AQUITAINE, dukes

  v2.3 Updated 26 February 2013

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.             DUKES of AQUITAINE before 768 (FAMILY of HUNOALD) 4

LUPUS, BOGGIS.. 4

EUDES [715]-[735], HUNOALD [735]-742, 768-769, WAIFAR 744-768. 5

Chapter 2.            KINGS of AQUITAINE 781-854 (CAROLINGIANS) 12

LOUIS 781-814, PEPIN I 814-832, 834-838, CHARLES 832-834, 839-[845], PEPIN II [838]-848, 854, CHARLES 855-863, 865-866, LOUIS 867- 12

Chapter 3.            DUKES of AQUITAINE 9th-10th centuries 16

BEGO 843. 17

RAINULF I 852, RAINULF II 888-890, EBLE 927-932. 17

RAYMOND 932-[936] 18

Chapter 4.            DUKES of AQUITAINE 909-927 (FAMILY of BERNARD "Plantevelue") 18

GUILLAUME I, GUILLAUME II 918-926, ACFRED 926-927. 18

Chapter 5.            COMTES de POITOU 778/934. 24

A.       COMTES de POITOU 778-[826] 24

ABBON 778-[814], RICHWIN [814], BERNARD 815-[826] 24

B.       COMTES de POITOU [828]/902 (FAMILY of EMENON) 26

EMENON [828]-[839], BERNARD [828]-844, BERNARD 876-877, AIMAR 892-902. 26

C.      COMTES de POITOU [841]/934, DUKE of AQUITAINE 927-934. 31

RAINULF I [839]-866, RAINULF II 878-890. 31

EBLE 890-892, 902-934. 33

Chapter 6.            DUKES OF AQUITAINE, COMTES de POITOU 902-1137. 33

A.       DUKES OF AQUITAINE, COMTES de POITOU.. 33

GUILLAUME III (I) 934-963, GUILLAUME IV (II) 963-993. 33

GUILLAUME V (III) 993-1030, GUILLAUME VI (IV) 1030-1038, EUDES 1038-1039, GUILLAUME VII 1039-1058. 33

GUILLAUME VIII (VI) 1058-1086. 33

GUILLAUME IX (VII) 1086-1126, GUILLAUME X (VIII) 1126-1137, ELEONORE 1137-1204. 33

B.       Du PUY-du-FOU.. 33

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The first dukes of Aquitaine are recorded in primary sources in the latter part of the 7th century, although it is unclear whether their existence is historically factual.  From the early 8th century, we are on firmer ground, with the recording of the rebellion of Duke Eudes against Charles "Martel" in the Continuator of Fredegar, his death being noted in [735].  His successor rulers in Aquitaine remained rebellious during the succeeding decades, until their subjugation in 768 by Pepin King of the Franks.  The reconstruction of the family of these earliest dukes is based mainly on information contained in a charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845, together with nine supposed later confirmation documents, which purports to confirm the possessions of the monastery of Sainte-Marie, Alarcon[1].  The details in these documents which recite earlier donations to the monastery are unusually detailed and atypical of other contemporary Carolingian charters, strongly suggesting that they are spurious.  If this is correct, the date of the fabrication is not known.  Jaurgain states that the document collection was first published in 1694[2].  He highlights that Comte Vandregisile, supposed founder of Alarcon, is first mentioned in Juan Tamayo de Salazar´s work on Spanish saints, published in 1658, and reports a suggestion that Tamayo was the fabricator of the whole series of Alarcon documents, the object being to assert a descent of the Gramont and Beaumont families from the Merovingians[3].  Jaurgain´s own view is that the documents were fabricated in France, in the mid-17th century, to claim a Merovingian descent for the Mauléon-Barousse and Aspremont d´Orthe families[4].  Some of the genealogical information in the Alarcon documents is corroborated by other primary sources, including the Annales Metenses and the Continuator of Fredegar.  Other parts of the data are clearly incorrect, for example the statement that Boggis Duke of Aquitaine was the son of Charibert II King of the Franks in Aquitaine, the younger half-brother of the Merovingian King Dagobert I.  There remains a large part of the information in the documents which is uncorroborated elsewhere and whose accuracy cannot be judged definitively.  Because of this uncertainty, it has been decided to show most of the relationships within the family of the first dukes within square brackets.  The information so bracketed should therefore be treated with considerable caution. 

 

The kingdom of Aquitaine was first created by the Carolingians in 781, when the future Emperor Louis I was crowned king, when still a small child, by Pope Hadrian I in Rome.  Under the Ordinatio Imperii promulgated by Emperor Louis in 817[5], his son Pepin was installed as king of Aquitaine.  The Ordinatio specifies that the kingdom consisted of "Aequitaniam et Wasconiam et markam Tolosanam totam, et…comitatos quatuor…in Septimania Carcassensem, et in Burgundia Augustudunensem et Avalensem et Nivernensem".  Viewed from our current perspective, this may seem a small prize compared with the extensive territories in southern Germany which were awarded to the emperor's third son Louis, but it gives some idea of the strategic importance of south-western France at the time, particularly as the gateway to the Iberian peninsula.  The kingdom of Aquitaine became one of the pawns in the series of rebellions by the sons of Emperor Louis against their father, parts of the territory being transferred back and forth between Pepin and his younger half-brother Charles during the 830s.  Aquitaine was awarded to Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks under the 843 Treaty of Verdun, which partitioned the Carolingian Frankish territories between the three surviving sons of Emperor Louis, although this allocation was challenged by the son of the deceased brother Pepin, who was proclaimed Pepin II King of Aquitaine and was recognised as such by his uncle in 845.  Pepin II was deposed by his subjects in 848, and Aquitaine reverted to King Charles.  Aquitaine was combined with the French crown from the accession of Louis II "le Bègue" King of France in 877. 

 

The extent to which the Carolingian kings of Aquitaine may have delegated governing power to appointed dukes during the 9th century is uncertain.  A reference has been found to "Bego" being appointed duke of Aquitaine in 843.  In addition, Rainulf I Comte de Poitou is recorded as duke of Aquitaine in 852, and his son Rainulf II as duke in 888.  Although it is not clear that these appointments amounted to a continuous series of dukes, they suggest that delegation to ducal appointees may have been the practice of the Carolingian rulers.  Thereafter, no reference to a duke of Aquitaine has been identified in the primary sources so far consulted until 909, when Guillaume, son of Bernard "Plantevelue" Marquis of Gothia, is recorded as duke. 

 

The present document also sets out the comtes de Poitou, whose history is closely linked to the later dukes of Aquitaine.  Abbon was the first recorded appointee as such in 778, when Charles I King of the Franks granted him jurisdiction over the towns of Poitiers and Angoulême.  Poitou passed to Comte Rainulf in [839/44].  Control over the duchy of Aquitaine settled into the family of the comtes de Poitou in [959].  The combined duchy of Aquitaine/county of Poitou evolved into a major international power on the European political scene in the 11th century.  This is demonstrated particularly by the marriage of Agnès de Poitou, sister of Guillaume VII Duke of Aquitaine, to Emperor Heinrich III in 1043, which represented a major boost of prestige for the duchy.  Geographic proximity meant that Aquitaine also became the natural ally of the kings of Castile and Aragon in their struggle against the Moors, as demonstrated by several marriages into the Spanish royal families during the latter part of the 11th century.  The same family continued to govern the county/duchy until the marriage of Eléonore heiress of Aquitaine to Henri Comte d'Anjou, who later succeeded as Henry II King of England, after which the territory was ruled by the English kings until the Hundred Years War. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    DUKES of AQUITAINE before 768 (FAMILY of HUNOALD)

 

 

LUPUS, BOGGIS

 

1.         LUPUS [Loup], son of --- (-after 674).  The Miracula Martialis records that, during the time of "Ebroinus comes palatii, maior domus Francorum regni" (dated to [658/80]) "puer unus…Lupus" rebelled against "Felicem…patricium ex urbe Tholosanensium qui et principatum super omnes civitates usque montes Pireneos, super gentem…Wascorum", and succeeded after the death of the latter[6].  The Historia Wambæ Regis records that "unum a ducibus Franciæ…Lupum" attacked Beziers during the Septimanian rebellion of Paul[7].  A manuscript of the church of Albi, dated 674, names "Lupone duce"[8]

 

 

1.         [BOGGIS, son of --- Duke of Aquitaine.  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) states that "Dagobertus rex" granted Aquitaine to "Boggiso Duci" after the death of "fratris sui Ilderici Aquitainie regis"[9].  The death of Charibert, brother of King Dagobert I, is dated to 631 from other sources (see MEROVINGIAN KINGS).  This appears chronologically inconsistent with this alleged grant of Aquitaine to Boggis, assuming that the estimated date of death of his supposed son Duke Eudes is accurate as shown below.  The same 845 charter states that "Haribertus rex" married "Amandus Dux in Vasconia…filia suæ Giselæ" and that they were parents of "Boggiso Duci et suo fratri Bertrando", which is clearly incorrect considering that King Charibert is shown in other sources to have been no more than fourteen years old when he died.  The historical existence of Duke Boggis is uncertain.  m ODA, daughter of ---.  The Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis of Nicolas names "Oda…Bohggis Aquitanorum ducis recens defuncti vidua" as "amita" of Lambert[10].]  Duke Boggis & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         [EUDES (-[735]).  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Eudonis Aquitanie ducis et fratris sui Imitarii et eorum genitori Boggiso duci"[11]Duke of Aquitaine.] 

-        see below

b)         [IMITARIUS .  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Eudonis Aquitanie ducis et fratris sui Imitarii et eorum genitori Boggiso duci"[12].] 

 

 

EUDES [715]-[735], HUNOALD [735]-742, 768-769, WAIFAR 744-768

 

EUDES, son of [BOGGIS Duke of Aquitaine & his wife Oda ---] (-[735], bur Sainte-Marie d'Alarcon).  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Eudonis Aquitanie ducis et fratris sui Imitarii et eorum genitori Boggiso duci" and specifies that the territory of Duke Eudes consisted of "pago Tolosano, Cadurcensi, Pictaviensis, Agennensis, Arelatensi, Sanctonensi et Petragoricensi"[13].  His existence, but not his parentage, is corroborated by the other sources quoted below.  The naming of one of his supposed grandsons Loup suggests that he may have been descended from the earlier Duke Lupus, assuming that the latter did exist as a historical person.  Duke of Aquitaine.  The Continuator of Fredegar records that Eudes supported Ragamfred maior domus of Neustria in [715/17] against Charles "Martel", but fled when confronted by the forces of the latter[14].  Eudes broke the resulting peace treaty in [725], but was again put to flight by Charles "Martel" according to the same source, which says that Eudes then "summoned to his assistance…the unbelieving Saracen people", although the chronology of these incidents appears compressed in this source[15].  The Annales Metenses record the death of "Eodo dux [Aquitaniorum]" in 735[16].  The death of Duke Eudes is recorded, without a specific date, by the Continuator of Fredegar, who also describes the ensuing occupation of Bordeaux and surrounding areas by Charles "Martel"[17].  An indication of the date can be found from the subsequent section 16 in the Continuator, which is concerned with calendar calculations up to the year 735.  However, this cannot be considered conclusive as the order of the sections in the Continuator is not rigorously chronological, as shown by the subsequent section 20 which describes the battle of Poitiers although this is dated from other sources to 732.  The Annales Petaviani record that in 736 "Karolus dimicabat contra filios Eodonis"[18], implying that their father was no longer living at that time, assuming that the date is accurate.  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) records that "Eudo Aquitanie dux" was buried at Sainte-Marie d'Alarcon[19]

m [WALTRUDE, daughter of Duke WALACHO & his wife ---.  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Valtruda, Valchigisi ducis de nostra progenie filia" as wife of "Eudo Aquitanie dux"[20].  Her name and parentage have not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.] 

Duke Eudes & his wife had four children: 

1.         HUNOALD (-killed in battle Pavia 774).  The Annales Metenses names "Hunaldo filio Eodonis"[21].  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "primogenito Hunaldo" as son of "Eudone Boggisi filio"[22]Duke of Aquitaine.  The Continuator of Fredegar names "Chunoaldo duce filio Eudone" when recording that Gascon rebels joined him in Aquitaine[23].  The Royal Frankish Annals record that Carloman and Pepin, joint maiores domus of the Franks, captured the castle of Loches from "Hunald Duke of the Aquitainians" in 742[24].  The Annales Metenses records that "Hunaldus" retired as a monk to the monastery “Radis insola” [L'Isle de Ré] in 744 and left “filium...suum Waifarium in principatu[25].  He was restored as duke after the death of his son in 768, renewed the war against Charles I King of the Franks, but was defeated.  He sought protection from Loup Duke of Gascony at Fronsac, but the latter delivered him to King Charles who had threatened to invade Gascony[26].  According to Monlezun, Hunoald was killed during the siege of Pavia after he had sought refuge with Desiderius King of the Lombards in Italy[27], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  m ---.  The name of Hunoald's wife is not known.  The Annales Laurissenses record that King Pepin held "matrem Waipharii et sororem eius et neptas eius" in 768 at "Sanctiones civitatem" before moving as far as "Garonnam"[28].  The Annales Metenses refers to "matrem Waifarii et sororem eius ac neptos" being captured by King Pepin in 768, without naming any of them[29].  A clue to her origin is provided by the Continuator of Fredegar which names "Waiofarius princeps…Mantione comite consubrino suo"[30].  "Mantio comes" has not otherwise been identified, but "consobrinus" indicates that he was Waifar's first cousin on his mother's side, assuming that the primary source uses the term in its strict sense.  Duke Hunoald & his wife had three children: 

a)         WAIFAR (-killed in battle 2 Jun 768).  The Annales Metenses records that "Hunaldus" retired as a monk to the monastery “Radis insola” [L'Isle de Ré] in 744 and left “filium...suum Waifarium in principatu[31].  The Annales Metenses name "Waifarium dux Aquitaniorum" in 749[32].  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "primogenito Vifario" as "nepote" of "Eudone Boggisi filio", implying but not stating explicitly that he was the son of Duke Hunoald[33].  He succeeded his father in 745 as Duke of Aquitaine.  Grifo, brother of Pepin maior domus of the Franks, fled to Gascony in 748 and joined Duke Waifar[34].  King Pepin invaded Aquitaine in 760 to require Duke Waifar to respect the rights of the church.  The duke gave Adalgar and Either as hostages as assurance of his obedience to the king, but rebelled in 761 provoking Pepin to invade Aquitaine again[35].  The Annales Metenses record that in 765 "Waiferius" sent "Mancionem comitem consobrinum suum" against the Franks[36].  The king repeated his campaigns in Aquitaine each year, culminating in 768 when he captured Duke Waifar's mother, one of his two sisters and his nieces, and killed Duke Waifar himself[37].  The Annales Sancti Amandi record the death "768 IV Non Iun" of "Waifarius"[38]m [ADELA, daughter and heiress of LOUP Duke of Gascony & his wife ---.  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Adelæ…Ducis Lupi filiæ" as mother of "Lupus"[39].  Her parentage and marriage have not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.]  Duke Waifar & his wife had [one child]: 

i)          [LOUP .  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Vifarii" as father of "Lupus"[40].  His name and parentage have not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.] 

b)         daughter .  The Annales Laurissenses record that King Pepin held "matrem Waipharii et sororem eius et neptas eius" in 768 at "Sanctiones civitatem" before moving as far as "Garonnam"[41].  The Annales Metenses refers to "matrem Waifarii et sororem eius ac neptos" being captured by King Pepin in 768, without naming any of them[42]m ---.  The name and origin of the husband of this daughter of Duke Waifar are not known.  She and her husband had possible children: 

i)          [children .  The Annales Laurissenses record that King Pepin held "matrem Waipharii et sororem eius et neptas eius" in 768 at "Sanctiones civitatem" before moving as far as "Garonnam"[43].  It is not known whether the "neptas" of Waifar were the children of his unnamed sister who was captured at the same time.] 

c)         daughter .  The Annales Metenses refers to "aliam sororem Waifarii" also being captured by King Pepin in 768, without naming her[44]

2.         HATTO (-after 744, bur Limoges).  The Annales Metenses records that "Hunaldus dux” deceived “germanum suum nomine Hattonem" to visit him “de Pictavis” and blinded and imprisoned him[45]m [WANDRADE, daughter of ---.  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Vandradæ comitissæ" as "matris sui progenitoris" when referring to "Vandregisilus"[46].  Her name has not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.]  Hatto & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         [LOUP (-murdered [775]).  Einhard records the exploits of "Wasconum dux Lupus" in 770 but does not give his parentage[47].  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Lupo Duci" as son of "Hattonis Ducis"[48].  His parentage has not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.  Monlezun records that Loup "arrière petit fils [de] Eudes…fut étranglé et pendu" by King Charles's forces, leaving "fils Adalric et peut-être aussi Loup-Sanche jeunes enfants"[49].] 

-        DUKES of GASCONY

b)         [ARTGARIUS .  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Hatthonis quondam Aquitanie ducis ac filii sui Artalgerii comitis" as "patris…et avi…Vandregisili comitis"[50].  His name and parentage have not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.  Their cousin duke Hunoald gave Artgarius and Icterius, sons of Hatto, as hostages to Pepin King of the Franks[51]m ---.  The name of Artgarius's wife is not known.  Artgarius & his wife had [two] children:] 

i)          [WANDREGISIL .  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks confirmed the possessions of the monastery of Sainte-Marie, Alarcon by charter dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) including by "Vandregisilus comes consanguineus noster…post patris sui Artalgarii comitis mortem"[52]m MARIE, daughter of AZNAR Sanchez [Duke of Gascony] & his wife ---.  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Maria comitissa" as wife of "Vandregisilus comes consanguineus noster…" and daughter of "quondam Asinario comite" from whom she inherited "castri Vandres"[53].  Her name and parentage have not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.  The editor of the Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Asenarius comes de Iacca filiam suam Mariam" married "Wandregisilo limitis Hispanici comitis, qui ab Eudone Aquitaniæ ducis genus ducebat"[54].  Wandregisil & his wife had four children, whose existence has not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted:] 

(a)       [BERNARD (-after 30 Jan 845).  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Bernarthi…Athonis nunc Palliavensis comitis…Antonii hodie vicecomitis Bitterrensis…idemque Asinarii nunc etiam Lupiniacensis ac Solensis vicecomitis" as sons of "Vandregisilus comes consanguineus noster…" & his wife[55]m THEUDA, daughter of --- (-after 30 Jan 845).  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "comitissa Theuda" as wife of "Bernarthi"[56].] 

(b)       [ATTO (-after 30 Jan 845).  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Bernarthi…Athonis nunc Palliavensis comitis…Antonii hodie vicecomitis Bitterrensis…idemque Asinarii nunc etiam Lupiniacensis ac Solensis vicecomitis" as sons of "Vandregisilus comes consanguineus noster…" & his wife[57].  Conde de Pallars.  m ENCELINE, daughter of ---.  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Eynzelina" as wife of "Athonis nunc Palliavensis comitis"[58].] 

(c)       [ANTOINE (-after 30 Jan 845).  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Bernarthi…Athonis nunc Palliavensis comitis…Antonii hodie vicecomitis Bitterrensis…idemque Asinarii nunc etiam Lupiniacensis ac Solensis vicecomitis" as sons of "Vandregisilus comes consanguineus noster…" & his wife[59], although the name "Antoine" seems atypical of the time.  Vicomte de Beziersm ADOIRA, daughter of ---.  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Adoyra" as wife of "Antonii hodie vicecomitis Bitterrensis"[60].] 

(d)       [AZNAR (-after 20 Jul 862).  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Bernarthi…Athonis nunc Palliavensis comitis…Antonii hodie vicecomitis Bitterrensis…idemque Asinarii nunc etiam Lupiniacensis ac Solensis vicecomitis" as sons of "Vandregisilus comes consanguineus noster…" & his wife[61].  Vicomte de Soule et de Louvigny.] 

-         VICOMTES de SOULE et de LOUVIGNY

ii)         [ERMILADIUS .  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Icterius et…Ermiladius" as "avunculus et frater…Vandregisili comitis", specifying that Ermiladius was Comte d'Agen[62].  His name and parentage have not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.] 

c)         [ICTERIUS .  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Icterius et…Ermiladius" as "avunculus et frater…Vandregisili comitis", specifying that Icterius was Comte d'Auvergne[63].  His name and parentage have not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.  Their cousin duke Hunoald gave Altgarius and Icterius, sons of Hatto, as hostages to Pepin King of the Franks[64].]  

3.         REMISTAN (-killed [768]).  The Continuator of Fredegar names "Remistanius avunculus Waiofario" and "Remistanius filius Eudone quondam" when recording his activities in the wars in Gascony[65].  The Annales Metenses name "Remistanius avunculus Waifarii" when recording that he took refuge with King Pepin in 765[66].  The Annales Laurissenses record that King Pepin captured "Remistagnum" in 768 and went to "Sanctiones civitatem"[67].  He was granted Argenton and part of Berry to defend against Duke Hunoald but later defected back to his nephew[68].  He was captured with his wife, taken to Saintes by the forces of King Pepin and condemned to be hanged[69]m --- (-[768] or after).  The name of Remistan's wife is not known. 

4.         [LAMPAGIE] .  The Chronicon of Isidoro Bishop of Badajoz records that "Dux Francorum…Eudo" married "filiam suam" to "unus ex Maurorum gente…Munniz"[70].  According to Monlezun, Eudes gave his daughter "Lampagie" in marriage to "Munusa general Maure [qui] commandait sur les frontiers d'Espagne" as part of a negotiated alliance, stating that "les auteurs arabes l'appellent Othman-ben-Abi ou Abu-Niza"[71].  Monlezun records that Munusa was attacked by troops Abd-al-Rahman Emir of Córdoba and his wife sent "à Damas [au] harem du sultan"[72].  The primary sources which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m MUNUSA, son of --- (-731).  The Chronicon of Isidoro Bishop of Badajoz records that "unus ex Maurorum gente…Munniz" was attacked by the troops of Abd-al-Rahman Emir of Córdoba "in Cerritanensi" and threw himself into a ravine to avoid capture by the enemy, dated to 731[73]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KINGS of AQUITAINE 781-854 (CAROLINGIANS)

 

 

LOUIS 781-814, PEPIN I 814-832, 834-838, CHARLES 832-834, 839-[845], PEPIN II [838]-848, 854, CHARLES 855-863, 865-866, LOUIS 867-

 

HLUDOWIC [Louis], son of CHARLES I King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegard (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou, Vienne [16 Apr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul).  He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' third son, born a twin with Hlothar[74]He was crowned King of the Aquitainians in Rome 15 Apr 781 by Pope Hadrian I.  His armies occupied Girona, Urgel and Cerdanya in 785, and besieged Barcelona in 802, establishing the "March of Spain"[75].  At the partition agreed at Thionville in 806, Louis was designated sovereign of Aquitaine, Gascony, Septimanie, Provence and southern Burgundy.  His father named him as his successor at Aix-la-Chapelle, crowning him as joint emperor 11 Sep 813[76].  On his father's death, he adopted the title Emperor LOUIS I “der Fromme/le Pieux” 2 Feb 814, crowned at Reims [Jul/Aug] 816 by Pope Stephen IV. 

1.         other children: see CAROLINGIANS

2.         PEPIN ([797]-Poitiers 13 Dec 838, bur Poitiers, église collégiale de Sainte-Radégonde).  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Louis I and his wife Ermengardis[77].  His father sent him to govern in Aquitaine in [Aug] 814[78].  Under the Ordinatio Imperii promulgated by Emperor Louis in 817, Pepin received "Aequitaniam et Wasconiam et markam Tolosanam totam, et…comitatos quatuor…in Septimania Carcassensem, et in Burgundia Augustudunensem et Avalensem et Nivernensem", specifying that he was to be named king[79], and thereby became PEPIN I King of Aquitaine.  He joined his brothers in rebelling against their father in 830, but after his father was restored the following year he rebelled once more.  His father deprived him of Aquitaine in Sep 832, granting it to Pepin's half-brother Charles.  He joined his brothers' further rebellion in 833, but with his brother Louis restored their father in 834 after their brother Lothaire had seized sole power.  His father restored Pepin in Aquitaine 15 Mar 834 at Quierzy-sur-Oise.  "Pipinus…rex Aquitanorum" granted privileges to Saint-Julien de Brioude, for the souls of "uxorisque nostræ Ingeltrudis reginæ…Hermeingardæ quondam reginæ, genetricisque nostræ Thetberti ac Nebelongi comitis, patris et avi eiusdem Ingeltrudis et prolis" by charter dated 12 Mar 836[80].  His territory was reduced, in 837 and in 839, in favour of his half-brother Charles.  The Annales Bertiniani record the death "838 Id Dec" of "Pippinus filius imperatoris"[81].  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records the death of "Pipinus rex Aquitanie filius imperatoris" and his burial "Pictavis apud Sanctam Radegundem"[82].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the burial of "Pipinus rex Aquitaniæ, filius Ludovici imperatoris" at "Sanctam Radegundem Pictavis"[83].  When he died, his territories reverted to the empire[84]m (Sep 822) RINGARDIS, daughter of THEODEBERT Comte de Madrie & his wife --- (bur Poitiers, église collégiale de Sainte-Radégonde).  The wife of King Pepin is called "filia Theotberti comitis" in the Vita Hludowicis Imperatoris[85].  Einhard's Annales record the marriage in 822 of "Pippinum…in Aquitanium" and "filiam Theotberti comitis Matricensis"[86].  The Miraculis Sancti Genulfi refers to "sororem [Robertus]" as wife of "Pipinus"[87].  A contemporary poem in honour of King Pepin names "Irmgart" as his wife[88], although Settipani highlights that the original manuscript of this poem names her "Ringart"[89].  "Pipinus…rex Aquitanorum" granted privileges to Saint-Julien de Brioude, for the souls of "uxorisque nostræ Ingeltrudis reginæ…Hermeingardæ quondam reginæ, genetricisque nostræ Thetberti ac Nebelongi comitis, patris et avi eiusdem Ingeltrudis et prolis" by charter dated 12 Mar 836[90], which misnames the wife of King Pepin I but which gives an intriguing insight into the possibility that her father was descended from the Nibelung/Theoderic family (see CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY).  Settipani casts doubt on the veracity of the information in this charter[91].  King Pepin & his wife had two children:

a)         PEPIN ([823]-[Senlis] after 864).  The Miraculis Sancti Genulfi names "Pipinum et Karolum liberos totidemque filias" as children of "Pipinus" & his wife[92].  He is named as eldest son of Pepin by Nithard, when recording that he was "seized" after his father's death and "set up an unlawful regime"[93].  He was proclaimed PEPIN II King of Aquitaine after the death of his father in Aquitaine, but not recognised as such by his grandfather Emperor Louis I "le Pieux".  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Emeno…comes Pictavinus" declared "filium Pipini [rex Aquitanie filius imperatoris]" as king of Aquitaine after his father's death, in opposition to the emperor, who invaded Poitou and expelled Emeneon "et fratrem eius Bernardum"[94].  When his grandfather died, Pepin supported his uncle Emperor Lothaire I and besieged Empress Judith at Poitiers in 840, but was defeated at Fontenoy 25 Jun 841.  He returned to Aquitaine and captured Toulouse in [842/43].  Although Aquitaine was given to Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks under the partition Treaty of Verdun in 843, Pepin II remained virtual ruler in Aquitaine and was recognised as such by his uncle at Saint-Benoît sur Loire in Jun 845.  The Annales Xantenses record that "Bernhardus comes" was killed "a Karolo" in 844, after which "filio Bernhardi" and "Pippinus rex Aquitainiæ, filius Pippini" defeated the king's army[95].  His subjects deposed Pepin in 848 and recognised Charles "le Chauve" as ruler of Aquitaine.  Pepin was shut in the monastery of Saint-Médard de Soissons in 852, escaped in 854, and was restored in Aquitaine for a few months.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Pippinus" joined with "Rotberto comiti et Britonibus" in 859[96].  He was finally captured in 864, and condemned to death, although the sentence was commuted to imprisonment which he served at Senlis[97]m ---.  His marriage is referred to in documents relating to his trial[98], in which he was accused among other things of incest by having married a relative within the prohibited degrees.  No other information on Pepin's wife has been found in the primary sources so far consulted. 

b)         CHARLES ([825/30]-Mainz 4 Jun 863, bur Mainz St Alban).  The Miraculis Sancti Genulfi names "Pipinum et Karolum liberos totidemque filias" as children of "Pipinus" and his wife[99].  He was captured in Mar 849 by the Comte de Tours while trying to rejoin his brother, and shut in the abbey of Corbie where he was tonsured in 851.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Karlus Pippinus frater" escaped "a Corbeiensi monasterio" in 854[100].  He escaped to the court of his paternal uncle Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks who appointed him Archbishop of Mainz 8 Mar 856[101].  The Annales Fuldensis record the appointment “IV Id Mar” 856 of “Karolus Pippini regis filius”, who had escaped from custody at Corvey monastery[102].  The Annales Fuldensis record the death “II Non Jun” 863 of “Karlus archiepiscopus Mogontiacensis ecclesiæ[103]

c)         [MATHILDE] .  Her affiliation is indicated by the Vita Hludovici which names "Gerardus…comes et gener quondam Pippini necnon Ratherius similiter comes Pippini gener"[104].  If this is correct, the two counts were much older than their wives.  Some authors have therefore suggested that "brothers-in-law" is a more accurate translation of generes and that the two counts were therefore married to two daughters of Emperor Louis I[105].  Settipani[106] argues that this is incompatible with the context in which the term is used in the Vita.  The Vita Sancti Geraldi Compendium names "Mathildem filiam Pippini Aquitaniæ regis…Geraldi aviam" and his parents "patre Geraldo Auriliaci comite…matre Adaltrude" when recording the birth of "Geraldum" in 855[107]m as his [second] wife, GERARD I Comte d’Auvergne, son of --- (-killed in battle Fontenoy 25 Jun 841). 

d)         daughter.  Her affiliation is indicated by the Vita Hludovici which names "Gerardus…comes et gener quondam Pippini necnon Ratherius similiter comes Pippini gener"[108]m as his [second] wife, RATHER Comte de Limoges, son of --- (-killed in battle Fontenoy 25 Jun 841). 

3.         CHARLES (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names Charles as son of his father by his second wife[109].  His father invested Charles as dux in Alemannia, Rhætia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug 829, reducing the territory of his oldest brother Lothaire to Italy.  This triggered the revolt of his older half-brothers in Mar 830, when they captured their father at Compiègne and forced him to revert to the previous constitutional arrangements which had been decided in 817.  His father installed him as King of Aquitaine in Sep 832, having deprived Charles's half-brother Pepin.  His father restored Aquitaine to Pepin 15 Mar 834 at Quierzy-sur-Oise.  His father accorded Charles the land between Frisia and the Seine at the Assembly of Aix-la-Chapelle in 837, Maine and the land between the Seine and the Loire (as well as a royal crown) in 838, and Francia between the Meuse and the Seine, western and southern Burgundy, Provence, Neustria, the march of Brittany, Aquitaine, Gascony and Septimania at the Assembly of Worms 28 May 839.  Charles was confirmed as king of Aquitaine again at Châlons-sur-Saône by his father 1 Sep 839, and crowned at Poitiers in Nov 839[110].  On the death of his father, he became King of the West Franks.  His brother Emperor Lothaire sought to deprive him of his lands, and Charles allied himself with his half-brother Ludwig and together they defeated Lothaire at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye 25 Jun 841.  Under the division of imperial territories by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, he became CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks

a)         LOUIS (1 Nov 846-Compiègne 10 Apr 879, bur Compiègne, église collégiale Saint-Corneille).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[111].  King of Neustria (Maine) Feb 856.  He was installed as King of Aquitaine in Mar 867, following the death of his brother Charles[112].  He succeeded his father in 877 as LOUIS II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks, crowned at Compiègne 8 Dec 877, and at Troyes 7 Sep 878 by Pope John VIII. 

-        see CAROLINGIANS

b)         CHARLES ([847/48]-near Buzançais, Indre 29 Sep 866, bur Bourges, église de Saint-Sulpice).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[113].  Elected King of Aquitaine in Oct 855 at Limoges, and crowned.  His residence was at Bourges.  He married against the wishes of his father, and was deprived of his titles in 863.  He was restored as king of Aquitaine in 865.  The Annales Bertiniani record the death "866 III Kal Oct in villa secus Bosentiacas" of "Karoli filius Karolus et Aquitanorum rex" two years after suffering severe brain injuries, and his burial "in ecclesia sancti Sulpitii apud Biturigum"[114].  The Chronico Floriacensi records that "duo filii illius [Karolo Ludovici filio]…Hlotharius Abbas et Karolus Rex Aquitanorum" died in 866[115]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    DUKES of AQUITAINE 9th-10th centuries

 

 

BEGO 843

 

1.         BEGO, son of --- (-killed in battle late 843, bur Durin).  The Chronicle of Nantes records that Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks appointed "Bego" as Duke of Aquitaine in 843, that he built "castrum Begonis" near Nantes aiming to expel Lambert Comte de Nantes and his supporters from the region, but was killed in battle and buried "apud Durenum"[116]

 

 

RAINULF I 852, RAINULF II 888-890, EBLE 927-932

 

RAMNULF [Rainulf], son of GERARD Comte d'Auvergne & his first wife --- ([815]-killed in battle near Brissarthe Oct 866).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Ramnulfum filium Girardi comitis Arvernis, nepotem Willelmi fratris Girardi" was installed as Comte de Poitou after "Emeno…comes Pictavinus" was expelled from Poitou by Emperor Louis for having supported the accession of Pepin II King of Aquitaine after the death of the latter's father [in 838][117].  He was installed as Duke of Aquitaine in 852.  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Ramnuflus comes…Pictavensis et Raino comes Arbaticensis, consanguineus eius" fled from the Vikings who attacked "Briliaco villa" in 852[118].  He was a supporter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks.  The Annales Bertiniani name "Ramnulfus" among those wounded in the Viking attack in 866, and later dying from his wounds[119].  The Adonis Continuatio records that "Robertus quoque atque Ramnulfus…inter primos ipsi priores" were killed by the Vikings in 866[120]

1.         RAINULF ([845/50]-after Jul 892).  He appears to have been finally installed as Comte de Poitou in [878], judging by his heading the list of confirmants of his brother's Apr 878 donation to the church of Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers[121].   After the deposition of Emperor Karl III in Nov 887, Comte Rainulf claimed the succession to the kingdom of Aquitaine and supported the candidature of Guy of Spoleto as King of the Franks[122].  He was appointed Duke of Aquitaine in 888.  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the death in 890 of "Ramnulfus comes Pictavinus"[123], but the year is incorrect if Regino correctly names Rainulf in Jul 892.     

a)         EBALUS [Eble] "Mancer" ([870/75]-[932/34]).  "Eblum" is named as son of "Rannulfus comes Pictavensis" by Ademar[124].  He succeeded his father in 890 as EBLE "Mancer" Comte de Poitou.  Acfred Duke of Aquitaine appointed Eble as his heir, the latter succeeding as Duke of Aquitaine and Comte d'Auvergne in 927[125].  Raoul King of France transferred Aquitaine to Raymond Comte de Toulouse in 932[126].  His last known act was a donation to the monks of Saint-Cyprien dated Jan 934[127]

 

 

RAYMOND 932-[936]

 

1.         RAYMOND de Toulouse, son of RAYMOND II Comte de Toulouse & his wife Guinidilda [de Barcelona] ([900]-[940/44], bur Saint-Pons-de-Thomières).  He succeeded his father in [923/24] as Comte de Toulouse.  He swore homage in 932 to Raoul de Bourgogne King of France, who rewarded him by installing him as Duke of Aquitaine[128], Comte d'Auvergne and with the territory of the Marquisate of Gothie.  He was also the suzerain lord of the counties of Carcassonne, Albigeois, Rouergue and Quercy.  He is recorded with the title "Duke of Aquitaine" in the foundation act of the monastery of Chanteuges in 936 and in another act in the same year[129], indicating that he challenged the authority of Guillaume III “Tête d’Etoupes” Duke of Aquitaine. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    DUKES of AQUITAINE 909-927 (FAMILY of BERNARD "Plantevelue")

 

 

GUILLAUME I, GUILLAUME II 918-926, ACFRED 926-927

 

BERNARD "Plantevelue", son of BERNARD Marquis of Septimania & his wife Doda --- (Uzès 22 Mar 841-[20 Jun 885/16 Aug 886], maybe 6 Jan 886).  The Manual of Dhuoda records the birth "XI Kal Apr", in the year following the death of Emperor Louis, at "Uzecia urbes" of the second child [Bernard] of Doda and her husband Bernard[130].  The Annales Bertiniani name "rex markiones Bernardum scilicet Tolosæ et iterum Bernardum Gothiæ, itemque Bernardum alium" in 868[131], this being Bernard Marquis of Gothia, although the date of his appointment has not so far been traced.  Lay Abbot of Brioude 857/68.  Comte d'Autun 864/69, deposed.  "Bernardus comes et uxor eius Ermengardis" donated property "ecclesiam…in villa…Viciaco…et in villa Lubiriaco…et in villa…Dignaciaco…in…patria Arvernica in vicaria Randanensi" to Saint-Julien de Brioude by charter dated 10 Mar [867][132].  Comte de Rodez/Rouergue 864/74.  Comte d'Auvergne after 872.  The Annales Bertiniani name "Bernardum Arvenicum comitem" in 877[133]"Petrus" donated property "in pago Arvernico in comitatu Brivatensi in vicaria Nonatensi..." to Saint-Julien de Brioude for the souls of "Bernardi...comitis necnon...Bernardi comitis eiusque conjugis Inmengardis...comitissa, horumque prolis" by charter dated Jan "anno secundo regnante rege Francorum Carolo"[134]"Bernardus…comes et uxor mea Hermengardis" donated property "in pago Rutenico, in vicaria Severiacense…villa…Bautone" to the abbey of Conques by charter dated 21 Jul 882[135]"Bernardus comes et uxor mea Hermengardis" donated property to Conques abbey by charter dated 21 Jul 883[136]He obtained the county of Mâcon during the wars between the Carolingians and the Bosonids[137].  The 13th century obituary of the Eglise primatiale de Lyon records the death "VIII Id Jan" of "Bernardus comes"[138], although it is not certain that this relates to the same person. 

m ERMENGARDE, daughter of [BERNARD Comte [d'Auvergne] & his wife Liegardis ---] (-after 21 Jul 883).  Ermengarde is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln as the daughter of Bernard and his wife Liegardis[139].  The primary source on which this information is based has not yet been identified.  It is possible that it results from the charter dated Jan "anno secundo regnante rege Francorum Carolo" under which "Petrus" donated property "in pago Arvernico in comitatu Brivatensi in vicaria Nonatensi..." to Saint-Julien de Brioude for the souls of "Bernardi...comitis necnon...Bernardi comitis eiusque conjugis Inmengardis...comitissa, horumque prolis"[140].  The document does not specify any family relationship between the first-named Comte Bernard and the second or his wife Ermengarde.  If such a family relationship existed, one of the possibilities is that Ermengarde was the daughter of the first Bernard.  "Bernardus comes et uxor eius Ermengardis" donated property "ecclesiam…in villa…Viciaco…et in villa Lubiriaco…et in villa…Dignaciaco…in…patria Arvernica in vicaria Randanensi" to Saint-Julien de Brioude by charter dated 10 Mar [867][141].  "Bernardus comes et uxor mea Hermengardis" donated property to Conques abbey by charter dated 21 Jul 883[142]"Bernardus…comes et uxor mea Hermengardis" donated property "in pago Rutenico, in vicaria Severiacense…villa…Bautone" to the abbey of Conques by charter dated 21 Jul 882[143].  "Princeps et marchio Willelmus" donated property to the church of Holy Trinity "pro…animæ patris mei Bernardi et matris meæ Ermengardis…" by charter dated Nov 916[144].  Her parents are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[145] but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. 

Comte Bernard & his wife had four children:

1.         GUILLAUME ([860/65]-6 Jul 918, bur Abbaye de Brioude, Haute-Loire).  "Karolus…imperator Augustus" confirms that "Willelmo comite" replaced "patris sui Bernardi comitis" after the latter was killed, by charter dated 16 Aug 886[146].  His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was a young adult at the time.  He is named as brother of "Hava abbatissa" in the latter's charter dated Nov 893[147].  "Acfred dux Aquitanorum" donated property "pro anima…et avunculis meis Wilelmo et Guarino…" to Cluny by charter dated 2 Oct 927[148].  He succeeded his father in 886 as Marquis of Gothia, Comte d'Auvergne, de Berry, de Mâcon, de Limousin, et de Lyon.  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence names "Ramnulfus comes…Pictavensis" as "consanguineus…Willelmi…comitis Arvernorum"[149], although the precise relationship has not been traced.  Comte de Bourges 892.  Comte de Macon, abbé laic de Brioude 893.  He was recorded as dux shortly after the accession of Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks in 893, and as dux Aquitanorum for the first time in 909[150], later known as GUILLAUME I "le Pieux" Duke of Aquitaine.  He founded the monastery of Cluny jointly with his wife by charter dated 11 Sep 910[151].  "Princeps et marchio Willelmus" donated property "in patria Arvernica, in comitatu Brivatense…in villa Carisiaceco" to the church of Holy Trinity "pro…animæ patris mei Bernardi et matris meæ Ermengardis…et sororis meæ Adalendis et filorum eius" by charter dated Nov 916, signed by "Ingelbergæ, Wilhelmi, Acfredi, Bosoni…"[152].  The Annales Masciacenses record in 919 the deaths of “Guilelmus famosus dux Aquitanorum...coniunx eius Ingelberga[153]m (before 898[154]) ENGELBERGA, daughter of BOSON King [of Provence] & his second wife Ermengardis [Carolingian] ([877]-919).  Engelberga is named as co-founder with her husband of the monastery of Cluny in a charter dated 11 Sep 910[155].  Her origin is deduced from her donation to Cluny with her husband dated Jan 917, in which her brother "Ludovico" is named[156].  The Annales Masciacenses record in 919 the deaths of “Guilelmus famosus dux Aquitanorum...coniunx eius Ingelberga[157].  She died as a nun at San Sisto, Piacenza.  Duke Guillaume I & his wife had [two] children:

a)         BOSO (-[25 Dec 920/Jun 926]).  "Boso filius eius" is named, immediately after "Wilelmi senioris mei", in two donation for their souls made by "Gauzfredus comes" dated 8 Apr 936 and Jun 936[158]

b)         [daughter.  This is a speculative connection based only on onomastics[159]m ROTBALD [I] d'Agel [Provence], son of --- (-[949]).] 

2.         WARIN (-[before 918]).  "Acfred dux Aquitanorum" donated property "pro anima…et avunculis meis Wilelmo et Guarino…" to Cluny by charter dated 2 Oct 927[160].  "Acfredus" donated property to Saint-Julien de Brioude, for the souls of "genitoris mei Acfredi et genitricis meæ Adalendis et avunculorum meorum Garini atque Guillelmi et fratrum meorum Bernardi necnon etiam Guillelmi", by charter dated 11 Oct [927][161].  No other mention of Warin has so far been found.  He must have died before his older brother Bernard as he did not succeed as Duke of Aquitaine.  Alternatively, he may have been illegitimate. 

3.         AVA (-before [913]).  "Hava abbatissa" made a donation to Cluny dated Nov 893 naming her brother Guillaume[162]

4.         ADALINDA .  She is named as wife of Acfred in their son's grant to Cluny dated 2 Oct 927, her origin being deduced from his reference to "…avunculis meis Wilelmo et Guarino…" in the same document[163].  "Acfredus" donated property to Saint-Julien de Brioude, for the souls of "genitoris mei Acfredi et genitricis meæ Adalendis et avunculorum meorum Garini atque Guillelmi et fratrum meorum Bernardi necnon etiam Guillelmi", by charter dated 11 Oct [927][164]m ACFRED, son of ---.  His name is confirmed by his son's grant to Cluny dated 2 Oct 927[165].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[166], he was Acfred [I] Comte de Carcassonne ([830/40]-906).  The primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  It is possible that the co-identity is based only on speculation from the Cluny charter of Acfred Duke of Aquitaine, dated 2 Oct 927, which names his parents as Acfred and Adelinda, and on the assumption that Acfred [I] Comte de Carcassonne was the only contemporary nobleman of this name[167].  Another indication that this co-identity may not be correct is the charter dated 19 Feb 906 under which "Adalindes comitissa", widow of Acfred [I] Comte de Carcassonne, donated property with the consent of "Acfredo filio Acfredo"[168].  If Acfred de Carcassonne was the same person as Acfred, father of the two dukes of Aquitaine, it is surprising that his other two known sons did not consent to, or were not otherwise named in, this donation.  Acfred & his wife had three children: 

a)         GUILLAUME (-16 Dec 926[169]).  "Willelmi comitis nepotis eius" is named in the charter of Guillaume Duke of Aquitaine dated 11 Sep 910 which founded the monastery of Cluny[170].  "Acfred dux Aquitanorum" donated property "pro anima genitore meo Acfredo et genitrice mea Adalindis…et fratribus meis Bernardo et Guilelmo" to Cluny by charter dated 2 Oct 927[171].  He succeeded his maternal uncle in 918 as GUILLAUME II "le Jeune" Duke of Aquitaine, Comte d'Auvergne.  His jurisdiction over Mâcon is referred to in a charter of "Girbaldus", "residente quondam domno Wilelmo iuniore, comite, Matiscone", dated May 926[172] but this appears to indicate that Guillaume was overlord of Mâcon (presumably in his capacity as Comte d'Auvergne) not Comte de Mâcon.  He is called "domno illustrissimo marchione Alvernorum et comite Matisconensi" in his charter dated Dec 926[173]

b)         ACFRED (-[Oct/Dec] 927).  "Acfred dux Aquitanorum" donated property "pro anima genitore meo Acfredo et genitrice mea Adalindis…et avunculis meis Wilelmo et Guarino et fratribus meis Bernardo et Guilelmo" to Cluny by charter dated 2 Oct 927[174].  He succeeded his brother in 926 as ACFRED Duke of Aquitaine, Comte d'Auvergne.  Abbé de Brioude.  "Acfredus" donated property to Saint-Julien de Brioude, for the souls of "genitoris mei Acfredi et genitricis meæ Adalendis et avunculorum meorum Garini atque Guillelmi et fratrum meorum Bernardi necnon etiam Guillelmi", by charter dated 11 Oct [927][175].  Will dated 11 Oct 927.  He appointed Ebles "Mancer" Comte de Poitou as his successor in Aquitaine[176]

c)         BERNARD (-after 932).  "Acfred dux Aquitanorum" donated property "pro anima genitore meo Acfredo et genitrice mea Adalindis…et fratribus meis Bernardo et Guilelmo" to Cluny by charter dated 2 Oct 927[177].  "Acfredus" donated property to Saint-Julien de Brioude, for the souls of "genitoris mei Acfredi et genitricis meæ Adalendis et avunculorum meorum Garini atque Guillelmi et fratrum meorum Bernardi necnon etiam Guillelmi", by charter dated 11 Oct [927][178].  He succeeded as Comte d'Auvergne.  "Bernardo comiti" donated property "…in comitatu Nonatense…et in…Curzago…et in vicaria Iheriacense nomine Vuluigitis" to Brioude Saint-Julien by charter dated to "regnante Radulph Rege", subscribed by "Stephano filio Bertrandi…Bernardo filio eiusdem comitis"[179]m BLITSENDE, daughter of --- (-23 Dec, 937 or after).  "Joseph…præpositus ecclesiæ Brivatensis" donated property next to "terram Blitsidæ comitissæ consobrinæ meæ" to Brioude Saint-Julien, for the souls of "patris mei Odili et matris meæ Ildiardis et pro fratribus meis Stephano et Astorgio", by charter dated Mar 937[180].  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated Apr 960 under which her grandson "Geraldus qui vocor de Turre" donated property "in pago Arvernico, in comitatu Talamitensi, in vicaria Messiacensi, in villa…Monteplano", next to land of "Stephani fratris mei", to Brioude Saint-Julien, for the souls of "ipso et uxore mea Gausberga…pro genitore meo Bernardo et genitrice mea Berthelde…avo meo Bernardo comite et uxore sua Blitsende necnon et…Guillelmo et Acfredo Aquitaniæ quondam ducibus"[181].  The necrology of Brioude records the death "X Kal Jan" of "uxor Bernardi comitis" and the donations made for her anniversary by "Bernardus et Eustorgius filii eius"[182].  Bernard & his wife had three children: 

i)          ETIENNE .  913/936.  Etienne is named as son of Bernard in Europäische Stammtafeln[183] but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. 

ii)         BERNARD (-after May 937).  "Bernardo comiti" donated property "…in comitatu Nonatense…et in…Curzago…et in vicaria Iheriacense nomine Vuluigitis" to Brioude Saint-Julien by charter dated to "regnante Radulph Rege", subscribed by "Stephano filio Bertrandi…Bernardo filio eiusdem comitis"[184].  "Bernardus…cum uxore mea Berthelde et filio meo Gerardo qui cognominatur de Turre" donated property "in pago Arvernico, in vicaria Brivatensi in villa…Bergnaco", next to "terram Gausberganæ uxoris supradicti filii mei…terram Rotberti vicecomitis fratris Wi…terram Hucberti vicecomitis", to Brioude Saint-Julien, for the souls of "genitoris mei Bernardi comitis ac genetricis meæ Blytsindis et avi mei Acfredi comitis et uxoris suæ Adelindis, sive pro avunculis meis Villelmo et Hacfredo Aquitanorum ducibus" by charter dated May 937[185].  The necrology of Brioude records the death "X Kal Jan" of "uxor Bernardi comitis" and the donations made for her anniversary by "Bernardus et Eustorgius filii eius"[186]m BERTHELDE, daughter of --- (-after May 937).  "Bernardus…cum uxore mea Berthelde et filio meo Gerardo qui cognominatur de Turre" donated property "in pago Arvernico, in vicaria Brivatensi in villa…Bergnaco", next to "terram Gausberganæ uxoris supradicti filii mei…terram Rotberti vicecomitis fratris Wi…terram Hucberti vicecomitis", to Brioude Saint-Julien, for the souls of "genitoris mei Bernardi comitis ac genetricis meæ Blytsindis et avi mei Acfredi comitis et uxoris suæ Adelindis, sive pro avunculis meis Villelmo et Hacfredo Aquitanorum ducibus" by charter dated May 937[187].  Bernard & his wife had two children: 

(a)       GERAUD de Tour (-after Apr 960).  "Bernardus…cum uxore mea Berthelde et filio meo Gerardo qui cognominatur de Turre" donated property "in pago Arvernico, in vicaria Brivatensi in villa…Bergnaco" to Brioude Saint-Julien, for the souls of "genitoris mei Bernardi comitis ac genetricis meæ Blytsindis et avi mei Acfredi comitis et uxoris suæ Adelindis, sive pro avunculis meis Villelmo et Hacfredo Aquitanorum ducibus" by charter dated May 937[188].  "Geraldus qui vocor de Turre" donated property "in pago Arvernico, in comitatu Talamitensi, in vicaria Messiacensi, in villa…Monteplano", next to land of "Stephani fratris mei", to Brioude Saint-Julien, for the souls of "ipso et uxore mea Gausberga…pro genitore meo Bernardo et genitrice mea Berthelde…avo meo Bernardo comite et uxore sua Blitsende necnon et…Guillelmo et Acfredo Aquitaniæ quondam ducibus", by charter dated Apr 960[189]

-         VICOMTES de VIENNE

(b)       ETIENNE (-after Apr 960).  "Geraldus qui vocor de Turre" donated property "in pago Arvernico, in comitatu Talamitensi, in vicaria Messiacensi, in villa…Monteplano", next to land of "Stephani fratris mei", to Brioude Saint-Julien, for the souls of "ipso et uxore mea Gausberga…pro genitore meo Bernardo et genitrice mea Berthelde…avo meo Bernardo comite et uxore sua Blitsende necnon et…Guillelmo et Acfredo Aquitaniæ quondam ducibus", by charter dated Apr 960[190]

iii)        EUSTORGE .  The necrology of Brioude records the death "X Kal Jan" of "uxor Bernardi comitis" and the donations made for her anniversary by "Bernardus et Eustorgius filii eius"[191]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    COMTES de POITOU 778/934

 

 

 

A.      COMTES de POITOU 778-[826]

 

 

ABBON 778-[814], RICHWIN [814], BERNARD 815-[826]

 

1.         ABBON, son of --- (-[3 Aug 794/814]).  He was appointed Comte in Poitou by Charles I King of the Franks in 778, his power extending over the towns of Poitiers and Angoulême.  "Abbone comite" presided over a lawsuit dated 18 Nov 780 deciding that land at Lussac belonged to the abbey of Nouaillé[192].  A charter dated 1 Dec 780 records the presence of "Abbonem comitem" in a lawsuit in which "Gratianus" claimed "locellum…Iaciacus" from the abbey of Nouaillé[193].  Abbon presided over a lawsuit dated 28 Apr 791 deciding a dispute between certain individuals and the abbey of Nouaillé concerning the possession of l´alleu du Pin en Aunis[194].  "…Abbone…" (no title added) subscribed a charter dated 3 Aug 794 under which Louis King of Aquitaine granted protections to the abbey of Nouaillé[195].  He may have been the "Count Abo" who was one of the Frankish nobles who confirmed the peace between Emperor Charles I and Hemming King of the Danes in 811[196]

 

 

1.         RICHWIN, son of --- (-after [814]).  Einhard names "Rihwinus comes" as one of the 15 witnesses of the testament of Emperor Charlemagne dated 811[197]Comte in Poitou.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Northbertum Regiensium episcopum et Richoinum Pictavium comitem" as missi [in 814][198]

 

 

1.         BERNARD, son of --- (-[826/28]).  A charter dated 20 Jun 815 records a lawsuit judged by "Godilus, missus illustri viro Bernardo comiti" relating to two serfs of Nouaillé abbey accused of forgery[199].  He was presumably appointed Comte in Poitou by Pepin I King of Aquitaine, who had succeeded in 814[200].  Pepin I King of Aquitaine restored "villam…Titiacus", claimed by "Bernardi comitis", to the abbey of Saint-Maixent by charter dated 22 Dec 825[201].  Richard suggests that Comte Bernard must have died in [826/28][202]

 

 

 

B.      COMTES de POITOU [828]/902 (FAMILY of EMENON)

 

 

EMENON [828]-[839], BERNARD [828]-844, BERNARD 876-877, AIMAR 892-902

 

 

Three brothers, parents not known: 

1.         EMENON ([810]-Rancogne 22 Jun 866, bur Angoulême Saint-Cybard).  He was presumably installed as Comte in Poitou in [826/28] by Pepin I King of Aquitaine.  "Himmoni comiti…" is named as present in the charter dated 9 Jun 828 which records a court held by Pepin I King of Aquitaine at Chasseneuil[203].  The abbot of Nouaillé exchanged property with "Hemenone" (no title added) by charter dated Sep [831/32][204].  He supported Pepin I King of Aquitaine against Emperor Louis I "le Pieux" and, after the death of the former (in 838), his son King Pepin II.  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Emeno…comes Pictavinus" declared "filium Pipini [rex Aquitanie filius imperatoris]" as king of Aquitaine after his father's death, in opposition to the emperor who invaded Poitou and expelled Emenon "et fratrem eius Bernardum"[205].  Emenon sought refuge with his brother Turpion in Angoulême.  No primary source evidence has been found which confirms whether Emenon held any specific county between [839] and 863.  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Muza quidem nomine Gothus, se ritu Mahamentiano…deceptus" invaded southern France and captured "duos…Francorum magnos duces…Sancionem et…Epulonem" and imprisoned them in chains[206].  Jaurgain considers that "Epulonem" was "Emenon Comte de Périgord"[207], although no evidence has been found that Emenon ruled in Périgord at the time.  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc dates the event to 850[208].  Jaurgain considers that this is incorrect and redates the event to Oct 853[209].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks bought peace from Musa, after which the captives were released[210].  "Emmo" (no title added) donated property "in pago Pictavo in condito Vicovedonensi in loco…Mesgonne" to Nouaillé by charter dated Aug 857[211].  Comte d´Angoulême 863: the Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Turpio" was killed by the Vikings and was succeeded in Angoulême by "Emeno frater eius"[212].  He died from wounds inflicted by his cousin Landry Comte de Saintes in a dispute over the castle of Bouteville[213].  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that Emenon was killed two years after inheriting Angoulême by "Landrico Sanctionicensi comite" and buried "iuxta basilicam beati Eparchii"[214].  The Annales Engolismenses record the death "866 X Kal Iul" of "Emeno"[215].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Emeno frater eius [Turpio] Engolismæ comes" was wounded fighting "Landrico comite Santonensi", died eight days later "in castro Runconia" and was buried "iuxta basilicum beati Eparchii", leaving "parvulum filium Ademarum"[216].  The Adonis Continuatio records that "duo principes Aquitanici, Landricus et Imino" killed each other in battle in 866[217].  The Chronicon Aquitanicum names "Emeno Turpionis frater, Engolismæ comes" when recording his death[218]m --- de Troyes, daughter of EUDES Comte de Troyes & his wife Wandilmodis ---.  Her parentage and marriage are deduced from the charter dated Feb 893 under which her son "Adalelmus…comes" confirmed the donation of "Cadusciam fiscum" {domaine de Chaource} to the abbey of Montiéramey by "Rotbertus…comes avunculus noster"[219].  Count Emenon & his wife had two children: 

a)         ADEMAR [Aimar] (-2 Apr 926, bur Poitiers Saint-Hilaire).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that Emenon left "filium parvulum Ademarum" when he died[220].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Emeno frater eius [Turpio] Engolismæ comes" left "parvulum filium Ademarum"[221].  A recital (undated) of two miracles attributed to relics conserved in the abbey of Charroux names "Ademarus filius Emenonis comitis Engolismensis et frater Turpionis eque comitis Engolismensis"[222].  The date of death and place of burial of "Ademarus comes, Emenonis filius" is recorded in the Chronicon Aquitanicum[223].  After the death of his father, Aimar was still a minor and was welcomed by Comte Vulgrin who had been appointed Comte d'Angoulême[224].  He challenged the succession of Ebles "Mancer" as Comte de Poitou in 890, unsuccessfully besieging Aurillac where the young count had sought refuge[225].  After Eudes King of France installed his brother Robert at Poitiers in 892, Comte Aimar captured the town and installed himself as AIMAR Comte de Poitou.  Eudes King of France granted the abbey of Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers to the bishop of Poitiers, at the request of "marchiones…Hrobertus…atque Ademarus", by charter dated to [894][226].  He was confirmed in his possession of the county by King Eudes in Summer 895[227].  He was also recognised as Comte de Limoges in 898[228].  He was expelled in 902 by Comte Ebles "Mancer" who retook the county of Poitou.  Comte Aimar sought refuge with his brother-in-law Bernard Comte de Périgueux.  He governed Angoulême on behalf of his wife's nephew Comte Guillaume II after the death of his brother-in-law Comte Alduin I.  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records the death of "Ademarus comes Pictavensis" and his burial "Pictavis iuxta basilicam Sancti Hilari IV Non Apr"[229].  The death "IV Non Apr 930" of "Ademarus comes Engolismensis" is recorded in the Annales Engolismenses[230].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the burial "930 IV Kal Apr" at Poitou Saint-Hilaire of "Ademarus comes Pictavinus"[231]m SANCIA d'Angoulême, daughter of [VULGRIN I Comte d'Angoulême & his wife Regilindis de Septimanie] (-Angoulême 4 Apr ----, bur Angoulême, Saint-Cybard).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Ademarus…filius Emenonis" married "Santia" because of his close relations with "Alduino et Willelmo", although it does not specify that she was their sister[232].  On the other hand, the Historia Pontificum et Comitum Engolismensis records that “Ademarus...filius Emenonis” married “Sanciam sororem comitis Petragoricensis Bernardi[233].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the marriage of "Ademarus…filius Emmenonis" and "Sancia" as he had close relations with "Alduino comiti Engolismensi et Willelmo Petragoricensi"[234], although it does not specify that they were Sancia's brothers.  In a later passage, the Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Adhemarus" married "sororem Bernardi Santiam", referring to Bernard Comte de Périgord who was the son of "Willelmo Petragoricensi"[235].  The passage is specific, but this relationship seems unlikely to be correct from a chronological point of view: the marriage of Bernard's parents is dated to [892], whereas Adémar must have been born in the early 860s at the latest, which is more consistent with his wife having been Guillaume's sister rather than daughter.  "Sanciæ comitissæ" is named as wife of "Ademarus comes Engolismensis" in the Annales Engolismenses[236].  The Chronico Richardi Pictavensis records that "Ademarus filius Emenonis comitis Engolismæ…cum Sancia uxore sua" donated property to the church because they were childless[237].  A recital (undated) of two miracles attributed to relics conserved in the abbey of Charroux names "Sancia" as wife of "Ademarus filius Emenonis comitis Engolismensis", specifying that she was childless[238].  She escaped assassination in 918 at the hands of Lambert Vicomte de Marcillac and his brother Arnaud, who were vassals of the Comte d'Angoulême[239].  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Lambertus vicecomes Martiliacensis et Arnaldus frater eius" were killed "a Bernardo" (clarified in a later passage as meaning Bernard, son of Guillaume Comte de Périgord) in revenge for "Santie sororis sue [Alduini]", without further explanation or detail regarding their offence against Sancha[240].  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records the death "II Non Apr" of "Santia" and her burial "iuxta basilicum beati Eparchii"[241]

b)         ADALELM (-Turenne [Oct] 892).  An agreement dated 14 Jun 877 of Emperor Charles II "le Chauve", presumably written with his own death in mind, names "…ex comitibus aut Tedericus, aut Balduinus, sive Chuonradus, seu Adalelmus" as those willing to support the emperor's son[242].  He succeeded his maternal uncle in 886 as Comte Palatin de Troyes[243].  Abbo's Bella Parisiciæ Urbis names "consul Ademarus regi copulates eidem progenie" at the siege of Paris in 886, placing him in his family context by also naming "Odo consanguineus sua" in the same paragraph[244].  "Adalelmus…comes" confirmed the donation of "Cadusciam fiscum" {domaine de Chaource} to the abbey of Montiéramey by "Rotbertus…comes avunculus noster" by charter dated Feb 893 (presumably should be redated to 892), witnessed by "Hirmengarae comitissae, Berengarii, Arimberti vicecomitis, Fredetti vicecomitis"[245].  The Vita Sancti Geraldi Comitis records that "frater Ademari comitis Adalelmus" led the siege of Aurillac in 892 but was captured and died 14 days later a prisoner at Turenne[246]m ERMENGARDE, daughter of ---.  "Adalelmus…comes" confirmed the donation of "Cadusciam fiscum" {domaine de Chaource} to the abbey of Montiéramey by "Rotbertus…comes avunculus noster" by charter dated Feb 893 (presumably should be redated to 892), witnessed by "Hirmengarae comitissae…"[247]

2.         BERNARD (-killed in battle [844/45]).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Emeno…comes Pictavinus" declared "filium Pipini [rex Aquitanie filius imperatoris]" as king of Aquitaine after his father's death, in opposition to the emperor who invaded Poitou and expelled Emenon "et fratrem eius Bernardum", specifying that Bernard sought refuge with "Rainaldum comitem Arbatilicensem"[248].  According to the Chronicon Aquitanicum, he was killed while fighting with Renaud Comte d'Herbauge [et de Nantes][249], but other sources record that Bernard was killed with Renaud's son Hervé.  The Annales Engolismenses record that "Bernardus et Herveus" were killed in 844[250].  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Bernardus comes Pictavinus et Arueus filius Rainoldi" were defeated and killed by "Lanberto comite" the year after Hervé's father was killed[251].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Bernardus comes Pictavensis et Arveus filius Rainaldi" were killed fighting "Lamberto comite" in 845[252]m BILICHILIDIS, daughter of RORICO Comte du Maine & his wife Bilichildis ---.  The origin of the wife of Comte Bernard is deduced from the Historia Inventionis Sanctii Baudelli naming "Gothorum princeps Bernardus cum avunculo suo Gauzleno tunc inclito Abbate, futuro autem episcopo"[253].  Flodoard's Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ also names "Gozlino…Bernardo nepote ipsius", referring to Bernard Marquis of Septimania and his rebellion dated to [877][254].  She is named in the record of the excommunication by Pope John VIII of "Bernardum filium Bernardi et Belihildis" in 879[255].  It is possible that Bilichildis was the same daughter of Comte Rorico who later married Rainulf Comte de Poitou.  Bernard & his wife had two children: 

a)         BERNARD (-after 879).  The Annales Bertiniani name "rex markiones Bernardum scilicet Tolosæ et iterum Bernardum Gothiæ, itemque Bernardum alium" in 868[256].  He was installed as Marquis of Septimania, and Comte d'Autun in 876.  He was deprived of his territories in 877 by Hugues "l'Abbé" who installed Rainulf II Comte de Poitou in his place.  The Annales Bertiniani name "Bernardum Gothiæ markionem" in 877[257].  Pope John VIII excommunicated "Bernardum filium Bernardi et Belihildis" in 879[258].  He rebelled against Bernard "Plantevelue" in 879 but was defeated.  The Annales Bertiniani record the rebellion of "Bernardi markionis" in 878[259].  The Gesta regum Francorum records in 880 the submission of "Bernhardum" to "filiis Hludowici" during their fight against "Buosenem in Gallia"[260], although it is not certain that this refers to the same person. 

b)         EMENON .  The Annales Bertiniani name "Imino frater Bernardi markionis" when recording his usurpation of "Ebrocensum civitatem" in 878[261].  Pope John VIII excommunicated "Emenonem Bernardi comitis germanum" in 878[262].  He rebelled with his brother against Bernard "Plantevelue" in 879.  

3.         TURPION (-killed near Saintes 4 Oct 863).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Turpionem…comitem" was installed as Comte d'Angoulême, his origin being confirmed by a subsequent passage which states that "Emeno [comes Pictavinus]" fled to "Turpionem fratrem suum" after he was expelled from Poitou[263].  A recital (undated) of two miracles attributed to relics conserved in the abbey of Charroux names "Ademarus filius Emenonis comitis Engolismensis et frater Turpionis eque comitis Engolismensis"[264].  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Turpio" was killed by the Vikings and succeeded in Angoulême by "Emeno frater eius"[265].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Turpio" was killed fighting the Vikings[266].  The Annales Engolismenses record the death "863 IV Non Oct" of "Turpio comes"[267]

 

 

 

C.      COMTES de POITOU [841]/934, DUKE of AQUITAINE 927-934

 

 

RAINULF I [839]-866, RAINULF II 878-890

 

 

Two brothers, whose parents have not yet been identified: 

1.         GUILLAUME .  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that Guillaume was the brother of Gerard Comte d'Auvergne when it states that "Ramnulfum filium Girardi comitis Arvernis, nepotem Willelmi fratris Girardi" was installed as Comte de Poitou after "Emeno…comes Pictavinus" was expelled[268].  No other indication has yet been found of the identity of this Guillaume. 

2.         GERARD (-killed in battle Fontenoy 25 Jun 841)Comte d'Auvergne.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Ebroinus…Pictavensis episcopo Flateram…Reginardus comes, Gerardus itidem comes et gener quondam Pippini regis [et] Ratharius…comes Pippini gener" [in 839][269]m firstly ---.  An earlier marriage is indicated by the chronology of the family of Gérard´s known wife, which shows that his son Ramnulf could not have been born from that marriage.  m secondly --- [MATHILDE] [d´Aquitaine], daughter of PEPIN I King of Aquitaine [Carolingian] & his wife Ringardis.  Her affiliation is indicated by the Vita Hludovici which names "Gerardus…comes et gener quondam Pippini necnon Ratherius similiter comes Pippini gener"[270].  If this is correct, the two counts were much older than their wives.  Some authors have therefore suggested that "brothers-in-law" is a more accurate translation of generes and that the two counts were therefore married to two daughters of Emperor Louis I[271].  Settipani[272] argues that this is incompatible with the context in which the term is used in the Vita.  The Vita Sancti Geraldi Compendium names "Mathildem filiam Pippini Aquitaniæ regis…Geraldi aviam" and his parents "patre Geraldo Auriliaci comite…matre Adaltrude" when recording the birth of "Geraldum" in 855[273].  Comte Gérard & his first wife had one child:

a)         RAMNULF [Rainulf] ([815]-killed in battle near Brissarthe Oct 866).  He was installed as RAINULF I Comte de Poitou in [839].  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Ramnulfum filium Girardi comitis Arvernis, nepotem Willelmi fratris Girardi" was installed as Comte de Poitou after "Emeno…comes Pictavinus" was expelled by Emperor Louis for supporting the accession of Pepin II King of Aquitaine after the death of the latter's father [in 838][274].  He was installed as Duke of Aquitaine in 852.  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Rannulfus…comes Pictavensis et Raino comes Arbatilicensis consanguineus eius" fled after being defeated by the Vikings at "Briliaco villa", the event being dated from the context to the early 850s[275].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Ramnulfus comes…Pictavensis et Raino comes Arbaticensis, consanguineus eius" fled from the Vikings who attacked "Briliaco villa" in 852[276].  He was a supporter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks.  The Annales Bertiniani name "Ramnulfus" among those wounded in the Viking attack in 866, and later dying from his wounds[277].  The Adonis Continuatio records that "Robertus quoque atque Ramnulfus…inter primos ipsi priores" were killed by the Vikings in 866[278]m ([845]) --- du Maine, daughter of RORICO [I] Comte du Maine & his wife Bilechildis.  Her origin is indicated by Abbo's De Bellis Parisiacæ which names "Ebolus…Abba" as nepos of "Gauzlinus…pontificis"[279], the latter being reported in other sources as the son of Rorico [I] Comte du Maine.  It is possible that the wife of Comte Rainulf was Comte Rorico's daughter named [Bilichildis], whose [first] husband Bernard Comte en Poitou was killed in battle in 844.  Comte Rainulf I & his wife had three children:

i)          RAINULF ([845/50]-after Jul 892).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes specifies that "Ramnulfus…comes Pictaviensis" was "consanguineus…Willelmi…comitis Arvernis"[280].  The Chronico Richardi Pictavensis also states that "Ramnulfus consanguineus erat Willelmi Pii Aquitanorum Ducis et Arveniæ Comitis"[281].  The relationship between Rainulf and Duke Guillaume has not yet been traced.  After the death of Rainulf's father in 866, he and his brothers were deprived of their inheritance. It appears that no-one was at that time installed as Comte de Poitou, the county being administered by Louis King of Aquitaine, son of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the Franks[282].  He appears to have been finally installed as RAINULF II Comte de Poitou in [878], judging by his heading the list of confirmants of his brother's Apr 878 donation to the church of Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers[283].   After the death of Louis II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks, Comte Rainulf had custody of the late king's youngest son Charles, who later succeeded as Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks[284].  After the deposition of Emperor Karl III in Nov 887, Comte Rainulf claimed the succession to the kingdom of Aquitaine and supported the candidature of Guy of Spoleto as King of the Franks[285].  He was appointed Duke of Aquitaine in 888.  Regino names "Ramnulfum et fratrem eius Gozbertum et Ebulonem abbatum de sancto Dionysio" when recording their battle against "Waltgerius comes" in Jul 892[286].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the death in 890 of "Ramnulfus comes Pictavinus"[287], but the year is incorrect if Regino correctly names Rainulf in Jul 892.  m [ERMENGARDE, daughter of ---] (-1 Jul after 890).  The name of the wife of Comte Rainulf II is not known with certainty.  "Gauzberto comite, Ramnulfus comes, Ermengarde…" subscribed the charter dated Apr 878 under which "Gauzbertus comes" donated property "in pago Santonico…in villa…Dorodonno" to the church of Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers[288].  Richard suggests that Ermengarde must have been the wife of one of the named counts because of the order of the signatures[289].  Richard rejects the hypothesis that Adda "coniunx Ramnulf", whose tomb was discovered at Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, was the wife of Comte Rainulf II[290]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Comte Rainulf's mistress is not known.  Comte Rainulf II & his wife had [one child]: 

(a)       [RAINULF [III] (-[901]).  Rainulf is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[291] as the legitimate son of Comte Rainulf II but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  He is not named by Besly[292], nor by Richard[293].  Both authors state that Eble was the only child of Comte Rainulf II.] 

Comte Rainulf II had one illegitimate son by an unknown Mistress: 

(b)        EBALUS [Eble] "Mancer" ([870/75]-[932/34])The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes names "Eblum" as son of "Ramnulfus…comes Pictaviensis", another manuscript specifying that he was born "ex concubina"[294]He succeeded his father in 890 as EBLE "Mancer" Comte de Poitou.

-         see below

ii)         GAUZBERT [Josbert] (-killed in battle late 892).  Regino names "Ramnulfum et fratrem eius Gozbertum et Ebulonem abbatum de sancto Dionysio" when recording their battle against "Waltgerius comes" in Jul 892[295].  "Gauzbertus comes" donated property "in pago Santonico…in villa…Dorodonno" to the church of Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers by charter dated Apr 878, subscribed by "Ramnulfus comes…"[296]Regino names "Ramnulfum et fratrem eius Gozbertum et Ebulonem abbatum de sancto Dionysio" when recording their battle against "Waltgerius comes" in Jul 892[297].  He was killed during the siege of one of his castles by Eudes King of France[298].  The death of "frater quoque eius [Ebulus] Gotbertus" is recorded in late 892 in the Annales Vedastini[299]

iii)        EBALUS [Eble] (857-killed in battle 2 Oct 892).  Abbo's De Bellis Parisiacæ names "Ebolus…Abba" as nepos of "Gauzlinus…pontificis"[300], the latter being reported in other sources as the son of Rorico [I] Comte du Maine.  Regino names "Ramnulfum et fratrem eius Gozbertum et Ebulonem abbatum de sancto Dionysio" when recording their battle against "Waltgerius comes" in Jul 892[301].  Abbé de Saint-Germain, Paris 881.  Abbé de Saint-Denis 886.  He was appointed Chancellor of France by King Eudes [Capet] after the latter's accession in 888[302].  Abbé de Saint-Hilaire-de-Poitiers 889.  Eudes King of France confirmed the properties of "abbas Ebolus…Hilarii" by charter dated 30 Dec 889[303].  King Eudes deprived him of the chancellorship in 892 after Eble refused to abandon the cause of his nephew Comte Eble[304].  He was killed at the siege of the castle either of Brillac en Poitou or of Loudun[305]

Comte Gérard & his [first/second] wife had one child: 

b)         daughter .  She is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[306] as the daughter of Comte Gerard and wife of "Fulko de Limoges" but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified, nor the identify of her husband ascertained.  m FOULQUES de Limoges, son of --- (-[886]). 

Comte Gérard & his second wife had one child: 

c)         GERARD (-before 879).  The Vita Sancti Geraldi Compendium names "Mathildem filiam Pippini Aquitaniæ regis…Geraldi aviam" and his parents "patre Geraldo Auriliaci comite…matre Adaltrude" when recording the birth of "Geraldum" in 855[307].  Comte [d´Aurillac].  Gérard is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[308] as the son of Comte Gérard but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  Gerardus comes” exchanged “æcclesia...Rovariam...in pago Lemovicino in vicaria Flaviniacense” for “villam...in pago Biturico in vicaria Nirondense...Coiacus” with Stodilus Bishop of Limoges by charter dated 28 Jul 855[309]m ADALTRUDE, daughter of ---.  The Vita Sancti Geraldi Compendium names "Mathildem filiam Pippini Aquitaniæ regis…Geraldi aviam" and his parents "patre Geraldo Auriliaci comite…matre Adaltrude" when recording the birth of "Geraldum" in 855[310].  Gerard & his wife had [three] children: 

i)          GERARD ([855]-13 Oct 909).  The Vita Sancti Geraldi Aureliacensis Comitis names "domini Geraldus…oriundus…territorio… Arvernensi atque Caturcensi nec non…Albiensi…villa Aureliaco, patre Geraldo, matre…Adaltrude"[311]The Vita Sancti Geraldi Compendium names "Mathildem filiam Pippini Aquitaniæ regis…Geraldi aviam" and his parents "patre Geraldo Auriliaci comite…matre Adaltrude" when recording the birth of "Geraldum" in 855[312].  This date is tight chronologically if Gérard´s paternal grandmother was the daughter of Pepin I King of Aquitaine.  Comte d´Aurillac.  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc refers to his testament in which he names his nephew Renaud as his heir[313]

ii)         AVIGERNA (-after [894/909]).  The Vita Sancti Geraldi Aureliacensis Comitis records that "Raimundum…comitem filium…Odonis" captured "nepotem domni Geraldi…Benedictum, Tolosæ…vicecomitem" and that "Geraldus…cum sorore sua Avigerna" requested his release[314]m --- [Vicomte de Toulouse], son of ---. 

iii)        [ADALTRUDE (-after Sep 883).  “Sicbardus et conjuves mea Alaitrudis” sold a vine “infra ur[be Lemov]icino in pago Burgolio in villa...Tedlido” to “Eldeberto [et conjuge] sua Adaltrudis” by charter dated Sep 883[315].  It has been suggested that Adaltrude, wife of Hildebert, was the sister of Gérard Comte d´Aurillac[316]m as his first wife, HILDEBERT de Limoges, son of --- (-[14 May 904/1 May 914]).] 

 

 

It is not known how the following individuals were related to this family: 

1.         FROTERIUS (-936 or after)Bishop of Poitiers .  "Froterius episcopus" donated property to St Cyprien, Poitiers with the consent of "comite nostro Willelmo, nostris quoque consanguineis" by charter dated [932/36][317], "comite…Willelmo" presumably referring to Guillaume I Comte de Poitou (see below). 

 

2.         RAINO (-after 852).  Comte d'Herbauges.  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Rannulfus…comes Pictavensis et Raino comes Arbatilicensis consanguineus eius" fled after being defeated by the Vikings at "Briliaco villa", the event being dated from the context to the early 850s[318].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Ramnulfus comes…Pictavensis et Raino comes Arbaticensis, consanguineus eius" fled from the Vikings who attacked "Briliaco villa" in 852[319]

 

 

EBLE 890-892, 902-934

 

EBLE "Mancer", illegitimate son of RAINULF II Comte de Poitou, Duke of Aquitaine & his mistress --- ([870/75]-[932/34]).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes names "Eblum" as son of "Ramnulfus…comes Pictaviensis", another manuscript specifying that he was born "ex concubina"[320].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence names "Ramnulfus comes…Pictavensis…filium Eblum"[321].  The Chronico Richardi Pictavensis names "Ramnulfus Comes Pictavis filium…Eblum"[322].  He succeeded his father in 890 as EBLE "Mancer" Comte de Poitou, his illegitimacy apparently presenting no obstacle to his succession, although he was opposed by Adémar, son of Comte Emenon.  Comte Eble found refuge first with Géraud Seigneur d'Aurillac, later with Guillaume "le Pieux" Comte d'Auvergne, his uncles Gauzbert and Eble assuming the defence of his rights to Poitou until their deaths in late 892[323].  Poitou was captured by the forces of Eudes King of France, who gave the county to his brother Robert, who was expelled by Comte Aimar[324].  Comte Eble expelled Comte Aimar in 902 and was restored as Comte de Poitou.  He was recognised as Comte du Limousin in 904[325].  Guillaume de Jumièges records that Rollo invaded “Leugas...montis” and that "Ebulus...Pictavensis comes" was unable to defeat him[326].  Acfred Duke of Aquitaine appointed Eble as his heir, who succeeded as Duke of Aquitaine and Comte d'Auvergne in 927[327].  Raoul King of France transferred Aquitaine to Raymond Comte de Toulouse in 932[328].  "Ebolus…Pictavorum…comes" donated "in pago Alninse, Ingolinis, in villa…Verzeria" to St Cyprien, Poitiers by charter dated Jan 934 ("anno XI regnante Radulfo rege")[329].  On the other hand, a charter dated 932 was confirmed by "Guillelmus comes…post mortem patris sui"[330].  It is assumed that one of the documents is incorrectly dated. 

[m firstly] (betrothed before 10 Oct 892) AREMBURGE, daughter of ---.  She is named as the betrothed of Eble in his charter dated 10 Oct 890[331]: "Ebolus […comite] iuuenili adhuc ætate florens" donated "alodum…Aleriacum in pago Briocinse in vicaria Sauiniacinse super fluvium Carantum…Ciliacum…Curcolmum" to Tours Saint-Martin, for the souls of "genitoris mei Ramnulfi…ac avunculorum meorum Gauzberti et Eboli", and naming "sponsa eius…Aremburgis…in futuris nuptiis", by charter dated 10 Oct 892[332].  This document is redated to 10 Oct 890 by Mabille[333].  No document has been found which confirms that the marriage was ever finalised. 

m [secondly] (before Feb 911) EMILLANE, daughter of --- (-after [932/36]).  "Emmena femina" granted property "allodus situs in pago Pictavo in vicaria Salvinse in villa…Baidonnus" to "domnum Ebolum comitem et…uxorem eius Emillane" by charter dated Feb 911[334].  Ademar names "Adelam, filiam Rosi Rotomagensis" as wife of Eble and mother of "Willelmum Caputstupæ", but this is chronologically impossible, the individual being confused no doubt with the wife of Comte Guillaume I[335].  The Chronico Comitum Pictaviæ names "Hadelliam…Adestani regis Angliæ filiam" as wife of "Ebles Dux Aquitaniæ et Pictaviæ Comes"[336], but this also appears impossible.  "Willelmi comitis, Alaine comitisse que fuit monacha" subscribed the donation by "Rotbertus clericus" of property to St Cyprien, Poitiers by charter dated [932/36][337], it being assumed that "Alaine" was the mother of Comte Guillaume I although no relationship is stated in the document. 

Comte Ebalus & his [second] wife had two children:

1.         GUILLAUME de Poitou ([900]-Poitiers 3 Apr 963).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes names "Willelmus…cognomento Caput stupe" as one of the two sons of "Eblo duce", specifying that he was "Arvernis, Vallatis, Lemovice et Pictavis comes…dux Aquitaniæ"[338].  He succeeded his father as GUILLAUME I “Tête d'Etoupes/Capite-stupæ” Comte de Poitou.  He succeeded in 959 as GUILLAUME III Duke of Aquitaine

-        see below, Chapter 5

2.         EBLE de Poitou (-Abbaye de Saint-Michel-en-Lherm 26 Feb 977[339]).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes names "Eblus…pontifex Lemovicæ" as one of the two sons of "Eblo duce", specifying that he was abbot of "Sancti Hilarii ac Sancti Maxencii"[340].  Louis IV King of France confirmed the property of Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, in the presence of "Guillelmus comes et marchio et frater eius Ebolus atque Rotgarius comes", by charter dated 5 Jan 942[341].  "Guillelmus…Aquitanici ducatus comes" was present in a property transaction recorded by charter dated Jul 959 which also names "fratre nostro Ebulone episcopo abbate"[342].  The restoration by "Eblo episcopus Lemovice civitatis et comes Pictavorum" of the abbey of Saint-Maixent with the consent of "fratre eius Willelmo duce Aquitanorum" is recorded in a charter dated [960][343].  "Ebulus…Lemovicensium sedis episcopus" donated property including "alodum…meum Baidon" to Saint-Maixent "pro remedio animæ…fratris mei Guillelmi, sive pro consolatione nepotism mei equivoci Guillelmi Aquitanorum ducis" by charter dated Jan [965/66][344].  Richard suggests that this charter shows that the mother of Ebalus must have been Emillane, but his reasoning appears to be faulty.  He states firstly that Ebalus declares in the document that Baidon belonged to him "à titre héréditaire" (although the precise wording "allodium…meum" does not convey this meaning) and secondly that this property must have come to him from his mother who, he says, acquired the property in 911 (although she acquired the property jointly with her husband, as shown by the charter quoted above)[345].  Abbé de Saint Maixent 936.  Thesaurius of Saint-Hilaire-de-Poitiers 937/77.  Bishop of Limoges 944.  He resigned in 963 and became Abbé de Saint-Michel-en-Lherm.  He was captured by Hélie Comte de Périgord and blinded[346]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    DUKES OF AQUITAINE, COMTES de POITOU 902-1137

 

 

 

A.      DUKES OF AQUITAINE, COMTES de POITOU

 

 

GUILLAUME III (I) 934-963, GUILLAUME IV (II) 963-993

 

GUILLAUME de Poitou, son of EBALUS "Mancer" Comte de Poitou & his [second wife Emillane ---] ([900]-Poitiers 3 Apr 963, bur Saint-Cyprien).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes names "Willelmus…cognomento Caput stupe" as one of the two sons of "Eblo duce", specifying that he was "Arvernis, Vallatis, Lemovice et Pictavis comes…dux Aquitaniæ"[347].  The Chronico Comitum Pictaviæ names "Willelmum Caput-stupæ" as son of "Ebles Dux Aquitaniæ et Pictaviæ Comes" & his wife Adellia[348].  Ademar names "Willelmum Caputstupæ" as son of Eble and "Adelam, filiam Rosi Rotomagensis", but evidently confuses the latter with Guillaume's own wife[349]. He succeeded his father as GUILLAUME I “Tête d'Etoupes/Caput-stupæ” Comte de Poitou.  He was appointed lay abbot of Saint-Hilaire-de-Poitiers in Jan 942[350].  From the start of his reign, his possession of Poitou was disputed by Hugues "le Grand" Duc des Francs [Capet][351].  "Guillelmus comes vel abba summi pontificis domni nostri Hylarii" donated property "in pago Pictavo in viccaria Pictavis" to the church of Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers by charter dated Jun 941 or 942[352].  Louis IV King of France confirmed the property of Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, in the presence of "Guillelmus comes et marchio et frater eius Ebolus atque Rotgarius comes", by charter dated 5 Jan 942[353]Comte d'Auvergne et de Limoges 955.  Around this same time, Lothaire King of France extended the authority of Comte Guillaume over the whole of Aquitaine.  Although known to history as GUILLAUME III Duke of Aquitaine, charters record him as "Guillelmus…Aquitanici ducatus comes"[354] and "Guillelmus…Pictavensium sive Lemovicensium necne et Arvernensium comes insuper etiam Aquitainiæ comes palati"[355] as well as "Willelmi duci Aquitanorum cognomento Caput-Stupæ"[356].  He abdicated in 962, and became a monk at Saint-Cyprien de Poitiers[357].  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Willelmo Capite stupæ" was buried "apud ecclesiam Sancti Cypriani"[358]

m ([935]) ADELA [Gerloc] de Normandie, daughter of ROBERT I [Rollo] Comte [de Normandie] & his [second] wife Popa [de Bayeux] (-after 969).  Guillaume de Jumièges records that Rollo captured “Baiocasensem urbem” [Bayeux] along with "nobilissimam puellam...Popam filiam...Berengarii illustris viri" whom he married “more Danico” and by whom he had “Willelmum...filiamque...Gerloc[359].  Robert of Torigny also names "Willermum Longum Spatam et Gerloch" as children of "Rollo dux Northmannorum" and Poppa[360].  Guillaume of Jumièges records the marriage of “dux...sororem eius...Gerlco” and "Willelmus Pictavensis comes[361].  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records the marriage of "filius Ranulfi Eblus" and "Adelam filiam Rosi Rotomagensis"[362].  The Chronico Richardi Pictavensis also records that "Heblus…Pictavorum Comes et Dux Aquitaniæ duxit Adelam filiam Rolli Rothomagensis"[363].  This information is contradicted by other sources, is difficult to sustain from a chronological point of view, and is presumably in error.  Guillaume of Jumièges records the marriage of “dux...sororem eius...Gerlco” and "Willelmus Pictavensis comes[364].  She adopted the name ADELA when baptised.  "Guillelmi comitis, Adeleidis comitisse" subscribed a charter recording a donation to Cluny dated [963][365].  On 14 Oct 962, Lothaire King of France granted her the right to dispose of extensive property in Poitiers, la Cour de Faye, effectively putting an end to the long dispute between her husband and the family of Hugues "Capet".  She used the property to found the Monastery of Sainte-Trinité[366].  "Vuillelmus dux Aquitanorum" donated property to Saint-Jean d'Angély for the soul of "…matre mea Addela…" by charter dated [971][367]

Duke Guillaume III & his wife had two children:

1.         GUILLAUME de Poitou ([937]-Saint-Maixent [end 995/early 996], bur Abbaye de Saint-Maixent[368]).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes names "Willelmum" as son of "Willelmo Capite stupæ" when recording that he succeeded his father[369].  "Ebulus…Lemovicensium sedis episcopus" donated property including "alodum…meum Baidon" to Saint-Maixent "pro remedio animæ…fratris mei Guillelmi, sive pro consolatione nepotism mei equivoci Guillelmi Aquitanorum ducis" by charter dated Jan [965/66][370].  He succeeded his father in 963 as GUILLAUME IV "Fier-à-Bras/Fera Brachia" Duke of Aquitaine, GUILLAUME II Comte de Poitou, lay abbot of Saint-Hilaire-de-Poitiers.  "Guilelmus…Aquitanensium dux et cœnobii…Hylarii abbas" donated property to "clericus…Rodgarius" by charter dated Mar 967[371].  "Wilelmus…Aquitaniensium dux et cœnobii…Hylarii abbas" donated property to "Mainardo", at the request of "patruus noster domnus Ebolus, sancte Lemovicensis sedis episcopus atque…beati Hylarii archiclavus", by charter dated Jan 969, subscribed by "Adraldo vicecomes, Arbertus vicecomes, Kadeloni vicecomes…"[372].  At first a powerful duke, he led a dissolute life after the departure of his wife, became increasingly ill and fell under the influence of Madelme, an Italian doctor, whom he rewarded with a vast estate near Fontenay[373].  Duke Guillaume became increasingly religious following the return of his wife in 988, and under her influence the couple made donations to numerous religious establishments.  "Guilelmus Aquitaniencum dux" founded a hospital near Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers by charter dated Jan 989, subscribed by "Emma comitissa, Guillelmi filium eius, Guilelmi comitis Engolismæ…"[374].  It appears that a reaction to these religious excesses set in, and the duke's wife left him once more together with their older son in 991[375].  Duke Guillaume abdicated in Jan 993 in favour of his son, and retired to the Abbey of Saint-Cyprien de Poitiers, later transferring to the Abbey of Saint-Maixent where he became a monk on his deathbed[376]m ([968]) EMMA de Blois, daughter of THIBAUT I "le Tricheur" Comte de Blois & his wife Luitgard de Vermandois ([953]-1 Aug, 1004 or after).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records the marriage of "Willelmum" (son of "Willelmo Capite stupæ") and "filiam Tetbaldi Campenensis…Emmam"[377].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence names "filiam Tetbaudi Campanensis…Emmam sive Emelinam" as the wife of "Willelmu duce…Caput Stupæ…filium eius Willelmum"[378].  She inherited property near Vernon in eastern Normandy from her mother which she gave to the Abbey of Bourgueil in Aquitaine[379].  Her dowry in 968 was Chinon.  "Vuillelmus dux Aquitanorum" donated property to Saint-Jean d'Angély for the soul of "…uxore mea Emma…" by charter dated [971][380].  She fled Poitou between 976 and 988 because of the adulterous behaviour of her husband[381].  "Ledgardis" donated property to "Sancti Petri Carnotensis ecclesiam", for the souls of "senioris mei…comitis Tedbaldi…patris mei Heirberti, Trecassini comitis", with the consent of "archipresule…Hugone et…comite Odone, filiis meis", by charter dated 5 Feb 978, signed by "…Emma comitissa Pictavæ urbis…"[382].  "Guilelmus Aquitaniencum dux" founded a hospital near Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers by charter dated Jan 989, subscribed by "Emma comitissa, Guillelmi filium eius, Guilelmi comitis Engolismæ…"[383].  "Willelmus Aquitanorum comes et dux et uxor mea Hemma et filius noster equivocus Willelmus" donated property to Saint-Maixent by charter dated Dec 992[384].  "Emme matris eius" subscribed the donation by "Willelmus dux Aquitanorum" of property to St Cyprien, Poitiers by charter dated [990/1004][385].  She confirmed her son's 27 Dec 1003 donation of Bretignolle to the Abbey of Bourgueil, but according to Richard she was still alive when her first grandson was born in 1004[386].  A necrology of Vendôme La Trinité records the death "Kal Aug" of "Emma comitissa, Burgulii"[387]Mistress (1): --- de Thouars, daughter of ---.  Richard recounts that Comte Guillaume IV had adulterous relations with "une jeune femme de la famille vicomtale" when visiting the vicomte de Thouars, which triggered his marital separation from his wife Emma de Blois[388].  The primary source which confirms this has not yet been identified.  Duke Guillaume IV & his wife had [four or more] children:

a)         GUILLAUME d'Aquitaine ([969]-Maillezais 31 Jan 1030, bur Maillezais, Abbaye de Saint-Pierre).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes names "Willelmum" as son of "Willelmum" (son of "Willelmo Capite stupæ") and his wife "filiam Tetbaldi Campenensis…Emmam"[389].  He succeeded his father in 993 as GUILLAUME V "le Grand" Duke of Aquitaine, GUILLAUME III Comte de Poitou

-        see below

b)         EBLES d'Aquitaine (-[after 997]).  "Willelmi comitis, Eboli fratris sui" subscribed the charter dated to [990/1029] under which "Aimericus" donated property "in vicaria Vicodoninse in loco…Armenteria" to St Cyprien, Poitiers[390]

c)         other children .  The charter dated [971] under which "Vuillelmus dux Aquitanorum" donated property to Saint-Jean d'Angély for the soul of "…uxore mea Emma…" also refers to "filiis ac filiabus ex nobis procreatis"[391]

2.         [ADELAIS de Poitou ([950/55]-[1004]).  There is uncertainty about the origin of Adelais, wife of Hugues Capet.  The 11th century Translatio S. Maglorii et aliorum names "Adelaide…filia Pictavorum comitis, de progenie Caroli Magni" as the wife of "Hugone, Francorum duce", clarifying that the latter refers to Hugues "Capet" King of France when it names "Roberto…rege, memorati ducis filio"[392].  This Poitevin origin is also suggested by Richer who records that King Robert "ob nepotem suum Wilelmum" besieged "in Aquitania…Hildebertum"[393].  It is assumed that such a relationship between King Robert and Duke Guillaume would be through the king's mother as no family connection through his father has been established.  The Chronicle of Ademar de Chabannes, on the other hand, recounts the dispute between "Dux Aquitanorum Willelmus" and King Hugues, as well as the subsequent peace agreed between the parties in 990, without mentioning that the duke was the king's brother-in-law[394], all the more surprising if the Poitevin origin is correct as Ademar concentrates on Poitevin affairs and also includes genealogical details in his narrative.  Another possible ancestry is suggested by Helgaud's Vita Roberti Regis which names "Rex Francorum Rotbertus…patre Hugone, matre Adhelaide", specifying that "ab Ausonis partibus descenderat"[395].  Settipani equates "Ausonia" with Rome or Italy[396], although no other reference to an Italian origin for Adelais has yet been identified.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the mother of "rex Francorum Robertus" as "superiorem regum Anglie soror"[397] but it is difficult to see to whom this could refer or how it could be correct.  The paucity of references in contemporary sources to the wife of Hugues Capet and her origin contrasts sharply with the frequent references to his mother and to the wives of his son King Robert I.  This suggests that the background of Queen Adelais may have been obscure and that her family had little political influence at the time, although this would be surprising as her husband was already enjoying a position of some power at the Carolingian court at the time of his marriage.  Maybe her family was prominent when the couple married but suffered a subsequent decline by the time her husband was elected king.  Nevertheless, an Aquitainian marriage would have fitted the political circumstances of the time.  After several decades of dispute between the Capet and Poitou families, a permanent peace appears to have been established from about the time the marriage took place[398].   The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XVII Kal Jul" of "Adelaidis regina"[399]m ([968]) HUGUES Duc des Francs, son of HUGUES “le Grand” Duc des Francs & his third wife Hedwig of Saxony [Germany] ([940]-Les Juifs, near Prasville, Eure-et-Loire 24 Oct 996, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  He was elected HUGUES "Capet" King of France by an assembly of nobles at Senlis 29 May 987.] 

 

 

GUILLAUME V (III) 993-1030, GUILLAUME VI (IV) 1030-1038, EUDES 1038-1039, GUILLAUME VII 1039-1058

 

GUILLAUME de Poitou, son of GUILLAUME IV "Fier-à-Bras" Duke of Aquitaine [GUILLAUME II Comte de Poitou] & his wife Emma de Blois ([969]-Maillezais 31 Jan 1030, bur Maillezais, Abbaye de Saint-Pierre)The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes names "Willelmum" as son of "Willelmum" (son of "Willelmo Capite stupæ") and his wife "filiam Tetbaldi Campenensis…Emmam"[400].  "Vuillelmus dux Aquitanorum" donated property to Saint-Jean d'Angély for the soul of "…filios meo Vuilelmo…" by charter dated [971][401].  "Willelmus Aquitanorum comes et dux et uxor mea Hemma et filius noster equivocus Willelmus" donated property to Saint-Maixent by charter dated Dec 992[402].  His mother retained custody of Guillaume during her separation from his father, but returned him to Poitiers in May 988[403].  "Guilelmus Aquitaniencum dux" founded a hospital near Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers by charter dated Jan 989, subscribed by "Emma comitissa, Guillelmi filium eius, Guilelmi comitis Engolismæ…"[404].  He succeeded his father in 993 as GUILLAUME V "le Grand" Duke of Aquitaine, GUILLAUME III Comte de Poitou.  He summoned a council at Poitiers in 1000 which decided that future disputes should be settled by justice not recourse to arms[405].  Duke Guillaume enjoyed close relations with Emperor Heinrich II, with whom he exchanged gifts[406].  Rebels in Italy, opposed to the election of Konrad II King of Germany in 1024, offered the throne of Italy to Duke Guillaume, who refused the offer[407].  Duke Guillaume maintained an active correspondence with leading churchmen, men of science and political leaders and established a library for which he commissioned the transcription of manuscripts[408].  He abdicated in favour of his eldest son in 1029 and became a monk at the Abbey of Maillezais[409]

m firstly ([997]) as her second husband, ADALMODE de Limoges, widow of AUDEBERT I Comte de La Marche et du Périgord, daughter of GERAUD Vicomte de Limoges & his wife Rothilde de Brosse (-after 1005).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Aldebertus frater [Helias Petragoricensi comite]" married "sorore Widonis vicecomitis"[410].  Ademar records the second marriage of "Adalmode coniuge…Aldeberti" to Duke William[411].  The Chronicle of Petrus Malleacensis records that Adalmodis was wife of Boson Comte du Périgord and daughter of "Candida", for whom Duke Guillaume promised to expand "fluvium Rhodanum Regni" in return for marrying her daughter[412], but this is not consistent with the other sources.  According to the Chronicle of Maillezais, Adalmode was the daughter of Adelaide d'Anjou (presumably by her first husband Etienne de Brioude/Gévaudan), and also widow of Boson Comte du Périgord (brother of Comte Audebert I, whom he survived by several years).  Thierry Stasser has shown that this is incorrect[413].  After her first husband was killed, Adalmode sought refuge in the château de Rochemeaux but was forced to surrender by Poitevin forces[414]

m secondly (1011 before 10 Mar) SANCHA [Brisca] de Gascogne, daughter of GUILLAUME SANCHE Duke of Gascony & his wife Urraca de Navarra (-before 1018).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes names "Briscam" as sister of "dux Santii", when recording her marriage to "Willelmi ducis" after the death of the latter's first wife[415].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maixent names "sororem Sancii Ducis Gasconiæ, nomine Briscam" as second wife of Duke Guillaume, in a later paragraph recording the death of "Sancia conjuge Guillermi ducis"[416].  "Willelmi ducis Aquitanorum, Willelmi filii eius, Odoni filii eius, Prisca comitisse" subscribed the charter dated to [1012/18] under which "Ugo Liziniacensis domnus" donated property to St Cyprien, Poitiers[417].  An agreement between the abbots of Jumièges and Bougeuil concerning an exchange of land in Poitou, by charter dated [13 Apr/4 Apr] 1012, is subscribed by "Richardus…filius Ricardi principi magni…Vuillelmus Pictavorum comes et uxor Prisca…"[418]

m thirdly (1019) as her first husband, AGNES de Mâcon, daughter of OTHON GUILLAUME Comte de Mâcon [Bourgogne-Comté] & his first wife Ermentrude de Roucy ([990/95]-Saintes 10 Nov 1068, bur Poitiers, Priory of Saint-Nicolas).  Agnes is named as daughter of "Ermentrudis" in the Continuator of Flodoard, which specifies that she was mother of "Wido"[419].  Rodulfus Glaber states that "Willemus…Pictauensis" married one of the daughters of "Willemus, Henrici ducis priuignus, Adalberti Longobardorum ducis filius" & his wife[420].  "Agnes comitissa filia Ottonis cognomento Willelmi comitis Matiscensis, uxor…Wilelmi ducis Aquitanorum" donated property to Cluny by charter dated [1020][421].  She married secondly (1 Jan 1032, repudiated [1049/52]) Geoffroy "Martel" d'Anjou (-9 Nov 1067), who later succeeded as Geoffroy II Comte d'Anjou.  The Chronico Sancti Michaelis records that "Gaufredus Martellus Andegavensis comes" married "Agnetem comitissam Pictavensem" incestuously in 1032[422].  The Chronicæ Sancti Albini records the marriage "1032 Kal Jan" of "Gaufridus comes, Agnetem comitissam incesto", indirectly indicating her origin in a later passage which records the marriage "1043 XII Nov" of "Hainricus imperator [et] filiam Agnetis comitissæ"[423].  Her origin is clarified by the Chronicæ Sancti Albini which records the marriage "1043 XII Kal Nov…apud Vesbrianim" of "Henricus imperator…filiam Willelmi comitis Pictavorum et Agnetis"[424].  Geoffroy Comte d'Anjou & his wife founded the abbey of La Trinité de Vendôme by charter dated 31 May 1040, signed by "Goffridi comitis Andegavorum, Agnetis conjugis suæ…"[425].  A powerful personality, she succeeded in defeating her stepson Duke Eudes and installing her own son as Duke of Aquitaine, Comte de Poitou.  Regent of Aquitaine for her son 1039-1044.  She arranged her daughter's marriage with Emperor Heinrich III in 1043 and lived at the imperial court after this time.  "Goffredus…comes atque Agnes…uxor" donated property to the monks of La Trinité, Vendôme by charter dated 6 Jan 1049 subscribed by "Willelmi ducis Aquitanorum, Goffredi pueri fratris illius"[426].  "Gaufredus Andegavorum comes…uxor mea Agnes" made a donation to the priory of Saint-Nicholas de Poitiers by undated charter which also names "eius [Agnetis] filii comites…Pictavenses"[427].  A charter dated to [1060/67] recites a prior donation to Saint-Aubin d'Angers by "Hildegardis comitissa", who retained a life interest in the property which, after the death of the donor, was sold in turn to "Agneti comitissa" (recording her divorce from "comitum Gaufridum"), "comitem Gaufridum…Gaufridi nepotem" and finally "fratre eius Fulconi" who restituted it to the abbey[428].  After her separation from her second husband, in 1047 she founded the abbey of Notre-Dame de Saintes, where she became a nun in 1068[429].  "Agnes" founded the abbey of Saint-Nicolas at Poitou with the consent of "ambobus filiis Guillelmi et Gauffrido" by charter dated [1050][430].  "Aquitanorum…dux Gaufridus" confirms in his charter dated [1058/68] that "mea mater Agnes…frater meus Guillelmus" were both buried in the priory of Saint-Nicolas de Poitiers[431].  The necrology of Vendôme La Trinité records the death "IV Id Nov" of "Agnes comitissa"[432]

Duke Guillaume V & his first wife had [two children]:

1.         GUILLAUME de Poitou ([1004]-15 Dec 1038, bur Maillezais, Abbaye de Saint-Pierre)Ademar names "Willelmum" son of "Willelmi ducis" by his previous wife before he married "Briscam"[433].  "Willelmi ducis Aquitanorum, Willelmi filii eius, Odoni filii eius, Prisca comitisse" subscribed the charter dated to [1012/18] under which "Ugo Liziniacensis domnus" donated property to St Cyprien, Poitiers[434].  "Willelmi comitis et abbatis, eius filii Willelmi…Odonis…" subscribed the charter dated 3 Aug 1016 under which "Guilelmus…dux Aquitaniensium" granted rights to Saint-Hilaire de Poitier[435].  His father refused on his behalf an offer of the throne of Italy in 1025 made by rebels against Konrad II King of Germany[436].  "Willelmus Pictavorum comes et dux Aquitanorum…filius Guillelmi comitis" donated property to Saint-Maixent by charter dated [1023/26] subscribed by "Willelmi comitis, Willelmi patris eius"[437], the order of names in the subscription suggesting that some sharing of power took place between Duke Guillaume V and his son before the death of the former.  He succeeded his father in 1029 as GUILLAUME VI "Pinguis/le Gros/le Gras" Duke of Aquitaine, GUILLAUME IV Comte de Poitou, de Saintonge and de Guyenne.  The Chronicle of Saint-Maixent records that "Guillermus Pinguis filiorum eius maior natu" succeeded his father[438].  Geoffroy "Martel" d'Anjou (married to Duke Guillaume's stepmother) declared war on Poitou.  At the battle of Mont-Couer 20 Sep 1033, he captured Duke Guillaume who was released end-1036 following the intervention of his wife on payment of a large ransom[439].  It is incorrect, as stated by William of Malmesbury, that Duke Guillaume survived his release by only three days[440].  Rodolfus Glaber records the death of "Willelmus…Pictavorum comes" in the same year as Emperor Konrad II [1038], recalling that he had been released and sent home for a great ransom three years after his capture in battle by Geoffroy Comte d'Anjou[441].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maixent records that "Guillermi Comitis" (husband of Eustachie) was buried "cum patre apud Malliacum"[442]m (before 20 Jul 1031) EUSTACHIE, daughter of --- (-after 1038, bur Notre Dame de Poitiers).  "…Willelmi comitis, Eustachie…" subscribed a charter dated 1030 or 1031 under which "Raingardis" donated property "in pago Pictavo et in vicaria Ygrandinse in villa…Targiacus" to St Cyprien[443].  Eustachie is named with her husband in the records of a lawsuit while Robert I King of France still reigned[444].  "…Willelmi comitis Pictavensi…Eustachiæ comitissæ, Alæ comitissæ sororem Willelmi comitis" subscribed a charter dated 5 Dec [1031/33] under which "Willelmus Engelbertus et Willelmus filius Ansemi, nomine Lambertum, et sororem eius…Abba" donated property to Saint-Maixent[445].  "Eusthacia comitissa per mandatum domni mei Willelmi ducis" who was "positus in captione" donated property to Saint-Maixent by charter dated [1033/36] subscribed by "domni Willelmi comitis [despite his absence in captivity] Eustachiæ comitissæ, domni Hisemberti, Ala comitissæ…"[446].  Eustachie's origin is unknown.  According to Richard, the theory that she was Eustachie de Montreuil, daughter of Berlay [III] de Montreuil & his [first] wife --- is unsupported by primary sources[447].  The same author emphasises that, if the Montreuil origin is correct, Eustachie could not have been the daughter of Berlay [III]'s wife Grace, who married secondly in [1052] Geoffroy II "Martel" Comte d'Anjou, while "still young", but he does not cite his source for this last observation.  The Chronicle of Saint-Maixent records that "Eustachia uxore Guillermi Comitis" was buried "apud S. Mariam Pictavis"[448].  Duke Guillaume VI & his wife had [one possible] child:

a)         [AGNES de Poitou .  Agnes was the daughter of Duke Guillaume VI according to Szabolcs de Vajay, although he cites no source in support of this[449].  According to Richard, Duke Guillaume VI died childless[450].  Agnes is shown as the possible daughter of Duke Guillaume VII "l'Aigret" in Europäische Stammtafeln[451], marrying Pierre I Comte de Savoie as her second husband although she would have been only about six years old at the time of her supposed first marriage with Ramiro King of Aragon.  From an onomastic point of view, it is surprising that a daughter of Duke Guillaume VI would have been named Agnes, a name which appears to have been introduced into the family of the Comtes de Poitou only after the third marriage of Duke Guillaume V to Agnes de Mâcon.  The primary source which confirms her marriage to King Ramiro has not yet been identified.  m ([1054]) as his second wife, RAMIRO I King of Aragon, illegitimate son of SANCHO III King of Navarre & his mistress Sancha de Aibar (Aibar [1008]-killed in battle Graus 8 May 1063, bur Monastery of San Juan de la Peña).] 

2.         [ALIX ([1005/10]-after [1033/36]).  "…Willelmi comitis Pictavensi…Eustachiæ comitissæ, Alæ comitissæ sororem Willelmi comitis" subscribed a charter dated 5 Dec [1031/33] under which "Willelmus Engelbertus et Willelmus filius Ansemi, nomine Lambertum, et sororem eius…Abba" donated property to Saint-Maixent[452].  "Eusthacia comitissa per mandatum domni mei Willelmi ducis" who was "positus in captione" donated property to Saint-Maixent with the consent of "sororis eiusdem principi" by charter dated [1033/36] subscribed by "domni Willelmi comitis [despite his absence in captivity] Eustachiæ comitissæ, domni Hisemberti, Ala comitissæ…"[453].  The editor of this compilation suggests that "Ala comitissa" was Agnes, daughter of Duke Guillaume V & his third wife, who later married Emperor Heinrich III[454].  This seems unlikely.  None of Duke Guillaume VI's half-brothers subscribed any of his charters and it seems surprising if his half-sister Agnes would have been included.  "Ala" presumably held some semi-official role at court during the absence of her brother in captivity, shown by the fact that she is recorded as having consented to the donation made under the second charter.  As Agnes would have been under ten years old at the time, this provides another indication of the unlikelihood that she and Ala were the same person.  In addition, Agnes is not recorded as having subscribed any of the charters of her own full brothers.  It is more probable that Alix was a full sister of Duke Guillaume VI who is otherwise unrecorded.  It is possible that she is referred to as "comitissa" as the wife of an unidentified "comes".  No example has been found in this family of an unmarried daughter of the Duke of Aquitaine with the title, although it could have been used on an exceptional basis if the hypothesis concerning her function at court is correct.  If Alix was married, it is probable that she was a widow at the time of the charters, to explain her presence at the court of her brother without any husband being named.  She presumably died soon after these charters as no further record of her has been found.  [m ---.  As explained above, it is not certain that Alix was married.  If she was married, there is no indication of her husband's name.] 

Duke Guillaume V & his second wife had two children:

3.         EUDES de Poitou (-killed in battle Mauzé 10 Mar 1039, bur Maillezais, Abbaye de Saint-Pierre).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes names "Odonem" as son of "Willelmi ducis" and his wife "Briscam"[455].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maixent names "Odonem et Tetbaudum" as the two sons of Duke Guillaume and "sororem Sancii Ducis Gasconiæ, Briscam", specifying that Thibaut "puer mortuus est"[456].  "Willelmus Pictavorum comes et dux Aquitaniæ" donated property to Saint-Maixent for the souls of "filii mei Willelmi atque Odoni atque Tetbaudi" by charter dated [1013/22][457].  "Willelmi ducis Aquitanorum, Willelmi filii eius, Odoni filii eius, Prisca comitisse" subscribed the charter dated [1012/18] under which "Ugo Liziniacensis domnus" donated property to St Cyprien, Poitiers[458].  "Willelmi comitis et abbatis, eius filii Willelmi…Odonis…" subscribed the charter dated 3 Aug 1016 under which "Guilelmus…dux Aquitaniensium" granted rights to Saint-Hilaire de Poitier[459].  He succeeded his maternal uncle as Duke of Gascony in 1032.  It appears to be incorrect, as asserted by Richard, that Eudes only succeeded as Duke of Gascony in 1036 after the death of "Bérenger d'Angoulême"[460].  It is probable that the latter person never existed but was invented to explain the charter dated to [1060] under which "Auriol Garsies de Navarra" granted property in Gascony which he held "ex comite Berlengerio" to Garcia Arnaud Vicomte de Dax, Jaurgain suggesting that "comes Berlenger" can in fact be identified as Berenguer Ramon I Comte de Barcelona who happened to own some property in Gascony[461].  An undated charter records the donation by "Santius…comes" to Bordeaux Saint-Seurin and the confirmation after his death by his successor "eius nepos…Odo", signed by "Centullus de Bearnt, Arnaldus Aquensis, Willelmus Lup, Aichelmus Guillelmi, Andro Auriohl"[462].  He succeeded his half-brother in 1038 as EUDES Duke of Aquitaine, Comte de Poitou.  He was killed while asserting his rights to Poitou against his stepmother and half-brother[463].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Odo comes" was killed and buried "in Malliaco" with his father and brother[464]

4.         THIBAUT de Poitou (-young).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maixent names "Odonem et Tetbaudum" as the two sons of Duke Guillaume and "sororem Sancii Ducis Gasconiæ, Briscam", specifying that Thibaut "puer mortuus est"[465].  "Willelmus Pictavorum comes et dux Aquitaniæ" donated property to Saint-Maixent for the souls of "filii mei Willelmi atque Odoni atque Tetbaudi" by charter dated [1013/22][466].  He is named in a charter of the Abbey of Saint-Maixent, dated to after his mother's death and before his father's remarriage[467]

Duke Guillaume V & his third wife had four children.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[468], a fifth child Adelais married firstly Géraud [I] "Trencaléon" Comte d'Armagnac and secondly Arnaud [II] Vicomte de Lomagne, but this is clearly impossible chronologically given the death of Comte Géraud in [1014]. 

5.         PIERRE de Poitou (1023-1058, bur Poitiers, Priory of St Nicholas).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maixent names "Petrum cognomina Acerrimum et Gaufredum qui Wido vocatus est" as the twin sons of Duke Guillaume and his third wife Agnes[469].  He adopted the name GUILLAUME, "Willelmus filii mei" being named in the charter of his mother Agnes dated 1031[470].  .  He succeeded his half-brother in 1039 as GUILLAUME VII "Acerrimus/l'Aigret" Duke of Aquitaine, GUILLAUME V Comte de Poitou, under the regency of his mother until 1044.  Geoffroy II "Martel" Comte d'Anjou (formerly Duke Guillaume's stepfather) invaded Poitou in 1053[471].  "Aquitanorum…dux Gaufridus" confirms in his charter dated [1058/68] that "mea mater Agnes…frater meus Guillelmus" were both buried in the priory of Saint-Nicolas de Poitiers[472]m (1051) ERMESINDE, daughter of --- (-after 1062).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence names "Ermenseldim" as the wife of "Guillelmus Pictavorum dux et comes"[473].  The Chronicon Vindocinense records that "comes…Willelmus Pictavorum" married in 1051 but does not name his wife[474].  "Ermensendis uxoris eius" subscribed the charter of "Willelmus Aquitanorum dux, comes autem Pictavorum" dated [1050][475].  "W dux Aquitanorum…germano illius Gauzfrido" donated property to Saint-Maixent by charter dated 20 Dec [1045] subscribed by "W ducis sueque coniugis Hermensendis, Agnetis comitisse…"[476].  "[Name omitted]…comitis" donated property to Saint-Maixent "pro anime sue salute ac matris sue Agnetis ac venerabilis Ermensedis uxoris suæ" by undated charter subscribed by "Goffridi comitis"[477].  Settipani suggests[478] that Ermesinde may have been the daughter of Bernard II Comte de Bigorre & his first wife Clémence, based solely on onomastics.  She became a nun at Rome with her sister-in-law Empress Agnes[479].  Duke Guillaume VII & his wife had one child:

a)         AGNES de Poitou ([1052]-after 18 Jun 1089).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated 26 Oct 1078 under which "Agnes filia quondam Guillelmi Pictaviensis comitis et relicta…marchionis Petri" donated property to Pinerolo[480].  Agnes´s father is not identified more precisely in any document which has so far been found.  However, the reference to "quondam" in the 26 Oct 1078 charter excludes Guillaume VIII Duke of Aquitaine who was still alive at that date.  Duke Guillaume VI is also probably excluded as her father, as Agnes would have been over 26 years old at the time of her marriage if she had been his daughter (he died in 1038, see above).  This seems improbable as noble girls often married when aged 12 to 15 at the time.  Duke Guillaume VII is therefore left as the most likely candidate to be Agnes´s father.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[481], Agnes was the widow of Ramiro I King of Aragon.  Szabolcs de Vajay[482] states that the wife of King Ramiro was the daughter of Guillaume VI Duke of Aquitaine not of Duke Guillaume VII, although no source is cited to support this.  From an onomastic point of view, it is surprising that a daughter of Duke Guillaume VI would have been named Agnes.  The name appears only in the family of the Comtes de Poitou after the third marriage of Duke Guillaume V with Agnes de Mâcon [Bourgogne-Comté], whereas Duke Guillaume VI was the son of Duke Guillaume V's first marriage.  "Adalegida cometissa filia Maginfredi marchionis et relicta quond. Oddonis idemque marchionis" donated property to the monastery at Taurini, in the presence of "domne Agnetis comitissæ, filiæ Wilelmi comitis et relictæ quondam Petri marchionis", for the souls of "Maginfredi patris, Adalrici Astensis episcopi patrui, Berthæ matris et Petri marchionis filii predictæ comitissæ Adalegidæ", by charter dated 4 Jul 1079[483].  "Adalasia comitissa cum nuru sua Agneta et filia eius Agnete" donated property to "ecclesiæ S. Mariæ…Astensis episcopatus" by charter dated 18 Jun 1089[484]m (1064) PIERRE I Comte de Savoie, son of ODDON Comte de Chablais & his wife Adelaida di Susa ([1047/49]-killed 9 Aug 1078). 

6.         GUY de Poitou (1023-Chizé near Niort, Poitou 25 Sep 1086, bur Poitiers, église abbatiale de Saint-Jean l'Evangéliste de Montierneuf).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maixent names "Petrum cognomina Acerrimum et Gaufredum qui Wido vocatus est" as the twin sons of Duke Guillaume and his third wife Agnes[485].  "Wido" is named as son of Agnes (daughter of "Ermentrudis") in the Continuator of Flodoard[486].  He adopted the first name GEOFFROY, "Gausfredus filii mei" being named in the charter of his mother Agnes dated 1031[487].  He adopted the first name GUILLAUME when he succeeded his brother in 1058 as GUILLAUME VIII Duke of Aquitaine, GUILLAUME VI Comte de Poitou

-        see below

7.         AGNES de Poitou ([1025]-Rome 14 Dec 1077, bur Rome, St Peter's)Herimannus names her "Agnetam, Willehelmi Pictaviensis filiam" when recording her marriage[488].  The Chronicæ Sancti Albini records the marriage "1043 XII Kal Nov…apud Vesbrianim" of "Henricus imperator…filiam Willelmi comitis Pictavorum et Agnetis"[489].  She was crowned empress with her husband at Rome 25 Dec 1046.  She was regent during the minority of her son from 1056.  Her husband's old adviser, Gerhard von Eichstätt by then Pope Victor II, who was in Germany when her husband died, remained in Germany until spring 1057 as the chief adviser of Agnès and ensured a smooth transition of power[490].  She also installed herself as AGNES Duchess of Bavaria in 1056, until 1061 when she appointed Otto von Northeim as duke.  In 1062, Anno II Archbishop of Köln kidnapped her son King Heinrich IV and took him from Kaiserswerth to Köln.  Agnès resigned as regent and went to Rome[491].  According to the Preface of Vitæ Heinrici et Cunegundis Imperatores, "Agnes imperatrix eius [Chunigundis imperatricis] consanguinea, obiit Idus Decembris"[492], although the exact relationship between Agnes and Empress Kunigund (widow of Emperor Heinrich II) has not been traced.  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "XIX Kal Jan" of "Agnes imperatrix"[493].  The necrology of Speyer records the death "XIX Kal Jan" of "Agnes imperatrix"[494]m (Ingelheim 20 Nov 1043) as his second wife, HEINRICH III King of Germany, son of Emperor KONRAD II King of Germany & his wife Gisela of Swabia (Ostrebeck 28 Oct 1017-Burg Bodfeld im Harz 5 Oct 1056, bur Speyer Cathedral). 

8.         [BEATRIX de Poitou (-[1109]).  Beatrix is named as one of the children of Duke Guillaume V & his third wife in Europäische Stammtafeln[495] but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been found.  She is not named among the children of Duke Guillaume V by Richard[496].  If she was the daughter of Duke Guillaume, it seems surprising that she was married to a relatively obscure local nobleman, especially in light of the high profile marriage of her supposed sister Agnes.  m RAYMOND de Melgueil, son of BERNARD [III] Comte de Melgueil & his wife Adela --- (-before 1079).] 

 

 

Possible granddaughter of Guillaume V "le Grand" Duke of Aquitaine, there is no indication of the identity of her father if her supposed Poitou origin is correct: 

1.         [--- de Poitou .  Her marriage and family origin are confirmed by the charter dated 1088 under which "Regina ex prosapia non obscura…comitis Cononis filia qui frater extit Conraldi viri…in itinere Jerosolimitano defuncti, generi nimirum comitis Pictaviensis" donated property to the abbey of Marcigny-sur-Loire for the foundation of the priory of Aiwaille[497].  Fabri identifies "Conradi" as Conrad Comte [de Luxembourg], suggesting that "frater" should be interpreted in this passage to indicate brother-in-law, and that he was therefore the son-in-law ("generi") of "comitis Pictaviensis"[498].  If this alleged Poitou origin of the wife of Comte Conrad is correct, the problem is identifying her father.  There are few data points to establish the chronology of the family of the comtes de Luxembourg, but it appears likely that Comte Conrad would have been born in [1030/40].  If this is correct, his Poitou wife would most likely have been a granddaughter of Guillaume V "le Grand" Duke of Aquitaine [Guillaume III Comte de Poitou].  Secondary sources have suggested that she was the daughter of Duke Guillaume V´s son, Guillaume VII "Acerrimus/l'Aigret" Duke of Aquitaine [Guillaume V Comte de Poitou].  The thrust of the argument from which this conclusion is drawn is an explanation for the transmission of Longwy to the Luxembourg family: Alberic de Trois Fontaines names the wife of Comte Conrad "comitissa de Longui et de Castris Ermensendis"[499], and Comte Conrad´s daughter of the same name is later recorded as holding Longwy.  As the family origin of the wives of the other dukes of Aquitaine/comtes de Poitou is known, the argument proceeds on the assumption that Duke Guillaume VII´s wife Ermesinde is the only possible source from whom Longwy could have been inherited.  There are several difficulties with this argument.  Firstly, the word "gener", used in the 1088 charter, may have been used in a wider sense in the same way as "frater": for example, cases have been observed in other primary sources where "gener" indicates brother-in-law.  Secondly, it is far from certain that the passage in Alberic is factually correct: difficulties are suggested by the reference to "Castris", which normally indicates the county of Bliescastel, with which no connection can be found with the wife of Comte Conrad.   Thirdly, there is considerable uncertainty over the ownership of Longwy after the death of Comte Manegold in [1040] (see the document UPPER LOTHARINGIAN NOBILITY).  Fourthly, the mother of Comte Conrad´s daughter Ermensende (who later held Longwy) is confirmed in another charter (see the document LUXEMBOURG) as Conrad´s known wife Clémence, although it is of course possible that Alberic simply mistook the name and that Clémence was the heiress of Longwy.  In conclusion, there are too many variables in this situation to conclude that the wife of Comte Conrad was the daughter of Duke Guillaume VII.  m CONRAD Comte [de Luxembourg], son of GISELBERT Graf von Salm, Comte de Luxembourg & his wife --- (-in Palestine 8 Aug 1086, bur Luxembourg Münster Abbey).] 

 

 

The precise relationship between the following individual and the rest of this family has not been established: 

 

1.         EUDES (-after [1081]).  "Odon nepos Gofredi Pictavensis comitis" witnessed a charter dated [1081] under which "Gosselmus cognomento Villicus…" donated property "in vicario castro Auniaco" to Saint-Jean d'Angély[500].  Assuming that this charter is correctly dated, Eudes would have too old for nepos to be translated as grandson of Duke Guillaume VIII.  The possibilities are either that he was the son of one of Duke Guillaume's sisters, that he was a relative of one of Duke Guillaume's wives, or that he was illegitimate or descended from an illegitimate member of the family. 

 

 

GUILLAUME VIII (VI) 1058-1086

 

GUY d'Aquitaine, son of GUILLAUME V "le Grand" Duke of Aquitaine [GUILLAUME III Comte de Poitou] & his third wife Agnès de Mâcon [Bourgogne-Comté] (1023-Chizé near Niort, Poitou 25 Sep 1086, bur Poitiers, église abbatiale de Saint-Jean l'Evangéliste de Montierneuf).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maixent names "Petrum cognomina Acerrimum et Gaufredum qui Wido vocatus est" as the twin sons of Duke Guillaume and his third wife Agnes[501].  "Wido" is named as son of Agnes (daughter of "Ermentrudis") in the Continuator of Flodoard[502].  He adopted the first name GEOFFROY, "Gausfredus filii mei" being named in the charter of his mother Agnes dated 1031[503].  Comte de Gascogne 1039.  Comte de Bordeaux et d'Agen 1044.  "Goffredus…comes atque Agnes…uxor" donated property to the monks of La Trinité, Vendôme by charter dated 6 Jan 1049 subscribed by "Willelmi ducis Aquitanorum, Goffredi pueri fratris illius"[504].  He adopted the first name GUILLAUME when he succeeded his brother in 1058 as GUILLAUME VIII Duke of Aquitaine, GUILLAUME VI Comte de Poitou.  He extended his territories, confirming his authority in Gascony and pushing as far as Toulouse.  He took part in the capture of Barbastro from the Moors in 1064, although the town was lost soon after[505].  "Goffredus…dux Aquitanorum et Guillelmus filius eius" set entry conditions for monks at Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers by charter dated 1078 or 1079[506].  The Chronicon sancti Florentii Salmurensis records the death in Sep 1086 of "Guido Pictavorum comes"[507].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the death in 1086 of "Guido qui et Goffredus comes Pictavorum"[508]

m firstly (Jan 1044, repudiated 1058) as her second husband, AINA de Périgord, widow of EUDES de Bordeaux, daughter of [BOSON [III] Comte de Périgord & his wife Aina de Montignac] (-after 1058).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence names "Audeberti comitis Petragoricæ filiam" as the wife of "Gaufredus", specifying that they later separated on the grounds of consanguinity[509].  This is impossible from a chronological point of view if it is assumed the charters dated 1122 naming "Ascelina comitissa" (see ANGOULEME) refer to the wife of Audebert [III] Comte de Périgord.  It is therefore posited that Aina was the daughter of Boson [III] which, assuming the latter's birth in [990], is chronologically consistent with her first marriage before 1039.  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not so far been identified, although the charter dated 1043 under which "Ama comitissa Burdagelensis seu Petragorice patrie" donated property in the Dordogne to the monastery of Sainte-Marie-de-la-fin-des-terres suggests that it may be correct[510].  After her repudiation by her second husband, she became a nun at Notre Dame de Saintes where she died. 

m secondly (after Nov 1058, repudiated after May 1068) MATHILDE, daughter of ---.  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence names "Mateodam" as the second wife of "Goffredus"[511].  Kerrebrouck[512] says that the family origin of Mathilde is unknown but that she may have belonged to the family of the Vicomtes de Thouars, although the basis for this speculation is not known.  "Goffridi ducis Aquitanorum, Mathildæ comitissæ…" subscribed the charter dated May 1068 under which "Goscelinus beati Hilarii…thesaurarius" donated the monastery of Saint-Porchaire de Potiers to the abbey of Bourgueil[513]

m thirdly (Mar 1069, separated 1076) AUDEARDE [Hildegarde] de Bourgogne, daughter of ROBERT I "le Vieux" Duke of Burgundy & his second wife Ermengarde [Blanche] d'Anjou (-after 1120, bur Poitiers, [église abbatiale de Saint-Jean l'Evangéliste de Montierneuf]).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the marriage of "Guido comes" and "Aldeardim filiam Roberti ducis Burgundiæ" after he repudiated his previous wife[514].  Her precise parentage is deduced from a genealogy of the Comtes d'Anjou which names "Fulco (pater) Gosfridus et Ermengardis (mater) Gosfridus (et) Fulco (et) Hildegardis, de altero patre, filia Roberti ducis fratris Henrici regis"[515].  "Aimericus de Ranconia vocatus filius Aimeri qui fuit male peremptus et filius Burgoniæ" donated "mariscum et verniatam quæ sunt sub molendino de Ternant" to the abbey of Ternant Ste-Marie by charter dated 1105, witnessed by "Willelmi ducis, Aldiardis comitissa"[516]

Duke Guillaume VIII & his second wife had one child:

1.         AGNES d’Aquitaine ([1059]-[6 Jun 1078 or after 1099], bur [Sahagún, León, royal monastery of Santos Facundo y Primitivo]).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that the only daughter of "Goffredus" & his second wife was the wife of "Hildefonsi regis, filii Freelandi et nepotis Garsii", in a later passage recording their marriage in 1069[517].  She was known as INÉS in Castile.  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Ines" ("Agnetam") as the first of the "five legitimate wives" of King Alfonso[518].  The De Rebus Hispaniæ of Rodericus Ximenes names "Agnes" as first wife of "rex Aldefonsus"[519].  "Agnes regina" confirmed the donation to Cluny by "Adefonsus…princeps" dated 22 May 1077[520].  Reports of her subsequent history are mutually contradictory.  Orderic Vitalis refers to the second marriage of "Agnetem filiam Guillelmi Pictavorum ducis relictam Hildefonsi senioris Galiciae regis" and Hélie Comte du Maine[521].  However, Sandoval records that "la Reyna Doña Ines" died 6 Jun 1078 according to "las memorias del tumbo negro de Santiago"[522].  The accuracy of this statement is uncertain as, in the same passage, Sandoval states that the same source records the death in the same year "II Kal Jun" of "Sancius Rex filius Alfonsi Regis".  This latter entry presumably refers to the death of Sancho, son of King Alfonso VI, at the battle of Uclés in 1108, but it casts doubt on the accuracy of the year of the death of Queen Inés.  Another date is introduced by the Annales Compostellani which record the death "VIII Id Jun" in 1098 of “Regina Agnes[523].  This is the same day and month as stated in the tumbo negro, so it is possible that the year is wrongly given, although it is also possible that the Annales Compostelani are referring to the death of the wife of Pedro I King of Aragon (who must have died in 1097 or before).  Reilly[524] says that Queen Constanza was buried next to Queen Inés, which implies that the latter predeceased her successor.  The primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified, although if it is correct it does seem surprising that the repudiated queen remained in Castile until she died and that she was buried in the royal monastery.  If Orderic Vitalis is correct, Queen Inés must have been repudiated by her husband and later returned to France.  Another possibility is that Orderic´s passage misstates the name "Agnetem" for "Beatricem", and that the second wife of Comte Hélie was King Alfonso VI´s widow Beatrix whose family origin is not otherwise recorded and who would therefore have been a younger daughter of Duke Guillaume VIII (see below).  According to Kerrebrouck[525], Agnès d'Aquitaine never existed.  He says that the first wife of King Alfonso VI was Inés de Guzmán, although he does not name her parents or precise origin.  m [firstly] (betrothed 1069, [late 1073/early 1074], repudiated soon after 22 May 1077) as his first wife, ALFONSO VI King of Castile and Leon, son of don FERNANDO I "el Magno" King of Castile and León & his wife doña Sancha de León (Compostela [1037]-Toledo 30 Jun 1109, bur Sahagún, León, San Mancio chapel in the royal monastery of Santos Facundo y Primitivo).  [m secondly (after 1099) as his second wife, HELIE Comte du Maine, son of JEAN de la Flèche & his wife Paula du Maine (-11 Jul 1110, bur Saint-Pierre de la Couture).] 

Duke Guillaume VIII & his third wife had [four] children:

2.         GUILLAUME d’Aquitaine (22 Oct 1071-10 Feb 1126).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the birth "1071 XI Kal Nov" of "Goffredo duci…Guillelmus filius"[526].  He succeeded his father in 1086 as GUILLAUME IX Duke of Aquitaine, GUILLAUME VII Comte de Poitou

-        see below.  

3.         HUGUES d’Aquitaine (-after 1126).  "Ugo frater comitis" was named as present when "Guillelmus…Aquitainie similiter et Vasconie dux et comes" confirmed donations to Sainte-Croix, Bordeaux by "genitor noster Guillelmus qui et Gaufridus vocatus est" by charter dated 23 Mar 1096[527].  A charter dated 1104 records that, after the death of "domni Ansculphi abbatis" [abbot of Saint-Jean d'Angély] disputes arose between "Cluniacenses et Angeliacenses monachos" relating to the election of the new abbot, that "dominum Aenricum religione et nobilitate insignitum" was eventually elected in the presence of "[Vuillelmus dux Aquitaniæ]…comes Pictavensis…et Hugone fratre comitis…" but that serious disputes persisted ("gravia…scandalia pro hoc causa apud illas tunc temporis extiterant") and that it was agreed that after abbot Henri died they would elect their own abbot[528]

4.         AGNES d’Aquitaine (end 1072[529]-6 Jun 1097[530] or 1098, bur Monastery of San Juan de la Peña).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "filia Goffredo duci" & his third wife, born after her brother Guillaume, was betrothed to "Petrus filius Sancii regis Aragundiæ"[531].  The Annales Compostellani record the death “VIII Id Jun” in 1098 of “Regina Agnes[532]m (betrothed 1081, Jaca Jan 1086) as his first wife, PEDRO de Aragón, associate King in Sobrarbe and Ribagorza, son of SANCHO I King of Aragon & his first wife doña Isabel de Urgel ([1066/18 Aug 1068]-Valle de Aran 27 Sep 1104, bur Monastery of San Juan de la Peña).  He succeeded his father in 1094 as PEDRO I King of Aragon and Navarre. 

5.         [BEATRIX (-after Jun 1109).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Beatrice" as the fifth of the "five legitimate wives" of King Alfonso[533].  The De Rebus Hispaniæ of Rodericus Ximenes names "Beatrix ex partibus Gallicanis" as fifth wife of "rex Aldefonsus"[534].  According to the Chronicon Regum Legionensium, she "returned to her own country" after the king died[535].  No primary source has been identified which indicates her family origin.  Orderic Vitalis refers to the second marriage of "Agnetem filiam Guillelmi Pictavorum ducis relictam Hildefonsi senioris Galiciae regis" with Hélie Comte du Maine[536].  As noted above, it appears unlikely that this passage could refer to King Alfonso´s first wife named Agnes, whose death before the king´s second marriage is indicated (although not conclusively) by primary sources.  It is therefore possible that the entry relates to the king´s sixth wife, the name "Agnetem" being an error for "Beatricem".  If this was correct, she may have been the daughter of Guillaume VIII Duke of Aquitaine and his third wife, this parentage being the most probable from a chronological point of view if she was the daughter of one of the dukes of Aquitaine.  m [firstly] (1108) as his sixth wife, ALFONSO VI King of Castile and Leon, son of don FERNANDO I "el Magno" King of Castile and León & his wife doña Sancha de León (Compostela [1037]-Toledo 30 Jun 1109, bur Sahagún, León, San Mancio chapel in the royal monastery of Santos Facundo y Primitivo).  [m secondly (after Jun 1109) as his second wife, HELIE Comte du Maine, son of JEAN de la Flèche & his wife Paula du Maine (-11 Jul 1110, bur Saint-Pierre de la Couture)].] 

Duke Guillaume VIII had [three] [probably illegitimate] child[ren] by [an unknown mistress]:

6.          AGNES (-[1151/62]). Europäische Stammtafeln names “(Agnes), abbess of Saintes” as the illegitimate daughter of Guillaume IX Duke of Aquitaine[537], but the source cited below confirms that abbess Agnes was the daughter of Duke Guillaume VIII.  She was presumably illegitimate: the sources cited above indicate that the duke´s legitimate daughter named Agnes died in the late 11th century.  It is possible that Agnes was “Agnete amita mea” in the following charter: “Willelmus...dux Aquitanorum” donated “ecclesiam S. Juliani de Stapio...ecclesiam S. Mariæ de Clida” to Notre-Dame de Saintes “et abbatissæ Sibillæ amitæ meæ” by charter dated “XII Kal Sep”, signed by “eadem abbatissa Sibillla, et comitissa Tholosæ avia mea, et Agnete amita mea, et Arembergi de Volvent monacha...Petro episcopo...[538].  This charter does not specify the year but can be dated to [1126/27], given that Guillaume X Duke of Aquitaine (identified as the donor) succeeded his father in 1126 and that the successor of Pierre Bishop of Saintes (assuming that he can be identified as the subscriber “Petro episcopo”: it is likely that the bishop of Saintes would have been involved in transactions relating to Notre-Dame de Saintes) is named in a document dated 1127[539].  The identity of the subscriber “Agnete amita mea” is open to debate.  There are indications that she may have been Agnes de Mortain, wife of André [I] Seigneur de Vitry, who was the maternal great-aunt of the donor and sister of Sibylle Abbess of Notre-Dame de Saintes: see the document NORMANDY NOBILITY for a full discussion of this question.  The other possibility is that she was Agnes, daughter of Guillaume VII.  However, the subscriber  is not described as a nun in the document, in contrast to the person whose name follows hers in the subscription list.  As Agnes was appointed abbess only a few years later, it seems probable that she would already have been a nun, either at Notre-Dame de Saintes or elsewhere, at the time.  Abbess of Notre-Dame de Saintes 1134.  According to Gallia Christiana, she is named in documents dated between 1137 and 1174[540].  This is incorrect.  The charter dated 1174 which is quoted below demonstrates that there were two abbesses named Agnes during this period: Agnes, daughter of Guillaume VIII Duke of Aquitaine and Agnes de Barbezieux who is named in sources from 1162.  A charter dated 1134 records that “abbatissa Agnes” reclaimed property donated “tempore abbatisse Sibille” by “Arnaudus David”, but unjustly retained by “nepos eius Petrus...Crex” after his death, witnessed by “...Petrus nepos abbatisse, et capellani ecclesie Beate Marie...[541].  "Agnes...abbatissa" notified a donation to Notre-Dame de Saintes made by "Seguinus Beraudi by charter dated 15 Sep 1137[542].  “Agnes...Sancte Marie Xanctonensis ecclesie...abbatissa” confirmed an exchange of property involving “Normanneus...” by charter dated 1140, subscribed by “...dominabus, Alcaide decana, Ema de Joanzach, Augarde Meschina, Aleaide de Montiniaco, Maria abbatisse nepte...[543].  “Helienordis Francorum regina, et Willelmi ducis Aquitanici filia” confirmed the donation made by her husband Louis VII King of France to Notre-Dame de Saintes “et Agneti amite mee eiusdem loci abbatisse” by charter dated 28 Dec 1140[544].  "Agnes Sancte Marie...abbatissa" acknowledged a donation to Notre-Dame de Saintes made by "Ugo Benedictus dominus de Chauma" by charter dated 1150[545].  "Helienordis...Francorum regina et Aquitanorum ducissa" confirmed the privileges of Notre-Dame de Saintes, at the request of "Agnetis abbatisse", by charter dated 1151[546].  The date of Agnes´s death is indicated by the charter dated 1161 under which Bernard Bishop of Saintes granted privileges to Notre-Dame de Saintes relating to property donated by "Fulchonem Cherellum...in terra...de Malaimo", after a hearing at Notre-Dame de Saintes presided over by “Marie de Monchauza tunc priorisse Sancti Juliani, astantibus sororibus suis...Agnete de Berbezillo[547], the last-named being Agnes´s successor as abbess who is named as such in charters from 1162 (see the document ANGOULÊME, LA MARCHE, PERIGORD).  One potential difficulty is an interregnum between the death of the first Agnes and the appointment of the second.  A charter dated 1174 records the settlement of a dispute relating to property, reciting that it had been unjustly retained by “Constantinus Grassus...per multa tempore”, that "Agnes abbatissa filia Guidonis comitis" had been granted possession by "domno Bernardo Xanctonensi episcopo, bone memorie viro” [Bernard Bishop of Saintes named between 1141 and 1166[548]], that “Constantinus Grassus” had continued to retain the property and was excommunicated, that “Willelmus Helie filius suus...de Bernolio” retained the property after his father died, that “Agnes de Berbezillo ecclesie Beate Marie abbatissa” appealed to the Pope and that “Johannes Pictavensis episcopus” convoked the parties in the name of the Pope and reached judgment in favour of Notre-Dame de Saintes[549]. 

7.          [--- .  The parentage of Marie who is named below has not been ascertained.  One of the possibilities is that she was the daughter of another illegitimate child of Duke Guillaume VIII.  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         MARIE (-after 1140).  “Agnes...Sancte Marie Xanctonensis ecclesie...abbatissa” confirmed an exchange of property involving “Normanneus...” by charter dated 1140, subscribed by “...dominabus, Alcaide decana, Ema de Joanzach, Augarde Meschina, Aleaide de Montiniaco, Maria abbatisse nepte...[550]

8.          [--- .  The parentage of Pierre who is named below has not been ascertained.  One of the possibilities is that he was the son of another illegitimate child of Duke Guillaume VIII.  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         PIERRE (-after 1134).  Chaplain at Notre-Dame de Saintes.  A charter dated 1134 records that “abbatissa Agnes” reclaimed property donated “tempore abbatisse Sibille” by “Arnaudus David”, but unjustly retained by “nepos eius Petrus...Crex” after his death, witnessed by “...Petrus nepos abbatisse, et capellani ecclesie Beate Marie...[551]

 

 

The precise relationships between the following individual and the rest of this family has not been established: 

 

1.         RAOUL "de Scegonges" (-killed in battle near Adrianople 1101).  Albert of Aix records that "Willelmus comes et princeps Pictaviensium, de sanguine et origine Henrici tertii imperatoris Romanorum" crossed Hungary peacefully with "duce Bawariorum Welfone et…comitssa…Ida de marchia Osterrich", entered the territory of the Bulgars in which "duce Bulgarorum Guz" refused their passage into Adrianople, when "Rodulfus…de Scegonges ortus, cognatus ipsius Willelmi principis" was killed and "Hardewinus…de Sancto Medardo" captured, undated but in a passage adjacent to text which records events in 1101[552].  This person has not been identified, nor his precise relationship to Guillaume IX Duke of Aquitaine ascertained. 

 

 

GUILLAUME IX (VII) 1086-1126, GUILLAUME X (VIII) 1126-1137, ELEONORE 1137-1204

 

GUILLAUME d’Aquitaine, son of GUILLAUME VIII Duke of Aquitaine [GUILLAUME VI Comte de Poitou] & his third wife Hildegarde de Bourgogne [Capet] (22 Oct 1071-10 Feb 1126).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the birth "1071 XI Kal Nov" of "Goffredo duci…Guillelmus filius"[553].  "Willelmi filius eius" subscribed the donation by "Willelmus dux Aquitanorum" of property to St Cyprien, Poitiers by charter dated [1073/87][554].  "Goffredus…dux Aquitanorum et Guillelmus filius eius" set entry conditions for monks at Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers by charter dated 1078 or 1079[555].  He succeeded his father in 1086 as GUILLAUME IX Duke of Aquitaine, GUILLAUME VII Comte de Poitou.  Albert of Aix records that "Willelmus comes et princeps Pictaviensium, de sanguine et origine Henrici tertii imperatoris Romanorum" crossed Hungary peacefully with "duce Bawariorum Welfone et…comitssa…Ida de marchia Osterrich", entered the territory of the Bulgars in which "duce Bulgarorum Guz" refused their passage into Adrianople (when "Rodulfus…de Scegonges ortus, cognatus ipsius Willelmi principis" was killed and "Hardewinus…de Sancto Medardo" captured), but that Guillaume captured "ducem Bulgarorum" who was forced to allow the pilgrims to continue, undated but in a passage adjacent to text which records events in 1101[556].  According to Albert of Aix, after the army was dispersed in Asia Minor by the Turks, Duke Guillaume fled to "Longinath juxta Tursolt civitatem", from where he was rescued and brought to Antioch by Tancred's forces[557].  "Aimericus de Ranconia vocatus filius Aimeri qui fuit male peremptus et filius Burgoniæ" donated "mariscum et verniatam quæ sunt sub molendino de Ternant" to the abbey of Ternant Ste-Marie by charter dated 1105, witnessed by "Willelmi ducis, Aldiardis comitissa"[558].  He was a troubadour and composer of lyric poetry.  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the death "1126 IV Id Feb" of "Willelmus dux Aquitanorum" and his burial "Pictavis civitate apud Novum Monasterium"[559].  The necrology of the Prieuré de Fontaines records the death "10 Feb" of "Guillermus dux Aquitanorum"[560].  

m firstly (1089, divorced 1090) as her first husband, ERMENGARDE d'Anjou, daughter of FOULQUES IV "le Rechin" Comte d'Anjou & his first wife Hildegarde de Baugency ([1068]-Jerusalem 1 Jun 1146).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the daughter of "Fulco" as "comitissam Redonensem" but does not name her[561].  "Fulco Andegavensis comes" donated property to Angers with the consent of "filiis meis Gaufrido et Fulconello et filia mea Ermengarde" by charter dated 23 Jun 1096[562].  William of Tyre names her "Hermingerda", gives her father's name implying that she was born from his fifth marriage, and names her first husband "Pictaviensium comitis Willelmi", her divorce and her second husband "comes Brittaniæ"[563].  She married secondly ([1093]) as his second wife, Alain IV "Fergant" Duke of Brittany.  The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum records that "comitissa Brittaniæ" was the daughter of Foulques & his first wife "filiam Lancelini de Baugenciaco", adding that she became a nun at "Jerusalem in ecclesia Sanctæ Annæ" after her husband died[564].  "Fulco Andecavorum comes nepos Goffridi Martelli…consulis" donated property to Angers with the consent of "Ermenjarde filia sua comitissa Brittaniæ" by charter dated 12 Apr 1109[565].  The necrology of Angers Cathedral records the death "Kal Jun" of "Ermengardis comitissa Britanniæ mater Conan ducis et soror Fulconis regis Hierosolymitani"[566].  The Annals of St Salvator Redon record that "Ermengardeque Alani conjugem, vere piam ac religiosam" was buried at the abbey of Redon[567]

m secondly (1094, divorced 1115) PHILIPPA [Mathilde] de Toulouse, daughter of GUILLAUME IV Comte de Toulouse & his second wife Emma de Mortain (-28 Nov 1117).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the marriage of "Guillelmus" and "Philippam…filiam Willelmi comitis Tolosani et neptem Raimundi de Sancto Egidio"[568].  Robert of Torigny refers to, but does not name, "filiam unam" of "comes Tolosanus frater Raimundi comitis Sancti Ægidii" & his wife, who married "Guillermus comes Pictavensis et dux Aquitanorum"[569].  "Guillelmus…Aquitainie similiter et Vasconie dux et comes" confirmed donations to Sainte-Croix, Bordeaux by "genitor noster Guillelmus qui et Gaufridus vocatus est" with the consent of "Mathildis uxor…" by charter dated 23 Mar 1096[570].  It is assumed that Mathilde and Philippa refer to the same person.  "Willelmus comes et uxor mea Philippia, filia Willelmi comitis Tolosæ" donated property to Toulouse Saint-Sernin by charter dated Jul 1098[571].  She is also named in an undated donation by Bertrand Comte de Toulouse which names her father but not her husband[572].  “Philippæ comitissæ…Emmæ filia” reached agreement with “Bernardus-Atonis filius Ermengardis” by charter dated 1114[573].  Orderic Vitalis recounts that "Hildegarde Ctss de Poitou" complained to the synod of Reims, held in Oct 1119 by Pope Calixtus II, that her husband had abandoned her for "Malberge wife of the vicomte de Châtellerault"[574].  She became a nun.  The necrology of the Prieuré de Fontaines records the death "28 Nov" of "Philippa monacha, Pictavensis comitissa"[575]

Mistress (1): AMAUBERGE [Dangerose], wife of AIMERY [I] Vicomte de Châtellerault, daughter of ---.  She left her husband to live with Duke Guillaume, for which he was excommunicated.  Ralph de Diceto´s Ymagines Historiarum record that “Willelmus comes Pictaviensium” left “uxori suæ” for “pellicem...Amalbergam”, specifying that the resulting dispute lasted seven years[576].  Orderic Vitalis recounts that "Hildegarde Ctss de Poitou" complained to the synod of Reims, held in Oct 1119 by Pope Calixtus II, that her husband had abandoned her for "Malberge wife of the vicomte de Châtellerault"[577]

Duke Guillaume IX & his second wife had six children:

1.         GUILLAUME d'Aquitaine (1099-Santiago de Compostela 9 Apr 1137, bur Santiago de Compostela)The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the birth in 1099 of "Willelmo comiti…filius æquivoce Guillelmus"[578].  William of Tyre names him and his father[579].  Robert of Torigny names "Guillermum…pater…Alienor reginæ Anglorum" as the son of "Guillermus comes Pictavensis et dux Aquitanorum" & his wife "filia [comitis Tolosani fratris Raimundi comitis Sancti Ægidii]"[580].  He succeeded his father in 1126 as GUILLAUME X Duke of Aquitaine, GUILLAUME VIII Comte de Poitou.  “Willelmus...dux Aquitanorum” donated “ecclesiam S. Juliani de Stapio...ecclesiam S. Mariæ de Clida” to Notre-Dame de Saintes “et abbatissæ Sibillæ amitæ meæ” by charter dated “XII Kal Sep”, signed by “eadem abbatissa Sibillla, et comitissa Tholosæ avia mea, et Agnete amita mea...Petro episcopo...[581].  This charter does not specify the year but can be dated to [1126/27], given that Guillaume X Duke of Aquitaine (identified as the donor) succeeded his father in 1126 and that the successor of Pierre Bishop of Saintes (assuming that he can be identified as the subscriber “Petro episcopo”) is named in a document dated 1127[582].  “Guillelmus comes Pictaviensis et dux Aquitanorum” confirmed rights of “monachi Monasterii Novi Pictaviensis” granted by “Gaufredus avus et Guillelmus pater mei” by charter dated 1129[583].  “Willelmus…dux Aquitanorum” donated property to “ecclesiæ B. Hilarii de Cella” (La Celle, outside Poitiers) by charter dated 3 Mar 1130, subscribed by “Willielmi ducis Aquitanorum, Aenordis comitissæ, Alienordis filiæ eorum, Wilelmi Aigres filii eorum[584].  The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis records in 1136 that "Guillaume comte de Poitou et prince d'Aquitaine" died while on pilgrimage at "Saint-Jacques…la veille de Pâques" and was buried there[585].  The necrology of the Prieuré de Fontaines records the death "28 Mar" of "Willelmus dux Aquitanorum"[586]m firstly ELEONORE de Châtellerault, daughter of AMAURY [I] Vicomte de Châtellerault & his wife Amauberge "Dangereuse"[587] --- (-after Mar 1130).  “Willelmus…dux Aquitanorum” donated property to “ecclesiæ B. Hilarii de Cella” (La Celle, outside Poitiers) granted by “Gaufredus avus et Guillelmus pater mei” by charter dated 3 Mar 1130, subscribed by “Willielmi ducis Aquitanorum, Aenordis comitissæ, Alienordis filiæ eorum, Wilelmi Aigres filii eorum[588].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not so far been identified.  m secondly (1136) as her second husband, EMMA de Limoges, widow of BARDON de Cognac, daughter of ADEMAR [III] "le Barbu" Comte de Limoges & his [second wife Marie des Cars].  The Chronicon Gaufredi Vosiensis names "aliam filiam [Ademari]…Ennoa (seu Emma)" stating that she married "Guillermus Dux, frater Raymundi Antiochiæ principis" after the death of her earlier husband "Bardoni de Coniaco", before being abducted by "Willelmus Sector-ferri, filius Wlgrini Comitis Engolismensis"[589].  She married thirdly (after 1137) as his first wife, Guillaume d'Angoulême, who succeeded his father in 1140 as Guillaume VI "Taillefer" Comte d'Angoulême.  Duke Guillaume X & his first wife had three children:

a)         ELEONORE d'Aquitaine (Nieul-sur-Autize, Vendée or Château de Belin, Guyenne or Palais d’Ombrière, Bordeaux 1122-Abbaye de Fontevrault 1 Apr 1204, bur Abbaye de Fontevrault).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Alienor Guilielmi filia comits Pictavorum et Aquitanie ducis" as wife of "regi Francie Ludovico"[590].  “Willelmus…dux Aquitanorum” donated property to “ecclesiæ B. Hilarii de Cella” (La Celle, outside Poitiers) granted by “Gaufredus avus et Guillelmus pater mei” by charter dated 3 Mar 1130, subscribed by “Willielmi ducis Aquitanorum, Aenordis comitissæ, Alienordis filiæ eorum, Wilelmi Aigres filii eorum[591].  She succeeded her father in 1137 as ELEONORE Dss d’Aquitaine, Ctss de Poitou, Ctss de Saintonge, Angoûmois, Limousin, Auvergne, Bordeaux et Agen.  She left France with her husband in Jun 1147 on the Second Crusade[592].  "Helienordis...Francorum regina et Aquitanorum ducissa" confirmed the privileges of Notre-Dame de Saintes, at the request of "Agnetis abbatisse", with the consent of “Ludovici regis Francorum et ducis Aquitanorum collateralis nostri et Aelith sororis nostre”, by charter dated 1151[593].  She was crowned Queen Consort of England with her husband 19 Dec 1154 at Westminster Abbey.  She supported the revolt of her sons against their father in 1173, was captured and imprisoned in the château de Chinon, later at Salisbury until 1179.  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "XII Kal Apr" [1204] of "regina Alienor" and her burial "ad Fontem Ebraldi"[594].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the burial of "uxor [regis Henrici] regina Alienordis" in the same abbey as her husband[595]m firstly (Bordeaux, Cathedral of Saint-André  22 Jul 1137, annulled for reasons of consanguinity Château de Beaugency 21 Mar 1152) as his first wife, LOUIS associate King of France, son of LOUIS VI "le Gros/le Batailleur" King of France & his wife Adélaïde de Maurienne [Savoy] (1120-Paris, Palais Royal de la Cité 18/19 Sep 1180, bur Abbaye cistercienne de Notre-Dame-de-Barbeaux near Fontainebleau, transferred 1817 to l'église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  He succeeded his father in 1137 as LOUIS VII "le Jeune/le Pieux" King of France.  He was crowned Duke of Aquitaine, in right of his first wife, 8 Aug 1137 at Bordeaux.  m secondly (Poitiers or Bordeaux Cathedral 18 May 1152) HENRI Duke of Normandy, Comte d'Anjou et du Maine, son of GEOFFROY "le Bel/Plantagenet" Comte d'Anjou et du Maine & his wife [Empress] Matilda [Maud] of England (Le Mans, Anjou 5 Mar 1133-Château de Chinon 6 Jul 1189, bur Abbaye de Fontevrault).  He was recognised as HENRY II King of England after the death of Stephen 25 Oct 1154, he was crowned in Westminster Abbey 19 Dec 1154. 

b)         GUILLAUME d'Aquitaine (-[3 Mar 1130/9 Apr 1137]).  “Willelmus…dux Aquitanorum” donated property to “ecclesiæ B. Hilarii de Cella” (La Celle, outside Poitiers) granted by “Gaufredus avus et Guillelmus pater mei” by charter dated 3 Mar 1130, subscribed by “Willielmi ducis Aquitanorum, Aenordis comitissæ, Alienordis filiæ eorum, Wilelmi Aigres filii eorum[596]

c)         AELIS [Petronille] d'Aquitaine ([1125]-after 24 Oct 1151, bur St Arnould in Crépy).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines specifies that "Alienor Guilielmi filia comits Pictavorum et Aquitanie ducis" had two sisters one of whom married "Radulfus…comes Perone et Veromandie", although he does not name them[597].  The Historiæ Tornacenses record the wife of "Radulfem comitem" as "germanam Alienore regine Francorum" but also do not name her[598].  Robert of Torigny refers to the mother of the infant children of "Radulfus de Perrona comes Viromandorum" as "iuniore filia Willelmi ducis Aquitanorum" but he does not name her either[599].  The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis names "Eléonore et Pétronille" as the two daughters of "Guillaume comte de Poitou et prince d'Aquitaine", recording in 1142 that Pétronille married "Raoul comte de Vermandois" after he repudiated his first wife[600].  "Helienordis...Francorum regina et Aquitanorum ducissa" confirmed the privileges of Notre-Dame de Saintes, at the request of "Agnetis abbatisse", with the consent of “Ludovici regis Francorum et ducis Aquitanorum collateralis nostri et Aelith sororis nostre”, by charter dated 1151[601]m (1142) as his second wife, RAOUL I "le Vaillant" Comte de Vermandois, son of HUGUES "le Maisné" de France Comte de Vermandois & his wife Adelais Ctss de Vermandois, de Valois et de Crépy ([1094]-13 Oct 1152, bur Priory of Saint-Arnoul de Crépy). 

2.         --- de Poitou .  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Willelmo comiti…" & his wife had five daughters, of whom one married "vicecomiti Toarcensi"[602].  The source does not name the Vicomte de Thouars in question, and it should be noted that there are several possibilities as different adult males in the family are recorded as having used the title at the same time.  same person as…?  AGNES [Mathilde] ([late 1103][603]-8 Mar [1160 or before]).  Most secondary sources assume that the husband of this daughter of Duke Guillaume IX was Aimery [VI] Vicomte de Thouars, and therefore that her second husband was Ramiro II King of Aragon.  See for example Europäische Stammtafeln[604], although this source states that Agnes was the illegitimate daughter of Duke Guillaume IX by his mistress Amauberge.  However, it should be noted that another primary source (a fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine) specifically records the marriage of "Aimericus de Theofagiis vicecomes…de Thoarcio" and "Mahaudam [Agnes dicta] ex prosapia sua [=Willelmus Pictaviensis comes]…filia Willelmi de Podio-Fagi qui Franciæ camerarius erat in vita Regis Philippi"[605] (see Part B below for this family, which emphasises the dubious background to this source).  If this is correct, the husband of the daughter of Duke Guillaume IX must have been another Vicomte de Thouars.  Whatever her true parentage, Agnes is named with her first husband for the first time in a document dated 9 Jan 1117[606].  Robert of Torigny records the marriage of "Remelium monachum [filim Santii regis Arragonem]" and "Mathildem matrem Willermi vicecomitis Toarci"[607].  The Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium records that "Raimirus" married "sororem comitis Pictaviensis" after leaving his monastery following his accession[608], apparently corroborating Agnes's supposed Aquitainian parentage.  The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña states that "Don Ramiro el monje" married "la filla del conde de Piteus"[609]The Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris also records the marriage of Ramiro and "the sister of the count of Poitou"[610].  "Ranimirus…rex…cum coniuge mea regina Angnes" donated property to San Pedro de Antefruenzo by charter dated Oct 1136[611].  Agnes's son Guillaume de Thouars ceded rights to her before leaving on crusade in 1147[612].  Her son Geoffroi de Thouars made a donation in 1160 stipulating prayers for his deceased mother[613]m firstly (before 9 Jan 1117) AIMERY [VI] de Thouars, son of GEOFFROY [III] Vicomte de Thouars & his wife Ameline --- (-killed in battle 1127).  He succeeded his father in [1123] as Vicomte de Thouars.  m secondly (Jaca [Nov/Dec] 1135) RAMIRO II “el Monje” King of Aragon and Navarre, son of SANCHO I King of Aragon [SANCHO V King of Navarre] & his second wife Félicie de Roucy (after 1083-Huesca 16 Aug 1157).  He abdicated in 1137 in favour of his infant daughter, and retired to the monastery of San Pedro el Viejo at Huesca 1137-1157. 

3.         four daughters .  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Willelmo comiti…" & his wife had five daughters, of whom one married "vicecomiti Toarcensi"[614].  Stroński suggests that one of them may have been Philippa, wife of Hélie [IV] Talairand de Périgord.  This is based on a charter dated 1131, under which "Helias Talayrandus…princeps" confirmed donations of his father and antecedents to Saintes, subscribed by "comitissæ Philippa uxoris suæ…Rudello comite in Petragorico, Talairando nepote suo"[615].  Stroński highlights Philippa's use of the title "comitissa", in contrast to her husband who does not bear the title "comes", and suggests that she used this in her own right.  He proposes that she may have been one of the five daughters of Guillaume IX Duke of Aquitaine and his wife Philippa de Toulouse about whom little information is known[616]

Duke Guillaume IX had two [probably illegitimate] children by [Mistress (1)]:

4.          RAYMOND (Toulouse ---- -killed in battle near Inab 28 Jun 1149).  William of Tyre records that "dominus rex" [referring to Foulques King of Jerusalem] who was guardian of "domino Boamundo principi jam defuncto…filiæ eius" proposed "adolescens…Raimundus…domini Wilelmi Pictavensium comitis filius", who was living "in curia domini Henrici senioris Anglorum regis" where he had been made a knight ("apud quem arma sumpserat militaria") while "domino Wilelmo fratre eius primogenito Aquitaniam jure hereditario gubernante"[617].  William of Tyre records in a later passage that ambassadors from Antioch were sent to "domino Raimundo Pictavensium comitis filio…adolescentem", "apud dominum Henricum seniorem Anglorum regem" who had made him a knight ("a quo et arma sumpserat militaria, moram facere"), and brought secretly from England to Antioch[618]Orderic Vitalis names "Raimundus…Guillelmi Pictavensium ducis filius" when recording that "post mortem Henrici regis" went east and married "filiam Buamundi junioris"[619].  A primary source which identifies Raymond´s mother has not yet been identified.  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that Raymond was the son of Duke Guillaume IX, born later than his other children, in a passage which is strangely worded: the paragraph starts by recording the birth of Duke Guillaume´s son "æquivoce Guilelmus vocatus", proceeds by stating that from his wife ("ex supradicta conjuge", presumably the same wife who was the mother of Guillaume referring back to an earlier passage in which the duke´s marriage to "Philippam…filiam Willelmi comitis Tolosani…" is recorded[620]) he had five daughters ("quinque filias…"), then adds in a new sentence "Novissime genuit apud Tolosam uterinum, videlicet Raimundum, qui postea regnavit in Antiochia"[621].  Assuming that Raymond was the duke´s legitimate son, the more straight-forward way for the chronicler to have recorded his birth would have been to run the two sentences together: for example "ex supradicta conjuge habuit quoque quinque filias…et…Raimundum…".  In addition, the chronicle refers to Raymond as "uterinum", a noun in the accusative case, so translatable as "the uterine one".  This epithet makes little sense if it refers back to the same mother who is described earlier in the passage as "supradicta conjuge".  So why does the chronicler distinguish between Raymond and the other children with this curious wording?  The adjective "uterinum/uterine" of course normally describes children born from the same mother but who do not necessarily share the same father.  This meaning makes no sense if applied to the passage in the Chronicle of Saint-Maxence.  One possibility is that the accusative noun "uterinum" is used to describe "the one born from the woman", "the woman" representing a guarded reference to the duke´s mistress (to whom the Chronicle does not otherwise refer at any point) which distinguishes her from "supradicta conjuge".  It is not certain that this is the correct interpretation.  The passage highlights the difficulty of getting inside the mind of the medieval chronicler, and the danger of interpreting complex phrases in a way which strays from the author´s intent.  Nevertheless, this passage in the Chronicle clearly conceals some meaning which is not obvious.  One conclusion is that Raymond was born from the duke's relationship with Amauberge "Dangereuse".  Another indication that this may be correct is the fact that Raymond is described as "adolescens" by William of Tyre (see above), which suggests his birth after [1115/20], by which time Duke Guillaume was probably separated from his wife. 

-        PRINCES of ANTIOCH

5.          HENRI (-after 1136).  William of Tyre records that, during the course of arranging the marriage of Raymond de Poitiers and Constance of Antioch, the Patriarch of Antioch agreed that, if "domini Raimundi frater Henricus" came "in partes…Antiochenas", he would marry "puellæ matrem, domini Boamundi viduam"[622].  This is the only reference which has yet been found to Henri.  There is no indication of the identity of his mother.  The reference to Raymond suggests that the two were probably full brothers who shared the same father and mother.  Assuming that this is correct, he is shown as the possible child of the duke by his mistress Amauberge [Dangereuse].  This proposed marriage shows that Henri was not the same person as the abbot of Saint-Jean d'Angély, appointed in 1104, and abbot of Peterborough appointed in [1127], who is shown above in the present document in the section which follows the paragraphs dealing with the family of Guillaume VIII Duke of Aquitaine.  The sources quoted in that paragraph above also show that it is impossible from a chronological point of view for the two to have been the same person. 

 

 

 

B.      Du PUY-du-FOU

 

 

According to Richard, the genealogy shown below was fabricated by René du Puy-du-Fou (and therefore presumably dated to the 1620s/1630s), who also fabricated a chronicle in latin as the supposed primary source, and was first published by Augustin du Paz in his Table généalogique de la maison Du Puy-du-Fou in 1639[623].  It is reported only in a small group of chronicles from Aquitaine, presumably all based on the same original source.  These documents are not mutually compatible, as shown by the chronological difficulties linking the brothers Geoffroy and Renaud du Puy-du-Fou with their supposed parents Hugues du Puy-du-Fou and his [second] wife Valentia de Lusignan (see below).  It has not so far been possible to corroborate any of the details from other primary sources, although as can be seen below it is difficult to ignore this reconstruction entirely because of the supposed links to other contemporary noble families.  According to one of these sources, the brothers “Trullo de Podio Augusti et Rainaldi de Podio Fagi“ (shown below) were sons of “Willelmus Ferrum-sector” who, it says, was the son of “Trullus” Vicomte de Thouars, whose ancestry it traces to other vicomtes de Thouars, descended from an otherwise unrecorded brother of Ebles Duke of Aquitaine and Comte de Poitou[624].  This descent, and the alleged earlier vicomtes de Thouars which this source purports to record, are inconsistent with the lineage of the vicomte de Thouars recorded in other primary sources (see the document POITOU).  The alleged family of du Puy-du-Fou is of some interest in view of the alternative origin which the source provides for the wife of Ramiro II King of Aragon and Navarre, ancestor of all later kings of Aragon through their daughter Petronilla, and for the other supposed links to other noble families. 

 

 

Two brothers (alleged ancestry, see above): 

1.         TRULLUS du Puy-Auguste .  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine names "Trullo de Podio Augusti et Rainaldo de Podio Fagi fratre suo" among those present at a donation to the abbey of Saint-Maixent[625]m MATHILDE, daughter of --- Vicomte d´Aulnay & his wife ---.  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records that "Trullus…de Podio Augusti Ferrum-Sectoris Willelmi superstes…cum uxore Mahauda, filiisque suis Willelmo de Podio-Augusti et Rainaldo de Floscellaria" donated property “apud Loretum, Chassani Cœnobitis” to the abbey of Saint-Maixence, and all possessions which “Mahauda” had “a Callo patre suo Vicecomite de Oënaio[626].  Trullus & his wife had two children: 

a)         GUILLAUME du Puy-Auguste .  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records that "Trullus…de Podio Augusti Ferrum-Sectoris Willelmi superstes…cum uxore Mahauda, filiisque suis Willelmo de Podio-Augusti et Rainaldo de Floscellaria" donated property “apud Loretum, Chassani Cœnobitis” to the abbey of Saint-Maixence[627]

b)         RENAUD de Floscellaire .  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records that "Trullus…de Podio Augusti Ferrum-Sectoris Willelmi superstes…cum uxore Mahauda, filiisque suis Willelmo de Podio-Augusti et Rainaldo de Floscellaria" donated property “apud Loretum, Chassani Cœnobitis” to the abbey of Saint-Maixence[628]

2.         RENAUD du Puy-du-Fou (-before 1060).  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine names "Trullo de Podio Augusti et Rainaldo de Podio Fagi fratre suo" among those present at a donation to the abbey of Saint-Maixent, adding that Renaud was “Franciæ Camerarius” under Henri I King of France but died before the king[629]m as her first husband, HAVISE [de Broyes, daughter of HUGUES [I] "Bardoul" Seigneur de Broyes & his wife Alvidis ---].  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records that "Rainaldus…de Podio-fagi, Trulli frater germanus…cum Helvisa conjuge filiisque suis Hugone atque Willelmo" donated property “de Henssionensi” to the abbey of Saint-Maixence[630].  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records that "Helvisa" was the daughter of “Hugone nuncupato Bardulfo qui tenuit Puirium castrumque de Bellofonte et etiam de Novigento” and that she married “Valeranno Franciæ Camerario” after the death of her first husband[631].  However, it should be noted that this particular source appears not to be completely reliable.  Until another source emerges which corroborates Havise´s origin and marriage, it is best to treat this information with some caution.  She married secondly Galéran.  Renaud & his wife had two children: 

a)         HUGUES du Puy-du-Fou .  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records that "Rainaldus…de Podio-fagi, Trulli frater germanus…cum Helvisa conjuge filiisque suis Hugone atque Willelmo" donated property “de Henssionensi” to the abbey of Saint-Maixence, adding that “Helvisæ primogenitus Hugo, Rainaldui primi viri sui filius” held “castrum de Podio-Fagi” from “Roberto de Mauritania consobrino[632]m PETRONILLE, daughter of ---.  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records that "Hugo…cum Petronilla conjuge et Gaufredo filio” donated property to “S. Johannis Angeriacensis”, in the presence of “Willelmo Franciæ Camerario, Hugonis fratre germano, et Willelmo Ferrum-sectore Comite Engolismensi, Gaufredi quondam Comitis filio et Comitissæ Petronillæ, ac etiam fratre Petronillæ supra nominatæ[633]

b)         GUILLAUME du Puy-du-Fou A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records that "Rainaldus…de Podio-fagi, Trulli frater germanus…cum Helvisa conjuge filiisque suis Hugone atque Willelmo" donated property “de Henssionensi” to the abbey of Saint-Maixence, adding that “Helvisæ primogenitus Hugo, Rainaldui primi viri sui filius” held “castrum de Podio-Fagi” from “Roberto de Mauritania consobrino[634].  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine names "Willelmi de Podio-Fagi qui Franciæ camerarius erat in vita Regis Philippi", stating that his daughter was "Mahaudam [Agnes dicta] ex prosapia sua [=Willelmus Pictaviensis comes]"[635]m ADELA de Beaumont, daughter of IVES [II] Comte de Beaumont-sur-Oise & his second wife Adelais --- A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine names "Adellia…Yvonis filia comitis Bellimontis atque Adeliæ Comitissæ" as wife of “Willelmus…domini Philippi Franciæ Regis Camerarius” and mother of “Hugonem, Willelmum et Mahaudam[636].  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records that "Hugo…Camerarii Willelmi filius" and his wife donated property to the abbey of Mauléon for the souls of "Willelmi atque Adelliæ patris et matris Hugonis…"[637].  Guillaume & his wife had three children: 

i)          HUGUES du Puy-du-Fou (-after 1137, bur Poitiers Franciscan Church).  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine names "Hugo…Camerarii Willelmi filius", clarifying that he was "Regis Lodoici VI Camerarius"[638]

-         see below

ii)         GUILLAUME du Puy-du-Fou A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records that "Guillelmus frater eiusdem [Hugo…Camerarii Willelmi filius]" was Bishop of Poitiers[639]Bishop of Poitiers

iii)        AGNES [Mathilde] du Puy-du-Fou (-8 Mar [1160 or before]).  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records the marriage of "Aimericus de Theofagiis vicecomes…de Thoarcio" and "Mahaudam [Agnes dicta] ex prosapia sua [=Willelmus Pictaviensis comes]…filia Willelmi de Podio-Fagi qui Franciæ camerarius erat in vita Regis Philippi"[640].  This, however, is not the only possible parentage for Agnes, who married firstly Aimery [VI] Vicomte de Thouars and secondly Ramiro II King of Aragon.  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Willelmo comiti…" (referring to Guillaume IX Duke of Aquitaine) & his wife had five daughters, of whom one married "vicecomiti Toarcensi"[641].  The source does not name the Vicomte de Thouars in question, and it should be noted that there are several possibilities as different adult males in the family are recorded as having used the title at the same time.  However, the Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium apparently corroborates this Aquitainian origin when it records that "Raimirus" (referring to Ramiro II King of Aragon) married "sororem comitis Pictaviensis" after leaving his monastery following his accession[642].  Whatever her true parentage, Agnes is named with her first husband for the first time in a document dated 9 Jan 1117[643].  Robert of Torigny records the marriage of "Remelium monachum [filim Santii regis Arragonem]" and "Mathildem matrem Willermi vicecomitis Toarci"[644].  "Ranimirus…rex…cum coniuge mea regina Angnes" donated property to San Pedro de Antefruenzo by charter dated Oct 1136[645].  Agnes's son Guillaume de Thouars ceded rights to her before leaving on crusade in 1147[646].  Her son Geoffroi de Thouars made a donation in 1160 stipulating prayers for his deceased mother[647]m firstly (before 9 Jan 1117) AIMERY [VI] de Thouars, son of GEOFFROY [III] Vicomte de Thouars & his wife Ameline --- (-killed in battle 1127).  He succeeded his father in [1123] as Vicomte de Thouarsm secondly (Jaca [Nov/Dec] 1135) RAMIRO II “el Monje” King of Aragon and Navarre, son of SANCHO I King of Aragon [SANCHO V King of Navarre] & his second wife Félicie de Roucy (after 1083-Huesca 16 Aug 1157).  He abdicated in 1137 in favour of his infant daughter, and retired to the monastery of San Pedro el Viejo at Huesca 1137-1157.   

 

 

HUGUES du Puy-du-Fou, son of GUILLAUME du Puy-du-Fou & his wife Adela de Beaumont (-after 1137, bur Poitiers Franciscan Church).  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine names "Hugo…Camerarii Willelmi filius", clarifying that he was "Regis Lodoici VI Camerarius"[648].  Another Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum records that "Hugonis de Podio-fagi…Valentiæ de Lesignen" were buried "cœnobium…fratrum Prædicatorum Pictavi"[649]

m firstly TIPHAINE de Craon, daughter of MAURICE [I] Sire de Craon & his wife Tiphaine ---.  Her marriage and parentage are confirmed by a fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine which records that "Hugo…Camerarii Willelmi filius" and his wife donated property to the abbey of Mauléon for the souls of "…Mauricii qui tenuit in vita sua Credonium in pago Andegavensi, atque Theophaniæ, Anguillæ nuncupatæ, patris et matris eiusdem Theophaniæ Burgundiæ", dated to [1126/37], witnessed by "Hugone de Credonio fratre Burgundiæ-Theophaniæ…"[650]

m secondly VALENTIA de Lusignan, daughter of GEOFFROY de Lusignan & his wife --- (-bur Poitiers Franciscan Church).  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records that "Hugonem de Podio-fagi" later married "Valentiæ", daughter of "Galfridi de Lesignan", and names "Galfridus de Podio-fagi et Rainaldus" as their children[651].  This Geoffroy de Lusignan has not been identified in the main Lusignan family.  A Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum records that "Hugo de Podio-fagi…cum uxore Valentia" donated property "terræ apud Larmenum" to "sancti adjutoris Maxentii cœnobium", on the advice of "Galfridus de Podio-fagi"[652].  Another Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum records that "Hugonis de Podio-fagi…Valentiæ de Lesignen" were buried "cœnobium…fratrum Prædicatorum Pictavi"[653]

Hugues & his first wife had four children: 

1.         HUGUES du Puy-du-Fou .  A Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum records that "Hugo de Podio-fagi cum uxore sua Theofania Burgundia et filiis suis Hugone et Rainaldo" donated property to "sancti adjutoris Maxentii cœnobium"[654].  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records that "Hugonis de Podio-fagi avunculi sui" advised "Savarici de Malo-leone" to pledge homage to "rex Lodoicus" who had besieged "castrum Niorti"[655]

2.         RENAUD du Puy-du-FouA Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum records that "Hugo de Podio-fagi cum uxore sua Theofania Burgundia et filiis suis Hugone et Rainaldo" donated property to "sancti adjutoris Maxentii cœnobium"[656]

3.         ALIX du Puy-du-Fou .  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine names "Alipsa…Hugonis de Podio-fagi filia" as wife of "Ebles de Malo-leone", and their children "Radulfum…atque Savaricum"[657]m EBLES de Mauléon, son of ---. 

4.         ADELA du Puy-du-FouA fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine names "Hadelia…eiusdem Hugonis filia" (following directly after the passage naming "Hugonis de Podio-fagi") as wife of "Sigebertus Chabot de Volvento", and their son "Theobaudus"[658]m [as his second wife,] SEBRAND Chabot Seigneur de Vouvent, son of THIBAUT [I] Chabot Seigneur de Vouvent & his wife Alix de Vouvent (-after 1152). 

Hugues & his second wife had two children: 

5.         GEOFFROY du Puy-du-Fou .  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records that "Hugonem de Podio-fagi" later married "Valentiæ", daughter of "Galfridi de Lesignan", and names "Galfridus de Podio-fagi et Rainaldus" as their children[659]m ---.  The name of Geoffroy´s wife is not known.  Geoffroy & his wife had one child: 

a)         BERTHE du Puy-du-Fou .  A fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records the marriage of "Johanni Comiti primogenitor Galfridi Grisagonellæ Comitis Vindonicensis atque Mahaudæ Castridunensis" and "Bertham", daughter of "Gaufridus de Podio-Fagi, filius Hugonis, ex eiusdem Ducis [=Willelmi Pictaviæ Ducis Aquitaniæ] progenie"[660]m as his first wife, JEAN Comte de Vendôme, son of GEOFFROY "Grisegonelle" Comte de Vendôme & his wife Mathilde de Châteaudun (-La Charité-sur-Loire [1185]). 

6.         RENAUD du Puy-du-FouA fragmentary chronicle of the dukes of Aquitaine records that "Hugonem de Podio-fagi" later married "Valentiæ", daughter of "Galfridi de Lesignan", and names "Galfridus de Podio-fagi et Rainaldus" as their children[661]

 

 

The brothers Geoffroy and Renaud du Puy-du-Fou, shown below, should be the same persons as the brothers of the same names, sons of Hugues du Puy-du-Fou and his second wife Valentia de Lusignan, assuming the accuracy of the source quoted below.  However, a glance at the dates shows that this is unlikely to be correct.  In addition, no trace in the family of the Vicomtes de Thouars has been found of their wives as reported in the same source.  No corroboration of the existence of these individuals has so been identified in other sources. 

1.         GEOFFROY du Puy-du-Fou (-Rupella ----, bur Poitiers Franciscan Church).  A Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum records the donation by "Galfridus", for "Hugonis de Podio-fagi patris illius et Valentiæ de Lesignen matris eiusdem", to "fratrum Prædicatorum Pictavi"[662].  This donation is dated to "existente…Comite nostro Adelphonso", indicating Alphonse de France who was invested as Comte de Poitou by his brother King Louis IX in Jun 1241, although this is late for this to refer to Geoffroy, son of Hugues who was camerarius of King Louis VII.  The Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum records that "Galfridum de Podio-fagi" died "apud Rupellam", and was buried "cum uxore Agnete de Thoarciis apud fratrum Prædicatorum [Pictavi]"[663]m AGNES de Thouars, daughter of AIMERY Vicomte de Thouars & his wife Agnes ---.  A Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum records the donation by "Galfridus…cum Agnete coniuge…eorumque filio Aimerico", and "Widone de Thoarcio eiusdem Agnetis fratre", explaining that "Wido et Agnesilla" were children of "Aimerico vicecomite de Thoarcio et Agnete uxore"[664].  The Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum records that "Galfridum de Podio-fagi" was buried "cum uxore Agnete de Thoarciis apud fratrum Prædicatorum [Pictavi]"[665].  Geoffroy & his wife had one child: 

a)         AIMERY du Puy-du-Fou .  A Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum records the donation by "Galfridus…cum Agnete coniuge…eorumque filio Aimerico"[666]m EMMETTA de Laval, daughter of GUY de Laval [Montmorency] & his wife Philippa de Vitré ([1240/54]-).  A Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum records the marriage of "Aimericum Galfredi de Podio-fagi filium" and "Emmettæ dominis Widonis de Lavallia defuncti et Philippæ de Vitreo filiæ"[667].  Aimery & his wife had four children: 

i)          GUY du Puy-du-Fou .  A Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum names "Widonem de Podio-fagi, Rainaldum, Catharinam et Johannem" as the children of "Aimericum Galfredi de Podio-fagi filium" and his wife[668]

ii)         RENAUD du Puy-du-FouA Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum names "Widonem de Podio-fagi, Rainaldum, Catharinam et Johannem" as the children of "Aimericum Galfredi de Podio -fagi filium" and his wife[669]

iii)        CATHERINE du Puy-du-Fou .  A Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum names "Widonem de Podio-fagi, Rainaldum, Catharinam et Johannem" as the children of "Aimericum Galfredi de Podio-fagi filium" and his wife[670]

iv)       JEAN du Puy-du-Fou .  A Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum names "Widonem de Podio-fagi, Rainaldum, Catharinam et Johannem" as the children of "Aimericum Galfredi de Podio-fagi filium" and his wife[671]

2.         RENAUD du Puy-du-Foum ADELA de Thouars, daughter of SAVARY Vicomte de Thouars & his wife ---.  A Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum records the marriage of "Rainaldus de Podio-fagi, frater Galfridi" and "Hadelliam…Savarici vicecomitis de Thoarcio filiam", naming their sons "Rainaldum et Johannem"[672].  Renaud & his wife had two children: 

a)         RENAUD du Puy-du-FouA Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum names "Rainaldum et Johannem" as sons of "Rainaldus de Podio-fagi, frater Galfridi" and his wife "Hadelliam…Savarici vicecomitis de Thoarcio filiam"[673]

b)         JEAN du Puy-du-Fou .  A Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum names "Rainaldum et Johannem" as sons of "Rainaldus de Podio-fagi, frater Galfridi" and his wife "Hadelliam…Savarici vicecomitis de Thoarcio filiam"[674]

 

 



[1] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4, and Llorente, J. A. (1807) Noticias Históricas de las tres provincias vascongadas Álava, Guipúzcoa y Vizcaya (Madrid), Vol. III, 7, pp. 38-80. 

[2] Jaurgain, J. de (1898) La Vasconie, étude historique et critique, première partie (Pau), p. 71, citing Cardinal de Aguirre (1693-94) Collectio Conciliorum Hispaniæ (Rome), t. III, p. 131. 

[3] Jaurgain (1898), p. 81, citing Tamayo de Salazar, J. (1651-59) Anamnesis sive commemoration omnium sanctorum Hispanorum (Lyon), t. V, p. 392. 

[4] Jaurgain (1898), p. 84. 

[5] MGH LL Capitularia regum Francorum, p. 198.

[6] Miracula Martialis II 3, MGH SS XV, p. 281. 

[7] Historia Wambæ Regis Auctore Iuliano Episcopo Toletano 27, MGH SS rer Merov V, p. 523. 

[8] Vic, Dom C. de and Dom Vaissete (1840) Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. (Paris), Tome II, Preuves, III, p. 592. 

[9] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[10] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Nicolao 12, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 415. 

[11] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[12] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[13] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[14] Fredegar, IV, Continuator, 10, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 174. 

[15] Fredegar, IV, Continuator, 13, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 175. 

[16] Annales Metenses 735, MGH SS I, p. 325. 

[17] Fredegar, IV, Continuator, 15, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 175.   

[18] Annales Petaviani 736, MGH SS I, p. 9. 

[19] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[20] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[21] Annales Metenses 735, MGH SS I, p. 325. 

[22] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[23] Fredegar, IV, Continuator, 25, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 180. 

[24] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”) 741, p. 37. 

[25] Annales Metenses 744, MGH SS I, p. 328. 

[26] RFA 769, p. 47. 

[27] Monlezun, J. J. (1846) Histoire de la Gascogne Tome I (Auch), p. 294. 

[28] Annales Laurissenses 768, MGH SS I, p. 146. 

[29] Annales Metenses 768, MGH SS I, p. 335. 

[30] Fredegar, IV, Continuator, 44, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 188. 

[31] Annales Metenses 744, MGH SS I, p. 328. 

[32] Annales Metenses 749, MGH SS I, p. 331. 

[33] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[34] RFA 748, p. 39. 

[35] RFA 760 and 761, p. 43. 

[36] Annales Mettenses 765, MGH SS I, p. 334. 

[37] RFA 768, p. 46. 

[38] Annales Sancti Amandi Continuatio 768, MGH SS 1, p. 11. 

[39] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[40] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[41] Annales Laurissenses 768, MGH SS I, p. 146. 

[42] Annales Metenses 768, MGH SS I, p. 335. 

[43] Annales Laurissenses 768, MGH SS I, p. 146. 

[44] Annales Metenses 768, MGH SS I, p. 335. 

[45] Annales Metenses 744, MGH SS I, p. 327. 

[46] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[47] Einhardi Annales 770, MGH SS I, p. 149. 

[48] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[49] Monlezun Histoire de Gascogne, p. 302. 

[50] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[51] Monlezun Histoire de Gascogne, p. 274. 

[52] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[53] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[54] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 625 footnote 74, which does not cite the reference for this information. 

[55] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[56] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[57] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[58] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[59] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[60] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[61] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[62] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[63] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[64] Monlezun Histoire de Gascogne, p. 274. 

[65] Fredegar (Continuator) 45 and 50, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 189 and 191. 

[66] Annales Metenses 765, MGH SS I, p. 334. 

[67] Annales Laurissenses 768, MGH SS I, p. 146. 

[68] Monlezun Histoire de Gascogne, pp. 281 and 283. 

[69] Monlezun Histoire de Gascogne, p. 285. 

[70] Isidori Pacensis Episcopi Chronicon 58, España Sagrada VIII, p. 302. 

[71] Monlezun Histoire de Gascogne, pp. 253-4, citing "Isidore de Beja, Chronique". 

[72] Monlezun Histoire de Gascogne, pp. 256-7. 

[73] Isidori Pacensis Episcopi Chronicon 58, España Sagrada VIII, p. 302. 

[74] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. 

[75] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 250. 

[76] RFA 813, p. 95. 

[77] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591. 

[78] RFA 814, p. 97. 

[79] MGH LL Capitularia regum Francorum 1 and 3, p. 198.

[80] Doniol, H. (ed.) (1863) Cartulaire de Saint-Julien de Brioude (Clermont Ferrand/Paris), 340, p. 350. 

[81] Annales Bertiniani II 838. 

[82] Chavanon, J. (ed.) (1897) Adémar de Chabannes, Chronique (Paris) III, 16, p. 132. 

[83] Marchegay, P. and Mabille, E. (eds.) (1869) Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (Paris) Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, p. 359. 

[84] Settipani (1993), pp. 275-7. 

[85] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 626. 

[86] Einhardi Annales 822, MGH SS I, p. 209. 

[87] Miraculis Sancti Genulfi 6, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1206. 

[88] Ermoldi Nigelli Carmina, MGH Poetæ latini II, p. 90. 

[89] Settipani (1993), p. 277 footnote 601. 

[90] Brioude 340, p. 350. 

[91] Settipani (1993), p. 353. 

[92] Miraculis Sancti Genulfi 6, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1206. 

[93] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“Nithard") I.8, p. 139. 

[94] Adémar de Chabannes III, 16, p. 132. 

[95] Annales Xantenses 844, MGH SS II, p. 227. 

[96] Annales Bertiniani 859, MGH SS I, p. 453. 

[97] Settipani (1993), pp. 281-2. 

[98] Hincmar, Consilium de pœnitentia Pippini regis (Migne, Patrologiæ, series latina, CXXXV, col. 1119-1122, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 283 footnote 638. 

[99] Miraculis Sancti Genulfi 6, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1206. 

[100] Annales Bertiniani II 854. 

[101] Settipani (1993), p. 278. 

[102] Ruodolfi Fuldensis Annales, 856, MGH SS I, p. 370. 

[103] Ruodolfi Fuldensis Annales, 863, MGH SS I, p. 375. 

[104] Vita Hludovici Imperatoris 61, MGH SS II, p. 645. 

[105] Auzias, L. (1937) L'Aquitaine carolingienne (778-987) (Toulouse-Paris), p. 93, and Werner (1967) 'Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen bis um Jahr 1000 (1.-8. Generation)', Karl der Große, IV, p. 447, both cited in Settipani (1993), p. 279. 

[106] Settipani (1993), pp. 279-80. 

[107] Vita Sancti Geraldi Compendium, 2, Patrologia Latina, Vol. 133, col. 0703C. 

[108] Vita Hludovici Imperatoris 61, MGH SS II, p. 645. 

[109] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 35, MGH SS II, p. 597. 

[110] Richard, A. (1903) Histoire des Comtes de Poitou (republished Princi Negue, 2003) Tome I, p. 28. 

[111] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[112] Settipani (1993), pp. 313-4. 

[113] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[114] Annales Bertiniani III 866. 

[115] Chronico Floriacensi apud Chesnium Tomo 3, p. 355, cited in RHGF VII, p. 272. 

[116] Merlet, R. (ed.) (1896) La chronique de Nantes (Paris) VIII, pp. 22 and 24. 

[117] Adémar de Chabannes III, 16, p. 132. 

[118] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 366. 

[119] Annales Bertiniani III 866.   

[120] Adonis Continuatio Prima, Auctore Anonymo 866, MGH SS II, p. 324. 

[121] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 53. 

[122] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 58-9. 

[123] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 371. 

[124] Ademari Historiarum III.21, MGH SS IV, p. 123. 

[125] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 95. 

[126] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 99. 

[127] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 103 footnote 44. 

[128] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 99. 

[129] Quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 52. 

[130] Bondurand, E. (ed.) (1887) Le manuel de Dhuoda 843 (Paris), Introduction, 5, p. 52. 

[131] Annales Bertiniani III 868, footnote 1 naming "tertius Bernardus qui honoribus privatus fuerat 864 in conventu Pistensi filius erat Bernardus Septimaniæ ducis qui in 844 a Carolo Calvo occisus est". 

[132] Brioude 176, p. 187. 

[133] Annales Bertiniani III 877. 

[134] Brioude 131, p. 146. 

[135] Desjardins, G. (ed.) (1879) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Conques en Rouergue (Paris) ("Conques"), no. 153, p. 135-6. 

[136] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn., Tome II, Preuves, CXVII, p. 685, and 3rd Edn., Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 6, col. 74. 

[137] Annales Fuldenses 880, cited in Bouchard, C. B. (1987) Sword, Miter, and Cloister: Nobility and the Church in Burgundy 980-1198 (Cornell University Press), p. 261. 

[138] Obituaires de Lyon I, Eglise primatiale de Lyon, footnote 2 identifying the entry with Bernard "Plantevelue". 

[139] ES III 731. 

[140] Brioude 131, p. 146. 

[141] Brioude 176, p. 187. 

[142] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn., Tome II, Preuves, CXVII, p. 685, and 3rd Edn., Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 6, col. 74. 

[143] Conques, no. 153, p. 135-6. 

[144] RHGF IX, p. 712. 

[145] ES III 731. 

[146] Lespinasse, R. de (ed.) (1916) Cartulaire de Saint-Cyr de Nevers (Nevers, Paris) 15, p. 31. 

[147] Bernard, A. and Bruel, A. (eds.) (1876-1903) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny (Paris) Tome I, 53, p. 61. 

[148] Cluny Tome I, 286, p. 282. 

[149] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 372. 

[150] Settipani (1993), p. 375 footnote 89. 

[151] Cluny Tome I, 112, p. 124. 

[152] RHGF IX, p. 712. 

[153] Annales Masciacenses, MGH SS III, p. 169. 

[154] ES III 731.  Settipani (1993), p. 375, gives "before 910" as the date of the marriage. 

[155] Cluny Tome I, 112, p. 124. 

[156] Cluny Tome I, 205, p. 193. 

[157] Annales Masciacenses, MGH SS III, p. 169.  

[158] Cluny Tome I, 446, p. 434, and I.449, p. 438. 

[159] Nathaniel Taylor 'Rotbald and William the Pious' at GEN-MEDIEVAL-L@rootsweb.com, 29 Jul 2003. 

[160] Cluny Tome I, 286, p. 282. 

[161] Brioude 315, p. 314. 

[162] Cluny Tome I, 53, p. 61. 

[163] Cluny Tome I, 286, p. 282. 

[164] Brioude 315, p. 314. 

[165] Cluny Tome I, 286, p. 282. 

[166] ES II 68 and III 731. 

[167] Cluny Tome I, 286, p. 282. 

[168] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn., Tome II, Preuves, CLII, p. 700. 

[169] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 94. 

[170] Cluny Tome I, 112, p. 124. 

[171] Cluny Tome I, 286, p. 282. 

[172] Cluny Tome I, 270, p. 264. 

[173] Cluny Tome I, 275, p. 270. 

[174] Cluny Tome I, 286, p. 282. 

[175] Brioude 315, p. 314. 

[176] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 95. 

[177] Cluny Tome I, 286, p. 282. 

[178] Brioude 315, p. 314. 

[179] Baluze, S. (1708) Histoire généalogique de la maison d´Auvergne (Paris) ("Baluze (1708) Auvergne"), Tome II, p. 25.  This charter has not been found in Doniol, H. (ed.) (1863) Cartulaire de Brioude (Paris) ("Brioude"). 

[180] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 25.  This charter has not been found in Brioude. 

[181] Baluze (1708) Auvergne"), Tome II, p. 25.  This charter has not been found in Brioude. 

[182] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 26. 

[183] ES III 731. 

[184] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 25.  This charter has not been found in Brioude. 

[185] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 475.  This charter has not been found in Brioude. 

[186] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 26. 

[187] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 475.  This charter has not been found in Brioude. 

[188] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 475.  This charter has not been found in Brioude. 

[189] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 25.  This charter has not been found in Brioude.  

[190] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 25.  This charter has not been found in Brioude.  

[191] Baluze (1708) Auvergne, Tome II, p. 26. 

[192] Monsabert, P. de (ed.) (1936) Chartes de l´abbaye de Nouaillé de 678 à 1200 (Poitiers) ("Nouaillé"), 4, p. 5. 

[193] Besly (1647), Preuves, p. 149, and Nouaillé, 5, p. 6. 

[194] Richard (1903), Tome I, p. 34, citing Mabille, E. (1870) Le Royaume d´Aquitaine et ses marches, p. 39 (not yet consulted). 

[195] Nouaillé, 6, p. 8. 

[196] RFA, 811, p. 93. 

[197] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[198] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 21, MGH SS II, p. 618. 

[199] Besly (1647), Preuves, p. 176, and Nouaillé, 10, p. 17. 

[200] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 5. 

[201] Richard, A. (ed.) (1886) Chartes et documents pour servir à l'histoire de l'abbaye de Saint-Maixent, Archives historiques du Poitou Tome XVI (Poitiers) ("Saint-Maixent, Vol. I"), VIII, p. 19. 

[202] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 6. 

[203] Guérard, B. (1844) Polyptique de l´Abbé Irminon (Paris), Tome II, Appendix, IX, Placitum de Colonis Villæ Antoniaci. p. 344. 

[204] Nouaillé, 13, p. 23. 

[205] Adémar de Chabannes III, 16, p. 132. 

[206] Sebastiani Chronicon, 25, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, pp. 490-1. 

[207] Jaurgain, J. de (1898) La Vasconie, étude historique et critique, première partie (Pau), p. 124. 

[208] Histoire Générale de Languedoc (3rd Edn), Tome I, p. 1063. 

[209] Jaurgain (1898), p. 124. 

[210] Sebastiani Chronicon, 26, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 491. 

[211] Nouaillé, 17, p. 31. 

[212] Adémar de Chabannes III, 19, pp. 136-7. 

[213] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 63. 

[214] Adémar de Chabannes III, 19, p. 137. 

[215] Annales Engolismenses 866, MGH SS XVI, p. 486. 

[216] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 369. 

[217] Adonis Continuatio Prima, Auctore Anonymo 866, MGH SS II, p. 324. 

[218] Chronicon Aquitanicum 840-1025, 844, MGH SS II, p. 253. 

[219] Giry, A. 'Etudes carolingiennes. Documents carolingiens de l'abbaye de Montiéramey', Etudes d'histoire du moyen âge dédiées à Gabriel Monod (Paris, 1896), no. 23, p. 133. 

[220] Adémar de Chabannes III, 19, p. 137. 

[221] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 369. 

[222] Monsabert, D. P. de (ed.) (1910) Chartes et documents pour servir à l'histoire de l'abbaye de Charroux, Archives historiques du Poitou Tome XXXIX (Poitiers) ("Charroux"), p. 48. 

[223] Chronicon Aquitanicum 840-1025, 844, MGH SS II, p. 253. 

[224] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 64. 

[225] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 69-70. 

[226] ´Documents pour l´histoire de l´église de Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers´, Mémoires de la société des antiquaires de l´ouest, année 1847 (Poitiers, 1848) ("Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers"), XII, p. 16. 

[227] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 74. 

[228] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 75. 

[229] Adémar de Chabannes III, 23, p. 143. 

[230] Annales Engolismenses, MGH SS IV, p. 5. 

[231] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 375. 

[232] Adémar de Chabannes III, 21 and 23, pp. 140 and 145. 

[233] Castaigne, J. F. E. (ed.) (1853) Rerum Engolismensium Scriptores (Angoulême), Historia Pontificum et Comitum Engolismensis, XIV, p. 20. 

[234] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 372. 

[235] Adémar de Chabannes III, 23, p. 145. 

[236] Annales Engolismenses, MGH SS IV, p. 5. 

[237] Chronico Richardi Pictavensis, RHGF IX, p.21. 

[238] Charroux, p. 48. 

[239] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 76. 

[240] Adémar de Chabannes III, 23, p. 145. 

[241] Adémar de Chabannes III, 23, p. 145. 

[242] Karoli II Imp. Conventus Carisiacensis, MGH LL 1, p. 537. 

[243] Settipani, C. (2004) La Noblesse du Midi Carolingien. Etudes sur quelques grandes familles d'Aquitaine et du Languedoc du IXe au XIe siècles (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Oxford), p. 257. 

[244] Abbonis Bella Parisiacæ Urbis I, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini IV.I, p. 113. 

[245] Giry 'Etudes carolingiennes', 23, p. 133. 

[246] Vita S Geraldi Comitis 46, Acta Sanctorum Octobre, VI, p. 312, and Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 70.  

[247] Giry 'Etudes carolingiennes', 23, p. 133. 

[248] Adémar de Chabannes III, 16, p. 132. 

[249] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 34, and Chronicon Aquitanicum 840-1025, 844, MGH SS II, p. 253. 

[250] Annales Engolismenses 844, MGH SS XVI, p. 486. 

[251] Adémar de Chabannes III, 17, p. 133. 

[252] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 365. 

[253] Historia Inventionis et Translationis reliquiarium Sancti Baudelli martyris 878, RHGF IX, p. 111. 

[254] Flodoardi Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ III, 24, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 536. 

[255] Conventu Compendiensi IV, RHGF IX, p. 304. 

[256] Annales Bertiniani III 868, footnote 1 naming "Bernardus dux Gothiæ alterius Bernardi Cenomannensis filius". 

[257] Annales Bertiniani III 877. 

[258] Conventu Compendiensi IV, RHGF IX, p. 304. 

[259] Annales Bertiniani III 879, footnote 2 naming "Bernardus iste, alterius Bernardi et Bilichildis…filius, Gothæ marchionatu donatus fuerat 865 post Humfidum". 

[260] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum, pars tertia 880, MGH SS I, p. 394. 

[261] Annales Bertiniani III 878. 

[262] Conventu Compendiensi V, RHGF IX, p. 304. 

[263] Adémar de Chabannes III, 16, p. 132. 

[264] Charroux, p. 48. 

[265] Adémar de Chabannes III, 19, pp. 136-7. 

[266] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 369. 

[267] Annales Engolismenses 852, MGH SS XVI, p. 486. 

[268] Adémar de Chabannes III, 16, p. 132. 

[269] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 61, MGH SS II, p. 645. 

[270] Vita Hludovici Imperatoris 61, MGH SS II, p. 645. 

[271] Auzias, L. (1937) L'Aquitaine carolingienne (778-987) (Toulouse-Paris), p. 93, and Werner, K. F. (1967) 'Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen bis um Jahr 1000 (1.-8. Generation)', Karl der Große, IV, p. 447, both cited in Settipani (1993), p. 279. 

[272] Settipani (1993), pp. 279-80. 

[273] Vita Sancti Geraldi Compendium, 2, Patrologia Latina, Vol. 133, col. 0703C. 

[274] Adémar de Chabannes III, 16, p. 132. 

[275] Adémar de Chabannes III, 18, p. 135. 

[276] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 366. 

[277] Annales Bertiniani III 866.   

[278] Adonis Continuatio Prima, Auctore Anonymo 866, MGH SS II, p. 324. 

[279] Abbonis Monachi S. Germani Parisiensis, De Bellis Parisiacæ urbis et Odonis comitis, post Regis II, line 68, RHGF VIII, p. 5. 

[280] Adémar de Chabannes III, 21, pp. 139 and 140. 

[281] Chronico Richardi Pictavensis, RHGF IX, p.21. 

[282] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 48. 

[283] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 53. 

[284] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 57. 

[285] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 58-9. 

[286] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 604. 

[287] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 371. 

[288] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, VIII, p. 11. 

[289] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 43, footnote 6 continuation on p. 44. 

[290] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 43, footnote 6 continuation on p. 44. 

[291] ES II 76. 

[292] Besly, J. (1647) Histoire des comtes de Poictou et ducs de Guyenne (Paris), p. 29. 

[293] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 65 footnote 49. 

[294] Adémar de Chabannes III, 21, pp. 139 and 140. 

[295] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 604. 

[296] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, VIII, p. 11. 

[297] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 604. 

[298] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 71. 

[299] Annales Vedastini 892, MGH SS II, p. 206. 

[300] Abbonis Monachi S. Germani Parisiensis, De Bellis Parisiacæ urbis et Odonis comitis, post Regis II, line 68, RHGF VIII, p. 5. 

[301] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 604. 

[302] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 60. 

[303] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, IX, p. 12. 

[304] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 69. 

[305] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 71 footnote 18. 

[306] ES II 76. 

[307] Vita Sancti Geraldi Compendium, 2, Patrologia Latina, Vol. 133, col. 0703C. 

[308] ES II 76. 

[309] Font Réaulx, J. de (ed.) 'Sancti Stephani Lemovicensis Cartularium', Bulletin de la société archéologique et historique du Limousin Tome LXIX (1922) (“Limoges Saint-Etienne”), CLXXXII, p. 176. 

[310] Vita Sancti Geraldi Compendium, 2, Patrologia Latina, Vol. 133, col. 0703C. 

[311] Odo Cluniacensis Abbas, De Vita Sancti Geraldi Aureliacensis Comitis, Liber I, I, Patrologia Latina, Vol. 133, col. 0641D. 

[312] Vita Sancti Geraldi Compendium, 2, Patrologia Latina, Vol. 133, col. 0703C. 

[313] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome III, Liv. XI, LXXIX, p. 76, citing Duchesne Not. in vit. S. Geraldi, p. 34 (not yet consulted). 

[314] Odo Cluniacensis Abbas, De Vita Sancti Geraldi Aureliacensis Comitis, Liber II, XXVIII, Patrologia Latina, Vol. 133, col. 0685D. 

[315] Rivain, C. ´Textes bas-latins des ix et x siècles´, Bulletin de la Société archéologique et historique du Limousin, Tome XXVII (Limoges, 1879), 1, p. 338. 

[316] Settipani (2004), p. 231, and Roblin, V. (2009) Recueil des actes des vicomtes de Limoges (Genève), Introduction, p. 19 [available in Google Book, Limited Preview], citing firstly Depoin, J. (1921) Etudes préparatoires à l´histoire des familles palatines IV, tiré à part (Paris), p. 145

[317] Société des Archives Historiques du Poitou (1874) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Cyprien de Poitiers, Archives historiques du Poitou Tome III (Poitiers) ("Poitiers Saint-Cyprien") 3, p. 4. 

[318] Adémar de Chabannes III, 18, p. 135. 

[319] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 366. 

[320] Adémar de Chabannes III, 21, pp. 139 and 140. 

[321] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 372. 

[322] Chronico Richardi Pictavensis, RHGF IX, p.21. 

[323] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 68-9. 

[324] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 72. 

[325] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 83. 

[326] Willelmi Gemmetensis monachi Historiæ Normannorum, Du Chesne, A. (1619) Historiæ Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui (Paris) (“Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619)”), Liber II, XVI, p. 230. 

[327] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 95. 

[328] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 99. 

[329] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien 528, p. 318, and footnote 1 (continuation on p. 319). 

[330] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien 126, p. 90. 

[331] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 73. 

[332] Besly (1647), p. 209. 

[333] Mabille, E. (ed.) (1866) La pancarte notre de Saint-Martin de Tours brulée en 1793 (Paris, Tours) ("Tours Saint-Martin") XVII, p. 68. 

[334] Saint-Maixent, Vol. I, VIII, p. 19. 

[335] Ademari Historiarum III.23, MGH SS IV, p. 125.

[336] Chronico Comitum Pictaviæ, RHGF X, p. 294. 

[337] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien 23, p. 27. 

[338] Adémar de Chabannes III, 25, p. 146. 

[339] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 150. 

[340] Adémar de Chabannes III, 25, p. 146. 

[341] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, XIX, p. 23. 

[342] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, XX, p. 32. 

[343] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, XXIII, p. 35. 

[344] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, XXXIII, p. 48. 

[345] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 105 footnote 49 (continuation from p. 104). 

[346] Ademari Historiorum III.25, MGH SS IV, p. 127. 

[347] Adémar de Chabannes III, 25, p. 146. 

[348] Chronico Comitum Pictaviæ, RHGF X, p. 294. 

[349] Ademari Historiarum III.23, MGH SS IV, p. 125.

[350] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 115. 

[351] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 110-12. 

[352] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, XVIII, p. 22. 

[353] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, XIX, p. 23.  

[354] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, XX, p. 32. 

[355] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, XXVII, p. 42. 

[356] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, XXIII, p. 35. 

[357] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 130. 

[358] Adémar de Chabannes III, 30, p. 150. 

[359] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, XII, p. 229. 

[360] Delisle, L. (ed.) (1872) Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbé de Mont-Saint-Michel (Rouen), Vol. I, 912, p. 14. 

[361] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber III, III, p. 234. 

[362] Adémar de Chabannes III, 23, p. 143. 

[363] Chronico Richardi Pictavensis, RHGF IX, p.21. 

[364] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber III, III, p. 234. 

[365] Cluny Tome II, 1164, p. 251. 

[366] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 129-30 and 142. 

[367] Cartulaire de Saint-Jean d'Angély, Archives historiques de la Saintonge et de l'Aunis Tome XXX (Paris, Saintes, 1901) ("Saint-Jean d´Angély"), CXCII, p. 231. 

[368] Ademari Historiarum III.34, MGH SS IV, p. 131. 

[369] Adémar de Chabannes III, 30, p. 150. 

[370] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, XXXIII, p. 48. 

[371] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, XXXII, p. 36. 

[372] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, XXXVI, p. 40. 

[373] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 160-1. 

[374] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, XLVII, p. 54. 

[375] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 169-76. 

[376] Ademari Historiarum III.34, MGH SS IV, p. 131. 

[377] Adémar de Chabannes III, 30, p. 150. 

[378] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 380. 

[379] Houts, E. van (ed. and trans.) (2000) The Normans in Europe (Manchester University Press), p. 183. 

[380] Saint-Jean d'Angély CXCII, p. 231. 

[381] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Contribution à l'histoire de l'attitude des royaumes pirénéens dans la querelle des investitures: de l'origine de Berthe, reine d'Aragon et de Navarre', Estudios Genealógicos, Heráldicos y Nobiliarios, en honor de Vicente de Cadenas y Vicent (Hidalguía, Madrid, 1978), Vol. 2, p. 399. 

[382] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Père de Chartres (Paris) ("Chartres Saint-Père") Tome I, Liber Tertius, Cap. VIII, p. 63. 

[383] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, XLVII, p. 54. 

[384] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, LXI, p. 77. 

[385] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien 17, p. 22. 

[386] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 41. 

[387] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Abbaye de la Trinité de Vendôme, Calendrier nécrologique du xiii siècle, p. 206.       

[388] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 113, referring to "Appendice III" which does not appear to exist in the book. 

[389] Adémar de Chabannes III, 30, p. 150. 

[390] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien 406, p. 256. 

[391] Saint-Jean d'Angély CXCII, p. 231. 

[392] Acta Sanctorum, October, Tome X, Translatio S. Maglorii et aliorum, 4 and 5, p. 792, quoting Mabillon Annales Ordini Sancti Benedicti, Tome III, p. 666. 

[393] Guadet, J. (ed.) (1840) Richeri Historiarum (Paris) ("Richer") IV, supplementary notes following CVII, p. 308. 

[394] Chronico Ademari Cabanensis, RHGF X, p. 145. 

[395] Vita Roberti Regis, RHGF X, p. 99. 

[396] Settipani (1993), p. 417. 

[397] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1031, MGH SS XXIII, p. 783. 

[398] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 141. 

[399] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 319.       

[400] Adémar de Chabannes III, 30, p. 150. 

[401] Saint-Jean d'Angély CXCII, p. 231. 

[402] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, LXI, p. 77. 

[403] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 165. 

[404] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, XLVII, p. 54. 

[405] Runciman, S. (1978) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books), Vol. 1, p. 85. 

[406] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 77. 

[407] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 57. 

[408] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 91. 

[409] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Berthe, reine d'Aragon', p. 398. 

[410] Adémar de Chabannes III, 25, p. 148. 

[411] Adémar de Chabannes III, 34, p. 156. 

[412] Petrus Malleacensis Monachi Relatione VI, RHGF X, p. 182. 

[413] Stasser, T. 'Adélaïde d'Anjou. Sa famille, ses mariages, sa descendance', Le Moyen Age, 103, 1 (1997), pp. 9-52, cited in Settipani (2004), p. 176. 

[414] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 11-12. 

[415] Adémar de Chabannes III, 39, p. 162. 

[416] Chronico Sancti Maxentii 1010 and 1013, RHGF X, p. 232. 

[417] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien 49, p. 49. 

[418] Vernier, J. J. (ed.) (1916) Chartes de l'abbaye de Jumièges, Tome I c 825-1169 (Rouen, Paris) 7, p. 16. 

[419] Flodoard Addit codex 1 (inserted after 966), MGH SS III, p. 407. 

[420] France, J., Bulst, N. and Reynolds, P. (eds. and trans.) (1989) Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque, Rodulfus Glaber Opera (Oxford) Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.6, p. 107. 

[421] Cluny Tome III, 2742, p. 765. 

[422] Chronico Sancti Michaelis in periculo maris, RHGF X, p. 176. 

[423] Chronicæ sancti Albini Andegavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, pp. 23 and 24.  

[424] Chronica sancti Sergii Andegavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, pp. 135-6.  

[425] Société des Archives Historiques du Maine (1905) Cartulaire de Château-du-Loir, Archives historiques du Maine Tome VI (Le Mans) (“Château-du-Loir”) 13, p. 5. 

[426] Urseau, C. (ed.) (1908) Cartulaire noir de la cathédrale d'Angers (Paris, Angers) (“Angers”) 45, p. 93. 

[427] Société des Archives Historiques du Poitou (1872) Cartulaire du prieuré de Saint-Nicolas de Poitiers, Archives historiques du Poitou Tome I (Poitiers) ("Poitiers Saint-Nicolas") 27, p. 32. 

[428] Broussillon, B. de (ed.) (1903) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Aubin d'Angers (Paris) (“Angers Saint-Aubin”) 72, p. 89. 

[429] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Contribution à l'histoire de l'attitude des royaumes pirénéens dans la querelle des investitures: de l'origine de Berthe, reine d'Aragon et de Navarre', Estudios Genealógicos, Heráldicos y Nobiliarios, en honor de Vicente de Cadenas y Vicent (Hidalguía, Madrid, 1978), Vol. 2, pp. 375-402, 398. 

[430] Poitiers Saint-Nicolas 1, p. 5. 

[431] Poitiers Saint-Nicolas 5, p. 12. 

[432] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Abbaye de la Trinité de Vendôme, p. 203.       

[433] Ademari Historiarum III.39, MGH SS IV, pp. 133-4. 

[434] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien 49, p. 49. 

[435] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, LXXI, p. 78. 

[436] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 108. 

[437] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, LXXXVI, p. 104. 

[438] Chronico Sancti Maxentii 1029, RHGF X, p. 233. 

[439] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 117-21. 

[440] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989), III, 231, p. 220, footnote 3.  . 

[441] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum IV.26, p. 213. 

[442] Ex Chronico S. Maxentii, RHGF XI, p. 216. 

[443] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien 271, p. 174. 

[444] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 109. 

[445] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, XCII, p. 112. 

[446] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, XCIII, p. 113. 

[447] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 110 footnote 6, citing Besly Histoire des comtes de Poitou, p. 81. 

[448] Ex Chronico S. Maxentii, RHGF XI, p. 216. 

[449] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Berthe, reine d'Aragon', p. 396. 

[450] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 122.  

[451] ES II 58 and ES II 76. 

[452] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, XCII, p. 112. 

[453] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, XCIII, p. 113. 

[454] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, p. 113 footnote 1. 

[455] Adémar de Chabannes III, 39, p. 162. 

[456] Chronico Sancti Maxentii 1010, RHGF X, p. 232. 

[457] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, LXXXI, p. 99. 

[458] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien 49, p. 49. 

[459] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, LXXI, p. 78. 

[460] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 122 footnote 25. 

[461] Jaurgain (1898), p. 243, quoting Raymond, P. (ed.) (1873) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint Jean de Sorde (Paris, Pau) ("Sorde Saint-Jean"), 40, p. 31.

[462] Brutails, J. A. (ed.) (1897) Cartulaire de l´église collégiale Saint-Seurin de Bordeaux (Bordeaux) ("Bordeaux Saint-Seurin"), IX, p. 10. 

[463] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 128. 

[464] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 393. 

[465] Chronico Sancti Maxentii 1010, RHGF X, p. 232. 

[466] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, LXXXI, p. 99. 

[467] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 105 footnote 206. 

[468] ES III 569 and 570. 

[469] Chronico Sancti Maxentii 1023, RHGF X, p. 232. 

[470] Cluny Tome IV, 2855, p. 54. 

[471] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 157-58. 

[472] Poitiers Saint-Nicolas 5, p. 12. 

[473] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 398. 

[474] Métais, C. (ed.) (1900) Cartulaire de l´abbaye cardinale de la Trinité de Vendôme Tome IV (Paris), Chronicon Vindocinense 1051, p. 486. 

[475] Cluny Tome IV, 3322, p. 414. 

[476] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, CVIII, p. 134. 

[477] Saint-Maixent Vol. I, CXXI, p. 153. 

[478] Settipani (2004), p. 148. 

[479] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 163. 

[480] Cipolla, C. (ed.) ´Il gruppo dei diplomi Adelaidini in favore dell´abbazia di Pinerolo´, Biblioteca della società storica subalpina, Vol. II (Pinerolo, 1899) ("Pinerolo (Diplomi Adelaidini)"), IX, p. 348. 

[481] ES II 58 and ES II 76. 

[482] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Berthe, reine d'Aragon', p. 396. 

[483] Wurstenberger, L. (1858) Peter der Zweite Graf von Savoyen, Markgraf in Italien, sein Haus und seine Lande (Bern, Zurich), Vol. IV, 18, p. 5. 

[484] Carutti, D. (1889) Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, marchionum in Italia (Turin) ("Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ"), CCXV, p. 76. 

[485] Chronico Sancti Maxentii 1023, RHGF X, p. 232. 

[486] Flodoard Addit codex 1 (inserted after 966), MGH SS III, p. 407. 

[487] Cluny Tome IV, 2855, p. 54. 

[488] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1043, MHG SS V, p. 124. 

[489] Chronica sancti Sergii Andegavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, pp. 135-6.  

[490] Norwich, J. J. (1992) The Normans in the South 1016-1130 and The Kingdom in the Sun 1130-1194 (Penguin Books), p, 120. 

[491] Fuhrmann, H., trans. Reuter, T. (1995) Germany in the high middle ages c.1050-1200 (Cambridge University Press), p. 57. 

[492] Vitæ Heinrici et Cunegundis Imperatores Preface, MGH SS IV, p. 791. 

[493] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[494] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Kalendarium Necrologicum Canonicorum Spirensium, p. 326. 

[495] ES III 444. 

[496] Richard (1903), Vol. II. 

[497] Richard, J. (ed.) (1957) Le cartulaire de Marcigny-sur-Loire 1045-1144 (Dijon) 30bis, p. 26. 

[498] Fabri, A. ´La comtesse Reine, fondatrice du prieuré d´Aywaille´, Bulletin de la Commission Royale d´Histoire, Tome LXXXI (Brussels, 1912), p. 8. 

[499] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1168, MGH SS XXIII, p. 851. 

[500] Saint-Jean d'Angély LXIX, p. 98. 

[501] Chronico Sancti Maxentii 1023, RHGF X, p. 232. 

[502] Flodoard Addit codex 1 (inserted after 966), MGH SS III, p. 407. 

[503] Cluny Tome IV, 2855, p. 54. 

[504] Angers 45, p. 93. 

[505] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 91. 

[506] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, XCI, p. 97. 

[507] Breve Chronicon sancti Florentii Salmurensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 189.  

[508] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 408. 

[509] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 395. 

[510] Cartulaire de l'abbaye Sainte-Croix de Bordeaux, Archives historiques du département de la Gironde Tome XXVII (Bordeaux, 1892) ("Bordeaux Sainte-Croix") 80, p. 109. 

[511] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 400. 

[512] Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 (Villeneuve d'Asq), p. 558, footnote 39.

[513] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, LXXXIV, p. 91. 

[514] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 404. 

[515] Halphen, L. & Poupardin, R. (eds.) (1913) Chroniques des Comtes d´Anjou et des Seigneurs d´Amboise (Paris), p. 247. 

[516] Besly (1647), Preuves, p. 392. 

[517] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, pp. 400 and 405. 

[518] Chronicon Regum Legionensium: Barton, S. and Fletcher, R. (trans. and eds.) The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest (Manchester UP), p. 87. 

[519] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VI, 11, RHGF XII, p. 381. 

[520] Cluny Tome IV, 3508, p. 625. 

[521] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. V, Book X, p. 307.   

[522] Sandoval, P. de (1792) Historia de los reyes de Castilla y de León, Vol. I, p. 212. 

[523] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 321. 

[524] Reilly, B. F. (1988) The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VI 1065-1109 (Princeton University Press), Chapter 12, p. 241, in the Library of Iberian Resources Online, consulted at <http://libro.uca.edu/alfonso6/alfonso.htm> (7 Dec 2002). 

[525] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 557 footnote 30. 

[526] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 405. 

[527] Bordeaux Sainte-Croix 3, p. 4. 

[528] Saint-Jean d´Angély (1901), CCCXXXVII, p. 398. 

[529] Richard (1903) Tome I, p. 351 and note 4, cited in Szabolcs de Vajay 'Berthe reine d'Aragon', p. 376. 

[530] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Berthe reine d'Aragon', p. 377 footnote 11. 

[531] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 405. 

[532] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 321. 

[533] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 87. 

[534] Roderici Toletani Archiepiscopi De Rebus Hispaniæ, Liber IX, VI, 11, RHGF XII, p. 381. 

[535] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 87. 

[536] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 307.   

[537] ES II 76. 

[538] Gallia Christiana, Tome II, Instrumenta, col. 484. 

[539] Gallia Christiana, Tome II, col. 1068. 

[540] Gallia Christiana, Tome II, col. 1128. 

[541] Grasilier, T. (ed.) (1871) Cartulaire de l´abbaye royale de Notre-Dame de Saintes, Cartulaire inédits de la Saintonge II (Niort) ("Saintes Notre-Dame"), CCXVIII, p. 140. 

[542] Saintes Notre-Dame, LXV, p. 62.

[543] Saintes Notre-Dame, XLVI, p. 49. 

[544] Saintes Notre-Dame, XLVIII, p. 51. 

[545] Saintes Notre-Dame, LXXXVIII, p. 80.

[546] Saintes Notre-Dame, XXIX, p. 36.

[547] Saintes Notre-Dame, XXXIX, p. 44.

[548] Gallia Christiana, Tome II, cols. 1070-71. 

[549] Saintes Notre-Dame, LXXXII, p. 73.

[550] Saintes Notre-Dame, XLVI, p. 49. 

[551] Saintes Notre-Dame, CCXVIII, p. 140. 

[552] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber VIII, Caps. XXXIV and XXXV, p. 579. 

[553] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 405. 

[554] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien 18, p. 22. 

[555] Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, XCI, p. 97. 

[556] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber VIII, Caps. XXXIV and XXXV, p. 579. 

[557] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber VIII, Cap. XL, p. 581. 

[558] Besly (1647), Preuves, p. 392. 

[559] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 427. 

[560] Obituaires de Sens Tome IV, Prieuré de Fontaines, p. 189.       

[561] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1095, MGH SS XXIII, p. 803. 

[562] Angers 65, p. 127. 

[563] RHC, Historiens occidentaux I, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") (“WT”) XIV.I, p. 606. 

[564] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 140. 

[565] Angers 93, p. 171. 

[566] Urseau, C. (ed.) L'Obituaire de la Cathédrale d'Angers (Angers). 

[567] Aurélien de Courson, M. (ed.) (1863) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Redon en Bretagne (Paris), ("Redon"), Monasterii S. Salvatoris Rotonensis Annales, VII Sepulturæ Insigniores, p. 451. 

[568] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 411. 

[569] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1159, p. 319. 

[570] Bordeaux Sainte-Croix 3, p. 4. 

[571] Douais, C. (ed.) (1867) Cartulaire de l'Abbaye de Saint-Sernin de Toulouse (844-1200) (Paris, Toulouse) ("Saint-Sernin"), 291, p. 206. 

[572] Saint-Sernin, 435, p. 312. 

[573] Histoire Générale de Languedoc (2nd Edn.) Tome IV, Preuves, XXVII, p. 362, and 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 451, col. 845.  

[574] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 259. 

[575] Obituaires de Sens Tome IV, Prieuré de Fontaines, p. 193.       

[576] Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X (1652), Radulphus de Diceto, Ymagines Historiarum, col. 567. 

[577] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 259. 

[578] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 419. 

[579] WT XIV.IX, p. 618. 

[580] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1159, p. 319. 

[581] Gallia Christiana, Tome II, Instrumenta, col. 484. 

[582] Gallia Christiana, Tome II, col. 1068. 

[583] Champollion Figeac (1843) Documents historiques inédits tirés des collections manuscrites de la bibliothèque royal et des archives ou des bibliothèques des départements (Paris) Tome II, VI, p. 12. 

[584] Champollion Figeac (1843), Tome II, VII, p. 13. 

[585] Guizot, M. (ed.) (1825) Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis (Paris), p. 18. 

[586] Obituaires de Sens Tome IV, Prieuré de Fontaines, p. 190.       

[587] Who was the mistress of Guillaume IX Duke of Aquitaine. 

[588] Champollion Figeac (1843), Tome II, VII, p. 13. 

[589] Ex Chronico Gaufredi Vosiensis, 41, RHGF XII, p. 425. 

[590] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1152, MGH SS XXIII, p. 841. 

[591] Champollion Figeac (1843), Tome II, VII, p. 13. 

[592] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 262. 

[593] Saintes Notre-Dame, XXIX, p. 36.

[594] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus II (London) (“Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon”), Continuatio, p. 166. 

[595] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1189, MGH SS XXIII, p. 861. 

[596] Champollion Figeac (1843), Tome II, VII, p. 13. 

[597] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1152, MGH SS XXIII, p. 841. 

[598] Historiæ Tornacenses IV.5, MGH SS XIV, p. 343. 

[599] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1152, p. 263. 

[600] Guillaume de Nangis, pp. 18 and 24. 

[601] Saintes Notre-Dame, XXIX, p. 36.

[602] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 419. 

[603] Her father returned from Crusade in Autumn 1102, Szabolcs de Vajay 'Ramire II le Moine, roi d'Aragon, et Agnès de Poitou dans l'histoire et dans la légende', Mélanges offerts à René Crozier à l'occasion de son soixante dixième anniversaire, t. II (Poitiers, 1966), pp. 727-50, 738-9. 

[604] ES II 58, ES II 76, and ES III 810. 

[605] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XII, p. 409. 

[606] Vajay 'Ramire II', p. 749. 

[607] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1159, p. 318. 

[608] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 379. 

[609] Ximénez de Embún y Val, T. (ed.) (1876) Historia de la Corona de Aragón: Crónica de San Juan de la Peña: Part aragonesa, XX, p. 84, available at Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes <http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/FichaObra.html?Ref=12477> (3 Aug 2007). 

[610] Barton, S. and Fletcher, R. (trans. and eds.) The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest (Manchester U. P.), Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris I, 62, p. 190. 

[611] Balaguer, F. 'Notas documentales sobre el reinado de Ramiro II', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. III (Zaragoza, 1947-8) V, p. 18, quoted from the Cartulario de Montearagón, leg. 487, núm. 36 (R. 44). 

[612] Cartulaire de Fontevraud, cited in Vajay 'Ramire II', p. 743 footnote 113. 

[613] Cartulaire de Turpenay-lez-Chinon, quoted in Vajay 'Ramire II', p. 743 footnote 114. 

[614] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 419. 

[615] Cartulaire de Saintes, no. 23, p. 30.  [J.-C. Chuat]

[616] Stroński, S. (1914) La légende amoureuse de Bertran de Born (Paris, Slatkine reprints 1973), p. 119 footnote 1 (continuation). 

[617] WT XIV.IX, p. 618. 

[618] WT XIV.XX, p. 635. 

[619] Le Prévost, A. (1840) Orderici Vitalis Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ (Paris) ("Orderic Vitalis (Prévost)"), Vol. V, Liber XIII, XXXIV, p. 99. 

[620] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 411. 

[621] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 419. 

[622] WT XIV.XX, p. 636. 

[623] Richard (1903) Tome II, Appendix III. pp. 490-3. 

[624] Fragmenta Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, Veterum Scriptorum V, col. 1149. 

[625] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XI, p. 373. 

[626] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XI, p. 373. 

[627] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XI, p. 373. 

[628] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XI, p. 373. 

[629] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XI, p. 373. 

[630] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XI, p. 373. 

[631] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XI, p. 373. 

[632] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XI, p. 373. 

[633] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XI, p. 373. 

[634] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XI, p. 373. 

[635] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XII, p. 409. 

[636] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XI, p. 373. 

[637] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XII, p. 409. 

[638] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XII, p. 409. 

[639] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XII, p. 409. 

[640] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XII, p. 409. 

[641] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 419. 

[642] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 379. 

[643] Vajay 'Ramire II', p. 749. 

[644] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1159, p. 318. 

[645] Balaguer, F. 'Notas documentales sobre el reinado de Ramiro II', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. III (Zaragoza, 1947-8) V, p. 18, quoted from the Cartulario de Montearagón, leg. 487, núm. 36 (R. 44). 

[646] Cartulaire de Fontevraud, cited in Vajay 'Ramire II', p. 743 footnote 113. 

[647] Cartulaire de Turpenay-lez-Chinon, quoted in Vajay 'Ramire II', p. 743 footnote 114. 

[648] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XII, p. 409. 

[649] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[650] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XII, p. 409. 

[651] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XVIII, p. 243. 

[652] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[653] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[654] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[655] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XVIII, p. 243. 

[656] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[657] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XVIII, p. 243. 

[658] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XVIII, p. 243. 

[659] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XVIII, p. 243. 

[660] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XII, p. 409. 

[661] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ, Ducum Aquitaniæ, RHGF XVIII, p. 243. 

[662] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[663] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[664] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[665] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[666] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[667] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[668] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244.  

[669] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[670] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[671] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[672] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[673] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244. 

[674] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF XVIII, p. 244.