NORMANDY, DUKES

  v2.1 Updated 17 September 2012

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.            DUKES of NORMANDY 911-1106. 1

ROBERT I 911-931, GUILLAUME I 931-942. 1

RICHARD I 942-996. 1

RICHARD II 996-1026, RICHARD III 1026-1027, ROBERT II 1027-1035. 1

GUILLAUME II 1035-1087, ROBERT III 1087-1106, HENRI I 1106-1135. 1

Chapter 2.            DUKES of NORMANDY 1144-1204 (ANJOU) 1

GEOFFROY 1144-1150, HENRI II 1151-1189, RICHARD 1189-1199, JOHN 1199-1204. 1

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Charles III King of the West Franks granted land around Rouen to Viking raiders in [911], the territory evolving over the following century into the duchy of Normandy.  The Viking leader Rolf/Rollo accepted baptism with the name Robert.  His alleged Norwegian ancestry is recorded only in the early 13th century Norse sagas, whose factual accuracy, at least so far as the early generations of the families are concerned, is dubious as it is impossible to distinguish the precise point in the narrative where folk-legend gives way to historical fact.  The emphasis on social continuity in the narratives of the Sagas also suggests that relationships between historical figures could have been simplified, or even fabricated, to claim that succession remained within the same family.  For example, Orkneyinga Saga names “Hrolf who conquered Normandy” as son of “Earl Rognwald” and his wife “Ragnhild the daughter of Hrolf Nose[1].  Snorre´s Harald Harfager's Saga repeats the same statement[2].  However, the Historia Norwegie records that, after Orkney was conquered by "principi Rogwaldi" and his followers, "de quorum collegio…Rodulfus" captured Rouen in Normandy[3], making no reference to any blood relationship between Rolf/Rollo and "principi Rogwaldi".  The question of the reliability of the Sagas is discussed more fully in the Introduction to the document NORWAY KINGS.  Guillaume de Jumièges refers to an unnamed Danish [not Norwegian] warrior “dux” who left two sons “maior natu Rollo, alter...iunior Gurim[4].  "Gurim" is not referred to in the Sagas.  The alleged Scandinavian ancestry of Rolf/Rollo is shown in square brackets in this document to emphasise this doubt. 

 

The Viking rulers of the future duchy of Normandy used the title count at least until the early 11th century.  The title "Duke of Normandy" is first recorded in [1015], although its adoption in place of count must have been a gradual process as Duke Richard II is called "comes" in later necrology entries which record his death in 1026.  His sons and successors, Dukes Richard III and Robert II, are consistently recorded with the ducal title in primary sources. 

 

The early Norman rulers consolidated their position by marriages into the first level of French noble families.  Count Guillaume I married the daughter of the powerful Comte de Vermandois in [940], and Guillaume arranged his sister's marriage to Guillaume I Comte de Poitou, who was later installed as Duke of Aquitaine.  Guillaume's son Count Richard I married the daughter of Hugues "le Grand", ancestor of the Capetian French kings, in 960.  At the same time, the early rulers clung to the Scandinavian tradition of concubinage: the mothers of Counts Richard I and Richard II were probably both of relatively obscure Viking descent and recorded by the chronicler Guillaume of Jumièges as having been married "more Danico/à la Danoise".  This appears to have presented no obstacle to their subsequent accession as dukes.  The concept of "Danish marriages" is discussed by Freeman[5]

 

The dukes of Normandy sprang on to the European political scene with the 1066 invasion of England by Duke Guillaume II, his descendants in the male line continuing to rule as English kings and Norman dukes until 1135.  Normandy was ruled by the English Angevin kings until 1204, when it was conquered by Philippe II "Auguste" King of France. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    DUKES of NORMANDY 911-1106

 

 

ROBERT I 911-931, GUILLAUME I 931-942

 

ROLLO ["Ganger" Hrolf], son of [RAGNVALD "the Wise" Jarl of Möre in Norway & his wife Ragnhild ---] (-Rouen [928/33], bur ---, transferred [1064] to Rouen Cathedral[6]).  The parentage of Rollo/Rolf is uncertain and the chronology of his life confused.  Richer names "Rollone filio Catilli" as leader of the Vikings who raided along the Loire and against whom "Robertus Celticæ Galliæ dux" campaigned[7].  No further reference has been found to "Catillus/Ketel".  Flodoard provides no information on Rollo´s ancestry.  The early 12th century William of Malmesbury states that "Rollo…[was] born of noble lineage among the Norwegians, though obsolete from its extreme antiquity" and adds that he was "banished by the king´s command from his own country"[8].  The later Orkneyinga Saga is more specific, naming “Hrolf who conquered Normandy” as son of “Earl Rognwald” and his wife “Ragnhild the daughter of Hrolf Nose”, adding that he was so big that no horse could carry him, giving rise to his name “Göngu-Hrolf[9].  Snorre names "Rolf and Thorer" as the two sons of "Earl Ragnvald" and his wife Hild, recording that Rolf was banished from Norway by King Harald and travelled to the Hebrides, settling first in Orkney before moving southwards through Scotland, and eventually conquering Normandy[10].  The Historia Norwegie records that, after Orkney was conquered by "principi Rogwaldi" and his followers, "de quorum collegio…Rodulfus" captured Rouen in Normandy, commenting that he was known as "Gongurolfr" because he was obliged to walk as he was too large to travel on horseback[11].  This source makes no reference to any blood relationship between Rollo and "principi Rogwaldi".  Guillaume de Jumièges refers to an unnamed Danish warrior “dux” who left two sons “maior natu Rollo, alter...iunior Gurim[12].  He records that the king of Denmark defeated the two brothers and killed Gorm, that Rollo fled the country for “Scanzam insulam”, from where he went “ad Anglos”, and made peace with "rex Anglorum...Alstemus"[13].  If this refers to Æthelstan King of Wessex, the account must be confused given King Æthelstan´s accession in 924.  Freeman suggests that Guillaume de Jumièges must be referring to "Guthrum-Æthelstan of East-Anglia"[14], although this does not resolve the chronological problems assuming that the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is correct in recording Guthrum´s death in 890[15].  Guillaume de Jumièges records that “Rollo” attacked “Walgrenses...gens barbara”, devastated “in Walgras” allied with “Alstemus rex Anglorum”, and defeated “Rainerium Longi-colli Hasbacensme et Hainaucensem ducem et Radebodum Frisiæ regionis principem” whose help “Walgris” had sought[16].  The same source records that "Dani cum suo duce Rollone" left “Scaldi” [Schelde river] in 876, sailed “Sequanica” [Seine] and arrived at “Gemmeticum” [Jumièges] where they deposited the body of “virginis Amaltrudæ” which they had transported “a Britannia[17].  The Chronicon Sancti Michaelis records that “venit Rollo in Normannia V Kal Dec” in 876[18].  The date 876 is stretched from a chronological point of view: Houts suggests that it should be corrected to [900][19].  Guillaume de Jumièges records that "Rollo" took “Rothomo” [Rouen], sailed to "apud Hasdans quæ Archis dicitur", that “Rainaldus totius Franciæ dux” led his army to meet them “super Authuræ fluvium” and sent “Hastingum” from “Carnotena urbe” [Chartres] in an unsuccessful attempt at negotiation, that “Rotlandus signifer Rainaldi” was killed in the ensuing battle and that Rollo captured “Mellenti municipium[20].  Guillaume de Jumièges also records that "Rainaldus" was killed in battle during a later campaign, that Rollo besieged Paris, captured “Baiocasensem urbem” [Bayeux] along with "nobilissimam puellam...Popam filiam...Berengarii illustris viri" whom he married “more Danico” and by whom he had “Willelmum...filiamque...Gerloc”, before capturing “Ebroicam civitatem” where he killed “episcopum...Sibor[21].  Guillaume de Jumièges records that Rollo besieged “Carnotenam urbem” [Chartres] but was forced to withdraw by "Richardus Burgundionum dux...cum...Antelmus episcopus"[22].  William of Malmesbury records that "Rollo…experienced a check at Chartres" but escaped the "plentiful slaughter" of the Vikings by the townspeople, before capturing Rouen "in 876"[23].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks granted "terram maritimam ab Eptæ flumine usque ad Britannicos limites" together with "sua filia...Gisla" to Rollo who renounced his campaigns, that the king added "tota Britannia" and that “ipsius provinciæ principibus Berengerio atque Alanno” swore allegiance to Rollo[24].  The charter which confirms the original grant (assuming that there was such a document) has not survived.  However, the grant of land is inferred from a charter dated 14 Mar 918, under which land was donated to the monastery of Saint-Germain-des-Prés specifying that the donation excluded "that part…which we have granted to the Normans of the Seine, namely to Rollo and his companions"[25].  The uncertain nature of the demise was the source of future conflict between the French crown, which claimed that Normandy was an enfeofment for which the ruling duke owed allegiance, and the later dukes of Normandy, who claimed that it was an unconditional allod for which no allegiance was owed[26].  The version of events recorded by Flodoard provides a different slant and names two Viking leaders.  Firstly, Flodoard records that in 923 "Ragenoldus princeps Nortmannorum" who occupied "in fluvio Ligeri" devastated "Franciam trans Isaram", that "Nortmanni" made peace in 924 "cum Francis", that King Raoul granted them "Cinomannis et Baiocæ" [Maine and Bayeux], but that "Raginoldus cum suis Nortmannis" devasted the land between the Loire and the Seine[27].  This passage makes no mention of the supposed earlier grant of land along the shore.  Secondly, the same source records that "Raginoldus cum suis Nortmannis" devasted Burgundy in 925, that Héribert [II] Comte de Vermandois besieged Norman castles "super Sequanam", that "Nortmanni" devastated "pagum Belvacensem atque Ambianensem" [Beauvais and Amboise], while Comte Héribert and Arnoul Count of Flanders forced "Rollo princeps" from his strongholds[28].  Thirdly, Flodoard states that "Hugo filius Rotberti et Heribertus comes" campaigned against "Nortmannos" in 927, that "filius Rollonis" did homage to ex-king Charles at "castellum…Auga", and that "Rollo" held "filius Heriberti Odo" as a hostage in 928, which suggests some sort of alliance between Rollo and Comte Héribert[29].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Rollo was baptised in 912 by "Francone archiepiscopo", adopting the name ROBERT after "Rodbertus dux" who acted as his sponsor, and records the donations he made at the time to various religious institutions[30].  William of Malmesbury records that "it was determined by treaty, that [Rollo] should be baptised, and hold the country of the king as his lord"[31].  William of Malmesbury records that Rollo died at Rouen[32].  The date of his death is uncertain: Flodoard names Rollo as living in 928 (see above) but the same source names "Willelmus princeps Nortmannorum" in 933[33].  The Chronicon Sancti Michaelis records the death of “Rollo” in 917 and the succession of “Guillelmus filius eius[34].  The Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris records that "Rollo et Willelmus filius eius" were buried "apud Rothomagum in ecclesia beatæ Mariæ"[35].  Orderic Vitalis implies that the transfer of Robert's body to Rouen Cathedral took place after the "the ninth year" in office of Archbishop Maurilius, who had succeeded Mauger de Normandie[36], which would date the event to [1064].  He is known to history as ROBERT I Comte [de Normandie], although no early source has been identified which refers to him by this name or title. 

[m] [firstly] ---.  The identity of Rollo´s first wife or concubine is not known. 

m [secondly] ([886] or after, repudiated, remarried after 912) POPPA, daughter of BERENGAR Comte de Bayeux & his wife ---.  Guillaume de Jumièges records that Rollo captured “Baiocasensem urbem” [Bayeux] along with "nobilissimam puellam...Popam filiam...Berengarii illustris viri" whom he married “more Danico” and by whom he had “Willelmum...filiamque...Gerloc[37].  According to Orderic Vitalis, Rollo "stormed and captured Bayeux, slew its count Berengar and took to wife his daughter Poppa"[38].  In another passage, the same source records that Rollo besieged Paris, captured Bayeux, killed "Berengarium comitem" and married his daughter Popa, in 886[39], although this date appears early in light of the likely birth date range of the couple's son Guillaume.  The Chronico Rotomagensis records that "mortua a Gisla, accepit Rollo propriam uxorem filiam comitis Silvanectensis Widonis"[40].  Robert of Torigny combines the information, recording that "Rollo dux Northmannorum" married "Popam prius repudiatam uxorem…filiam…Berengarii comitis Baiocensis neptem vero Widonis comitis Silvanectensis"[41].  The Historia Norwegie records that, after capturing Rouen, "Rodulfus" married the daughter of its deceased count by whom he was father of "Willelmum…Longosped"[42].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Louis IV King of the West Franks, after the death of Richard´s father, marched on Rouen, was received by “Rodulphus et Bernardus atque Anslech totius Normannici ducatus tutores”, and captured Richard, who was taken to Laon but was freed by “Osmundus...consilio cum Yvone patre Willelmi de Belismo” and taken to “Silvanectis” where “Bernardus...comes” [presumably identifiable as Bernard [II] Comte de Senlis, who, assuming that the reconstruction proposed in the document CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY is correct, was Poppa´s uterine half-brother] protected “nepotem suum Richardum[43].  It would be possible to reconcile the different versions if Comte Bernard's mother was married twice, her first husband being Bérenger Comte de Bayeux.  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Rollo married "repudiatam Poppa" again after the death of his wife [Gisela][44]

m [thirdly] (912) GISELA, daughter of CHARLES III "le Simple" King of the West Franks & his first wife Frederuna --- ([908/16]-before her husband).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hyrmintrudim, Frederunam, Adelheidim, Gislam, Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as the children of "Karolus rex…ex Frederuna regina"[45].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks granted "terram maritimam ab Eptæ flumine usque ad Britannicos limites" together with "sua filia...Gisla" to Rollo who renounced his campaigns, in a later passage their marriage, and in a subsequent chapter the fact that she died childless[46].  Her marriage is recorded in the Norman annals for 912, which state that she died without issue, presumably soon after the marriage when Gisela must still have been an infant.  The chronicle of Dudo of Saint-Quentin[47] describes her as of "tall stature, most elegant…", which is of course inconsistent with her supposed birth date range.  The Liber Modernorum Regum Francorum records the marriage of "filiam suam [=rex Karolus] nomine Gillam" to "Rollo"[48].  Settipani considers that the marriage did not occur, and that the Norman sources confused it with the marriage of Gisela, daughter of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia, to the Viking leader Gotfrid[49]

Rollo & his [first wife] had two children:

1.         [KADLINE .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Landnáma-Boc which records that "son of Oht-here…Helge" captured and married [her daughter] "Nidh-beorg, daughter of king Beolan and Cadh-lina, daughter of Walking-Rolf [Gongo-Hrólfs]" when he "harried in Scotland", and also records their descendants[50].  No other record has been found of "king Beolan" and the accuracy of this report is unknown.   m BEOLAN King [in Scotland].]

2.         [NIEDERGA .  Niederga is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[51] as the second daughter of Rollo by his first wife but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.] 

Robert & his [second] wife had two children:

3.         GUILLAUME (Rouen [900/05]-murdered Pequigny 17 Dec 942, bur ---, transferred [1064] to Rouen Cathedral[52]).  Guillaume de Jumièges records that Rollo captured “Baiocasensem urbem” [Bayeux] along with "nobilissimam puellam...Popam filiam...Berengarii illustris viri" whom he married “more Danico” and by whom he had “Willelmum...filiamque...Gerloc[53].  However, the Planctus for William Longsword[54], composed shortly after the murder of Guillaume, states that he had a Christian mother of overseas origin.  Dudo of Saint-Quentin states that he was born in Rouen and, in a later passage, describes him as a "young man" one year before his father's death[55].  His birth date is estimated based on the estimated birth date of his own son.  His father chose him as heir one year before his death[56].  Flodoard records that "filius Rollonis" did homage to ex-king Charles III "le Simple" at "castellum…Auga" in 927[57].  He succeeded his father in [928/33] as GUILLAUME I "Longuespee" Comte [de Normandie].  Flodoard names "Willelmus princeps Nortmannorum" in 933[58].  Dudo of Saint-Quentin records that he quelled a rebellion led by the Viking chief Riulf after the latter besieged Rouen[59].  In return for swearing allegiance to Raoul King of France, Guillaume appears to have been granted rights to further territory along the coast in 933, maybe the Cotentin and Avranchin.  If this is correct, it would have created rivalry with the dukes of Brittany.  Dudo of Saint-Quentin describes Comte Guillaume's invasion of Brittany shortly after his accession to quell a rebellion against him, and his defeat of the rebels at Bayeux[60].  Responding to raids by Comte Guillaume, Arnoul I Count of Flanders invaded Ponthieu and in 939 captured Montreuil from Herluin Comte de Ponthieu, although it was recaptured by Comte Guillaume's forces.  Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Arnulfus Flandrensis comes” captured "castrum...Monasteriolum" from “comiti...Herluino”, who sought help from “Normanniæ dominum” who recaptured the castle for Herluin[61].  In 939, Guillaume joined the alliance against Louis IV King of France which was led by Otto I "der Große" King of Germany who raided Frankish territory.  Comte Guillaume, however, met King Louis at Amiens, receiving a confirmation of the grant of his lands in Normandy.  Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Arnulfus Flandrensis” tricked "duci Willelmo" into a meeting to settle the dispute concerning Montreuil “apud Pinchiniacum”, where Guillaume was killed by “Henricus necnon Balzo, Robertus quoque atque Ridulphus quatuor diaboli filii” on “XVI Kal Jan” 943[62].  The Annalibus Rotomagensibus record that "Willermus dux Normannorum filius Rollonis" was killed "943 XVI Kal Jan"[63].  The Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris records that "Rollo et Willelmus filius eius" were buried "apud Rothomagum in ecclesia beatæ Mariæ"[64].  Orderic Vitalis implies that the transfer of his body to Rouen Cathedral took place after the "the ninth year" in office of Archbishop Maurilius, who had succeeded Mauger de Normandie[65], which would date the event to [1064].  [m] firstly SPROTA, daughter of ---.  Guillaume of Jumièges records that, after the rebel “Riulfus” was defeated at the battle of "Pratum-belli", a messenger arrived “a...Fiscannensis castri” and reported to Guillaume the birth of his son to “nobilissima puella Danico more sibi iuncta...Sprota[66].  This passage suggests that Sprota was Count Guillaume's concubine rather than wife, particularly as no reference has been found to a dissolution of any marriage before she married Esperleng or before Guillaume married his second wife.  She married Esperleng de Pîtres.  Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Richardus I filius Willelmi Longæspatæ...mater eius Sprota” and “Asperlengi” had “filium Rodulphum...et filias plures[67]m secondly ([935]) as her first husband, LUITGARDIS de Vermandois, daughter of HERIBERT II Comte de Vermandois & his wife Adela [Capet] (before 925-14 Nov after 985, bur Chartres, Abbaye de Saint-Père).  Rodulfus Glauber refers to the wife of Comte Guillaume as "sororem [Heribertum Trecorum comitem]", specifying that she was childless by her first husband, when recording her second marriage to "Tetbaldus"[68].  Guillaume of Jumièges records the marriage of “Normannorum Dux” and "Herbertus...filiam suam", encouraged by “Hugone Magno”, after the marriage of Guillaume´s sister Gerloc [which would date the marriage to [935] if that report is accurate][69].  She married secondly Thibaut I Comte de Blois.  "Hugonis ducis, Odonis comitis, Hugonis sanctæ Bituricensis archipræsulis, Letgardis comitissæ, Bertæ comitissæ, Gauzfridi vicecomitis…" subscribed the charter dated 985 under which "Robertus" donated property to "Sancti Petri Carnotensis", on the advice of "Odonem, simul cum sua matre Ledgarde, pariterque dominam meam Bertam, ipsius æque coniugem"[70].  The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "XVIII Kal Dec" of "Letgardis comitissa"[71].  Guillaume & his first [wife] had one child:

a)         RICHARD (Fécamp [932]-20 Nov 996, bur Fécamp).  Guillaume of Jumièges records that, after the rebel “Riulfus” was defeated at the battle of "Pratum-belli", a messenger arrived “a...Fiscannensis castri” and reported the birth of his son to “nobilissima puella Danico more sibi iuncta...Sprota” to Guillaume who ordered him to be sent immediately to “Baiocas...episcopo Henrico” for baptism as “Richardum[72].  He succeeded his father as RICHARD I "Sans Peur" Comte [de Normandie].   

-        see below.  

4.         GERLOC (-after 969).  Guillaume de Jumièges records that Rollo captured “Baiocasensem urbem” [Bayeux] along with "nobilissimam puellam...Popam filiam...Berengarii illustris viri" whom he married “more Danico” and by whom he had “Willelmum...filiamque...Gerloc[73].  Robert of Torigny also names "Willermum Longum Spatam et Gerloch" as children of "Rollo dux Northmannorum" and Poppa[74].  The Chronico Richardi Pictavensis records that "Heblus…Pictavorum Comes et Dux Aquitaniæ duxit Adelam filiam Rolli Rothomagensis"[75], although this is presumably an error for Guillaume son of Ebles.  Guillaume of Jumièges records the marriage of “dux...sororem eius...Gerlco” and "Willelmus Pictavensis comes[76].  She adopted the name ADELA when baptised.  "Guillelmi comitis, Adeleidis comitisse" subscribed a charter recording a donation to Cluny dated [963][77].  Lothaire King of France granted her 14 Oct 962 the right to dispose of extensive property in Poitiers, la Cour de Faye, this grant effectively putting an end to the long dispute between her husband and the family of Hugues "Capet".  She used the property to found the Monastery of Sainte-Trinité[78]m ([935]) GUILLAUME I "Tête d'Etoupe" Comte de Poitou, son of EBLES "Mancer" Comte de Poitou, Duke of Aquitaine & his first wife Aremburga ([900]-3 Apr 963).  He succeeded in 959 as GUILLAUME III Duke of Aquitaine.   

 

 

RICHARD I 942-996

 

RICHARD, son of GUILLAUME Comte [ de Normandie] & his first [wife] Sprota --- (Fécamp [932]-Fécamp 20 Nov 996, bur Fécamp[79]).  Guillaume of Jumièges records that, after the rebel “Riulfus” was defeated at the battle of "Pratum-belli", a messenger arrived “a...Fiscannensis castri” and reported the birth of his son to “nobilissima puella Danico more sibi iuncta...Sprota” to Guillaume who ordered him to be sent immediately to “Baiocas...episcopo Henrico” for baptism as “Richardum[80].  Flodoard records "filio ipsius Willelmi, nato de concubina Brittana" being granted the land of the Normans by King Louis after his father's death[81].  Richard is described as "a boy" on the death of his father by Dudo of Saint-Quentin[82], and as "ten years old" at the time by Orderic Vitalis[83]. Guillaume of Jumièges records that, after his father was killed, “puerum Richardum” was recalled from Bayeux and placed "sub tutela Bernardi Dani"[84].  He succeeded his father as RICHARD I "Sans Peur" Comte [de Normandie].  He used the title Comte de Rouen/comes Rothomagensium, and from 966 Marquis des Normands/marchio Normannorum[85].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Louis IV King of the West Franks, after the death of Richard´s father, marched on Rouen, was received by “Rodulphus et Bernardus atque Anslech totius Normannici ducatus tutores”, and captured Richard, who was taken to Laon but was freed by “Osmundus...consilio cum Yvone patre Willelmi de Belismo” and taken to “Silvanectis” where “Bernardus...comes” protected “nepotem suum Richardum[86].  His forces defeated the army of Otto I King of Germany after it attempted to capture Rouen in revenge for the escape of comte Richard from captivity[87].  Comte Richard defeated French forces after King Lothaire of France captured Evreux.  Dudo de Saint-Quentin records that, soon after succeeding, Richard suppressed the rebellion of Rodulf "Torta", who was banished and fled to Paris[88].  These events are not dated, but are recounted with the betrothal of Richard to the daughter of Hugues Duc des Francs, which is dated to 956.  Hugues "le Grand" Duc des Francs nominated comte Richard as guardian of his son, the future Hugues "Capet" King of France, in 956, the arrangement being confirmed by Richard's betrothal to Hugues's sister[89].  He invited William of Volpiano, Italian abbot of Saint-Bénigne at Dijon, to reform the Norman abbeys, and installed monks at Mont-Saint-Michel and Fécamp[90].  He agreed a non-aggression pact with Æthelred II King of England 1 Mar 991, designed no doubt to prevent either side from sheltering Viking marauders[91].  "Ricardus filius Willelmi, dux Normannie" founded Louviers "in Ebroicensi pago" by undated charter[92].  Guillaume of Jumièges records the death “apud Fiscannum” in 996 of “Richardus dux primus[93].  The Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris records that "Ricardus…filius Willelmi et alius Ricardus" were buried "Fiscanni"[94]

m firstly (betrothed 956, Rouen 960) EMMA, daughter of HUGUES "le Grand" Duc des Francs, Comte de Paris & his third wife Hedwig of Germany ([943]-after 19 Mar 968).  The Liber Modernorum Regum Francorum records the marriage in 956 of "Richardus filius Guillelmi principis Normannorum" with "filiam Hugonis ducis", although she is not named[95].  Guillaume of Jumièges records the betrothal of “Hugo dux...filiam suam...Emmam” and “puerum Richardum”, with the consent of “Bernardi Silvanectensis”, and in a later passage their marriage[96].  No direct proof has yet been identified that Emma was the daughter of her father's third marriage.  However, this is likely given that betrothals at the time normally took place when the female partner was still a child or in early adolescence.  Guillaume of Jumièges records the death without children of “Emma uxor eius filia Hugonis Magni[97]

m secondly ([before 989]) GUNNORA, daughter of --- ([950]-5 Jan 1031).  Guillaume de Jumièges records that "in domo forestarii...hospiti suo...uxorem suam Sainfriam" rejected the advances of Richard I Comte [de Normandie] and sent “Gunnorem sororem suam” to his bed in her place[98].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Richard married “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam”, in the sentence which follows the record of the death of Richard´s first wife[99].  According to Robert de Torigny, the marriage took place to legitimise Richard and Gunnora's son Robert to permit his appointment as Archbishop of Rouen[100].  It appears from Dudo de Saint-Quentin that Gunnora was Richard I's mistress before she married him.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Gunnor" as the wife of "dux Normannie primus Richardus"[101].  "Duke Richard [II]" donated property to the abbey of Mont Saint-Michel by charter dated to [1024/26], subscribed by "…Gonnor matris comitis…"[102].  Robert of Torigny records the death in 1030 of "Gunnor comitissa uxor primi Ricardi"[103].  The necrology of Saint-Père-en-Vallée records the death "Non Jan" of "Gonnoridis…comitissa Normannie"[104]

Richard & his second wife had eight children (legitimated [before 989] by the subsequent marriage of their parents): 

1.         RICHARD (-23 Aug 1026, bur Fécamp).  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Richardum...et Robertum atque Malgerium aliosque duos” as the sons of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam[105].  He succeeded his father in 996 as RICHARD II "le Bon/l'Irascible" Comte de NormandieDuke of Normandy [1015].   

-        see below

2.         ROBERT (-1037).  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Richardum...et Robertum atque Malgerium aliosque duos” as the sons of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam[106].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Robertus archiepiscopus Rothomagensis" as brother of "dux Normannie Richardus II"[107].  He is named brother of Duke Richard II by Orderic Vitalis[108].  Comte d'Evreux.  Archbishop of Rouen 989, after his parents married to legitimise him in order to regularise his appointment according to Robert de Torigny[109].  An agreement between the abbots of Jumièges and Bougeuil concerning an exchange of land in Poitou, by charter dated [13 Apr/4 Apr] 1012, is subscribed by "Richardus…filius Ricardi principi magni…Robertus archiepiscopus…ecclesie Rotomagensis et Vuillelmus et Malgerus fratres Richardi comitis…"[110].  Guillaume of Jumièges records the succession of Robert after the death of his brother, his siege of “Ebroicum...urbem” due to his enmity for “Robertum archipræsulum” who fled to “Robertum regem Francorum” before being reconciled with Duke Robert[111].  Robert of Torigny records the death in 1037 of "Robertus…archiepiscopus Rothomagensis"[112]

-        COMTES d'EVREUX

3.         ROBERT ["Danus"] (-12 Aug [985/89]).  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Richardum...et Robertum atque Malgerium aliosque duos” as the sons of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam[113].  Robert of Torigny names "Ricardum…qui ei successit et Robertum postea archiepiscopum Rothomagensium et Malgerium comitem Curbuliensem, aliosque duos" as the sons of "Ricardi primi ducis Normanniæ" and Gunnora[114].  Houts names one of the unnamed sons Robert "Danus" but does not give her source[115].  The necrology of Saint-Père-en-Vallée records the death "II Id Aug" of "Robertus puer filius comitis Richardi"[116]

4.         MAUGER (-[1033/40]).  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Richardum...et Robertum atque Malgerium aliosque duos” as the sons of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam[117].  Robert of Torigny names "Ricardum…qui ei successit et Robertum postea archiepiscopum Rothomagensium et Malgerium comitem Curbuliensem, aliosque duos" as the sons of "Ricardi primi ducis Normanniæ" and Gunnora[118].  An agreement between the abbots of Jumièges and Bougeuil concerning an exchange of land in Poitou, by charter dated [13 Apr/4 Apr] 1012, is subscribed by "Richardus…filius Ricardi principi magni…Robertus archiepiscopus…ecclesie Rotomagensis et Vuillelmus et Malgerus fratres Richardi comitis…"[119].  Comte de Corbeil, by right of his wife. 

-        COMTES de CORBEIL

5.         son .  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Richardum...et Robertum atque Malgerium aliosque duos” as the sons of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam[120].  Robert of Torigny names "Ricardum…qui ei successit et Robertum postea archiepiscopum Rothomagensium et Malgerium comitem Curbuliensem, aliosque duos" as the sons of "Ricardi primi ducis Normanniæ" and Gunnora[121].  No reference has been found to the name of this son. 

6.         EMMA ([985]-Winchester 14 Mar 1052, bur Winchester Cathedral).  Guillaume de Poitou names “genitrix Emma filia Ricardi primi, genitor Ædelredus rex Anglorum” as parents of “Edwardus ac Alveradus[122].  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Emma...secunda Hadvis...tertia Mathildis” as the three daughters of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam”, adding that Emma married “Edelredo regi Anglorum” by whom she was mother of “rex Edwardum et Alvredum[123].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Emma Anglorum regina" as sister of "dux Normannie Richardus II"[124].  Emma was described by Henry of Huntingdon as "Emma Normanorum gemma"[125], although it is not known whether this was a particular indication of her beauty or mere hyperbole.  She was known as ÆLFGIFU in England[126].  Her first husband sent her to her brother's court in Normandy in 1013 after the invasion of Svend King of Denmark[127].  She was living in Normandy in 1017 when King Æthelred's successor King Canute proposed marriage to her.  Guillaume of Jumièges records that, after the death of “Edelredus rex”, “Emmam reginam” married “rex...Chunutus...Christiano more”, and names their children “Hardechunutum postmodum regem Danorum et filiam...Gunnildem quæ nupsit Henrico Romanorum Imperatori[128].  Roger of Wendover records the marriage in Jul 1018 of "Cnuto" and "ducem Ricardum…Emmam sororem suam et regis Ethelredi relictam"[129].  After the death of her second husband, she continued to live at Winchester.  After the election of her step-son as regent in early 1036, it was recognised that she would continue to live there to look after the interests of her son Harthacnut who had nominally succeeded his father as King of England and Denmark but was still absent in Denmark.  It is likely that she encouraged her sons by her first husband, Edward and Alfred, to join her, Alfred being captured and murdered during the visit.  After Harold was recognised as king of England in 1037, Queen Emma was expelled and took refuge at Bruges[130].  She commissioned the Encomium Emmæ Reginæ from a Flemish convent at Saint-Omer, maybe St Bertin's, designed to promote her son Harthacnut's claim to the English throne.  Harthacnut joined her in Bruges in early 1040, and after the death of King Harold, they returned together to England.  After the accession of Edward "the Confessor", her son by her first husband, Emma appears to have supported the rival claim of Magnus King of Norway[131].  Whatever the truth of this, King Edward did confiscate her property in 1043 according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle[132].  She seems to have spent the last years of her life in retirement in Winchester[133].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of "Ælfgifu Emma, the mother of king Edward and of king Harthacnut" in 1052[134]m firstly (betrothed 1000, 1002[135]) as his [second/third] wife, ÆTHELRED II King of England, son of EDGAR "the Peacable" King of England & his second wife Ælfthryth ([966]-London 23 Apr 1016, bur Old St Paul's Cathedral).  m secondly (2 or 31 Jul 1017) CANUTE King of England, son of SVEND I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark & his first wife Šwiętosława [Gunhild] of Poland ([995]-Shaftesbury, Dorset 12 Nov 1035, bur Winchester Cathedral).  King of Denmark 1018, King of Norway 1028. 

7.         HAVISE (-21 Feb 1034).  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Emma...secunda Hadvis...tertia Mathildis” as the three daughters of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam”, adding that Havise married “Goiffredo Britannorum comiti” by whom she had “Alanum et Eudonem duces[136].  A charter dated 1008 records that, after the death of "Gaufrido comite Britanniæ", "filii eius Alanus et Eudo cum matre eorum Hadeguisia" restored the abbey of Saint-Méen[137].  "…Aduise matre eorum comitum…" signed the charter dated to [1013/22] under which "Alanus et Egio Britannorum monarchi" founded the priory of Livré "in pago Redonensi"[138].  The Chronico Kemperlegiensi records the death "1034 IX Kal Mar" of "Haduisa comitissa Britanniæ, vidua Gauffridi"[139]m (996) GEOFFROY I Duke of Brittany, son of CONAN I "le Tort" Duke of Brittany & his wife Ermengarde d'Anjou ([980]-20 Nov 1008). 

8.         MATHILDE (-[1005]).  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Emma...secunda Hadvis...tertia Mathildis” as the three daughters of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam”, adding that Mathilde married “Odoni comiti” by whom she was childless, a later passage stating that her dowry was “medietatem Dorcasini castri[140]m ([1003/04]) as his first wife, EUDES [II] Comte de Blois, son of EUDES [I] Comte de Blois & his wife Berthe de Bourgogne [Welf] ([982/83]-15 Nov 1037). 

Richard had five illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

9.          GEOFFREY [Godfroy] de Brionne ([953]-[1015])Guillaume of Jumièges names “unus Godefridus, alter...Willelmus” as the two sons of Richard “ex concubinis”, adding that Geoffroy was “comes...Aucensis[141].  Robert of Torigny names "unus Godefridus alter…Willermus" as sons of "Ricardi primi ducis Normanniæ" by concubines[142]He is named son of duke "Richard the elder" by Orderic Vitalis, who specifies that his father gave Brionne "with the whole county" to him[143].  Comte d'Eu after 996.   

-        COMTES d'EU

10.      GUILLAUME (978-1057)According to Dudo of Saint-Quentin[144], he was an illegitimate son of Richard I by a mistress other than Gunnora.  Guillaume of Jumièges names “unus Godefridus, alter...Willelmus” as the two sons of Richard “ex concubinis[145].  Robert of Torigny names "unus Godefridus alter…Willermus" as sons of "Ricardi primi ducis Normanniæ" by concubines, recording that Guillaume was first "comes…Aucensis" and after the death of his brother became "comes Brionnensis"[146].  On the other hand, according to Europäische Stammtafeln[147], he was the younger son of Geoffroy de Brionne, Richard I's illegitimate son, although the source on which this is based is not known.  An agreement between the abbots of Jumièges and Bougeuil concerning an exchange of land in Poitou, by charter dated [13 Apr/4 Apr] 1012, is subscribed by "Richardus…filius Ricardi principi magni…Robertus archiepiscopus…ecclesie Rotomagensis et Vuillelmus et Malgerus fratres Richardi comitis…"[148].  Comte d'Hiémois.  Comte d'Eu. 

-        COMTES d'EU

11.       [ROBERT .  Comte d'Avranches.  Illegitimate son of Richard I according to Potts[149].

12.       BEATRIX (-18 Jan 1035)Guillaume of Jumièges records that Richard had two daughters “ex concubinis”, but does not name them[150].  The Chronicon Gaufredi Vosiensis records that "sorore Richardi Normannorum Ducis" was the wife of "Archambaldus Chamba-Putrida" and mother of "Ebolum"[151], but this is difficult to sustain chronologically.  The Miracles of Sainte-Foy attribute a miracle to "Lady Beatrice his [Lord Ebalus] wife…soon to lose him through divorce" involving her freeing pilgrims from captivity near Turenne[152]The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage more precisely has not yet been identified.  She returned to Normandy after her divorce and was appointed Abbess of Montivilliers [1035][153]m (before 1001, divorced) as his first wife, EBLES Vicomte de Turenne, son of ARCHAMBAUD "Jambe-Pourrie" Vicomte de Comborn & his wife Sulpicie de Turenne (-after [1021]). 

13.       daughter .  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Richard had two daughters “ex concubinis”, but does not name them[154].  same person as…?  [PAPIA )Robert de Torigny names "Papiam uxorem Walteri [error for Gilberti?] de Sanct Walerico et Aeliz uxorem Ranulfi Vicecomitis de Baioeis" as the two daughters of Duke Richard III (see below)[155].  In the case of Papia, it is clearly chronologically impossible for her to have been Duke Richard III´s daughter assuming that it is correct, as asserted by Orderic Vitalis[156], that her grandson, Richard de Heugleville, helped Guillaume II Duke of Normandy in the 1054 rebellion when he was already old enough for Geoffroy de Neufmarché to be his son-in-law.  Orderic Vitalis  refers to the wife of Gilbert de Saint-Valéry as the daughter of "Duke Richard", although it is not clear from this passage to which duke Richard he refers.  He confirms her name as Papia in a different passage[157].  The second passage also elaborates that Papia was daughter of "Ricardi iunioris ducis Normannorum", which does suggest that he also intended to indicate Duke Richard III.  Neither of the passages in Orderic Vitalis names Papia's mother.  It is tempting to imagine that she was the second wife of Duke Richard II of the same name.  However, it is also chronologically inconsistent with the 1054 references to Papia's grandson for Papia to have been the daughter of Duke Richard II.  Assuming that all this speculation is correct, Papia must have been born in the early years of the 11th century and therefore, if she was the daughter of any Duke Richard, her father must have been Duke Richard I.  m GILBERT Advocate of Saint Valéry, son of ---.] 

 

 

RAOUL .  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "bishop Rudolf his [i.e. the king's] kinsman" when recording his installation by King Edward "the Confessor" as abbot of Abingdon, although the precise relationship is not specified.  His name suggests that he was probably a relation of King Edward's through his mother, but it has not yet been possible to place him in the family of the dukes of Normandy. 

 

 

RICHARD II 996-1026, RICHARD III 1026-1027, ROBERT II 1027-1035

 

RICHARD, son of RICHARD I "Sans-Peur" Comte [de Normandie] & his second wife Gunnora --- (-23 Aug 1026, bur Fécamp).  Ademar names Richard as son of "Richardus Rotomagensis"[158].  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Richardum...et Robertum atque Malgerium aliosque duos” as the sons of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam[159].  Robert of Torigny names "Ricardum…qui ei successit et Robertum postea archiepiscopum Rothomagensium et Malgerium comitem Curbuliensem, aliosque duos" as the sons of "Ricardi primi ducis Normanniæ" and Gunnora[160].  He succeeded his father in 996 as RICHARD II "le Bon/l'Irascible" Comte de Normandie.  An agreement between the abbots of Jumièges and Bougeuil concerning an exchange of land in Poitou, by charter dated [13 Apr/4 Apr] 1012, is subscribed by "Richardus…filius Ricardi principi magni, filius eius Richardus et…mater Richardi comitis Gunnor, uxor comitis Richardi…"[161]Duke of Normandy [1015].  “Ricardus princeps et dux Normannorum, filius Ricardi seniroris” donated “villam...Fontes in Braio...Brendelcurt cum ecclesia...æcclesiam de Nouobosco, æcclesiam de Bosmesnil...” to Saint-Wandrille, at the request of “Yvonis...militis”, by charter dated to [1024], subscribed by “Riccardi principis Normannorum, Papie comitisse, Roberti archipresulis fratris eiusdem principis, Yvonis militis...Hugonis Baiocensis episcopi, Girardi Flagitelli...[162].  He intervened on behalf of his son-in-law Renaud Comte Palatin de Bourgogne, who had been imprisoned by Hugues de Chalon, by sending troops to devastate Chalon in 1026 and procure his release.  According to Adam of Bremen, after repudiating his betrothal to the sister of Knud King of Denmark, Duke Richard left for Jerusalem to escape the Danish king's wrath and died there[163], but this is inconsistent with the duke's third marriage.  "Secundus nominis mei Normannorum dux Ricardus" confirmed donations to Fécamp abbey, for the soul of "conjugis mee…Judith", by charter dated 1027 (misdated), signed by "Ricardi filii Gulberti, Nigelli vicecomitis…Storstingi vicecomitis"[164].  The necrology of Saint-Père-en-Vallée records the death "X Kal Sep" of "Ricardus comes"[165].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "X Kal Sep" of "[Ricar]dus Normannorum secundus"[166].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "X Kal Sep" of "Ricardus Rothomagensium comes"[167].  The necrology of Verdun Saint-Vanne records the death "X Kal Sep" of "Richardus comes"[168], although the connection between Duke Richard and Verdun has not been established.  The Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris records that "Ricardus…filius Willelmi et alius Ricardus" were buried "Fiscanni"[169]

m firstly (Mont Saint-Michel [1000]) JUDITH de Bretagne, daughter of CONAN I "le Tort" Duke of Brittany & his wife Ermengarde d'Anjou (982-16 Jun 1017).  Guillaume of Jumièges records the marriage of “dux Richardus” and “Goiffredum Britannorum comitem...sororem...Iudith” at “limina Archangeli Michaelis[170].  According to Orderic Vitalis, Judith founded the abbey of Bernay, Eure in 1025[171], but this date is inconsistent with her date of death and her husband's second marriage.  An agreement between the abbots of Jumièges and Bougeuil concerning an exchange of land in Poitou, by charter dated [13 Apr/4 Apr] 1012, is subscribed by "Richardus…filius Ricardi principi magni…Judith…"[172].  The Chronicle of Caen Saint-Etienne records the death in 1017 of "Judita comitissa"[173]

Betrothed (after 1017) to ESTRID [Margrete] Svendsdatter, daughter of SVEND I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark & his second wife Sigrid “Storråda/the Haughty” (-9 May ----, bur Roskilde Cathedral).  Adam of Bremen records that "Chnud…rex Danorum" gave "suam…germanam Margaretam pro foedere" to "comitis Nortmannorum Rikardi" and after, she was repudiated by Richard, to "Wolf duci Angliæ"[174].  Saxo Grammaticus also records her betrothal[175].  The Chronicon Roskildense records that "Kanutus" gave "sororem…Estrith" to "Richardo", who repudiated her, after which she married "duci Ulf" without her brother´s consent[176].  She later married Ulf Thrugilson Jarl [Wulfsige Sprakeling]. 

m secondly PAPIA [Poppa], daughter of --- (-after 1047).  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Duke Richard II married secondly after the death of his first wife “Papiam” by whom he had “Malgerium...archipræsulem et Willelmum Archacensem[177].  She is named "Poppa", Duke Richard's second wife, by Orderic Vitalis[178].  The Chronicon Fontanellense names “Papia” as second wife of Duke Richard, adding that “cuius fratres Ansfredus et Osbernus” were monks at Fontanelle[179].  “Osbernus et Anfredus fratres, tempore Ricardi secundi comitis, qui eorum sororem Papiam in coniugio habebat” donated “alodum...in monasterio Odelerii cum capella S. Desiderii” to Saint-Wandrille by charter dated to [1024][180].  “Ricardus princeps et dux Normannorum, filius Ricardi seniroris” donated “villam...Fontes in Braio...Brendelcurt cum ecclesia...æcclesiam de Nouobosco, æcclesiam de Bosmesnil...” to Saint-Wandrille, at the request of “Yvonis...militis”, by charter dated to [1024], subscribed by “Riccardi principis Normannorum, Papie comitisse, Roberti archipresulis fratris eiusdem principis, Yvonis militis...Hugonis Baiocensis episcopi, Girardi Flagitelli...[181].  "Duke Richard [II]" donated property to the abbey of Mont Saint-Michel by charter dated to [1024/26], subscribed by "…Papie uxoris comitis"[182].  "Guillelmus Archensis comes et frater meus Malgerius Archiepiscopus" donated the vill of Periers sur Andelle to the monastery of Saint-Ouen at Rouen, at the request of "matris mee Paveie" and the consent of "Guilielmo Normannorum comite", by charter dated to [1047/50][183]

Duke Richard II & his first wife had six children:

1.         ADELAIS [Judith] ([1000]-7 Jul [after 1030]).  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Adeliz” as the first daughter of “dux Richardus” and his wife “Goiffredum Britannorum comitem...sororem...Iudith”, adding that she married “Rainaldo Burgundionum comiti” by whom she had “Willelmum et Widonem” (the marriage is recorded in a later passage)[184].  Orderic Vitalis records her marriage and calls her amita of William I King of England[185].  "Otto comes qui nominatur Willelmus" issued a charter dated 2 Nov 1023 subscribed by "Raynardi comitis, Adheleydis uxoris eius"[186].  "Raynaldi comitis, Adheleys uxoris eius" subscribed the charter dated 1030 by which "Robertus regis Roberti filius et regis Henrici filii eius germanus…Burgundie Dux" restored property to Cluny[187].  ["Raginaldus comes comitis Guillelmi filius" donated property to the abbey of Flavigny by charter dated 18 May 1037 subscribed by "Iudid comitisse uxoris eius, Guillelmi filii eius, Hugonis filii eius…"[188].  "Iudid comitisse" is assumed in traditional genealogies[189] to have been the same person as Adelais.  However, it is also possible that she was Comte Renaud's second wife, Adelais having died earlier.]  m (before 1 Sep 1016) [as his first wife,] RENAUD de Mâcon, son of OTHON GUILLAUME Comte de Mâcon [Bourgogne-Comté] & his first wife Ermentrude de Roucy ([990]-3/4 Sep 1057, bur Besançon).  He succeeded his father in 1026 as RENAUD I Comte de Bourgogne

2.         RICHARD ([1001]-Rouen 6 Aug 1027).  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Richardum...atque Robertum et Willelmum” as the three sons of “dux Richardus” and his wife “Goiffredum Britannorum comitem...sororem...Iudith[190].  Ademar names Richard as son of "Ricardus Rotomagensis comes"[191].  An agreement between the abbots of Jumièges and Bougeuil concerning an exchange of land in Poitou, by charter dated [13 Apr/4 Apr] 1012, is subscribed by "Richardus…filius Ricardi principi magni, filius eius Richardus…"[192].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Rainaldus trans Saonæ fluvium Burgundionum comes” was imprisoned by “Cabilonensi comite...Hugone”, and that Richard II Duke of Normandy sent an army headed by “Richardo filio suo” [which presumably dates the event to [1016/26]] who besieged “Milinandum castrum” and forced Renaud´s release[193].  He succeeded his father in 1026 as RICHARD III Duke of Normandy.  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Duke Richard III, after suppressing the rebellion of his brother Robert, returned to Rouen where he died poisoned in 1028[194].  Orderic Vitalis also alleges that he was poisoned[195].  The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "VIII Id Aug" of "Ricardus dux Normannie"[196]Betrothed (Jan 1027) to ADELA de France, daughter of ROBERT II " le Pieux" King of France & his third wife Constance d'Arles [Provence] (-Messines 8 Jan 1079, bur Messines, Benedictine monastery).  Kerrebrouck mentions her betrothal to Duke Richard "très jeune" but does not cite the corresponding primary source[197], which has yet to be identified.  "Richardus Nortmannorum dux" agreed grants of property to "Adela" on the occasion of their marriage by charter dated Jan 1026, which does not specify her parentage[198].  She later married Baudouin V "Insulanus" Count of Flanders.  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "filiam Rodberti regis Francorum Adelam" wife of "Balduinum Insulanum"[199].  The Genealogiæ Scriptoris Fusniacensis names "Alam comitissam Flandrensem" the daughter of King Robert[200].  Duke Richard III had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

a)         NICOLAS (-Nikaia 27 Feb 1092, bur Rouen Saint-Ouen[201]).  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Duke Richard III left “parvulus...filius Nicolaus” who was disinherited, brought up “in cœnobio sancti Audoeni in suburbio Rotomagensi” where he succeeded as abbot after the death of “abbate Herfasto”, held office for nearly 50 years, and died in Feb 1092[202].  Robert of Torigny names "Nicolaum…duas filias Papiam…uxorem Walterii de Sancto Walerico et Aeliz uxorem Ranulfi vicecomitis de Baiocis" as the children of "Ricardo secundo duce Normannum filio primi Ricardi", specifying that Nicolas was "postea abbatum Sancti Audeni"[203]Nicoias is named as the son of Duke Richard III by Orderic Vitalis, who specifies that he was compelled by his uncle Duke Robert to become an oblate monk at Fécamp while still a boy, but that some years later when still an adolescent he was installed by Duke Guillaume II as Abbot of St Ouen at Rouen which he ruled "for almost 60 years"[204]The Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris records that "Nicolao abate de sancto Audoeno" contributed 15 ships and 100 knights towards the invasion of England in 1066[205].  A monumental inscription in Rouen Saint-Ouen records the death "IV Kal Mar" in 1092 "rediens è Hierosolymis, apud Nicæam urbem" and burial of "Nicolaus abbas huius cœnobii filius Richardi comitis Normannorum iunioris et fratris Roberti comitis"[206]

b)         ALIX Robert of Torigny names "Nicolaum…duas filias Papiam…uxorem Walterii de Sancto Walerico et Aeliz uxorem Ranulfi vicecomitis de Baiocis" as the children of "Ricardo secundo duce Normannum filio primi Ricardi"[207].  As noted above, it is chronologically impossible for Papia, wife of Gilbert de Saint-Valéry,  to have been the daughter of Duke Richard III.  m RANULF Vicomte du Bessin, son of Vicomte ANSCHITIL & his wife --- (-killed in battle Val-es-Dunes 1047). 

3.         ROBERT (-Nikaia 22 Jul 1035, bur Nikaia basilica St Mary, transferred [1187] to Apulia).  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Richardum...atque Robertum et Willelmum” as the three sons of “dux Richardus” and his wife “Goiffredum Britannorum comitem...sororem...Iudith[208].  Ademar names Robert as brother of Richard[209].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Richard II Duke of Normandy, on his deathbed, confirmed the succession of his son Richard and granted “comitatui Oximensi” [Hiesmes] to “Robertum fratrem eius[210].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Robert rebelled against his brother Duke Richard III “post biennium...intra Falesiæ castrum cum suis satellitibus” but was forced to surrender after the duke besieged the castle[211].  He succeeded his brother in 1027 as ROBERT II Duke of Normandy.  Guillaume of Jumièges records the succession of Robert after the death of his brother, his siege of “Ebroicum...urbem” due to his enmity for “Robertum archipræsulum” who fled to “Robertum regem Francorum” before being reconciled with Duke Robert[212].  "Rotbertus Normannorum dux, Ricardi filio" founded the abbey of Sainte-Trinité at Rouen in 1030[213].  He gave shelter to Henri, son of Robert II King of France, during his dispute with his mother Queen Constance, the king granting le Vexin to Robert after his accession to the French throne in 1031[214].  William of Malmesbury records that Robert went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1035[215].  Orderic Vitalis dates his departure to "after seven and a half years", but it is unclear from the context whether this is calculated based on his accession or his father's death[216].  The date of Robert´s departure can be estimated more precisely from his charter dated 13 Jan 1035 which announces his forthcoming departure for Jerusalem[217].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Duke Robert died from illness “VI Non Jul” in 1035 at “Nicenam” on his return from pilgrimage to Jerusalem and was buried “in basilica sanctæ Mariæ...intra mœnia Nicenæ civitatis[218].  According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, he died while on pilgrimage in 1031[219].  Orderic Vitalis specifies that Duke Robert died "in the city of Nicæa in Bythinia"[220].  The Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris records that "Robertus…Ricardi filius" was buried "rediens de Hierusalem…in Nica civitate"[221].  William of Malmesbury recounts that his remains were disinterred from Nikaia on the orders of his son, but interred in Apulia on their way back to France after the messenger learnt of the death of William I King of England[222]Mistress (1): ---.  Robert de Torigny names "Aeliz" as daughter of Duke Robert II "de alia concubina", different from Herleve[223].  The name of Duke Robert's first mistress is not known.  Mistress (2): HERLEVE [Arlette], daughter of FULBERT [de Falaise] & his wife Doda [Duwa] ---.  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Herleva Fulberti cubicularii ducis filia” as the mother of “Willelmus...ex concubina Roberti ducis...natus“, and that after Duke Robert died “Herluinus...miles” married her by whom he had “duos filios Odonem et Robertum[224].  Orderic Vitalis calls her "Duke Robert's concubine", and records her marriage, referring to her husband as stepfather to Duke Guillaume[225].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the mother of Duke Guillaume as "filia…Herbertus pelliparius et uxor eius Doda sive Duwa", specifying that they were from Chaumont in the diocese of Liège but moved to Falaise, adding that others said they were from Huy, and refers to her marriage to "Herlewino de Vado comitis"[226].  She married Herluin de Conteville.  Duke Robert II had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

a)         ADELAIS (-[1082/84])Robert de Torigny names "Aeliz" as the daughter of Duke Robert II "de alia concubina" from Herleve[227]She retained the title Comtesse d'Aumâle after her first marriage.  The foundation charter of Saint-Martin d´Auchy names “Engueranni consulis qui filius fuit Berte supradicti Guerinfridi filie et Adelidis comitisse uxoris sue sororis…Willelmi Regis Anglorum[228].  Her second marriage is deduced from the same charter of Saint-Martin d´Auchy which also names “Judita comitissa domine supradicte filia[229].  Orderic Vitalis calls her "the king's sister" when referring to her marriage to Eudes Comte de Troyes[230].  William I King of England donated various properties to the abbey of La Trinité de Caen, including "burgum de Hulmo" with the consent of "Adelisa amita mea…cujus hereditas erat sed et comitissa A. de Albamarla…in vita sua", by charter dated 1082[231].  m firstly ENGUERRAND [II] Comte de Montreuil, son of HUGUES de Ponthieu Comte de Montreuil & his wife Berthe d'Aumâle (-killed in battle Château d'Arques 25 Oct [1053]).  m secondly ([1053/54]) LAMBERT de Boulogne Comte de Lens, son of EUSTACHE [I] Comte de Boulogne & his wife Mathilde de Louvain (-killed in battle Phalampin 1054).  m thirdly ([1060]) EUDES III Comte de Troyes et d'Aumâle, son of ETIENNE I Comte de Troyes [Blois] & his wife Adela --- (-after 1118). 

Duke Robert II had one illegitimate child by Mistress (2):

b)         GUILLAUME (Château de Falaise, Normandy [1027/28]-Rouen, Prioré de Saint-Gervais 9 Sep 1087, bur Caen, Abbé de Saint-Etienne).  Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Roberto Duce...Willelmum filium suum” was born “apud Falesiam[232].  His birth date is estimated from William of Malmesbury, according to whom Guillaume was born of a concubine and was seven years old when his father left for Jerusalem[233], and Orderic Vitalis, who states that he was eight years old at the time[234].  Deville suggests that Guillaume´s birthdate can be fixed more precisely to [mid-1027], taking into account that his father Robert occupied Falaise immediately after the death of his father Duke Richard II (23 Aug 1026), not wishing to accept the authority of his older brother Duke Richard III, but that Robert´s stay was short as the two brothers were reconciled soon after, it being reasonable to suppose that Robert´s relationship with Guillaume´s mother occurred soon after his arrival at Falaise[235]He succeeded his father in 1035 as GUILLAUME II Duke of Normandy

-        see below

4.         [ELEONORE] de Normandie.  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana refers to "filiam secundi Ricardi ducis Normannorum" as wife of "Balduinum Barbatum" after the death of Ogiva[236].  The Annalista Saxo states that the mother of Judith was "cognatione beati Ethmundi regis", without naming her or giving a more precise origin[237].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that the second (unnamed) daughter of “dux Richardus” and his wife “Goiffredum Britannorum comitem...sororem...Iudith” married “Balduino Flandrensi[238].  She is sometimes named Eléonore in secondary sources but the primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m (after 1030) as his second wife, BAUDOUIN IV "le Barbu/Pulchrae Barbae" Count of Flanders, son of ARNOUL II "le Jeune" Count of Flanders & his wife Rozala di Ivrea [Italy] ([980]-30 May 1035).

5.         GUILLAUME (-5 Dec 1025).  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Richardum...atque Robertum et Willelmum” as the three sons of “dux Richardus” and his wife “Goiffredum Britannorum comitem...sororem...Iudith”, adding that Guillaume became a monk at Fécamp “in adolescentia[239].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "unus monachus Fiscanii Gulielmus" as son of "dux Normannie Richardus II"[240].  Abbé de Fécamp.  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "Non Dec" of "Willelmus nostræ congregationis monachus Sancte Trinitatis, filius Richardi ducis"[241].  The Chronicle of Caen Saint-Etienne records the death in 1025 of "Willelmus monachus, filius Ricardi comitis"[242]

6.         daughter .  Guillaume of Jumièges records that the third (unnamed) daughter of “dux Richardus” and his wife “Goiffredum Britannorum comitem...sororem...Iudith” died “iam adulta...virgo[243]same person as…?  MATHILDE (-1033).  The Chronicon Rothomagensi records the death in 1033 of "Mathildis filia Ricardi comitis"[244].  The Chronicle of Caen Saint-Etienne records the death in 1033 of "Mathildis, filia Ricardi comitis"[245].   

Duke Richard II & his second wife had two children:

7.         GUILLAUME ([1020/26]-[Boulogne] after [1054]).  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Duke Richard II married secondly after the death of his first wife “Papiam” by whom he had “Malgerium...archipræsulem et Willelmum Archacensem”, adding that the latter was granted “comitatum Talogi” by Duke Guillaume II who was “iam in adolescentia” and built “castrum Archarum in cacumine ipsius montis[246].  Orderic Vitalis calls him brother of Mauger, and specifies that Duke Guillaume II invested him as Comte de Talou[247].  “Willelmus...comes filius...Ricardi Normannorum quondam ducis” restored “insulam in fluvio magno Secane...Belcinaca...ecclesias eciam Vatheuille et Brotonii” to Saint-Wandrille by charter dated to [1032/47], subscribed by “Godofredi vicecomitis, comitis, Walterus filius, Lambertus, Willelmus, Osbernus[248].  "Vuillelmus Ricardi magni ducis Normannorum filius" donated property to the abbey of Jumièges by charter dated to [1040][249].  "Guillelmus Archensis comes et frater meus Malgerius Archiepiscopus" donated the vill of Periers sur Andelle to the monastery of Saint-Ouen at Rouen, at the request of "matris mee Paveie" and the consent of "Guilielmo Normannorum comite", by charter dated to [1047/50][250].  Guillaume II Duke of Normandy confirmed the donation of “ecclesias...in maris Constantini pagi...” made by “Roberto...Hunfredi...filio” to Saint-Wandrille by charter dated to [1035/53], subscribed by “Roberti filii Hunfredi, Rogeri fratris eius, Anscetilli, Willelmi filii Ricardi secundi Normannorum ducis, Rogerii filii Radulfi de Warethna, Rogerii filii Ragnulfi, Gilleberti Crispin, Willelmi Guiet[251].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Willelmum Archacensem” rebelled against Duke Guillaume, helped by Henri I King of France, that “Ingelrannus Abbatisvillæ comes...ac Hugo cognomento Bardulfus” were killed by the duke´s forces, and that Guillaume left “cum uxore sua sorore...Widonis comitis Pontivi” and was welcomed by “Eustachium Boloniæ comitem” with whom he remained in exile until he died[252].  William of Malmesbury records that Guillaume II captured the fortress of Arques, and Guillaume went into exile in [1054][253].  No record has been found of his having left descendants.  m --- de Ponthieu, daughter of HUGUES [II] Comte de Ponthieu & his wife Berthe d'Aumâle.  Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Willelmum Archacensem” went into exile “cum uxore sua sorore...Widonis comitis Pontivi” after his rebellion was crushed by Duke Guillaume II and found refuge with “Eustachium Boloniæ comitem” with whom he remained in exile until he died[254]

8.         MAUGER ([1020/26]-drowned Guernsey 1055).  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Duke Richard II married secondly after the death of his first wife “Papiam” by whom he had “Malgerium...archipræsulem et Willelmum Archacensem[255].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Malgerius Rothomagensis archiepiscopus" as son of "dux Normannie Richardus II"[256].  His parentage is given by Orderic Vitalis, who says he was "excessively addicted to the lusts of the flesh and distractions of the world"[257]Archbishop of Rouen 1037.  Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Malgerius frater Roberti ducis” was appointed archbishop of Rouen after the death of “Roberto Rotomagensi archiepiscopo[258].  Robert of Torigny records that "Malgerius nepos eius" succeeded as archbishop of Rouen in 1037 on the death of his uncle Robert[259].  He governed the see for "18 years without receiving either apostolic blessing or the pallium", according to Orderic Vitalis who says that "Mauger too young received the seat of honour"[260].  "Malgerii arciepiscopi…" subscribed the charter dated to [1040] under which "Vuillelmus Ricardi magni ducis Normannorum filius" donated property to the abbey of Jumièges[261].  "Guillelmus Archensis comes et frater meus Malgerius Archiepiscopus" donated the vill of Periers sur Andelle to the monastery of Saint-Ouen at Rouen, at the request of "matris mee Paveie" and the consent of "Guilielmo Normannorum comite", by charter dated to [1047/50][262].  According to William of Malmsbury, he was deprived of his archbishopric by his nephew Duke Guillaume as "he gave too much attention to hunting and hawking, and consumed the treasures of the church in a splendid mode of living" or alternatively that he wished to annul Duke Guillaume's marriage for consanguinity[263].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Duke Guillaume banished “Malgerius archipræsul Rotomagensis” to “insula...Ghernervia” and appointed “Maurilio Fiscannensi monacho” in his place[264].  Orderic Vitalis says that he was deposed by Duke Guillaume for having aided the rebellion of his brother Guillaume[265].  Archbishop Mauger had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress. 

a)         MICHEL (-after 1127).  He is named as son of Archbishop Mauger by Orderic Vitalis who describes him as "a brave and worthy knight, who is now in England, loved and treated with honour in his old age by King Henry"[266]

 

 

The precise relationship between the following persons and the family of the Dukes of Normandy has not been established. 

1.         ADELAIDE, daughter of --- .  She is named by Orderic Vitalis, who says that she was the cousin of Guillaume II Duke of Normandy who arranged the marriage[267].  The relationship is confirmed in another passage in the same source which states that her son was "consobrinus" of Robert III Duke of Normandy[268]m ROBERT, son of GIROIE & his wife Gisla --- (-6 Feb after [1060/61], bur St-Evroul). 

 

2.         MURIEL .  Henry II King of England confirmed the possessions of the abbey of la Trinité de Caen, including the donation by "Muriele sorore Ricardi principis" of "in Villun decimam", by charter dated to [1180/82][269]

 

 

GUILLAUME II 1035-1087, ROBERT III 1087-1106, HENRI I 1106-1135

 

GUILLAUME de Normandie, illegitimate son of ROBERT II Duke of Normandy & his mistress Herlève --- (Château de Falaise, Normandy [1027/28]-Rouen, Prioré de Saint-Gervais 9 Sep 1087, bur Caen, Abbé de Saint-Etienne).  Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Roberto Duce...Willelmum filium suum” was born “apud Falesiam[270].  His birth date is estimated from William of Malmesbury, according to whom Guillaume was born of a concubine and was seven years old when his father left for Jerusalem[271], and Orderic Vitalis, who states that he was eight years old at the time[272].  Deville suggests that Guillaume´s birthdate can be fixed more precisely to [mid-1027], taking into account that his father Robert occupied Falaise immediately after the death of his father Duke Richard II (23 Aug 1026), not wishing to accept the authority of his older brother Duke Richard III, but that Robert´s stay was short as the two brothers were reconciled soon after, it being reasonable to suppose that Robert´s relationship with Guillaume´s mother occurred soon after his arrival at Falaise[273].  According to Orderic Vitalis, Alain III Duke of Brittany was appointed his guardian during his father's absence in 1035[274].  He succeeded his father in 1035 as GUILLAUME II Duke of Normandy.  After Duke Alan was poisoned, Orderic Vitalis records that Gilbert Comte d'Eu was appointed guardian but was himself murdered[275].  Duke Guillaume helped Henri I King of France to defeat Geoffroy II "Martel" Comte d'Anjou at Mouliherne in [1045/55][276].  Edward "the Confessor" King of England may have acknowledged Guillaume's right to succeed to the English throne on several occasions, maybe for the first time during a visit to England in 1051 which is recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle[277].  Comte du Maine 1063, after he conquered the county.  In [1064/65], Duke Guillaume interceded with Guy de Ponthieu Comte d'Abbeville to secure the release of Harold, son of Godwin, in return for Harold's acknowledgement of Guillaume as successor to the English throne according to the portrayal of the event in the Bayeux tapestry.  Harold's visit to Normandy, and swearing allegiance to Duke William, is recorded by William of Jumièges[278].  According to Eadmer of Canterbury, the reason for Harold's visit was to negotiate the release of his brother Wulfnoth and nephew Haakon, both of whom had been hostages in Normandy since 1051.  On his deathbed King Edward "the Confessor" bequeathed the kingdom of England to Harold.  Duke Guillaume branded Harold a perjurer and appealed to Pope Alexander II for support.  After receiving a papal banner in response to this request, William gathered a sizable army during summer 1066 ready for invasion.  After some delay due to unfavourable weather conditions, the army set sail for England from Saint-Valéry-sur-Somme 28 Sep 1066[279].  He defeated and killed King Harold at Hastings 14 Oct 1066, and made his way to London where he was crowned 25 Dec 1066 as WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England

1.         other children: KINGS of ENGLAND

2.         ROBERT de Normandie (Normandy [1052/54]-Cardiff Castle [3] Feb 1134, bur Gloucester Cathedral[280]).  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Duke Guillaume and his wife “Balduinum Flandriæ comitem...filiam regali ex genere descendente...Mathilde” had “filios quatuor Robertum...Willelmum...Richardum...et Henricum”, adding that Robert succeeded to “ducatum Normanniæ[281].  William of Malmesbury names Robert as eldest son of King William I[282].  "Roberti filii sui Normannorum comitis, Richardi filii sui…" subscribed the charter dated Apr 1067 under which "Willelmus…dux Normannorum…Anglorum rex" confirmed rights to the abbey of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire[283].  Orderic Vitalis records that, after unsuccessfully aspiring to govern Normandy and Maine during the lifetime of his father, Robert rebelled in 1079 and went into exile in Flanders[284].  William of Malmesbury and Orderic Vitalis both state that he was assisted in his rebellion by Philippe I King of France and that he wounded his father in battle at Gerberoy[285].  He succeeded his father in 1087 as ROBERT III “Curthose” Duke of Normandy, his nickname due, according to William of Malmesbury and Orderic Vitalis, to his short stature which he presumably inherited from his mother who was also reputed to have been very short[286].  He joined the contingent of Robert II Count of Flanders on the First Crusade in Sep 1096, together with Etienne Comte de Blois, after pledging the duchy of Normandy to his brother King William for 10,000 marks of silver in order to fund the expedition[287].  Albert of Aix records the arrival in Constantinople of "Robertus Normannorum comes, Stephanus Blesensis, Eustachius frater prædicti Ducis", dated to early 1097 from the context[288].  Following the capture of Jerusalem, Robert left Palestine to return to Europe in Sep 1099[289].  On returning to Normandy in Autumn 1100, he recovered his duchy without opposition[290].  He landed at Portsmouth in 1102 aiming to displace his brother King Henry I as king of England, but was persuaded to return to Normandy on payment of 3,000 marks[291].  His brother King Henry invaded Normandy and defeated Robert at the battle of Tinchebrai[292], declaring himself duke of Normandy 28 Sep 1106.  King Henry took Robert in captivity back to England, where Robert remained in prison for the rest of his life.  Robert of Torigny records the death in 1134 of "Robertus dux Normannorum filius Willermi regis…primogenitus" and his burial at Gloucester[293].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death at Cardiff in [1134] of "Rotbertus frater regis Heinrici quondam comes Normanniæ" and his burial in Gloucester[294]Betrothed (before 9 Mar 1062) to MARGUERITE du Maine, daughter of HUGUES IV Comte du Maine & his wife Berthe de Blois ([1047/51]-Fécamp [1063]).  Guillaume of Jumièges records that ”Robertus” was betrothed to “Margareta filia Herberti quondam Cenomannensis comitis” who died “apud Fiscannum” before the marriage[295].  She is named and her parentage stated by Orderic Vitalis when recording that her betrothal was arranged by her brother (on the advice of his mother) to obtain Norman protection over Maine[296]m (Apulia 1100) SIBYLLE de Conversano, daughter of GODEFROI Conte di Conversano e Brindisi & his wife Sichelgaita di Molise (-Rouen [Feb/Mar] or [21 Mar] 1103, bur Caen or Rouen Cathedral).  She is named by Orderic Vitalis, who also names her father and says that he was the nephew of Robert "Guiscard"[297].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that ”Robertus” married “Sibyllam...sororem Willelmi comitis Conversanæ”, by whom he had “unum filium...Willelmum[298].  William of Malmesbury records that her husband married her on his return from Palestine, and that he was given an "immense sum" by way of dowry which he "lavished so profusely that in a few days he was penniless"[299].  Orderic Vitalis records that she was poisoned and died "in Lent"[300].  According to William of Malmesbury, she died "by disease"[301].  Orderic Vitalis alleges that Agnes de Ribemont, wife of Walter Giffard Earl of Buckingham, fell in love with Duke Robert, and states that the latter's wife was poisoned soon after although he does not directly attribute blame for her murder[302].  The necrology of Saint-Nicaise de Meulan records the death "XII Kal Apr" of "Sibilla comitissa Normannie"[303], although if this refers to Sibylle de Conversano it is not clear why she was not called "ducissa".  It is unlikely that the entry refers to Robert's daughter-in-law Sibylle d'Anjou as she was Ctss of Flanders when she died.  Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Duke Robert's first mistress is not known.  It is likely that this was the Duke's first relationship which produced offspring considering the likely birth date range of their daughter (see below).  Mistress (2): ---.  According to Orderic Vitalis, Duke Robert's [second] mistress was the "beautiful concubine of an old priest near the frontier with France" whom Robert met during his exile after his rebellion in 1079.  She was acknowledged by Duke Robert as the mother of his two sons after she "publicly carried the red-hot iron and escaped without the least burn"[304].  Duke Robert & his wife had two children:

a)         HENRI de Normandie (1101 after Jun-killed in the New Forest).  He is named as second son of Duke Robert by Weir[305], although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  Henri may have been Duke Robert's older legitimate son.  Orderic Vitalis records the birth of a son to Robert and his wife in the year after the marriage was consummated in Normandy in Sep 1100[306].  He does not name this son, but records the birth of the couple's son Guillaume "in the third year after his parents' marriage" in a later passage (see below). 

b)         GUILLAUME de Normandie (Rouen [Jan/Mar] [1103]-St Omer, Abbey of St Bertin 27 Jul 1128, bur St Omer, Abbey of St Bertin).  Guillaume of Jumièges records that ”Robertus” married “Sibyllam...sororem Willelmi comitis Conversanæ”, by whom he had “unum filium...Willelmum[307].  His parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis, who specifies that he was born in Rouen in the third year after his parents' marriage[308].  After his father was captured by Henry I King of England, the king entrusted Guillaume to Hélie de Saint-Saens (who was married to Guillaume's illegitimate half-sister)[309].  According to Orderic Vitalis, after King Henry "returned victorious to England", he commanded Robert de Beauchamp Vicomte d'Arques to arrest Guillaume, who was taken into "exile among foreigners" by Hélie and helped by Robert de Bellême[310].  Guillaume was eventually given refuge by Baudouin VII Count of Flanders "who fought resolutely on his behalf until he died"[311].  "Karolo et Wilhelmo nepotibus comitis" were named in the grant to Saint-Bertin of "Balduinus Roberti iunioris filius Flandrensium comes" dated 1119[312].  Guillaume continually challenged the authority of his uncle King Henry in Normandy, with support from Louis VI King of France and many rebel Norman barons.  King Louis granted Pontoise, Chaumont, Mantes and the Vexin to Guillaume on his second marriage[313].  Guillaume also received the support of his father-in-law, who was indignant that King Henry had retained the dowry of his other daughter Alice, after her husband King Henry's son had been drowned in the Blanche Nef [White Ship] in 1120[314].  Following the assassination of Charles Count of Flanders, Louis VI King of France convened a meeting of Flemish barons at Arras where they elected Guillaume 21 Mar 1127 as GUILLAUME I "Clito" Count of Flanders, although he lacked any hereditary right.  He was opposed by his uncle King Henry who bribed supporters in Gent and eastern Flanders.  Lille rebelled against his authority 1 Aug 1127, followed by Saint-Omer 8 Feb 1128[315].  Guillaume's rival Thierry d'Alsace captured Lille, Furnes and Gent[316] and was recognised as Count of Flanders at Bruges 30 Mar 1128[317].  Guillaume besieged Aalst in Jul 1128, helped by Godefroi Duke of Lower Lotharingia, but was injured and died from his wounds[318].  The necrology of Saint-Nicaise de Meulan records the death "IV Kal Aug" of "Guillelmus comes Flandrensis filius Roberti ducis Normannie"[319]m firstly (1123, annulled by papal bull 26 Aug 1124[320]) as her first husband, SIBYLLE d’Anjou, daughter of FOULQUES V Comte d’Anjou & his first wife Eremburge du Maine ([1112/16]-Bethany 1165, bur Bethany, Abbey of St Lazarus).  She is named by Orderic Vitalis, who also names her father and specifies that he arranged her marriage as part of the support he gave to Guillaume de Normandie, on the suggestion of Amaury de Montfort, and that her dowry was the county of Maine[321].  According to Orderic Vitalis, King Henry broke off the marriage "making use of threats and pleas and an enormous quantity of gold and silver"[322].  Both passages in Orderic Vitalis refer only to a betrothal, but a marriage must have taken place otherwise a papal annulment would have been unnecessary.  Her father supported her husband against his uncle Henry I King of England, indignant that the latter retained the dowry of his other daughter Alice, married to King Henry's son who had been drowned in the Blanche Nef [White Ship] in 1120[323].  Orderic Vitalis records Sibylle's second marriage[324], as does William of Tyre (who says that she was her father's older daughter)[325].  The Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin records the marriage of "Sibillam comitis Andegavensis filiam" with Thierry after the death of his first wife[326].  She married secondly (1134) as his second wife, Thierry de Lorraine Count of Flanders.  She left France with her second husband in Jun 1147 on the Second Crusade[327].  She accompanied her husband to Palestine in 1157 but refused to return with him to Europe in 1158.  She became a nun at the convent of St Lazarus at Bethany.  After the death of her stepmother Mélisende Queen of Jerusalem in 1161, Ctss Sibylle assumed a position of influence among the royal family of Jerusalem[328].  The Annales Aquicinctini record the death in 1165 of "Sibbilla comitissa Flandrie apud Sanctum Lazarum"[329]m (Jan 1127) GIOVANNA di Monferrato, daughter of RANIERI Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Gisèle de Bourgogne [Comté] ([1107]-1191).  Orderic Vitalis names her parents and specifies that her marriage was arranged by her uterine half-sister, Adélaïde de Maurienne Queen of France, but does not give her own name[330].  Guillaume de Jumièges records that the Queen of France gave her sister in marriage to Guillaume[331]

Duke Robert had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):

c)          daughter ([1072/78]-)Orderic Vitalis records that "Rodbertus dux" married "filiam suam…de pellice" to "Heliæ filio Lamberti de Sancto Sidonio", and granted him "Archas cum Buris et adjacente provincia"[332].  Her birth date range is estimated on the assumption that she was in her early teenage years when she married.  m ([1087/90]) [as his first wife,] HELIE de Saint-Saëns, son of LAMBERT de Saint-Saëns & his wife --- (-after 1128).  His father is named by Orderic Vitalis, who says that he remained loyal to Duke Robert under Kings William II and Henry I[333].  Comte d’Arques, de iure uxoris.  Henry I King of England entrusted him with the upbringing of his wife's half-brother Guillaume after his father was captured in 1106[334].   King Henry confiscated his castle and gave it to William de Warenne after Hélie fled with his ward whose arrest had been ordered by the king[335].  Orderic Vitalis records that Guillaume granted him Montreuil-sur-Mer after his installation as Count of Flanders in Mar 1128[336]King Stephen notified the right of "Mathild[is] de Sancto Sidonio cognate mea" to hold the manor of Stisted, Essex from the see of Canterbury by charter dated to [1143/52][337]. 

Duke Robert had two illegitimate children by Mistress (2): 

d)         RICHARD ([1079/80]-killed in the New Forest before Aug 1100).  His parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis[338]Florence of Worcester records that "suus fratruelis Ricardus comitis…Normannorum Rotberti filius" had also been killed in the New Forest a short time before, killed by an arrow shot by one of his knights, when recording the death of his paternal uncle William II King of England[339].  William of Malmesbury records that "Richard son of Robert earl of Normandy" was killed in the New Forest "by a wound in the neck, or as some say, from being suspended by the jaws on the branch of a tree as his horse passed beneath it"[340]Orderic Vitalis also specifies that the accident occurred in the New Forest[341]

e)         GUILLAUME ([1079/80]-killed in battle Jerusalem [1111]).  His parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis[342].  He left for Jerusalem after his father's defeat in 1106.  Albert of Aix records the participation of "Willelmum…filium Roberti Normannorum principis" at the siege of Sidon, at which he was ordered to Jerusalem for reinforcements by King Baudouin I before leading a major attack on Arab positions in the trans-Jordan area, dated to [Aug 1108][343].  Albert of Aix records that he was placed in command of Tortosa after the town was captured by Bertrand Count of Tripoli  in [1110][344].  Albert of Aix records that "…Willelmus…filius comitis Nortmannorum, dominium habens civitatis Tortosæ…" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[345]

3.         HENRY of England ([Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068]-Saint-Denis le Ferment, Forêt d’Angers near Rouen 1/2 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire).  He succeeded his brother 3 Aug 1100 as HENRY I “Beauclerc” King of England.  He defeated his brother Robert at Tinchebrai and declared himself Duke of Normandy 28 Sep 1106. 

-        KINGS of ENGLAND

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    DUKES of NORMANDY 1144-1204 (ANJOU)

 

 

GEOFFROY 1144-1150, HENRI II 1151-1189, RICHARD 1189-1199, JOHN 1199-1204

 

GEOFFROY d’Anjou, son of FOULQUES V Comte d'Anjou & his first wife Eremburge Ctss du Maine (24 Aug 1113-Château du Loire 7 Sep 1151, bur Le Mans Cathedral, Anjou).  His parentage is specified by Orderic Vitalis[346].  The Chronicæ Sancti Albini records the birth "1113 IX Kal Sep" of "Gaufridus comes"[347].  He succeeded in 1129, when his father abdicated and left for Jerusalem, as GEOFFROY V “le Bel/Plantagenet” Comte d’Anjou.  He invaded Normandy in 1137 in support of his wife's claim to succeed her father[348].  He was proclaimed Duke of Normandy 19 Jan 1144[349], but resigned the dukedom to his eldest son in 1150. 

1.         HENRI d’Anjou (Le Mans, Anjou 5 Mar 1133-Château de Chinon 6 Jul 1189, bur Abbaye de Fontevrault).  William of Tyre names him and records his parentage[350].  The Chronicæ Sancti Albini records the birth "1133 III Non Mar" of "Henricus"[351].  Comte de Touraine & Maine 1151.  He succeeded his father in 1151 as Duke of Normandy, Comte d’Anjou.  He became Duke of Aquitaine by right of his wife 18 May 1152.  He succeeded King Stephen 19 Dec 1154 as HENRY II King of England, crowned in Westminster Abbey the same day. 

a)         HENRY (Bermondsey Palace 28 Feb 1155-Château de Martel, Turenne 11 Jun 1183, bur Le Mans Cathedral, Anjou, later removed to Rouen Cathedral).  The Chronicæ Sancti Albini records the birth "1155 II Kal Mar…Londoniæ" of "Hainricus, regis Hainrici filius"[352].  Robert of Torigny records the birth "Lundoniæ pridie Kal Mar 1155" of "filius Henrico regi Anglorum ex uxore sua regina Alienor…Henricus"[353].  His birth is recorded by Matthew of Paris[354].  He was crowned King of England in his father’s lifetime 14 Jun 1170 at Westminster Abbey[355].  He was also styled Duke of Normandy, Comte d'Anjou et du Maine. 

b)         RICHARD (Beaumont Palace, Oxford 8 Sep 1157-Chalus 6 Apr 1199, bur Fontevrault Abbey[356]).  Duke of Aquitaine in 1172.  He succeeded his father as RICHARD I " Cœur-de-lion " King of England, Duke of Normandy, crowned 2 Sep 1189 at Westminster Abbey[357].   

c)         JOHN (Beaumont Palace, Oxford 24 Dec 1167-Newark Castle, Lincolnshire 18/19 Oct 1216, bur Worcester Cathedral).  Designated King of Ireland 1177.  Created Comte de Mortain 1189.  He succeeded his brother Richard I in 1199 as JOHN King of England, Duke of Normandy.  He lost Normandy to France in 1204.   

d)         other children: see ENGLAND

2.         other children: see ANJOU

 



[1] Pálsson, H. and Edwards, P. (trans.) (1978) Orkneyinga Saga, The History of the Earls of Orkney (Penguin Books), 4, p. 26. 

[2] Laing, S. (trans.) (1907) Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings Snorre (Norroena Society, London), Harald Harfager's Saga, 24, available at Online Medieval and Classical Library Release 15b, <http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Heimskringla/> (24 Jan 2003).

[3] Ekrem, I. and Mortensen, L. B. (eds.) Fisher, P. (trans.) (2003) Historia Norwegie (Copenhagen), VI, p. 66. 

[4] Willelmi Gemmetensis monachi Historiæ Normannorum, Du Chesne, A. (1619) Historiæ Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui (Paris) (“Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619)”), Liber II, I, p. 221. 

[5] Freeman, E. A. (1877) The History of the Norman Conquest of England, its causes and its results (Oxford), Vol. I, 3rd. Edn, Appendix, Note X, pp. 624-6. 

[6] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Book V, p. 91. 

[7] Guadet, J. (ed.) (1845) Richeri Historiarum (Paris), Tome I, I, XXVIII, p. 62. 

[8] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989), II, 127, p. 110. 

[9] Orkneyinga Saga 4, p. 26. 

[10] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 24.

[11] Historia Norwegie VI, p. 66. 

[12] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, I, p. 221. 

[13] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, II, III, IV and VI, p. 221-5. 

[14] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, 3rd. Edn, pp. 165-6. 

[15] Garmonsway, G. N. (trans) (1972) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Dent), A and E 890. 

[16] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, VIII, p. 226. 

[17] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, IX, p. 227. 

[18] Labbé, P. (ed.) (1657) Novæ Bibliothecæ Manuscript Librorum, Tome I (Paris), Chronicon Duplex Sancti Michaelis in periculo maris, (“Chronicon Sancti Michaelis (Labbé, Tome I 1657)”, p. 348. 

[19] Houts, E. van (ed. and trans.) (2000) The Normans in Europe (Manchester University Press), p. 14. 

[20] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, X, p. 228. 

[21] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, XII, p. 229. 

[22] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, XV, p. 230. 

[23] William of Malmesbury, II, 127, p. 110. 

[24] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, XVII, p. 230. 

[25] Houts (2000), p. 25. 

[26] Houts (2000), p. 185. 

[27] Flodoardi Annales, 924, MGH SS III, p. 374. 

[28] Flodoardi Annales, 925, MGH SS III, pp. 374-5. 

[29] Flodoardi Annales, 927 and 928, MGH SS III, pp. 377-8. 

[30] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, XVIII, p. 231. 

[31] William of Malmesbury, II, 127, p. 111. 

[32] William of Malmesbury, II, 127, p. 111. 

[33] Flodoardi Annales, 933, MGH SS III, p. 381. 

[34] Labbé, P. (ed.) (1657) Novæ Bibliothecæ Manuscript Librorum, Tome I (Paris), Chronicon Duplex Sancti Michaelis in periculo maris, (“Chronicon Sancti Michaelis (Labbé, Tome I 1657)”, p. 348. 

[35] Giles, I. A. (ed.) (1845) Scriptores rerum gestarum Willelmi Conquestoris (London) Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris, p. 14. 

[36] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 91. 

[37] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, XII, p. 229. 

[38] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book III, p. 7. 

[39] Orderic Vitalis I 886, RHGF IX, p. 11. 

[40] Chronico Rotomagensis 913, RHGF IX, p. 88. 

[41] Delisle, L. (ed.) (1872) Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbé de Mont-Saint-Michel (Rouen), Vol. I, 912, p. 14. 

[42] Historia Norwegie VI, pp. 66 and 68. 

[43] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, II, III, IV, pp. 239-40. 

[44] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, XXII, p. 233. 

[45] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[46] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, XVII, XIX, XXII, pp. 230 and 232-3. 

[47] Felice Lifshitz (ed.) Dudo of St Quentin's Gesta Normannorum, The Online Reference Book for Medieval Sources, <http://orb.rhodes.edu/ORB_done/Dudo/dudindex.html> (6 Jan 2003), Chapter 12. 

[48] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus MGH SS IX, p. 381, undated but the following sentence records the baptism of Rollo in 912 by "Franco Rothomagensis archiepiscopus" which presumably indicates that the two events were simultaneous or at least related. 

[49] Settipani (1993), p. 326. 

[50] Vigfusson, G. & York Powell, F. (eds. and trans.) (1905) Origines Islandicæ (1905), Vol. I, Landnáma-Bóc or the Book of Settlements, II, 9, I.3, p. 66, also discussed in Houts (2000), p. 15. 

[51] ES II 79. 

[52] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 91. 

[53] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, XII, p. 229. 

[54] The Planctus for William Longsword, Verse 2. 

[55] Dudo of Saint-Quentin, Chapters 15 and 16-17. 

[56] Dudo of Saint-Quentin, Chapter 17. 

[57] Flodoardi Annales, 927, MGH SS III, p. 378. 

[58] Flodoardi Annales, 933, MGH SS III, p. 381. 

[59] Dudo of Saint-Quentin, Chapter 18. 

[60] Dudo of Saint-Quentin, Chapter 18. 

[61] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber III, X, p. 237. 

[62] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber III, XI, XII, p. 238. 

[63] Annalibus Rotomagensibus 943, MGH SS XXVI, p. 498. 

[64] Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris, p. 14. 

[65] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 91. 

[66] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber III, II, p. 234. 

[67] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXXVIII, p. 288. 

[68] France, J., Bulst, N. and Reynolds, P. (eds. and trans.) (1989) Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque, Rodulfus Glaber Opera (Oxford), Historiarum III.39, p. 165. 

[69] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber III, III, p. 234. 

[70] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Père de Chartres (Paris), Vol. I, Liber Tertius, Cap. XVIII, p. 77. 

[71] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Eglise cathédrale de Chartres, Nécrologe du xi siècle, p. 23.       

[72] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber III, II, p. 234. 

[73] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, XII, p. 229. 

[74] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 912, p. 14. 

[75] Chronico Richardi Pictavensis, RHGF IX, p.21. 

[76] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber III, III, p. 234. 

[77] Bernard, A. and Bruel, A. (eds.) (1878) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny (Paris) Tome II, 1164, p. 251. 

[78] Richard, Alfred (1903) Histoire des Comtes de Poitou (republished Princi Negue, 2003), Tome I, pp. 129-30 and 142. 

[79] Ademari Historiarum III.33, MGH SS IV, p. 131. 

[80] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber III, II, p. 234. 

[81] Flodoard 943, MGH SS III, p. 389. 

[82] Dudo of Saint-Quentin, Chapter 27. 

[83] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book III, p. 9. 

[84] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber III, XI, XII, p. 238. 

[85] Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 (Villeneuve d'Asq), p. 50 footnote 6. 

[86] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, II, III, IV, pp. 239-40. 

[87] Dudo of Saint-Quentin, Chapters 44-45. 

[88] Dudo of Saint-Quentin, Chapter 43. 

[89] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 47. 

[90] Chavanon, J. (ed.) (1897) Adémar de Chabannes, Chronique (Paris), Book III, 27, and Rodolfus Glauber, Life of William Volpiano, 7.   

[91] Houts (2000), p. 102. 

[92] Bonnin, T. (ed.) (1870) Cartulaire de Louviers (Evreux) ("Louviers"), Tome I, I, p. 1. 

[93] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XX, p. 249. 

[94] Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris, p. 14. 

[95] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 5, MGH SS IX, p. 383. 

[96] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, X, XII, pp. 243-4. 

[97] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[98] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXXVI, p. 311. 

[99] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[100] Robert de Torigny, Book VIII c. 36. 

[101] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 998, MGH SS XXIII, p. 777. 

[102] Round, J. H. (ed.) (1899) Calendar of Documents preserved in France illustrative of the history of Great Britain and Ireland Vol I 918-1206 (London), 701, p. 249. 

[103] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1030, p. 36. 

[104] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Abbaye de Saint-Père-enVallée, p. 180.       

[105] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[106] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[107] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1026, MGH SS XXIII, p. 783. 

[108] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 167. 

[109] Robert de Torigny, Book VIII c. 36. 

[110] Vernier, J. J. (ed.) (1916) Chartes de l'abbaye de Jumièges, Tome I c 825-1169 (Rouen, Paris), 7, p. 16. 

[111] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VI, III, p. 258. 

[112] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1037, p. 40. 

[113] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[114] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 965, p. 25. 

[115] Houts (2000), p. 92 footnote 62. 

[116] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Abbaye de Saint-Père-enVallée, p. 193.       

[117] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[118] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 965, p. 25. 

[119] Jumièges 7, p. 16. 

[120] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[121] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 965, p. 25. 

[122] Gesta Guillelmi Ducis Normannorum et Regis Anglorum a Guillelmo Pictavensi, Du Chesne, A. (1619) Historiæ Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui (Paris) (“Gesta a Guillelmo Pictavensi (Du Chesne, 1619)”), p. 178. 

[123] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[124] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1026, MGH SS XXIII, p. 783. 

[125] Greenway, D. (2002) Henry of Huntingdon: The History of the English People 1000-1154 (Oxford University Press), II, 2, p. 7. 

[126] Garmonsway, G. N. (trans) (1972) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Dent), F, 1013 and 1017. 

[127] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1013. 

[128] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, IX, p. 253. 

[129] Coxe, H. O. (ed.) (1841) Rogeri de Wendover Chronica sive Flores historiarum (London) ("Roger of Wendover"), Vol. I, p. 463. 

[130] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E and F, 1037. 

[131] Barlow (1983), pp. 51-6. 

[132] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C and D, 1043, and E, 1042 [1043]. 

[133] Stafford, P. 'Emma: The Powers of the Queen in the Eleventh Century', Duggan, A. (ed.) (1997) Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (The Boydell Press), p. 6. 

[134] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1052. 

[135] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 1 and 2, pp. 6 and 7. 

[136] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, Liber V, V, pp. 247 and 251. 

[137] La Borderie, A. de (ed.) (1888) Recueil d´actes inédites des ducs et princes de Bretagne (XI, XII, XIII siècles) (Rennes), I, p. 3. 

[138] La Borderie (1888), II, p. 6. 

[139] Chronico Kemperlegiensi 1034, RHGF X, p. 294. 

[140] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, Liber V, X, pp. 247 and 253. 

[141] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[142] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 965, p. 25. 

[143] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VIII, p. 209. 

[144] Dudo of Saint-Quentin, Chapter 58. 

[145] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[146] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 965, p. 25. 

[147] ES III 693 and ES VII 15. 

[148] Jumièges 7, p. 16. 

[149] Potts (1992) 'The earliest Norman counts revisited: the lords of Mortain', The Haskins Society Journal, 4 (1992) pp. 23-37 [not yet consulted], quoted in Houts (2000), p. 91 footnote 59.   

[150] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[151] Ex Chronico Gaufredi Vosiensis, 22, RHGF XII, p. 423.  

[152] Liber Miraculorum sancte Fidis, ed. A. Bouillet (Paris, 1897), pp. 109-11, quoted and trans. by Houts (2000), p. 215. 

[153] Houts (2000), p. 183. 

[154] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[155] Ex Accessionibus Roberti de Monte ad Sigibertum 1026, RHGF 10, p. 270. 

[156] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VI, pp. 253-5. 

[157] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book VI, p. 253, and Vol. V, Book IX, p. 35, respectively.   

[158] Ademari Historiarum III.33, MGH SS IV, p. 131. 

[159] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[160] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 965, p. 25. 

[161] Jumièges 7, p. 16. 

[162] Lot. F. (1913) Etudes critiques sur l´abbaye de Saint-Wandrille, Bibliothèque de l´Ecole des Hautes Etudes, 204e fascicule (Paris), Appendice, (“Saint-Wandrille”), 10, p. 41. 

[163] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.52, MGH SS VII, p. 325. 

[164] Louviers, Tome I, II, p. 3. 

[165] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Abbaye de Saint-Père-enVallée, p. 194. 

[166] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 270.       

[167] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 324.       

[168] ´Das Nekrolog des Klosters S Vanne´, Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde, 14th year (Metz, 1902) (Necrology Verdun Saint-Vanne), p. 145. 

[169] Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris, p. 14. 

[170] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, XIII, p. 255. 

[171] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book III, p. 9, and charter of confirmation of her husband, cited in footnote 8 which cites Fauroux no. 35). 

[172] Jumièges 7, p. 16. 

[173] Giles, I. A. (ed.) (1845) Scriptores rerum gestarum Willelmi Conquestoris (London) Annalis Historia breve suve Chronica monasterii S. Stephani Cadomensis, p. 165. 

[174] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.52, MGH SS VII, p. 325. 

[175] Olrik, J. and Ræder, H. (eds.) Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum, available at <http://www.kb.dk/elib/lit/dan/> (15 Aug 2003), Christiansen, E. (1980) Saxo Grammaticus, Danorum Regum Heroumque Historia, Books X-XVI (B. A. R. International Series 84), 10, XIV, p. 28. 

[176] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1917) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. I, Chronicon Roskildense, VII, p. 20. 

[177] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, VII, p. 270. 

[178] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 87. 

[179] Chronicon Fontanellense Appendix Altera VII, Spicilegium, Tome II, p. 288. 

[180] Saint-Wandrille, 9, p. 40. 

[181] Saint-Wandrille, 10, p. 41. 

[182] Round (1899) 701, p. 249. 

[183] Gurney, D. (1845) The record of the House of Gournay, Part I, The Gournays in Normandy, p. 43, quoting originals in the Archives de Rouen. 

[184] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, XIII, XVI, pp. 255-6. 

[185] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 83. 

[186] Cluny, Tome III, 2782, p. 807.   

[187] Petit, E. (1885) Histoire des ducs de Bourgogne de la race Capétienne (Paris), 17, p. 358. 

[188] Bouchard, C. B. (ed.) (1991) The Cartulary of Flavigny 717-1113 (Cambridge, Mass.), 15, p. 52. 

[189] For example ES II 59. 

[190] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, XIII, p. 255. 

[191] Ademari Historiarum III.64, MGH SS IV, p. 145. 

[192] Jumièges 7, p. 16. 

[193] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, XVI, p. 256. 

[194] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VI, II, p. 258. 

[195] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 85. 

[196] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris, p. 229.       

[197] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 58. 

[198] Spicilegium Tome III, p. 390. 

[199] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[200] Genealogiæ Scriptoris Fusniacensis 2, MGH SS XIII, p. 252. 

[201] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VIII, p. 309. 

[202] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VI, II, p. 258. 

[203] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1026, p. 33. 

[204] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book IV, p. 299, and Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VIII, p. 307. 

[205] Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris, p. 22. 

[206] Monstier, A. de (1663) Neustria Pia, seu de omnibus et singulis abbatiis et prioratibus totius Normanniæ (Rouen) ("Neustria Pia"), p. 24. 

[207] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1026, p. 33. 

[208] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, XIII, p. 255. 

[209] Ademari Historiarum III.64, MGH SS IV, p. 145. 

[210] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, XVII, p. 257. 

[211] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VI, II, p. 258. 

[212] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VI, III, p. 258. 

[213] Deville, A. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de la Sainte-Trinité du Mont de Rouen, Collection des cartularies de France Tome III (same volume as Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin) (Paris) ("Rouen Sainte-Trinité"), I, p. 421. 

[214] Houts (2000), p. 185. 

[215] William of Malmesbury, III, 229, p. 217. 

[216] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 87. 

[217] Deville, M. A. ´Observations sur l´époque de la naissance de Guillaume le Conquérant´, Mémoires de la Société des antiquaires de Normandie, 2e Série, 1er Volume (1837-39), p. 181. 

[218] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VI, XIII, p. 267. 

[219] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1031. 

[220] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 77. 

[221] Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris, p. 14. 

[222] Malmesbury, 277, p. 256. 

[223] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1026, p. 34. 

[224] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, III, p. 268. 

[225] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 99. 

[226] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1032, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 784-5. 

[227] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1026, p. 34. 

[228] CP I 351 footnote d, quoting from Stapleton, T. Archaeologia XXVI, pp. 358-60. 

[229] CP I 351 footnote d, quoting from Stapleton, T. Archaeologia XXVI, pp. 358-60. 

[230] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book IV, p. 265. 

[231] Gallia Christiana, Vol. XI, Instrumenta, V, col. 68. 

[232] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VI, XII, p. 266. 

[233] Malmesbury III, 229, p. 217. 

[234] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 87, and Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 77. 

[235] Deville, M. A. ´Observations sur l´époque de la naissance de Guillaume le Conquérant´, Mémoires de la Société des antiquaires de Normandie, 2e Série, 1er Volume (1837-39), p. 183. 

[236] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis, MGH SS IX, p. 307, footnote 19 naming her "Alienoram", without specifying the primary source on which this is based. 

[237] Annalista Saxo, 1066. 

[238] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, XIII, p. 255. 

[239] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, XIII, p. 255. 

[240] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1026, MGH SS XXIII, p. 783. 

[241] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 280.       

[242] Chronica monasterii S. Stephani Cadomensis, p. 165. 

[243] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, XIII, p. 255. 

[244] Ex Chronico Rothomagensi, RHGF XII, p. 386. 

[245] Chronica monasterii S. Stephani Cadomensis, p. 165. 

[246] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, VII, p. 270. 

[247] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 85. 

[248] Saint-Wandrille, 15, p. 56. 

[249] Jumièges 20, p. 63. 

[250] Gurney (1845), p. 43, quoting originals in the Archives de Rouen. 

[251] Saint-Wandrille, 19, p. 62. 

[252] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, VII, p. 270. 

[253] Malmesbury, 232, pp. 221-2. 

[254] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, VII, p. 270. 

[255] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, VII, p. 270. 

[256] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1026, MGH SS XXIII, p. 783. 

[257] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 87. 

[258] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, VII, p. 270. 

[259] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1037, p. 40. 

[260] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 87. 

[261] Jumièges 20, p. 63. 

[262] Gurney (1845), p. 43, quoting originals in the Archives de Rouen. 

[263] Malmesbury, 267, p. 251. 

[264] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXIV, p. 281. 

[265] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 85. 

[266] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 87, this text probably having been written in 1127, see Chibnall, Vol. III, p. xiv. 

[267] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book III, p. 29. 

[268] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VIII, pp. 155-7. 

[269] Berger, E. (ed.) (1920) Recueil des actes de Henri II roi d´Angleterre et duc de Normandie (Paris) ("Actes Henri II"), Tome II, DCI, p. 199. 

[270] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VI, XII, p. 266. 

[271] Malmesbury III, 229, p. 217. 

[272] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 87, and Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 77. 

[273] Deville, M. A. ´Observations sur l´époque de la naissance de Guillaume le Conquérant´, Mémoires de la Société des antiquaires de Normandie, 2e Série, 1er Volume (1837-39), p. 183. 

[274] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 87. 

[275] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 87.  Malmesbury III, 230, p. 218, does not mention the earlier appointment of Duke Alain. 

[276] Davis, R. H. C. and Chibnall. M. (eds. and trans.) (1998) The Gesta Guillelmi of William of Poitiers (Oxford), Book I, c. 11.  

[277] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle D, 1051. 

[278] William of Jumièges VII.13, discussed in Houts p. 114. 

[279] Houts (2000), p. 105. 

[280] Forester, T. (trans.) (1854) The Chronicles of Florence of Worcester with two continuations (London), Florence of Worcester (Continuation), 1134, p. 249, and Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 413. 

[281] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXI, p. 277. 

[282] William of Malmesbury, III, 274, p. 254, and MP, Vol. II, 1086, p. 21. 

[283] Prou, M. & Vidier, A. (eds.) (1907) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, LXXVIII, p. 203. 

[284] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book IV, p. 357, Vol. III, Book V, pp. 97-103, and Florence of Worcester, 1077, p. 179. 

[285] Malmesbury, 258, p. 243, and 389, p. 339, and Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, pp. 109-11. 

[286] Malmesbury, 389, p. 339, and Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VIII, p. 115. 

[287] Orderic Vitalis, Book IX, c. 4. 

[288] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber II, Cap. XXI, p. 314. 

[289] Runciman, S. (1951) A History of the Crusades, Vol. 1 (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 1, p. 298. 

[290] Malmesbury, 394, p. 345. 

[291] Malmesbury, 395, p. 345. 

[292] Florence of Worcester, 1106, p. 214. 

[293] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1134, p. 194. 

[294] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 94. 

[295] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, II, p. 293. 

[296] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book III, p. 117. 

[297] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 279. 

[298] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XIV, p. 299. 

[299] Malmesbury, 389, p. 340. 

[300] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 39. 

[301] Malmesbury, 389, p. 340. 

[302] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 39. 

[303] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Prieuré de Saint-Nicaise de Meulan, p. 239.       

[304] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 283. 

[305] Weir, A. (2002) Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (Pimlico), p. 44. 

[306] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 301. 

[307] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XIV, p. 299. 

[308] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 279. 

[309] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 93. 

[310] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, pp. 163-5, footnote 4 on p. 163 suggesting that the start of the guardianship should rather be dated [1110/11], certainly before the arrest in 1112 of Robert de Bellême who helped the pair in their exile. 

[311] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 167. 

[312] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Bertin (Paris) II.28, p. 239. 

[313] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 371. 

[314] Malmesbury, 419, p. 365. 

[315] Nicholas, D. (1992) Medieval Flanders (Longman), pp. 64-5. 

[316] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 373. 

[317] Nicholas, pp. 64-5. 

[318] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 373. 

[319] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Prieuré de Saint-Nicaise de Meulan, p. 240.       

[320] Robert, U. (1891) Bullaire du Pape Calixte II 1119-1124 (Paris), ii, no. 507, cited in Chibnall, Vol. VI, p. 166. 

[321] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 165, and Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 333. 

[322] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 167. 

[323] Malmesbury, 419, p. 365. 

[324] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 379. 

[325] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") (“WT”) XIV.I, p. 607. 

[326] Saint-Bertin II.11, p. 300. 

[327] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 262. 

[328] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 361. 

[329] Annales Aquicinctini 1165, MGH SS XVI, p. 504. 

[330] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 371. 

[331] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XIV, p. 299. 

[332] Le Prévost, A. (1840) Orderici Vitalis Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ (Paris) ("Orderic Vitalis (Prévost)"), Vol. III, Liber VIII, IX, p. 320. 

[333] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book  VIII, p. 183. 

[334] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 93. 

[335] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 165. 

[336] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 371. 

[337] Johnson, C. & Cronne, H. A. (ed.) (1968) Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum (Oxford), Vol. III, 147, p. 54. 

[338] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 283. 

[339] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus II (London), p. 45. 

[340] Malmesbury, III.275, p. 255. 

[341] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 283. 

[342] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 283. 

[343] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber X, Cap. XLVII, p. 653. 

[344] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[345] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[346] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 229. 

[347] Marchegay, P. and Mabille, E. (eds.) (1869) Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (Paris), Chronicæ sancti Albini Andegavensis, p. 32.  

[348] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 483. 

[349] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (Matthew of Paris “MP”), Vol. II 1067-1216, 1143, p. 177. 

[350] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, I, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") (William of Tyre “WT”), XIV.I, p. 607. 

[351] Chronicæ sancti Albini Andegavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 33.  

[352] Chronicæ sancti Albini Andegavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 38.  

[353] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1155, p. 291. 

[354] MP, Vol. II, 1155, p. 209, although he gives neither the place nor the precise date. 

[355] MP, Vol. II, 1170, p. 274. 

[356] MP, Vol. II, 1199, p. 432. 

[357] MP, Vol. II, 1189, p. 348.