-et-Marne 30 Jul 1108, bur Abbaye Saint Benoît-sur-Loire).  The Gesta Hungarorum records that King András forced the marriage of "Salomoni regi" and "Henricus imperator…Sophiam suam filiam", specifying that she had earlier been betrothed to "filio regis Franciæ"[411].  This could only refer to the future Philippe I King of France as it is unlikely that the emperor's daughter would have been betrothed to his younger brother.  This betrothal is not corroborated in the western European primary sources so far consulted.  He succeeded his father in 1060 as PHILIPPE I King of France.]  m firstly (betrothed 1059, early 1063) SALOMON King of Hungary, son of ANDRÁS I "the Catholic" King of Hungary & his second wife Anastasia Iaroslavna of Kiev (1052-killed in battle 1087).  m secondly ([1089]) as his second wife, WŁADYSŁAW I HERMAN Prince of Poland, son of KAZIMIERZ I KAROL "Odnowiciel/the Renewer" Prince of Poland & his wife Dobronega Maria Vladimirovna of Kiev ([1043]-4 Jun 1102).

Emperor Heinrich had one [possible illegitimate] child by [an unknown mistress]: 

8.          [ADELA ([1045] or before-24 Sep, 1104 or before, bur Sunnesheim).  The Annales Spirenses name "Azela sorore Heinrici senioris [=Heinrici IV]" as wife of "Wolframi comitis Arduenne"[412].  Her birth date range is estimated on the assumption that the age of her son Johann is correct when he died.  Assuming that her paternity is correctly stated, her absence from other contemporary records and her comparatively obscure marriage suggest that she was illegitimate.  Emperor Heinrich IV, who would have been Azela's half-brother if the relationship is correctly stated here, made numerous donations to Speyer cathedral between 1091 and 1105, during the bishopric of Azela's son Johann.  However, in none of these is any blood relationship with the bishop directly mentioned by using words such as "consanguineus" or "propinquus".  Nevertheless, in the emperor's donation dated 21 Sep 1091 he calls Bishop Johann "fidele servicium carissimi", a phrase which appears more intimate than those usually seen in imperial donations to bishoprics and which could be consistent with family relationship[413].  The Annales Spirenses record the burial of "matrem [=episcope Iohannis Spirensis] Azelam" at Sunnesheim, implying that she died before her son[414].  The necrology of Speyer records the death "VIII Kal Oct" of "Azela comitissa" and that "Iohannes Spir. epus" donated "Steinwilre" for her soul[415].  m WOLFRAM Graf von Enzberg, son of --- (-after Oct 1104, bur Sunnesheim).] 

 

 

HEINRICH, son of HEINRICH III King of Germany [Emperor HEINRICH II] & his second wife Agnes de Poitou ([Goslar] 11 Nov 1050-Liège 7 Aug 1106, bur Speyer Cathedral).  The Annalista Saxo records the birth of "Heinrico inperatori filius quartus Heinricus"[416].  He was installed as HEINRICH VIII Duke of Bavaria 1053-1054.  His father crowned him associate king of Germany at Aachen 17 Jul 1054.  He succeeded his father in 1056 as HEINRICH IV King of Germany, under the regency of his mother until 1062 when she resigned after Heinrich was kidnapped by Anno [II] Archbishop of Köln, who continued as regent until the king was declared of age 29 Mar 1065[417].  King Heinrich faced many difficulties with his nobility.  He deprived Otto von Northeim of the duchy of Bavaria in 1070 after accusing him of an assassination plot.  He imprisoned Magnus Billung Duke in Saxony, who had supported Otto von Northeim.  He also lost the support of Rudolf von Rheinfelden Duke of Swabia, Berthold Duke of Carinthia and Welf IV Duke of Bavaria, who were said to have considered deposing him.  King Heinrich was eventually forced to leave his fortress of Harzburg and seek protection in Worms, for which he rewarded the town with special privileges in 1074[418].  Under the peace of Gerstungen in early Feb 1074, he was obliged to demolish his castles, except Harzburg although the latter was stormed by Saxon peasantry and destroyed[419].  Difficulties with the papacy centred around the dispute about lay investiture in Germany.  After King Heinrich's accession, the right of patricius to cast the first vote in papal elections was largely ignored, resulting in declining German influence in the selection of new Popes.  Matters came to a head when the king sent Pope Gregory VII an accusatory letter, issued by the assembly at Worms held 21 Jan 1076.  The Pope, in response, deposed and excommunicated the king, who was forced into obedience.  King Heinrich crossed the Alps into Italy with his family and appeared in Jan 1077 as a penitent before the castle of Canossa, in which the Pope had taken refuge, and forced a reconciliation.  The German princes, affronted by the withdrawal of the excommunication, elected Rudolf von Rheinfelden as rival king of Germany at Forcheim in Feb 1077[420].  The Pope repeated his excommunication order in 1080, and declared support for the anti-king[421].  King Heinrich responded by having Archbishop Wibert of Ravenna elected as Pope Clement III in Brixen in Jun 1080, and eventually bringing the rival pope to Rome for his enthronement at Easter 1084, after which Heinrich was crowned Emperor HEINRICH III 31 Mar 1084[422].  In the deepening dispute between Church and empire, Emperor Heinrich enjoyed temporary success against Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, one of the Pope's most ardent supporters, and defeated her troops at Tresenta in 1091[423].  However, the emperor was left without political support and was obliged to remain confined in a castle near Verona to avoid capture[424].  He returned to Germany in 1097 after six years campaigning in Italy, and recovered some of his political power after reconciling himself with the Welf and Zähringen families.  He held an assembly at Mainz in 1098 to regulate the succession, declaring his older son deposed and nominating his younger son as his successor[425].  In 1102, Pope Paschal II renewed the excommunication against the emperor who largely ignored the move.  At a general assembly in Mainz in 1103, the emperor proclaimed a four year peace for the empire, but in 1105 his son Heinrich rebelled against him, captured his father, forced him to hand over the royal insignia, and held him semi-prisoner at Ingelheim.  The younger Heinrich declared himself sole king of Germany at an assembly in Mainz in early 1106.  His father, however, escaped and rallied his forces around Liège, where he defeated his son's army[426].  The victory was short-lived as Emperor Heinrich III died soon after.  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising records his death at Liège and burial at Speyer[427].  The necrology of Prüm records the death "1106 7 Id Aug" of "Heinricus imperator filius Heinrici imperator"[428].  The Annales Spirenses record his burial at Speyer[429]

m firstly (betrothal Zürich 25 Dec 1055, Tribur[430] 13 Jul 1066) BERTHE de Savoie, daughter of ODDON Comte de Chablais, Marchese di Susa & his wife Adelaida Marchese di Susa (21 Sep 1051-Mainz 27 Dec 1087, bur Speyer Cathedral[431]).  The Annalista Saxo names "Bertam filiam Ottonis marchionis de Italia et Adelheidis que soror erat comitis qui agnominatus est de Monte Bardonis in Italia et Immule seu Irmingardis" as wife of King Heinrich[432].  Her husband proposed to repudiate her in 1069, but withdrew his demand[433].  The dispute was not finally settled until 1077 when Empress Bertha's mother intervened to prevent any repudiation in return for mediating between the emperor and Pope Gregory VII in Canossa[434].  The Annales Sancti Diibodi record the death in 1087 of "Bertha imperatrix" and her burial "apud Moguntiam"[435].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "VI Kal Jan" of "Berhta imperatrix"[436].  The necrology of Speyer records the death "VI Kal Jan" of "Bertha imperatrix"[437]

m secondly (14 Aug 1089, divorced 1095) as her second husband, IEVPRAXIA Vsevolodovna of Kiev, widow of HEINRICH III Graf von Stade Markgraf der Nordmark, daughter of VSEVOLOD Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Anna of the Kumans ([1071]-1 Aug or 11 Nov 1109).  The Annalista Saxo names "Eupracciam filiam regis Ruscie qui in nostra lingua vocobatur Adelheid, quam postea duxit Heinricus imperator" as wife of "Heinricus marchio"[438].  She was known as ADELHEID in Germany.  Contemporary chroniclers were scandalised by the alleged sexual abuses inflicted on his second wife by Emperor Heinrich III.  According to Helmold of Bossau Chronica Slavorum, King Heinrich "had made a public prostitute of his wife, subjecting her by force to the lust of other men".  The emperor imprisoned his wife at Verona, from where she was released in 1094 by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany.  The Chronicon of Bernold records that "Praxedis reginæ" made complaints about her treatment "inauditas fornicationum spurcicias" to the synod of Konstanz in 1094 and that her separation was agreed in 1095 at the same synod[439].  The Annales Sancti Diibodi gives lengthy details concerning her divorce[440].  The divorce is recorded in Annalista Saxo under 1094[441].  The empress publicly denounced her husband at the council of Piacenza, presided over by Pope Urban II from 1 Mar 1095[442].  She became a nun at Kiev in 1095.  The Primary Chronicle records that Ievpraxia daughter of Vsevolod took the veil 6 Dec 1106[443], and the death 10 Jul 1109 of Ievpraxia daughter of Vsevolod and her burial place[444]

Emperor Heinrich III & his first wife had [six] children:

1.         ADELHEID (1070-4 Jun before 1079, bur Speyer cathedral).  The Chronicle of Burchard von Ursberg specifies that "Hainricus IIII" had two daughters by his wife Bertha but does not name them[445].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the possessions and rights of Speyer cathedral by charter dated 10 Apr 1101, listing past donations including one "pro anima filie nostre Adhelheith in Spirensis cripta sepulta"[446].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property "Rotenuels in pago Uffgouwe in comitatu Vorcheim Herimanni comitis" to Speyer cathedral by charter dated 15 Feb 1102 "pro animarum…fratris nostre Cunradi, filieque nostre Adelheidis et filii nostri Heinrici"[447]

2.         HEINRICH (1/2 Aug 1071-Harzburg 2 Aug 1071).  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property "Rotenuels in pago Uffgouwe in comitatu Vorcheim Herimanni comitis" to Speyer cathedral by charter dated 15 Feb 1102 "pro animarum…fratris nostre Cunradi, filieque nostre Adelheidis et filii nostri Heinrici"[448]

3.         AGNES ([Summer 1072/early 1073]-24 Sep 1143, bur Klosterneuburg).  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising records the marriage of "filiam unicam" of King Heinrich III and "Fridericus dux Suevorum", naming her Agnes in a later passage[449].  In a subsequent passage, the Gesta records the second marriage of Agnes to "Leopaldo Orientali marchioni"[450].  The Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis records the marriage of "Liupoldus marchio Austrie" and "Agnetem imperatoris Heinrici IV filiam", specifying that the couple had seven children who died in infancy and eleven who survived into adulthood, six sons and five daughters[451].  The marriage presumably took place early in the year if it is correct, as stated by Haverkamp, that it was arranged by Agnes's brother, the future Emperor Heinrich IV, to obtain her future husband's support for his rebellion against their father[452].  The Auctarium Mellicense records that Agnes, wife of "Leopoldus marchio", gave birth to 18 children[453].  The Annales Magdeburgenses record the death in 1143 of "Agnes marchionissa mater Cuonradi regis"[454].  The necrology of Nonnberg records the death "VIII Kal Oct" of "Agnes marchionissa"[455].  The necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death "VIII Kal Oct" of "Agnes marchionissa fundatrix h e"[456]m firstly (betrothed Regensburg 24 Mar 1079) FRIEDRICH I Duke of Swabia, son of FRIEDRICH von Büren & his wife Hildegard ([1050]-1105 before 21 Jul).  m secondly ([early] 1106) as his second wife, LEOPOLD III "der Heilige" Markgraf of Austria, son of LIUTPOLD II Markgraf of Austria & his wife Ida [von Ratelberg] ([1075]-killed while hunting 15 Nov 1136, bur Stift Klosterneuburg (-15 Sep 1136, bur Klosterneuburg).

4.         KONRAD (12 Feb 1074-Florence 27 Jul 1101, bur Florence).  He was installed as KONRAD Duke of Lower Lotharingia by his father in 1076, on the death of Godefroi III "le Bossu" Duke of Lower Lotharingia, with Albert III Comte de Namur as vice-duke[457].  His father crowned him associate king of Germany at Aachen 30 May 1087, at which time the duchy of Lower Lotharingia was conferred on Godefroi de Bouillon [Boulogne].  He rebelled against his father in 1093 and allied himself with Pope Urban II and Matilda di Canossa.  He was crowned king of Italy in Milan by Archbishop Anselm, although he is also referred to as king of Lombardy[458].  His father excluded him from the succession in 1098, and declared him deposed[459], although by that time Emperor Heinrich had returned to Germany and appears to have had little influence on affairs in Italy.  The Annales Sancti Diibodi record the death in 1101 of "Cuonradus filius imperatoris" in Italy and his burial "in civitate Florentia"[460]m (Pisa 1095) CONSTANZA of Sicily, daughter of ROGER I Count of Sicily & [his second wife Eremburge de Mortain] (-after Jul 1101).  The Chronicon of Bernold records the marriage in 1095 "in Tusciam Pisas" of "Chonradus rex" and "filiam Rogerii ducis de Sicilia, adhuc admodum parvulum cum inaudita pecunia" but does not name the bride[461].  Malaterra records the marriage in 1095 in Pisa of "Corradum…Henrici filium" and "filiam Siculorum Calabriensium comite" but also does not name her[462].  Houben says "we think the bride was called Maximilla" but cites no source to support this[463].  The primary source which names her has not yet been identified.  She returned to southern Italy after her husband's death. 

5.         [MATHILDEMorkinskinna records that Magnus III King of Norway “was much smitten” with “the emperor´s daughter…with whom he had exchanged messages…Matilda[464].  No other reference to this alleged daughter has been found.]    

6.         HEINRICH (1081-Utrecht 23 May 1125, bur Speyer cathedral).  The Annalista Saxo records the birth in 1081 of "Heinrico regi filius iunior"[465].  His father declared him as his successor in 1098 at Mainz[466].  Heinrich was elected associate king of Germany at Mainz 10 May 1098, crowned at Aachen 6 Jan 1099.  In 1105, Heinrich broke with his father who was taken prisoner and forced to hand over the royal insignia at Ingelheim.  Regarding this as an abdication, Heinrich had himself declared sole King of Germany at an assembly in Mainz in early Jan 1106.  His father escaped and rallied his forces around Liège, where the younger Heinrich's army was defeated[467].  Heinrich's father died shortly after, and the younger Heinrich succeeded in 1106 as HEINRICH V King of Germany.  King Heinrich clashed immediately with the papacy by persisting in the practice of lay investiture.  During the course of negotiations to settle the issue, Heinrich left for Italy, spending time in Lombardy to rebuild the machinery of imperial government, and agreed a compromise with Pope Paschal II who agreed to crown him emperor 12 Feb 1111.  The ceremony was halted by disputes over the settlement agreement, Heinrich imprisoned the Pope and his cardinals, and forced a new agreement at Ponte Mammolo near Tivoli 4 Apr 1111 under which the right to investiture was conceded in the absence of simony.  On this basis Heinrich was crowned Emperor HEINRICH IV at Rome 13 Apr 1111[468].  Emperor Heinrich was obliged to intervene in Saxony where Duke Lothar von Süpplingenburg strengthened his power base.  Although the duke submitted to the emperor in 1114, the imperial army was defeated by the Saxons at Welfesholz in 1115[469].  After the death of Matilda Ctss of Tuscany in 1116, Emperor Heinrich left for Italy to claim her inheritance but was forced into long negotiations with the papacy which reopened the question of lay investiture.  The process concluded with the Concordat of Worms 23 Sep 1122 under which Emperor Heinrich renounced the use of spiritual symbols in lay investiture, promised canonical elections and free consecration, but was accorded the right to be present at elections of bishops and abbots in Germany[470].  Emperor Heinrich probably died of cancer[471].  The Annales Spirenses record his burial at Speyer[472]m (betrothed Utrecht Easter 1110[473], Mainz 7 Jan 1114) as her first husband, MATILDA of England, daughter of HENRY I King of England & his first wife Eadgyth [Matilda] of Scotland (Winchester or London Feb/Aug 1102-Abbaye de Notre-Dame des Près, near Rouen 10 Sep 1167, bur Abbaye de Bec, Normandy, later moved to Rouen Cathedral).  Her parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis[474].  Florence of Worcester records that "rex Anglorum filiam suam" was betrothed to "Heinrico regi Teutonicorum" in [1110], and the marriage "VIII Id Jan" at Mainz in [1114] of "Heinrico Romanorum imperatori" and "Matildis filia regis Anglorum Heinrici", and her coronation as empress the same day[475].  She was crowned empress again in 1117 with her husband at St Peter’s Basilica, Rome.  She married secondly (Le Mans Cathedral, Anjou 3 Apr/22 May/17 Jun 1128) Geoffroy “le Bel/Plantagenet” d’Anjou, who succeeded in 1129 as Geoffroy V Comte d'Anjou.  She asserted the right to succeed after the death of her father and fought King Stephen in a civil war in which she was finally defeated 1 Nov 1141.  Robert of Torigny records the death "1167…IV Id Sep Rothomagi" of "matris suæ [Henrici regis] Mathildis imperatricis" and her burial "Becci"[476].  The necrology of Angers Cathedral records the death "II Id Sep" of "Mathildis imperatrix filia Henrici regis uxor Goffredi comitis"[477]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of the mistress of Emperor Heinrich V is not known.  Emperor Heinrich V had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):

a)         BERTHA .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Bertam filiam suam [=imperator]" wife of "Ptolomeo illustrissimo, Octavia stirpe progenitor, Ptlomei magnificentissimi consulis Romanorum filio" when recording their marriage in 1117 during her father's visit to Rome[478].  m (1117) as his first wife, TOLOMEO [II] di Tuscolo, son of TOLOMEO [I] Conte di Tuscolo & his wife --- (-25 Feb 1153).  He succeeded his father in 1126 as Conte di Tuscolo

 

 

The precise relationship between the following family sub-group and the Kings of Germany has not been established, although the "imperator" referred to by Orderic Vitalis was presumably Emperor Heinrich V, whose wife's brother was among those also drowned in the sinking of the White Ship. 

1.         HEINRICHm ---.  The name of Heinrich´s wife is not known.  Heinrich & his wife had one child: 

a)         DIETRICH [Thierry] (-drowned off Barfleur, Normandy 25 Nov 1120).  Orderic Vitalis records that "Teodericus puer Henrici nepos imperatoris Alemannorum" was drowned following the sinking of the “Blanche Nef [White Ship]”[479]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    ANTI-KING of GERMANY 1077-1079, RHEINFELDEN

 

 

The election of Rudolf von Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia, as anti-king of Germany in 1077 represented a symbolic strengthening of election versus hereditary succession as a means of choosing the king of Germany and strengthened the control of the nobility over the central authority of the king. 

 

 

1.         RUDOLF von Rheinfelden, son of Graf KUNO & his wife --- (-killed in battle near Hohenmölsen near Merseburg [15/16] Oct 1080, bur Merseburg cathedral).  Duke of Swabia 1057-1079.  He was one of the nobles opposed to his brother-in-law King Heinrich IV.  He was elected RUDOLF King of Germany at Forcheim in Feb 1077 by the German nobility who were affronted by Pope Gregory VI's withdrawal of the order of excommunication against King Heinrich[480].  Haverkamp lists the archbishops of Mainz, Salzburg and Magdeburg, and Dukes Welf IV, Berthold and Otto von Northeim as the main supporters of Rudolf von Rheinfelden[481].  At the time of the election, Rudolf was obliged to take a vassalistic oath to the Pope and to swear to the princes that he renounced any claim to hereditary kingship[482].  The Pope remained neutral at the time but after repeating his excommunication order against King Heinrich in 1080, he declared support for Rudolf as anti-king[483]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    ANTI-KING of GERMANY 1081-1088, LUXEMBOURG, WIGERICHER

 

 

The election of Hermann Graf von Salm to succeed Rudolf von Rheinfelden as anti-king of Germany in 1081 constituted an even more graphic demonstration of the increase in power of the nobility, who were anxious to choose a candidate with little territorial influence in Germany and who would therefore not be strong enough to exercise political authority.  The difficulty was that Hermann was unable to wield any influence at all and after his death no further anti-king was elected. 

 

 

1.         HERMANN [Graf von Salm], son of --- [von Gleiberg] & his wife --- ([1040/55]-Salm 28 Sep 1088, bur Metz).  He was elected as HERMANN King of Germany by the German nobility opposed to Heinrich IV King of Germany in 1081 after the death of Rudolf von Rheinfelden.  Bruno´s De Bello Saxonico records the election of “Herimannum regem”, dated to early 1081 from the context[484].  Two sources have been identified which indicate the family origin of Hermann [anti] King of Germany.  The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records the election by “Suevi in autumno” of “Cuonradi fratrem Herimannum, Heinrici de Lacha fratris filium” to replace “Rodulfo” as king and his installation “in nativitate Domini in Saxonia[485], and the Casus Monasterii Petrihusensis records the appointment of “Herimannum...genere Francum de Glicberg” as king in 1081[486].  Hermann is widely called “Graf von Salm” in various modern secondary sources and shown as the son of Giselbert Comte [de Luxembourg].  However, reconciling these two sources quoted above suggests that this normally accepted family origin should be reconsidered for two reasons.  Firstly, looking at the Chronicon, if King Hermann shared both parents with Conrad Comte [de Luxembourg], how could he also have been the son of the brother of Heinrich von Laach?  Secondly, looking at the Casus, how could King Hermann be “genere Francum [indicating Franconia] de Glicberg” if he was an agnatic member of the Lotharingian Luxembourg family?  Assuming that all this speculation is correct, it is possible that King Hermann was the same person as Hermann Graf von Gleiberg.  One factor which points against this hypothesis is that the father of the two sons of Hermann Graf von Gleiberg, Hermann and Dietrich, is referred to as “comitis” not “regis” in the 1095 charter which is quoted in the document FRANCONIA NOBILITY.  A less powerful magnate, he was forced for a time to flee to Denmark[487].    He defeated the troops of Heinrich IV at Bleichfelt, near Wurzburg 11 Aug 1086.  It should be noted that the theory of Hermann´s supposed Franconian origin is contradicted by Burchard´s History of St Gallen which records that "Hermannus...Rex" retired “in nativam terram suam Lotoringiam” where he died[488].  Sigebert´s Chronicle records that "Hermannus rex" retired “Lotoringiam” and was killed by stones falling from a castle wall which he approached too closely[489]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    KING of GERMANY 1125-1137, SÜPPLINGENBURG

 

 

On the death of Emperor Heinrich IV, four candidates emerged as candidates for the throne of Germany[490]:  Friedrich II Duke of Swabia, Charles "the Good" Count of Flanders [Denmark] (supported especially by Friedrich Archbishop of Köln), Leopold III "der Heilige" Markgraf of Austria and Lothar von Süpplingenburg Duke of Saxony.  The election of Duke Lothar as king of Germany reflected the strengthening power of the nobility who demonstrated their freedom to choose a candidate unconnected with the previous dynasty.  Archbishop Adalbert of Mainz was the driving force in the election[491]

 

 

1.         LOTHAR von Süpplingenburg, son of GERHARD von Süpplingenburg Graf [im Harzgau] & his wife Hedwig von Formbach ([1/8] Jun 1075-Breitenwang am Loch, Tirol 4 Dec 1137, bur Königslutter).  He was invested as LOTHAR Duke of Saxony in 1106 by Heinrich V King of Germany after the death of Magnus Billung Duke of Saxony.  Duke Lothar immediately sought to build-up his lordship, triggered in 1112 the intervention of the emperor to whom he submitted in 1114.  The dispute culminated in the defeat of the imperial army by the Saxons at Welfesholz in 1115[492].  He was elected as LOTHAR III King of Germany at Mainz 24 Aug 1125, largely through the manœuvrings of Adalbert Archbishop of Mainz and because he was seen by the German nobility as less of a dynastic threat than his main rival Friedrich II Duke of Swabia [Staufen][493].  He was crowned 13 Sep 1125 at Aachen.  In 1130, King Lothar became embroiled in the dispute between rival Popes Anacletus II and Innocent II, in the hope of securing a return to the full right of lay investiture.  He was crowned Emperor at the Lateran in Rome 4 Jun 1133 by Pope Innocent II, as Pope Anacletus II was occupying St Peter's[494].  He conceded the Pope's ownership of the lands previously held by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, in return for a usufruct over them, and installed his son-in-law Heinrich "der Stolze" Welf Duke of Bavaria to govern these territories[495].  Following Roger II King of Sicily's expulsion of Pope Innocent II from Rome, Emperor Lothar launched an expedition to Italy in 1136.  King Roger offered peace negotiations after the army took Benevento and Bari, but jurisdictional disputes broke out between the emperor and the Pope and the army returned to Germany, Emperor Lothar dying en route[496]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    KINGS of GERMANY 1138-1254, HOHENSTAUFEN

 

 

The Hohenstaufen family were representative of a new type of nobility which emerged in Germany in the second half of the 11th century.  They were unconnected either with the original German tribes, such as the Saxons or Franks, or with the artificial political creation Lotharingia.  The family owed its rise to power to strategically placed castles, in particular the castle of Stauf on the Staufenberg near Göppingen, from which the family took its name.  The Staufer broadened their influence by building further castles and eventually centred their activities around the town of Waiblingen in Swabia, from which their Italian supporters eventually adopted their name "Ghibellines".  The dynasty is known to history as "Hohenstaufen", although the name does not appear as such in the contemporary primary sources. 

 

 

KONRAD von Staufen, son of FRIEDRICH I Duke of Swabia [Staufen] & his wife Agnes of Germany (1093-Bamberg 15 Feb 1152, bur Bamberg Cathedral).  Duke of Franconia 1116/20.  After his older brother's breach with Lothar von Süpplingenburg King of Germany, Konrad was elected anti-king of Germany in Dec 1127 by his supporters in Franconia and Swabia[497].  He sought support in Italy, having himself crowned as king of Italy at Monza in Jun 1128 by the archbishop of Milan in opposition to Pope Honorius II.  He was unsuccessful in retaining the lands previously held by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, to which he had a hereditary claim as nephew of Emperor Heinrich IV, and returned to Germany in 1130[498].  Heinrich eventually submitted to Emperor Lothar with his brother in 1135, and took part in the 1136 Italian campaign as imperial standard-bearer[499].  After the death of Emperor Lothar, Adalbero Archbishop of Trier engineered a quick election at Koblenz 7 Mar 1138 without waiting for a formal meeting of the princes, where Konrad was elected as KONRAD III King of Germany.  He was crowned at Aachen by the papal legate 13 Mar 1138.  His main rival, Heinrich "der Stolze" [Welf] Duke of Bavaria, acknowledged Konrad's election but demanded the duchy of Saxony, which was refused.  He was deprived of his duchy of Bavaria and outlawed[500].  King Konrad strengthened his position by enfeoffing close relations with the duchy of Bavaria (his half-brother Leopold IV Markgraf of Austria), the duchy of Lower Lotharingia (his wife's brother-in-law Godefroi de Louvain) and the Rhineland Palatinate (his brother-in-law Hermann von Stahleck).  King Konrad sealed an alliance with Byzantium in 1140 by arranging the marriage of his wife's sister with the son of Emperor Ioannes II, although the marriage did not finally take place until 1146 as negotiations were delayed first by the emperor's death and later by additional dowry demands from the Byzantines[501].  The dispute with the Welf family persisted, despite King Konrad's defeat of Duke Welf VI at Weinsberg in 1140 and a temporary settlement achieved in 1142[502].  King Konrad III left Germany in May 1147 on the Second Crusade and reached Constantinople 10 Sep 1147[503].  His army was defeated by the Seljuks near Dorylaeum 25 Oct 1147, but he continued to march southwards together with the French army led by Louis VII King of France.  At Ephesus King Konrad was obliged by ill health to return to Constantinople where he remained until Mar 1148[504].  Konrad took part in the unsuccessful attempt to capture Damascus in Jul 1148, but left Acre 8 Sep 1148 for Thessaloniki. He stayed in Constantinople until Feb 1149, after agreeing an alliance with Emperor Manuel I to fight Roger II King of Sicily[505].  Konrad refused, however, to cooperate with the scheme of Louis VII King of France to launch a new crusade aimed at taking vengeance on Byzantium[506].  He died while preparing an expedition against the Sicilians, after naming his nephew Friedrich as his successor, passing over his own infant son.  The Annales Veterocellenses record the death "1152 XIV Kal Mar" of "Cuonradus rex" and his burial at Speier[507].  Although Konrad was never crowned emperor at Rome, he used the titles "Romanorum rex Augustus" and "simper Augustus"[508]

m firstly ([1115]) GERTRUD von Komburg, daughter and heiress of HEINRICH von Komburg Graf von Rothenburg & his wife Gepa von Mergentheim (-[1130/31], bur Kloster Lorch).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

m secondly (before 1134) GERTRUD von Sulzbach, daughter of BERENGAR [I] Graf von Sulzbach & his second wife Adelheid von Wolfratshausen [Diessen] (-Hersfeld 14 Apr 1146, bur Kloster Ebrach).  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the marriage of "Conradus rex" and "Gerdrudem filiam Perngeri comitis de Sultzpach" and her burial "in Castello"[509].  Wegener cites the Kastler Reimchronik which refers to Gertrud daughter of Graf Berengar as wife of King Konrad III[510].  The necrology of Salzburg St Rudpert records the death "XVIII Kal Mai" of "Gerdrudis regina"[511].  The Fundatio Monasterii Ebracensis records the death "XVIII Kal Mai 1147" of "Gertrudis Romanorum imperatrix et mater Heinrici regis"[512]

Mistress (1): GERBERGA "liberrimae conditionis", daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her relationship with King Konrad has not yet been identified.  

King Konrad III & his first wife had two children:

1.         BERTHA von Staufen .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Abbess of Erstein 1153. 

2.         GERTRUD von Staufen .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

King Konrad III & his second wife had two children:

3.         HEINRICH BERENGAR von Staufen ([1136/37]-1150 after Feb).  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising names "filius regis Heinricus" when recording his death[513].  He was born in [1136/37] if it is correct, as stated by Haverkamp, that he was ten years old when he was crowned king in 1147[514].  He was elected associate king of Germany at Frankfurt in Mar 1147 as part of the preparations for his father's departure on crusade, crowned at Aachen 30 Mar 1147[515].  His forces heavily defeated Duke Welf VI at Flochberg near Nördlingen in Feb 1150[516].  The Annales Aquenses record the death in 1150 of "Heinricus rex puer 13 annorum"[517]Betrothed (11 Jun 1139) to SOPHIA of Hungary, daughter of BÉLA II King of Hungary & his wife Jelena of Serbia ([1136/37]-).  The Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmæ records the marriage in Pentecost 1139 of "filiam suam [=rex Bela]" with "filio regis Theutonicorum Conradi", specifying that the marriage was arranged by Sobeslav Duke of Bohemia[518].  Although neither party is named, Heinrich was King Konrad's only recorded son at that date and King Béla's daughter must have been Sophia as her older sister was already married.  This is confirmed by the Vita Ottonis Episcopi Babenbergensis which names "Belæ Ungarici regis…filia eius Sophia" and records her betrothal to "Heinrich puero, Teutonicorum regis Chuonradi filio primogenito"[519].  Nun at Admont. 

4.         FRIEDRICH von Staufen ([1144/45]-Rome 19 Aug 1167, bur Kloster Ebrach).  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising names "fratrem parvulum Fridericum" when recording the death of his older brother Heinrich[520].  Graf von Rothenburg.  Heinrich Archbishop of Mainz promoted his candidacy to succeed his father, although the latter appointed his cousin Friedrich von Staufen as successor[521].  In compensation for having been passed over, he was installed in 1152 as FRIEDRICH IV Duke of Swabia by his cousin[522].  The document dated 17 Sep 1156 establishing the duchy of Austria is witnessed by "…Fridericus filius regis Counradi…"[523].  He died of malaria while fighting on Emperor Friedrich I's Italian expedition of 1167[524].  The Hugonis Ratisponensis Cronica records the death in 1167 of "Fridericus de Rotenburch, filius Chunradi regis" during the emperor's Italian campaign[525]m (1166) as her first husband, GERTRUD von Sachsen, daughter of HEINRICH "dem Löwen" Duke of Bavaria and Saxony [Welf] & his first wife Klementia von Zähringen ([1154]-1 Jun 1197, bur Wå Gårds Harde).  Helmold records the marriage of "Heinricus dux Bawarie et Saxonie…[et] domna Clementia…filiam" and "filio Conradi regis"[526].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Helmold records the marriage of "[Heinricus dux Bawarie et Saxonie] filiam suam, viduam Fretherici…principis de Rodenburg" and "rex Danorum…filio suo…designatus…rex" as part of the peace process between Saxony and Denmark[527].  She married secondly (1177) Knud of Denmark, who succeeded in 1182 as Knud IV King of Denmark.  The Annales Stadenses refers to the betrothal of "Heinricus dux filiam suam" and "Daciæ regi" in 1171[528].  Her second marriage was arranged to seal the renewed peace agreed between her father and Valdemar I King of Denmark in 1171[529]

King Konrad III had four illegitimate children by Mistress (1) (the primary sources which confirm their parentage and marriages have not yet been identified):

5.          SOPHIE (-after [1135/40])m KONRAD von Pfitzingen, son of ---.  1136/41.

6.          LEOPOLD

7.          KONSTANTIN von Lochgarten .  He founded the convent of Lochgarten in 1144, jointly with his brother.

8.          GISELBERT von Hotingen .  He founded the convent of Lochgarten in 1144, jointly with his brother.  m ---.  The name of Giselbert´s wife is not known.  Giselbert & his wife had one child: 

a)         PETRISSA (-[1160/65])m ADELDEGEN, son of ---.  Minister in the administration of the Bishop of Bamberg 1166. 

 

 

FRIEDRICH von Staufen, son of FRIEDRICH II "der Einäugige" Duke of Swabia [Staufen] & his first wife Judith of Bavaria (1122-drowned Göks or Saleph River, Asia Minor 10 Jun 1190, bur Tarsus [entrails], Antioch St Peter [flesh], Tyre Cathedral [legs]).  The Tabula consanguinitatis Friderici I regis et Adelæ reginæ (which provided the basis for their divorce) names "regem Fridericum" as son of "ducem Fridericum"[530].  He succeeded in 1147 as FRIEDRICH III Duke of Swabia, resigning in 1152 in favour of his cousin Friedrich, son of Konrad III King of Germany, who succeeded as Duke Friedrich IV (see above).  He left Germany in May 1147 with his uncle King Konrad III on the Second Crusade[531].  William of Tyre records him as "Fredericus Suevorum dux…ex fratre primogenitor nepos" in relation to King Konrad[532].  He was designated as successor by his uncle King Konrad shortly before the latter died, and was elected as FRIEDRICH I "Barbarossa" King of Germany at Frankfurt-am-Main 4 Mar 1152, crowned at Aachen 9 Mar 1152.  He negotiated the Treaty of Constanz 23 Mar 1153 with Pope Eugenius III, who agreed his imperial coronation[533].  Pope Eugenius died 8 Jul 1153 before the coronation could take place.  King of Italy 1154.  After refusing the Romans' offer of a secular imperial coronation, he was eventually crowned as Emperor FRIEDRICH I at Rome 18 Jun 1155 by Pope Hadrian IV[534].  He succeeded as Comte de Bourgogne on his second marriage in 1156, de iure uxoris, and received the homage of the Burgundian magnates at Besançon in 1157.  In 1157, he invaded Poland and compelled Duke Bolesław IV to recognise German suzerainty[535].  Tensions in Italy, and particularly with the papacy, came to a head in 1166 when Emperor Friedrich's army marched to Rome where they defeated the Romans at Tusculum, captured the city, and enthroned his own papal candidate Pascal III, although the emperor was obliged to return to Germany as the army was decimated by malaria[536].  He invaded Italy again in 1174, and in May 1176 his troops were defeated at Legnano near Milan.  A peace treaty was signed at Venice 24 Jul 1177[537].  On his return from Italy, he was crowned as king of Burgundy ("regnum Arelatense") at Arles 30 Jul 1178, thereby symbolically laying claim to the whole of Burgundy.  He took the cross at Mainz 27 Mar 1188, in answer to the appeal of Pope Gregory VIII in Oct 1187 to relieve Jerusalem after its capture by Saladin, although he did not finally leave Germany until May 1189[538].  He received a warm welcome in Hungary and Serbia, but tensions developed with Emperor Isaakios II after he entered Byzantine territory 23 Jun 1189 at Braničevo[539].  Anxious to protect his own interests, Emperor Isaakios signed a treaty of alliance with Saladin, which worsened the situation.  After taking Philipopoulos [Plovdiv] and Adrianople, as well as threatening Constantinople, Emperor Friedrich forced Emperor Isaakios to give him provisions and ships to cross into Asia Minor, which he did in Mar 1190[540].  Friedrich was drowned while preparing to cross the river Calycadnus to enter Seleucia, apparently after falling into the river in heavy armour[541].  His body, ineffectively preserved in vinegar and taken with the army to Palestine, had disintegrated by the time it arrived at Antioch[542].  This accounts for the burial of different parts of his body in different places, as shown above. 

m firstly (Eger before 2 Mar 1147, divorced Konstanz Mar 1153) as her first husband, ADELA von Vohburg heiress of Egerland, daughter of DIEPOLD III Markgraf von Vohburg und Cham & his [second wife Kunigunde von Beichlingen] (-19 Feb ----).  The Tabula consanguinitatis Friderici I regis et Adelæ reginæ (which provided the basis for their divorce) names "Adelam" as daughter of "marchionem Theobaldum"[543].  The Annales Herbipolenses name "Etenim filiam Theobaldi marchionis de Voheburc" as first wife of Emperor Friedrich "Barbarossa"[544].  The Urspergensium Chronicon names "Adilam filiam marchionis Diepoldi de Vohburc" as first wife of Emperor Friedrich I, and records her second marriage to "Dietho de Ravensburc ministerialis"[545].  The Annales Magdeburgenses record the separation of "Friedericus" and his first wife by "coram legatis apostolici" in 1153[546], the Annales Sancti Diibodi specifying Konstanz as the place of the separation[547].  She married secondly Dieto von Ravensburg, Welf minister 1152/80.  The necrology of Isny records the death "XI Kal Mar" of "Adelhaidis regina benefactrix"[548]

Betrothed (1153) to MARIA Komnene, daughter of ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his first wife Theodora [Kamaterina] ([1144]-1190).  Ioannes Kinnamos records the betrothal of "Fredericus Conradi Alemannorum principis ex fratre nepos" and "Mariam Isaacii sebastocratoris filiam"[549].  She later married István of Hungary, who in 1163 succeeded as István IV King of Hungary.  Niketas Choniates names "Stephanum et Bladisthlabum" as the two brothers of "Hunnorum princeps Iazas", stating that István married "Mariam…imperatoris neptem, Isaacio sebastocratore natam"[550]

m secondly (Würzburg 17 Jun 1156) BEATRIX Ctss [Palatine] de Bourgogne, daughter and heiress of RENAUD III Comte [Palatin] de Bourgogne & his wife Agathe de Lorraine ([1145]-Jouhe, near Dôle 15 Nov 1184, bur Speyer Cathedral).  The Continuatio Admuntensis records the marriage of Emperor Friedrich in 1156 to "Beatricem filiam Reginoldi comitis" after repudiating "filia Diepoldi marchionis"[551].  She was crowned empress at St Peter's in Rome 1 Aug 1167 by Pope Pascal III[552].  She was crowned as Queen of Burgundy at Vienne in Aug 1178. 

Emperor Friedrich I & his second wife had [twelve] children:

1.         BEATRIX von Staufen ([1160/62]-before early 1174, bur Lorch).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

2.         FRIEDRICH von Staufen (Pavia 16 Jul 1164-[28 Nov 1168/1170]), bur Lorch).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He was installed as FRIEDRICH V Duke of Swabia in 1167 by his father after the death of his cousin.  The necrology of Roth records the death "IX Kal Mar" of "Fridericus dux Sueviæ"[553].  Although it is not certain that this refers to Duke Friedrich V, the deaths of his two younger brothers, both dukes of Swabia, are recorded in the same necrology which suggests that the entry may correctly refer to him.  Betrothed (1165) ELEANOR of England, daughter of HENRY II King of England & his wife Eléonore d'Aquitaine (Domfront, Normandy 13 Oct 1162-Burgos 25 Oct 1214, bur Cistercian monastery Santa María la Real “de las Huelgas” near Burgos).  This betrothal was arranged as part of the treaty of alliance between Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" and her father in 1165[554], but was broken off in [1169] when the emperor formed an alliance with the king of France[555].  Eleanor later married Alfonso VIII King of Castile

3.         HEINRICH von Staufen (Nijmegen Nov 1165-Castilo Favara, near Messina 28 Sep 1197, bur Palermo Cathedral).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names him as son of Emperor Friedrich[556].  The Annales Stadenses name (in order) "Heinrici imperatoris et Conradi Suevi et Friderici ducis Sueviæ et Ottonis sine terra et Philippi" as sons of "Beatrix imperatrix" when recording her death[557].  He was crowned HEINRICH VI King of Germany at Aachen 15 Aug 1169.  His father appointed him regent when he left on crusade in May 1189[558].  He claimed his Sicilian inheritance, by right of his wife, on the death of Guillaume II King of Sicily in Nov 1189.  His departure for Sicily was delayed by news of the death of his father, but in early 1191 he left for Rome where he was crowned Emperor HEINRICH V 15 Apr 1191, although he was obliged to return to Germany by illness.  Emperor Heinrich's rival in Sicily, Tancredo Conte di Lecce, had gathered support, including that of Richard I King of England whose capture by Leopold V Duke of Austria removed an obstacle for the emperor.  Tancredo's death in 1194 opened the way for Heinrich, who marched south again in an expedition funded by the ransom paid by England for the release of King Richard from his prison in Austria.  He deposed his wife's great nephew in Oct 1194, and entered Palermo as ENRICO King of Sicily.  He was crowned as king of Sicily at Palermo cathedral 25 Dec 1194, a brutal repression of Tancredo's supported followed.  Heinrich proposed making the German succession hereditary, but this was turned down by a meeting of princes in Oct 1196[559].  After the overthrow of Emperor Isaakios II in 1195, Emperor Heinrich V threatened to intervene to avenge him.  Emperor Alexios III was unable to raise sufficient funds to buy him off through his special "German" tax, and Heinrich started preparing to attack but died of fever before the preparations were complete[560].  The Continuatio Admuntensis records the death "apud Messanam urbem Apulie 4 Kal Oct 1197" of "Heinricus imperator sextus"[561].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death "IV Kal Oct in Sicilia" of "imperator Henricus", specifying that it was said that he was poisoned by his wife[562]m (Milan, Santo Ambrosio 27 Jan 1186) CONSTANCE of Sicily, daughter of ROGER II King of Sicily & his third wife Béatrice de Rethel (posthumously 2 Nov 1154-Palermo 28 Nov 1198, bur Palermo cathedral).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the marriage "apud Mediolanum in natali Domini" of "Henricus filius imperatoris Frederici primi"[563].  The long-standing conflict between Sicily and Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" was ended in 1184 by the agreement for this marriage.  She was declared heir by Guillaume II King of Sicily in 1185, confirmed on his deathbed, but the crown was usurped by her nephew Tancredo di Lecce.  Her husband invaded the kingdom of Sicily to enforce her rights after his coronation as emperor in Rome 15 Apr 1191, but he fell ill at the siege of Naples.  Constance was captured at Salerno by the forces of Tancredo[564], but escaped back to Germany while she was being sent to the Pope.  She was made regent of Sicily by an assembly at Bari in Mar 1195, which also appointed Konrad von Urslingen as governor[565].  She succeeded her husband as Queen of Sicily in 1197, in the name of her son.  Emperor Heinrich & his wife had one child: 

a)         KONSTANTIN ROGER FRIEDRICH von Staufen (Iesi, Ancona 26 Dec 1194-Castel Fiorentino near Lucera, Foggia, of dysentery 13 Dec 1250, bur 25 Feb 1251 Palermo cathedral).  He was elected as king of Germany at Wurzburg 25 Dec 1196.  He succeeded his father in 1197 as king of Sicily, under the regency of his mother, crowned 17 May 1198 at Palermo cathedral.  He was again elected as FRIEDRICH II King of Germany 5 Dec 1212 at Frankfurt-am-Main, crowned at Mainz 9 Dec 1212 and at Aachen 25 Jul 1215.  He was crowned as Emperor FRIEDRICH II in Rome 22 Nov 1220. 

-        see below

4.         KONRAD von Staufen (Modigliana Feb 1167-Acre 19/20 Jan 1191, bur Acre).  The Annales Stadenses name (in order) "Heinrici imperatoris et Conradi Suevi et Friderici ducis Sueviæ et Ottonis sine terra et Philippi" as sons of "Beatrix imperatrix" when recording her death[566].  He is named "Fedric le duc de Soave", son of Emperor Friedrich I, by William of Tyre (Continuator) when he records his role in the siege of Acre[567].  He was installed as FRIEDRICH VI Duke of Swabia in 1170 by his father after the death of his older brother.  He accompanied his father when he left on crusade in May 1189.  During the dispute with Emperor Isaakios II, Friedrich captured Didymoticon in Thrace to pressurise the return of German hostages who had been captured by the Byzantine emperor[568].  He assumed command of the German army after the death of his father, but the army was seriously diminished by the time it reached Antioch 21 Jun 1190, after suffering heavy losses while crossing Cilicia.  Duke Friedrich left Antioch end-Aug 1190, by which time his army was further reduced[569].  After arriving at the siege of Acre in Oct 1190, he launched a fierce but unsuccessful attack on the city[570].  Matthew Paris records the death at Acre in 1191 of "filius imperatoris Friezerichi"[571].  The Continuator of William of Tyre records that he died during the course of the siege of Acre and was buried in the cemetery of "la maison des Alemanz"[572].  The necrology of Zwiefalten records the death "XIII Kal Feb" of "Fridericus dux Suevorum iunior filius imperatoris"[573].  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "XIII Kal Feb" of "Fridericus dux"[574].  The necrology of Roth records the death "XIV Kal Feb" of "Fredericus dux Sueviæ"[575]Betrothed (before 1181) to --- of Denmark, daughter of VALDEMAR I "den Store/the Great" King of Denmark & his wife Sofia Vladimirovna of Novgorod.  This betrothal was terminated when Knud VI King of Denmark, sister of the betrothed, refused payment of half her dowry.  She was sent back to Denmark[576].  It is not known which daughter of King Valdemar was the betrothed.  Betrothed ([1189]) to CONSTANZA of Hungary, daughter of BÉLA III King of Hungary & his first wife Agnès [Anna] de Châtillon-sur-Loing ([1180]-Kloster Tichnowitz 6 Dec 1240).  The Urspergensium Chronicon records the betrothal of "filio suo [=Friderici I] Friderico duce" and "filiam regis Ungarie", specifying that his earlier death prevented the marriage from proceeding[577].  The Annales Aquenses record the betrothal in 1189 of "Fridericum ducem Suavorum" and "filiam regis Ungarie"[578].  The name of the daughter of the king of Hungary is not given but Constanza was the only unmarried daughter of King Béla III at the time. 

5.         daughter ([Oct/Nov] 1168-end 1184).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

6.         OTTO von Staufen ([Jun/Jul] 1170-Besançon 13 Jan 1200, bur Besançon Saint-Etienne).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names him as son of Emperor Friedrich[579].  The Annales Stadenses names (in order) "Heinrici imperatoris et Conradi Suevi et Friderici ducis Sueviæ et Ottonis sine terra et Philippi" as sons of "Beatrix imperatrix" when recording her death[580].  He succeeded in 1189 as OTHON Comte Palatin de Bourgogne

-        COMTES PALATINS de BOURGOGNE

7.         KONRAD von Staufen ([Feb/Mar 1172]-murdered Durlach 15 Aug 1196, bur Lorch).  The Annales Stadenses names (in order) "Heinrici imperatoris et Conradi Suevi et Friderici ducis Sueviæ et Ottonis sine terra et Philippi" as sons of "Beatrix imperatrix" when recording her death[581].  Herr von Weissenburg-am-Sand und Eger.  Herzog von Rothenburg 1188-1191.  He succeeded his brother in 1191 as KONRAD Duke of Swabia.  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "XVIII Kal Sep" of "Chuonradus dux Suevorum, huic successit frater Philippus"[582].  The necrology of Roth records the death "XVIII Kal Sep" of "Conradus dux Sueviæ"[583]m (contract Seligenstadt 23 Apr 1188, marriage not consummated) as her first husband, Infanta doña BERENGUELA de Castilla, daughter of don ALFONSO VIII King of Castile & his wife Eleanor of England (Jan/Jun 1180-Las Huelgas 8 Nov 1246).  The Annales Compostellani record that “Rex Aldef.” betrothed “filias suas” in 1188[584].  The identity of Berenguela´s husband is confirmed by the charter dated 14 Oct 1190 under which "Aldefonsus…rex Castelle et Toleti…cum uxore mea Alienor regina et cum filio meo Ferrando" donated property to the abbey of Silos, which also refers to the marriage between "romani imperatoris filium Conradum" and "filiam suam Berengariam"[585].  The Crónica Latina records that “Conrado, hijo de Federico, emperador de los romanos” was betrothed to “el rey de Castilla…su hija doña Berenguela”, adding that she was barely eight years old at the time[586]

8.         RAINALD von Staufen ([Oct/Nov 1173]-young, bur Lorch).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

9.         WILHELM von Staufen ([Jun/Jul 1176]-young, bur Lorch).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

10.      PHILIPP von Staufen ([Feb/Mar 1177]-murdered Bamberg 21 Jun 1208, bur Speyer cathedral).  The Annales Stadenses names (in order) "Heinrici imperatoris et Conradi Suevi et Friderici ducis Sueviæ et Ottonis sine terra et Philippi" as sons of "Beatrix imperatrix" when recording her death[587].  William of Tyre (Continuator) names him as son of Emperor Friedrich[588].  Provost of St Maria at Aachen 1189/90.  Elected Bishop of Würzburg in 1190.  He resigned his ecclesiastical appointments in 1193.  He was installed as Duke of Tuscany by his brother in 1195.  He succeeded his brother in 1196 as PHILIPP Duke of Swabia.  Although, after the death of his older brother Emperor Heinrich VI, Philipp at first supported the succession of his nephew, later Emperor Friedrich II, he was elected as PHILIPP King of Germany at Ichtershausen 6 Mar and at Mühlhausen, Thürgau 8 Mar 1198, crowned at Mainz 8 Sep 1198 by the archbishop of Tarentasia[589].  Meanwhile Otto of Brunswick had been elected as king in Jun 1198 and was crowned at Aachen in Jul 1198 by the archbishop of Köln, although he was unable to attract support within Germany despite backing from Pope Innocent III[590].  King Philipp supported the claim to the Byzantine throne of his brother-in-law Alexios Angelos, who had sought refuge at his court in 1201[591].  He and Alexios promised the leaders of the Fourth Crusade enormous sums in return for assisting in the removal of Emperor Alexios III[592].  After attracting the support of Adolf Archbishop of Köln from his rival King Otto, Philipp was crowned again at Aachen in Jan 1205[593].  Philipp was finally absolved from excommunication in Aug 1207, and negotiations were underway in Rome between his representatives and those of his rival over the allocation of lands in central Italy[594] when King Philipp was murdered by Otto von Wittelsbach, in revenge for the annulment of his betrothal to Philipp's daughter[595].  The Annales Stadenses record that "rex Philippus" was killed by "comite de Witilspach in Bavenberg …XI Kal Iul" and that he was buried at Speyer[596]m (betrothed 2/3 Apr 1195, [Bari] 25 May 1197) as her second husband, EIRENE Angelina, widow of ROGER joint King of Sicily, daughter of Emperor ISAAKIOS II & his first wife [Eirene] [Tornikaina] ([1180/84]-Burg Hohenstaufen 27 Aug 1208, bur Kloster Lorch).  Niketas Choniates records that Emperor Alexios had "ex priore coniuge…filiabus duabus et uno filio", of whom "[filiam] alteram" married "Siciliam regis Tangris filio"[597].  The Annales Casenses record the marriage in 1193 of "filiam imperatoris Constantinopolitani" and "Roggerus filio suo [=Tancredi]"[598].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica in 1191 record the marriage at Brindisis of "Ysacho Constantinopolitano imperatorie de Urania filia sua" and Roger elder son of Tancredo[599].  Her second marriage with Duke Philipp is recorded by William of Tyre (Continuator), who names her father without naming her[600].  The Continuatio Admuntensis records the marriage of "Tanachredus Tanachredi filius viduam, Constantinopolitani imperatoris filiam" and "Philippus Romanorum imperatoris germanus"[601].  She was among those taken prisoner by Emperor Heinrich VI King of Germany when he invaded Sicily in 1194.  Niketas Choniates records that "Irene Isaacii imperatoris filia" was abducted from Sicily and married to "notho fratri Alemanniæ Philippo"[602].  She adopted the name MARIA on her second marriage.  The necrology of Speyer cathedral records the death "VI Kal Sep" of "Maria regina Philippi regis contectalis, nata de Grecia" and the donations which she made to found the anniversaries "in octava Martini…patris eius et matris eius…Ysaac et matre Herina" and "fratris…eius et sororis eius tercia die post festum Michahelis…Manuel fratre, Effrosina sorore"[603].  King Philipp & his wife had seven children: 

a)         BEATRIX von Staufen (Worms [Apr/Jun] 1198-Nordhausen 11 Aug 1212, bur Braunschweig St Blasius).  The Annales Marbacenses record that one of the four daughters of King Philipp (first in the list) married "Ottoni postea imperatoris", having been betrothed first to "palatino de Witilisbach", but comment that she died young[604].  Her betrothal with Otto von Wittelsbach was ended to enable her betrothal with a nephew of Pope Innocent III, negotiated in Rome as part of the settlement arrangements with her father's rival Otto of Brunswick[605].  The Annales Stadenses record the betrothal of "rex Otto" and "regis Philippi filia" in 1208[606].  The Chronicæ Regiæ Coloniensis record the marriage in 1212 "circa festum sancta Margarete…apud Northusin" of "imperator" and "filiam regis Philippi", commenting that the bride died ten days later[607].  The Continuatio Admuntensis records the marriage of "filiam Philippi" and "Otto rex", but does not name her[608].  The Libro Memoriarum Sancti Blasii records the death in Aug 1212 of "Beatrix imperatrix uxor domini Ottonis Romanorum imperatoris quarti"[609]Betrothed (1203, contract broken [1207]) to OTTO [V] Pfalzgraf von Wittelsbach, son of OTTO [IV] Pfalzgraf von Wittelsbach & his wife Benedikta von [Donau-]Wörth (-executed 5 Mar 1209, bur Indersdorf).  m (Nordhausen 22 Jul 1212) as his first wife, Emperor OTTO IV, son of HEINRICH "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony and Bavaria [Welf] & his second wife Matilda of England ([1175/82]-Harzburg 19 May 1218, bur Braunschweig St Blasius).

b)         MARIA von Staufen ([1199/1200]-Louvain before 1235).  The Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ names "Maria filia Philippi Romanorum" as wife of "Henricus…secundus dux"[610].  The Annales Marbacenses record that one of the four daughters of King Philipp (fourth in the list) married "duci Brabantie" but does not name her[611]m (before 22 Aug 1215) as his first wife, HENRI II Duke of Brabant, son of HENRI I "le Guerroyeur" Duke of Brabant & his first wife Mathilde de Flandre ([1207]-Louvain 1 Feb 1248, bur Villers). 

c)         REINALD von Staufen (-young, bur Lorch).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

d)         KUNIGUNDE von Staufen ([Feb/Mar] 1202-13 Sep 1248, bur Prague St Veit).  The Annales Marbacenses record that one of the four daughters of King Philipp (third in the list) married "regi Boemie" but does not name her[612].  The Cronica Domus Sarensis records the marriage of "Wentzeslaus rex quartus" and "filia regis Phylippi…Chunigundis"[613].  The Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmæ records the death "Idus Sep 1248" of "regina Cunegundis"[614]m (1228) WENZEL of Bohemia, son of PŘEMYSL OTAKAR I King of Bohemia & his second wife Konstanza of Hungary (1205-Počáply 23 Sep 1253, bur Prague Agnes Kloster).  He succeeded in 1230 as WENZEL I King of Bohemia

e)         ELISABETH von Staufen (Nürnberg Mar/May 1205-Toro 5 Nov 1235, bur Cistercian monastery Santa María la Real, transferred 1279 to the Cathedral Santa María, Seville).  The Annales Marbacenses record that one of the four daughters of King Philipp (second in the list) married "regi Hyspanie" but does not name her[615].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   The Chronicon de Cardeña records that “Rey D. Ferrando” married “Doña Beatriz, la sobrina del Emperador de Alemaña[616].  She was known as BEATRIZ in Castille.  The Crónica Latina records that “el emperador Isaac” was grandfather of “la reina nuestra señora Beatriz, padre…de su madre[617]m (Burgos 30 Nov 1219) as his first wife, don FERNANDO III “el Santo” King of Castile, son of don ALFONSO IX King of León & his second wife Infanta doña Berenguela de Castilla (Monte de Valparaíso [30 Jul/5 Aug] 1201-Seville 30 May 1252, bur Seville, Cathedral Santa María). 

f)          [FRIEDRICH] von Staufen (1205-young, bur Lorch).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

g)         BEATRIX von Staufen (posthumously Burg Hohenstaufen b and d [20/27] Aug 1208, bur Lorch).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

11.      AGNES von Staufen (-8 Oct 1184, bur Speyer cathedral).  The necrology of Speyer records the death "VIII Id Oct" of "Agnes filia imperatoris Friderici"[618]

12.      [619]SOPHIE von Staufen (-[1187/88]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (1187) as his first husband, GUGLIELMO di Monferrato, son of BONIFAZIO Marchese di Monferrato & his first wife Elena di Bosco ([1180]-17 Sep 1225).  He succeeded his father in 1207 as GUGLIELMO VI Marchese di Monferrato

 

 

KONSTANTIN ROGER FRIEDRICH von Staufen, son of Emperor HEINRICH VI & his wife Constance of Sicily (Iesi, Ancona 26 Dec 1194-Castel Fiorentino near Lucera, Foggia, 13 Dec 1250, bur 25 Feb 1251 Palermo Cathedral).  He was elected as king of Germany at Wurzburg 25 Dec 1196.  He succeeded his father in 1197 as FEDERIGO I King of Sicily, under the regency of his mother, crowned 17 May 1198 at Palermo cathedral.  He declared himself of age 26 Dec 1208.  Emperor Otto IV invaded Naples, became master of continental Sicily by 1211 and was preparing to invade the island of Sicily with Pisan support, when Friedrich was again elected as FRIEDRICH II King of Germany 5 Dec 1212 at Frankfurt-am-Main, crowned at Mainz 9 Dec 1212 and at Aachen 25 Jul 1215.  He was crowned as Emperor FRIEDRICH II in Rome 22 Nov 1220.  He declared himself FRIEDRICH King of Jerusalem at Brindisi 9 Nov 1225.  He replaced Eudes de Montbéliard as regent of Jerusalem by Thomas of Aquino Count of Acerra in 1226[620].  He sailed from Brindisi 8 Sep 1227 for Jerusalem but fell ill at Otranto, where Ludwig IV Landgraf of Thuringia had been put ashore due to sickness, and postponed his journey while recuperating[621].  He embarked again at Brindisi 28 Jun 1228, although his second wife had meanwhile died which put in doubt his right to the kingdom of Jerusalem, and landed in Cyprus in Jul 1228[622].  He left Cyprus for Acre 3 Sep 1228, and after lengthy negotiations signed a ten year peace treaty with Sultan al-Kamil 18 Feb 1229 under which the city of Jerusalem was returned to the kingdom of Jerusalem[623].  He made his ceremonial entry to Jerusalem 17 Mar 1229, and crowned himself king the next day in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, before sailing back to Europe from Acre 1 May 1229 after appointing Eudes de Montbéliard as Constable of Jerusalem and Balian of Sidon and Garnier the German as baillies.  He landed at Brindisi 10 Jun 1229[624].  Friedrich was excommunicated and deposed as emperor 17 Jul 1245 by Pope Innocent IV.  He died from dysentery.  His death is recorded by Matthew Paris, who specifies the date but not the place and gives details of his testament[625].  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro records the death in Dec 1250 "in festo beate Lucie virginis" of "dominus Fridericus secundus…Romanorum…imperator" and his burial "in majori ecclesia Panormitana"[626]

m firstly (Messina 5 or 15 Aug 1209 or Palermo 19 Aug 1209) as her second husband, Infanta doña CONSTANZA de Aragón, widow of IMRE King of Hungary, daughter of don ALFONSO II “el Casto” King of Aragon & his wife Infanta doña Sancha de Castilla (1179-Catania 23 Jun 1222, bur Palermo Cathedral).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Constantia regina" as wife of "Hemericus filius [regis Hungarie Bela]", specifying that she later married "Frederico imperatori"[627].  The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña records that Pedro II King of Aragon arranged the marriage of his sister Constanza to "Fredrico Rey de Sicilia"[628].  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Constancia soror…Iacobi regis Aragonum" as the first wife of "dominus Fridericus secundus…Romanorum…imperator"[629].  The Continuatio Admuntensis records that she took her son to Vienna and that, after his death, Leopold Duke of Austria arranged her repatriation to "fratri suo Hyspaniarum regi"[630].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records the marriage in 1209 of "Fredericus rex Sicilie" and "Constantiam sororem regis Arragonum"[631].  The Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis records the marriage of "Fridericus rex Apulie" and "filiam regis Arragonis, relictam regis Ungarie"[632].  She was named regent of Sicily by her husband in 1212 during his absence in Germany, until 1220.  She was crowned as empress at Rome with her husband 22 Nov 1220[633].  The monk Conrad´s Brevis Chronica records the death "apud Cataniam" in 1222 of "domina Constantia imperatrix…prima uxor Frederici imperatoris"[634]

m secondly (by proxy Acre Aug 1225, Brindisi Cathedral 9 Nov 1225) ISABELLE [Yolande] de Brienne Queen of Jerusalem, daughter of JEAN de Brienne King of Jerusalem & his first wife Maria di Monferrato Queen of Jerusalem (1211-Andria, Bari 25 Apr or 5 May 1228, bur Bari cathedral).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "rex Iohannes filiam suam Ysabel", records her marriage to "imperatori Frederici" and specifies that her husband thereby became king of Jerusalem[635].  According to Runciman[636], she was named Yolande in "western chronicles" but these have not yet been identified.  The monk Conrad´s Brevis Chronica records the marriage in 1225 of "imperator" and "filiam regis Joannis…Isabellam" as his second wife, her death in 1227, and the birth of "Rex Conradus filius eius"[637].  She was crowned ISABELLE Queen of Jerusalem at Tyre days after her marriage by proxy, and sailed from Acre in [Aug/Sep] 1225 for her marriage[638].  After her marriage, her husband kept her secluded in his harem at Palermo[639].  She died in childbirth. 

m thirdly (Betrothed London Feb 1235, Worms Cathedral 15 or 20 Jul 1235) ISABELLA of England, daughter of JOHN King of England & his second wife Isabelle Ctss d'Angoulême (1214-Foggia near Naples 1 Dec 1241, bur Bari).  Matthew Paris records her marriage, specifying that she was the sister of King Henry III[640].  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Fredericus imperator Alemanniæ” married “Ysabellam filiam Johannis regis Angliæ” in 1235, her dowry being 30,000 marcs of silver[641].  The Annales Erphordenses record the marriage "1235 XVII Kal Aug" at Worms of "sororem Regis Anglie" and the emperor[642].  Her marriage was arranged by her future husband to drive a wedge between England and the Welf faction in Germany, who were long time allies[643].  She was granted the castle of Monte Sant'Angelo by her husband on her marriage, and was crowned empress 20 Jul 1235 at Worms Cathedral.  After her marriage, her husband confined her to one of his castles in Sicily where she was guarded by eunuchs.  The Annales Londonienses record the death in 1241 of "Isabella imperatrix, soror regis Angliæ"[644].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the death “circa festum sancti Nicholai” in 1241 of “Johanna imperatrix” and her burial “apud Barensem urbem[645].  She died in childbirth[646]

Mistress (1):  --- .  The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum refers to the mother of "Fredericus" as "nobili comitissa quo in regno Sicilie erat heres"[647] but Emperor Friedrich's first mistress has not been identified more precisely. 

Mistress (2): [ADELHEID von Urslingen, daughter of ---].  William of Tyre (Continuator) records that the mother of "Ens" was "une haute dame d'Alemaigne"[648].  The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum refers to "Hentius filius Frederici…ex matre infami et ignobili…[et] Theotonica"[649].  Benoist-Méchin says that "on a certaines raisons de croire" that the mother of Enzio was "Adélaïde d´Urslingen, de la Maison de Spolète" but cites no source and does not explain further what these reasons might be[650]

[Mistress (3): RUTHINA von Beilstein-Wolfsölden, wife of GOTTFRIED [II] Graf von Löwenstein [Calw], daughter of [BERTHOLD Graf von Beilstein & his wife Adelheid von Bonfeld].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[651], she was the mistress of Emperor Friedrich II, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  The source does not state if she was the mother of any children by the emperor.] 

Mistress (4): ---.  Benoist-Méchin says that the mother of the emperor´s daughter Katharina was "une femme appartenant à la lignée des ducs de Spolète" but cites no corresponding source[652].  There may be some confusion with the alleged mother of Enzio who, according to the same source, was "de la Maison de Spolète" (see above). 

[Mistress (5): ---.  No indication has been found of the identity of the mother of the emperor´s supposed son Heinrich.] 

Mistress (6): MARIA [Matilda], from Antioch.  The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum refers to the mother of "Fredericus qui de Antiochia" as "Antiocha dicta"[653].  The primary source which specifies her name has not yet been identified.  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Beatrix filia principis Antiochie" as the fourth wife of "dominus Fridericus secundus…Romanorum…imperator"[654]Zurita, presumably basing himself on the same source, also names “Beatriz...hija del Principe de Antioch” as the mother of “Federico de Antiochia[655].  The basis for the name Beatrix in these two sources is not known.  It is extremely improbable that she was the daughter of the then titular prince of Antioch, who would presumably have been Bohémond IV (see the document ANTIOCH).  No record has been found of her descendants claiming the title after the extinction in the male line of the princely family of Antioch. 

Mistress (7): ---.  Her name is not known.  

Mistress (8): [MANNA, niece of --- Archbishop of Messina, daughter of ---.  Benoist-Méchin says that the mother of Riccardo Conte di Chieti was "semble-t-il, le fils de Manna, une nièce de l´archévêque de Messine" but cites no corresponding source[656].] 

Mistress (9): ---.  Her name is not known.  

Mistress (10): ---.  Her name is not known.   

Mistress (11): ---.  Her name is not known. 

Mistress (12): BIANCA Lancia, daughter of MANFREDO [II] Lancia Marchese di Busca & his wife Bianca "Maletta" --- (-[1233/34]).  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "domina Blanca…de Lancea de Lombardia" as the fifth wife of "dominus Fridericus secundus…Romanorum…imperator"[657].  The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum refers to the mother of "Manfredus" as "sorore marchionis Lancee…filia domne Blanca"[658].  A "confirmatio matrimonii in articulo mortis" in [1233/34] is recorded by Matthew Paris, in the form of a declaration of her son Manfred[659].  The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam refers to the mother of "Manfredus…filius Friderici" as "marchionis Lancee neptis", specifying that she married the Emperor "in obitu"[660]

Emperor Friedrich II & his first wife had one child:

1.         HEINRICH (1211-near Martorano [12] Feb 1242, bur Cosenza cathedral).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Henricum regem Alamannie" as son of "Frederico imperatori" and his first wife[661].  The Notæ Sancti Emeranni name "Heinricus rex" as son of "Friderici imperatoris" when recording his marriage[662].  He was crowned as king of Sicily at Palermo in Feb 1212, while his father prepared to visit Germany.  Duke of Swabia 1216.  After the death of Berthold V Herzog von Zähringen in 1218, his father installed Heinrich as rector of Burgundy[663].  He was elected as HEINRICH VII King of Germany ("rex romanorum") 20 and 26 Apr 1220 at Frankfurt-am-Main, crowned 8 May 1222 at Aachen.  He ruled through a Council of Regency, led by Engelbert von Berg Archbishop of Köln (who was assassinated in 1223), then by Ludwig Duke of Bavaria, until 1228 when he seized power[664].  He antagonised the ecclesiastical princes by supporting a league of cities under the Bishop of Liège and passing the "law in favour of princes" at Worms in Apr 1231.  His father Emperor Friedrich cancelled the privileges in 1232, and it was not long before open conflict broke out between father and son.  King Heinrich negotiated a pact with the Lombard League in 1234 and allied himself with Louis IX King of France.  His father forced his submission at Wimpfen in 1235, declared him deposed at Worms and had him imprisoned, first by Otto II Duke of Bavaria[665], then at Rocca San Felice near Melfi, later at Nicastro in Calabria.  Heinrich died after falling from his horse while being transferred to Martirano.  The monk Conrad´s Brevis Chronica records that "imperator" imprisoned "filium suum Regem Henricum" in 1227 until he died "apud Marturanam"[666]m (Nürnberg 29 Nov 1225) as her first husband, MARGARETA of Austria, daughter of LEOPOLD VI Duke of Austria [Babenberg] & his wife Theodora --- (-Burg Krumau am Kamp 2 Oct 1267, bur Lilienfeld).  The Annales Mellicenses in 1226 record the marriage of "Margaretam filiam Liupoldi ducis Austrie" and "Heinricus filius imperatoris Friderici"[667].  The Notæ Sancti Emeranni record the marriage in 1225 at Nürnberg of "Heinricus rex" and "Constantiam filiam Liupoldi ducis Austrie"[668].  She was crowned Queen of Germany at Aachen 28 Mar 1227.  She lived in a Dominican convent at Trier after the death of her first husband[669].  She married secondly (Hainburg 11 Feb 1252, repudiated 1261) as his first wife, Otakar II Přemysl Duke of Austria, who succeeded in 1253 as Otakar II Přemysl King of Bohemia.  The Continuatio Garstensi s records the second marriage "apud Heimburch" of "Margaretam viduam regis Heinrici, filiam ducis Leupoldi" with "Otakarus marchio Moravie"[670].  The Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmæ record the marriage "in Henburk III Id Feb 1252" of "Prziemysl filius regis Wenceslai" and "Margaretham viduam filiam Leupoldi ducis Austriæ"[671].  The Chronicon Francisci records the marriage in 1252 of "Ottakarus Rex Boemiæ" and "Margaretham, quondam Romanorum Regina"[672].  The Altahenses Annales record that "Otaker rex" repudiated his first wife "sine iudicio ecclesie"[673].  The Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmæ records that "regina Margareta" left Bohemia for Austria "XV Kal Nov 1261"[674].  The necrology of Lilienfeld records the death "IV Kal Nov" of "Margareta quondam regina Romanorum filia ducis Leupoldi" and her burial next to her father "in Campo Liliorum"[675].  The necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death "IV Kal Nov" of "Margareta filia ducis Liupoldi regina Romanorum ducissa Austrie et Stirie"[676].  King Heinrich & his wife had two children: 

a)         HEINRICH (-[1242/45]).  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Henricus et Fridericus" as the two sons of "Henricus", son of "dominus Fridericus secundus…Romanorum…imperator", and his wife "dominam Alamanie", adding that they both died young "post decessum patris"[677].  The Chronica Senoniensis record that “Imperator Fridericus…filium suum Henricum” had two sons by his wife “filiam ducis Austriæ” but does not name them, adding that “matri dicti Henrici” claimed that they were both later murdered by the emperor[678]

b)         FRIEDRICH (-1251).  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Henricus et Fridericus" as the two sons of "Henricus", son of "dominus Fridericus secundus…Romanorum…imperator", and his wife "dominam Alamanie", adding that they both died young "post decessum patris"[679].  The Chronica Senoniensis record that “Imperator Fridericus…filium suum Henricum” had two sons by his wife “filiam ducis Austriæ” but does not name them, adding that “matri dicti Henrici” claimed that they were both later murdered by the emperor[680].  He was bequeathed the duchy of Austria and 10,000 uncias under his grandfather's testament, which specifies that he was the son of Heinrich but does not name him[681].  He succeeded as duke of Styria, Swabia and Austria on the death of his paternal grandfather[682].  His death is recorded by Matthew Paris[683]

Emperor Friedrich II & his second wife had two children:

2.         daughter (Nov 1226-Aug 1227).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

3.         KONRAD (Andria 25 Apr 1228-Heerlager, near Lavello, Italy, 21 May 1254, bur Messina cathedral).  The monk Conrad´s Brevis Chronica records the marriage in 1225 of "imperator" and "filiam regis Joannis…Isabellam" as his second wife, her death in 1227, and the birth of "Rex Conradus filius eius"[684].  His parentage is given by Matthew Paris, when he records that he succeeded his father[685].  William of Tyre (Continuator) names him and records his mother's death during childbirth[686].  He succeeded his mother in 1228 as KONRAD King of Jerusalem.  He was elected as KONRAD IV King of Germany and Duke of Swabia at Vienna in Feb 1237.  He was defeated near Frankfurt in 1246 by Heinrich "Raspe" Landgraf of Thuringia, who had been elected anti-king of Germany by the papal party in May 1246 and, after the battle, was judged in the diet to have forfeited the duchy of Swabia[687].  He succeeded his father in 1250 as KONRAD King of Sicily, arriving in Apulia in Jan 1252.  The monk Conrad´s Brevis Chronica records the death in May 1252 of "Rex Conradus"[688].  He died of dysentery.  m (Vohburg, near Ingolstadt 1 Sep 1246) as her first husband, ELISABETH von Bayern, daughter of OTTO II "dem Erlauchten" Duke of Bavaria & his wife Agnes von Braunschweig (Landshut [1227]-9 Oct 1273, bur Kloster Stams).  The Altahenses Annales record the marriage in 1246 of "Chunradus filius Friderici imperatoris" and "Elysabeth filiam Ottonis ducis Bawarie"[689].  Konrad's marriage to "filiam ducis Bavariæ" is recorded by Matthew Paris in 1248[690].  This marriage was arranged by her future husband to gain Bavarian support against the papal party after his defeat at Frankfurt against Heinrich Raspe anti-King of Germany [691].  She married secondly (Munich 6 Oct 1259) Meinhard II Graf von Tirol [Meinhard IV Graf von Görz], who succeeded in 1286 as Meinhard II Duke of Carinthia.  The Altahenses Annales record the second marriage "in octava sancti Mychaelis aput Monacum" of "Meinhardus comes Goricie" and "Elysabeth sororem Ludwici et Heinrici ducem Bawarie relictam Chunradi regis"[692].  She founded Kloster Stams.  The necrology of Königsfelden records the death "VII Id Oct" of "domina Elizabecht quondam regina Romanorum, mater domine Elizabeht Romanorum regine fundatricis nostre"[693].  The necrology of Stams records the death "VI Id Oct" of "domina Elizabeth regina prima fundatrix monasterii"[694].  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "VI Id Oct" of "Elisabeth com de Tyrol"[695]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of King Konrad's mistress is not known.  Benoist-Méchin says that she was a Sarracin from Lucera but does not cite the corresponding primary source[696].  King Konrad & his wife had one son: 

a)         KONRAD "Konradin" (Burg Wolfstein, Isar 25 Mar 1252-beheaded Naples, Piazza del Mercato 29 Oct 1268, bur Naples, Santa Maria del Carmino)The Altahenses Annales record the birth "1252 in die annuntiationis sancta Marie" of "Chunrado regi filius…Chunradus"[697].  Duke of Swabia 1254.  He succeeded his father in 1254 as CORRADO II King of Sicily and titular King of Jerusalem, under the regency of Berthold Markgraf von Hohenburg, although Konradin remained in Germany with his mother.  Pope Innocent IV named Edward of England, son of Henry III King of England, as king of Sicily, but Konradin's uncle Manfred forced the papacy to recognise Konradin's rights and his own appointment as regent[698].  Konradin was deposed by his uncle in 1258.  He gathered together an army with Friedrich of Austria Markgraf von Baden to invade Italy and reclaim his inheritance.  He was defeated and captured by Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] 23 Aug 1268 at Tagliacozzo, Abruzzi, imprisoned in the Castel del Ovo, Naples, and beheaded in the Market Square of Naples.  Betrothed to SOPHIA von Meissen, daughter of DIETRICH "der Weise" von Meissen im Osterland, Landsberg und Groitzsch & his wife Helene von Brandenburg ([1258/61]-24 Aug 1318).  The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Conrado Stynnaviensi" married secondly "filiam…Theoderici marchionis orientalis, relicta quondam Conradi nepotis Fridrici imperatoris, Conradi filii"[699]

King Konrad had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1).

b)         KONRADIN (Lucera [1252]-hanged Lucera 1269).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He was captured by Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] at the siege of Lucera. 

Emperor Friedrich II & his third wife had four children:

4.         HEINRICH ([1236]-).  The birth of a son is recorded in 1237 by Matthew Paris who names him "Henricus"[700].  The monk Conrad´s Brevis Chronica records the birth in 1235 of "Rex Henricus filius domini imperatoris de tertia uxore…soror regis Angliæ"[701], although the year is presumably incorrect assuming that his parents´ marriage is correctly dated to Jul 1235 as shown above. 

5.         MARGARETA ([end 1237 or Foggia near Naples 1 Dec 1241]-Frankfurt-am-Main 8 Aug 1270).  The timing would be tight for the birth of Margareta in 1237, assuming that the information concerning the births of her brothers is correct.  The possibilities are that one of the reported male births was in fact a female birth, that of Margareta, or that she was the child born when her mother died in 1241.  The Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis record that "Hermannus landgravius filius sancte Elysabeth" repudiated his betrothal with "filia imperator"[702], which can only refer to Margareta.  The Annales Veterocellenses record that "Margareta domina lantgravia Thuringie filia Friderici imperatoris" fled "die sancti Iohannes baptiste" and died "1270 VII Id Aug"[703]Betrothed ([1238], contract broken 1239) to HERMANN II Landgraf of Thuringia, son of LUDWIG IV "der Heilige" Landgraf of Thuringia & his wife Elisabeth of Hungary (-Kreuzberg 3 Jan 1241).  m ([1254/Jun 1255]) ALBRECHT von Meissen, son of HEINRICH "der Erlauchte" Markgraf von Meissen & his first wife Konstanze of Austria [Babenberg] (1240-Erfurt 20 Nov 1314, bur Erfurt St Marien).  He succeeded in 1265-1307 as Landgraf of Thuringia and Pfalzgraf von Sachsen.  He succeeded his father in 1288 as ALBRECHT II "der Entartete" Markgraf von Meissen, until 1292. 

6.         KARL OTTO (Vercelli 18 Feb 1238-May 1254).  The birth of an unnamed son is recorded by Matthew Paris in 1238[704].  Lord of Viterbo.  Known as HEINRICH from 1242 or 1251.  "Manfredus…imp. Frid. filius" accepted the allegiance of "Henricum…fratrem nostrum et Petrum Ruffum de Calabria regni Siciliæ marescalcum", on behalf of "regis…Conradi", by charter dated 15 Dec 1250[705].  "Henrico suo [=Friedrich] nepoti scilicet domini regis Angliæ" is recorded by Matthew Paris in 1251[706].  He was bequeathed the kingdom of Jerusalem and 10,000 uncias under his father's testament[707].  According to Matthew Paris, Pope Innocent IV unsuccessfully attempted to have Heinrich marry one his nieces, the chronicler specifying that Heinrich was virtually the Pope's adopted son[708].  Heinrich is named again in 1254 by Matthew Paris in relation to "opposition" to him in Sicily and Apulia[709].  Matthew Paris records the death in 1254 of "Henricus parvulus…filius Rom. imp. Frederici et imperatricis Isabellæ sororis regis Angliæ"[710]

7.         F[RIEDRICH] ([1239/40]-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

8.         child (Foggia near Naples 1 Dec 1241-).  The primary source which confirms his/her parentage has not yet been identified.  As noted above, it is possible that this child was the emperor´s daughter Margareta who is named above. 

Emperor Friedrich II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

9.          FEDERICO di PettoranoThe Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum names "[illegitimus filius Frederici]…Fredericus" as son of "nobili comitissa quo in regno Sicilie erat heres"[711].  He fled to Spain with his wife and children.  m ---.  The name of Federico´s wife is not known.  Federico & his wife had two children: 

a)         child (1238-1240). 

b)         child (1239-1240). 

Emperor Friedrich II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (2):

10.       ENZIO [Enrico] ([1215]-in jail Bologna 11 Mar 1272, bur Bologna San Domenico).   His paternity is established by Matthew Paris who calls him "Ensius rex Sardiniæ filius scilicet Fretherici" when recording that he captured 200 soldiers from Parma during the campaign of 1249, and in a later passage calls him "Ensius filius Fretherici naturalis rex Sardiniæ"[712].  The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum names "Hentius filius Frederici…ex matre infami et ignobili"[713].  Judge of Torres, by right of his wife.  He was legitimated in Jul 1239.  His father appointed him King of Corsica and Sardinia 1239-49/72, and Vicar General for Italy, which triggered war with the papacy.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that "Henricus rex Gallure naturalis filius imperatoris" came to "marchiam Anconitanam" in 1239[714].  Enzio captured the March of Ancona and the duchy of Spoleto, until then part of the Papal territories.  William of Tyre (Continuator) records that he was captured in [1239] at the castle of Gorgonzola but soon rescued by "li Aleman"[715], although it is not clear to whom this refers.  Suspending his campaign in Italy, he led his troops to Pomerania to fight the Mongol invaders, but was defeated at Wahlstadt near Liegnitz 9 Apr 1241.  Returning to Italy, he besieged Rome in Aug 1241, the siege being lifted on the death of Pope Gregory IX.  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Rex Encius filius naturalis Frederici imperatoris" entered "episcopatum Placentiæ" in 1242 and destroyed "Potentianum et multa alia loca", and in 1245 destroyed "Hospitale S. Spiritus"[716].  He was captured [at Fossalta] between Bologna and Cremona in May 1249 by Bolognese troops[717].  After his father's death, there was an attempt to have him released in exchange for the release of the son of the Marchese di Monferrato[718].  While in prison, he composed poems.  The testament of Henricus...rex Sardinie”, dated 16 Mar 1272, appointed “Henrico et Ugolino nepotibus...ex...filia nostra Helena et viro...Guelfo de Donoratico genero nostro natos” as his heirs, “dominum Corradum de Antiochia...nepotem nostrum” as his heir “in comitatu de Mollesio”, bequeathed property to “dominam nostram Catharinam de Marrano...sororem nostram...domini Federigi Romanorum imperatoris filiam”, and provided that the king of Castile should arrange the marriages of “Magdalenam et Costantiam filias nostras[719]The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the death "1272 14 Marcii" of "rex Hençus filius condam Friderici imperatoris" while in jail in Bologna and his burial "ad ecclesiam fratrum Predicatorum"[720]m firstly (Oct 1238, divorced 1246) ADELASIA di Torres, widow of UBALDO Visconti Judge of Gallura, daughter of MARIANO [II] Judge of Torres & his wife Agnese di Lacon-Massa (-1255).  The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum refers to the wife of "Hentius filius Frederici" as "domicellam Sardinie" specifying that she brought "Turris" as her dowry[721].  The Annales Placentini Gibellini records the marriage in Oct 1238 of "Henzium filium suum [=Frederici] naturalem" and "dominam illius insule [=Sardaniam] nomine damixellam"[722].  Fara names “Agnetem Guillelmi iudicis Caralitani filiam” as the wife of “Marianus III...iudex Turritanus”, and mother of “Barisonem filium, et Benedictam atque Alasiam filias”, adding that “aliam” married “Baldo iudici Gallurensi” and secondly “Henrico Friderici II imperatoris naturali filio, Encio vulgo appellato” on the advice of “Emmanuele, Friderico, et Prinicipale Auriæ[723]m secondly ([1247/48]) --- di Egna, daughter of ENRICO [III] di Egna podestà di Verona & his wife --- Lancia ([1230/32]-[1250/51]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Enzio & his [first/second] wife had [two] children:

a)         ELENA (-[before 16 Mar 1272])The testament of Henricus...rex Sardinie”, dated 16 Mar 1272, appointed “Henrico et Ugolino nepotibus...ex...filia nostra Helena et viro...Guelfo de Donoratico genero nostro natos” as his heirs, specifically in “regno nostro Sardinie[724].  The appointment of her sons as heirs to Sardinia suggests that their mother must have been the testator´s daughter by his first marriage.  However, Fara (writing in 1579) states that Adelasia di Torres died childless and bequeathed Torres to Pope Gregory IX by her testament[725]m GUELFO Gherardesca Conte di Donoratico, son of UGOLINO Conte di Donoratico & his wife --- (-1295). 

b)         [ADELAIDA (-after 1301, bur Alpirsbach).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriages has not yet been identified.   m firstly ---.  m secondly REINHOLD von Urslingen, son of --- (-[1300/01]).

Enzio had [one illegitimate child by FRASCA, daughter of ---]:

c)          [ELENAThe testament of Henricus...rex Sardinie”, dated 16 Mar 1272, bequeathed property to “Helenam filiam Frescam” and requesting “Henrico et Ugoilino nostris heredibus” to make the payment[726].  The document does not specify that Elena was the testator´s daughter.  Assuming that she was Enzio´s daughter, the testament suggests that she was not the same daughter Elena who was the mother of his heirs Enzio and Ugolino.]   

Enzio had three illegitimate children by an unknown mistress or mistresses: 

d)         MADDALENA (-after 7 Mar 1272).  The testament of Henricus...rex Sardinie”, dated 16 Mar 1272, provided that the king of Castile should arrange the marriages of “Magdalenam et Costantiam filias nostras[727].  

e)         CONSTANZA (-after 7 Mar 1272).  The testament of Henricus...rex Sardinie”, dated 16 Mar 1272, provided that the king of Castile should arrange the marriages of “Magdalenam et Costantiam filias nostras[728]  

f)          ENRICO (-after 10 May 1305).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

Emperor Friedrich II had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (4):

11.       CATERINA da Marano ([1216/18]-after 1272)The Annales Placentini Gibellini record the marriage in 1247 of "imperator filiam suam" and "Iacomino de Careto"[729].  The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum refers to the wife of "Ubertino marchioni de Carreto" as full sister of "Hentius"[730].  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.   The testament of Henricus...rex Sardinie”, dated 16 Mar 1272, bequeathed property to “dominam nostram Catharinam de Marrano...sororem nostram...domini Federigi Romanorum imperatoris filiam[731]m firstly ---.  m secondly (1247) as his second wife, GIACOMO del Caretto Marchese di Noli e Finale, son of ENRICO [II] del Caretto Marchese di Noli e Finale & his second wife Agathe de Genève (Finale 1220-Finale 21 Oct 1268). 

[Emperor Friedrich II had one possible illegitimate son by Mistress (5):]

12.       [HEINRICH (-killed in battle against the Mongols [26 or 27 Sep] 1241).  The existence of this person is far from certain.  The Annals of Tewkesbury provide the only indication about him when they record that “Henricus filius imperatoris Frederici” was killed “a Tartaritis” in 1241, adding that much havoc was caused “in vigilia sanctorum Cosmæ et Damiani[732].  It is not clear from this passage whether Heinrich was killed on that same date.  At first sight it seems surprising that a relatively obscure English source could be accurate in such a report, no corroboration for which has been found in any of the other European primary sources so far consulted.  However, Emperor Friedrich was at that time still married to his third wife, the daughter of John King of England, who died towards the end of 1241.  It is not beyond the realms of possibility therefore that the empress had English priests at the imperial court in Sicily and that they returned to England when she died, returning with reports of contemporary events in the imperial family (the empress´s death is reported in the same source with more precision than found in other contemporary English sources).  The practice of monks accompanying an English noble bride overseas is confirmed by the same source which records in a later passage that “Willelmus de Bekeford monachus Theokesberiæ” went with “Isabel filia Ricardi de Clare primogenita” when she married “domino Marchio de Ponte Ferato” [Monteferrato], although the text does not specify whether the monk in question remained with the bride after her marriage[733].  It is unlikely that the report about “Henricus filius imperatoris Frederici” could represent a garbled account of the death of Emperor Friedrich´s oldest legitimate son, Heinrich King of Germany.  The latter died three months after the death of the empress in early 1242, during his disgrace and imprisonment in Italy (see above) and it is difficult to see how the circumstances could have been confused with his being killed in battle against the Mongols.  During late 1241, the Mongols were still in eastern Europe, their withdrawal after learning of the death of the Great Khan being dated to early 1242.  The most important battle against the Mongols in 1241 is recorded in April of that year, at Sajó River where the Hungarian prince Kálmán, son of András II King of Hungary, was killed[734], and it is presumably possible that it is the report of his death which has been included in the Annals of Tewkesbury in a highly distorted form.  No report has so far been identified of a battle against the Mongols in September of the same year, although skirmishes with the invaders must have been numerous and widespread at that time.  The Annals of Tewkesbury, which in the main are detailed and accurate in their reporting of names and relationships in the mid-13th century, include few reports of events outside the British Isles.  This makes it all the more unlikely that the event relating to the emperor´s son would have been fabricated for inclusion in the document.  The report is puzzling, but it does not seem appropriate to dismiss it entirely.] 

Emperor Friedrich II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (6):

13.       FEDERIGO di Antiochia ([1221]-killed in battle Foggia 1256).  The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum names "[illegitimus filius Frederici]…Fredericus…de Antiochia quod Antiochia dicta fuit mater eius"[735].  "[736]The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Beatrix filia principis Antiochie" as the fourth wife of "dominus Fridericus secundus…Romanorum…imperator" and their son "Fridericus de Antiochia"[737].  Vicar General of the March of Ancona and Duchy of Spoleto 1244.  Vicar General of Tuscany 1246.  Podestà of Florence.  m (before 1239) MARGHERITA di Poli, daughter of GIOVANNI di Poli Senator of Rome & his wife --- (-after 1246/49]).  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro records that "Fridericus" married "Margharitam filiam N. de Romanis cunabulis editam"[738].  The primary source which confirms her parentage more precisely has not yet been identified.  Federigo & his wife had three children: 

a)         CORRADO di Antiochia (-after 1301)The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Conradus de Antiochia et Margarita soror eius" as the two children of "Fridericus de Antiochia" and his wife[739]Conte di Loreto 1258.  Conte di Alba, Celano, Loreto ed Abruzzo 1267.  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the capture in 1268 of "Coradus Antioche nepos imperatori Frederici" and his escape from jail with the help of "domno Iacobo Napolionis et sociis" who were in "castro Saraxinesci"[740]Vicar General of the March.  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina names "Corradus de Antiochia comes Albas, regis…nepos, qui pro capitaneo fuerat destinatus in Marchiam" [referring to Manfredo King of Sicily] when recording that he captured "castrum Monticuli"[741].  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina records that "Galvanum et filium, Corradum etiam de Antiochia" were captured by Charles Comte d´Anjou after the battle of Tagliacozzo, Abruzzi, dated to Aug 1268[742].  The testament of Henricus...rex Sardinie”, dated 16 Mar 1272, appointed “dominum Corradum de Antiochia...nepotem nostrum” as his heir “in comitatu de Mollesio[743]m (1258 before 8 Jul) [as her second husband,] BEATRICE Lancia, [widow of UGOLINO di Serro,] daughter of GALVANO Lancia Marchese & his second wife Margherita de Ocra (-after 1268).  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro records that "comes…Galvanus Beatricem filiam suam" married "Conradus de Antiochia"[744].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Istoria of Saba Malaspina which names "Galvanus Lancea comes Principatus et Fundorum, marescallus regni" as "socer" of "Corrado de Antiochia comes Alba, regis eiusdem nepos"[745].  Corrado & his wife had nine children: 

i)          FEDERIGO (-Palermo 22 Jul 1305).  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Fridericus, Henricus et Galvanus" as the children of "Conradus de Antiochia" and his wife[746].  An epigraph records the death 22 Jul 1305 of "Dominus Fridericus miles…domini Conradi di Antiochia comitis filius et reverendi patris Bartholomæi Archiep. Parnorm. frater"[747]m ---.  The name of Federigo´s wife is not known.  Federigo & his wife had one child: 

(a)        CORRADO (-after [1320]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

ii)         ENRICOThe Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Fridericus, Henricus et Galvanus" as the children of "Conradus de Antiochia" and his wife[748]

iii)        GALVANO .  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Fridericus, Henricus et Galvanus" as the children of "Conradus de Antiochia" and his wife[749]

iv)        BARTOLOMEO (-Palermo 1311).  An epigraph records the death 22 Jul 1305 of "Dominus Fridericus miles…domini Conradi di Antiochia comitis filius et reverendi patris Bartholomæi Archiep. Parnorm. frater"[750]Archbishop of Palermo 1305.

v)         FRANCESCO (-Palermo 1320).  Archbishop of Palermo 1311.  A tomb in Palermo cathedral records the death of "Franciscus presul…cognomen cujus est Antiochenus et huius est ortus talis quails stirps imperialis"[751]

vi)        COSTANZA detta Antiochette .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (30 Sep 1291) BARTOLOMEO della Scala, son of ALBERTO [I] della Scala of Verona & his wife Verde di Salizzolo (-7/8 Mar 1304).  He succeeded in 1301 as Lord of Verona.

vii)       IMPERATRICE .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m FEDERICO della Scala Signor di Valpolicella, son of ALBERTO della Scala & his wife --- (-[1349]).

viii)      GIOVANNA (-Verona 29 Dec 1351).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (1308) CANGRANDE [I] della Scala, son of ALBERTO [I] della Scala of Verona & his wife Verde di Salizzolo (-Treviso 22 Jul 1329, bur Verona, Santa Maria Antica).  He succeeded in 1311 as Lord of Verona.  Lord of Belluno 1311.  Lord of Treviso 1329.

ix)        CORRADO (-after 1300).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

b)         MARGHERITAThe Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Conradus de Antiochia et Margarita soror eius" as the two children of "Fridericus de Antiochia" and his wife, adding that "Margarita" and her husband (unnamed) had "Beatricem" who married "Opizo filio Raynaldi Spinule"[752]m ---.  One child: 

i)          BEATRICE .  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Conradus de Antiochia et Margarita soror eius" as the two children of "Fridericus de Antiochia" and his wife, adding that "Margarita" and her husband (unnamed) had "Beatricem" who married "Opizo filio Raynaldi Spinule"[753]m OBIZZO Spinola, son of RINALDO Spinola & his wife ---. 

c)          FILIPPA (-in prison 1273 before 24 Oct)A charter dated 24 Oct 1273 names "quondam Philippe de Antiochia uxoris Manfredi Maletti olim dicti comitis Camerarii proditoris nostri" as the two children of "Fridericus"[754]m (1258 before 8 Jul) MANFREDO [II] Maletta, son of --- (-after 1282).

Emperor Friedrich II had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (7):

14.       SALVAGGIA ([1223]-1244)The Annales Veronenses record the marriage "die pentecostes ante ianuam Sancti Zenonis de Verona" in 1238 of "domna filia…imperatoris…Salvaza" and "domno Icerino de Romano"[755].  m (Verona 23 May 1238) as his first wife, EZZELINO [V] da Romano Podestà of Verona, son of EZZELINO [IV] da Romano & his second wife Aleida di Mangono (6 Apr 1194-in jail Sarcino 27 Sep 1259).

Emperor Friedrich II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (8):

15.       RICCARDO ([1225]-1249 after Jun)Conte di Chieti.  Captain General of Tuscany, podestà of Florence.  Vicar General of the March of Ancona, the Duchy of Spoleto, and the Romagna.  Matthew Paris records the death in 1249 of "alius Fretherici filius naturalis in Apulia" directly after his report of the capture of Enzio King of Sardinia, specifying that he died "eodemque tempore", i.e. when Enzio was captured [756]

Emperor Friedrich II had three illegitimate children by Mistresses (9), (10), and (11):

16.       BLANCHEFLEUR ([1226]-Montargis 20 Jun 1279, bur Montargis).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Dominican nun at Montargis.

17.       MARGHERITA di Suevia ([1230]-[1297/98])Emperor Friedrich II names "Tomaso d´Aquino…genero" when the emperor sent him to the march of Ancona with "l´altro genero Riccardo conte di Caserta", in a document dated Sep 1247[757].  A document dated 26 Nov 1288 at Naples records the serious illness of "comitissa mater comitis Acerrarum"[758].  A charter dated 8 Apr 1295 ordered an inquiry into the revenue from "casalium…in territorio terre Lanei…civitatis Capue" held by "mater quondam Adenulfi comitis Acerrarum"[759].  A charter dated 12 Jul 1297 was addressed to "domine Margarite olim comitisse Acerrarum" relating to her fees "de comitatu Acerrarum"[760].  A charter dated 24 Jan 1298 records that property of "domina Margarita senior comitissa Acerrarum", her dower "in Suessula" constituted by "quondam domino Thomasio Acerrarum comite viro suo", was granted to "dominus Philippus princeps Tarentinus"[761].  m TOMASO d'Aquino Conte di Acerra, son of ADENULFO d´Aquino & his wife --- (-15 Mar 1273, bur Capua, Santa Maria della Monache).

18.       GERARDO (-before 1255).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

Emperor Friedrich II had three illegitimate children by Mistress (12): 

19.       CONSTANZA von Hohenstaufen ([1233/34]-Valencia Apr 1307, bur Valencia)The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Manfredus et domina Constanza" as the children of "dominus Fridericus secundus…Romanorum…imperator" and ["his fifth wife"] "domina Blanca…de Lancea de Lombardia"[762]The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum refers to "[uxor] Vatatio imperatori Grecorum" as full sister of "[illegitimus filius Frederici]…Manfredus"[763].  Pachymeres records that "Ioannis Augusti, patris Theodori Lascaris" married "Anna Alamana…Friderici Siciliæ regis filia, Manfredi soror"[764].  Her marriage resulted from the alliance between her father and her future husband based on their common anti-Papal positions[765].  She adopted the name ANNA after her marriage.  After the death of her husband, she was kept in confinement by her stepson.  Pachymeres records that "imperator Michael" fell in love with "Anna Alamana…Augustam" but that she refused to marry him (he was of course already married)[766].  She returned to Italy in 1263.  She was expelled from the kingdom of Sicily after her brother was killed by Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] in 1266, and found refuge at the court of Aragon.  She became a nun at Valencia[767]m (before [May/Jun] 1244) as his second wife, IOANNES III Emperor in Nikaia, son of --- Batatzes & his wife --- Angelina ([1192]-Nymphaion 3 Nov 1254).

20.       MANFRED von Hohenstaufen (Venosa 1232-killed in battle Benevento 26 Feb 1266)The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Manfredus et domina Constanza" as the children of "dominus Fridericus secundus…Romanorum…imperator" and ["his fifth wife"] "domina Blanca…de Lancea de Lombardia"[768].  The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum names "[illegitimus filius Frederici]…Manfredus" as son of "sorore marchionis Lancee", specifying that he and his sister were legitimated as a result of their father's declaration at the deathbed of their mother[769].  He was bequeathed the kingdom of Sicily and 10,000 uncias under his father's testament[770].  Matthew Paris calls him "Memfredum filium Fretherici naturalem sed legitimatum"[771].  At the time of his first marriage, his father constituted him Lord of the territory from Pavia to Genoa.  He succeeded as Principe di Tarento in 1250 on the death of his father[772].  He succeeded in 1258 as MANFREDO King of Sicily

-        KINGS of SICILY

21.       VIOLANTA ([1233]-after Summer 1264).  The Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis refer to "filiam imperatoris naturalem" as wife of "comitissam de Caserta filius"[773].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   m ([1245/46]) RICCARDO Conte di Caserta, son of --- (-after 2 Mar 1265).  Vicar General of the March of Ancona and Duchy of Spoleto 1243-1244.  Vicar of the kingdom of Sicily in 1248. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    KING of GERMANY 1198-1218, WELF

 

 

1.         OTTO von Sachsen, son of HEINRICH "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony and Bavaria & his second wife Matilda of England (Normandy [1176/77]-Harzburg 19 May 1218, bur Braunschweig Cathedral).  He was brought up at the English court.  He may have been granted the comitatus of York by his uncle Richard I King of England in 1190, although the Complete Peerage says that the only authority for this is Roger “de Hoveden”, that the grant of a comitatus did not in itself create an earldom unless the recipient was already of comital rank, and that no record has been found of Otto’s creation or investiture as Earl of York[774].  Comte de Poitou 1196, maybe exchanging the comitatus of York for this.  With the support in particular of Richard I King of England, and later that of Adolf Archbishop of Köln, he was elected OTTO IV King of Germany 9 Jun 1198, crowned at Aachen 12 Jul 1198, at which time King Richard I took back Poitou[775].  However, with the death of King Richard in 1199, he lost his main supporter and was unable to maintain his position against his rival Philipp von Hohenstaufen who had been elected king in Mar 1198.  Although also supported by Pope Innocent III, to whom Otto promised support for papal supremacy over Sicily, he was unable to gain backing in Germany.  Otto is said to have sent his two brothers to his maternal uncle King John in 1200 to claim both York and Poitou, unsuccessfully[776].  After the murder of King Philipp in 1208, Otto became the agreed candidate of the German princes and was elected king again at Frankfurt 11 Nov 1208[777].  He was crowned Emperor OTTO IV at Rome 4 Oct 1209.  After his election, he opposed Pope Innocent III in Italy, intending to conquer Sicily.  He was forced to return to Germany in early 1212 because of growing opposition led by the archbishop of Mainz, the king of Bohemia and the Landgraf of Thuringia[778].  The opposition focussed around Friedrich von Hohenstaufen King of Sicily, who was elected king of Germany again at Frankfurt 5 Dec 1212 and crowned at Mainz later the same month.  Friedrich forced Otto's retreat from Thuringia and Meissen, and Otto was defeated 27 Jul 1214 at Bouvines by Philippe II "Auguste" King of France[779].  After the second coronation of Friedrich II at Aachen in Jul 1215, Otto fled from Köln[780].  The Libro Memoriarum Sancti Blasii records the death in May 1218 of "Otto quartus Romanorum imperator filius Hinrici ducis Saxonie"[781].  The Annales Veterocellenses record the death "1217 XIII Kal Iun" of "Otto imperator"[782]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10.  ANTI-KING of GERMANY 1246-1247, THURINGIA

 

 

1.         HEINRICH RASPE von Thüringen, son of HERMANN I Pfalzgraf von Sachsen Landgraf of Thuringia & his second wife Sophie von Bayern ([1204]-Wartburg 19 Feb 1247, bur Eisenach Katharinenkloster). He succeeed in 1241 as HEINRICH RASPE Landgraf of Thuringia, Pfalzgraf von Sachsen.  Emperor Friedrich II appointed him imperial regent in 1242.  He was elected as HEINRICH [VIII] King of Germany in May 1246 by the archbishops of Köln and Mainz[783].     

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11.  KING of GERMANY 1247-1256, HOLLAND

 

 

1.         WILLEM of Holland, son of FLORIS IV Count of Holland & his wife Mathilde de Brabant (1227-killed in battle near Hoogwoude 28 Jan 1256, bur 1262 Middleburg).  He succeeded his father in 1234 as WILLEM II Count of Holland.  After the death in Feb 1247 of Heinrich Raspe anti-King of Germany, Count Willem's maternal uncle Henri II Duke of Brabant proposed him as successor after declining the position himself[784].  He was elected as WILHELM King of Germany at Worringen 3 Oct 1247, after Köln refused admittance, by the archbishops of Köln and Mainz, and was recognised by Pope Innocent IV as rex Romanorum 8 Nov 1247[785].  He appointed an imperial vicar in Lombardy and received allegiance from Burgundy[786].  In autumn 1248, he conquered the cities of Kaiserswerth, Dortmund and Aachen and was crowned at Aachen 1 Nov 1248 by the archbishop of Köln[787]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12.  KING of GERMANY 1257-1272, CORNWALL

 

 

1.         RICHARD of England, son of JOHN King of England & his second wife Isabelle Ctss d'Angoulême (Winchester Castle 5 Jan 1209-Berkhamstead Castle, Herts 2 Apr 1272, bur Hayles Abbey, Gloucestershire).  He was created Earl of Cornwall 30 May 1227.  In Dec 1256, he was offered the German crown by the archbishops of Köln and Mainz, to whom promises of payment of 8,000 marks had each been made.  His candidacy was supported by Ludwig II Duke of Bavaria, who was betrothed to the daughter of King Henry III with a dowry of 12,000 marks, and subsequently by Otakar II King of Bohemia[788].  Richard accepted the offer before the English parliament, and sailed for Germany.  The offer was confirmed by a limited election outside Frankfurt 13 Jan 1257, entry into the city being barred by Arnold Archbishop of Trier[789].  He was crowned as RICHARD King of Germany at Aachen Cathedral. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 13.  ANTI-KING of GERMANY 1257-[1273], CASTILE

 

 

1.         Infante don ALFONSO de Castilla y León, son of FERNANDO III "el Santo" King of Castile and León & his first wife Elisabeth von Staufen (Toledo 23 Nov 1221-Seville 4 Apr 1284, bur Seville, Cathedral Santa María[790]).  He succeeded his father in 1252 as ALFONSO X “el Sabio” King of Castile and León.  After the death in 1254 of Konrad IV King of Germany, King Alfonso claimed the duchy of Swabia (through his mother) and was supported by Pope Alexander IV writing to the Swabian nobility on 3 Feb 1255 and by Pisa under the treaty of Soria 18 Mar 1256[791].  He attracted support from Brandenburg by the betrothal of his daughter to the eldest son of the Markgraf[792].  He was elected as ALFONSO King of Germany [King of the Romans] at Frankfurt 1 Apr 1257 by Arnold Archbihsop of Trier, and the Saxon and Brandenburg rulers, but was unable to travel to Germany to stake his claim due to internal problems in Castile[793].  Even after the successful election of his rival in 1273, King Alfonso continued to press his claims to the imperial crown and the duchy of Swabia. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 14.  KINGS of GERMANY 1273-1291, 1298-1308, 1314-1330 and from 1440, HABSBURG

 

 

1.         RUDOLF von Habsburg, son of ALBRECHT IV "der Weise" Graf von Habsburg & his wife Heilwig von Kiburg (Burg Limburg, Upper Rhine 1 May 1216-Germersheim near Speyer 15 Jul 1291, bur Speyer Cathedral).  The Ellenhardi Chronicon names "Ruodolfus rex Romanorum" as son of "Alberti comitis in Habichburg…lantgravius Alsatie superioris"[794].  The Chronicon Colmarense records the birth "1218 Kal Mai" of "comes Rudolfus de Habisburch", specifying that he was "de progenie ducis Zeringie"[795].  He succeeded his father in 1240 as RUDOLF IV Graf von Habsburg, Landgraf von Thurgau, at which time the family’s territories extended from the left bank of the Rhine at Lake Constance to the Vosges.  He was one of the few Swabian noblemen who remained loyal to Konrad IV King of Germany against the papal party and the anti-king Willem II Count of Holland, but defected to the papal side in 1251[796].  Landgraf von Kiburg, after the death of his maternal uncle Graf Hartmann in 1264.  He was elected as RUDOLF I King of Germany 1 Oct 1273 at Frankfurt-am-Main, with the support especially of Werner von Eppenstein Archbishop of Mainz and of Friedrich Burggraf von Nürnberg, defeating the rival candidate Přemysl Otakar II King of Bohemia and Duke of Austria.  He was crowned at Aachen 24 Oct 1273.  King Rudolf immediately implemented the policy of return to the empire of all properties unlawfully appropriated since the deposition of Emperor Friedrich II in 1245, promulgated at the Diet of Nürnburg 19 Nov 1274[797].  This included the return of the duchies of Austria and Styria from Přemysl Otakar II King of Bohemia, against whom he declared war.  Rudolf became Duke of Austria and Steiermark (Styria) after King Otakar’s abdication under the temporary peace of 21 Nov 1276, confirmed by treaty 6 May 1277.  Rudolf's position was confirmed definitively after defeating King Otakar at the battle of Marchfeld near Dürnkrut 26 Aug 1278.  Duke Rudolf abdicated in Austria and Steiermark in favour of his sons Albrecht I and Rudolf II in Dec 1282.  Negotiations were underway with Pope Gregory X for Rudolf’s coronation as Emperor 2 Feb 1276, but these were suspended by the Pope’s death 10 Jan 1276.  The premature deaths of the three succeeding Popes prevented finalisation of the negotiations, although Rudolf renounced all claims over the Romagna 14 Feb 1279 as part of the deal proposed with Pope Nicolas III.  Pope Honorius IV set 2 Feb 1287 for the ceremony, but Rudolf postponed the date as he was unable to arrive in Rome in time.  German/Papal rivalry over the extent of the latter’s powers over the German clergy resulted in further postponements.  King Rudolf died during the papacy of Pope Nicolas IV without the coronation ever having taken place. 

a)         ALBRECHT von Habsburg (Jul 1255-murdered near Brugg-an-der-Reuß 1 May 1308, bur Wettingen Cistercian convent, removed 1309 to Speyer Cathedral).  He succeeded his father in Dec 1282 as ALBRECHT I joint-Duke of Austria and Steiermark.  An unsuccessful candidate to succeed his father as king of Germany in 1292, Albrecht was elected to succeed as ALBRECHT I King of Germany at Mainz 24 Jun 1298 when King Adolf was deposed.  King Adolf refused to accept the ruling and was killed in battle by Albrecht at Göllheim 2 Jul 1298.  His election was confirmed at Frankfurt-am-Main 27 Jul 1298.  Crowned at Aachen 24 Aug 1298. 

i)          FRIEDRICH von Habsburg (1289-Gutenstein, Lower Austria 13 Jan 1330, bur Carthusian Mauerbach, near Vienna, transferred 1783/1789 Vienna St Stefan).  He succeeded on the abdication of his brother in 1306 as FRIEDRICH I "der Schöne"[798] Duke of Austria and Steiermark.  He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Bavaria when his brother died in 1307.  He was elected as FRIEDRICH I King of Germany 19 Oct 1314 at Sachsenhausen, in opposition to Ludwig Duke of Upper Bavaria who was elected in Frankfurt-am-Main.  Crowned 25 Nov 1314 at Bonn by the Archbishop of Köln.  After several years of war with his rival, Friedrich was defeated and captured at Mühldorf, near the River Inn, in 1322.  He was imprisoned at Burg Trausnitz (Oberpfalz) until 1325, when Ludwig finally recognised Friedrich as joint-King. 

 

 

1.         FRIEDRICH von Habsburg, son of ERNST "Dem Eisernen" Duke of Inner Austria & his second wife Cimburka of Mazovia (Innsbruck 21 Sep 1415-Linz 19 Aug 1493, bur Vienna St Stefan).  He succeeded in 1435 as FRIEDRICH V Duke of Inner-Austria.  He was elected FRIEDRICH III King of Germany 2 Feb 1440 at Frankfurt-am-Main, crowned at Aachen 17 Jun 1442.  Crowned King of Italy 16 Mar 1452 at Rome.  Crowned Holy Roman Emperor 19 Mar 1452 at Rome.   Archduke of Austria from 1453. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 15.  KINGS of GERMANY 1291-1298, NASSAU

 

 

1.         ADOLF von Nassau, son of WALRAM [II] Graf von Nassau & his wife Adelheid von Katzenelnbogen ([1255]-killed in battle near Göllheim 2 Jul 1298).  He succeeded his father in 1276 as ADOLF Graf von Nassau at Wiesbaden.  He was elected as ADOLF King of Germany at Frankfurt am Main 5 May 1292, crowned at Aachen 24 Jun 1292.  King Adolf provoked the open hostility of his electors because of his neutrality towards England, his opposition to France and his efforts to consolidate his family's position in Germany.  He was charged with offences which included desecration of churches, breaches of oath and failure to keep the peace, tried in his absence and deposed 23 Jun 1298 in Mainz Cathedral by the electors.  A new conflict with the papacy followed as the Pope had not been consulted[799].  King Adolf refused to accept the ruling and was killed in battle by Albrecht I Duke of Austria who had been elected to succeed as king of Germany. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 16.  KINGS of GERMANY 1308-1437, LUXEMBOURG

 

 

1.         HENRI de Luxembourg, son of HENRI III Comte de Luxembourg & his wife Béatrice d'Avesnes (Valenciennes 12 Jul 1274-Buonconvento, near Siena 24 Aug 1313, bur Pisa Cathedral).  He succeeded his father in 1288 as HENRI IV Comte de Luxembourg, under the regency of his mother until 1295.  He became a vassal of France in 1294, despite his existing feudal relationship with the Empire[800].  He was elected HEINRICH IX King of Germany (the numbering depends on whether Heinrich Raspe Landgraf of Thuringia was recognised as Heinrich VIII King of Germany) at Frankfurt-am-Main 27 Nov 1308, with the support especially of Peter von Aspelt Archbishop of Mainz and his brother Baudouin de Luxembourg Archbishop of Trier[801], crowned at Aachen 6 Jan 1309.  He appointed Gilles von Rodemachern as governor of Luxembourg[802].  He launched his ill-fated Italian expedition in late 1310, was crowned King of Italy at Milan 6 Jan 1311 and crowned Emperor HEINRICH VI at Rome 29 Jun 1312.  The cities of Florence, Lucca and Brescia refused him entry.  He died of "marsh fever" near Siena[803].   

a)         JEAN de Luxembourg (Château de Luxembourg 10 Aug 1296-killed in battle Crécy 26 Aug 1346, bur Abbaye de Valloire, transferred to Münster Abbey, transferred 25 Aug 1946 to Luxembourg, Cathédrale de Notre-Dame).  He was elected JAN King of Bohemia at Speyer 30 Aug 1310, crowned 7 Feb 1311.  He succeeded his father in 1313 as JEAN Comte de Luxembourg, but confided the government of the county to his uncle Baudouin Archbishop of Trier[804]

i)          WENZEL of Bohemia (Prague 14 May 1316-Prague 29 Nov 1378, bur Prague Cathedral St Veit).  He adopted the name KARL at his confirmation in Paris in 1323[805].  His father installed him as Markgraf of Moravia in 1334.  He was elected as KARL IV King of Germany at Rhena 11 Jul 1346 after the deposition of Emperor Ludwig IV, crowned at Bonn 26 Nov 1346.  He succeeded his father in 1346 as KARL King of Bohemia, crowned at Prague 2 Nov 1347, and Comte de Luxembourg (despite his father bequeathing the county to his younger half-brother Wenzel, in whose favour he resigned it in 1353).  His election as king of Germany was confirmed at Frankfurt-am-Main 17 Jun 1349, and he was crowned a second time at Aachen 25 Jul 1349.  Crowned as King of Italy at Milan 6 Jan 1355.  He was crowned as Emperor KARL IV at Rome 5 Apr 1355.  Crowned King of Burgundy at Arles 4 Jun 1365.  He was regent of Brandenburg 1373-1375. 

(a)       WENZEL (Nürnberg 26 Feb 1361-Schloß Konratitz 16 Aug 1419, bur Prague Cathedral St Veit).  Crowned as WENZEL IV King of Bohemia 15 Jun 1363, during the lifetime of his father.  He succeeded in 1373 as WENZEL II Elector of Brandenburg, until 1378.  He was elected as WENZEL King of Germany at Frankfurt-am-Main 10 Jun 1376, crowned at Aachen 21 Jul 1376.  He succeeded his uncle in 1383 as WENZEL II Duc de Luxembourg et Comte de Chiny.  King Wenzel supported Pope Urban VI at the start of the Great Western Schism in 1378, but from the 1390s the electors pressed him to undertake an expedition to Italy and devote himself to ending the schism[806].  He was deposed as king of Germany at an assembly of princes at Oberlahnstein 20 Aug 1400 which maintained that he had compromised the empire by tolerating Giangaleazzo Visconti (who had conquered important towns in Lombardy), failing to end the schism, and having an "unseemly" way of life[807]

(b)       SIGMUND (Prague 15 Feb 1368-Znaim/Znojmo 9 Dec 1437, bur Cathedral of Grosswardein/Szarvas, Hungary).  He succeeded in 1378 as SIGMUND Markgraf von Brandenburg until 1395 and again from 1411 to 1415.  He was elected ZSIGMOND King of Hungary in 1386.  He succeeded his younger brother Johann in 1396 in Neumark und Lausitz, territories which he sold to the Knights of the Teutonic Order in 1402[808].  He was elected as SIGMUND King of Germany at Frankfurt-am-Main 14 Sep 1410, confirmed 21 Jul 1411 after the death of his cousin Jobst Markgraf of Moravia, crowned at Aachen 8 Nov 1414.  He was elected as ZIKMUND King of Bohemia at Hradschin 28 Jul 1410, crowned at Prague 27 Jul 1420 after the death of his older half-brother King Wenzel IV, when he also succeeded as SIGISMOND Duc de Luxembourg.  Crowned King of Italy at Milan 25 Nov 1431.  Crowned Emperor SIGMUND at Rome 31 May 1433. 

ii)         JOHANN HEINRICH (Melnik 12 Feb 1322-12 Nov 1375, bur Brno Kloster St Thomas).  Markgraf of Moravia 1349. 

(a)       JODOK [Jobst] (1354-Spielberg near Brno 18 Jan 1411, bur Brno St Thomas).  He succeeded his father in 1375 as Markgraf of Moravia.  He succeeded in 1388 as JOBST Markgraf von Brandenburg.  His cousin Wenzel mortgaged Luxembourg to Jobst in 1388, the mortgage being transferred in 1402 to Louis Duc d'Orléans and in 1409 to Elisabeth Herzogin von Görlitz[809].  Regent of Bohemia 1394.  He was elected as JOBST King of Germany in 1410, supported by Mainz, Köln, Saxony and Bohemia, in opposition to his cousin Sigmund[810].   

 

 

 

 

Chapter 17.  KINGS of GERMANY 1314-1346 and 1400-1410, WITTELSBACH

 

 

1.         LUDWIG von Bayern, son of LUDWIG II "der Strenge" joint Duke of Bavaria & his third wife Mechtild von Habsburg ([Feb/Mar] 1282-Puch bei Fürstenfeldbruck 11 Oct 1347, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  His brother associated him with the government in 1300 or 1304 as LUDWIG IV joint Duke of Upper Bavaria and joint Pfalzgraf bei Rhein (the single electoral vote being held jointly), and partitioned his Bavarian territories with him in 1310.  He was elected as LUDWIG "der Bayer" King of Germany at Frankfurt-am-Main 20 Oct 1314, crowned at Aachen 25 Nov 1314, in opposition to Friedrich I "der Schöne" Duke of Austria.  His nickname is a survival of the term of address "Ludovicus Bavarus" used by Pope John XXII to indicate his non-recognition of Ludwig's election as king of Germany[811].  After several years of war with his rival in Germany, Ludwig defeated and captured Friedrich of Austria at Mühldorf, near the River Inn, in 1322.  Ludwig was actively opposed by Pope John XXII who accused him of assuming the German throne without papal confirmation, excommunicated him and placed the whole of Germany under an interdict in 1324[812].  In 1325, Ludwig finally recognised Friedrich as joint king.  He was crowned as king of Italy at Milan 31 May 1327, despite further moves against him by the Pope in Avignon, and was received enthusiastically by the people in Rome where he was crowned as Emperor LUDWIG IV on 17 Jan 1328.  He called himself Ludwig IV as emperor, although he was in fact the fifth Emperor Ludwig.  Pope John XXII declared the coronation void and excommunicated him again, while Ludwig declared the Pope deposed and installed the Spiritual Franciscan Nicholas V as anti-Pope[813].  Ludwig's anti-papal position received support in Germany from 1338, when the electors declared in his favour at Obstgaten near Rhens on 16 Jun 1338, issuing a treaty for the preservation of imperial and electoral prerogatives[814].  In 1338, Ludwig recognised the claim of Edward III King of England to the French throne and prepared for war with France, although eventually he adopted a position of neutrality in the dispute[815].  Ludwig alienated his ecclesiastical supporters in 1342 when he arranged the divorce of Margareta "Maultasch" Gräfin von Tirol from her first husband and her remarriage to his son Ludwig.  He was declared deposed 11 Jul 1346, and Charles de Luxembourg was chosen as his successor.  He died during a bear hunt when he had a stroke and fell from his horse[816]

 

 

1.         RUPRECHT Pfalzgraf, son of RUPRECHT II Pfalzgraf bei Rhein und in der Oberpfalz, Herzog in Bayern & his wife Beatrice of Sicily [Aragon] (Amberg 5 May 1352-Schloß Landskron bei Oppenheim 18 May 1410, bur Heidelberg Heiliges Geist).  He succeeded his father in 1398 as RUPRECHT III "Klemb" Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern.  He was elected as RUPRECHT King of Germany at Rhens 21 Aug 1400 after King Wenzel was deposed, and crowned 7 Jan 1401 at Köln. 

 

 



[1] Fuhrmann, H., trans. Reuter, T. (1995) Germany in the high middle ages c.1050-1200 (Cambridge University Press), p. 19. 

[2] Reuter, T. (1991) Germany in the early middle ages c.800-1056 (Longman), pp. 142-3. 

[3] Bayley, C. C. (1949) The Formation of the German College of Electors in the mid-Thirteenth Century (Toronto), p. 97. 

[4] Bayley (1949), pp. 98-9. 

[5] Bayley (1949), p. 170. 

[6] Bayley (1949), p. 139. 

[7] Bayley (1949), p. 160. 

[8] Bayley (1949), pp. 159 and 161. 

[9] Bayley (1949), pp. 169-70. 

[10] Bayley (1949), p. 188. 

[11] Leuschner, J. (1980) Germany in the Late Middle Ages (North Holland Publishing Company), pp. 155-61. 

[12] Bayley (1949), pp. 90-3. 

[13] Bayley (1949), p. 213. 

[14] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591. 

[15] MGH LL Capitularia regum Francorum 2 and 3, p. 198.

[16] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), pp. 285-6. 

[17] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. 

[18] Fragmenta et Excerpta Libri Anniversariorum Abbatiæ Turicensis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 537. 

[19] Annales Xantenses 827, MGH SS II, p. 224. 

[20] D LD 110, p. 158. 

[21] Annales Fuldenses 874 and 876, MGH SS I, pp. 388 and 389. 

[22] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[23] Necrologium Augiæ Divitis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 272. 

[24] Monumenta Necrologica Monasterii S Erentrudis Nonnbergensis, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 61. 

[25] D LD 67, p. 92. 

[26] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[27] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[28] Annales Bertiniani III 861. 

[29] Settipani (1993), pp. 289-90. 

[30] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. 

[31] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 880, MGH SS I, p. 393. 

[32] Reginonis Chronicon 880, MGH SS I, p. 591. 

[33] Annales Bertiniani III 861. 

[34] D Kn 26, p. 323. 

[35] Jackman, D. C. 'Cousins of the German Carolingians', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 116. 

[36] D Arn 87, p. 128. 

[37] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[38] D LD 81, p. 118. 

[39] Annales Formoselenses 866, MGH SS V, p. 35. 

[40] Annales Alamannicorum Continuatio Sangallensis prima 866, MGH SS I, p. 51 "Karoli regis soror Irmangart". 

[41] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[42] Libri confraternitatum Sancti Galli, Augiensis, Fabariensis, MGH, p. 11, column 12. 

[43] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[44] Settipani (1993), pp. 287-8. 

[45] Annales Fuldenses, pars tertia 882, MGH SS I, p. 395. 

[46] Reginonis Chronicon 882, MGH SS I, p. 592. 

[47] Annales Bertiniani 865. 

[48] D LJ 2, p. 334. 

[49] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.16, MGH SS III, p. 425. 

[50] Annalista Saxo 885. 

[51] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 895, MGH SS I, p. 410. 

[52] D Arn 14, p. 22. 

[53] D Arn 107a, p. 159. 

[54] D Arn 132, p. 197. 

[55] Settipani (1993), p. 289. 

[56] Reginonis Chronicon 882, MGH SS I, p. 592. 

[57] Erchanberti Breviarum, MGH SS II, p. 330. 

[58] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press), 2.23, p. 108. 

[59] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 880, MGH SS I, p. 393. 

[60] D LD 79, p. 115. 

[61] Annales Alammanicorum Continuatio Sangallensis altera 877, MGH SS I, p. 51. 

[62] Annales Weingartenses, Veterum Analectorum IV, p. 478. 

[63] Fragmenta et Excerpta Libri Anniversariorum Abbatiæ Turicensis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 537. 

[64] Annalista Saxo 888, which states "in Augia est monasterio sepultus". 

[65] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[66] Reuter (1991), p. 119. 

[67] Settipani (1993), pp. 297-8. 

[68] Reuter (1991), p. 120. 

[69] Reuter (1991), p. 120. 

[70] Reginonis Chronicon 888, MGH SS I, p. 598. 

[71] D LD 108, p. 155. 

[72] Annales Bertiniani III 862. 

[73] Annales Argentinenses 887, MGH SS XVII, p. 87. 

[74] Bernoldi Chronicon 887, MGH SS V, p. 421. 

[75] Reginonis Chronicon 887, MGH SS I, p. 597. 

[76] Annales Alammanicorum Continuatio Sangallensis altera 890, MGH SS I, p. 52. 

[77] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quarta, auctore anonymo 885, MGH SS I, p. 402. 

[78] Reuter (1991), p. 123. 

[79] Annales Laubacensium pars tertia 890, MGH SS I, p. 52. 

[80] Settipani (1993), p. 299. 

[81] Annales Alammanicorum Continuatio Sangallensis altera 891, MGH SS I, p. 52. 

[82] D Arn 56, p. 80. 

[83] D Arn 70, p. 105. 

[84] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 880, MGH SS XVII, p. 366. 

[85] D Arn 18, p. 27. 

[86] Index Chronologicus seu Annales Gallici et Francici 887, RHGF IX, p. lxv. 

[87] Reuter (1991), pp. 120-1,. 

[88] Reuter (1991), p. 123. 

[89] Settipani (1993), pp. 290-2. 

[90] Reginonis Chronicon 899, MGH SS I, p. 609. 

[91] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. 

[92] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[93] D Arn 44, p. 63. 

[94] Settipani (1993), p. 292. 

[95] D Arn 89, p. 181. 

[96] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 899, MHG SS V, p. 111. 

[97] D Arn 160, p. 242. 

[98] D Arn 162, p. 245. 

[99] D K I 20, p. 19. 

[100] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 893, MGH SS I, p. 409. 

[101] Reuter (1991), p. 127. 

[102] Settipani (1993), p. 296. 

[103] Annales Lobienses 911, MGH SS XIII, p. 233. 

[104] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 911, MHG SS V, p. 111. 

[105] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[106] Annales Vedastini 895, MGH SS II, p. 207. 

[107] Reginonis Chronicon 890, MGH SS I, p. 601. 

[108] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 605. 

[109] MGH Diplomata IV, pp. 1-68. 

[110] Reuter (1991), p. 125. 

[111] Settipani (1993), pp. 293-4. 

[112] Reginonis Chronicon 900, MGH SS I, p. 609. 

[113] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. 

[114] Reginonis Chronicon 897, MGH SS I, p. 607. 

[115] Jackman, D. C. (1997) Criticism and Critique, sidelights on the Konradiner (Oxford Unit for Prosopographical Research), p. 88. 

[116] D Zw 14, p. 42. 

[117] Reginonis Chronicon 900, MGH SS I, p. 609. 

[118] Jackman (1997), p. 88. 

[119] Ægidii Aureævallensis Gesta episcoporum Leodiensium 38, MGH, SS, XXV, 50, supposed addition marked *.   

[120] Ægidii Aureævallensis Gesta episcoporum Leodiensium 38, MGH, SS, XXV, 50, supposed addition marked *.   

[121] Ægidii Aureævallensis Gesta episcoporum Leodiensium 38, MGH, SS, XXV, 51, supposed addition marked *.   

[122] Annales Fuldenses, pars quinta 893, MGH SS I, p. 403. 

[123] D K I 20, p. 19. 

[124] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 889, MHG SS V, p. 110. 

[125] Reuter (1991), p. 126. 

[126] Reginonis Chronicon 906, MGH SS I, p. 611. 

[127] D LK 63, p. 192. 

[128] D LK 64, p. 193. 

[129] D LK 72, p. 208. 

[130] D LK 73, p. 210. 

[131] D LK 77, p. 214. 

[132] Annales Alemannici, MGH SS I, 55, quoted in Reuter (1991), p. 135. 

[133] Reuter (1991), p. 136. 

[134] Reuter (1991), p. 136. 

[135] Widukind I 25, cited in Reuter (1991), p. 137. 

[136] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[137] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[138] Continuator Reginonis Trevirensis 919, MGH SS I, p. 615. 

[139] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[140] Thietmar 1.8, p. 73. 

[141] Annalista Saxo 919. 

[142] Vita Mathildis Reginæ 8, MGH SS IV, p. 288, which calls the town "Imilebun". 

[143] Thietmar 1.3, p. 68. 

[144] Annalista Saxo 902 and 907. 

[145] Thietmar 1.8, p. 73. 

[146] Reuter (1991), pp. 143-4. 

[147] Thietmar 1.16, p. 79. 

[148] Thietmar 1.17, p. 80. 

[149] Widukind 1.38, pp. 56-7, quoted in Thietmar, p. 79, footnote 47. 

[150] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[151] Thietmar 1.18-19, p. 81. 

[152] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[153] Thietmar 1.5, p. 70. 

[154] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ II.4 and 9, MGH SS III, pp. 439 and 440. 

[155] Thietmar 1.5 and 1.6, pp. 70 and 71. 

[156] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.31, MGH SS III, pp. 430-1. 

[157] Thietmar 1.9, p. 74. 

[158] Vita Mahthildis Reginæ Antiquior 1, MGH SS X, p. 575. 

[159] Thietmar, p. 83, footnote 64. 

[160] Thietmar 1.21, p. 82. 

[161] Reuter (1991), p. 153. 

[162] Thietmar 2.18, p. 105. 

[163] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[164] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ II.4 and 9, MGH SS III, pp. 439 and 440. 

[165] Thietmar 1.9, p. 74. 

[166] Hill, B. H. (1972) Medieval Monarchy in Action: The German Empire from Henry I to Henry IV (London, George Allen and Unwin), p. 25 footnote 1. 

[167] Thietmar 2.2, p. 91. 

[168] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[169] Piper, P. (ed.) (Berlin) Libri confraternitatum Sancti Galli, Augiensis, Fabariensis (Berlin), p. 84. 

[170] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.31, MGH SS III, p. 430. 

[171] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.20, MGH SS III, p. 321. 

[172] Flodoard 939, MGH SS III, p. 386. 

[173] Reuter (1991), p. 140. 

[174] McKitterick, R. (1983) Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987 (Longman, London and New York), p. 318. 

[175] McKitterick (1983), p. 278. 

[176] Settipani (1993), p. 330. 

[177] Miraeus (Le Mire), A. (1723) Opera diplomatica et historica, 2nd edn. (Louvain), Tome I, XXXVII, p. 48. 

[178] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.31, MGH SS III, p. 430. 

[179] Annalista Saxo 975. 

[180] D H I 37, p. 71. 

[181] Thietmar 2.34, p. 117. 

[182] Reuter (1991), p. 152. 

[183] Reuter (1991), p. 152. 

[184] Thietmar 1.21, p. 83. 

[185] Thietmar 2.6 to 2.8, pp. 96-7. 

[186] Reginonis Chronicon 955, MGH SS I, p. 623. 

[187] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[188] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[189] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[190] Thietmar 4.20, pp. 165-6. 

[191] France, J., Bulst, N. and Reynolds, P. (eds. and trans.) (1989) Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque, Rodulfus Glaber Opera (Oxford) I.8, p. 19. 

[192] D H I 37, p. 71. 

[193] Mabille, E. (ed.) (1866) La pancarte notre de Saint-Martin de Tours brulée en 1793 (Paris, Tours) ("Tours Saint-Martin") LVIII, p. 95. 

[194] Flodoard 938, MGH SS III, p. 385. 

[195] Annales Nivernenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 89. 

[196] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 307.       

[197] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.31, MGH SS III, p. 430. 

[198] Annales Hildesheimenses 965, MGH SS III, p.60. 

[199] D O I 100, p. 182. 

[200] Flodoard 953, MGH SS III, p. 402. 

[201] Continuator Reginonis, 953, MGH SS I, p. 622. 

[202] Thietmar 2.23, p. 108. 

[203] Thietmar 2.23, p. 109. 

[204] Poull, G. (1994) La Maison souveraine et ducale de Bar (Presses Universitaires de Nancy), p. 10. 

[205] Continuator Reginonis, 965, MGH SS I, p. 628. 

[206] Thietmar 2.23, p. 109. 

[207] Lacomblet, T. J. (1857) Archiv für die Geschichte des Niederrheins (Düsseldorf), Band II, p. 18. 

[208] Raf Ceustermans, in a private email to the author dated 11 Aug 2011. 

[209] Gesta Treverorum 29, MGH SS VIII, p. 168, manuscripts B and C. 

[210] Vita Richardi abbatis S Vidoni Virdunensis 9, MGH SS XI, p. 285. 

[211] Annales Sancti Vitoni Virdunensis, MGH SS VIII, p. 526. 

[212] Aimond, C. 'Le nécrologe de la cathédrale de Verdun', Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde Year 21 (second part) (1910) (“Necrology Verdun Saint-Vanne (1910)”), p. 253. 

[213] ´Das Nekrolog des Klosters S Vanne´, Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde, Year 14 (Metz, 1902) (“Necrology Verdun Saint-Vanne (1902)”), p. 144. 

[214] Annales Sancti Vitoni Virdunensis, MGH SS VIII, p. 526. 

[215] D O III 59, p. 464. 

[216] Felice Lifshitz (ed.) Dudo of St Quentin's Gesta Normannorum, The Online Reference Book for Medieval Sources, <http://orb.rhodes.edu/ORB_done/Dudo/dudindex.html> (6 Jan 2003), Chapters 44-45. 

[217] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.31, MGH SS III, p. 430. 

[218] Reuter (1991), pp. 150-4. 

[219] Thietmar 2.3, p. 91. 

[220] Dudo of St Quentin's Gesta Normannorum, Chapters 44-45. 

[221] Thietmar 2.9 and 2.10, pp. 97-9. 

[222] Thietmar 2.13, p. 101. 

[223] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[224] Thietmar 2.43, p. 123. 

[225] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[226] Annales Hildesheimenses 946, MGH SS III, p. 56. 

[227] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p. 112. 

[228] Thietmar 2.1, p. 90, and 2.3, p. 91. 

[229] Annalista Saxo 936. 

[230] Thietmar 2.3, p. 92. 

[231] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.12, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[232] Thietmar 2.5, p. 93.   

[233] Thietmar 2.5, pp. 93-4. 

[234] Annalista Saxo 951. 

[235] Flodoard 951, MGH SS III, p. 401. 

[236] Thietmar 2.13, p. 101. 

[237] Bernard, A. and Bruel, A. (eds.) (1878) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny (Paris) Tome II, 1127, p. 217. 

[238] Annalista Saxo 978. 

[239] Thietmar 4.15, p. 162. 

[240] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[241] ES I.2 175A. 

[242] Thietmar 2.35, p. 118. 

[243] Annales Quedlinburgenses 957, MGH SS III, p. 60. 

[244] Annales Quedlinburgenses 946, MGH SS III, p. 56. 

[245] Widukind 3.1, p. 104, quoted in Thietmar, p. 92, footnote 22. 

[246] Thietmar 2.4, p. 93. 

[247] D O I 155, p. 236. 

[248] Thietmar 2.6, p. 95. 

[249] Thietmar 2.6 to 2.8, pp. 95-7. 

[250] Thietmar 2.12, p. 100. 

[251] Thietmar 2.12, p. 100. 

[252] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses 957, MGH SS XIII, p. 198. 

[253] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[254] Reginonis Chronicon 957, MGH SS I, p. 623. 

[255] Keller, Kloster Einsiedeln, 37-40, cited in Jackman (1997), p. 34. 

[256] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ III.6, MGH SS III, p. 452. 

[257] Reginonis Chronicon 947, MGH SS I, p. 620. 

[258] D O I 99, p. 181. 

[259] D O I 116, p. 198. 

[260] Liber Anniversariorum Einsiedlenses, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 358. 

[261] Hrotsuithæ Gesta Oddonis, line 1167, MGH SS IV, p. 334. 

[262] Reginonis Chronicon 949, MGH SS I, p. 620. 

[263] Liber Anniversariorum Einsiedlenses, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 358. 

[264] Hrotsuithæ Gesta Oddonis, line 1167, MGH SS IV, p. 334. 

[265] Reginonis Chronicon 954, MGH SS I, p. 623. 

[266] D O II 117, p. 131. 

[267] Thietmar 3.5, p. 150. 

[268] D O II 134, p. 150. 

[269] Thietmar 3.20, pp. 143-4. 

[270] Annalista Saxo 982. 

[271] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[272] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[273] Annales Quedlinburgenses 946, MGH SS III, p. 56. 

[274] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ II.33, MGH SS III, p. 447. 

[275] Thietmar 2.39, p. 120. 

[276] D O I 115, p. 197. 

[277] Reginonis Chronicon 953, MGH SS I, p. 621. 

[278] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[279] Thietmar 2.39, p. 121. 

[280] Thietmar 2.10, p. 98. 

[281] Annales Quedlinburgenses 949 and Annales Hildesheimenses 949, MGH SS III, p. 56. 

[282] Thietmar 2.6 to 2.10, pp. 95-8. 

[283] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[284] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses 957, MGH SS XIII, p. 198. 

[285] D O I 185, p. 267.   

[286] Annalista Saxo 966. 

[287] Annalista Saxo 981. 

[288] Annalista Saxo 992. 

[289] Thietmar 3.25, p. 147. 

[290] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ, præphatio, MGH SS III, p. 416.  

[291] Thietmar 4.41 and 4.43, pp. 180 and 181. 

[292] Thietmar 3.25, p. 147. 

[293] Reginonis Chronicon 955, MGH SS I, p. 623. 

[294] Annalista Saxo 966. 

[295] Thietmar 2.15, p. 102. 

[296] Annalista Saxo 974. 

[297] Thietmar 3.20, pp. 143-4. 

[298] Reuter (1991), p. 177. 

[299] Thietmar 3.24 and 3.25, pp. 146-7, and Reuter (1991), p. 177. 

[300] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[301] Annalista Saxo 972. 

[302] Annales Quedlinburgenses 972, MGH SS III, p. 68. 

[303] Luitprandi Legatio ad Nicephorum Phocam imperatorem Constantinopolitanum (after Leo Diaconus), p. 346. 

[304] Thietmar 2.15, pp. 102-3. 

[305] D O II 21, p. 28. 

[306] Davids, A. (1995) The Empress Theophano, citing Wolf, F. (1991) Die Kaiserin Theophanu

[307] Morris Bierbrier, in a private e-mail to the author dated 27 Aug 2006. 

[308] D O II 21, p. 28. 

[309] Thietmar 4.15, p. 161. 

[310] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[311] Annalista Saxo 977. 

[312] Thietmar 4.10, p. 158. 

[313] Thietmar 3.3, p. 151. 

[314] Thietmar 4.43, p. 182. 

[315] Wolfherii Vita Godehardi Episcopi Hildenesheimensis, Vita Prior 20, MGH SS XI, p. 181. 

[316] Thietmar 4.10, p. 158. 

[317] Annalista Saxo 1039. 

[318] Wolfherii Vita Godehardi Episcopi Hildenesheimensis, Vita Prior 29, MGH SS XI, p. 188. 

[319] Thietmar 4.60, p. 194, footnote 165 referring to "a later source from Brauweiler" asserting that Ezzo won the right to marry Mathilde by beating King Otto III at dice or chess. 

[320] Lacomblet, T. J. (ed.) (1840) Urkundenbuch für die Geschichte des Niederrheins, Band I (Düsseldorf) ("Niederrheins Urkundenbuch"), 164, p. 102. 

[321] Annales Brunwilarenses 1034, MGH SS I, p. 99. 

[322] Thietmar 3.26, p. 147. 

[323] Thietmar 3.24 and 3.26, pp. 146-7. 

[324] Thietmar 4.8, pp. 154-5. 

[325] Reuter (1991), p. 185. 

[326] Reuter (1991), p. 186. 

[327] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[328] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[329] Thietmar 4.49 and 4.53, pp. 187 and 190. 

[330] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum I.15, p. 31. 

[331] Balzani, U. and Giorgi, I. (eds.) (1879-1919) Il Regesto di Farfa di Gregorio di Gatino (Rome), Vol. III, p. 180, no. 471, cited in Glaber, p. 30 footnote 1. 

[332] Thietmar 7.72, pp. 357-8. 

[333] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 6, MGH SS XXI, p. 460. 

[334] D O I 445, p. 601. 

[335] D H II 157, p. 186. 

[336] Jackman (1997), pp. 32-48. 

[337] Jackman (1997), p. 34. 

[338] Thietmar 2.35, p. 118. 

[339] Annales Quedlinburgenses 954, MGH SS III, p. 59. 

[340] Continuator Reginonis, 954, MGH SS I, p. 623. 

[341] D O I 323, p. 437. 

[342] Thietmar 2.18, p. 105. 

[343] MGH LL Const, Tome I, Indiculus loricatorum Ottoni II in Italiam mittendorum, 436, p. 632. 

[344] D H II 427, p. 542. 

[345] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1024, MHG SS V, p. 120. 

[346] Thietmar 7.62, p. 352. 

[347] Wipo, pp. 194 and 195. 

[348] Poull (1994), p. 30. 

[349] Marie José (1956) La Maison de Savoie, Les Origines, Le Comte Vert, Le Comte Rouge (Paris, Albin Michel), p. 32. 

[350] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. 

[351] Annales Spirenses, MGH SS XVII, p. 83. 

[352] Annalista Saxo 1026. 

[353] Annalista Saxo 1044. 

[354] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[355] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1043, MHG SS V, p. 124. 

[356] Annales Spirenses, MGH SS XVII, p. 83. 

[357] D K II 82, p. 110. 

[358] D K II 204, p. 275. 

[359] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[360] D K II 233, p. 318. 

[361] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Mathilde, Reine de France inconnue', Journal des Savants (Oct-Dec 1971), pp. 241-60, 244 footnote 17. 

[362] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 32, MGH SS XI, p. 271. 

[363] Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 (Villeneuve d'Asq), p. 65. 

[364] D K II 204, p. 275. 

[365] D K II 82, p. 110. 

[366] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 35, MGH SS XI, p. 272. 

[367] Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 44-5. 

[368] Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 41-2. 

[369] Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 39 and 51. 

[370] Annales Spirenses, MGH SS XVII, p. 83. 

[371] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[372] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.54, MGH SS VII, p. 325. 

[373] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Book  V, p. 87. 

[374] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 35, MGH SS XI, p. 272. 

[375] Annalista Saxo 1026. 

[376] Grote, H. (1877) Stammtafeln (reprint Leipzig, 1984), p. 506. 

[377] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1036, MHG SS V, p. 122. 

[378] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1041, MGH SS XXIII, p. 787. 

[379] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989), II, 188, p. 179. 

[380] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 40. 

[381] Annalista Saxo 1038. 

[382] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Kalendarium Necrologicum Canonicorum Spirensium, p. 322. 

[383] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1043, MHG SS V, p. 124. 

[384] Marchegay, P. and Mabille, E. (eds.) (1869) Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (Paris), Chronica sancti Sergii Andegavensis, pp. 135-6.  

[385] Norwich, J. J. (1992) The Normans in the South 1016-1130 and The Kingdom in the Sun 1130-1194 (Penguin Books), p, 120. 

[386] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 57. 

[387] Vitæ Heinrici et Cunegundis Imperatores Preface, MGH SS IV, p. 791. 

[388] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[389] Kalendarium Necrologicum Canonicorum Spirensium, p. 326. 

[390] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 37, MGH SS XI, p. 273. 

[391] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1045, MHG SS V, p. 125. 

[392] Bertholdi Annales 1059 and 1060, MGH SS V, p. 271. 

[393] Annales Sancti Blasii 1059 and 1060, MGH SS XVII, p. 277. 

[394] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 67. 

[395] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 67. 

[396] Annalista Saxo 1071. 

[397] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Kalendarium Necrologicum Canonicorum Spirensium, p. 321. 

[398] Annalista Saxo 1048. 

[399] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses 1055, MGH SS XIII, p. 214. 

[400] Breve Chronicon Ex MS. Prumiensi, Veterum Scriptorum IV, col. 518. 

[401] Kalendarium Necrologicum Canonicorum Spirensium, p. 316. 

[402] D H IV 474, p. 644. 

[403] Bertholdi Annales 1059, MGH SS V, p. 271. 

[404] Annales Yburgenses 1074, MGH SS XVI, p. 436. 

[405] Kézai, S., Veszprémy, L. and Schaer, F. (eds. and trans.) (1999) Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum (CEP), 57, p. 127. 

[406] Chronicæ Polanorum II.1, MGH SS IX, p. 445. 

[407] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 559. 

[408] Necrologium Weltenbergense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 369. 

[409] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[410] Kalendarium Necrologicum Canonicorum Spirensium, p. 319. 

[411] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 57, p. 127. 

[412] Annales Spirenses, MGH SS XVII, p. 82.  

[413] D H IV 426, p. 571. 

[414] Annales Spirenses, MGH SS XVII, p. 83. 

[415] Kalendarium Necrologicum Canonicorum Spirensium, p. 324. 

[416] Annalista Saxo 1048. 

[417] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 57. 

[418] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 78. 

[419] Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 62-3, and Haverkamp, A. (1988) Medieval Germany 1056-1273 (Oxford University Press), p. 111. 

[420] Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 63-6. 

[421] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 67. 

[422] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 68. 

[423] Runciman, S. (1978) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books), Vol. 1, p. 101. 

[424] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 69. 

[425] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 85. 

[426] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 86. 

[427] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.10, MGH SS XX, p. 358. 

[428] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. 

[429] Annales Spirenses, MGH SS XVII, p. 83. 

[430] Annalista Saxo 1067. 

[431] Annalista Saxo 1088. 

[432] Annalista Saxo 1067. 

[433] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 61. 

[434] Marie José (1956), p. 33. 

[435] Annales Diibodi 1087, MGH SS XVI, p. 9. 

[436] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[437] Kalendarium Necrologicum Canonicorum Spirensium, p. 327. 

[438] Annalista Saxo 1082. 

[439] Bernoldi Chronicon 1094 and 1095, MGH SS V, pp. 458 and 462. 

[440] Annales Diibodi 1087, MGH SS XVI, p. 14. 

[441] Annalista Saxo 1894. 

[442] Poull (1994), pp. 57-8. 

[443] Cross, S. H. and Sherbowitz-Wetzor, O. P. (trans. & eds.) (1973) The Russian Primary Chronicle, Laurentian Text (Cambridge, Massachusetts) (“PC”), 1106, p. 203. 

[444] Russian Primary Chronicle 1108, p. 204. 

[445] Die Chronik des Propstes Burchard von Ursberg, MGH SS in usum Scholarum (Hannover, 1916), p. 7. 

[446] D H IV 466, p. 629. 

[447] D H IV 474, p. 644. 

[448] D H IV 474, p. 644. 

[449] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I. 8 and 9, MGH SS XX, pp. 357 and 358. 

[450] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.10, MGH SS XX, p. 358. 

[451] Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis I 1106, MGH SS IX, p. 610. 

[452] Haverkamp (1988), p. 125. 

[453] Auctarium Mellicense 1106, MGH SS IX, p. 536. 

[454] Annales Magdeburgenses 1143 6, MGH SS XVI, p. 187. 

[455] Monumenta Necrologica Monasterii S Erentrudis Nonnbergensis, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 61. 

[456] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3. 

[457] Murray (2000), p. 20. 

[458] Poull (1994), pp. 57 and 59. 

[459] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 85. 

[460] Annales Diibodi 1101, MGH SS XVI, p. 19. 

[461] Bernoldi Chronicon 1095, MGH SS V, p. 463. 

[462] Pontiari, E. (ed.) (1927-8) De rebus gestis Rogerii Calabriæ et Siciliæ comitis et Roberti Guiscardi ducis fratris eius, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, nuova ed. v. (Bologna), 5.1, IV.23, p. 101. 

[463] Houben, H. (trans. Loud, G. H. & Milburn, D.) Roger II of Sicily, A Ruler between East and West (Cambridge University Press 2002), p. 23. 

[464] Andersson, T. M. and Gade, K. E. (trans.) (2000) Morkinskinna (Cornell), 58, p. 307. 

[465] Annalista Saxo 1081. 

[466] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 85. 

[467] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 86. 

[468] Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 88-9. 

[469] Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 89-90. 

[470] Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 90-3. 

[471] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 94. 

[472] Annales Spirenses, MGH SS XVII, p. 83. 

[473] Delisle, L. (ed.) (1872) Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbé de Mont-Saint-Michel (Rouen), Book VIII, c. 7, and Chibnall, p. 17. 

[474] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 299. 

[475] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus II (London), pp. 60 and 67. 

[476] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1167, p. 367. 

[477] Urseau, C. (ed.) Obituaire de la cathédrale d'Angers, Documents historiques sur l'Anjou Tome VII (Angers). 

[478] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.61, MGH SS VII, p. 791. 

[479] Ordeiic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 305.  . 

[480] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 67. 

[481] Haverkamp (1988), p. 116. 

[482] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 96. 

[483] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 67. 

[484] Bruno De Bello Saxonico 130, MGH SS V, p. 384. 

[485] Mariani Scotti Chronicon, 1103/1081, MGH SS V, p. 562. 

[486] Casus Monasterii Petrihusensis, MGH SS XX, Liber II, 39, p. 647. 

[487] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 67. 

[488] Du Chesne, A. (1631) Histoire généalogique de la maison royale de Dreux (Paris), Luxembourg, Preuves, p. 46. 

[489] Du Chesne (1631) Dreux, Luxembourg, Preuves, p. 47. 

[490] Otto von Freising, Chronica sive historia de duabus civitatibus, ed. W. Lammers (Darmstadt, 1960), p. 521, cited in Murray (2000), p. 141. 

[491] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 118. 

[492] Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 89-90. 

[493] Haverkamp (1988), p. 137. 

[494] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 120. 

[495] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 121. 

[496] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 121. 

[497] Haverkamp (1988), p. 138. 

[498] Haverkamp (1988), p. 138. 

[499] Haverkamp (1988), p. 140, and Fuhrmann (1995), p. 121. 

[500] Haverkamp (1988), pp. 141-2. 

[501] Houben (2002), p.. 89. 

[502] Haverkamp (1988), p. 142, and Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 126-7. 

[503] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 259. 

[504] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 268-71. 

[505] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 280-85, and Fuhrmann (1995), p. 132. 

[506] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 286-7. 

[507] Annales Veterocellenses 1152, MGH SS XVI, p. 42. 

[508] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 128. 

[509] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1138, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 535. 

[510] Kastler Reimchronik Vers 543, Moritz 2 147 and 1 249, cited in Wegener, W. (1965/67) Genealogischen Tafeln zur mitteleuropäischen Geschichte (Verlag Degener), p. 202. 

[511] Monumenta Necrologica S Rudperti Salisburgensis, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 91. 

[512] Fundatio Monasterii Ebracensis, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1042. 

[513] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.62, MGH SS XX, p. 388. 

[514] Haverkamp (1988), p. 145. 

[515] Haverkamp (1988), p. 145. 

[516] Haverkamp (1988), p. 147. 

[517] Annales Aquenses 1150, MGH SS XXIV, p. 38. 

[518] Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmæ MGH SS IX, p. 145, the date "Jun 11" being inserted in the margin by the editor. 

[519] Herbordi, Vita Ottonis Episcopi Babenbergensis 51, MGH SS XII, p. 772. 

[520] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.62, MGH SS XX, p. 388. 

[521] Haverkamp (1988), p. 222. 

[522] Haverkamp (1988), p. 221. 

[523] Constitutio Ducatus Austriæ, MGH LL 2, p. 99. 

[524] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 159. 

[525] Hugonis Ratisponensis Cronica, Fontes rerum Germanicarum III, p. 491. 

[526] Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum II, 10, MGH SS XXI, p. 95. 

[527] Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum II, 14, MGH SS XXI, p. 99. 

[528] Annales Stadenses 1171, MGH SS XVI, p. 347.  

[529] Jordan, K., trans. Falla, P. S. (1986) Henry the Lion: a Biography (Clarendon Press, Oxford), p. 83. 

[530] Wibaldi Epistolæ 408, Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, Tome I, p. 547. 

[531] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 259. 

[532] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer"), Continuator (“WTC”) XVII.VIII, p. 770. 

[533] Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 141-2. 

[534] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 144. 

[535] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 150. 

[536] Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 159-60. 

[537] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 161. 

[538] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 10-11. 

[539] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 11-13. 

[540] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 13-14, and Fine (1994), p. 24-25. 

[541] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 15. 

[542] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 17. 

[543] Wibaldi Epistolæ 408, Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, Tome I, p. 547. 

[544] Annales Herbipolenses 5 1156, MGH SS XVI, p. 9. 

[545] Burchardi et Cuonradi Urspergensium Chronicon, MGH SS XXIII, p. 346. 

[546] Annales Magdeburgenses 1153 1, MGH SS XVI, p. 191. 

[547] Annales Diibodi Continuatio 1156, MGH SS XVI, p. 29. 

[548] Necrologium Isnense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 177. 

[549] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Ioannes Kinnamos, Liber IV, 1, p. 135. 

[550] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 165. 

[551] Continuatio Admuntensis 1156, MGH SS IX, p. 582. 

[552] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 159. 

[553] Fragmenta Necrologii Rothensis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 202. 

[554] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 159. 

[555] Jordan (1986), pp. 148-9. 

[556] WTC XXIV.IX, p. 118. 

[557] Annales Stadenses 1185, MGH SS XVI, p. 351.  

[558] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 10. 

[559] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 185. 

[560] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 60. 

[561] Continuatio Admuntensis 1197, MGH SS IX, p. 587. 

[562] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1196, MGH SS XXIII, p. 875. 

[563] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1187, MGH SS XXIII, p. 859. 

[564] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 181. 

[565] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 183. 

[566] Annales Stadenses 1185, MGH SS XVI, p. 351.  

[567] WTC XXIV.XXVI, p. 138. 

[568] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 11 and 13. 

[569] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 16-17. 

[570] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 29. 

[571] Luard, H. R. (ed.) Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora, Vol. II 1067-1216 (1874) (“MP”), 1191, p. 370. 

[572] WTC XXV.III, p. 141, and Beha ed-Din ibn Shedad Life of Saladin, trans. Conder, Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, Vol. XIII (London, 1897), p. 236, cited in Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 32, footnote 3. 

[573] Necrologium Zwifaltense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 240. 

[574] Necrologium Weingartense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 221. 

[575] Fragmenta Necrologii Rothensis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 202. 

[576] Jordan (1986), p. 186. 

[577] Burchardi et Cuonradi Urspergensium Chronicon, MGH SS XXIII, p. 358, passage undated but footnote 42 specifies "1189". 

[578] Annales Aquenses 1189, MGH SS XXIV, p. 39. 

[579] WTC XXIV.IX, p. 118. 

[580] Annales Stadenses 1185, MGH SS XVI, p. 351.  

[581] Annales Stadenses 1185, MGH SS XVI, p. 351.  

[582] Necrologium Weingartense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 221. 

[583] Fragmenta Necrologii Rothensis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 202. 

[584] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 322. 

[585] Silos 75, p. 114. 

[586] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla, II, 11, consulted at <http://www.geocities.com/iblbo/archivo/cronicacastilla.menu.htm> (12 Apr 2008). 

[587] Annales Stadenses 1185, MGH SS XVI, p. 351.  

[588] WTC XXIV.IX, p. 118. 

[589] Haverkamp (1988), pp. 239-40. 

[590] Haverkamp (1988), p. 240. 

[591] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 112. 

[592] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 115. 

[593] Haverkamp (1988), p. 241. 

[594] Haverkamp (1988), p. 241. 

[595] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 530. 

[596] Annales Stadenses 1208, MGH SS XVI, p. 354.  

[597] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 1, p. 549. 

[598] Annales Casenses 1193, MGH SS XIX, p. 317. 

[599] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1191, MGH SS XIX, p. 325. 

[600] WTC XXIII.XVI, p. 24, and XXIV.IX, p. 118. 

[601] Continuatio Admuntensis 1194, MGH SS IX, p. 587. 

[602] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 2, 1, p. 635. 

[603] Boehmer, F. (1868) Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. IV, p. 323. 

[604] Annales Marbacenses 1201, MGH SS XVII, p. 170. 

[605] Haverkamp (1988), p. 241. 

[606] Annales Stadenses 1208, MGH SS XVI, p. 354.  

[607] Chronicæ Regiæ Coloniensis Continuatio Prima 1212, MGH SS XXIV, p. 16. 

[608] Continuatio Admuntensis 1208, MGH SS IX, p. 591. 

[609] Libro Memoriarum Sancti Blasii, MGH SS XXIV, p. 825. 

[610] Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ 8, MGH SS XXV, p. 390. 

[611] Annales Marbacenses 1201, MGH SS XVII, p. 170. 

[612] Annales Marbacenses 1201, MGH SS XVII, p. 170. 

[613] Cronica Domus Sarensis, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 682. 

[614] Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmæ, Annalium Pragensium Pars I, 1248, MGH SS IX, p. 172. 

[615] Annales Marbacenses 1201, MGH SS XVII, p. 170. 

[616] Chronicon de Cardeña, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 379. 

[617] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla, III, 30. 

[618] Kalendarium Necrologicum Canonicorum Spirensium, p. 324. 

[619] ES II 200. 

[620] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 179. 

[621] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 178. 

[622] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 179-81. 

[623] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 183 and 187. 

[624] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 188-9. 

[625] MP, Vol. V, 1250, pp. 190 and 216. 

[626] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 413. 

[627] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1196, MGH SS XXIII, p. 873. 

[628] Ximénez de Embún y Val, T. (ed.) (1876) Historia de la Corona de Aragón: Crónica de San Juan de la Peña: Part aragonesa, XXXIV, p. 136, available at Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes <http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/FichaObra.html?Ref=12477> (3 Aug 2007). 

[629] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, Re, G. del (ed.) (1868) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 2 (Naples), p. 413. 

[630] Continuatio Admuntensis 1205, MGH SS IX, p. 591. 

[631] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1209, MGH SS XIX, p. 334. 

[632] Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis III 1208, MGH SS IX, p. 634. 

[633] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 166. 

[634] Epistola fratres Conradi…Panormitana ad episcopum Cathanensem, sive Brevis Chronica 1027-1083, RIS I.2, p. 278. 

[635] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1224, MGH SS XXIII, p. 913. 

[636] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 134 footnote 1. 

[637] Epistola fratres Conradi…Panormitana ad episcopum Cathanensem, sive Brevis Chronica 1027-1083, RIS I.2, p. 278. 

[638] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 175. 

[639] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 177. 

[640] MP, Vol. III, 1235, p. 319, betrothal agreed "tertio kalendas Martio", and p. 324. 

[641] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1866) Annales Monastici Vol. III, Annales Prioratus de Dunstaplia, Annales Monasterii de Bermundeseia (London), Annales de Dunstaplia, p. 142. 

[642] Annales Erphordenses 1235, MGH SS XVI, p. 30. 

[643] Bayley (1949), p. 57. 

[644] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1882) Annales Londonienses and Annales Paulini (London), Annales Londonienses, p. 38. 

[645] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1864) Annales Monastici Vol. I, Annales de Margan, Annales de Theokesberia, Annales de Burton (London), Annales de Theokesberia, p. 122. 

[646] MP, Vol. IV, 1241, p. 175. 

[647] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 517. 

[648] WTC XXXIII.XLII, p. 409. 

[649] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, pp. 515 and 517. 

[650] Benoist-Méchin, J. (1980) Frédéric de Hohenstaufen ou le rêve excommunié (Librairie Académique Perrin), p. 157.

[651] ES XII 30. 

[652] Benoist-Méchin (1980), p. 669, footnote 410.

[653] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 517. 

[654] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[655] Zurita, J. (1669) Anales de la Corona de Aragon (Zaragoza), Tome I, Lib. III, LXIX, p. 188. 

[656] Benoist-Méchin (1980), p. 667, footnote 375.

[657] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[658] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 517. 

[659] MP, Vol. V, 1256, p. 572. 

[660] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, p. 349. 

[661] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1196, MGH SS XXIII, p. 873. 

[662] Notæ Sancti Emeranni 1228, MGH SS XVII, pp. 574 and 575. 

[663] Haverkamp (1988), p. 244. 

[664] Haverkamp (1988), pp. 248-9. 

[665] Haverkamp (1988), pp. 250-1. 

[666] Epistola fratres Conradi…Panormitana ad episcopum Cathanensem, sive Brevis Chronica 1027-1083, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, Tome I, Part 2, p. 278. 

[667] Annales Mellicenses 1226, MGH SS IX, p. 507. 

[668] Notæ Sancti Emeranni 1228, MGH SS XVII, pp. 574 and 575. 

[669] Haverkamp (1988), p. 262. 

[670] Continuatio Garstensis 1253, MGH SS IX, p. 600. 

[671] Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmæ, Annalium Pragensium Pars I, 1252, MGH SS IX, p. 173. 

[672] Chronicon Francisci, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 6. 

[673] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1261, MGH SS XVII, p. 402. 

[674] Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmæ, Annalium Pragensium Pars I, 1261, MGH SS IX, p. 178. 

[675] Necrologium Mellicense Antiquissimum, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 522. 

[676] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3. 

[677] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[678] Chronica Senoniensis IV, V, Spicilegium II, p. 631. 

[679] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[680] Chronica Senoniensis IV, V, Spicilegium II, p. 631. 

[681] MP, Vol. V, 1251, p. 217, "nepoti meo filio scilicet filii mei Henrici". 

[682] Sturdza (1999), p. 531. 

[683] MP, Vol. V, 1254, p. 448, which says "veneno interfecit". 

[684] Epistola fratres Conradi…Panormitana ad episcopum Cathanensem, sive Brevis Chronica 1027-1083, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, Tome I, Part 2, p. 278. 

[685] MP, Vol. V, 1251, p. 200. 

[686] WTC XXXIII.I, p. 366. 

[687] Bayley (1949), pp. 19-20. 

[688] Epistola fratres Conradi…Panormitana ad episcopum Cathanensem, sive Brevis Chronica 1027-1083, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, Tome I, Part 2, p. 278. 

[689] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1246, MGH SS XVII, p. 394. 

[690] MP, Vol. V, 1248, p. 17. 

[691] Bayley (1949), p. 20. 

[692] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1258, MGH SS XVII, p. 399. 

[693] Necrologium Habsburgicum Monasterii Campi Regis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 357. 

[694] Necrologium Stamsense, Brixen Necrologies, p. 47. 

[695] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[696] Benoist-Méchin (1980), p. 545.

[697] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1252, MGH SS XVII, p. 395. 

[698] Sturdza (1999), p. 531. 

[699] Chronica principum Poloniæ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 109-10. 

[700] MP, Vol. III, 1237, p. 324. 

[701] Epistola fratres Conradi…Panormitana ad episcopum Cathanensem, sive Brevis Chronica 1027-1083, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, Tome I, Part 2, p. 278. 

[702] Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis 1241, MGH SS XXII, p. 536. 

[703] Annales Veterocellenses 1270, MGH SS XVI, p. 44. 

[704] MP, Vol. III, 1238, p. 474. 

[705] Capasso, B. (1874) Historia diplomatica regni Siciliæ 1250-1266 (Naples), 2, p. 5. 

[706] MP, Vol. V, 1251, p. 200, "Aliqui tamen captivorum dati sunt Henrico filio suo…quos tradidit Conrado custodiendos". 

[707] MP, Vol. V, 1251, p. 217. 

[708] MP, Vol. V, 1252, pp. 274 and 302. 

[709] MP, Vol. V, 1254, p. 432, the text appearing very early in the description of events in that year. 

[710] MP, Vol. V, 1254, p. 448. 

[711] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 517. 

[712] MP, Vol. V, 1249, pp. 73 and 78. 

[713] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 515. 

[714] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1239, MGH SS XIX, p. 379. 

[715] WTC XXXIII.XLII, p. 409, footnote g specifying that Enzio's capture near Gorgonzola occurred in Nov 1245. 

[716] Chronicon Placentinum, Præfatio, RIS XVI, col. 464. 

[717] MP, Vol. V, 1249, p. 78. 

[718] MP, Vol. V, 1251, p. 200. 

[719] Tola, P. (ed.) (1861) Codex Diplomaticus Sardiniæ, Tome I, Monumenta Historiæ Patriæ, Tome X (Aosta) (“Codex Diplomaticus Sardiniæ, Tome I”), CX, p. 388. 

[720] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CCLXXXII, MGH SS XXXI, p. 540. 

[721] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 515. 

[722] Annales Placentini Gibellini 1238, MGH SS XVIII, p. 480. 

[723] Cibrario, A. (ed.) (1835) Johannis Francisci Faræ de Chrographia Sardiniæ, De Rebus Sardois (Torino) (“Fara”), Liber II, p. 227. 

[724] Codex Diplomaticus Sardiniæ, Tome I, CX, p. 388. 

[725] Fara, Liber II, p. 228. 

[726] Codex Diplomaticus Sardiniæ, Tome I, CX, p. 388. 

[727] Codex Diplomaticus Sardiniæ, Tome I, CX, p. 388. 

[728] Codex Diplomaticus Sardiniæ, Tome I, CX, p. 388. 

[729] Annales Placentini Gibellini 1247, MGH SS XVIII, p. 494. 

[730] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 517. 

[731] Codex Diplomaticus Sardiniæ, Tome I, CX, p. 388. 

[732] Annales de Theokesberia, p. 119. 

[733] Annales de Theokesberia, p. 162. 

[734] Fine (1994), p. 145. 

[735] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 517. 

[736] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 517. 

[737] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[738] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[739] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[740] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CCLXXVII, MGH SS XXXI, p. 535. 

[741] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, II, VIII, Re, G. del (ed.) (1868) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 2 (Naples), p. 231. 

[742] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, IV, XII, p. 280. 

[743] Codex Diplomaticus Sardiniæ, Tome I, CX, p. 388. 

[744] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[745] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, II, VIII, p. 231. 

[746] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[747] Ridola, P. ´Federico d´Antiochia e i suoi discendenti´, Archivio storico per le province Napoletane, Anno XI, Fascicolo II (Naples, 1886), p. 198, quoting Bartholomeo da Novocastro, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, Tome XIII, p. 257, quoting Bozzo Note storiche Siciliane, p. 136. 

[748] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[749] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[750] Ridola ´Federico d´Antiochia´, p. 257, quoting Bozzo Note storiche Siciliane, p. 136. 

[751] Ridola ´Federico d´Antiochia´, p. 260, quoting Carano Memoria del sotteraneo della Cattedrale di Palermo, f. 16. 

[752] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[753] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[754] Ridola ´Federico d´Antiochia´, p. 244, quoting Reg. 1273. A. n. 18 f. 254. 

[755] Annales Veronenses, MGH SS XIX, pp. 10-1. 

[756] MP, Vol. V, 1249, p. 78. 

[757] Scandone, F. ´Margherita di Svevia figlia naturale di Federico II, contesta di Acerra´, Archivio storico per le province Napoletane, Anno XXXI, Fascicolo II (Naples, 1906), p. 298, citing Winkelmann Acta Imperii, Tome I, p. 698. 

[758] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), Documenti, I, p. 326. 

[759] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), Documenti, IV, p. 328. 

[760] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), Documenti, VI, p. 330. 

[761] Scandone ´Margherita di Svevia´ (1906), Documenti, VII, p. 331. 

[762] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[763] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 517. 

[764] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 7, p. 181. 

[765] Gardner, A. (1912) The Lascarids of Nicæa, The Story of an Empire in Exile (Methuen, London), p. 168. 

[766] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 7, p. 181. 

[767] Sturdza (1999), p. 304. 

[768] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[769] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 517. 

[770] MP, Vol. V, 1251, p. 217, "Manfredum filium meum relinquo ballivum Conradi in imperium, a Papia et citra, et regno Siciliæ, usque ad xii annos, excepto quando Conradus erit præna". 

[771] MP, Vol. V, 1254, p. 473. 

[772] Sturdza (1999), p. 531. 

[773] Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis 1246, MGH SS XXII, p. 540. 

[774] CP XII/2 p 895 footnote (b).   

[775] Haverkamp (1988), pp. 239-40. 

[776] Complete Peerage XII/2 p 895.

[777] Haverkamp (1988), p. 242. 

[778] Haverkamp (1988), p. 242. 

[779] Haverkamp (1988), p. 243. 

[780] Haverkamp (1988), p. 244. 

[781] Libro Memoriarum Sancti Blasii, MGH SS XXIV, p. 825. 

[782] Annales Veterocellenses 1217, MGH SS XVI, p. 43. 

[783] Haverkamp (1988), pp. 256-7. 

[784] Bayley (1949), p. 22. 

[785] Bayley (1949), p. 22. 

[786] Bayley (1949), p. 23. 

[787] Haverkamp (1988), p. 258, and Bayley (1949), p. 25. 

[788] Bayley (1949), p. 66. 

[789] Bayley (1949), p. 76. 

[790] His viscera were buried separately at Murcia Cathedral, Szabolcs de Vajay 'From Alfonso VII to Alfonso X, the first two centuries of the Burgundian dynasty in Castile and Leon - a prosopographical catalogue in social genealogy, 1100-1300', Studies in Genealogy and Family History in tribute to Charles Evans, Brook, L. L. (ed.) (Association for the Promotion of Scholarship in Genealogy Ltd, Occasional Publication no 2, 1989, Salt Lake City, Utah), p. 386. 

[791] Bayley (1949), p. 71. 

[792] Bayley (1949), p. 75. 

[793] Poull, G. (1991) La Maison ducale de Lorraine (Presses universitaires de Nancy), p. 74. 

[794] Ellenhardi Chronicon, Gesta Invictissim domini Rudolfi Romanorum regis, MGH SS XVII, p. 123. 

[795] Chronicon Colmarense, MGH SS XVII, p. 240. 

[796] Bayley (1949), pp. 32 and 34. 

[797] Leuschner (1980), pp. 94-5. 

[798] Not a contemporary nickname, it was first attributed to Friedrich in the 16th century.

[799] Leuschner (1980), p. 99. 

[800] Gade, J. A. (1951) Luxemburg in the Middle Ages (Leiden), p. 115. 

[801] Gade (1951), pp. 123-8. 

[802] Gade (1951), p. 129. 

[803] Gade (1951), pp. 132-3. 

[804] Gade (1951), p. 136. 

[805] Leuschner (1980), p. 149.  

[806] Leuschner (1980), pp. 181 and 183. 

[807] Leuschner (1980), p. 183. 

[808] Grote, p. 224. 

[809] Gade (1951), pp. 194-5. 

[810] Gade (1951), p. 201. 

[811] Leuschner (1980), p. 109. 

[812] Leuschner (1980), p. 109. 

[813] Leuschner (1980), pp. 110-1. 

[814] Leuschner (1980), p. 112. 

[815] Leuschner (1980), pp. 113-4. 

[816] Leuschner (1980), p. 114.