SWEDEN, kings

  v2.0 Updated 18 February 2011

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.            KINGS of SWEDEN to 1060. 4

ERIK [984/85]-[994/95] 6

OLOF I 995-1022, ANUND JAKOB 1022-1050, EMUND 1050-1060. 8

Chapter 2.            KINGS of SWEDEN 1060-1250. 11

A.       KINGS of SWEDEN 1060-[1111] (FAMILY of STENKIL) 11

STENKIL 1060-1066, HALSTEN [1070], INGE I 1080-[1111], FILIP -1118, INGE II 1118, 12

B.       KING of SWEDEN [1080]-1099 (FAMILY of BLOT-SVEN) 16

BLOT-SVEN [1080]-[1099] 16

C.      KINGS of SWEDEN [1133]-1222 (FAMILY of SVERKER) 17

SVERKER I  [1133/34]-1156, KARL I 1161-1166, SVERKER II 1196-1208, JOHAN I 1216-1222. 17

D.      KINGS of SWEDEN 1156-1250 (FAMILY of JEDVARD) 20

ERIK 1156-1159. 20

KNUT [1167]-[1195], ERIK [1208]-1216, ERIK 1222-1229/1234-1250. 21

Chapter 3.            KINGS of SWEDEN 1250-1412 (FOLKINGAÄTTEN) 23

VALDEMAR 1250-1275. 23

MAGNUS I 1275-1290, BIRGER 1290-1319. 27

MAGNUS II 1319-1363, ERIK XII 1344-1359, HAAKON VI 1362-1364, MARGARETA 1389-1412. 30

ERIK XIII 1397-1439. 32

CHRISTOFFER 1439-1448. 32

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The early history of Sweden before the 10th century is uncertain.  As with the case of Denmark, it is impossible to distinguish myth from fact, assuming that there is any fact, in the narratives contained in early primary sources.  The lists of kings of Sweden in the earliest sources are completely different from each other, and any attempt to reconcile them appears futile[1].  The names of these semi-legendary kings have not been copied into this document.  It is probable that some of the confusion results from competing kings ruling in different parts of the country at the same time.  It is likely that Gotland, Uppsala and Vermeland/Raumarik in the west each had its own monarchs, although there appears to be no proof in primary sources that this speculation is correct.  This uncertainty in the early king lists leads to difficulties in the numbering of the later kings.  For example, there is considerable confusion over the numbering of the different kings named Erik prior to the accession of the king who is generally known as Erik XII in 1344.  In this document, these earlier kings named Erik have not been assigned numbers. 

 

An outline genealogy of the first dynasty of Swedish kings, who ruled in the 10th and 11th centuries, can be reconstructed from available primary sources (see Chapter 1).  After the extinction in the male line of this first dynasty in 1060, the Swedish throne was assumed by Stenkil Ragnvaldson whose connection with the preceding dynasty appears tenuous.  His father is recorded in Heimkringsla, written nearly two centuries later although possibly based on earlier sources which no longer survive, as “Jarl” in Västergötland in the south of Sweden (see Chapter 2.A).  Stenkil is described in different sources as “nepos” of the previous king Emund or as his son-in-law.  There is no way of judging which of these hypotheses might be correct.  It is also possible that there was no family relationship at all, but that a connection was invented by later chroniclers to emphasise continuity between the two dynasties.  As will be seen below, few primary sources have been found which confirm the family relationships in the dynasty of kings founded by Stenkil. 

 

In the late 11th and 12th centuries, three new dynasties of Swedish kings emerged, none of which appears to have been related to the others (Chapter 2.B, C and D).  Power switched between these dynasties throughout the period.  The impression is that, during the 10th to 12th centuries, different nobles established themselves in different parts of the country which was later unified into Sweden, and that during this period there was little united government.  One explanation may simply be geographical.  For example, developments around Uppsala in eastern central Sweden would have had limited access westwards across the mountain ranges which form the backbone of the Scandinavian peninsula.  There may also have been limited communication with groupings established further south because of the chain of lakes which lies across central Sweden south of a latitudinal line drawn from Eskilstuna in the east to Karlstad in the west.  These geographical limitations would also have discouraged contact with neighbouring countries further to the west and south.  The Swedes would not have had easy access to the ripe pickings in the British Isles and along the mainland European coast from Friesland to the northern Iberian peninsula, which provided such tempting prizes for their Viking neighbours in Norway and Denmark.  Sweden´s focus would more naturally have been directed eastwards to southern Finland and western Russia, with contact in those areas being motivated by trade rather than plunder.  Dating also presents a problem during this period.  Insufficient sources have been found to indicate that the precise dates attributed to most of these kings in secondary works are reliable.  In addition, few matrimonial alliances are recorded during this period between the Swedish kings and other ruling families apart from with their neighbours in Norway and Denmark, which suggests relative isolation and a rather stunted level of development as a unified national entity. 

 

Greater stability and continuity in the rulers of Sweden can be observed from the mid-13th century with the accession of King Valdemar of the Folkingaätten dynasty (see Chapter 3).  From this time, matrimonial alliances with foreign dynasties multiplied, including connections with families who ruled in northern Germany and Poland as well as with the other Scandinavian monarchies.  Inheritance of the crown settled within the same family, although a shortage of male heirs among the Norwegian, Danish as well as Swedish royal families resulted in temporary personal unification of some or all of the Scandinavians thrones.  The Swedish and Norwegian crowns were united from 1319 to 1344 and from 1362 to 1363, the Danish and Norwegian thrones from 1381 to 1387, and all three were combined from 1389 to 1448. 

 

Sources for early Swedish history are sparse.  Snorre´s Heimkringsla series of Sagas[2] and Morkinskinna[3] include some information relating to Swedish kings.  However, the factual accuracy of these works is debatable, especially relating to events before the 12th century.  This question is discussed more fully in the introduction to the document NORWAY KINGS.  Adam of Bremen[4] and Saxo Grammaticus[5] both include some information relating to Sweden.  There appear to be no surviving contemporary Swedish-produced sources to complement this foreign documentation, another factor pointing to the under-development of the territory at that time.  The first volume of the Diplomatarium Suecanum presents Swedish charters from 817 to 1285[6].  However, the compilation includes only about thirty documents dated to before the mid-12th century, and none of these include any relevant information relating to the Swedish kings or their families.  It is somewhat surprising that even Papal documentation addressed to Swedish bishops does not name the Swedish kings.  Even after the mid-12th century, the charters contain little relevant genealogical detail, in contrast to similar documents produced in other European countries. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of SWEDEN to 1060

 

 

 

According to Heimskringla of Snorre Sturleson[7], the early kings of Sweden were as follows.  There is little reason to be confident about the order and dating of these kings.  If their names are correct, it would appear to extend the known history of the Swedish kings back to the early 9th century. 

 

1.         BJÖRN [I] "Ironside" . 

 

2.         ERIK [I] Björnson . 

 

3.         ERIK [II] Raefilson . 

 

4.         BJÖRN [II] .  Reigned at Uppsala. 

 

5.         EMUND .  Reigned in the south. 

a)         ERIK [III] Emundson (-[880/85]).  Snorre records that "Eirik Eymundson king of Sweden" conquered Vermaland and areas to the north to Svinasund, calling the territory "West Gautland", and appointed Hrane Gauzke as jarl[8].  Snorre records the death of King Eirik Eymundson when King Harald had been "ten years king of all Norway"[9].  As the dating of the accession of King Harald "Hårfagre/Harfagri/Fairhair" is itself open to doubt, this is of little use in calculating the precise date of death of King Erik. 

i)          BJÖRN [III] Erikson .  Snorre names Bjorn as son of Eirik Eymundson when recording that he was "king of Svithjod for fifty years"[10]

(a)       ERIK [IV] .  Snorre names "Eirik the Victorious and Olaf, the father of Styrbjorn" as the sons of Bjorn Eriksson[11]

(b)       OLOF .  He was Olof Bjarnarson according to the 13th century Knytlinga Saga[12].  Snorre names "Eirik the Victorious and Olaf, the father of Styrbjorn" as the sons of Bjorn Eriksson[13]

(1)       STYRBJÖRN [Björn] "den Starke/the Strong" (-killed in battle [Fyrisvellir] near Uppsala [985]).  He was the son of Olof Bjarnarson according to the 13th century Knytlinga Saga[14]

 

6.         ERIK Arsael .  [1001]. 

 

 

Adam of Bremen names "Ring cum filiis Herich et Edmund" as kings "apud Sueones", specifying that "Anund, Bern, Olaph" were among his predecessors[15].  As can be seen, there is no way to reconcile the reconstruction according to Adam of Bremen, combined with Saxo Grammaticus, with the list in Heimskringla until the accession of Erik "Segersäll/the Victorious" King of Sweden, dated to the mid-980s. 

 

1.         ANUND

 

2.         BJÖRN

 

3.         OLOF

 

4.         RING .  Adam of Bremen names "Ring cum filiis Herich et Edmund" as kings "apud Sueones", specifying that "Anund, Bern, Olaph" were among his predecessors[16].  The paragraph is undated but precedes one dealing with events in 936.  Two children: 

a)         EMUND

b)         ERIK .  Three children: 

i)          EMUND Erikson .  Adam of Bremen records that "Emund filius Herici" reigned in Sweden[17], the paragraph being undated but following the one which records the succession of Emperor Otto III in 983. 

ii)         BJÖRN Erikson .  [Two] children: 

(a)       STYRBJÖRN [Björn] "den Starke/the Strong" (-killed in battle [Fyrisvellir] near Uppsala [985]).  He was the son of King Björn according to Saxo Grammaticus[18].  At Jomsburg.  According to Saxo Grammaticus, he was robbed of his kingdom by Erik, son of his uncle Olof, and sought help from Harald I King of Denmark who put him in charge of the garrison at Wolin.  Saxo Grammaticus records that Styrbjörn was killed in battle while trying to regain his throne[19]m as her first husband, TYRE Haraldsdatter, daughter of HARALD I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark & his [first wife Gunhild ---] (-18 Sep [1000]). 

(b)       [GYRITHA of Sweden .  Gyritha and her alleged marriage is only referred to in Saxo Grammaticus, which says that King Styrbjörn granted King Harald his sister in marriage after seeking his help after being deposed[20]m ([984/85]) as his [third] wife, HARALD I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark, son of GORM "den Gamle/the Old" King of Denmark & his wife Tyre "Danebod" (before 935-Jomsborg 1 Dec [986/87], bur Roskilde Cathedral).] 

iii)        OLOF Erikson .  One child: 

(a)       ERIK (-[994/95]).  According to Saxo Grammaticus[21], Erik was the son of Olof and deposed his cousin Styrbjörn in [984/85], succeeding as ERIK "Segersäll/the Victorious" King of Sweden

-         see below

 

 

ERIK [984/85]-[994/95]

 

ERIK, son of [OLOF Erikson King of Sweden] & his wife --- (-Uppsala [994/95]).  Snorre names "Eirik the Victorious and Olaf, the father of Styrbjorn" as the sons of Bjorn Eriksson[22].  According to Saxo Grammaticus[23], Erik was the son of Olof and deposed his cousin Styrbjörn in [984/85], succeeding as ERIK "Segersäll/the Victorious" King of Sweden.  Adam of Bremen records that "rex Sueonum Hericus" invaded Denmark and expelled King Svend[24].  He also records that King Erik was converted to Christianity and baptised in Denmark but may have relapsed into paganism on returning to Sweden[25].  According to Snorre, he died "in a sickbed at Uppsala 10 years after the death of Styrbjörn"[26], and in another passage that his wife was a widow in 994[27]

m (before [985]) as her first husband, SIGRID "Storråda/the Haughty", daughter of "Skoglar" TOSTE & his wife ---.  Snorre names Sigrid as daughter of "Skoglar" Toste and refers to her marriage to "the Swedish king, Eirik the Victorious"[28].  Saxo Grammaticus names "Syritha" as mother of "Erici filius Olavus"[29].  The Fagrskinna names Sigrid, mother of King Olof, as daughter of Skoglar-Tosta[30]Morkinskinna names "Sigridr en stórráda" as mother of “the lady Ástrídr…sister of two kings, Knútr the Great and Óláfr the Swede” who married “Jarl Úlfr sprakaleggr[31].  According to Snorre[32], she was a widow in 994.  She married secondly ([1000]) Svend I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark.  Adam of Bremen records the marriage of Svend King of Denmark and "Herici relictam, matrem Olaph"[33].  If it is correct that Sigrid was the mother of Olav, it necessarily places her first marriage to King Erik before [985] at the latest, assuming that King Olof's daughter Ingigerd was born in [1000/03] as shown below. 

King Erik & his wife had [two] children:

1.         OLOF ([before 985]-[1022]).  Adam of Bremen names Olav as son of King Erik & his (unnamed) wife who later married Svend King of Denmark[34].  Snorre names "Olaf the Swede" as the son of "the Swedish king, Eirik the Victorious" and his wife Sigrid[35].  According to Saxo Grammaticus, after his father's death, he returned to Sweden [from Denmark] with "his mother Syritha, and stayed there exercising his sovereignty under his mother's tutelage"[36].  He succeeded as OLOF I "Skotkonung/under-King" King of Sweden

-        see below

2.         [HOLMFRID.  Snorre records the betrothal of "Svein, a son of Earl Hakon, and Earl Eirik's brother" and "Holmfrid, a daughter of King Olaf the Swedish king", although it is chronologically more probable that she was the sister rather than daughter of King Olav[37].  If this is correct, it is not certain that Sigrid was her mother.  m SVEN Haakonsson Ladejarl of Norway, son of Jarl HAAKON Sigurdsson "the Mighty" & his wife Thora Skagadatter (-1016).] 

 

 

OLOF I 995-1022, ANUND JAKOB 1022-1050, EMUND 1050-1060

 

OLOF, son of ERIK "Segersäll/the Victorious" King of Sweden & his wife Sigrid "Storråda/the Haughty" ([before 985]-[1022]).  Adam of Bremen names Olav as son of King Erik & his (unnamed) wife who later married Svend King of Denmark[38].  Snorre names "Olaf the Swede" as the son of "the Swedish king, Eirik the Victorious" and his wife Sigrid[39].  According to Saxo Grammaticus, after his father's death, he returned to Sweden [from Denmark] with "his mother Syritha, and stayed there exercising his sovereignty under his mother's tutelage"[40].  He succeeded as OLOF I "Skotkonung/under-King" King of Sweden.  Adam of Bremen records that King Olof invaded Denmark and expelled King Svend, but allowed him to return to his kingdom because "matrem suam habuerit"[41].  He converted to Christianity and was baptised as "JACOBUS"[42]

m ESTRED of the Obotrites, daughter of ---.  Adam of Bremen names "filiamque Sclavorum Estred nomine de Obodritis" as wife of "Olaph rex Sueonum"[43]

Mistress (1): EDLA, daughter of ---, from Vinland.  Snorre names "Edla, a daughter of an earl of Vindland" as the concubine of King Olof[44]

King Olof & his wife had two children:

1.         INGIGERD Olafsdottir ([1000/03]-10 Feb 1050).  Snorre names "the king's daughter Ingegerd" when recording that she was used as intermediary to effect a reconciliation between her father and Olav Haraldson King of Norway, and that her marriage to the Norwegian king was proposed[45].  Adam of Bremen names "filius Iacobus et filia Ingrad" as the children of "Olaph rex Sueonum" and his wife Estred, specifying that Ingrad married "rex sanctus Gerzlef de Ruzzia"[46]Morkinskinna names “Queen Ingigerdr the daughter of King Óláfr the Swede” as wife of “King Yaroslav [of] Russia[47].  Her birth date range is estimated based from the birth of her oldest child in 1020, and her youngest known child in [1036].  Snorre records the betrothal of "Ingegerd the king's daughter" and "King Jarisleif…from Russia"[48].  The Historia Norwegie records the marriage of "sororem Olaui Sueonensis…Margaretam" and "rex Iarezlafus de Ruscia" at her brother's instigation, after her betrothal to Olav of Norway was terminated[49].  It is more probable that she was the daughter rather than sister of King Olof if it is correct that she had ten children by her husband.  She is referred to as IRINA in Russian sources[50].  The Primary Chronicle records the death of "the Princess wife of Yaroslav" 10 Feb [1048/50][51]m (1019) as his second wife, IAROSLAV I Vladimirovich Grand Prince of Kiev, son of VLADIMIR Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Rognoda of Polotsk ([978]-20 Feb 1054).

2.         ANUND JAKOB (-[1052]).  Adam of Bremen names "filius Iacobus et filia Ingrad" as the children of "Olaph rex Sueonum" and his wife Estred, in a later passage clarifying that the son was "Anund…dictus est Iacobus"[52].  He succeeded his father in [1022] as ANUND JAKOB King of Swedenm as her first husband, GUNHILD Svensdatter, daughter of Jarl SVEN Haakonsson & his wife Holmfrid of Sweden (-1060 or after).  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.  Adam of Bremen refers to the marriage of "rex iuvenis Suein" and "consanguineam a Suedia", the king being threatened with excommunication by the Archbishop of Bremen and papal letters, his wife being named "Gunhild [vel Giuthe] reginam" in a later passage which records that after her separation she devoted herself to charitable activities on her estates[53].  Her parentage is referred to in Knytlinga Saga[54].  Snorre records that "Gunhild, Earl Svein's other daughter" was married to "the Danish king Svein Ulfson"[55].  She married secondly (1052) as his first wife, Svend II King of Denmark.

King Olof had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

3.         ASTRID.  Snorre names "Emund, Astrid, Holmfrid" as the children of King Olof by his concubine Edla, specifying that Astrid was brought up in West Gautland in the house of Egil[56].  Adam of Bremen records that the wife of Olav King of Norway was "rege Sueonum…filiam"[57].  The Historia Norwegie records that Olav married "soror Margarete" after his betrothal to the latter was terminated by her marriage to "rex Iarezlafus de Ruscia"[58].  Snorre records the marriage of King Olav and "Astrid, daughter of the Swedish king Olaf"[59].  Her marriage was arranged to appease Swedish opposition to King Olav II's recently assumed rule.  She remained in Sweden with her daughter when her husband left for Russia[60]m (Feb 1019) OLAV II King of Norway, son of HARALD "Grenske" King of Vingulmark, Vestfold and Agder & his wife Asta Gudbransdatter (maybe posthumously 995-killed in battle Stiklestad 29 Jul 1030, bur in a sandbank in the river at Trondheim, transferred to St Clement's church which later became Trondheim Cathedral). 

4.         HOLMFRID .  Snorre names "Emund, Astrid, Holmfrid" as the children of King Olof by his concubine Edla[61]

5.         EMUND (-1060).  Snorre names "Emund, Astrid, Holmfrid" as the children of King Olof by his concubine Edla, specifying that Emund was sent to Vindland to be fostered by his mother's relations where "he for a long time neglected his Christianity"[62].  Adam of Bremen names "Emund" as son of "rex Olaph…a concubina"[63].  He succeeded in [1052] as EMUND Slemme "den Gamle/the Old" King of Swedenm [firstly] ---.  The name of Emund's first wife is not known.  [m secondly as her second husband, ASTRID Njalsdotter, widow of RAGNVALD Ulfsson Jarl of Västergötland, daughter of NJAL --- & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.  Her supposed second marriage to Ragnvald may be nothing more than a guess based on Adam of Bremen recording that "nepos eius [=rex Sueonum Emund] Stinkel" succeeded on the death of Emund[64].]  King Emund & his [first] wife had [two] children: 

a)         ANUND (-before 1056).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

b)         [daughter .  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[65], Stenkil married the unnamed daughter of King Emund.  The primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  It is possible that the marriage is uncorroborated in contemporary documentation but was assumed by later genealogists to explain Stenkil's succession as king.  However, the accession could have been justified solely on the basis of his being the king's stepson, although it is not impossible that it was also confirmed by subsequent marriage to his predecessor's daughter, if indeed he had one[66]m STENKIL Ragnvaldson, son of RAGNVALD Jarl of Västergötland & his wife Ingeborg of Norway (-1066).  He succeeded his father-in-law in 1060 as STENKIL King of Sweden.]

-        see below, Chapter 2.A.  KINGS of SWEDEN 1060-[1111].

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KINGS of SWEDEN 1060-1250

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of SWEDEN 1060-[1111] (FAMILY of STENKIL)

 

 

"Skoglar" TOSTE, son of ---.  In Svithjod.  Snorre records that Harald "Grenske" was welcomed in Svithjod by "Toste…often in battle…therefore called Skoglar-Toste" and lived five years with him[67]

m ---.  The name of Toste's wife is not known. 

Toste & his wife had two children: 

1.         ULF ---.  According to Snorre[68], he was the brother of Sigrid "Storråda/the Haughty".  m ---.  The name of Ulf's wife is not known.  Ulf & his wife had one child: 

a)         RAGNVALD Ulfsson .  Snorre names "Earl Ragnvald, Ulf's son" when recording his [first] marriage[69].  Jarl in Västergötland.  Snorre records that Ragnvald accompanied Ingegerd to Russia and was installed as Earl of Ladoga[70]m firstly INGEBORG Trygvesdatter, daughter of TRYGVE Olavsson of Norway & his wife Åstrid Eiriksdatter.  Snorre records the marriage of "Ingebjorg, Trygve's daughter, King Olaf's sister" and "Earl Ragnvald, Ulf's son"[71]m secondly [as her first husband,] ASTRID Njalsdotter, daughter of NJAL --- & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.  [She married secondly as his second wife, Emund Slemme "den Gamle/the Old" King of Sweden.  Her supposed second marriage to Ragnvald may be nothing more than a guess based on Adam of Bremen recording that "nepos eius [=rex Sueonum Emund] Stinkel" succeeded on the death of Emund[72].]  Jarl Ragnvald & his first wife had two children: 

i)          ULF .  Snorre names "Earl Ulf and Earl Eilif" as the sons of Ragnvald & his wife[73]

ii)         EILIF .  Snorre names "Earl Ulf and Earl Eilif" as the sons of Ragnvald & his wife[74]

Jarl Ragnvald & his second wife had one child:

iii)        STENKIL Ragnvaldson (-1066).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded [his stepfather] in 1060 as STENKIL King of Sweden.   

-         see below

2.         SIGRID "Storråda/the Haughty" .  Snorre names Sigrid as daughter of "Skoglar" Toste and refers to her marriage to "the Swedish king, Eirik the Victorious"[75].  Saxo Grammaticus names "Syritha" as mother of "Erici filius Olavus"[76].  The Fagrskinna names Sigrid, mother of King Olof, as daughter of Skoglar-Tosta[77]Morkinskinna names "Sigridr en stórráda" as mother of “the lady Ástrídr…sister of two kings, Knútr the Great and Óláfr the Swede” who married “Jarl Úlfr sprakaleggr[78]m firstly ([before 985]) ERIK "Segersäll/the Victorious" King of Sweden, son of [EMUND Erikson King of Sweden] (-Uppsala [994/95]).  m secondly ([1000]) as his second wife, SVEND I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark, son of HARALD I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark & his first wife Gunhild ([960]-Gainsborough 3 Feb 1014, bur in England, later removed to Roskilde).   

 

 

STENKIL 1060-1066, HALSTEN [1070], INGE I 1080-[1111], FILIP -1118, INGE II 1118,

 

STENKIL Ragnvaldson, son of RAGNVALD Ulfsson Jarl in Västergötland & his second wife Astrid Njalsdotter (-1066).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Adam of Bremen names "nepos an privignus regis…Stinkil" when recording that he repulsed the legates of the Archbishop of Bremen, in the subsequent passage clarifying that he was "nepos eius [=rex Sueonum Emund] Stinkel" when recording that he succeeded on the death of Emund[79].  The reference to "nepos" would be consistent with Stenkil having been King Emund's stepson.  He succeeded in 1060 as STENKIL King of Sweden.  Adam of Bremen records the death of "in Sueonia rex Stinkel" and that after this "duobus Hericis" fought each other for the kingdom[80], the passage undated but following the record of the Norman conquest of England in 1066.  Snorre records that "Steinkel, the Swedish king, died about the same time as the two Haralds fell" and was succeeded by "Hakon"[81]

m ---.  The identity of King Stenkil's wife is not known.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[82], she was --- Emundsdottir, daughter of EMUND Slemme "den Gamle/the Old" King of Sweden & his first wife ---.  The primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  It is possible that the marriage is uncorroborated in contemporary documentation but was assumed by later genealogists to explain Stenkil's succession as king.  It is also possible that it is no more than a guess based on Adam of Bremen recording that "nepos eius [=rex Sueonum Emund] Stinkel" succeeded on the death of Emund[83], as “nepos” could presumably cover son-in-law.  The accession could have been justified solely on the basis of Stenkil´s being the king's stepson, although it is not impossible that it was also confirmed by subsequent marriage to his predecessor's daughter, if indeed he had one[84]

King Stenkil & his wife had [two] children:

1.         [HALSTEN Stenkilsson.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded in [1070] as HALSTEN King of Sweden.  Snorre records that "Steinkel, the Swedish king, died about the same time as the two Haralds fell" and was succeeded by "Hakon"[85], but does not specify the family relationship between the two.]  m ---.  The name of Halsten's wife is not known.  Halsten & his wife had two children:

a)         FILIP Halstensson (-1118).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded as FILIP King of Swedenm as her second husband, INGEGÄRD of Norway, widow of OLUF I “Hunger” King of Denmark, daughter of HARALD III "Hardråde" King of Norway & his wife Ielisaveta Iaroslavna of Kiev.  Snorre names "one Maria, the other Ingegerd" as the daughters of King Harald & his wife[86].  Snorre records the marriage of "Olaf, the Danish King Svein's son" and "Ingegerd, a daughter of King Harald and sister of King Olaf of Norway"[87].  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified. 

b)         INGE Halstensson (-[1125]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded as INGE II King of Sweden.  After his death, Magnus Nielsson of Denmark was chosen as king of Sweden [Västergötland] in 1129[88]m firstly RAGNHILD, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  St Ragnhild of Telje is identified in some sources as queen of King Inge II[89]m secondly as her first husband, ULVHILD Haakonsdotter, daughter of HAAKON Finsson & his wife --- (-before 1143).  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.  She married secondly, as his second wife, Niels King of Denmark (-murdered 25 Jun 1134).  Her second marriage is referred to by Saxo Grammaticus who states that "Ulvildam Noricam", wife of "Nicolaus", was secretly abducted by Sverker I King of Sweden but their "connection was accepted as a marriage"[90]

2.         INGE Stenkilsson (-[1111]).  Snorre names Inge as son of Stenkel when recording that he succeeded Hakon as king[91].  He lived in Russia before being recalled to Sweden to become king, although the primary source on which this statement is based has not yet been identified.  He succeeded in 1080 as INGE I King of SwedenOrkneyinga Saga records that “King Ingi Steinkelsson” was deposed because of his Christianity and replaced by “another king who still adhered to the pagan rites, the queen´s brother Svein, nicknamed the Sacrificer”, adding that Inge “was forced into exile and went to West Gotaland, but eventually managed to trap Svein inside a house and burnt him there” before resuming control[92]m firstly HELENA, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by a charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark, on which their divorce was based, which names “Cristinæ Reginæ…filia…Ingonis Suevorum Regis et Helena Reginæ[93].  Presumably Helena originated in Russia where her husband allegedly lived before 1080.  She is first named in Abbot William's genealogy of the Danish kings written in [1194][94].  Her possible Russian or Byzantine origin, and whether the series of Greek names were introduced into the Swedish royal family through her influence, is discussed by M. Sjöström[95]m secondly MAER, sister of BLOT-SVEN [later King of Sweden].  She is the wife attributed to King Inge in the Sagas, but as "Maer" means "the maiden" she may be identical with his first wife shown above[96].  However, Sjöström suggests that Queen Helena´s religious donations indicate that this is unlikely to be correct because Blot-Sven is recorded in primary sources as a heathen[97].  King Inge & his first wife had four children:

a)         CHRISTINA (-18 Jan 1122)Morkinskinna records that “Haraldr Valdimarsson” married “Kristin, the daughter of King Ingi Steinkelsson king of the Swedes[98].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark on which their divorce was based, which names “Ingiburgh filia Rizlavi…Ruthenorum Regis et Cristinæ Reginæ…filia…Ingonis Suevorum Regis et Helena Reginæ[99]m (1095) as his first wife, MSTISLAV I Vladimirovich Grand Prince of Kiev, son of VLADIMIR Vsevolodich "Monomakh" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Gytha of England (1076-15 Apr 1132). 

b)         MARGRETA "Fredkulla/peace-bringing woman" (-4 Nov [1130], bur Roskilde).  Snorre records that the marriage of "King Inge's daughter Margaret" and King Magnus was agreed at "Konghelle on the Gaut river" under the agreement which settled disputes between the kings of Norway, Denmark and Sweden[100].  Saxo records that her first marriage took place after the peace meeting between the three Scandinavian kings at Gotaalv in 1101, hence her nickname[101].  Snorre names "Queen Margaret, a daughter of King Inge, who had before been married to King Magnus Barefoot" as the wife of "the Danish king Nikolas, a son of Svein Ulfson"[102]m firstly ([1101]) MAGNUS III "Berrføtt/Barfod/Barfot/Barefoot" King of Norway, illegitimate son of OLAV III "Kyrre/the Gentle" King of Norway & his mistress --- (-killed in battle in Ireland 24 May 1103).  m secondly ([1105]) as his first wife, NIELS King of Denmark, illegitimate son of SVEND II King of Denmark & his mistress --- (-murdered Schleswig 25 Jun 1134).

c)         KATARINA.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not so far been identified.  m BJØRN "Jernside/Ironside" of Denmark, son of HARALD "Kesja" Regent of Denmark & his wife Ragnhild of Norway (-drowned 1134).

d)         RAGVALD Ingesson .  His parentage is given in the Fagrskinna genealogy[103].  Snorre names "Ragnvald, who was the son of the Swedish King Inge Steinkelson" when recording his daughter's marriage[104].  Claimant to the throne.  Under-King in Västergötland.  He was killed when he arrived uninvited at the ting at Karlaby[105]m ---.  The name of Ragvald's wife is not known.  Ragvald & his wife had one child: 

i)          INGRID Ragvaldsdotter (-after 1161).  Her first marriage is confirmed by Snorre naming "Magnus…and…Ragnvald" as sons of "Queen Ingerid and Henrik Halte…a son of the Danish king Svein Sveinson"[106].  According to Saxo Grammaticus, her first marriage was arranged by her paternal aunt Margareta Queen of Denmark to improve relations between the Swedish and Danish royal families[107].  She deserted her first husband, allegedly with a lover, but she was recaptured at Ålborg and brought home[108].  Snorre records the marriage of King Harald and "Ingerid, a daughter of Ragnvald, who was the son of the Swedish King Inge Steinkelson"[109]Morkinskinna records that Harald married “Ingirídr, Rognvaldr´s daughter[110].  Snorre records that Queen Ingerid married "Ottar Birting…a lendermen and a great chief, and of a Trondheim family" after the death of King Harald, but that he was killed "north in the merchant town"[111].  Snorre records that "Queen Ingerid had a son to Ivar Sneis…called Orm [nicknamed]…King-brother", and afterwards married "Arne of Stodreim, who was from this called King's-mate", their children being "Inge, Nikolas, Philip of Herdla, and Margaret who first married Bjorn Buk and afterwards Simon Karason"[112]m firstly HENRIK "Skadelår/the Limper" of Denmark, son of SVEND Svensson of Denmark & his wife --- (-killed in battle near Fotevig 4 Jun 1134).  m secondly ([Jun 1134/36]) HARALD "Gille" King of Norway, illegitimate son of MAGNUS III King of Norway & his mistress --- (-murdered Bergen 14 Dec 1136).  m thirdly (1136) OTTARR Birting (-murdered [1146/47]).  [m] [fourthly] IVAR Sneis .  The source cited above suggests that Ingrid and Ivar Sneis were not married.  m [fourthly/fifthly] ARNE Ivarsson "Kongsmag", at Stodreim in Norway (-after 1161). 

 

 

1.         RAGVALD "Knaphövde" .  Claimant to the throne.  Under-King in Västergötland.  He was killed when he arrived uninvited at the ting at Karlaby[113]

 

 

 

B.      KING of SWEDEN [1080]-1099 (FAMILY of BLOT-SVEN)

 

 

BLOT-SVEN [1080]-[1099]

 

Brother and sister, parents not known: 

1.         BLOT-SVEN, son of --- (-after 1099).  He succeeded as BLOT-SVEN King of SwedenOrkneyinga Saga records that “King Ingi Steinkelsson” was deposed because of his Christianity and replaced by “another king who still adhered to the pagan rites, the queen´s brother Svein, nicknamed the Sacrificer”, adding that Inge “was forced into exile and went to West Gotaland, but eventually managed to trap Svein inside a house and burnt him there” before resuming control[114]m ---.  The name of Blot-Sven's wife is not known.  Blot-Sven & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [CECILIA.  The origin of Jedvard's wife is not known.  According to Brenner[115], she was the daughter of Blot-Sven King of Sweden, but this does not appear to be based on a contemporary primary source.  m JEDVARD, son of ---.]   

2.         MAER.  She is the wife attributed to King Inge in the Sagas, but as "Maer" means "the maiden" she may be identical with his first wife shown above[116].  However, Sjöström suggests that Queen Helena´s religious donations indicate that this is unlikely to be correct because Blot-Sven is recorded in primary sources as a heathen[117]m as his second wife, INGE I Stenkilson King of Sweden, son of STENKIL Ragnvaldsson King of Sweden & his wife --- Emundsdottir (-[1111]). 

 

 

 

C.      KINGS of SWEDEN [1133]-1222 (FAMILY of SVERKER)

 

 

SVERKER I  [1133/34]-1156, KARL I 1161-1166, SVERKER II 1196-1208, JOHAN I 1216-1222

 

SVERKER, son of --- (-murdered 24/25 Dec 1156).  Sverker's parentage is not known.  According to Saxo Grammaticus, he was "of modest origins"[118].  Under King in Östergötland.  He was installed as SVERKER I King of Sweden in [1133/34] in succession to Magnus Nielsson of Denmark. 

[m firstly as her third husband,] ULVHILD Haakonsdotter, widow first of INGE II Halstensson King of Sweden and secondly of NIELS King of Denmark, daughter of HAAKON Finsson & his wife --- (-before 1143).  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.  Her second marriage is referred to by Saxo Grammaticus who states that "Ulvildam Noricam", wife of "Nicolaus", was secretly abducted by King Sverker but their "connection was accepted as a marriage"[119]

m secondly (after 1143) as her third husband, RYKSA [Swantosława] of Poland, widow firstly of MAGNUS I "den Stærke/the Strong" King of Denmark and secondly of VLADIMIR Vsevolodich Prince of Novgorod, daughter of BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" Prince of Poland & his second wife Salome von Berg-Schelklingen ([1116/17]-after 25 Dec 1155).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Rikissam" as the only daughter of "dux Vergescelaus de Polonia" and his wife Agnes, specifying that "primo fuit regina Suecie", that by her second husband "regi Russie nomine Musuch" she was mother of "Sophiam reginam Dacie et Rikissam", the latter marrying "imperatoris Castelle Alfunso"[120].  This appears to be a confused account which contradicts other sources in many aspects.  She was known as RIKISSA in Sweden. 

King Sverker I & his first [wife] had four children:

1.         JOHAN Sverkersson (-murdered [1153/54]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He appears to have been his father's designated heir but was killed (by peasants?) some years before his father's death[121].   

2.         KARL Sverkersson (-murdered Visingsö 12 Apr [1166], bur Alvastra Abbey).  His parentage is stated by Saxo Grammaticus[122].  He succeeded in 1161 as KARL I King of Swedenm (1163) KRISTIN Stigsdatter [Hvide], daughter of STIG Tokesen "Hvitaleder/White leather" [Hvide] & his wife Margrete Knudsdatter of Denmark.  Snorre names (in order) "the Danish king Valdemar…and daughters Margaret, Christina and Catherine" as the children of "Canute Lavard" & his wife, recording that Margrete married "Stig Hvitaled" and that their daughter was "Christina, married to the Swedish king, Karl Sorkvison, and their son was king Sorkver"[123]Morkinskinna records that “Karl Sørkvisson king of the Swedes” married “Kristín” daughter of “Stígr hvítaledr” and his wife Margret[124].  King Karl & his wife had one child: 

a)         SVERKER Karlson (-killed in battle Gestilren 17 Jul 1210, bur Alvastra Abbey).  Snorre names "king Sorkver" as son of "the Swedish king, Karl Sorkvison" & his wife[125].  He succeeded in 1196 as SVERKER II "den yngre/the younger" King of Sweden.  The Saga of King Sverre records the accession of "Sorkvi Karlsson" after the death of "King Knut of Sweden"[126].  “Swerco filius Karoli Regis rex Sweorum” donated property to the monks of Nydala by charter dated to [1196/1210][127].  The Icelandic Annals record the battle in 1208 between "Svercherum Caroli filius" and "Ericum Canuti filium, Suecorum reges"[128].  Deposed 1208.  m firstly BENGTE Ebbesdatter [Galen], daughter of EBBE Sunesen [Galen] from Knardrup & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m secondly INGEGÄRD Birgersdotter, daughter of BIRGER Bengtsson "Brosa" Jarl in Sweden & his wife Brigida of Norway (-after 1210).  Snorre names (in order) "Ingegerd…married to the Swedish king Sorkver [and] a second daughter…Kristin and a third Margaret" as the daughters of "Earl Birger Brose" & his wife[129].  King Sverker II & his first wife had two children: 

i)          KARL Sverkersson (-murdered in the mountains near Trondheim 1198).  The Saga of King Sverre records the marriage of "Karl son of King Sorkvi" and "Ingibiorg daughter of King Sverri"[130]m INGEBORG Sverresdatter of Norway, daughter of SVERRE King of Norway & his first wife Astrid Rösdatter.

ii)         HELENA Sverkersdotter (-after 1240).  A charter dated 1237 refers to the marriage of “S. Fulconis ducis filius” and “E. Suerchonis Regis filia” after her abduction from Vreta convent[131]m (before 1237) SUNE Folkason Jarl in Sweden, son of FOLKER Birgersson [Folkunge] Jarl in Sweden & his wife (-1247). 

King Sverker II & his second wife had [two] children: 

iii)        [KARL Sverkersson (-1213).  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1213 of "Carolus Svercheri filius"[132].  If King Sverker was his father, Karl must have been from the king´s second marriage, after the death of his older half-brother of the same name.] 

iv)       JOHAN Sverkersson (1201-Visingsö 10 Mar 1222, bur Alvastra Abbey).  Snorre names "King Jon" as the son of "the Swedish king Sorkver" and his wife Ingegerd[133]Morkinskinna names “King Jón” as son of “King Sørkvir[134].  The Saga of King Sverre records the death of "Earl Birgi Brosa" in the same year as Sverre King of Norway [in 1202], commenting that "the Swedes then took Jon son of King Sorkvi…one year old"[135].  He succeeded in 1216 as JOHAN I King of Sweden, crowned [1219].  The Icelandic Annals record the succession in 1216 of "Johannes Svercheri filius" who reigned for six years[136].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1222 of "Johannes Sverkeri filus rex Suecorum"[137]

3.          [INGEGÄRD] (-1172, bur Vreta Abbey).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (1156) KNUD III Magnussen Joint King of Denmark, son of MAGNUS I "den Stærke/the Strong" King of Denmark & his wife Ryksa [Swantosława] of Poland ([1129]-murdered Roskilde 9 Aug 1157).

4.         INGEGÄRD (-1204).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Prioress at Vretakloster 1164.

King Sverker I & his second wife had one child:

5.         BURISLAV (-before 1173).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Contender for the throne [1168/73]. 

King Sverker had one [illegitimate] son by an unknown mistress: 

6.          KOL.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

 

D.      KINGS of SWEDEN 1156-1250 (FAMILY of JEDVARD)

 

 

ERIK 1156-1159

 

JEDVARD, son of ---. 

m ---.  The name and origin of Jedvard's wife is not known.  According to Brenner[138], she was Cecilia, daughter of Blot-Sven King of Sweden, but this does not appear to be based on a contemporary primary source.    

Jedvard & his wife had two children: 

1.         ERIK Jedvardsson (-murdered [near Uppsala] 18 May 1159, bur Uppsala Church).  His father's name is confirmed by the Saga of King Sverre which records the marriage of King Sverre to "Margret daughter of Eirik the Saint son of Jutvard and King of the Swedes" and states that "King Eirik rests in a shrine at Upsala in Sweden"[139].  He succeeded in 1156 as ERIK "den helige" King of Swedenm KIRSTIN of Denmark, daughter of BJØRN Jernside of Denmark & his wife Katarin Ingesdottir of Sweden.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not so far been identified.  King Erik & his wife had four children: 

a)         KNUT Eriksson (-Autumn [1195] or 8 Apr 1196).  The Saga of King Sverre names "Margret daughter of Eirik the Saint son of Jutvard and King of the Swedes" as sister of "Knut King of the Swedes" when recording her marriage to Sverre King of Norway[140].  He succeeded in 1167 or 1172 as KNUT King of Sweden.    

-        see below

b)         MARGARETA Eriksdotter ([1155]-1209).  The Saga of King Sverre records the marriage of King Sverre to "Margret daughter of Eirik the Saint son of Jutvard and King of the Swedes" the year after King Magnus was killed [1185][141]m (1185) as his second wife, SVERRE Sigurdsson King of Norway, possible illegitimate son of SIGURD Haraldsson Mund King of Norway & his mistress Gunhild --- ([1152]-Bergen 9 Mar 1202, bur Bergen, Christ's Church).

c)         KATARINA Eriksdotter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m NILS Blaka .

d)         FILIP Erikson .  “…Philippus frater meus…” witnessed a charter dated to [1167/99] under which “K…Sweorum rex filius Herjcjs itjdem regis” donated property to Nydala kloster[142]m ---.  The name of Filip's wife is not known.  Filip & his wife had [one possible son]: 

i)          [HOLMGER Filipsson .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m ---.  The name of Holmger's wife is not known.  Holmger & his wife had [one possible son]:

(a)       [KNUT (-1234).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded in 1229 as KNUT King of Sweden.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1234 of "Kanutus longus rex"[143].]  m as her first wife, HELENA, daughter of PEDER Strangesen [Ulfeldt] & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  King Knut & his wife had two children: 

(1)       HOLMGER Knutsson (-murdered 1248).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

(2)       FILIP Knutsson (-murdered 1251).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

2.         JOAR Jedvardsson (-[1170/90]).  “…J. patruus domini Regis K…” witnessed a charter dated to [1167/99] under which “Kanutus…Sweorum rex” donated property to the monks of Juleta kloster[144].  The primary source which confirms his name has not yet been identified. 

 

 

KNUT [1167]-[1195], ERIK [1208]-1216, ERIK 1222-1229/1234-1250

 

KNUT Eriksson, son of ERIK “den helige” King of Sweden & his wife Kirstin of Denmark (-Autumn [1195] or 8 Apr 1196).  The Saga of King Sverre names "Margret daughter of Eirik the Saint son of Jutvard and King of the Swedes" as sister of "Knut King of the Swedes" when recording her marriage to Sverre King of Norway[145].  He succeeded in 1167 or 1172 as KNUT King of Sweden.  “Kanutus…Sweorum rex atque Gothorum” donated property to the monks of Wiby by charter dated to [1167/85][146].  “K…Sweorum rex filius Herjcjs itjdem regis” donated property to Nydala kloster by charter dated to [1167/99], witnessed by “Byrgo Sweorum et Guttorum dux…Philippus frater meus, Magnus et Karolus fratres ducis…[147].  The Saga of King Sverre records the death "in the autumn" of "King Knut of Sweden"[148], dateable from the context to [1195].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1195 of "Canutus Erici filius, rex Svecorum"[149]

m ---.  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified, although her brother was named Knut and was a magnate in Sweden[150]

King Knut & his wife had [five] children: 

1.         JON (-murdered 1205).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

2.         JOAR (-murdered 1205).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

3.         KNUT (-murdered 1205).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

4.         ERIK Knutson (-Visingsö 10 Apr 1216).  The Icelandic Annals record the battle in 1208 between "Svercherum Caroli filius" and "Ericum Canuti filium, Suecorum reges", adding that Erik ruled for nine years[151].  He succeeded [1208/10] as ERIK King of Sweden.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1216 of "Ericus Canuti filius rex Svecorum"[152]m (1210) RIKISSA of Denmark, daughter of VALDEMAR I "den Store" King of Denmark & his wife Sofia Volodarovna of Novgorod [Rurikid] (-8 May 1220, bur Ringsted Church).  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1210 of "Ericus Canuti filius rex Suecorum" and "Richizzam filiam Valdemari, sororem Valdemari senioris Danorum regis"[153].  The Annales Ryenses record the death in 1221 of "Rikæcæ regina"[154].  The burial records of Ringsted record the burial of "Kanutus filius Waldemari primi rex Danorum ac Sclavorum Pomeraneorum ac totius Holtzatie, sed et dux Estonie" and "soror sua Rikizæ regina uxor Erici regis Suetie" who died "VIII Id Mai" in 1210[155].  King Erik & his wife had three children:

a)         INGEBORG Eriksdotter (-1254).  Her marriage is confirmed by a charter dated 4 Nov 1246 in which “Ericus…rex Swethie” names “domino Birgero genero nostro[156].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m ([1235]) BIRGER Magnuson Jarl, Regent of Sweden, son of MAGNUS "Minnesköld" [Folkungaätten] & his second wife Ingrid [Ylva] ([1200]-20/21 Oct 1266, bur Varnhem Abbey). 

-        KINGS of SWEDEN, FOLKINGAÄTTEN.

b)         SOPHIA (-before 24 Apr 1241).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (before 15 Feb 1237) HEINRICH BORWIN [III] Fürst von Mecklenburg, son of HEINRICH BORWIN [II] Herr von Mecklenburg & his wife Christine [of Sweden] (-after 2 Dec 1277).

c)         ERIK Eriksson (posthumously 1216-12 Feb 1250).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded in 1222 as ERIK "Läspe/the Lisper" King of Sweden, deposed 1229, and again 1234-50.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1222 of "Johannes Sverkeri filus rex Suecorum" and the succession of "Ericus Erici filius" who ruled for 27 years[157].  The Annales Ryenses record the death in 1250 of "Ericus rex Sueciæ"[158].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1250 of "Ericus Erici filius Svionum rex"[159]m (Fyrisäng near Uppsala [1243/44]) KATARINA Sunasdotter, daughter of SUNE Folkesson & his wife Helena Sverkersdatter of Sweden (-Gudhem Convent 1252).  “Katerina…Regina Swechorum” donated property to Gudhems Kloster by charter dated 11 Jun 1250 which names “dominus Suno…pater noster[160]

5.         [KATARINA].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.  m firstly PETER Larssonm secondly MAGNUS Knutsson "Broka", son of KNUT Birgersson Jarl in Sweden [Folkungaätten] & his wife ---. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    KINGS of SWEDEN 1250-1412 (FOLKINGAÄTTEN)

 

 

VALDEMAR 1250-1275

 

BIRGER Magnusson, son of MAGNUS "Minnesköld" [Folkungaätten] & his second wife Ingrid [Ylva] ([1200]-20/21 Oct 1266, bur Varnhem Abbey).  The Icelandic Annals record that "dominus Birgerus Magni filius" was made "comes in Svecia" in 1248[161].  Jarl at Bjälbo.  Regent of Sweden.  Founder of Stockholm.  “B…Dux Sueorum” donated property to Eskilstuna Kloster by charter dated 16 Jul 1266 which names “filiorum nostrorum…W…Regis Sueorum, Magni Ducis…Ericj ac Benedictj Scolaris[162].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1265 of "Birgerus dux Sveciæ"[163]

m firstly ([1235]) INGEBORG of Sweden, daughter of ERIK Knutsson King of Sweden & his second wife Richeza of Denmark ([1212]-17 Jun 1254).  Her marriage is confirmed by a charter dated 4 Nov 1246 in which “Ericus…rex Swethie” names “domino Birgero genero nostro[164].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. 

m secondly (1261) as her second husband, MECHTILD von Holstein, widow of ABEL King of Denmark, daughter of ADOLF IV Graf von Holstein und Stormarn & his wife Hedwig zur Lippe (1225-1288, bur Varnhem Abbey).  The Annales Stadenses record the marriage "1237 VII Kal Mai" of "dux Abel" and "filiam comitis Adolfi de Scowenborch", naming her "Mechtildem" and recording her second marriage to "ducem Sueciæ" in a later passage[165].  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1261 of "Bergerus Sveciæ dux" and "Mathildam reginam Daniæ"[166]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Birger's mistress is not known. 

Birger Magnusson & his first wife had eight children: 

1.         RIKISSA Birgersdotter (-before 13 Dec 1288).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Rixam filiam regis Suecie" as wife of "Henricum seniorem [filium Nycolai domini de Werle]"[167].  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.  m firstly (Oslo 1251) HAAKON Haakonsson "den Unge/the Young" under King of Norway, son of HAAKON IV "den Gamle/the Old" King of Norway & his wife Margareta Skulesdotter (Bergen 10 Nov 1232-Tønsberg 30 Apr or 5 May1257, bur Oslo, St Hallvards Church).  m secondly (1262) as his first wife, HEINRICH von Werle, son of NIKOLAUS I Herr von Werle zu Rostock [Mecklenburg] & his wife Jutta von Anhalt (-murdered near Saal, Rügen 8 Oct 1291).  Herr zu Werle zu Güstrow 1281. 

2.         VALDEMAR Birgersson ([1237]-Nyköping Castle 26 Dec 1302).  The Icelandic Annals record that "Valdemarus Birgiri filius" succeeded as king of Sweden in 1249[168].  He succeeded in 1250 as VALDEMAR King of Sweden.  “Waldemarus…rex Swechie” confirmed the donation of property to Gudhems Kloster by “reginam dominam Katerinam” by charter dated 17 Jan 1251 which names “patris nostri domini Byrgerj ducis[169].  The Annales Lubicenses records that "Waldemarus rex Sweorum" was deposed in 1275 by "Magno duce fratre suo"[170].  The Icelandic Annals record the reconcilation between "reges Valdemarus et Magnus" and the departure of Valdemar for Denmark soon after[171].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1302 of "Valdemarus Birgeri filius Rex Sveonum"[172]m firstly (1260, divorced after 1276) SOPHIE of Denmark, daughter of ERIK IV "Plovpenning" King of Denmark & his wife Jutta of Saxony (-1286).  The Icelandic Annals record a visit to "Konúngahellam…festo martyris Albani" by "rex Valdemarus Sophiaque regina cum filio domicello Erico annos quinque nato" in 1276[173].  The Icelandic Annals note the presence of "Sophia regina Valdimari regis, eorumque filio Erico domicello et filiabus Ingeburga quæ nupsit Gerhardo filio Gerhardi comitis Holsatiæ et Catharina virgine" at the reconcilation between "reges Valdemarus et Magnus"[174]m secondly LUCARDIS, daughter of ---.  1296.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   Mistress (1): JUTTA of Denmark, daughter of ERIK IV "Plovpenning" King of Denmark & his wife Jutta of Saxony ([1246]-[1286/95]).  Abbess of St Agneta in Roskilde 1266.  She left the convent in 1271[175].  King Valdemar had & his first wife had seven children: 

a)         ERIK Valdemarsson (-1261, bur Sigruna Abbey).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

b)         INGEBORG Valdemarsdotter (-[1290]).  The Annales Lubicenses refer to the first wife of "Gherardi comitis Holtzatiæ" as "filia Woldemari Regis Sweciæ"[176].  “Waldemarus…Rex Sveorum” confirmed a grant to Hamburg by “pater noster Dominus Byrgerus felicis memoriæ Dux Sveorum” by charter dated 12 Dec 1275 “in nuptiis filiæ nostræ…et comitis Gerardi…de Holsatia[177].  The Icelandic Annals note the presence of "Sophia regina Valdimari regis, eorumque filio Erico domicello et filiabus Ingeburga quæ nupsit Gerhardo filio Gerhardi comitis Holsatiæ et Catharina virgine" at the reconcilation between "reges Valdemarus et Magnus"[178]m (12 Dec 1275) as his first wife, GERHARD II Graf von Holstein in Plön, son of GERHARD I Graf von Holstein in Itzehoe & his first wife Elisabeth von Mecklenburg (1254-Plön 28 Oct 1312, bur Hamburg Cathedral).

c)         KATARINA Valdemarsdotter (-1283).  The Icelandic Annals record a visit to "Konúngahellam…festo martyris Albani" by "rex Valdemarus Sophiaque regina cum filio domicello Erico annos quinque nato" in 1276[179]

d)         ERIK Valdemarsson [Folkungaättens Valdemarsgren] ([1271/72]-1330).  The Icelandic Annals record a visit to "Konúngahellam…festo martyris Albani" by "rex Valdemarus Sophiaque regina cum filio domicello Erico annos quinque nato" in 1276[180].  The Icelandic Annals record a visit to "Konúngahellam…festo martyris Albani" by "rex Valdemarus Sophiaque regina cum filio domicello Erico annos quinque nato" in 1276[181].  The Icelandic Annals record that "domicellus Ericus filius Valdemari" was released from prison in 1302[182].  Norwegian High Councillor 1308.  Swedish High Councillor 1322.  m INGEBORG Knutsdotter, daughter of KNUT Jonsson [Aspenäsätten] & his wife Katharina Bengtsdotter [Folkungaättens lagmansgren].  1333.  Erik & his wife had one child: 

i)          VALDEMAR Eriksson .  1345/69.  m firstly (before 1347) INGEGÄRD Karlsdotter [Färla], daughter of [KARL Orestason [Färla] & his wife Helena Magnusdotter [Folkungaättens oäkta gren]].  m secondly as her first husband, HELGA Anundsdotter [Balk av Strand], daughter of ANUND Röriksson [Balk av Strand] & his wife Cecilia Magnusdotter.  She married secondly (before 1379) Ya Königsmarck, Vogt of Stockholm Castle.  Valdemar & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ERIK Valdemarsson (-[1388/96])m ERMEGARD --- (-[1402/03].

e)         RIKISSA Valdemarsdotter (-[1 Sep 1288/19 Apr 1293]).  The Annales Polonorum record the marriage "1285 in octavis sancti Francisci" of "filiam regis Swecie nomine Rithcam" and "dux Primislius maioris Polonie"[183]m (1285) as his second wife, PRZEMYSŁ Prince of Greater Poland, son of PRZEMYSŁ I Prince of Poznan, Kalisch and Gniezien [Piast] & his wife Elisabeth von Schlesien [Piast] (14 Oct 1257-murdered Rogoźno 8 Feb 1296, bur Posen Cathedral).  He succeeded in 1295 as PRZEMYSŁ II King of Poland

f)          MARIANNA Valdemarsdotter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   1299.  m (Nyköping 1285) as his second wife, RUDOLF [II] von Diepholz (-1303).

g)         MARGARETA Valdemarsdotter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Nun at Skänninge Convent 1288. 

King Valdemar had one possible illegitimate son by Mistress (1):   

h)         [ERIK Valdemarsson ([1273]-).  Brenner doubts his existence, saying he is likely confused with King Valdemar's legitimate son Erik[184].] 

3.         MAGNUS Ladulås Birgersson ([1240]-Visingsö 18 Dec 1290, bur Stockholm, Riddarholm Church).  The Annales Lubicenses names "Magno duce fratre suo [=Waldemarus rex Sweorum]" when recording that he deposed his brother in 1275[185].  He succeeded in 1275 as MAGNUS I Ladulås King of Sweden.   

-        see below.

4.         KRISTINA Birgersdotter (-after 1285).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m SIGGE Guttormsson, from Ljuna (-bur Alvastra Abbey).

5.         KATARINA .  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Katerinam, filiam regis Suecie" as wife of "Sifridum comitem"[186]m (before 17 Oct 1259) SIEGFRIED Graf von Anhalt in Köthen und Dessau, son of HEINRICH I "der Fette" Graf von Anhalt und Aschersleben & his wife Irmgard von Thüringen (-after 25 Mar 1298, bur Coswig).

6.         ERIK Birgersson (-17 Dec 1275).  “B…Dux Sueorum” donated property to Eskilstuna Kloster by charter dated 16 Jul 1266 which names “filiorum nostrorum…W…Regis Sueorum, Magni Ducis…Ericj ac Benedictj Scolaris[187].  Duke in southern Sweden 1275. 

7.         INGEBORG (-30 Jun 1302, bur Mölln).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie refers to the wife of "Iohannem [filium Alberti dux]" as "filiam regis Suecie"[188].  The Annales Lubicenses record the death in 1302 of "Ingeburgis, mater Alberti, Iohannis et Erici ducum Saxoniæ, filia Regis Sweonum"[189]m ([1270]) JOHANN I Herzog von Sachsen, son of ALBRECHT I Herzog zu Sachsen, Engern und Westfalen [Askanier] & his third wife Helene von Braunschweig (-30 Jul 1286).

8.         BENGT Birgersson ([1254]-25 May 1291).  “B…Dux Sueorum” donated property to Eskilstuna Kloster by charter dated 16 Jul 1266 which names “filiorum nostrorum…W…Regis Sueorum, Magni Ducis…Ericj ac Benedictj Scolaris[190].  Duke in Finland 1284.  Bishop of Linköping 1286. 

Birger Magnusson had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

9.          GREGERS Birgersson or Frilloson [Folkingaättens oäkta gren] (-1276, bur Uppsala).  At Ängsjö.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1276 of "Gregorius filius notus Birgeri comitis"[191].  He was ancestor of the Folkingaättens Oäkta Gren family. 

 

 

MAGNUS I 1275-1290, BIRGER 1290-1319

 

MAGNUS Ladulås Birgersson, son of BIRGER Magnusson Jarl and Regent of Sweden [Folkungaätten] & his first wife Ingeborg of Sweden ([1240]-Visingsö 18 Dec 1290, bur Stockholm, Riddarholm Church).  He succeeded in 1275 as MAGNUS I Ladulås King of Sweden.  The Icelandic Annals record a peace agreement and meeting between "Magnum Norvegiæ regem" and "Magnum Birgeri filium Sveonum regem" in 1276[192].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1290 of "Magnus Svevorum rex Birgeri filius"[193]

m (Kalmar 11 Nov 1276) HEDWIG von Holstein, daughter of GERHARD I Graf von Holstein in Itzehoe & his first wife Elisabeth von Mecklenburg (-[7 Mar 1324/14 Feb 1326]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

King Magnus I & his wife had six children: 

1.         ERIK (-1279, bur Uppsala).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

2.         BIRGER Magnusson (1280-[Sjælland] 31 May 1321, bur Ringsted Church).  He succeeded his father in 1290 as BIRGER King of Sweden.  The Icelandic Annals record that "Haqvinus…rex Norvegiæ" and "Birgerus rex Sveciæ, dux Ericus frater huius" signed a peace agreement "ad ostium Solbergæ prope Gothalbim" in 1302[194].  Deposed 1319.  The burial records of Ringsted record "Birgerus rex Suetie" who died "pridie Kal Jun" in 1321 and "uxor sua Margareta filia regis Erici et Agnetis" who died "VI Non Mar" in 1341[195]m (Papal dispensation 23 Dec 1284, Stockholm 25 Nov 1298) MARGRETE of Denmark, daughter of ERIK V "Klipping" King of Denmark & his wife Agnes von Brandenburg (-2 Mar 1341, bur Ringsted Church).  Pope Martin IV issued a dispensation for the marriage of "Birgero, filio Magni Sveciæ regis" and "Margaretæ filiæ Erici regis Daniæ" for 4o consanguinity dated 23 Dec 1284[196].  The Annales Lubicenses refer to the wife of "Birgerum regem…Sweorum" as "sororem regis Danorum" when recording that her husband's brothers "Ericus et Waldemarus duces" captured her and her husband in 1305[197].  She was known as MÄRTA in Sweden.  The burial records of Ringsted record "Birgerus rex Suetie" who died "pridie Kal Jun" in 1321 and "uxor sua Margareta filia regis Erici et Agnetis" who died "VI Non Mar" in 1341[198].  King Birger & his wife had six children: 

a)         MAGNUS Birgersson (Stockholm Sep 1300-murdered Stockholm 1 Jun 1320, bur Stockholm, Riddarholms Church).  He was probably chosen by his father as heir but was imprisoned by supporters of his cousin and finally executed[199].  Magnus had [one possible] illegitimate daughter: 

i)          KARIN Magnusdotter of Herrmanshult . 

b)         ERIK Birgersson (-1319).  The Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium names "Birgerus rex Suecie, uxor sua Margareta…et tres filii sui Ericus, Otto et Valdemarus"[200].  Archdeacon at Uppsala 1315. 

c)         OTTO Birgersson .  The Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium names "Birgerus rex Suecie, uxor sua Margareta…et tres filii sui Ericus, Otto et Valdemarus"[201]

d)         VALDEMAR Birgersson .  The Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium names "Birgerus rex Suecie, uxor sua Margareta…et tres filii sui Ericus, Otto et Valdemarus"[202]

e)         AGNES Birgersdotter (-after 1344).  The Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium names "Birgerus rex Suecie, uxor sua Margareta, filie sue Agnes et Katherina"[203]

f)          KATARINA Birgersdotter (-after 1320).  The Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium names "Birgerus rex Suecie, uxor sua Margareta, filie sue Agnes et Katherina"[204]

3.         RIKISSA (-17 Dec 1348).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Abbess of St Klara in Stockholm 1335.

4.         INGEBORG (-5 Aug 1319, bur Ringsted Church).  The Annales Lubicenses record the marriage in 1297 of "Ingeburgem sororem Birgen regis Sweorum" and "Ericus rex Danorum"[205].  Nun of St Klara at Roskilde 1318.  The Annales Colbazienses record the death in 1319 of "rex Dacie et uxor eius"[206].  The burial records of Ringsted record "Ericus rex, filius Erici regis" and "Ingeburgh uxor sua filia Magni regis Suecie" who died "Non Apr" in 1319[207]m (Hälsingborg [Jun] 1296) ERIK VI "Mændved" King of Denmark, son of ERIK V "Klipping" King of Denmark & his wife Agnes von Brandenburg (1274-Roskilde 13 Nov 1319, bur Ringsted Church).

5.         ERIK Magnusson ([1282]-murdered Nyköping Castle Feb 1318, bur Stockholm, Storkyrka).  The Annales Lubicenses name "Ericus et Waldemarus duces" as brothers of "Birgerum regem…Sweorum"[208].  Duke in Södermanland 1303. 

-        see below

6.         VALDEMAR Magnusson (-murdered Nyköping Castle Feb 1318, bur Stockholm, Storkyrka).  The Annales Lubicenses name "Ericus et Waldemarus duces" as brothers of "Birgerum regem…Sweorum"[209].  Duke in Finland 1302.  m firstly (1302 after 2 Dec, divorced 9 Dec 1305) CHRISTINA Tyrgilsdotter, daughter of TYRGILS Knutsson & his wife Birgitta.  m secondly (Oslo 29 Sep 1312) INGEBORG of Norway, daughter of ERIK Magnusson King of Norway & his second wife Isabel Bruce (1297-[1356/57]).  The Annales Lubicenses refer to the wife of "Waldemarus [dux]" as "filiam Erici quondam regis Norwegiæ"[210].  Valdemar & his second wife had one child:

a)         ERIK Valdemarsson (1316-young).  The Icelandic Annals records the birth in 1316 of "Ericus regis Erici ex filia nepos"[211]

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the following members of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

MAGNUS II 1319-1363, ERIK XII 1344-1359, HAAKON VI 1362-1364, MARGARETA 1389-1412

 

ERIK Magnusson, son of MAGNUS Lådulas [Folkunge] King of Sweden & his wife Hedwig von Holstein ([1282]-murdered Nyköping Castle Feb 1318, bur Stockholm, Storkyrka).  The Annales Lubicenses name "Ericus et Waldemarus duces" as brothers of "Birgerum regem…Sweorum"[212].  The Icelandic Annals record that "Haqvinus…rex Norvegiæ" and "Birgerus rex Sveciæ, dux Ericus frater huius" signed a peace agreement "ad ostium Solbergæ prope Gothalbim" in 1302[213].  Duke in Södermanland 1303.  Duke of Halland. 

m firstly (divorced before 1302) --- Thurgilsdotter, daughter of THURGIL Knudson Marshal of Sweden & his wife ---.  The Annales Lubicenses record that "marscalei [regis] filia" was wife of "Erico duci" but divorced[214]

m secondly (Betrothed 1302, Oslo 29 Sep 1312) as her first husband, INGEBORG of Norway, daughter of HAAKON V Magnusson King of Norway & his second wife Euphemia von Rügen (1301-17 Jun after 1360).  The Icelandic Annals record the betrothal in 1302 of "dux Ericus" and "domicellam Ingiburgam filiam Haqvini regis"[215].  The Annales Lubicenses refer to the wife of "Ericus [dux]" as "filiam Haquini regis Norwegiæ"[216].  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1311 of "Dux Ericus in Suecia" and "domicellam Ingeburgam filiam Haqvini regis"[217].  She married secondly (21 Jun 1327) Knut "Porse" Duke of Sønderhalland and Estland (-30 May 1330).  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1326 of "Canutus Possius" and "dominam ducissam Ingiborgam matrem Magni regis Norvegiæ"[218]

Erik & his second wife had two children: 

1.         MAGNUS Eriksson (1316-drowned near Bergen 1 Dec 1374, bur Varnhem Abbey).  The Icelandic Annals records the birth in 1316 of "domicellus Magnus Minniskjöldus regis Haqvini ex filia nepos"[219].  He succeeded his uncle in 1319 as MAGNUS II King of Sweden, and MAGNUS II King of Norway.  The Icelandic Annals record that "Domicellus Magnus Erici filius, regis Haqvini de fila nepos" became "rex Norvegiæ Sveciæ atque Gothiæ" in 1320[220].  He was deposed in 1344 as King of Norway.  He abdicated in 1363 as King of Sweden, remaining as regent of Norway.  m (Bohus [Tønsberghus] Castle 5 Nov 1335) BLANCHE de Namur, daughter of JEAN Comte de Namur & his second wife Marie d'Artois [ Capet] (-Copenhagen Autumn 1363).  She was accused by the noblewoman Birgitta Birgersdotter (St Bridget of Vadstena) of having poisoned the latter's son, her innocence of the crime only being proved at the end of the 18th century[221].  She lived at Tønsberghus castle in Norway from 1358, because of the political situation in Sweden, and administered the fiefs of Vestfold and Skienssysla[222].  King Magnus II & his wife had two children: 

a)         ERIK Magnusson ([1339]-20 Jun 1359).  Duke of Scania.  He succeeded in 1344 as ERIK XII joint King of Sweden, ruling jointly with his father.  The Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium records the death in 1359 of "rege Suecie Erico…uxor sua Beatrix, primogenitus suus" and names "pater suus Magnus rex Suecie"[223]m (before 25 Oct 1356) BEATRIX von Bayern, daughter of Emperor LUDWIG IV King of Germany, Duke of Bavaria Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his second wife Marguerite de Hainaut [Avesnes] Ctss de Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland (1344-25 Dec 1359).  The Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium records the death in 1359 of "rege Suecie Erico…uxor sua Beatrix, primogenitus suus" and names "pater suus Magnus rex Suecie"[224].  King Erik XII & his wife had one child: 

i)          son (b and d 1359).  The Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium records the death in 1359 of "rege Suecie Erico…uxor sua Beatrix, primogenitus suus" and names "pater suus Magnus rex Suecie"[225]

b)         HAAKON Magnusson ([15] Aug 1340-Oslo [Aug/Sep] 1380, bur Oslo, Maria Church).  His father designated him his heir in Norway, which was formally approved by the Norwegian estates.  He succeeded his father in 1344 as HAAKON VI King of Norway.  He succeeded in 1362 as HAAKON I King of Sweden, deposed 1363.  m (Copenhagen [9] Apr 1363) MARGRETHE of Denmark, daughter of VALDEMAR IV King of Denmark & his wife Heilwig von Schleswig (1353-on board ship Flensburg harbour 28 Oct 1412, bur Sorø Abbey, transferred 1413 to Roskilde Church).  She succeeded in 1387 as MARGRETHE I Queen of Denmark, 1388 as MARGRETHE I Queen of Norway and in 1389 as MARGRETHE Queen of Sweden.  King Haakon I & his wife had one child: 

i)          OLAV (Dec 1370-3 Aug 1387).  He succeeded in 1376 as OLAF II King of Denmark, and in 1381 as OLAV IV King of Norway

2.         EUPHEMIA Eriksdotter ([1317]-[27 Oct 1363/16 Jun 1370])m (contract Bohus 24 Jul 1321, Rostock [10 Apr] 1336) as his first wife, ALBRECHT I Fürst von Mecklenburg, son of HEINRICH II "dem Löwen" Fürst von Mecklenburg & his second wife Anna von Sachsen-Wittenberg (1318-Schwerin 18 Feb 1379, bur Doberan Abbey).  He was created Herzog von Mecklenburg und Fürst by Imperial Order at Prague 8 Jul 1348. 

a)         ALBRECHT von Mecklenburg ([1340]-Dobrenau [31 Mar /1 Apr] 1412, bur Doberan)He was crowned ALBERT King of Sweden at Uppsala 18 Feb 1364.  He succeeded his father in 1379 as ALBRECHT III joint Herzog von Mecklenburg.  Deposed as King of Sweden in 1389, he was imprisoned by Margrethe Queen of Denmark from 24 Feb 1389 to 26 Sep 1395.  Lord of Gotland 1397/1399.  He formally abdicated as King of Sweden in 1405. 

-        MECKLENBURG

b)         other children: see MECKLENBURG

 

 

ERIK XIII 1397-1439

 

1.         ERICH BOGISLAW von Pommern, son of WARTISLAW VII Duke of Pomerania & his wife Marie von Mecklenburg ([1381]-Rügenwalde 1459 [after 4 Apr] bur Rügenwalde Marienkirche).  He was adopted by Margrethe I King of Denmark as her heir in Norway, following the death of her son King Olav IV, and succeeded in 1389 as ERIK III King of Norway, although Queen Margrethe continued to rule as Regent.  He succeeded in 1396 as ERIK VII King of Denmark, and in 1397 as ERIK XIII King of Sweden.  Abdicated 1439. 

 

 

CHRISTOFFER 1439-1448

 

1.         CHRISTOPH von Bayern, son of JOHANN Herzog von Bayern Pfalzgraf bei Rhein in Neumarkt & his wife Katharina von Pommern-Stolp [Denmark] (Neumarkt 26 Feb 1416-Helsingborg 5/6 Jan 1448, bur Roskilde Cathedral).  He succeeded his maternal uncle 10 Apr 1440 as CHRISTOFFER III King of Denmark, 4 Oct 1440 as CHRISTOF King of Sweden and 4 Jun 1441 as CHRISTOF King of Norway.  He succeeded his father in 1443 as Pfalzgraf in Neunburg vorm Wald und in Neumarkt.   

 

 

 



[1] This early "history", together with the various king lists, is narrated in Dunham, S. A. (1840) History of Denmark, Sweden and Norway, 3 Vols. (London, Longman) I 124-155. 

[2] Laing, S. (trans.) (1907) Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings Snorre (Norroena Society, London), available at Online Medieval and Classical Library Release 15b, <http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Heimskringla/> (24 Jan 2003). 

[3] Andersson, T. M. and Gade, K. E. (trans.) (2000) Morkinskinna (Cornell). 

[4] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum, MGH SS VII, pp. 267-389. 

[5] Olrik, J. and Ræder, H. (eds.) Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum, available at <http://www.kb.dk/elib/lit/dan/> (15 Aug 2003), Christiansen, E. (1980) Saxo Grammaticus, Danorum Regum Heroumque Historia, Books X-XVI (B. A. R. International Series 84). 

[6] Liljegren, J. G. (ed.) (1829) Diplomatarium Suecanum, Svensk Diplomatarium, Tome I 817-1285 (Stockholm). 

[7] Dunham I 125. 

[8] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 14.

[9] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 28.  

[10] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 29.  

[11] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 29.  

[12] Cited in Saxo (Christiansen), p. 164 footnote 17. 

[13] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 29.  

[14] Cited in Saxo (Christiansen), p. 164 footnote 17. 

[15] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.63, MGH SS VII, p. 305. 

[16] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.63, MGH SS VII, p. 305. 

[17] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.22, MGH SS VII, p. 314. 

[18] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, II, p. 5. 

[19] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, II, pp. 5-6. 

[20] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, II, p. 5. 

[21] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, II, p. 5. 

[22] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 29.  

[23] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, II, p. 5. 

[24] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.28, MGH SS VII, pp. 316-17. 

[25] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.36, MGH SS VII, p. 319. 

[26] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 11. 

[27] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 48. 

[28] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 11. 

[29] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, XI, p. 20. 

[30] Fagrskinna, Chapter 24, p. 147, quoted by Rafal T. Prinke, at <http://main.amu.edu.pl/~bkpan/SIGRID/Sigrid.htm> (26 Mar 2005). 

[31] Morkinskinna, 4, p. 113. 

[32] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 48. 

[33] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 319. 

[34] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 319. 

[35] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 11. 

[36] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, XI, p. 20. 

[37] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 123. 

[38] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 319.  

[39] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 11. 

[40] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, XI, p. 20. 

[41] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.37, MGH SS VII, pp. 319-20. 

[42] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, XI, p. 22.

[43] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 319. 

[44] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 89. 

[45] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part II, 71. 

[46] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 319. 

[47] Morkinskinna, 1, p. 89. 

[48] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 95. 

[49] Ekrem, I. and Mortensen, L. B. (eds.) Fisher, P. (trans.) (2003) Historia Norwegie (Copenhagen), XVIII, p. 104. 

[50] Franklin, S and Shepard, J. (1998) The Emergence of Rus 750-1200 (Longman), p. 202. 

[51] Cross, S. H. and Sherbowitz-Wetzor, O. P. (trans. & eds.) (1973) The Russian Primary Chronicle, Laurentian Text (“PC”) (Medieval Academy of America, Cambridge, Massachusetts) 1048-1050, p. 139. 

[52] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.37 and II.57, MGH SS VII, pp. 319 and 326. 

[53] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum III.11 and III.14, MGH SS VII, pp. 339 and 341. 

[54] Knytlinga Saga, ch. 23, cited in Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 232 footnote 24. 

[55] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 42. 

[56] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 89. 

[57] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.59, MGH SS VII, p. 327. 

[58] Historia Norwegie XVIII, p. 104. 

[59] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 92. 

[60] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part VII, 191. 

[61] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 89. 

[62] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 89. 

[63] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.57, MGH SS VII, p. 326. 

[64] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum III.14 and III.15, MGH SS VII, p. 341. 

[65] ES II 114. 

[66] M. Sjöström, in a private email to the author dated 15 Mar 2007. 

[67] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 11. 

[68] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 105. 

[69] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 105. 

[70] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 95. 

[71] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 105. 

[72] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum III.14 and III.15, MGH SS VII, p. 341. 

[73] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 95. 

[74] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 95. 

[75] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 11. 

[76] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, XI, p. 20. 

[77] Fagrskinna, Chapter 24, p. 147, quoted by Rafal T. Prinke, at <http://main.amu.edu.pl/~bkpan/SIGRID/Sigrid.htm> (26 Mar 2005). 

[78] Morkinskinna, 4, p. 113. 

[79] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum III.14 and III.15, MGH SS VII, p. 341. 

[80] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum III.52, MGH SS VII, p. 356. 

[81] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 13. 

[82] ES II 114. 

[83] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum III.14 and III.15, MGH SS VII, p. 341. 

[84] M. Sjöström, in a private email to the author dated 15 Mar 2007. 

[85] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 13. 

[86] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 33. 

[87] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Kyrre, 5. 

[88] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, V, p. 119. 

[89] M. Sjöström, in a private email to the author dated 15 Mar 2007. 

[90] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, X, p. 138. 

[91] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 13. 

[92] Pálsson, H. and Edwards, P. (trans.) (1978) Orkneyinga Saga, The History of the Earls of Orkney (Penguin Books), 35, p. 80. 

[93] Diplomatarium Suecanum 101, p. 125. 

[94] Gertz, M. C. (1917) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ Medii Ævi (not yet consulted), and Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 291 footnote 2. 

[95] Sjöström, M. ´Research Query: Antecedents of Queen Helena ´the Byzantine´, consort of Inge I of Sweden´, Foundations Vol. 2, no. 5, Jan 2008, p. 375. 

[96] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 291 footnote 2. 

[97] Sjöström, M. ´Queen Helena´, p. 379. 

[98] Morkinskinna, 66, p. 329. 

[99] Diplomatarium Suecanum 101, p. 125. 

[100] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 17. 

[101] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 291 footnote 2. 

[102] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 28. 

[103] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 292 footnote 6. 

[104] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 1. 

[105] Christiansen, E. (1997) The Northern Crusades, 2nd Ed, Penguin Books, p. 23. 

[106] Snorre, Saga of Hakon Herdebreid, 18. 

[107] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, I, p. 110. 

[108] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, IV, p. 118. 

[109] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 1. 

[110] Morkinskinna, 82a, p. 359. 

[111] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 14. 

[112] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 16. 

[113] Christiansen, E. (1997) The Northern Crusades, 2nd Ed, Penguin Books, p. 23. 

[114] Orkneyinga Saga 35, p. 80. 

[115] Brenner, S. O. (1978 reprint) Nachkommen Gorms des Alten I-XVI Generation (Dansk Historisk Haandbogsforlag), p. 12. 

[116] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 291 footnote 2. 

[117] Sjöström, M. ´Queen Helena´, p. 379. 

[118] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, X, p. 138. 

[119] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, X, p. 138. 

[120] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1141, MGH SS XXIII, p. 834. 

[121] M. Sjöström, in a private email to the author dated 15 Mar 2007. 

[122] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, X, p. 138. 

[123] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 21. 

[124] Morkinskinna, 66, p. 329. 

[125] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 21. 

[126] Stephton, J. (trans.) (1898) The Saga of King Sverri of Norway (“Sverissaga”) (London), 127, consulted at <http://www.northvegr.org/lore/Sverri/ (9 Feb 2007). 

[127] Diplomatarium Suecanum 102, p. 126. 

[128] Íslenzkir Annálar sive Annales Islandici (Copenhagen, 1847) ("Annales Islandici"), 1208, p. 87. 

[129] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 22. 

[130] Sverissaga 153. 

[131] Diplomatarium Suecanum 295, p. 287. 

[132] Annales Islandici, 1213, p. 91. 

[133] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 22. 

[134] Morkinskinna, 66, p. 329. 

[135] Sverissaga 182. 

[136] Annales Islandici, 1216, p. 93. 

[137] Annales Islandici, 1222, p. 97. 

[138] Brenner, p. 12. 

[139] Sverissaga 100. 

[140] Sverissaga 100. 

[141] Sverissaga 100. 

[142] Diplomatarium Suecanum 70, p. 95. 

[143] Annales Islandici, 1234, p. 109. 

[144] Diplomatarium Suecanum 67, p. 93. 

[145] Sverissaga 100. 

[146] Diplomatarium Suecanum 63, p. 90. 

[147] Diplomatarium Suecanum 70, p. 95. 

[148] Sverissaga 127. 

[149] Annales Islandici, 1195, p. 81. 

[150] M. Sjöström, in a private email to the author dated 15 Mar 2007. 

[151] Annales Islandici, 1208, p. 87. 

[152] Annales Islandici, 1216, p. 93. 

[153] Annales Islandici, 1210, p. 89. 

[154] Annales Ryenses 1221, MGH SS XVI, p. 406. 

[155] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1918) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. II, Sepulchalia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 83. 

[156] Diplomatarium Suecanum 339, p. 317. 

[157] Annales Islandici, 1222, p. 97. 

[158] Annales Ryenses 1249, MGH SS XVI, p. 408. 

[159] Annales Islandici, 1250, p. 121. 

[160] Diplomatarium Suecanum 377, p. 345. 

[161] Annales Islandici, 1248, p. 121. 

[162] Diplomatarium Suecanum 518, p. 435. 

[163] Annales Islandici, 1265, p. 135. 

[164] Diplomatarium Suecanum 339, p. 317. 

[165] Annales Stadenses 1237 and 1241, MGH SS XVI, pp. 363 and 367.  

[166] Annales Islandici, 1261, p. 131. 

[167] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[168] Annales Islandici, 1249, p. 121. 

[169] Diplomatarium Suecanum 387, p. 352. 

[170] Annales Lubicenses 1275, MGH SS XVI, p. 414. 

[171] Annales Islandici, 1276, p. 149. 

[172] Annales Islandici, 1302, p. 183. 

[173] Annales Islandici, 1276, p. 149. 

[174] Annales Islandici, 1276, p. 149. 

[175] Brenner, p. 22. 

[176] Annales Lubicenses 1304, MGH SS XVI, p. 419. 

[177] Diplomatarium Suecanum 604, p. 503. 

[178] Annales Islandici, 1276, p. 149. 

[179] Annales Islandici, 1276, p. 153. 

[180] Annales Islandici, 1276, p. 149. 

[181] Annales Islandici, 1276, p. 153. 

[182] Annales Islandici, 1302, p. 183. 

[183] Annales Polonorum I 1285, MGH SS XIX, p. 650. 

[184] Brenner, p. 270. 

[185] Annales Lubicenses 1275, MGH SS XVI, p. 414. 

[186] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[187] Diplomatarium Suecanum 518, p. 435. 

[188] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[189] Annales Lubicenses 1302, MGH SS XVI, p. 418. 

[190] Diplomatarium Suecanum 518, p. 435. 

[191] Annales Islandici, 1276, p. 155. 

[192] Annales Islandici, 1276, p. 147. 

[193] Annales Islandici, 1290, p. 165. 

[194] Annales Islandici, 1302, p. 181. 

[195] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1918) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. II, Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 86. 

[196] Cuba, Societatis Regiæ Scientiarum Danicæ (1847) Regesta Diplomatica Historiæ Danicæ, Tome I (Copenhagen) 1344, p. 165. 

[197] Annales Lubicenses 1305, MGH SS XVI, p. 419. 

[198] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 86. 

[199] M. Sjöström, in a private email to the author dated 15 Mar 2007. 

[200] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1918) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. II, Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium, X, p. 113. 

[201] Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium, X, p. 113. 

[202] Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium, X, p. 113. 

[203] Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium, X, p. 113. 

[204] Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium, X, p. 113. 

[205] Annales Lubicenses 1297, MGH SS XVI, p. 417. 

[206] Annales Colbazienses 1319, MGH SS XIX, p. 717. 

[207] Sepulchralia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 86. 

[208] Annales Lubicenses 1305, MGH SS XVI, p. 419. 

[209] Annales Lubicenses 1305, MGH SS XVI, p. 419. 

[210] Annales Lubicenses 1305, MGH SS XVI, p. 419. 

[211] Annales Islandici, 1316, p. 209. 

[212] Annales Lubicenses 1305, MGH SS XVI, p. 419. 

[213] Annales Islandici, 1302, p. 181. 

[214] Annales Lubicenses 1305, MGH SS XVI, p. 419. 

[215] Annales Islandici, 1302, p. 181. 

[216] Annales Lubicenses 1305, MGH SS XVI, p. 419. 

[217] Annales Islandici, 1311, p. 201. 

[218] Annales Islandici, 1326, p. 223. 

[219] Annales Islandici, 1316, p. 209. 

[220] Annales Islandici, 1320, p. 215. 

[221] Imsen, Steinar 'Late Medieval Scandinavian Queenship', Duggan, A. (ed.) (1997) Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (The Boydell Press), p. 55. 

[222] Imsen 'Late Medieval Scandinavian Queenship', p. 62. 

[223] Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium, XV, p. 117. 

[224] Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium, XV, p. 117. 

[225] Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium, XV, p. 117.