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NORTHERN ITALY (3)

  v4.0 Updated 17 November 2017

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                BOLOGNA (BENTIVOGLIO) 2

Chapter 2.                CONCORDIA, MIRANDOLA. 3

A.         SIGNORI di MIRANDOLA (PICO) 3

B.         CONTI di CONCORDIA (PICO) 4

Chapter 3.                FLORENCE and TUSCANY (MEDICI) 5

A.         LEADERS in FLORENCE.. 6

B.         GRAND DUKES of TUSCANY (MEDICI) 10

C.        GRAND DUKES of TUSCANY (HABSBURG-LOTHRINGEN) 15

Chapter 4.                MANTUA. 16

A.         SIGNORI di MANTUA (GONZAGA) 16

B.         MARCHESI di MANTUA (GONZAGA) 22

C.        DUKES of MANTUA (GONZAGA) 25

Chapter 5.                PARMA. 28

A.         DUKES of PARMA 1545-1731 (FARNESE) 28

B.         DUKES of PARMA (BOURBON) 31

Chapter 6.                RIMINI 33

Chapter 7.                URBINO. 35

A.         CONTI di URBINO, CONTI di MONTEFELTRO (MONTEFELTRO) 35

B.         DUKES of URBINO (MONTEFELTRO) 36

C.        DUCHI di URBINO (della ROVERE) 38

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

This document sets out the new noble families which emerged in northern Italy after the 14th century.  Earlier nobility is shown in the companion documents NORTHERN ITALY (1) and NORTHERN ITALY (2).  The cut-off dates between the three documents is inevitably approximate. 

 

By the 14th and 15th centuries, leading local families in major cities, such as the Este (in Ferrara and Modena, see the corresponding separate document MODENA, FERRARA), the Gonzaga (in Mantua), the Medici (in Florence) and the Visconti (in Milan, see the document MILAN), were forging powerful principalities out of their own domains.  They provided new leadership to the nobility in northern Italy whose influence on European history continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries.  The present document includes chapters on the newly emerged leadership in the cities of Bologna, Concordia, Florence, Mantua, Rimini and Urbino.  The presentation is, in most cases, in outline form, into which primary source data can be inserted when it has been located. 

 

The rise of the Farnese in Parma, illegitimate descendants of Pope Paul III who died in 1549, falls outside the time period covered by the Medieval Lands project. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    BOLOGNA (BENTIVOGLIO)

 

 

 

1.         GIOVANNI [I] Bentivoglio (-after 1402).  Overlord of Bologna 1401-1402.  m ---.  The name of Giovanni´s wife is not known.  Giovanni [I] & his wife had two children: 

a)         ANTONIO GALEAZZO Bentivoglio (-1435).  m ---.  The name of Antonio Galeazzo´s wife is not known.  Antonio Galeazzo & his wife had one child:

i)          ANNIBALE Bentivoglio (-1445).  m ---.  The name of Annibale´s wife is not known.  Annibale & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GIOVANNI [II] Bentivoglio (-1509).  Signore di Bologna 1462-1506.  m (Bologna 1464) as her second husband, GINEVRA Sforza, widow of SANTE Bentivoglio Signore di Bologna, illegitimate daughter of ALESSANDRO Sforza Signore di Pesaro & his mistress --- (Ancona 1440-Bologna 16 Jul 1507).  The name of Giovanni´s wife is not known.  Giovanni [II] & his wife had three children:

(1)       ALESSANDRO Bentivoglio (-1532).  He was expelled from Bologna. 

(2)       ANNIBALE Bentivoglio (-1540).  He was expelled from Bologna. 

(3)       LAURA Bentivoglio (-1523)m (1493) GIOVANNI Gonzaga di Mantua, son of FEDERICO I Marchese di Mantua & his wife Margareta von Bayern (1474-23 Sep 1525). 

b)         ERCOLE Bentivoglio (-1424).  Ercole had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

i)          SANTE Bentivoglio (-1462)m (Bologna 1454) as her first husband, GINEVRA Sforza, illegitimate daughter of ALESSANDRO Sforza Signore di Pesaro & his mistress --- (Ancona 1440-Bologna 16 Jul 1507).  She married secondly (Bologna 1464) Giovanni Bentivoglio Signore di Bologna.  Sante & his wife had one child: 

(a)        COSTANZA Bentivoglio m (1473) ANTONIO MARIA Pico di Mirandola, son of GIANFRANCESCO [I] Pico di Mirandola Conte di Concordia & his wife Giulia di Feltrino (-1501). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    CONCORDIA, MIRANDOLA

 

 

 

A.      SIGNORI di MIRANDOLA (PICO)

 

 

1.         FRANCESCO Pico (-after 1321).  Signore di Mirandola 1306.  Reichsvikar 1311.  He was deposed in 1321.  m ---.  The name of Francesco´s wife is not known.  Francesco & his wife had one child: 

a)         AGNESE Pico .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m as his first wife, GUIDONE Gonzaga Podestà di Reggio, son of LODOVICO [I] Gonzaga Podestà di Mantua & his first wife Richilda --- ([1291]-22 Sep 1369). 

 

 

2.         FRANCESCO Pico (-1399).  Signore di Mirandolam ---.  The name of Francesco´s wife is not known.  Francesco & his wife had three children: 

a)         GIACOMO (-after 13 Oct 1420).  Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan acknowledged "d. Jaches militem, Johannem et Franciscum fratres de la Mirandula" as his "fideles adherentes…eorum castra et terras Mirandule et Concordie" by charter dated 13 Oct 1420[1]. 

b)         GIOVANNI (-1450)Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan acknowledged "d. Jaches militem, Johannem et Franciscum fratres de la Mirandula" as his "fideles adherentes…eorum castra et terras Mirandule et Concordie" by charter dated 13 Oct 1420[2].  Conte di Concordia 1432. 

-        CONTI di CONCORDIA

c)         FRANCESCO (-1461).  Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan acknowledged "d. Jaches militem, Johannem et Franciscum fratres de la Mirandula" as his "fideles adherentes…eorum castra et terras Mirandule et Concordie" by charter dated 13 Oct 1420[3]. 

 

 

 

B.      CONTI di CONCORDIA (PICO)

 

 

GIOVANNI Pico, son of FRANCESCO Pico Signore di Mirandola & his wife --- (-1450)Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan acknowledged "d. Jaches militem, Johannem et Franciscum fratres de la Mirandula" as his "fideles adherentes…eorum castra et terras Mirandule et Concordie" by charter dated 13 Oct 1420[4].  Conte di Concordia 1432. 

m ---.  The name of Giovanni´s wife is not known. 

Giovanni & his wife had one child: 

1.         GIANFRANCESCO [I] Pico (-1467).  Conte di Concordiam GIULIA di Feltrino, daughter of BOIARDO di Scandiano & his wife ---.  Gianfrancesco [I] & his wife had seven children: 

a)         CATERINA Picom LEONELLO di Carpi, son of ---. 

b)         GIULIA Pico .  Nun. 

c)         GALEOTTO [I] Pico (-7 Apr 1499, bur Mirandola San Francesco)m (1468) BIANCA MARIA d´Este, illegitimate daughter of NICCOLÒ [III] d'Este Signore di Ferrara e Modena & his mistress Anna de´Roberti (18 Dec 1440-Mirandola 12 Jan 1506, bur Mirandola San Francesco).  Galeotto [I] & his wife had five children: 

i)          GIANFRANCESCO [II] (1469-1533).  m GIOVANNA di Carafa, daughter of [GIOVANNI or TOMASO] di Carafa & his wife ---. 

(a)       GIAN TOMASO (-1567).  He was ousted.  m (1523) CATERINA Orsini, daughter of ---. 

(1)       GIROLAMO (-1588).  Conte di Concordiam FRANCESCA Malaspina, daughter of CESARE Malaspina & his wife ---. 

(2)       VIRGINIO

(b)       ALBERTO (-1533). 

ii)         LUIGI (-killed in battle 1509).  m FRANCESCA Trivulzio, daughter of GIAN GIACOPO Trivulzio Marchese di Vigerano & his wife ---.  Luigi & his wife had two children: 

iii)        LUCREZIAm CLAUDIO Conte Rangoni, son of ---. 

iv)       GALEOTTO [II] (1508-1550).  He succeeded his uncle in 1533.  m IPPOLITA Gonzaga, daughter of LODOVICO Gonzaga [di Sabbionetta] & his wife ---. 

-         CONTI di CONCORDIA, PRINCIPI di MIRANDOLA, MARCHESI di CONCORDIA

v)        LEONORAm PAOLO Conte Bolognini Attendolo Marchese di Pallavicini, son of ---. 

vi)       FEDERIGO (-1502). 

vii)      MADDALENA .  Nun. 

d)         LUCREZIA Pico m PINO di Ordelaffi Signore di Forli, son of ---. 

e)         GIOVANNI Pico (1463-1494). 

f)          ANTONIO MARIA Pico (-1501)m (1473) COSTANZA Bentivoglio, daughter of SANTE Bentivoglio [di Bologna] & his wife ---. 

g)         [CATERINA Picom (1480) RODOLFO Gonzaga di Mantua, son of --- (1451-killed in battle 1494).] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    FLORENCE and TUSCANY (MEDICI)

 

 

A.      LEADERS in FLORENCE

 

 

AVERADO [II] de' Medici, son of AVERARDO [I] de´ Medici Gonfaloniere di Giustizia in the Republic of Florence & his wife Benricevuta --- (-before 1319).  Gonfaloniere of Justice in the Republic of Florence in 1314. 

m MANDINA Arrigucci, daughter of FILIPPO Arrigucci & his wife ---. 

Averado & his wife had four children:

1.         GIOVENCO de’ Medici (-1320). 

-        MARCHESI di CASTIGLIONE

2.         TALENTO de’ Medicim ---.  The name of Talento´s wife is not known.  Talento & his wife had one child: 

a)         MARIO de’ Medici (-1369). 

3.         CONTE de’ Medicim ---.  The name of Conte´s wife is not known.  Conte & his wife had one child: 

a)         GIOVANNI de’ Medici (-after 1356).   

4.         SALVESTRO de' Medici "Chiarissimo".  Envoy to the Republic of Venice in 1336.  m LISA Donati, daughter of SINIBALDO Donati & his wife ---.  Salvestro & his wife had three children: 

a)         AVERADO [III] de' Medici "Bicci" (-after 1360).  m firstly GIOVANNA Cavallini, daughter of LOTTO Cavallini dei Buonaguidi & his wife ---.  m secondly GIACOMA Spini, daughter of FRANCESCO Spini & his wife ---.  Averado & his [second] wife had three children:   

i)          FRANCESCO de’ Medici

ii)         GIOVANNI AVERADO de' Medici (1360-20 Feb 1429)Gonfalionere di Giustizia of the Republic of Florence 1421. 

-         see below

iii)        ANTONIA de’ Medicim ANGELO Ardinghelli, son of ---. 

b)         GIOVENCO de’ Medicim SMERALDA, daughter of ---. 

c)         TALENTO de’ Medicim GIOVANNA, daughter of BERNARDO & his wife ---. 

 

 

GIOVANNI AVERADO de' Medici, son of AVERADO [III] de´ Medici & his [second wife Giacoma Spini] (1360-Florence 20 Feb 1429).  Podestà di Pistoia 1407.  Gonfalionere di Giustizia of the Republic of Florence 1421. 

m RICCARDA de' Bueri, daughter of ODOARDO de' Bueri & his wife --- (-1432). 

Giovanni Averado & his wife had four children:

1.         ANTONIO de' Medici (-1398).

2.         DAMIANO de' Medici (-1390).

3.         COSIMO de' Medici "il Vecchio" (10 Apr/Sep 1389-Villa di Careggi 1 Aug 1464).  Banker, he was the richest man in Europe of his time.  He was exiled for a time in Venice, but returned to Florence 6 Oct 1434 from which time he was the absolute leader of the state, known as "Padre della Patria", without holding any official title.  m ([1413/17]) CONTESSINA de' Bardi, daughter of [ALESSANDRO or GIOVANNI] de' Bardi Conte di Vernio & his wife Emilia Pannocchieschi dei Conti di Elci (-Florence 1470 or 1472).  Mistress (1): MADDALENA, daughter of ---.  Cosimo & his wife had two children:

a)         PIERO "il Gottoso" de' Medici (Florence 1416-Florence 3 Dec 1469)Gonfalionere di Giustizia of the Republic of Florence 1461.  He succeeded his father in 1464 as "dominus" of the Republic of Florence. 

-        see below

b)         GIOVANNI de' Medici (Florence 1421-Florence 23 Sep 1463).  m (20 Jan 1453) MARIA GINEVRA degli Alessandri, daughter of NICCOLO degli Alessandri [Albizzi] & his wife ---.  Giovanni & his wife had [three] children: 

i)          COSIMO de' Medici ([1453]-1461).

ii)         [FRANCESCO de´ Medici (-young).  Maybe illegitimate.] 

iii)        [GIOVANNI de´ Medici (-young).  Maybe illegitimate.] 

Cosimo had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):    

c)          CARLO di Cosimo de’ Medici ([1428]-29 May 1492).  Rector of Prato.  Protonotary Apostolic. 

4.         LORENZO de' Medici (1395-villa di Carregi near Florence 23 Sep 1440).  m (1416) GINEVRA Cavalcanti, daughter of GIOVANNI Cavalcanti & his wife ---.  children:   

a)         FRANCESCO (-before 1440).  m MARIA Gualterotti, daughter of BARTOLOMEO Gualterotti & his wife ---. 

b)         PIER FRANCESCO de' Medici (1431-murdered 28 Mar 1469).  m (1456) LAUDOMIA Acciajuoli, daughter of GIACOPO Acciajuoli & his wife Costanza Bardi.  Pier Francesco & his wife had two children: 

i)          LORENZO de' Medici "il Popolano" (Florence 1463-Florence 20 May 1503).  m (Florence 10 May 1485) SEMIRAMIDE Appiano d'Aragona dei Signore di Pimbino, daughter of GIACOPO Appiani & his wife ---.  They had descendants, extinct in the male line in 1548. 

ii)         GIULIANO GIOVANNI de' Medici "il Popolano" (Florence 21 Oct 1467-San Pietro de Bagno 14 Sep 1498)m (Forli 1497) as her third husband, CATERINA Sforza, widow firstly of GIROLAMO Riario Signore sovrano di Forli, and secondly of GIACOMO Feo, illegitimate daughter of GALEAZZO MARIA Sforza Duke of Milan & his mistress Lucrezia Landriani (1462-Florence 28 May 1509).  Giuliano Giovanni & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GIOVANNI de' Medici "dalle bande nere" (Forli 6 Apr 1498-Mantua 30 Nov 1526, bur Mantua).  m (Florence 17 Nov 1516) MARIA Salviati, daughter of GIACOPO Salviati & his wife Lucrezia de' Medici (Florence 17 Jul 1499-Villa de Castello 12 Dec 1543).  Giovanni & his wife had one child: 

(1)       COSIMO de' Medici (Florence 12 Jun 1519- Villa di Castello, near Florence 21 Apr 1574, bur San Lorenzo, Florence)He succeeded in 1537 as COSIMO I Duke of TuscanyGrand Duke of Tuscany in 1569. 

-         GRAND DUKES of TUSCANY.

 

 

PIERO "il Gottoso" de' Medici, son of COSIMO de´ Medici "il Vecchio" & his wife Contessina de´Bardi (Florence 1416-Florence 3 Dec 1469).  Gonfalionere di Giustizia of the Republic of Florence 1461.  He succeeded his father in 1464 as "dominus" of the Republic of Florence.  Louis XI King of France granted him the right to bear the three French fleurs-de-lis in his arms at Montluçon May 1465. 

m (Florence 3 Jun 1444) LUCRETIA Tornabuoni, daughter of FRANCESCO Tornabuoni & his wife Francesca Pitti or Selvaggia Alessandri (1425-25 Mar 1482). 

Piero & his wife had four children:

1.         LORENZO [I] "il Magnifico" de' Medici (Florence 1 Jan 1449-Villa di Carregi 8 April 1492)On the death of his father, he assumed control of Florence, although still without any official title.  [m firstly PHILIPPINE de Savoie, illegitimate daughter of PHILIPPE I Duke of Savoy & his mistress Bona di Romagnano.]  m [secondly] (Florence 28 Dec 1469) CLARICE Orsini, daughter of GIACOMO Orsini di Monterotondo & his wife Maddalena Orsini (1453-Florence Aug 1488).  Lorenzo & his [second] wife had eleven children: 

a)         LUCREZIA de' Medici (Florence 4 Aug 1470-Florence [10/15] Nov 1553).  m (Florence Sep 1488) GIACOPO Salviati, son of GIOVANNI Salviati & his wife Maddalena Gondi (Florence 15 Sep 1461-Florence 6 Sep 1533). 

b)         PIERO "il Unfortunato" de' Medici (Florence 15 Feb 1471-Garigliano 28 Dec 1503)He succeeded his father 1492 as leader of Florence. 

-        see below

c)         child (-young).

d)         MADDALENA de' Medici (Florence 25 Jul 1473-Florence Dec 1528).  m (Rome 25 Feb 1487) FRANCESCO Cibo Conte de Anguilara e Ferentillo, illegitimate son of Pope INNOCENT VIII [GIOVANNI BATTISTA Cibo] & his mistress --- (1448-1519). 

e)         child (-young).

f)          GIOVANNI de' Medici (Florence 11 Dec 1475-Rome 1 Dec 1521).  Cardinal 1492.  He was elected Pope LEO X in 1513.

g)         child (-young).

h)         LUIGIA de’ Medici (1477-1488). 

i)          CONTESSINA de’ Medici (Florence 1478-Florence 1515).  m Conte Palatino PIERO Ridolfi, son of --- (1466-1525). 

j)          GIULIANO de’ Medici (Florence 12 Mar 1479-Florence 17 Mar 1516)Vicar of Soragna and Nobile Romano 1513.  Governor of Parma, Piacenza, Reggio and Modena 1513.  Captain General of Santa Romana Chiesa 1513.  Named Governor of Florence by the Pope 4 Sep 1512.  Duc de Nemours 1515.  m (25 Jan 1515, 22 Feb 1515) PHILIBERTE de Savoie, daughter of PHILIPPE II Duke of Savoy & his second wife Claudine de Bresse Ctss de Penthièvre (posthumously early 1498-Virieu 4 Apr 1524).  Heiress of Nemours.  Mistress (1)PACIFICA Brandano, daughter of ---.  Giuliano had one illegitimate child by Mistess (1):    

i)          IPPOLITO de’ Medici (Urbino 19 Apr 1511-Urbino 10 Aug 1535).  He was named Governor of Florence by the Pope 30 Jul 1524 to 16 May 1527.  Cardinal 20 Jan 1529.  Archbishop of Avignon 1529.  He died of malaria.  Ippolito had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

(a)        ASDRUBALE de´ Medici (-killed in battle San Michele 13 Jul 1565).  Knight of the Order of Malta 1552.  Captain of Infantry in the army of the Order.  He was killed at the siege of Forte San Michele. 

k)         LUIGIA de´ Medici (-Florence 1493). 

2.         NANNINA de´ Medici (-Florence 14 May 1493).  m (1466) BERNARDO Rucellai, son of ---. 

3.         BIANCA de’ Medici (-1488).  m (1459) GUGLIELMO de’ Pazzi, son of ---. 

4.         GIULIANO de' Medici (Florence 25 Oct 1453-murdered Florence 26 Apr 1478).  Mistress (1)FIORETTA Gorini, daughter of ANTONIO Gorini & his wife --- (-1478).  Giuliano had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

a)         GIOVANNI GIULIO de' Medici (Florence 6 Mar or 26 May 1478-Rome 25 Sep 1534).  He was elected Pope Clement VII in 1523. 

Pierro had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

5.          MARIA de’ Medicim LEONETTO de' Rossi, son of ---. 

6.          GIOVANNI de´ Medicim LUIGIA de´ Medici, daughter of GIOVANNI de' Medici & his wife ---. 

 

 

PIERO "il Unfortunato" de' Medici, son of LORENZO [I] "il Magnifico" de´ Medici & his [second] wife Clarice Orsini (Florence 15 Feb 1471-Garigliano 28 Dec 1503).  He succeeded his father 1492 as leader of Florence.  He was expelled from Florence with his family 8 Nov 1494. 

m (Mar 1488) ALFONSINA Orsini, daughter of ROBERTO Orsini Conte Tagliacozzo & his wife Caterina di San Severino (1472-Florence 7 Feb 1520).  She brought Castel Sant'Angelo as her dowry. 

Piero & his wife had three children: 

1.         LORENZO [II] de' Medici (Florence 9 Sep 1492-villa di Careggi 4 May 1519)Captain General of Santa Romana Chiesa in 1513.  Prefect of Rome 1516.  He was appointed Governor of Florence by the Pope Mar 1516.  Sovereign Duke of Urbino and Lord of Pesaro Jun 1516.  m (contract Jan 1518, Amboise 2 May 1518) MADELEINE de La Tour d'Auvergne, daughter of JEAN [I] de La Tour Comte d'Auvergne et de Lauraguais & his wife Jeanne de Bourbon (1501-Urbino 28 Apr 1519).  She died after childbirth.  Lorenzo [II] & his wife had one child: 

a)         CATERINA MARIA ROMALA de' Medici (Florence, Palazzo Medici 13 Apr 1519-Château de Blois, Loir-et-Cher 5 Jan 1589, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis)She was naturalised as French in May 1519 at Saint-Germain-en-Laye.  She succeeded her father in 1519 as Duchess of Urbino.  Her marriage was arranged to bolster French power in Italy and to block Emperor Karl V's ambitions in the area.  To this end, Pope Clement VII transferred to her at the time of her marriage the cities of Pisa, Livorno, Reggio, Modena, Rubiera, Parma and Piacenza, as well as promising support for the reconquest of Milan by France and the recovery of Urbino.  She was consecrated Queen of France 10 Jun 1549 at Saint-Denis.  She was named regent of France during her husband's absences abroad in 1552, 1553 and 1554.  She was named "Gouvernante de France" 21 Dec 1560 during the minority of her son King Charles IX.  She was de facto ruler of France from 1559 to 1589.  Her son King Charles IX granted her the usufruit of the duchy of Bourbon at Paris 14 May 1562 (registered 23 Dec).  She built the Palais des Tuileries at Paris, and the Châteaux de Saint-Maur des Fossés, Montceaux en Brie and Chenonceau en Touraine.  m (contract Château d'Anet, Eure-et-Loir 24 Apr 1531, contract Marseille 27 Oct 1533, Marseille Cathedral 28 Oct 1533) HENRI de France Duc d'Orléans, son of FRANÇOIS I King of France & his first wife Claude de France (Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye 31 Mar 1519-Hôtel des Tournelles, Paris 10 Jul 1559, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  He succeeded his brother in 1536 as Dauphin de Viennois, and his father in 1547 as HENRI II King of France

Lorenzo [II] had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:

b)         ALESSANDRO de' Medici (1510-murdered Florence 6 Jan 1537).  It was alleged that he was the son of Pope Clement VII (Giovanni Giulio de’ Medici).  He was adopted by Lorenzo [II].  Duca di Civita di Penne con Campli, Civita Ducale e Leonessa in 1522.  He was appointed Governor of Florence by the Pope from 30 Jul 1524 to 16 May 1527.  He was invested as Sovereign Duke of Florence by Imperial order 1 May 1532.  m (Naples 18 Jan or 29 Feb 1536) as her first husband, MARGARETA de Austria, illegitimate daughter of Emperor KARL V Archduke of Austria [CARLOS I King of Aragon and Castile] & his mistress Johanna van der Ghenst (Oudenaarde 28 Dec 1522-Ortona, Parma 18 Jan 1586, bur Rome).  Stadhouderin of the Netherlands.  Alessandro had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

i)          GIULIO de' Medici ([1533]-Pisa 1600).  Knight of San Stefano.  m ANGELICA Malaspina dei Marchesi di Bastia, daughter of ---.  Giulio & his wife had one child: 

(a)        CATERINA de´ Medici (-1634).  Nun at the Benedictine convent dell'Annunziata, Florence. 

Giulio had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:

(b)        COSIMO de' Medicim LUCREZIA Gaetani, daughter of FRANCESCO Gaetani Patrizio of Pisa & his wife ---.  Cosimo & his wife had one child: 

(1)        ANGELA de' Medici (1608-Rome 2 Mar 1636).  m Don PIETRO Altemps Duca di Gallese e Marchese Soriano, son of GIAN ANGELO d'Altemps Principe di Gallese & his wife Maria Federica Cesi. 

(c)        GIULIANO de´ Medicim (1598) LIVIA Spinola, daughter of ---. 

ii)         GIULIA de´ Medici (-after 1588).  m firstly (1550) FRANCESCO Cantelmo Conte d'Alvito, son of ---.  m secondly (1559) BERNARDETTO de' Medici Signore d'Ottaiano, son of ---. 

iii)        PORZIA de´ Medici .  Nun at the Augustine convent of San Clemente, Florence 1538. 

2.         CLARISSA de' Medici (Florence 1493-Florence 3 May 1528).  m (1508) GIANBATTISTA Strozzi 'Filippo The Younger', son of --- (1488-18 Sep 1538). 

3.         COSIMO (-young). 

 

 

 

B.      GRAND DUKES of TUSCANY (MEDICI)

 

 

COSIMO de' Medici, son of GIOVANNI de' Medici "dalle bande nere" & his wife Maria Salviati (Florence 12 Jun 1519-Villa di Castello, near Florence 21 Apr 1574, bur San Lorenzo, Florence)He was elected Supremo Reggitore of Florence 9 Jan 1537.  He succeeded 20 Sep 1537 as Duke of Florence, and 27 Aug 1569 as COSIMO I Duke of Tuscany, Grand Duke of Tuscany

m firstly (Florence 29 Mar 1539) doña LEONOR Álvarez de Toledo Marquesa de Villafranca del Bierzo, daughter of don PEDRO Álvarez de Toledo, Marques de Villafranca del Bierzo y de Zuñiga [Spanish Viceroy of Naples] & his wife doña Maria Pimentel y Osorio,  Marquesa de Villafranca del Bierzo (Naples 1522-Pisa 18 December 1562, bur San Lorenzo, Florence). 

m secondly (1570) donna CAMILLA Martelli, daughter of ANTONIO Martelli & his wife --- (1547-30 May 1590).  She died insane. 

Mistress (1)ELEONORA degli Albizzi, daughter of ---. 

Cosimo I & his first wife had twelve children:

1.         MARIA de' Medici (Florence 3 Apr 1540-Florence 19 Nov 1557). 

2.        FRANCESCO MARIA de' Medici (Florence 25 Mar 1541-Florence 19 October 1587, bur San Lorenzo, Florence)He succeeded his father in 1574 as FRANCESCO I Grand Duke of Tuscany.  He died of malaria.  m firstly (Florence 18 Dec 1565) JOHANNA Archduchess of Austria, daughter of Emperor FERDINAND I Archduke of Austria & his wife Anna Pss of Hungary & Bohemia (Prague 24 Jan 1547-Florence 10 Apr 1578).  m secondly (5 Jun 1579) as her second husband, BIANCA Capello, widow of PIERO Bonaventuri, daughter of BARTOLOMEO Capello, Patrizio of Venice & his wife Pellegrina Morosini (Venice 1548-Florence 19 Oct 1587).  She died of malaria.  Francesco I & his first wife had six children:

a)         ELEONORA de' Medici (Florence 1 Mar 1566-Cavriana 9 Sep 1611)m (Mantua 29 Apr 1584) as his second wife, VINCENZO I Gonzaga Duke of Mantua, son of GUILLERMO I Gonzaga Duke of Mantua & his wife Eleonora Archduchess of Austria (22 Sep 1562-18 Feb 1612).

b)         ROMOLA de' Medici (Florence 20 Nov 1568- Florence 2 Dec 1568).  

c)         ANNA de' Medici (Florence 31 Dec 1569- Florence 19 Feb 1584).

d)         ISABELLA de' Medici (30 Sep 1571-8 Aug 1572). 

e)         LUCREZIA de' Medici (Florence 7 Nov 1572- Florence 14 Aug 1574). 

f)          MARIA de' Medici (Florence 26 Apr 1573-Köln 3 Jul 1642, bur Saint-Denis)She was created Dss de Bourbon, d'Auvergne et de Berry, Ctss de Clermont, de la Marche et de Forez 25 Jul 1611.  Called “la Reine-mère” after the arrival in 1615 of Anne d’Autriche, wife of her son King Louis XIII, in France.  Regent of France during the minority of her son Louis XIII 15 May 1610-24 Apr 1617.  Discontented with Cardinal Richelieu, she left France in 1631 and settled first in Brussels, later in Holland, England and Germany.  m (by proxy Florence 5 Oct 1600, in person cathedral of Saint-Jean, Lyon 27 Dec 1600) as his second wife, HENRI IV King of France, son of ANTOINE de Bourbon Duc de Vendôme, King of Navarre & his wife Juana [III] d’Albret titular Queen of Navarre (Château de Pau, Béarn 13 Dec 1553-assassinated Paris 14 May 1610, bur Saint-Denis). 

Francesco I & his second wife had two children:

g)         ANTONIO de' Medici (29 Aug 1576-2 May 1621).  Invested as Marchese di Capistrano, Barone di Pescina 24 Dec 1583, Principe di Capistrano 18 Sep 1584.  Knight of the Order of Malta 14 Apr 1594.  Captain in the Imperial army, serving in the Hungarian campaign Jul 1594.  Grand Prior at Pisa 1596.  Viceduca di Siena 1611.  Mistress (1): ---.  Antonio’s first mistress is not known.  Mistress (2): CATERINA, daughter of ---.  Mistress (3): ARTEMISIA Tozzi, daughter of --- (-convent of San Clemente 1634).  Antonio had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

i)          MARIA .  Nun as Suor Maria Maddalena Cristina 1623. 

Antonio had one illegitimate child by Mistress (2):

ii)         MADDALENA .  Nun at the convent of St John of Jerusalem. 

Antonio had three illegitimate children by Mistress (3):

iii)        PAOLO (15 Jan 1616-1656).  Sergeant Major. 

iv)        GIULIO (3 Sep 1617-1670).  Priest. 

v)         ANTON FRANCESCO (1618-1659). 

h)         FILIPPO de' Medici (20 May 1577-29 Mar 1582). 

3.         ISABELLA de' Medici (Florence 31 Aug 1542-murdered Empoli, Florence 16 Jul 1576).  She was murdered by her husband.  m (Florence 1560) don PAOLO GIORDANO Orsini Duca di Bracciano, son of GIROLAMO Orsini Signore di Bracciano & his wife Francesca Sforza dei Conti di Santa Fiora (1537-1585). 

4.         GIOVANNI de' Medici (Florence 28 Sep 1543-Livorno Nov 1562).  Cardinal 21 Jan 1560.  Administrator of the archbishopric of Pisa 1560.  He died of malaria. 

5.         LUCREZIA de' Medici (Florence 7 Jun 1545-Ferrara 21 Apr 1562, bur Ferrara Corpus Domini)m (Ferrara Jun 1558 or Ferrara 3 Aug 1558) as his first wife, ALFONSO d'Este, son of ERCOLE II Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio & his wife Renée de France (22 Nov 1533-27 Oct 1597, bur Ferrara Corpus Domini).  He succeeded his father in 1559 as ALFONSO II Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio

6.         PIERO de' Medici (10 Aug 1546-10 Jun 1547). 

7.         GARCIA de' Medici (Florence 5 Jul 1547-Pisa 12 Dec 1562). 

8.         ANTONIO de' Medici (b and d 1548). 

9.         FERDINANDO de' Medici (Florence 30 Jul 1549-Florence 17 Feb 1609, bur Florence)Cardinal 6 Jan 1563.  He succeeded his brother in 1587 as FERDINANDO I Grand Duke of Tuscany.  He renounced his ecclesiastical positions 28 Nov 1588.  m (Florence 3 May 1589) CHRETIENNE de Lorraine, daughter of CHARLES II Duc de Lorraine & his wife Claude de France (Nancy 16 Aug 1565-Florence 19 Dec 1637).  Ferdinando I & his wife had nine children:  

a)         COSIMO de' Medici (Florence 12 May 1590-Florence 28 Feb 1621, bur San Lorenzo).  He succeeded his father in 1609 as COSIMO II Grand Duke of Tuscany

-        see below

b)         ELEONORA de' Medici (Florence 10 Nov 1591-22 Nov 1617). 

c)         CATARINA de' Medici (Florence 2 May 1593-Siena 17 Apr 1629)She died of smallpox.  m (Mantua 17 Feb 1617) as his second wife, FERDINANDO Gonzaga Duke of Mantua, son of VINCENZO I Gonzaga Duke of Mantua & his wife Eleonora de' Medici (26 Apr 1587-29 Oct 1626). 

d)         FRANCESCO de' Medici (Florence 14 May 1594-Pisa 17 Apr 1614).  Pr di Capistrano 1596. 

e)         CARLO de' Medici (Florence 19 Mar 1595-Villa Ginori, Montui 17 Jun 1666).  Cardinal 2 Dec 1615.  Bishop of Ostia 23 Sep 1652. 

f)          FILIPPO de' Medici (Florence 9 Apr 1598-1 Apr 1662). 

g)         LORENZO de' Medici (Florence 1 Aug 1599-Florence 16 Nov 1648).  He was poisoned by medicine. 

h)         MARIA MADDALENA de' Medici (Florence 1 Aug 1600-Florence 28 Dec 1633). 

i)          CLAUDIA de' Medici (Florence 4 Jun 1604-Innsbruck 25 Dec 1648, bur Innsbruck Jesuitenkirche)Co-Regent of Tirol 1632-1646.  m firstly (Pesaro 29 Apr 1621) FEDERICO UBALDO della Rovere Duke of Urbino, son of FRANCESCO MARIA II della Rovere Duke of Urbino & his wife Livia della Rovere (1605-murdered 1623).  m secondly (Innsbruck 19 Apr 1626) LEOPOLD V Graf von Tirol Archduke of Austria, son of KARL Archduke of Austria, Duke in Styria, Carinthia & Carniola & his wife Maria Anna Pss of Bavaria (Graz 9 Oct 1586-Schwaz 13 Sep 1632, bur Innsbruck Jesuitenkirche). 

10.      PIETRO de’ Medici (b and d 1549). 

11.      ANNA de' Medici (b and d 1553). 

12.      PIETRO de' Medici (Florence 3 Jun 1554-Madrid 25 Apr 1604)m firstly ([1572]) doña LEONOR Álvarez de Toledo, daughter of don GARCÍA Álvarez de Toledo Marques de Villafranca del Bierzo & his wife donna Vittoria Colonna dei Principi di Palliano (-murdered villa di Cafaggiolo 7 Jul 1576).  She was murdered by her husband.  m secondly (in Spain) dona BRITES de Noronha, daughter of dom MANOEL de Menezes-Noronha Duque de Villareal & his wife dona Maria da Silva Coutinho (1560-1603).  She was deserted by her husband in 1593.  Mistress (1)ANTONIA de Carvajal, daughter of ---.  Mistress (2)ISABEL de Carvajal, daughter of ---.  Pietro & his first wife had one child:

a)         COSIMO de’ Medici (1572-1576). 

Pietro had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1):

b)         COSIMO (-in Spain [1604])

c)          PIETRO (1592-1654).  Knight of the Order of Malta.  General of cavalry in the Tuscan army.  Governatore of Livorno 1619.   

d)         GIOVANNA (after 1593-).  Nun at the Murate, Florence. 

Pietro had three illegitimate children by Mistress (2):    

e)         GIOVANNI . 

f)          FRANCESCO . 

g)         daughter . 

Cosimo I & his second wife had [two] children:

13.      VIRGINIA de' Medici (Florence 28/29 May 1568-Modena 15 Jan 1615, bur Corpus Domini)m (Florence or Ferrara 6 Feb 1586) CESARE d'Este, son of ALFONSO d'Este Marchese di Montecchio & his first wife Giulia della Rovere Principessa di Urbino (Ferrara [8] Oct 1562-Modena 11 Dec 1628, bur Modena San Domenico).  He succeeded his father in 1587 as Marchese di Montecchio.  He succeeded his first cousin in 1597 as CESARE Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio

14.      [GIOVANNI de’ Medici (1569-1631).  A monk.]

Cosimo I had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1):

15.       GIOVANNI (13 May 1563-Murano 19 Jul 1621).  Governor General in the Venetian army 1616/1617.  m as her second husband, LIVIA, separated wife of BATTISTA Granara, daughter of BERNARDO Vernazza & his wife --- (-6 Aug 1655).  Giovanni & his wife had two children: 

a)         GIANFRANCESCO MARIA (Venice 1619-1689). 

b)         daughter (posthumously Florence 1621-young). 

16.       COSIMO .  Knight of San Stefano.  

17.       LORENZO .  Knight of San Stefano. 

 

 

COSIMO de' Medici, son of FERDINANDO de’ Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany & his wife Chrétienne de Lorraine (Florence 12 May 1590-Florence 28 Feb 1621, bur San Lorenzo).  He succeeded his father in 1609 as COSIMO II Grand Duke of Tuscany

m (Florence 19 Oct 1608) MARIA MAGDALENA Archduchess of Austria, daughter of KARL Archduke of Austria & his wife Maria Anna Pss of Bavaria (Graz 7 Oct 1589-Padua 1 Nov 1631, bur Florence San Lorenzo). 

Cosimo II & his wife had eight children: 

1.         MARIA CHRISTINA de' Medici (Florence 24 Aug 1609-Villa di Poggio 9 Aug 1632). 

2.         FERDINANDO de' Medici (Florence 14 Jul 1610- Florence 23 May 1670, bur San Lorenzo).  He succeeded his father in 1621 as FERDINANDO II Grand Duke of Tuscanym (Florence 26 Sep 1633) VITTORIA della Rovere Duchessa di Urbino, daughter of FEDERICO UBALDO della Rovere Duke of Urbino & his wife Claudia de' Medici (Urbino 7 Feb 1622-Pisa 6 Mar 1694).  Ferdinando II & his wife had four children:

a)         COSIMO de' Medici (Florence [19] Dec 1639- Florence 21 Dec 1639). 

b)         son (stillborn Florence 31 May 1641). 

c)         COSIMO de' Medici Prince of Tuscany (Florence 14 Aug 1642-Florence 31 Oct 1723).  He succeeded his father in 1670 as COSIMO III Grand Duke of Tuscanym (by proxy Palais du Louvre, Paris 19 Apr 1661, in person Florence 22 Jun 1661) MARGUERITE LOUISE d'Orléans Mademoiselle d'Orléans, daughter of GASTON de France Duc d'Orléans & his second wife Marguerite de Lorraine (Palais d’Orléans, Paris 28 Jul 1645-Paris 17 Sep 1721, bur Picpus).  In 1675, Marguerite returned to France where she lived separated from her husband.  Cosimo III & his wife had three children:   

i)          FERDINANDO de' Medici (Florence 9 Aug 1663-Florence 31 Oct 1713, bur Florence San Lorenzo).  Hereditary Prince of Tuscany.  He died of syphilis.  m (by proxy Munich 21 Nov 1688, in person Florence 9 Jan 1689) VIOLANTA BEATRIX Herzogin von Bayern, daughter of FERDINAND MARIA Elector of Bavaria & his wife Adélaide Henriette Pss de Savoie (Munich 23 Jan 1673-Florence 30 May 1731, bur Florence Santa Teresa). 

ii)         ANNA MARIA de' Medici (Florence 11 Aug 1667-Florence 18 Feb 1743, bur Florence San Lorenzo)m (Neuburg 5 Jun 1691) as his second wife, JOHANN WILHELM Elector Palatine, son of PHILIPP WILHELM Pfalzgraf von Neuburg Herzog von Berg und Jülich & his second wife Elisabeth Amalie Magdalena Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt (Düsseldorf 19 Apr 1658-Düsseldorf 8 Jun 1716, bur Düsseldorf St Andreas). 

iii)        GIOVANNI GASTONE de' Medici (Florence 24 May 1671-Florence 9 Jul 1737).  He succeeded his father 1723 as GIOVANNI GASTONE Grand Duke of Tuscanym (Düsseldorf 2 Jul 1697) as her second husband, ANNA MARIA FRANZISKA Herzogin von Sachsen-Lauenburg, widow of PHILIPP WILHELM AUGUST Pfalzgraf von Neuburg, daughter of JULIUS FRANZ Herzog von Sachsen-Lauenburg & his wife Maria Hedwig Pfalzgräfin von Sulzbach (Neuhaus an der Elbe 13 Jun 1672-Reichstadt 15 Oct 1741, bur Reichstadt). 

d)         FRANCESCO MARIA de' Medici (Florence 12 Nov 1660- Florence 3 Feb 1711)Grand Prior of the Order of Malta at Pisa.  Cardinal 1 Sep 1686.  He renounced his ecclesiastical appointments 19 Jun 1709.  m (Florence 14 Jul 1709) as her first husband, ELEONORA LUISA Gonzaga, daughter of VINCENZO Gonzaga Duca di Guastalla & his wife Maria Vittoria Gonzaga (Guastalla 13 Nov 1686-Padua 16 Mar 1742).  She was abandoned by her first husband suddenly after their marriage.  She married secondly (1719) as his second wife, Philipp Landgraf von Hessen-DarmstadtPère Anselme records her second marriage[5].  

3.         GIAN CARLO de' Medici (Florence 24 Jul 1611-Villa di Castello 22 Jan 1662).  Knight of the Order of Malta.  Cardinal 14 Nov 1644.  Bishop of Sabina. 

4.         MARGHERITA de' Medici (Florence 31 May 1612-Parma 6 Feb 1679)m (Parma 11 Oct 1628) ODOARDO I Farnese Duke of Parma, son of RANUCCIO I Farnese Duke of Parma & his wife donna Margherita Aldobrandini dei Principi di Carpineto (Parma 28 Apr 1612-Piacenza 11 Sep 1646). 

5.         MATTEO de' Medici (Florence 9 May 1613-Siena 14 Oct 1667).  Governatore of Siena 1629, 1641 and 1644.  He served in the Imperial army 1630-1640.  General in the Tuscan army 1643. 

6.         FRANCESCO de' Medici (Florence 16 Oct 1614-25 Jul 1634). 

7.         ANNA de' Medici (Florence 21 Jul 1616-Vienna 11 Sep 1676)m (Innsbruck 10 Jun 1646) her first cousin, FERDINAND KARL Graf von Tirol Archduke of Austria, son of LEOPOLD V Graf von Tirol, Archduke of Austria & his wife Claudia de' Medici Pss of Tuscany (Innsbruck 17 May 1628-Kaltern 30 Dec 1662). 

8.         LEOPOLDO de' Medici (Florence 6 Nov 1617-Florence 10 Nov 1675).  Cardinal 12 Dec 1667. 

Cosimo II had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:     

9.          ANGELAm PIERRE d'Altemps, son of ---. 

 

 

 

C.      GRAND DUKES of TUSCANY (HABSBURG-LOTHRINGEN)

 

 

FRANÇOIS ETIENNE [FRANZ STEFAN] Duc de Lorraine, son of LEOPOLD Duc de Lorraine & his wife Elisabeth Charlotte d’Orléans (Lunéville 8 Dec 1708-Innsbruck 18 Aug 1765, bur Kapuzinergruft Vienna).  He came to the Imperial Court at Vienna in 1723, and was invested by Emperor Karl VI as FRANZ Herzog von Teschen (in Silesia).  He succeeded as FRANÇOIS III Duke of Lorraine on the death of his father 27 Mar 1729, returning to Lorraine from Vienna 29 Nov 1729.  Karl VI named him Governor (Statthalter) of Hungary 24 Mar 1732, when Franz Stefan re-established himself in Austria at Preßburg.  Following the occupation of Lorraine by French troops in Oct 1733 during the war of Polish succession, Louis XV King of France proposed that he cede his territories in Lorraine in exchange for the Grand-Duchy of Tuscany.  King Louis XV installed his father-in-law Stanislas Leszczynski ex-King of Poland in Lorraine, François III finally signing the act of transfer of Lorraine to Stanislas 13 Feb 1737.  Karl VI had conferred on Franz Stefan the title FRANCESCO II Grand Duke of Tuscany the previous 24 Jan.  Maria Theresia named Franz Stefan her co-Regent in 1741 but he did not participate in governing her territories.  He was elected Holy Roman Emperor at Frankfurt 13 Sep 1745, being crowned 4 Oct 1745 as Emperor FRANZ I. 

1.         PETER LEOPOLD Archduke of Austria (Schönbrunn 5 May 1747-Vienna 1 Mar 1792, bur Kapuzinergruft Vienna, memorial in the church of the Augustines Vienna).  He succeeded his father in 1765 as LEOPOLDO I Grand Duke of Tuscany.  He succeeded his brother, Emperor Joseph II, 20 Feb 1790.  He was elected Emperor LEOPOLD II 30 Oct 1790 at Frankfurt-am-Main and crowned there 9 Oct 1790. 

a)         FERDINAND Archduke of Austria (Florence 6 May 1769-Florence 18 Jun 1824, bur San Lorenzo Florence).  His father ceded Tuscany to him 22 Jul 1790, when he became FERDINANDO III Grand Duke of Tuscany.  He was driven out by the French in 1799 and dispossessed by the Peace of Lunéville 1801.  He was created Duke and Elector of Salzburg 26 Dec 1802 and exchanged Salzburg for Würzburg 25 Dec 1805.  He was Elector of Würzburg from 1805 and Grand Duke of Würzburg from 1806, until he was restored as Grand Duke of Tuscany 30 May 1814.  m firstly (by proxy Naples 15 Aug 1790 in person Vienna 19 Sep 1790) LUISA Pss of Naples and Sicily, daughter of FERDINANDO I King of Naples and Sicily & his wife Maria Karolina Archduchess of Austria (Naples 27 Jul 1773-Vienna 19 Sep 1802, bur Kapuzinergruft Vienna).  m secondly (Florence 6 May 1821) MARIA Dss of Saxony, daughter of MAXIMILIAN Duke of Saxony & his wife Carolina di Borbone Pss of Parma (Dresden 27 Apr 1796-Schloß Brandeis 3 Jan 1865). 

-        GRAND DUKES of TUSCANY.  

b)         other children: see AUSTRIA

2.         other children: see AUSTRIA

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    MANTUA

 

 

A.      SIGNORI di MANTUA (GONZAGA)

 

 

Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that in 1328 the Gonzaga brothers killed "Dominum Passarinum de Bonacossis" and took the lordship of the city of Mantua[6].  Gianfrancesco Gonzaga Signore di Mantua was created Marchese di Mantua by the emperor in 1433.  His descendant Federico II Marchese di Mantua was created duke of Mantua in 1530. 

 

 

1.         LODOVICO [I] Gonzaga ([1267]-18 Jan 1360).  Podestà di Mantua 1318.  m firstly RICHILDA, daughter of RAMBERTO di Ferrar & his wife --- (-1319).  m secondly [CATERINA Malatesta, daughter of ---].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Domino Ludovico [de Gonzaga de Mantua]" married "Dominum Passarinum de Bonacossis…filiam"[7]m thirdly (1340) NOVELLA Malaspina, daughter of ---.  Lodovico & his first wife had five children: 

a)         GUIDO Gonzaga ([1291]-22 Sep 1369)Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Domini Guido, Philippinus et Feltrinus fratres filii Domini Ludovici de Gonzaga de Mantua" killed "Dominum Passarinum de Bonacossis" in 1328 and took the lordship of the city[8]

-        see below

b)         FILIPPINO Gonzaga (-5 Apr 1356).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Domini Guido, Philippinus et Feltrinus fratres filii Domini Ludovici de Gonzaga de Mantua" killed "Dominum Passarinum de Bonacossis" in 1328 and took the lordship of the city[9]His parentage is confirmed by Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum which records that "[filius]…Domini Bernabovis…Dominus Mastolus" was imprisoned "in civitatem Brixiæ…in cittadella et castro" with "Domino Guilielmo et Guidone fratribus de Gonzaga filiis quondam Domini Feltrini olim Domini civitatis Regii et olim Domini civitatis Mantuæ…cum aliis fratribus suis…Domino Guidone patre Domini Ugolini…et Domino Philippino, Domino Frederico et Domino Alberto omnibus fratribus filiis quondam Domini Ludovici de Gonzaga"[10]m firstly ANNA da Dovara di Cremona, daughter of NICCOLO da Cremona & his wife ---.  m secondly (9 Sep 1354) as her first husband, VERENA von Habsburg-Laufenburg, daughter of JOHANN II Graf von Laufenburg [Habsburg] & his wife Verena de Neuchâtel-Blamont.  She married secondly Burchard [XI] Graf von Hohenberg Herr von Nagold.  Filippino & his first wife had one child: 

i)          GIGLIOLA Gonzaga (-1354)The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Matthæus…[filius] quondam Domini Stephani" married "Domina Ziliola filia Domini Philippini de Gonzaga de Mantua"[11].  The Annales Mediolanenses name "Matthæum…[filium] quondam domini Stephani Vicecomitis" and "Domini Philippi de Gonzaga soceri sui" when recording that Matteo was exiled "in dominio Marchionis Montisferrati in Terra Morani cum uxore sua Domina Ziliola" in 1339[12]m (1339 or before) MATTEO [II] Visconti, son of STEFANO Visconti & his wife Valentina Doria (1319-Milan [26/29] Sep 1355). 

c)         FELTRINO Gonzaga (-after May 1371).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Domini Guido, Philippinus et Feltrinus fratres filii Domini Ludovici de Gonzaga de Mantua" killed "Dominum Passarinum de Bonacossis" in 1328 and took the lordship of the city, adding that Feltrino held "dominio civitatis Regii" but lost it in 1371 to "Domini Bernabovis Vicecomitis"[13].  Lord of Reggio.  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Dominus Bernabos Vicecomes civitatum Pergami, Brixiæ, Cremonæ, Parmæ et Laudæ, et medietatis civitatis Mediolani, et totius castri Cremæ, Sarzanæ, et Burgi S. Donini Dominus generali" had "dominium civitatis Regii et Castri Corrigii" from "Domino Feltrino de Gonzaga qui erat Dominus dictæ civitatis Regii" in May 1371[14]m firstly ---.  m secondly (after Oct 1362) as her second husband, CATARINA Visconti, widow of UGOLINO Gonzaga di Mantua, daughter of MATTEO [II] Visconti Lord of Milan & his wife (-10 Oct 1382).  Feltrino & his first wife had two children: 

i)          GUGLIELMO Gonzaga .  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "[filius]…Domini Bernabovis…Dominus Mastolus" was imprisoned "in civitatem Brixiæ…in cittadella et castro" with "Domino Guilielmo et Guidone fratribus de Gonzaga filiis quondam Domini Feltrini olim Domini civitatis Regii et olim Domini civitatis Mantuæ…cum aliis fratribus suis…Domino Guidone patre Domini Ugolini…et Domino Philippino, Domino Frederico et Domino Alberto omnibus fratribus filiis quondam Domini Ludovici de Gonzaga"[15]

-         SIGNORI di BAGNOLO, CONTI di NOVELLARA

ii)         GUIDO Gonzaga .  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "[filius]…Domini Bernabovis…Dominus Mastolus" was imprisoned "in civitatem Brixiæ…in cittadella et castro" with "Domino Guilielmo et Guidone fratribus de Gonzaga filiis quondam Domini Feltrini olim Domini civitatis Regii et olim Domini civitatis Mantuæ…cum aliis fratribus suis…Domino Guidone patre Domini Ugolini…et Domino Philippino, Domino Frederico et Domino Alberto omnibus fratribus filiis quondam Domini Ludovici de Gonzaga"[16]

d)         FEDERICO [Corrado?] Gonzaga .  His parentage is confirmed by Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum which records that "[filius]…Domini Bernabovis…Dominus Mastolus" was imprisoned "in civitatem Brixiæ…in cittadella et castro" with "Domino Guilielmo et Guidone fratribus de Gonzaga filiis quondam Domini Feltrini olim Domini civitatis Regii et olim Domini civitatis Mantuæ…cum aliis fratribus suis…Domino Guidone patre Domini Ugolini…et Domino Philippino, Domino Frederico et Domino Alberto omnibus fratribus filiis quondam Domini Ludovici de Gonzaga"[17]m (1340) PAOLA Beccaria di Pavia, daughter of ---.  Corrado & his wife had children: 

i)          FILIPPINO Gonzaga (-1414).  m ---.  The name of Filippino´s wife is not known. 

-         MARCHESI di PALAZZOLO

e)         ALBERTO Gonzaga .  His parentage is confirmed by Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum which records that "[filius]…Domini Bernabovis…Dominus Mastolus" was imprisoned "in civitatem Brixiæ…in cittadella et castro" with "Domino Guilielmo et Guidone fratribus de Gonzaga filiis quondam Domini Feltrini olim Domini civitatis Regii et olim Domini civitatis Mantuæ…cum aliis fratribus suis…Domino Guidone patre Domini Ugolini…et Domino Philippino, Domino Frederico et Domino Alberto omnibus fratribus filiis quondam Domini Ludovici de Gonzaga"[18]

 

 

GUIDO Gonzaga, son of LODOVICO [I] Gonzaga Podestà di Mantua & his first wife Richilda --- ([1291]-22 Sep 1369)Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Domini Guido, Philippinus et Feltrinus fratres filii Domini Ludovici de Gonzaga de Mantua" killed "Dominum Passarinum de Bonacossis" in 1328 and took the lordship of the city[19]His parentage is confirmed by Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum which records that "[filius]…Domini Bernabovis…Dominus Mastolus" was imprisoned "in civitatem Brixiæ…in cittadella et castro" with "Domino Guilielmo et Guidone fratribus de Gonzaga filiis quondam Domini Feltrini olim Domini civitatis Regii et olim Domini civitatis Mantuæ…cum aliis fratribus suis…Domino Guidone patre Domini Ugolini…et Domino Philippino, Domino Frederico et Domino Alberto omnibus fratribus filiis quondam Domini Ludovici de Gonzaga"[20]Podestà di Reggio. 

m firstly AGNESE Pico di Mirandola, daughter of FRANCESCO Pico di Mirandola & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

m secondly CAMILLA Beccaria, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

m thirdly BEATRICE, daughter of ODOARDO Conte di Bari & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

Guido & his first wife had one child: 

1.         BEATRICE Gonzaga .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (Ferrara 21 Jan 1335) NICCOLO [I] d´Este Signore di Ferrara, son of ALDOBRANDINO [II d'Este Signor di Modena & his wife Alda Rangoni (-Ferrara 1 May 1344). 

Guido & his third wife had six children: 

2.         UGOLINO Gonzaga (-murdered 14 Oct 1362).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Dominus Ugolinus de Gonzaga filius…Domini Guidonis de Gonzaga" governed "civitatem Mantuæ vivente patre sene"[21]His parentage is confirmed by Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum which records that "[filius]…Domini Bernabovis…Dominus Mastolus" was imprisoned "in civitatem Brixiæ…in cittadella et castro" with "Domino Guilielmo et Guidone fratribus de Gonzaga filiis quondam Domini Feltrini olim Domini civitatis Regii et olim Domini civitatis Mantuæ…cum aliis fratribus suis…Domino Guidone patre Domini Ugolini…et Domino Philippino, Domino Frederico et Domino Alberto omnibus fratribus filiis quondam Domini Ludovici de Gonzaga"[22]Lord of Mantua.  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Domini Ugolini de Gonzaga Dominus Mantuæ…Raymundinus Lupus de Soragna episcopatus Parmiæ…Taxinus de Donatis de Florentia pro Domino Johanne de Olegio Domino Bononiæ…Nicolaus frater Domini Oldrevandini Marchionis Ferrariæ et Mutinæ" formed a league with "societate Teutonicorum Domini Comitis Altimani de Alemannia" in Oct 1357[23].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Domini Ludovicus et Franciscus fratres…Domini Ugolini" killed "ipsum Dominum Ugolinum" in 1362 while their father was still alive[24]m firstly (1340) as her second husband, VERDE della Scala, widow of ---, daughter of ALBOINO [I] della Scala di Verona & his wife ---.  m secondly CAMILLA della Gherardesca, daughter of BONIFAZIO Novello della Gherardesca Conte di Donoratico & his wife Contelda Spinola (-1349).  m thirdly ([1358/59]) as her first husband, CATARINA Visconti, daughter of MATTEO [II] Visconti Lord of Milan & his wife (-10 Oct 1382).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage in 1358 of "Dominam Catherinam filiam quondam Domini Mathæi" and "Domino Ugolino [de Gonzaga]"[25].  She married secondly Feltrino Gonzaga Signore di Bagnolo e Novellara.  Ugolino & his second wife had one child: 

a)         TEODORA Gonzaga m (1365) FEDERICO da Montefeltro, son of SIGINOLFO da Montefeltro & his wife --- (-1370). 

3.         MARGHERITA Gonzaga (-1399)m GIACOPO da Carrara, son of ---. 

4.         TOMMASINA Gonzaga m AZZONE di Corregio, son of ---. 

5.         LODOVICO [II] Gonzaga (1334-4 Oct 1382).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Domini Ludovicus et Franciscus fratres…Domini Ugolini" killed "ipsum Dominum Ugolinum" in 1362 while their father was still alive[26].  Imperial Vicar of Mantua 1365.  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in Oct 1382 of "Dominum Ludovicus de Gonzaga Dominus Mantuæ"[27]m (16 Feb 1356) ALDA d´Este, legitimated daughter of OBIZZO [III] d´Este & his second wife Lippa di Arosto (18 Jul 1333-before 24 Sep 1381).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 20 Jun 1377 from "domini Ludovici de Gonzaga" which names his wife "domina Alda" and her brother "dominus Marchio" and "domina Verde consorte ipsius"[28].  "Regina de la Scala consors…domini Mediolani" sent a letter of condolence to "domino Ludovico de Gonzaga" on the death of "consortis vestre et sororis nostre…domine Alde Estensis marchionisse" dated 24 Sep 1381[29].  Lodovico [II] & his wife had two children: 

a)         GIANFRANCESCO Gonzaga (1363-8 Mar 1407).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Dominus Johannes Franciscus filius…Domini Ludovici" succeeded his father and was still holding the lordship in 1400[30].  "Regina de la Scala consors…domini Mediolani" confirmed her benevolence to "domino Francischo de Gonzaga, Mantue…imperiali vicario generali…nec non consortem vestram Malgaritam et Elisabeth…et sororem" by charter dated 7 Nov 1382[31]m firstly (by proxy 15 Aug 1375, [25 Dec] 1380) AGNESE Visconti, daughter of BERNABÒ Visconti Lord of Milan & his wife Beatrice "Regina" della Scala ([1362]-executed Mantua 1391).  A charter dated 15 Aug 1375 records the marriage by proxy between "dominam Agnetem filiam legitimam…domini Bernabovis" and "domini Francischi filii legiptimi…domini Ludovici"[32].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage in 1380 of "Dominus Barnabos…aliam filiam suam" and "Domini Mantuæ"[33]A charter dated 26 Sep 1380 notifies the marriage of "Agnetis filie…Bernabos", addressed to "domino Ludovicho de Gonzaga", but does not name her husband[34].  "Regina de la Scala" notified "domino Ludovicho de Gonzaga" that she proposed the marriage of "natam nostram…et nurum vestram Agnetem" should take place at Christmas, by charter dated 18 Sep 1380[35].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus Franciscus de Gonzaga Dominus Mantuæ" had his wife "filiam Domini Bernabovis Vicecomitis" beheaded in 1391, "causa, quia hoc fecit, non bene scitur"[36]m secondly (1393) MARGHERITA Malatesta, daughter of GALEOTTO Malatesta Signor di Rimini e Pesaro & his wife Elisabetta Varano (-1399).  Gianfrancesco & his first wife had one child: 

i)          ALDA Gonzaga (-1405)m (1397) FRANCESCO da Carrara di Padua, son of FRANCESCO [II] da Carrara Signore di Padua & his wife Taddea d´Este (1377-1406).  

Gianfrancesco & his second wife had two children:  

ii)         GIANFRANCESCO Gonzaga (1395-25 Sep 1444).  Marchese di Mantua 1433. 

-         MARCHESI di MANTUA

iii)        SUSANNA Gonzaga

b)         ELISABETTA Gonzaga .  "Regina de la Scala consors…domini Mediolani" confirmed her benevolence to "domino Francischo de Gonzaga, Mantue…imperiali vicario generali…nec non consortem vestram Malgaritam et Elisabeth…et sororem" by charter dated 7 Nov 1382[37]m (1386) CARLO Malatesta di Rimini, son of --- (-1429). 

6.         FRANCESCO Gonzaga (-7 Jul 1369).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Domini Ludovicus et Franciscus fratres…Domini Ugolini" killed "ipsum Dominum Ugolinum" in 1362 while their father was still alive[38].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death in 1369 of "Dominus Franciscus"[39]m LIENTA di Pollenta, daughter of ---.  

7.         ELENA Gonzaga

 

 

 

B.      MARCHESI di MANTUA (GONZAGA)

 

 

GIANFRANCESCO Gonzaga, son of GIANFRANCESCO Gonzaga Signore di Mantua & his second wife Margherita Malatesta (1395-25 Sep 1444).  Signore di Mantua.  Marchese di Mantua 1433. 

m (1410) PAOLA Malatesta, daughter of MALATESTA Malatesta di Rimini & his wife Elisabetta Varano (-1449). 

Gianfrancesco & his wife had seven children: 

1.         LODOVICO Gonzaga (5 Jun 1414-12 Jun 1478).  He succeeded his father in 1444 as LODOVICO III Marchese di Mantuam (Mantua 12 Nov 1433) BARBARA von Brandenburg, daughter of JOHANN "der Alchymist" Markgraf von Brandenburg & his wife Barbara von Sachsen (1423-Mantua 7 Nov 1481, bur Mantua San Francesco).  Botho’s Chronicon Brunsvicensium Picturatum names “Elizabeth”, who married “den Marggreven to Mantaw”, second of the three daughters of “Marggreve Hans, Marggreven Frederikes to Brandenborch...eledeste sone” and his wife[40]Lodovico III & his wife had children: 

a)         FEDERICO Gonzaga (25 Jun 1441-Mantua 14 Jul 1484, bur Mantua San Andrea)He succeeded his father 1478 as FEDERIGO I Marchese di Mantua

-        see below

b)         FRANCESCO Gonzaga (1444-22 Oct 1483).  Cardinal 1464. 

c)         GIANFRANCO Gonzaga (1445-1498).  Conte di Sabionetta.  m ANTONIA del Balzo, daughter of ---.  1538. 

-        CONTI di SABIONETTA, DUCHI di SABIONETTA, CONTI di SAN MARTINO, PRINCIPI di SAN MARTINO

d)         SUSANNA Gonzaga (1447-19 Dec 1481).  A nun. 

e)         DOROTEA Gonzaga (1449-1468)m (1466) as his first wife, GALEAZZO MARIA Sforza Duke of Milan, son of FRANCESCO I Sforza Duke of Milan & his second wife Bianca Maria Visconti (Milan 24 Jan 1444-murdered 26 Dec 1476). 

f)          RODOLFO Gonzaga (1451-killed in battle 1494).  Sn di Castiglione e Solserino.  m (1480) CATARINA Pico di Mirandola, daughter of ---. 

-        SIGNORI di LUZZARA, SIGNORI di CASTIGLIONE, PRINCIPI di CASTIGLIONE

g)         LUCIA Gonzaga (1451-). 

h)         BARBARA Gonzaga (Mantua 11 Dec 1455-Böblingen 30 May 1503, bur Kirchheim unter Teck, Frauenkloster).  She retired to Böblingen after her husband's death.  m (Urach 12 Apr 1474) EBERHARD I "im Bart" Graf von Württemberg, son of LUDWIG I Graf von Württemberg und Montbéliard zu Urach & his wife his wife Mechtild Pfalzgräfin (Urach 11 Dec 1445-Tübingen 25 Feb 1496, bur St Peterstift auf dem Einsiedel, transferred 1537 to Tübingen Stiftskirche).  He was created EBERHARD I Herzog und Fürst von Württemberg und Teck, by the Reichstag at Worms 21 Jul 1495. 

i)          LODOVICO Gonzaga (1458-4 Jan 1511).  Bishop of Mantua 1483. 

j)          PAOLA Gonzaga (1463-winter [1495/96])m (11 Jul 1476, 15 Nov 1478) as his second wife, LEONHARD Graf von Görz, son of HEINRICH V Graf von Görz & his second way Katalin Garay (1440-12 Apr 1500). 

2.         CARLO Gonzaga (-21 Dec 1456)m (1437) LUCIA d’Este, daughter of NICCOLO [III] Signore di Ferrara e Modena & his second wife Parisina Malatesta (24 Mar 1419-28 Jun 1437). 

3.         LUCIA Gonzaga .  Nun. 

4.         LEONELLA Gonzaga .  Nun. 

5.         MARGHERITA Gonzaga (-3 Jul 1439)m (Jan 1435) as his first wife, LEONELLO d’Este, legitimated son of NICCOLO [III] Signore di Ferrara e Modena & his mistress Stella dei Tolomei dell´Assassino (Ferrara 21 Sep 1407-Palazzo di Belriguardo 1 Oct 1450, bur Ferrara Santa Maria degli Angeli).  He succeeded his father in 1441 as Signore di Ferrara, Modena e Reggio

6.         GIOVANNI LUCIO [Gianlucido] Gonzaga (1421-11 Jun 1448). 

7.         ALESSANDRO Gonzaga (-16 Jan 1466)m AGNESE di Montefelfro, daughter of GUIDO ANTONIO da Montefeltro Conte di Urbino & his second wife --- (-16 Dec 1447). 

 

 

FEDERICO Gonzaga, son of LODOVICO Gonzaga di Mantua [later LODOVICO III Marchese di Mantua] & his wife Barbara von Brandenburg (25 Jun 1441-Mantua 14 Jul 1484, bur Mantua San Andrea).  He succeeded his father 1478 as FEDERICO I Marchese di Mantua

m (Mantua 10 May 1463) MARGARETA von Bayern, daughter of ALBRECHT III Duke of Bavaria & his wife Anna von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (1 Jan 1442-Mantua 14 Oct 1479, bur Mantua San Andrea).  Ulrich Füetrer’s Bayerische Chronik names “Margreta...Elysabeth...Barbara” as the three daughters of “hertzog Albrecht” and his wife “frawen Anna von Prawnsweygk”, adding that Margareta married “dem marggrafen von Montaw[41]

Federico & his wife had six children: 

1.         CHIARA Gonzaga (1 Jul 1464-2 Jun 1503, bur Aigueperse, Chapelle Saint-Louis)m (contract Mantua 24 Feb 1482) GILBERT de Bourbon "le Comte-dauphin", son of LOUIS de Bourbon Comte de Montpensier, Dauphin d'Auvergne, Comte de Clermont et de Sancerre & his second wife Gabrielle de la Tour ([1447/48]-Pozzuolo 5 Oct 1496, bur Aigueperse, Chapelle Saint-Louis).  He succeeded his father 1486 as Comte de Montpensier, Dauphin d'Auvergne, Seigneur de Mercœur et de Combraille.  Lieutenant-General and Viceroy of Naples and Archduke of Sessa 4 May 1495. 

2.         GIAN FRANCESCO Gonzaga (10 Aug 1466-29 Mar 1519)He succeeded his father 1484 as GIAN FRANCESCO II Marchese di Mantua

-        see below.

3.         SIGISMONDO Gonzaga (1469-4 Oct 1525).  Cardinal 1500. 

4.         ELISABETTA Gonzaga (1471-1526)m (1486) GUIDOBALDO da Montefeltro Duke of Urbino, son of --- (-1508). 

5.         MADDALENA Gonzaga (Mantua 1472-Pesaro 8 Jan 1490)m (27 Oct 1489) as his first wife, GIOVANNI Sforza Signore di Pesaro, illegitimate son of COSTANZO Sforza Signore di Pesaro & his mistress Fiora Boni (Pesaro 5 Jul 1466-Pesaro 19 Jul 1510). 

6.         GIOVANNI Gonzaga (1474-23 Sep 1525)m (1493) LAURA Bentivoglio, daughter of GIOVANNI [II] Bentivoglio di Bologna & his wife --- (-1523). 

-        CONTI di VESCOVADO, PRINCIPI di VESCOVEDI

 

 

GIAN FRANCESCO Gonzaga, of FEDERICO I Marchese di Mantua & his wife Margareta von Bayern (10 Aug 1466-29 Mar 1519).  He succeeded his father 1484 as GIAN FRANCESCO II Marchese di Mantua

m (12 Feb 1490) ISABELLA d’Este, daughter of ERCOLE I d’Este Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio & his wife Eleonora of Naples (18 May 1474-13 Feb 1539). 

Gian Francesco & his wife had children: 

1.         ELEONORA Gonzaga (Mantua 31 Dec 1493-Urbino 13 Feb 1550)m firstly ANTONIO Signore di Montalto, son of ---.  m secondly (before 1513) FRANCESCO MARIA I della Rovere Duke of Urbino, son of --- (1490-1538). 

2.         IPPOLITA Gonzaga (-16 Mar 1570).  A nun. 

3.         PAOLA Gonzaga (-1569). 

4.         FEDERICO Gonzaga (17 May 1500-28 Jun 1540).  He succeeded his father 1519 as FEDERICO II Marchese di Mantua.  Duke of Mantua from 1530.    

-        DUKES of MANTUA

5.         ERCOLE Gonzaga (22 Nov 1505-2 Mar 1563).  Cardinal 1527.  Regent 1540. 

6.         FERDINANDO [Ferrante] [I] Gonzaga (28 Jan 1507-15 Nov 1557).  Conte di Guastalla 1539.  m (1529) ISABELLA di Capua, daughter of FERDINANDO [Ferrante] di Capua Principe di Molfetta & his wife --- (-17 Sep 1559). 

-        CONTI di GUASTALLA, DUCHI di GUASTALLA e SABIONETTA

7.         LIVIA Gonzaga (1509-1569).  A nun. 

8.         PIETRO Gonzaga (-after 1527).  Cardinal 1527. 

 

 

 

C.      DUKES of MANTUA (GONZAGA)

 

 

FEDERIGO Gonzaga, (17 May 1500-28 Jun 1540).  He succeeded his father 1519 as FEDERIGO II Marchese di Mantua.  Duke of Mantua from 1530. 

Betrothed to MARIA di Monferrato, daughter of GUGLIELMO XI GIOVANNI Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Anne d'Alençon (1509-1531).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that the children of Guglielmo & his wife were (in order) Boniface, Maria and an unnamed daughter, stating that Maria married Federico of Mantua[42] 

m (16 Nov 1531) MARGHERITA di Monferrato, daughter of GUGLIELMO XI GIOVANNI Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Anne d'Alençon (11 Aug 1510-28 Dec 1566).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that the children of Guglielmo & his wife were (in order) Boniface, Maria and an unnamed daughter[43].  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family records that the daughter of "il…signor Guglielmo…de Monferrato" and his wife married "signor Federico duca de Mantua"[44].  Heiress of Monferrato, sequestrated 1533.  She and her heirs were transferred 3 Nov 1536 by Emperor Karl V. 

Federigo II & his wife had seven children: 

1.         FRANCESCO Gonzaga (10 Mar 1533-22 Feb 1550).  He succeeded his father 1540 as FRANCESCO III Duke of Mantuam (22 Oct 1549) as her first husband, KATHARINA Archduchess of Austria, daughter of Emperor FERDINAND I Archduke of Austria & his wife Anna Pss of Hungary & Bohemia (Vienna 15 Sep 1533-Linz 28 Feb 1572, bur St Florian Stiftskirche).  She married secondly (31 Jul 1553, separated 1566) as his third wife, Zygmunt II August King of Poland Grand Prince of Lithuania 

2.         ELEONORA Gonzaga .  A nun. 

3.         ANNA Gonzaga .  A nun. 

4.         ISABELLA Gonzaga (18 Apr 1537-16 Aug 1579).  m (1554) FRANCESCO FERDINANDO Davalos Marchese di Pescara, son of ---. 

5.         GUGLIELMO Gonzaga (24 Apr 1538-Bozzolo 14 Aug 1587)He succeeded his brother in 1550 as GUGLIELMO Duke of Mantua.  Marchese di Monferato 1566.  Duca di Monferato 1573.  m (Mantua 26 Apr 1561) ELEONORA Archduchess of Austria, daughter of Emperor FERDINAND I Archduke of Austria & his wife Anna Pss of Hungary & Bohemia (Vienna 2 Nov 1534-Mantua 5 Aug 1594, bur Mantua).  Guglielmo & his wife had three children: 

a)         VINCENZO Gonzaga (22 Sep 1562-18 Feb 1612).  He succeeded his father in 1587 as VINCENZO I Duke of Mantuam firstly (1581, divorced 1582) MARGHERITA Farnese Pss of Parma, daughter of ALESSANDRO Farnese Duke of Parma & his wife dona Maria de Portugal (7 Nov 1567-13 Apr 1643).  Nun at Piacenza 1582.  m secondly (Mantua 29 Apr 1584) ELEONORA de’ Medici Pss of Tuscany, daughter of FRANCESCO de’ Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany & his first wife Johanna Archduchess of Austria (Florence 1 Mar 1566-Cavriana 9 Sep 1611).  Vincenzo & his second wife had six children: 

i)          FRANCESCO Gonzaga Prince of Mantua (7 May 1586-Turin 22 Dec 1612).  He succeeded his father in 1612 as FRANCESCO IV Duke of Mantuam (19 Feb 1608) MARGUERITE de Savoie, daughter of CHARLES EMMANUEL I "le Grand" Duke of Savoy & his wife Infanta doña Caterina Micaela of Spain (Turin 28 Apr 1589-Miranda 26 Jun 1655).  In 1634, Felipe IV King of Portugal appointed her vice-rainha de Portugal where she was known as “Margarida de Saboia Duquesa de Mântua”.  She left Portugal for Spain at the time of the Portuguese revolution in Dec 1640.  Francesco IV & his wife had three children: 

(1)       MARIA Gonzaga (29 Jul 1609-14 Aug 1660)m (25 Dec 1627) CARLO Gonzaga Duc de Rethel, son of CHARLES Gonzaga Duc de Nevers [later CARLO I Duke of Mantua] & his wife Catherine de Lorraine (1609-30 Aug 1631). 

(2)       LODOVICO Gonzaga (27 Jun 1611-3 Aug 1612). 

(3)       ELEONORA Gonzaga (12 Sep 1612-13 Sep 1612).

ii)         FERDINANDO Gonzaga (26 Apr 1587-29 Oct 1626).  Cardinal 1605.  He succeeded his brother in 1612 as FERDINANDO Duke of Mantuam firstly (1615, divorced 1616) CAMILLA Reticina, daughter of ---.  m secondly (Mantua 17 Feb 1617) CATARINA de’ Medici Pss of Tuscany, daughter of FERDINANDO I Grand Duke of Tuscany & his wife Chrétienne de Lorraine (Florence 2 May 1593-Siena 17 Apr 1629). 

iii)        GUGLIELMO DOMINICO Gonzaga (4 Aug 1589-13 May 1591). 

iv)       MARGHERITA Gonzaga (2 Oct 1591-7 Feb 1632)m (Mantua 24 Apr 1606) as his second wife, HENRI II Duke of Lorraine, son of CHARLES II Duke of Lorraine & his wife Claude de France (Nancy 8 Nov 1563-Nancy 31 Jul 1624, bur Nancy Saint-Georges). 

v)        VINCENZO Gonzaga (8 Feb 1594-25 Dec 1627).  Cardinal 1615.  He succeeded his brother 1626 as VINCENZO II Duke of Mantuam (1616) ISABELLA Gonzaga, daughter of ALFONSO Gonzaga-Novellara & his wife ---. 

vi)       ELEONORA Gonzaga (Mantua 23 Sep 1598-Vienna 27 Jun 1655, bur Vienna Karmeliterinnenkirche, transferred 1782 to Vienna St Stefan)m (Innsbruck 4 Feb 1622) as his second wife, her first cousin, Emperor FERDINAND II Archduke of Austria, King of Bohemia & Hungary, son of KARL Archduke of Austria, Duke in Styria, Carinthia & Carniola & his wife Maria Anna Pss of Bavaria (Graz 9 Jul 1578-Vienna 15 Feb 1637, bur Graz Mausoleum). 

b)         ELEONORA Gonzaga (27 May 1564-6 Jan 1618)m (24 Feb 1579) as his third wife, ALFONSO II d’Este Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio, son of ERCOLE II Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio & his wife Renée de France (22 Nov 1533-27 Oct 1597, bur Ferrara Corpus Domini). 

c)         ANNA CATARINA Gonzaga (Mantua 17 Jan 1566-Innsbruck 3 Aug 1621, bur Innsbruck Servitinnenkirche).  Nun.  m (Innsbruck 14 May 1582) as his second wife, her uncle, FERDINAND Archduke of Austria, son of Emperor FERDINAND I Archduke of Austria & his wife Anna Pss of Hungary & Bohemia (Linz 14 Jun 1529-Innsbruck 24 Jan 1595, bur Innsbruck Hofkirche). 

6.         LODOVICO Gonzaga (22 Oct 1539-Nesle-en-Picardie 23 Oct 1595, bur Nevers Cathedral)He was created Comte de Rethel 27 Oct 1563, Duc de Nevers 2 Mar 1566.  Duc de Rethel 1581. 

-        DUCS de NEVERS

7.         FEDERIGO Gonzaga (1540-21 Feb 1565).  Bishop of Mantua.  Cardinal 1563.

 

 

CHARLES de Nevers, son of LODOVICO Gonzaga Prince of Mantua, Duc de Nevers et de Rethel & his wife Henriette de Clève Duchesse de Nevers, Ctss de Beaufort (6 May 1580-21 Sep 1637).  He succeeded his father in 1595 as Duc de Nevers, Prince d’Arches.  He succeeded in 1630 as CARLO I Duke of Mantua

m (Soissons Feb 1599) CATHERINE de Lorraine, daughter of CHARLES de Guise Duc de Mayenne [Lorraine] & his wife Henriette de Savoie (1585-Paris 8 Mar 1618, bur Nevers Cathedral). 

Carlo I & his wife had six children: 

1.         FRANCESCO Gonzaga (1606-1622).  Duc de Rethel. 

2.         BENEDETTA Gonzaga (-30 Sep 1637).  A nun. 

3.         CARLO Gonzaga (1609-30 Aug 1631).  Duc de Rethel.  m (25 Dec 1627) MARIA Gonzaga Pss of Mantua, daughter of FRANCESCO IV Duke of Mantua & his wife Marguerite de Savoie (29 Jul 1609-14 Aug 1660).  Regent 1637-1647.  Carlo & his wife had two children: 

a)         CARLO Gonzaga (3 Oct 1629-14 Aug 1665).  He succeeded his grandfather in 1637 as CARLO III Duke of Mantua, under the regency of his mother until 1647.  He sold Arches, Nevers, Eu and Rethel to Cardinal Mazarin in 1659.  m (7 Nov 1649) ISABELLA CLARA Archduchess of Austria, daughter of LEOPOLD V Graf von Tirol Archduke of Austria & his wife Claudia de’ Medici Pss of Tuscany (12 Aug 1629-24 Feb 1685, bur Mantua).  Regent of Mantua 1665-1670.  Carlo III & his wife had one child:

i)          CARLO Gonzaga (31 Aug 1652-5 Jul 1708).  He succeeded his father 1665 as CARLO IV Duke of Mantua.  m firstly (1670) Anna Isabella Gonzaga, daughter of Ferdinando III Gonzaga Duca di Guastalla & Margherita d’Este (-11 Aug 1703).  m secondly (Tortona, Milan 8 Nov 1704) SUZANNE HENRIETTE de Lorraine, daughter of CHARLES de Lorraine Duc d'Elboeuf & his third wife Françoise de Montault de Navailles (1 Mar 1686-Paris 16 Dec 1710, bur Paris, église des Dominicains du Faubourg Saint-Jacques).  Carlo IV & his first wife had one child

(1)       GIOVANNI Gonzaga (26 Jul 1671-27 Oct 1743).  m (1705) CHARLOTTE ISABELLA de Combardel, daughter of PIERRE Comte de Combardel & his wife --- (6 Jan 1686). 

b)         ELEONORA MARIA Gonzaga (Mantua 18 Nov 1630-Vienna 6 Dec 1686)m (30 Apr 1651) as his third wife, Emperor FERDINAND III Archduke of Austria, King of Bohemia and Hungary, son of Emperor FERDINAND II Archduke of Austria, King of Bohemia and Hungary & his first wife Maria Anna Pss of Bavaria (Graz 13 Jul 1608-Vienna 2 Apr 1657, bur Vienna Kapuzinergruft).  

4.         MARIA LUDOVICA Gonzaga (Paris 18 Aug 1611-Warsaw 10 May 1667)m firstly (10 Mar 1646) as his second wife, WŁADYSŁAW IV ZYGMUNT King of Poland, son of ZYGMUNT III King of Poland [SIGISMUND King of Sweden] & his first wife Anna Archduchess of Austria (Lobzowo 9 Jun 1595-Merecz, Lithuania 19 May 1648).  m secondly (29 May 1649) JAN KAZIMIERZ II King of Poland, son of ZYGMUNT III King of Poland [SIGISMUND King of Sweden] & his second wife Konstanze Archduchess of Austria (Krakow 22 Mar 1609-Nevers 16 Dec 1672). 

5.         FERDINANDO Gonzaga (-25 May 1632).  Duc de Mayenne. 

6.         ANNA Gonzaga (Mantua 1616-Paris 6 Jul 1684, bur Val-de-Grace)m (Paris 4 May 1645) EDUARD Pfalzgraf von Simmern, son of FRIEDRICH V Elector Palatine [ex-King of Bohemia] & his wife Elizabeth Pss of England and Scotland (The Hague 6 Oct 1624-Paris 13 Mar 1663, bur Val-de-Grace). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    PARMA

 

 

A.      DUKES of PARMA 1545-1731 (FARNESE)

 

 

ALESSANDRO Farnese (29 Feb 1468-10 Nov 1549).  Pope PAUL III 1534. 

1.         PIER LUIGI Farnese (19 Nov 1503-murdered 10 Sep 1547).  Legitimated 1505 by Pope Julius II.  Duca di Castro 1537.  Created PIER LUIGI Duke of Parma and Piacenza by Papal bull 25 Aug 1545.  m (1519) GEROLAMA Orsini, daughter of LODOVICO Orsini & his wife --- (-1570).  Pier Luigi & his wife had five children: 

a)         ALESSANDRO Farnese (5 Oct 1520-2 Mar 1589).  Cardinal 1534. 

b)         OTTAVIO Farnese (9 Oct 1524-18 or 21 Sep 1586).  He succeeded his father in 1547 as OTTAVIO Duke of Parma and Piacenza.  m (Rome 4 Nov 1538) as her second husband, MARGARITA de Austria, widow of ALESSANDRO de' Medici Duke of Florence, illegitimate daughter of Emperor KARL V Archduke of Austria [CARLOS I King of Aragon and Castile] & his mistress Johanna Maria van der Ghenst (Oudenaarde 28 Dec 1522-Ortona, Parma 18 Jan 1586, bur Rome).  Stadhouderin of the Netherlands.  Ottavio & his wife had two children: 

i)          ALESSANDRO Farnese (Rome 27 Aug 1545-Saint Waast, Spanish Netherlands 3 Dec 1592, bur Parma)Stadhouder of the Netherlands 1578-1581.  He succeeded his father in 1586 as ALESSANDRO Duke of Parma and Piacenza.  m (Brussels 11 Nov 1565) dona MARIA de Portugal, daughter of Infante dom DUARTE de Portugal Duque de Guimaraes & his wife dona Isabella de Portugal [-Bragança] (Lisbon 8 Dec 1538-Parma 9 Jul 1577, bur Parma Capucin church). 

(a)       MARGHERITA Farnese (7 Nov 1567-13 Apr 1643).  Nun at Piacenza 1582.  m (1581, divorced 1583) as his first wife, VINCENZO I Gonzaga Duke of Mantua, son of GUGLIELMO Gonzaga Duke of Mantua & his wife Eleonora Archduchess of Austria (22 Sep 1562-18 Feb 1612). 

(b)       RANUCCIO Farnese (28 Mar 1569-5 Mar 1622).  He succeeded his father 1592 as RANUCCIO I Duke of Parma and Piacenza. 

-         see below

(c)       ODOARDO Farnese (7 Dec 1573-21 Feb 1626).  Cardinal 1591.  Bishop of Frascati. 

ii)         CARLO Farnese (Rome 27 Aug 1545-died young). 

c)         ORAZIO Farnese ([1528/29]-killed in battle siege of Hesdin, Pas-de-Calais 18 Jul 1553, bur Abbeville, Somme, église des Minimes).  His grandfather Pope Paul III sent him to the court of France, where he arrived at Fontainebleau in Nov 1541.  Invested Duca di Castro at Rome 4 Nov 1547.  m (betrothed Tours 6 May 1551, contract 13 Feb 1553, 14 Feb 1553) as her first husband, DIANE légitimée de France, illegitimate daughter of HENRI II King of France & his mistress Filippa Duco (Piemonte 1538-Paris 11 Jan 1619, bur Paris, église des Minimes, Place Royale).  She married secondly (Villers-Cotterêts, Aisne 3 May 1557) François de Montmorency, who succeeded his father as Duc de Montmorency

d)         RANUCCIO Farnese (11 Aug 1530-1556).  Cardinal. 

e)         VITTORIA Farnese m GUIDOBALDO della Rovere Duca di Urbino, son of --- (1513-1574). 

2.         RANUCCIO Farnese (-1529). 

3.         COSTANZA Farnese m firstly STEFANO Orsini, son of --- (-1548).  m secondly BOSIO Sforza, son of ---. 

4.         LUCREZIA Farnese .   

 

 

RANUCCIO Farnese Prince of Parma, son of ALESSANDRO Farnese Duke of Parma & his wife dona Maria de Portugal (28 Mar 1569-5 Mar 1622)He succeeded his father 1592 as RANUCCIO I Duke of Parma and Piacenza. 

m (7 May 1600) MARGHERITA Aldobrandini, daughter of GIAN FRANCESCO Aldobrandini dei Principi di Rossano & his wife Olimpia Aldobrandini Pss Campinelli [niece of Pope Clement VIII] (before 1585-9 Aug 1646). 

Mistress (1)BRISELDA Caretoli, daughter of ---. 

Ranuccio I & his wife had nine children: 

1.         ALESSANDRO FRANCESCO MARIA Farnese (b and d 8 Aug 1602). 

2.         MARIA Farnese (5 Sep 1603-died soon after).

3.         ALESSANDRO Farnese (5 Sep 1610-Jul 1630). 

4.         ODOARDO Farnese (Parma 28 Apr 1612-Piacenza 11 Sep 1646)He succeeded his father in 1622 as ODOARDO I Duke of Parma and Piacenza.  m (Parma 11 Oct 1628) MARGHERITA de’ Medici Pss of Tuscany, daughter of COSIMO II de’ Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany & his wife Maria Magdalena Archduchess of Austria Florence 31 May 1612-Parma 6 Feb 1679).  Odoardo I & his wife had seven children: 

a)         CATERINA Farnese (b and d 2 Oct 1629). 

b)         RANUCCIO Farnese (Cortemaggiore or Casalmaggiore 17 Sep 1630-Parma 11 Dec 1694)He succeeded his father in 1645 as RANUCCIO II Duke of Parma and Piacenza.  He lost Castro to the Pope in 1664.  m firstly (29 Apr 1660) YOLANDE MARGUERITE de Savoie, daughter of VICTOR AMEDEE I Duke of Savoy & his wife Christine de France (15 Nov 1635-29 Apr 1663).  m secondly (18 Feb 1664) his first cousin, ISABELLA d’Este Pss of Modena, daughter of FRANCESCO I d’Este Duke of Modena & his first wife Maria Caterina Farnese Pss of Parma (3 Oct 1635-21 Aug 1666).  m thirdly (Modena 1 Oct 1668) his second wife’s sister, his first cousin, MARIA d’Este Pss of Modena, daughter of FRANCESCO I d’Este Duke of Modena & his first wife Maria Caterina Farnese Pss of Parma (Modena 8 Dec 1644-Parma 21 Aug 1684).  Ranuccio II & his first wife had two children: 

i)          child (b and d 14 Dec 1661). 

ii)         child (27 Apr 1663-30 Apr 1663). 

Ranuccio II & his second wife had three children: 

iii)        MARGHERITA MARIA FRANCESCA Farnese (Parma 24 Nov 1664-Colorno 17 Jun 1718, bur Parma Steccata)She died of apoplexy.  m (14 Jul 1692) FRANCESCO II d’Este Duke of Modena, son of ALFONSO IV d’Este Duke of Modena & his wife Laura Martinozzi (Modena 6 Mar 1660-Sassuolo 6 Sep 1694, bur Modena San Vicenzo). 

iv)       TERESA Farnese (10 Oct 1665-).  A nun. 

v)        ODOARDO Farnese (12 Aug 1666-5 Sep 1693)m (17 Sep 1690) as her first husband, DOROTHEA SOPHIE Pfalzgräfin von Neuburg, daughter of PHILIPP WILHELM Elector Palatine, Pfalzgraf und Herzog von Neuburg & his second wife Elisabeth Amalie Magdalena Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt (Neuburg 5 Jul 1670-Parma 15 Sep 1748, bur Parma).  Odoardo & his wife had two children: 

(a)       ALESSANDRO IGNAZIO Farnese (6 Dec 1691-5 Aug 1693). 

(b)       ELISABETTA MARIA Farnese (Parma 25 Oct 1692-Aranjuez 11 Jul 1766, bur El Escorial)Heiress of Parma.  m (by proxy Parma 16 Sep 1714, in person Guadalajara 24 Dec 1714) as his second wife, FELIPE V King of Spain, son of LOUIS Dauphin de France & his first wife Maria Anna Herzogin von Bayern (Versailles 19 Dec 1683-Buen Retiro, Madrid 9 Jul 1746, bur Palace of La Granja de San Ildefonso, Segovia).

Ranuccio II & his third wife had seven children:

vi)       VITTORIA Farnese (24 Dec 1669-died young). 

vii)      child (24 Jun 1671-died soon after). 

viii)     VITTORIA Farnese (b and d 19 Nov 1672). 

ix)       CATARINA Farnese (b and d 19 Nov 1672). 

x)        ISABELLA Farnese (14 Dec [1673/76]-9 Jul 1718). 

xi)       FRANCESCO Farnese (19 May 1678-Piacenza 26 Feb 1727, bur Parma).  He succeeded his father in 1694 as FRANCESCO Duke of Parma and Piacenza.  m (Parma 8 Feb 1695, 7 Dec 1696) as her second husband, his sister-in-law, DOROTHEA SOPHIE Pfalzgräfin von Neuburg, widow of ODOARDO Farnese Prince of Parma, daughter of PHILIPP WILHELM Elector Palatine, Pfalzgraf und Herzog von Neuburg & his second wife Elisabeth Amalie Magdalena Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt (Neuburg 5 Jul 1670-Parma 15 Sep 1748, bur Parma).  

xii)      ANTONIO FRANCESCO Farnese (Parma 29 Nov 1679-Parma 20 Jan 1731)He succeeded his brother 1727 as ANTONIO FRANCESCO Duke of Parma and Piacenza.  m (Modena 5 Feb 1728) as her first husband, ENRICHETTA MARIA d'Este Pss of Modena, daughter of RINALDO d’Este Duke of Modena & his wife Charlotte Felizitas Herzogin von Braunschweig-Lüneburg (27 May 1702-Piacenza, Borgo San Donnino 27 Oct 1777, bur Piacenza).  She married secondly (Piacenza 2 Sep 1740) Leopold Landgraf von Hessen-Darmstadt

c)         ALESSANDRO Farnese (10 Jan 1635-18 Feb 1689)Stadhouder of the Netherlands 1680-1682. 

d)         ORAZIO Farnese (24 Jan 1636-2 Nov 1656). 

e)         MARIA CATARINA Farnese (3 Sep 1637-24 Apr 1648). 

f)          PIETRO Farnese (4 Apr 1639-4 Mar 1677). 

g)         OTTAVIO Farnese (5 Jan 1641-4 Aug 1641). 

5.         ORAZIO Farnese (7 Jul 1613-28 Feb 1614). 

6.         MARIA CATERINA Farnese (Parma 18 Feb 1615-Sassuolo 25 Jun 1646, bur Corpus Domini)m (Parma 11 Jan 1631) as his first wife, FRANCESCO I d’Este Duke of Modena and Reggio, son of ALFONSO III Duke of Modena and Reggio, Marchese di Montecchio & his wife Isabelle de Savoie (Modena 5 Sep 1610-Santhià 14 Oct 1658, bur Modena San Vicenzo). 

7.         VITTORIA Farnese (Parma 29 Apr 1618-Modena 10 Aug 1649, bur Corpus Domini)m (Parma 12 Feb 1648) as his second wife, her brother-in-law, FRANCESCO I d’Este Duke of Modena and Reggio, son of ALFONSO III Duke of Modena and Reggio, Marchese di Montecchio & his wife Isabelle de Savoie (Modena 5 Sep 1610-Santhià 14 Oct 1658, bur Modena San Vicenzo).

8.         MARIA Farnese (b and d 29 Apr 1618). 

9.         FRANCESCO Farnese (19 Aug 1620-13 Jul 1647).  Cardinal 1645. 

Ranuccio I had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1):    

10.       OTTAVIO Farnese (1598-). 

11.       ISABELLA Farnese m as his first wife, GIULIO CESARE Colonna Principe di Palestrina, Conte di Carbegnano, son of --- (1602-1681). 

 

 

 

B.      DUKES of PARMA (BOURBON)

 

 

1.         Infante don CARLOS de Borbón y Farnesio, son of FELIPE V King of Spain & his second wife Elisabetta Maria Farnese Pss of Parma [Isabel Farnesio] (Madrid 20 Jan 1716-Madrid 14 Dec 1788, bur El Escorial)Under the Treaties of The Hague (17 Feb 1720) and Vienna (30 Apr 1725), he was granted the eventual rights of succession to Tuscany, Parma and Piacenza in case of the deaths of their rulers without male heirs.  He succeeded his maternal great-uncle Antonio Farnese Duke of Parma on the latter’s death 20 Jan 1731 as CARLO I Duke of Parma and Piacenza.  This succession was confirmed by Treaty 16 Mar 1731 between Spain and the Empire, but disputed by the Pope.  Shortly after, under the Treaty of Florence 25 Jul 1731, Giovanni Gastone Grand Duke of Tuscany recognised Carlo as his heir, the latter officially entering Florence as Grand Prince Hereditary 9 Mar 1732.  He entered Parma as Duke 12 Oct 1732.  However, shortly after war broke out with Austria.  King Felipe V of Spain named Carlo as Supreme Commander of the Spanish Armies in Italy 26 Oct 1733.  He took up his command 27 Feb 1734, was declared CARLO VII King of Naples and Sicily by decree of his father 30 Apr 1734, and crowned King of Sicily in Palermo 31 May 1735.  However, Spain agreed 18 Feb 1736 to the return of Parma, Piacenza and Tuscany to Austria.  The war was finally concluded by the third Treaty of Vienna 18 Nov 1738, under which (1) the Emperor recognised Carlo as King of Naples and Sicily (2) Carlo ceded Parma, Piacenza and his rights of succession in Tuscany to the Emperor and the Duke of Lorraine, while retaining the titles.  He succeeded his brother in 1759 as CARLOS III King of Spain, at which time he ceded the kingdom of Naples and Sicily to his third son Infante don Fernando. 

 

 

Infante don FELIPE de Borbón y Farnesio of Spain, son of FELIPE V King of Spain & his second wife Elisabetta Maria Farnese Pss of Parma [Isabel Farnesio] (Madrid 15 Mar 1720-Alessandria, Montferrato 18 Jul 1765, bur Parma, church of the Capucines, transferred to church of Santa Maria della Staccata).  Grand Admiral of Spain and of the Indies 14 Mar 1737 until 1748.  Supreme Commander of the Spanish Armies in Italy 1742.  Following the occupation of Parma and Piacenza by the Spanish Army in Sep 1745, he reigned as FILIPPO I Duke of Parma and Piacenza.  However, Imperial forces recovered both territories in Apr 1746.  Under the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle 18 Oct 1748, Filippo was confirmed as Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as well as Guastalla.  He retook possession of Parma 10 Feb 1749. 

m (by proxy Versailles 26 Aug 1739 in person Alcalá de Henares 25 Oct 1739) LOUISE ELISABETH de France, daughter of LOUIS XV King of France & his wife Maria Leszczinska Pss of Poland (Versailles 14 Aug 1727-Versailles 6 Dec 1759, bur Saint-Denis). 

Filippo I & his wife had three children: 

1.         Infanta doña ISABELLA MARIA de Borbón y Borbón (Madrid 31 Dec 1741-Vienna 27 Nov 1763, bur Kapuzinergruft Vienna)Pss of Parma from 1745 when her father succeeded as Duke of Parma.  m (by proxy Parma 7 Sep 1760 in person Vienna 6 Oct 1760) as his first wife, JOSEPH Archduke of Austria, Crown Prince of Hungary & Bohemia, son of Emperor FRANZ I & his wife Maria Theresia Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia (Schönbrunn 13 Mar 1741-Vienna 20 Feb 1790, bur Kapuzinergruft Vienna).  Elected Emperor JOSEPH II 1765 after the death of his father.  He succeeded his mother in 1780 as King of Hungary and Bohemia.

2.         don FERDINANDO di Borbone Prince of Parma (Parma 20 Jan 1751-Fontevivo Abbey 9 Oct 1802, Church of Santa Maria della Steccata, Parma).  He succeeded his father in 1765 as FERDINANDO Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.  He was declared Infante of Spain 8 Oct 1765.  The Treaty of Aranjuez 21 Mar 1801 decided that Ferdinando should renounce his rights as Duke in favour of the French Republic.  He refused, and the Consulat conceded that he should remain Duke for life.  However, Parma was thereafter ruled by a French governor, Ferdinando being head of state in name only.  On his death, in accordance with the agreement, his lands were annexed to France.  m (by proxy Vienna 27 Jun 1769 in person Colorno Castle, Parma 18 Jul 1769) MARIA AMALIE Archduchess of Austria, daughter of Emperor FRANZ I & his wife Maria Theresia Archduchess of Austria Queen of Bohemia, King of Hungary (Vienna 26 Feb 1746-Prague 18 Jun 1804, bur Prague Cathedral). She retired to Prague in 1802 when her husband was displaced.  Ferdinando & his wife had seven children: 

a)         donna CAROLINA di Borbone Pss of Parma (Parma 22 Nov 1770-Dresden 1 Mar 1804)m (by proxy Parma 22 Apr 1792 in person Dresden 9 May 1792) as his first wife, MAXIMILIAN Prince of Saxony, son of FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN III Elector of Saxony & his wife Maria Antonia Herzogin in Bayern (Dresden 13 Apr 1759-Dresden 3 Jan 1838).  He became heir to the throne of Saxony in 1806, but renounced his rights in favour of his eldest son in 1830.

b)         don LODOVICO di Borbone Prince of Parma (Piacenza 5 Jul 1773-Palazzo Pitti, Florence 27 May 1803, bur Escorial).  He was created Infante of Spain 30 Nov 1795.  He was proclaimed LODOVICO I King of Etruria 28 Jul 1801 by Napoleon.  m (San Ildefonso, Madrid 25 Aug 1795) his first cousin, Infanta doña MARÍA LUISA de Borbón y Borbón, daughter of CARLOS IV King of Spain & his wife Maria Luisa di Borbone Pss of Parma (San Ildefonso 6 Jul 1782-Rome 13 Mar 1824).  Queen Regent of the kingdom of Etruria for her son Lodovico II on the death of her husband, she renounced this title 10 Dec 1807.  Napoleon ordered her to return to Spain in 1807, from where she left with her family the following year to Compiègne and Marseille.  She was later held captive in the Convent of the Dominicans in Rome, but was freed in Jan 1814.  She was recognised as Duchess of Lucca by the Treaty of Vienna 9 Apr 1815, confirmed by the Treaty of Paris 22 Nov 1817, with the title “Queen”.  She was referred to as “Maria Luigia Giuseppina, Queen, Duchess of Lucca”. 

-        KINGS of ETRURIA, DUKES of PARMA

c)         donna MARIA ANTONIETTA di Borbone Infanta of Spain Pss of Parma (Parma 28 Nov 1774-Rome 20 Feb 1841).  Nun at the Ursuline Convent at Parma, later in Rome.

d)         donna CARLOTA di Borbone Infanta of Spain Pss of Parma (Parma 1 Sep 1777-Dominican Convent, Rome 5 Apr 1813).  Dominican nun at the Convent of Sts Dominico and Sisto in Parma.  Founded the convent of Colorno where she stayed until 1805, when she became Mother Superior of the Dominicans in Rome.

e)         don FILIPPO di Borbone Infante of Spain Prince of Parma (Parma 22 Mar 1783-Parma 2 Jul 1786, bur Church of Santa Maria della Steccata, Parma).

f)          donna ANTONIETTA di Borbone Infanta of Spain Pss of Parma (Parma 21 Oct 1784-d young).

g)         donna LUISA di Borbone Infanta of Spain Pss of Parma (Parma 17 Apr 1787-Parma 22 Nov 1789, bur Church of Santa Maria della Steccata, Parma). 

3.         donna MARIA LUISA di Borbone Pss of Parma (Parma 9 Dec 1751-Palazzo Barberini, Rome 2 Jan 1819, bur Escorial).  m (La Granja, San Ildefonso, near Segovia 4 Sep 1765) Infante don CARLOS de Borbón y Sajonia Principe de Asturias, son of CARLO VII King of Naples and Sicily [later CARLOS III King of Spain] & his wife Maria Amalia Pss of Saxony (Portici 12 Nov 1748-Naples 19 Jan 1819, bur El Escorial).  He succeeded his father in 1788 as CARLOS IV King of Spain.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    RIMINI

 

 

PANDOLFO [I] Malatesta, son of MALATESTA [III] Malatesta da Verrucchio & his second wife Margherita Paltonieri (-Rimini 6 Apr 1326, bur Rimini San Francesco)Signore di Pesaro. 

m TADDEA, daughter of ---. 

Pandolfo & his wife had two children: 

1.         MALATESTA Malatesta "Guastafamiglia" ([1299]-27 Aug 1364).  Signore di Pesaro.  m ---.  Malatesta & his wife had one child: 

a)         PANDOLFO [II] Malatesta (1325-1373).  m (1362) PAOLA Orsini, daughter of --- (-1371).  Pandolfo & his wife had one child: 

i)          MALATESTA Malatesta (-1429).  Signore di Pesaro e Fano.  m (1383) ELISABETTA Varano di Camerino, daughter of RODOLFO Varano & his wife --- (1367-Dec 1405).  Malatesta & his wife had three children: 

(a)       GALEAZZO Malatesta (-1457)m (6 Jun 1405) BATTISTA da Montefeltro, daughter of ANTONIO da Montefeltro & his wife Agnesina --- (1384-3 Jul 1448).  Galeazzo & his wife had one child: 

(1)       ELISABETTA Malatesta (1407-1477).  m (1425) PIERGENTLE Varano, son of RODOLFO Varano & his wife Costanza Smeducci (1400-6 Sep 1433). 

(b)       ANTONIA Malatesta "Antonia de Malatestis ducissa Mediolani" granted baking rights to "Johannini de Lomazio" by charter dated 3 Feb 1413[45]m (1408) GIOVANNI MARIA Visconti Duke of Milan, son of GIAN GALEAZZO "il Grande" Duke of Milan & his second wife Caterina Visconti (Milan 7 Sep 1388-murdered San Gottardo 16 May 1412).

(c)       PAOLA Malatesta (1393-1449)m (1410) GIANFRANCESCO Gonzaga Signore di Mantua, son of GIANFRANCESCO Gonzaga Signore di Mantua & his second wife Margherita Malatesta (1395-25 Sep 1444).  Marchese di Mantua 1433. 

(d)       CLEOFA Malatesta (-1433, bur Mistra, Zoodotou Monastery[46])The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis records the marriage of "Theodoro natu minori" and "comes Malatesta filiam suam"[47].  Papal permission for the marriages of the brothers Ioannes and Theodoros with catholic westerners was given as a gesture to improve relations with the Orthodox church after Emperor Manuel II sent ambassadors to the church council at Konstanz[48].  She converted to Greek Orthodoxy, much to the displeasure of her cousin Pope Martin V[49].  Georgios Phrantzes records the death in "anno 6941" of "Malatestæ filia, uxor Theodori despotæ porphyrogeniti, Cleops domina" and her burial "in monasterio Christi Salvatoris"[50]m (19 Jan 1421) THEODOROS Palaiologos Despot of Morea at Mistra, son of Emperor MANUEL II & his wife Jelena Dragaš [Serbia] (-Selymbria 26 Jun 1448). 

b)         GALEOTTO Malatesta "l'Ungharo" (Jun 1327-Jul 1372)Signore di Rimini.  Under-Lord of Pesaro.  m firstly ---.  m secondly COSTANZA d´Este, illegitimate daughter of OBIZZO [III] Signore di Ferrara & his mistress --- (1343-1392).  Malatesta & his first wife had one child: 

i)          COSTANZA Malatesta (-1378)m (1363) UGO d´Este, legitimated son of OBIZZO III Marchese d'Este Signor di Ferrara e Modena & his second wife Lippa Ariosto (Ferrara 18 Oct 1344-[2 Aug 1370], bur Ferrara San Francesco). 

2.         GALEOTTO Malatesta (-Cesena 1385).  Signore di RiminiHe captured Cesena in 1376, and Bertinoro in 1378.  m (1367) ELISABETTA Varano, daughter of RODOLFO Varano & his wife Camilla Chiavelli.  Galeotto & his wife had two children: 

a)         CARLO Malatesta (Jun 1368-13 Sep 1429)Signore di Riminim (1386) ELISABETTA Gonzaga, daughter of LODOVICO [II] Gonzaga Signore di Mantua & his wife Alda d´Este. 

b)         PANDOLFO [III] Malatesta ([1369]-Fano 1427, bur Fano San Francesco).  Signore di Fano.  m ---.  The name of Pandolfo´s wife is not known.  Mistess (1): ANTONIA da Barignano, daugher of ---.  Pandolfo [III] & his wife had one child: 

i)          GALEOTTO ROBERT Malatesta (1412-Sant´Arcangelo 1432).  Signore di Rimini

Pandolfo [III] had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

ii)         SIGISMONDO PANDOLFO Malatesta (Brescia 19 Jun 1417-Castel Sismondo 7 Oct 1468)Signore di RiminiHe was appointed commander-in-chief of the Venetian forces in mainland Greece after the death of Bertoldo d'Este in 1463.  He captured part of the city of Mistra, but was repelled by the Ottomans and returned to Italy[51]m firstly (12 Oct 1440) GINEVRA d´Este, daughter of NICCOLO [III] Signore di Ferrara e Modena & his first wife Gigliola da Carrara (24 Mar 1419-).  m secondly (23 Mar 1443) POLISSENA Sforza, illegitimate daughter of FRANCESCO I Sforza Duke of Milan & his mistress Giovanna d´Acquapendente (Fermo 1428-Rimini Jun 1449).  She was alleged to have been murdered by her husband.  m thirdly (1456) ISOTTA degli Atti, daughter of ---.  Mistress (1): VANNETTA dei Toschi, daughter of ---.  Sigismondo Pandolfo & his second wife had two children: 

(a)        GALEOTTO Malatesta (1442-young). 

(b)        GIOVANNA Malatesta (1444-).  m --- Duca di Camerino, son of ---. 

Sigismondo Pandolfo & his third wife had four children (legitimated by their parents´ marriage): 

(c)        GIOVANNI Malatesta (-young). 

(d)        MARGHERITA Malatestam CARLO di Fortebraccio, son of ---. 

(e)        SALLUSTIO Malatesta (-after 1469).  Signore di Rimini

(f)         ANTONIA Malatesta (-beheaded 1483).  m as his first wife, RODOLFO Gonzaga Signore di Castiglione delle Stiviere, son of ---. 

Sigismondo Pandolfo had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

(g)        ROBERTO Malatesta (1441-1482).  Signore di Riminim ---.  The name of Roberto´s wife is not known.  Roberto & his wife had one child: 

(1)        PANDOLFO Malatesta (-after 1500).  Signore di Rimini.  He was expelled from Rimini in 1500 by Cesare Borgia. 

iii)        DOMENICO Malatesta "Novello" (Brescia 5 Aug 1418-Cesena 20 Nov 1465).  Signore di Cesena 1429.  m (1434) VIOLANTE da Montefeltro, daughter of --- (1430-). 

c)         ANDREA Malatesta (1373-20 Sep 1416).  Signore di Cesena.  m ---.  The name of Andrea´s wife is not known.  Andrea & his wife had one child: 

i)          PARISINA Malatesta (1404-beheaded Ferrara 21 May 1425).  She committed adultery with her husband's illegitimate son Ugo and was beheaded[52].  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records that "lo marchese Nicholo de Ferrara" beheaded "sua mugliere et Ugo sui figliolo" in 1424, adding that she was "figliola del signore Malatesta de Cesena"[53].  m (1418) as his second wife, NICCOLÒ [III] d'Este Signor di Ferrara e Modena, illegitimate son of ALBERTO d'Este Signor di Ferrara & his mistress Isotta Albaresani (Ferrara 9 Nov 1383-poisoned Milan 26 Dec 1441, bur Ferrara Santa Maria degli Angeli). 

d)         GALEOTTO Novello Malatesta .  Signore di Cervia. 

e)         MARGHERITA Malatesta (-1399)m (1393) as his second wife, GIANFRANCESCO Gonzaga Signore di Mantua, son of LODOVICO [II] Gonzaga Signore di Mantua & his wife Alda d´Este (1363-8 Mar 1407). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    URBINO

 

 

 

A.      CONTI di URBINO, CONTI di MONTEFELTRO (MONTEFELTRO)

 

 

FEDERICO da Montefeltro, son of GUIDO Conte da Montefeltro & his wife --- (-after 1322)Conte di Urbino 1298-1322.  He was expelled from Urbino. 

m ---.  The name of Federigo´s wife is not known. 

Federigo & his wife had two children: 

1.         GALEAZZO da Montefeltro (-after 29 Mar 1328).  Conte di Montefeltro.  Emperor Ludwig IV granted privileges to "nobilibus viris Galasso et Nolfo fratribus natis quondam bone memorie --- comitis Montis feretri" by charter dated 29 Mar 1328[54]

2.         SIGINOLFO da Montefeltro (-1364).  Conte di MontefeltroEmperor Ludwig IV granted privileges to "nobilibus viris Galasso et Nolfo fratribus natis quondam bone memorie --- comitis Montis feretri" by charter dated 29 Mar 1328[55]m ---.  The name of Siginolfo´s wife is not known.  Signolfo & his wife had one child: 

a)         FEDERICO da Montefeltro (-1370)m (1365) TEODORA Gonzaga, daughter of UGOLINO Gonzaga & his second wife Camilla della Gherardesca.  The name of Federigo´s wife is not known.  Federigo & his wife had one child: 

i)          ANTONIO da Montefeltro (-1404).  Conte di Urbino 1375.  He received Gubbio in 1384.  m AGNESINA, daughter of ---.  Antonio & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GUIDANTONIO da Montefeltro (-1443).  He succeeded his father in 1404 as Conte di Urbino

-         DUKES of URBINO

(b)       BATTISTA da Montefeltro (1384-3 Jul 1448)m (6 Jun 1405) GALEAZZO Malatesta, son of MALATESTA Malatesta & his wife Elisabetta Varano di Camerino (-1457). 

 

 

1.         NICCOLÒ (-after 7 Oct 1363).  Conte di UrbinoThe Annales Senenses names "comitis Niccholay de Urbino" as leader of "societas del Cappello" when recording that the Sienese defeated them 7 Oct 1363 "apud Guardam Vallem in comitatu Senensi" and that "comes Niccholaus predictus et domnus Iohannes de Sarteano et imperator de Bolgaria et episcopus de Bolgaria" were captured[56]

 

 

 

B.      DUKES of URBINO (MONTEFELTRO)

 

 

GUIDANTONIO da Montefeltro, son of ANTONIO da Montefeltro Conte di Urbino & his wife --- (-1443)He succeeded his father 1404 as Conte di Urbino

m firstly ---.  The name of Federigo´s first wife is not known. 

m secondly ---.  The name of Federigo´s second wife is not known. 

Guidantonio & his first wife had one child: 

1.         daughter .  m (before 1424) BERNARDINO degli Ubaldini, son of ---. 

Guidantonio & his second wife had three children: 

2.         ODDANTONIO da Montefeltro (after 1424-1444).  He succeeded his father 1443 as Conte di Urbino.  He was created Duke of Urbino in 1443 by Pope Eugene IV.  m (1444) as her first husband, ISOTTA d'Este, illegitimate daughter of NICCOLÒ [III] d'Este Signore di Ferrara e Modena & his mistress Catarina --- (1425-1456).  She married secondly (1446) Stefano Frangipani Conte di Segni

3.         AGNESE da Montefeltro (-16 Dec 1447)m ALESSANDRO Gonzaga di Mantua, son of GIANFRANCESCO Gonzaga Marchese di Mantua & his wife Paola Malatesta (-16 Jan 1466). 

4.         SVEVA da Montefeltro (Urbino 1432-Pesaro 8 Sep 1478)m (1448, divorced 1457) as his second wife, ALESSANDRO Sforza Signore di Pesaro, illegitimate son of GIACOPO SFORZA di Attendoli da Cottignola & his mistress Lucia Terziani (Cotignola 1409-Fossa 3 Apr 1473). 

Guidantonio had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:    

5.          FEDERIGO da Montefeltro (-1482).  He was legitimated in 1424.  Bicheno argues that Federigo was in fact the legitimate son of Bernardino degli Ubaldini by a daughter of Guidantonio da Montefeltro[57].  He succeeded his half-brother in 1444 as FEDERIGO Duke of Urbinom (1460) BATTISTA Sforza, daughter of ALESSANDRO Sforza Signore di Pesaro & his first wife Costanza da Varano dei Signori di Camerino (Pesaro 1446-Urbino 6 Jul 1472).  Federigo & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         GUIDOBALDO da Montefeltro (-1508).  He succeeded his father 1482 as GUIDOBALDO Duke of Urbino.  He was deposed in 1497.  He was restored in 1503.  m (1486) ELISABETTA Gonzaga, daughter of FEDERIGO I Gonzaga Marchese di Mantua & his wife Margareta von Bayern (1471-1526). 

b)         GIOVANNA da Montefeltro m ([1473]) GIOVANNI della Rovere Signore di Mondovi e Sinigaglia Prefect of Rome, son of RAFAELO della Rovere & his wife --- (-1501). 

c)          AGNESE da Montefeltro m FABRIZIO Colonna di Taglicozzo, son of ---. 

d)         [COSTANZA da Montefeltro .   m ANTONELLO di Sanseverino, son of ---.] 

Federigo had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:    

e)         GENTILE da Montefeltro m AGOSTINO Fregoso, son of LODOVICO Fregoso Doge of Genoa & his wife Ginevra Gattilusio [Lesbos] (-1487). 

 

 

 

C.      DUCHI di URBINO (della ROVERE)

 

 

LEONARDO della Rovere di Savona, son of --- . 

m ---.  The name of Leonardo´s wife is not known. 

Leonardo & his wife had one child: 

1.         FRANCESCO della Rovere (-1484).  He was elected Pope SIXTUS IV in 1471. 

2.         RAFAELO della Rovere (-1477).  m ---.  The name of Rafaelo´s wife is not known.  Rafaelo & his wife had one child: 

a)         LEONARDO della Rovere (-1475). 

b)         GIOVANNI della Rovere (-1501).  Signore di Mondovi e Sinigaglia.  Prefect of Rome.  

-        see below

c)         BARTOLOMEO GIUPPO della Rovere .  Bishop of Ferrara.  m MARIJA Araniti, daughter of GJERGJ Araniti & his second wife Petrina Franco (-after 1474). 

d)         GIULIO della Rovere (-1513).  He was elected as Pope JULIUS II in 1503. 

e)         LUCCHINA della Roverem GIANFRANCESCO Franciotti, son of ---. 

3.         FRANCHETTA della Roverem BARTOLOMEO Armoino, son of ---. 

4.         MARIA della Rovere m GIACOMO Basso, son of ---. 

5.         BIANCA della Roverem PAOLO Riario di Savona, son of ---. 

 

 

GIOVANNI della Rovere, son of RAFAELO della Rovere & his wife --- (-1501).  Signore di Mondovi e Sinigaglia.  Prefect of Rome.  

m (1473) GIOVANNA da Montefeltro, daughter of FEDERICO da Montefeltro Duke of Urbino & his wife Battista Sforza. 

Giovanni & his wife had children: 

1.         MARIA GIOVANNA della Rovere (1482-Bologna 1538).  m firstly VENANZIO Varano Signore di Camerino, son of --- (Pioraco 19 Oct 1476-Pesaro Oct 1502).  m secondly (1503) GALEAZZO Riario, son of --- (Imola 1487-Bologna 1557). 

2.         COSTANZA della Rovere (-Rome 1507). 

3.         BEATRICE della Rovere (-after 1513).  Nun at Santa Chiara di Urbino. 

4.         FRANCESCA MARIA della Rovere (Senigallia 22 Mar 1490-Pesaro 20 Oct 1538)He succeeded as Duke of Urbino in 1508.  He was expelled in 1516. He was restored in 1523.  m (Mantua 25 Sep 1509) as her second husband, ELEONORA Gonzaga di Mantua, widow of ANTONIO Signore di Montalto, daughter of FRANCESCO II Marchese di Mantua & his wife Isabella d´Este (Mantua 31 dec 1493-Urbino 13 Feb 1550). 

-        DUKES of URBINO

 

 

1.         GIOVANNI della Rovere .  Signore di Rivalba.  m (1515) as her first husband, MARIA Grimaldi, daughter of GIOVANNI II Grimaldi Signore di Monaco & his wife ---.  Giovanni & his wife had one child: 

a)         ANNA della Roverem (1531) BALTASARE di Tana Conte di Santena, son of ---. 

 

2.         ANTONIO della Rovere .  Conte di Sora.  m CATARINA Marzano, daughter of MARINO Marzano 3rd Duca di Sessa, Duca di Squillace, Principe di Rossano & his wife ---. 

 

 



[1] Osio, L. (ed.) (1869) Documenti Diplomatici tratti dagli archivii Milanesi (Milan) ("Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi"), Vol. II, Parte I, XLVIII, p. 73. 

[2] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XLVIII, p. 73. 

[3] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XLVIII, p. 73. 

[4] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XLVIII, p. 73. 

[5] Père Anselme, Tome V, p. 661. 

[6] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 602. 

[7] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 602. 

[8] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 602. 

[9] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 602. 

[10] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 544. 

[11] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IX, RIS XVI, col. 317. 

[12] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CX, RIS XVI, col. 715. 

[13] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, cols. 602-3. 

[14] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 511. 

[15] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 544. 

[16] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 544. 

[17] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 544. 

[18] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 544. 

[19] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 602. 

[20] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 544. 

[21] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 603. 

[22] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 544. 

[23] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 503. 

[24] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 603. 

[25] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXX, RIS XVI, col. 729. 

[26] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 603. 

[27] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLIV, RIS XVI, col. 776. 

[28] Osio, L. (ed.) (1864) Documenti Diplomatici tratti dagli archivii Milanesi (Milan) ("Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi"), Vol. I, CXXVIII, p. 186. 

[29] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CLVII, p. 221. 

[30] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 603. 

[31] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CLXXII, p. 233. 

[32] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CXXI, p. 177. 

[33] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLII, RIS XVI, col. 774. 

[34] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CXLVIII, p. 213. 

[35] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CLI, p. 217. 

[36] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CLII, RIS XVI, col. 815. 

[37] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CLXXII, p. 233. 

[38] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 603. 

[39] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 603. 

[40] Leibnitz, G. W. (1711) Scriptorum Brunsvicensia illustrantium, Tome III (Hannover), Chronicon Brunsvicensium, p. 406. 

[41] Spiller, R. (1909) Ulrich Füertrer bayerische Chronik (Munich), (Bayerischen Quellen, Neue Folge, Band II, Zweite Abteilung), 349, p. 208. 

[42] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[43] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[44] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 285. 

[45] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XI, p. 13. 

[46] Miller, W. (1908) The Latins in the Levant.  A History of Frankish Greece (1204-1566) (Cambridge and New York), p. 415. 

[47] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1834) Michælis Ducæ Nepotis, Historia Byzantina, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn)20, p. 100. 

[48] Nicol, D. M. (1972) The Last Centuries of Byzantium 1261-1453 (London), p. 346. 

[49] Runciman, S. (2000) The Fall of Constantinople 1453 (Cambridge University Press, Canto edition), p. 48. 

[50] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Georgios Phrantzes, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Liber II, 10, p. 158. 

[51] Miller (1908), pp. 467-8. 

[52] Dean, T. (1988) Land and Power in Late Medieval Ferrara: The Rule of the Este 1350-1450 (Cambridge University Press), p. 27. 

[53] Una inedita chronachetta degli Sforza, Archivio storico per le province Napoletane, Anno XIX, Fascicolo IV (Naples, 1894) ("Cronachetta degli Sforza"), p. 731. 

[54] Ugolini, F. (1859) Storia dei conti e duchi d´Urbino (Firenze), Vol. II, Documenti, 2 bis, p. 498. 

[55] Ugolini (1859), Vol. II, Documenti, 2 bis, p. 498. 

[56] Annales Senenses, MGH SS XIX, p. 233. 

[57] Bicheno, H. (2007) Vendetta. High Art and Low Cunning at the Birth of the Renaissance (Weidenfeld and Nicholson), pp. 112-3.