NIKAIA

  v2.0 Updated 10 February 2011

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.            EMPERORS in NIKAIA (LASKARIS) 3

A.       ORIGINS.. 3

B.       EMPEROR in NIKAIA 1208-1222. 5

THEODOROS I 1208-1222. 5

C.      OTHER LASKARIS.. 10

Chapter 2.            EMPERORS in NIKAIA (BATATZES) 11

A.       BATATZES, Origins. 11

B.       EMPERORS in NIKAIA 1222-1261 (BATATZES) 15

IOANNES III 1222-1254, THEODOROS II 1254-1258, IOANNES IV 1258. 16

C.      OTHER BATATZES.. 22

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

After the fall of Constantinople to the armies of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, Byzantine nobles fled and established themselves in Asia Minor and in Thrace and Epirus on the Greek mainland.  Theodoros Laskaris landed at Nikaia on the southern shore of the Black Sea, subjugated the surrounding country, and was crowned emperor in 1208 by the newly appointed patriarch.  Mikhael IV Autorianos, who bore the title "Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople" to emphasise the status of the empire at Nikaia as the continuation of the empire of Byzantium, was elected patriarch following the resignation of Ioannes Kamateros, who had refused to come to Nikaia to crown Theodoros Laskaris[1].  The new partriarch's election was irregular because it was not performed in Constantinople; his coronation of Emperor Theodoros was therefore also considered irregular by traditionalists[2]

 

A territorial agreement was reached in 1214 between the Latin empire of Constantinople and the empire in Nikaia: Emperor Theodoros controlled land from the Kaikos valley southward and from Lopadion eastward, Neocastra, Kelbianon, Opsicia in Phrygia, and Magidia, as well as Nikaia and Brusa, while the Latin empire held the north-west corner of Mysia, including Kiminas and Akhyraous[3].  During the reign of Emperor Ioannes III, the Nikaians conquered territory on the Greek mainland and islands in the Aegean Sea at the expense of the Latin empire and by the time he died in 1254 the Latins controlled only the city of Constantinople itself.  The Nikaian empire ceased to exist soon after the accession of the infant Emperor Ioannes IV, who was deposed by Mikhael Palaiologos who engineered his own appointment as co-emperor before recapturing Constantinople in 1261 and re-establishing the Byzantine empire. 

 

Much of the detail in this document is based on the History of Niketas Choniates[4] and the Annales of Georgios Akropolitos[5].  The on-line Prosopography of the Byzantine World database (2006.02) produced by King's College, London[6] has also been consulted, especially for seals.  The work by the early 20th century historian Alice Gardner, written in 1912, provides a scholarly, detailed and reflective history of the Greek emperors at Nikaia.  Despite the work's failure to cite primary sources for all assertions, it inspires confidence because of its thoroughness.  This document has been reviewed in detail by Morris Bierbrier, who has made additions where indicated.  I am grateful for his helpful collaboration. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    EMPERORS in NIKAIA (LASKARIS)

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

Seven brothers [and one possible sister], whose parents are not known.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[7], their father was named Manuel Laskaris, but this would be inconsistent with the normal naming convention in Byzantine noble families under which sons are not named after their fathers[8].  The same source names their mother "Ioanna (Karatzas, Phokaina)" but the source on which this is based has not yet been identified. 

1.         MANUEL Laskaris (-after 1259).  Ephræmius names "fratres, Manuel, Theodorus et Constantinus"[9].  Together with his brother Mikhael, he was summoned out of retirement by his great nephew Emperor Theodoros II[10].  He became a monk as MAXIMOS.  Georgius Akropolites records that "patruum suum Manuelem Lascarim" (referring to Theodoros II) had become a monk as "Maximi", and in a later passage that, towards the end of the 1255/56 Bulgarian war, Emperor Theodoros II appointed him commander (hegemon) of the imperial forces in Didymoteichon and created him protosébastos[11]

2.         MIKHAEL Laskaris (-after [1263]).  Georgius Akropolites records that Emperor Theodoros II appointed "avunculum Michaelem Lascarim" as governor of Thessaloniki[12].  Together with his brother Manuel, he was summoned out of retirement by his great nephew Emperor Theodoros II who appointed Mikhael to his council[13]Megas dux.  Pachymeres records that "Alexius Philanthropenus protostrator", was designated "dux magnus" but did not use the title as "frater germanus Lascaris senioris Augusti"  was still alive, in a passage dated to [1263][14].  No other record has yet been found to confirm that date of Mikhael's creation as megas dux

3.         GEORGIOS Laskaris (-before 1236).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Sébastokrator.  Hegemon in Thrakesion 1211. 

4.         KONSTANTINOS Doukas Laskaris (-after 19 Mar 1205).  Ephræmius names "fratres, Manuel, Theodorus et Constantinus"[15].  As discussed below under Konstantinos's brother Theodoros, there is some possibility that Konstantinos Laskaris was the "Laskaris" who was the candidate for the imperial throne in Apr 1204 to whom Nicetas refers, although this seems unlikely for the reasons set out below.  A seal dated to [1200] names "Konstantinos Komnenos Laskaris"[16].  He fought alongside his brother Theodoros at Poimanenon in 1205[17].  Villehardouin records that, after this defeat, Theodoros Laskaris placed his brother Constantine in command of an army which was defeated by the Latins at Adramyttium[18].  Despot. 

5.         THEODOROS Komnenos Laskaris ([1171/74]-Nov 1221)Ephræmius names "fratres, Manuel, Theodorus et Constantinus"[19].  He was crowned Emperor THEODOROS I at Nikaia in 1208. 

-        see below, Part B

6.         ALEXIOS Laskaris (-after 1224).  Georgius Akropolites records that "Theodori imperatoris fratres germani sebastocratores Alexius atque Isaacius" kidnapped "illius filia Eudocia" from Constantinople after the death of her father[20]Sébastokrator.  Akropolites also names him as a Latin military leader against the Bulgars, recording that he and his brother Isaakios fought in Bythinia against Emperor Ioannes III in 1224 but were defeated at Pœmanenum, captured and blinded[21]

7.         ISAAKIOS Laskaris (-after 1224).  Georgius Akropolites records that "Theodori imperatoris fratres germani sebastocratores Alexius atque Isaacius" kidnapped "illius filia Eudocia" from Constantinople after the death of her father[22]Sébastokrator.  Akropolites also names him as a Latin military leader against the Bulgars, recording that he and his brother Alexios fought in Bythinia against Emperor Ioannes III in 1224 but were defeated at Pœmanenum, captured and blinded[23]

8.         [daughter .  According to Miller[24], Emperor Theodoros bestowed the hand of his sister on Marco Sanudo after the latter was captured while attempting to take Smyrna.  He quotes Laurentius de Monachis and several Italian chronicles which do not appear to be contemporary.  According to Sturdza[25], "it is certain" that this marriage did not take place.  It does seem surprising that Emperor Theodoros, the main opponent of the Latins, should have arranged the marriage of his sister to one of the newly arrived Latin rulers, assuming that he had any marriageable sisters at all[26]m (1213) MARCO I Sanudo Duke of Naxos, son of MARCO Sanudo & his wife --- Dandolo (-1227).] 

 

 

 

B.      EMPEROR in NIKAIA 1208-1222

 

 

THEODOROS I 1208-1222

 

THEODOROS Komnenos Laskaris, son of --- Laskaris & his wife --- ([1171/74]-Nov 1221, bur monastery of Hyakinthos)Ephræmius names "fratres, Manuel, Theodorus et Constantinus"[27].  Theodoros held a military command under Emperor Alexios III, helping to suppress the rebellion of Ivanko in 1200 and vigorously opposing the crusaders in 1203/04[28].  He was created despot by his father-in-law Emperor Alexios III[29].  The chronicler Nicetas Choniates reports that, immediately after the flight of Emperor Alexios V Doukas Murzuphlos and before the arrival of the crusading army (presumably therefore 13 Apr 1204), there were two candidates for the imperial throne "a pair of young men…Ducas and Laskaris and the name of both was that of the champion [αρχηγός] of the faith".  The latter expression has been interpreted as referring to "Konstantinos", which would indicate that Konstantinos Laskaris rather than his brother Theodoros was chosen, although another version of the manuscript refers to them as "duo iuvenes…Ducas et Lascaris, uterque Theodorus"[30].  The most likely explanation is that Theodoros Laskaris was one of the chosen candidates and Theodoros Komnenos Doukas Angelos (later emperor at Thessaloniki) the other.  It should also be noted that later chroniclers seem to date the regnal years of Theodoros Laskaris, after he became emperor at Nikaia, from 1204[31].  In any case, whichever Laskaris brother was chosen, he refused the honour[32].  Theodoros Laskaris escaped from Constantinople with his wife and sailed to Asia Minor, landing at Nikaia where he was at first refused entry[33].  He established himself at Brusa, used his title despot, and proceeded to subjugate the surrounding country[34].  Theodoros Laskaris was defeated at Poimanenon by Henri de Flandre (brother of Baudouin I Latin Emperor of Constantinople) and Louis de Blois (to whom Nikaia had been assigned under the terms of the Mar 1204 treaty which divided the empire between Venice and the crusaders).  The latter, however, returned to Thrace where he was killed defending the Latin empire against the Bulgarians[35].  This left a free hand for Theodoros to establish his rule at Nikaia along the lines of Byzantium.  He was proclaimed Emperor THEODOROS I in 1206 and crowned at Easter 1208 by Mikhael Autorianos, newly elected patriarch resident at Nikaia.  Georgius Akropolites records that "Ioannes…Camaterus" (Patriarch of Constantinople) refused to crown Theodoros Laskaris as emperor, but resigned as patriarch to give way for "Michael Auctorianus"[36].  The Seljuk Sultan Kaikhusraw attacked Nikaia, together with ex-Emperor Alexios III who had sought refuge at his court, but was defeated by Theodoros in spring 1211[37].  Sporadic fighting continued with the Latin empire of Constantinople until the Treaty of Nymphaeon confirmed the territorial gains of each at the end of 1214[38].  Emperor Theodoros annexed the territory of David Komnenos (brother of Alexios Komnenos Emperor at Trebizond) west of Sinope in 1214, although it was soon seized by the Seljuks.  Bar Hebræus records that in A.H. 611 (1214/15) "le roi Lascaris" was captured and sent to "Cai-Caous", who released him in return for payment of a large ransom and the transfer of several castles and towns[39].  In Aug 1220, Emperor Theodoros allied himself with the Venetian podestà in Constantinople and accorded Venice the same commercial privileges in Nikaia which it had previously held in Byzantium[40]Ephræmius records the death of Theodoros aged 50 and his burial "in Hyacinthi…cœnobio"[41].  Georgius Akropolites records that "imperator Theodoros Lascaris annos quinque et quadraginta et amplius, minor quinquaginta natus" when he died and was buried "in Hyacinthi monasterio"[42]

m firstly (early 1199) as her second husband, ANNA Komnene Angelina, widow of ISAAKIOS Komnenos sébastokrator, daughter of Emperor ALEXIOS III & his wife Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina ([1175/80]-1212, bur monastery of Hyakinthos[43]).  Niketas Choniates names "Contostephanus Andronicus et Isaacius Comenus" as "duo generi" of Emperor Alexios[44].  Niketas Choniates records the second marriage of "imperator…filias…Annam" and "Theodoro Lascaro, adolescenti"[45].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Theodoro Lascari" married "imperatoris Alexii…filiarum illius…secunda Anna"[46]

m secondly (24 Nov 1214, divorced 1216) as her second husband, PHILIPPA of Armenia, widow of SHAHANSHAH [Sergios] of Sassoun Lord of Selefke, daughter of RUPEN III Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen] & his wife Isabelle of Toron (1183-before 1219).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Aalis et Phelippe" as the two daughters of "Rupin de la Montaigne qui estoit seignor d'Ermenie" & his wife, specifying that Philippa was wife of "Lascre" and had a son "Costans qui fu mort"[47]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "King Lewon…previously had…made marriage relations with Emperor Lascari and gave to him as a wife Philippa, the daughter of his brother Ruben" in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217][48].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Theodorum Lascarim imperatorem" married "ex Armeniis uxorem" after his first wife died, but sent her back "in Ciliciam illius patriam"[49].  This marriage was arranged with Leo I King of Armenia, the bride's uncle, presumably to obtain support for Nikaia from its neighbouring Christian power.  Gardner refers to the theory that Philippa was repudiated by her husband because he had expected to marry King Leo's daughter (who was married to Jean de Brienne King of Jerusalem about the same time) and that he sent Philippa home after discovering that he had been duped into marrying the king's niece instead[50]

m thirdly (1219) MARIE de Courtenay, daughter of PIERRE [II] de Courtenay Emperor of Constantinople & his wife Yolande de Flandre ([1204]-Sep 1228).  Georgius Akropolites records that "Theodorum Lascarim imperatorem" married "sorore Italorum principis (Roberto…et Erico patruo successerat" after repudiating his second wife[51]Ephræmius records the marriage of "imperatori Lascari" and "Petri Maria filia", recording that his first wife had died and that he had repudiated his second wife "Cilice-gente natam"[52].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Lascarus Grecus…imperator Nicee" as third husband of "secundam filiarum eius [Namucensis comitis Petri] Sibiliam" but confuses Sibylle with her younger sister Marie[53].  Her marriage may have been proposed by Emperor Theodoros, during the interregnum which followed the disappearance of her father, with a view to his taking over the Latin empire himself but the statements of contemporary chroniclers are confusing[54].  Regent of Nikaia 1222.  She was chosen as regent of Constantinople by the barons in 1228 on the death of her brother Emperor Robert, and styled herself "Empress"[55]

Emperor Theodoros I & his first wife had five children:

1.         EIRENE Doukaina Komnene Laskarina (-Summer 1239).  Georgius Akropolites names "Irene, Maria et Eudocia" as the three daughters of "Theodorum Lascarim imperatorem…ex Anna uxore", stating that "primam Irenem" married "Andronico Palaeologo…despotæ" and after her first husband died "Ioanni Ducæ, Batatzæ cognomine…e Didymtoecho…protovestiarii"[56]Ephræmius records that "Anna regina coniuge Lascario" had three daughters "Irene et Maria et Eudocia", recording that "maiorem natu Irenem" married "Palaeologorum…Andronico…despotæ" and secondly "Ioanni…Vatatzæ de Ducarum stirpe genitor et oriundo urbe Didymoticho, protovestiarii"[57].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "Vastachius" married one of the daughters (mentioned first) of "Lascarum Grecum"[58].  She was thrown by her horse in 1222, after which she was unable to bear further children.  She became a nun as EUGENIAm firstly (1216) ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos, despot, son of --- (-[1216]).  m secondly ([1216]) IOANNES Doukas Batatzes, son of --- Batatzes & his wife --- Angelina ([1192]-Nymphaion 3 Nov 1254).  He succeeded his father-in-law in 1221 as IOANNES III Emperor in Nikaia

-        see below, Chapter 2.B.  BATATZES, EMPERORS in NIKAIA 1222-1261

2.         MARIA Laskarina (-16 or 24 Jul 1270, bur Esztergom).  Georgius Akropolites names "Irene, Maria et Eudocia" as the three daughters of "Theodorum Lascarim imperatorem…ex Anna uxore", stating that "Mariam secundam" married "Ungariæ regis…filio", his father arranging the marriage on his journey back from Jerusalem[59]Ephræmius records that "Anna regina coniuge Lascario" had three daughters "Irene et Maria et Eudocia", recording that "Mariam…natu secundo" married "regis Paeoniæ filio"[60].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "rex Bela, regis Andree filius primogenitus" married one of the daughters (mentioned third) of "Lascarum Grecum"[61].  The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that András II King of Hungary arranged the marriage of "suo filio primogenito Bele" and "Lascaro rege Grecorum…filiam eius" while he was in Greece[62].  The Annales Polonorum record the death in 1270 of "regina Ungarorum Maria, mater domine Kinge"[63].  The necrology of Oberaltaich records the death "IX Kal Aug" of "Maria regina Ungarie"[64].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVII Kal Aug" of "Maria regina Ungarie"[65].  The Altahenses Annales record that "Maria regina Ungarie" died after her husband "non post longum tempus"[66].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "consorte sua Maria…filia imperatoris Grecorum" was buried with her husband "rex Bela" in "Strigony in ecclesia fratrum minorum"[67]m (1218) BÉLA of Hungary, son of ANDRÁS II King of Hungary & his first wife Gertrud von Andechs-Merano (Nov 1206-Margaret Island, near Buda 3 May 1270, bur Esztergom).  He succeeded his father in 1235 as BÉLA IV King of Hungary.  . 

3.         EVDOKIA Laskarina ([1210/12]-[1247/53]).  Georgius Akropolites names "Irene, Maria et Eudocia" as the three daughters of "Theodorum Lascarim imperatorem…ex Anna uxore"[68]Ephræmius records the betrothal of "imperatori Lascari…tertiam filiam Eudociam" and "Robertum", stating that "Manuele patriarcha" objected to the marriage[69].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Robertus" was betrothed to "Eudociæ filiæ" but that "Manuelem…patriarcham" objected to the marriage[70].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Theodori imperatoris fratres germani sebastocratores Alexius atque Isaacius" kidnapped "illius filia Eudocia" from Constantinople after the death of her father[71].  Her first betrothal was arranged in confirmation of the peace between the empire in Nikaia and the Latin empire, but the Patriarch of Nikaia objected to the marriage on the grounds of consanguinity[72].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "dux Austrie" married one of the daughters (mentioned second) of "Lascarum Grecum" and that the fourth daughter married "Anselmus de Kiev, de Pontivo natus"[73].  No other source records that Emperor Theodoros Lascaris had four daughters.  It appears likely that the daughter who was betrothed to the duke of Austria was the same daughter who later married Anseau de Cayeux.  If this is correct, it does not appear possible for Evdokia to have married Anseau de Cayeux much before [1230].  If the supposed earlier marriages of Anseau de Cayeux are correctly shown in the document NORTHERN FRANCE NOBILITY, the date of Evdokia´s marriage must be adjusted to [1239/47].  The marriage must have taken place during a period when the emperors in Nikaia entered a peace arrangement with the Latin empire of Constantinople, with the marriage as part of the deal, but insufficient details are known about the precise chronology of events to be able to assess the date more precisely.  As the name of Anseau´s daughter "Eudokia" indicates that Evdokia Laskarina must have been her mother, it is suggested that Evdokia must have been born towards the end of her mother´s life.  Georgius Akropolites records that "Eudocia soror uxoris imperatoris" was the wife of "Aseldecaë [Ασέλ Δεκαέ]" (="Ansel de Cayeu") at "apud Tzurulum" which was besieged by Emperor Ioannes, her husband fleeing while Evdokia was taken to Constantinople, in [1247] from the context of the passage[74]Ephræmius records that "sororem reginæ…Eudociam" married "Aseldecao Italo dynastæ"[75].  The reference to "Italo" is presumably deduced from his later appointment as Vicar-General by Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet].  If it is correct, as shown in NORTHERN FRANCE NOBILITY, that it was Anseau [V] who married Maria Angelina, and not a younger person named Anseau de Cayeux, Evdokia must have died before 1253.  Betrothed firstly (1222) to ROBERT de Courtenay Emperor of Constantinople, son of PIERRE de Courtenay Emperor of Constantinople & his wife Yolande de Flandre ([1201]-Morea end Jan 1228).  This betrothal was arranged in confirmation of the peace between the empire in Nikaia and the Latin empire, but the Patriarch [of Nikaia] objected to the marriage on grounds of consanguinity[76].  [Betrothed secondly (1226, contract broken 1229) to FRIEDRICH of Austria, son of LEOPOLD VI Duke of Austria & his wife Theodora Angelina ([1210]-killed in battle an der Leitha 15 Jun 1246, bur Heiligenkreuz).  He succeeded his father in 1230 as FRIEDRICH II Duke of Austria.]  m ([1239/47]) as his [third] wife, ANSEAU [V] de Cayeux, son of --- ([1195/1205]-[13 May 1273/Mar 1276]). 

4.         [NIKOLAOS] Laskaris (-before 1212).  Georgius Akropolites records that "bini [filii]" were born to Emperor Theodoros and his first wife, and had predeceased their mother[77].  The primary source which confirms his name has not yet been identified.  He was declared heir to the throne in 1208. 

5.         [IOANNES] Laskaris (-before 1212).  Georgius Akropolites records that "bini [filii]" were born to Emperor Theodoros and his first wife, and had predeceased their mother[78].  The primary source which confirms his name has not yet been identified. 

Emperor Theodoros I & his second wife had one child:

6.         KONSTANTINOS Laskaris (1215-).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Costans qui fu mort" as son of "Lascre" and his wife "Phelippe" daughter of "Rupin de la Montaigne qui estoit seignor d'Ermenie"[79].  Georgius Akropolites records that "ex Armenia filius unicus" was eight years old when his father died[80].  He was deprived of his rights to the throne.  [Dux of Thrakesion 1249.] 

 

 

 

C.      OTHER LASKARIS

 

 

1.         MANUEL Laskaris (-after [1325]).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Andronicus Tornices et Manuel Lascaris" as supporters Emperor Andronikos II in his disputes with his grandson[81]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    EMPERORS in NIKAIA (BATATZES)

 

 

This family may have been of Armenian origin[82]

 

 

A.      BATATZES, Origins

 

 

1.         --- Bryennios Batatzes (-after [1050]).  A seal dated to [1050] names "Bryennios Batatzes, patrikios hypatos and statelates of the West"[83]

 

2.         IOANNES Batatzes (-after Sep 1047).  Cedrenus records that "Joanne Batatze…Theodoro Strabomyta, Polye, Marianoque Brana, Occidentalium legionem ducibus et sibi sanguine propinquis" supported "patricii Leonis Tornicii" strategos of Iberia in his rebellion against Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos, adding that "Batatzæ" was "consanguineus…Tornicii" and that they were blinded together[84].  The relationship between Ioannes Batatzes and Leon Tornikios has not been traced.  Mikhael Glykas records that "Tornicius…Leoni et Batazæ" were captured and blinded (in 1047)[85]m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had one child: 

a)         --- Batatzaina .  The Anonymi Barensis Chronicon names Ioannes Batatzes as consocruneo of Leon Tornikios[86]m LEON Tornikios, son of --- (-after Sep 1047). 

 

3.         THEODOROS Batatzes (-after [1075]).  A seal dated to [1075] names "Theodoros Batatzes"[87]

 

4.         NIKEPHOROS Batatzes (-after [1085]).  Two seals dated to [1050] name "Nikephoros Batatzes, magistros vestes and doux of all the west"[88].  A seal dated to [1055] names "Nikephoros Batatzes, magister vestarches doux et praetor of Aegean Sea"[89].  A seal dated to [1060] names "Nikephoros Batatzes, proedros and doux of Bulgaria"[90].  A seal dated to [1085] names "Nikephoros Batatzes, kouropalates"[91]

 

5.         GEORGIOS Batatzes (-after [1100]).  A seal dated to [1100] names "Georgios Batatzes"[92]

 

6.         SYMBATIKIOS Batatzes (-after [1100]).  A seal dated to [1100] names "Symbatikios Batatzes kouropalates"[93]

 

7.         LEON Batatzes (-after [1163]).  Ioannes Kinnamos records that Emperor Manuel I sent "Leonem…Batatzem" to invade Hungary[94].  A seal dated to [1163] names "Leon Vatatzes"[95]

 

8.         THEODOROS Batatzes, son of --- (-killed in battle Neocæsarea 1176).  A seal dated to [1150] names "Theodoros Batatzes"[96].  He took part in the invasion of Cilicia in 1158 with his brother-in-law Emperor Manuel I and occupied Tarsus[97]Sébastohypertatos.  General.  Dux of Cilicia.  Governor of Cilicia.  Pansébastohypertatosm EVDOKIA Komnene, daughter of Emperor IOANNES & his wife [Piroska] [Eirene] of Hungary ([1119]-).  Her marriage is indicated by Ioannes Cinnamos who names "Theodorum Batatzem sororium sum", referring to Emperor Manuel I[98].  Theodoros Batatzes & his wife had four children:

a)         ANDRONIKOS Komnenos Batatzes (-killed in battle Neocæsarea 1176).  A seal dated to [1163] names "Andronikos Komnenos, (son) of Eudokia, a branch sprung from a purple-born root, nephew of the basileus Manuel, son of Theodoros Batatzes"[99].  He led the Byzantine army into Paphlagonia in 1176 with the aim of restoring Dhu'l Nun, but was killed at the siege of Niksar (Neocæsarea) in Sep 1176.  His head was sent as a trophy to the Sultan[100]m ---.  The name of Andronikos's wife is not known.  Andronikos Batatzes & his wife had one child:

i)          [ALEXIOS Komnenos Batatzes.  He is named by Varzos as a possible son of Andronikos, copied by Magdalino[101]Protosébastos.]  m [GIOVANNA di Monferrato, daughter of GUGLIELMO Marchese di Monferrato & his wife ---.  This person has not been traced in the family of the Marchesi di Monferrato.  She adopted the name ZOE in Byzantium.  For consistency with the known dates of other members of the Batatzes family, this couple's marriage must have taken place around [1200].  If her parentage is correctly identified, she could only therefore have been the daughter of Guglielmo VI Marchese di Monferrato, presumably illegitimate as he had no known children from his brief first marriage.  However, it appears unlikely that a member of the Monferrato family, who were closely connected with the Fourth Crusade, would have married a member of the Byzantine nobility by whom they were bitterly opposed.] 

b)         IOANNES Komnenos Batatzes (-1182).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Megas domestikos.  Niketas Choniates names "magnus domesticus Ioannes Comnenus, cognomento Batatzes"[102].  Governor of Thrace.  He died during the rebellion against Emperor Andronikos I.  m [MARIA Doukaina, daughter of ---].  The primary source which confirms her origin and marriage has not yet been identified.  Ioannes & his wife had two children: 

c)         MANUEL Batatzes .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was blinded in 1182. 

d)         ALEXIOS Batatzes .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was blinded in 1182. 

e)         ISAAKIOS Komnenos Batatzes.  A seal dated to [1175] names "a son of a porphyrogennete mother…Isaakios…the glory of Theodoros Batatzes"[103].  He was blinded in 1182 by Emperor Andronikos I.  m ([1170]) EIRENE Komnene, daughter of STEPHANOS Komnenos pansébastos & his wife Evdokia Axuchina ([1155]-). 

f)          ALEXIOS Komnenos Batatzes.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was blinded in 1182 by Emperor Andronikos I. 

g)         ANNA Komnene Batatzaina.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ALEXIOS Branas, son of --- (-1186)Pansébastos, sébastos.  He was proclaimed as Emperor ALEXIOS in 1186. 

 

 

It is not known how the following family group was related to the previous Batatzes family, if at all. 

 

1.         BASILEIOS Batatzes, son of --- (-killed in battle 1193).  Military leader against the Bulgarians.  Domestikos tes AnatolesDux of the theme of Thrace.  A seal dated to [1189] names "Basileios Batatzes sebastos"[104]same person as…?  --- Batatzes m ([1189]) --- Angelina, daughter of --- Angelos & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Her parentage is not known.  Europäische Stammtafeln[105] places her as a possible daughter of Isaakios Angelos, youngest son of Konstantinos Angelos (see above), but the basis for this is not known.  --- Batatzes & his wife had [three] children:

a)         ISAAKIOS Doukas Batatzes (-Genoa 1261, bur Genoa San Lorenzo).  Ephræmius names "Ioannes imperator…germani sui…sebastocratoris…Isaacii" when recording the marriage of his granddaughter[106]Parakoimenos tes megales sphendonesSébastokrator 1253.  Pansébastos sébastos 1261.  m ---.  The name of Isaakios's wife is not known.  Isaakios Batatzes & his wife had two children:

i)          IOANNES Doukas Batatzes (-[1240]).  Georgius Akropolites records that "pater illius, sebastocratoris filius Ioannes, in adolescentia fato functus" when recording the marriage of his daughter Theodora[107]m EVDOKIA Angelina, daughter of IOANNES Komnenos Angelos megas primikerios, dux of Thrakesion & his wife --- ([1222]-[1253]).  Georgius Akropolites names "Eudocia Angeli Ioannis filia" as widow of "sebastocratoris filius Ioannes" recording that she died around the time of her daughter's marriage, dated to the early 1250s from the context of the passage[108].  Ioannes Batatzes & his wife had two children:

(a)       THEODORA Doukaina Komnene Palaiologina Batatzaina ([1240]-4 Mar 1303)Georgius Akropolites records the marriage between "fratris sui sebastocratoris Isaacii Ducæ neptem Theodoram" and "Michaeli Comneno" (referring to Mikhael Palaeologus, the future Emperor Mikhael VIII), commenting that "pater illius, sebastocratoris filius Ioannes, in adolescentia fato functus", dated to the early 1250s from the context of the passage[109]Ephræmius records the marriage of "Ioannes imperator…Theodoram neptem germani sui…sebastocratoris…Isaacii" and "Michaeli stirpe Palaeologo"[110].  Tax collector on Kos.  She was crowned Empress with her husband in Constantinople in Sep 1261.  Pachymeres names "Augusta Theodora" as mother of Emperor Andronikos II[111]m (1253) MIKHAEL Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos, son of ANDRONIKOS Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos megas domestikos & his wife Theodora Palaiologina ([1224/25]-11 Dec 1282).  He succeeded in 1259 as Emperor MIKHAEL VIII

ii)         daughter .  Pachymeres records that "Strategopulina", wife of "Constantino Strategopulo", was "ex Ioannis Ducæ olim imperatoris fratre nata", a later passage clarifying that her father was "fratre imperatoris dignitate sebastocratore" which appears to indicate Isaakios Batatzes[112]m KONSTANTINOS Strategopoulos, son of ALEXIOS Strategopoulos & his wife ---.] 

b)         [--- Batatzesm ---.]  --- Batatzes & his wife had one child:

i)          --- Batatzaina ).  Her origin and marriage are referred to by Pachymeres who records that the "avia paterna […coniux protovestiarii Raulis Alexii]" of "coniux Porphyrogeniti" was "Strategopulinæ neptis ex fratre", clarifying that "Strategopulinæ" was born "ex fratre imperatoris dignitate sebastocratore", and that "eius vero avia" (which presumably refers back to "avia paterna") was "…ex ipsius altero germano"[113].  The passage appears to indicate that the wife of Alexios Raoul was the child of another brother of Emperor Ioannes III.  If this is correct, "neptis", in relation to "Strategopulinæ", must be interpreted as "cousin" rather than "niece".  The chronology of the various families involved suggests that the wife of Alexios Raoul belonged to the same generation of the Batatzes family as the wife of Konstantinos Strategopoulous, although if this is correct "neptis" must mean "first cousin" rather than "second cousin".  It should be emphasised that the passages in Pachymeres are complex and it is uncertain that the interpretation set out here is the only possible one.  Georgius Akropolites names "protovestiario Alexio, Raulo neptis marito", referring to Emperor Ioannes III[114]m ALEXIOS Raoul, son of --- (-[1258]).  Protobestiarios 1242/1256.  Hegemon in Thessaloniki 1253, deposed in 1256 by Emperor Theodoros II. 

c)         IOANNES Doukas Batatzes ([1192]-Nymphaion 30 Oct/4 Nov 1254, bur Monastery of Sosandra).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Protobestiarios [1212].  He succeeded his father-in-law in 1222 as Emperor IOANNES III in Nikaia. 

-        see below, Part B

 

 

1.         ANDRONICUS Nestongus, son of --- .  Georgius Akropolites names "Nestongus Andronicus imperatoris consobrinus", recording that he rebelled against "imperator Ioannes", soon after his accession from the context of the passage[115].  Presumably he was related to Emperor Ioannes III through his mother, but the precise relationship has not been ascertained. 

 

 

 

B.      EMPERORS in NIKAIA 1222-1261 (BATATZES)

 

 

IOANNES III 1222-1254, THEODOROS II 1254-1258, IOANNES IV 1258

 

IOANNES Doukas Batatzes, son of --- Batatzes & his wife --- Angelina ([1192]-Nymphaion 30 Oct/4 Nov 1254, bur Monastery of Sosandra[116]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was appointed protobestiarios in [1212] by his father-in-law.  He succeeded his father-in-law in 1221 as Emperor IOANNES III, crowned 15 Dec 1221.  He suppressed the rebellion of his wife's uncles Alexios and Isaakios Laskaris, defeating their forces at Pœmanemum in 1224[117].  Emperor Ioannes captured and briefly held Adrianople in an expedition to Macedonia in 1225, which probably induced the Latin Emperor Robert to sign a treaty with Nikaia under which the latter gained control of all the north-west part of Asia Minor except the region of Nikomedia[118].  Emperor Ioannes also captured the islands of Lesbos, Chios, Samos and Ikarios.  When Ivan Asen II Tsar of Bulgaria learnt of the arrival of Jean de Brienne in Constantinople in 1231 as regent for Emperor Baudouin II, he opened negotiations with Nikaia for a joint attack on Constantinople, his alliance later being confirmed by the marriage of his daughter Elena to the heir to the Nikaian throne[119].  Together the allies besieged Constantinople, but before the city capitulated the Tsar broke the alliance and attacked Ioannes at Tzurulum, although he made peace at the end of 1237.  In 1242, the army of Emperor Ioannes besieged Thessaloniki but, anxious to return to Anatolia to face the threat of the Mongols, he negotiated a compromise under which Emperor Ioannes of Thessaloniki renounced the imperial title, was awarded the Nikaian title of despot and allowed to continue to rule in Thessaloniki[120].  The Mongol threat was averted by the withdrawal of the invaders after they received news of the death of the Great Khan Ogedei in Karakoram.  After the death of Ivan Asen II Tsar of Bulgaria in 1241, Nikaia took advantage of Bulgarian weakness during the minority of Tsar Koloman and conquered large parts of Thrace, the Rhodopes and Macedonia[121].  Emperor Ioannes came into conflict with the church of Rome due to his desire for recognition of the eastern church, the issue being discussed without resolution at a joint conference held at Nikaia in 1234 (later adjourned to Nymphaion)[122].  He captured Thessaloniki in 1246, and concluded a treaty with Mikhael Lord of Epirus, sealed by his granddaughter's betrothal to Mikhael's son Nikephoros.  Mikhael broke the treaty and moved against Thessaloniki in 1251, but made peace in 1253 under which he lost his Macedonian territories but was awarded the title despot[123].  By the end of the reign of Emperor Ioannes, Nikaian territory covered large parts of the previous empire of Byzantium, the Latin Empire of Constantinople having been reduced to Constantinople itself which Emperor Ioannes was preparing to attack when he died.  He suffered from epilepsy, which worsened towards the end of his life[124]

m firstly ([1216]) as her second husband, EIRENE Doukaina Komnene Laskarina, widow of KONSTANTINOS KomnenoDoukas Palaiologos despot, daughter of THEODOROS I Emperor in Nikaia & his first wife Anna Angelina (-Summer 1239).  Georgius Akropolites names "Irene, Maria et Eudocia" as the three daughters of "Theodorum Lascarim imperatorem…ex Anna uxore", stating that "primam Irenem" married "Andronico Palaeologo…despotæ" and after her first husband died "Ioanni Ducæ, Batatzæ cognomine…e Didymtoecho…protovestiarii"[125]Ephræmius records that "Anna regina coniuge Lascario" had three daughters "Irene et Maria et Eudocia", recording that "maiorem natu Irenem" married "Palaeologorum…Andronico…despotæ" and secondly "Ioanni…Vatatzæ de Ducarum stirpe genitor et oriundo urbe Didymoticho, protovestiarii"[126].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "Vastachius" married one of the daughters (mentioned first) of "Lascarum Grecum"[127].  She was thrown by her horse in 1222, after which she was unable to bear further children[128].  She became a nun as EUGENIA just before her death, which is dated from a solar eclipse which is referred to at the time[129]

m secondly (before [May/Jun] 1241) CONSTANZA von Hohenstaufen, illegitimate daughter of Emperor FRIEDRICH II & his mistress Bianca Lancia ([1233/34]-Valencia Apr 1307, bur Valencia).  Pachymeres records that "Ioannis Augusti, patris Theodori Lascaris" married "Anna Alamana…Friderici Siciliæ regis filia, Manfredi soror"[130].  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Manfredus et domina Constanza" as the children of "dominus Fridericus secundus…Romanorum…imperator" and ["his fifth wife"] "domina Blanca…de Lancea de Lombardia", adding that Constanza married "Batacio Imperatori Constantinopulis"[131].  The Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum refers to "[uxor] Vatatio imperatori Grecorum" as full sister of "[illegitimus filius Frederici]…Manfredus"[132].  This marriage resulted from the alliance between her father and future husband based on their common anti-Papal positions[133].  She adopted the name ANNA after her marriage.  Georgius Akropolites records that Emperor Ioannes married "Annæ…imperatricis ex Alemania"[134].  After the death of her husband, she remained in Nikaia, perhaps retained as a hostage to guarantee the continued friendship of her brother Manfred King of Sicily[135].  Pachymeres records that "imperator Michael" fell in love with "Anna Alamana…Augustam" but that she refused to marry him (he was of course already married)[136].  She returned to Italy in 1263.  She was expelled from the kingdom of Sicily after her brother was defeated and killed by Charles Comte d'Anjou in 1266, and found refuge at the court of Aragon.  She became a nun at Valenica[137]

Mistress (1): --- Marchesa della Fricca, daughter of ---.  Georgius Akropolites names "Marcesinæ…ex Italia", recording that she accompanied "Annæ…imperatricis ex Alemania" but "later was her rival in love"[138].  She came to Nikaia with Empress Anna as governess at the time of her marriage and acquired an ascendancy over Emperor Ioannes.  She was called "the rival Empress" by the philosopher Nikephoros Blemmydas, whom her followers attempted to assassinate, which resulted in her dismissal[139]

Emperor Ioannes III & his first wife had one child:

1.         THEODOROS Doukas Laskaris ([Dec 1221]-16 Aug 1258, bur Monastery of Sosandra[140]).  Georgius Akropolites records that "imperator Ioannes" had one son "ex imperatrice Irene…Theodoro"[141]Ephræmius records that "filium…Theodorum Lascarim" succeeded "Ioannes"[142].  His father appointed him Vice-Regent in Asia Minor in 1238 and from 1244 to 1246[143].  He succeeded his father in 1254 as Emperor THEODOROS II, crowned 25 Dec 1254[144].  Taking advantage of Theodoros's accession in 1254, Bulgaria reconquered Macedonia, although Nikaia recaptured it by end 1256 the army being led personally by Emperor Theodoros[145].  A philosopher and theologian, his court became a centre of learning.  Emperor Theodoros was much influenced by his personal friend Georgios Muzalon whom he created mega domestikos and appointed as regent for his infant son[146].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Bulgarorum Georgius Muzalo" was appointed "magni domestici", and in a later passage "protosebasti et protovestiarii magnique stratopedarchæ"[147].  Emperor Theodoros suffered from epilepsy like his father[148]m (Betrothed [1233], Lampsaka early 1235) ELENA Asanina of Bulgaria, daughter of IVAN ASEN II Tsar of the Bulgarians & his second wife Maria of Hungary (1224-before 1254).  Georgius Akropolites records the betrothal of "imperator Ioannes…filium…Theodoro …undecim annos" and "Asanus…filiolam…Helenam…ab Ungara…novennem", a later passage recording their marriage at "Lampsacum"[149]Ephræmius records that "Lascari Theodoro" married "Asanis…filia…Helena"[150].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the daughter of "Alsannus rex" & his wife "soror Bele regis Hungarie" as the wife of "Caloiohannes Vastachii filius" but does not name her[151].  Her marriage was agreed to confirm the alliance between her father and the Nikaian Emperor, who were planning a joint attack on Constantinople[152].  When the alliance broke down in 1237, her father demanded her return and took her to Trnovo before eventually returning her to the court at Nikaia[153].  Emperor Theodoros II & his wife had five children:

a)         EIRENE Laskarina (-[1269]).  Georgius Akropolites records that Emperor Ioannes proposed a marriage between "neptem, primam filiam filii sui imperatoris Theodori, Irenem" and "Michaeli Comneno" (referring to Mikhael Palaeologus, the future Emperor Mikhael VIII), commenting that "quæ ipsi Michaelis secundi consobrini sui filia erat", dated to the early 1250s from the context of the passage[154].  Georgius Akropolites records the marriage of "Toechi filium Constantinum" and "imperatorem Theodorum…filiam suam maiorem…Irene"[155]Ephræmius records the marriage of "Irene filia Cæsaris natu maior" and "Constantino…Ticho"[156].  Tsar Konstantin arranged his marriage to Eirene, as the granddaughter of Tsar Ivan Asen II, to boost his claim to the Bulgarian throne.  After the coup engineered by Mikhail Palaiologos against her brother Emperor Ioannes in late 1258, Eirene urged her husband to attack the territories under the rule of Palaiologos but no such attack took place[157]m (early 1258) as his second wife, KONSTANTIN Tih Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of TICH [Toichos], boyar in Skopje & his wife --- of Serbia (-killed in battle Autumn 1277). 

b)         MARIA Doukaina Laskarina (-[1258/59]).  Georgius Akropolites records the betrothal of "Michaelis…Nicephoro filii sui" and "imperatoris Theodori filiam Mariam" and their marriage in a later passage[158]Ephræmius records the marriage of "filius…despotæ [Michaele] Nicephorus" and "Theodoro…imperatoris filio Mariam"[159].  Her marriage was arranged as part of the peace treaty concluded with Epirus in 1249, but the ceremony did not take place, due to her future father-in-law's hostilities against Nikaia, until after the latter defeated Bulgaria in 1256 when her father was once more anxious to contain Epirus's ambitions[160].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Mariam" wife of "defectoris Michaelis filio Nicephoro" died around the time of her father's death[161]m (betrothed 1249, Thessaloniki [17 Sep/23 Oct] 1256) as his first wife, NIKEPHOROS Doukas Komnenos [Angelos] despot in Nikaia, son of MIKHAEL [II] Komnenos Doukas Angelos Lord of Epirus & his wife Theodora Doukaina Petraliphaina Basilissa ([1240]-[3 Sep 1296/25 Jul 1298]).  He succeeded his father in [1266/67] as Lord of Epirus

c)         IOANNES Doukas Laskaris (25 Dec 1250-[1305]).  Georgius Akropolites names "Ioannem…Theodoram et Eudociam" as the three remaining unmarried children of Emperor Theodoros II, stating that Ioannes was "puer impubes" and eight years old when his father died[162]Ephræmius names "parvulum Ioannem…duasque virgunculas, Eudociam…ac Theodoram" as the three children still remaining at home when "Theodorus" died[163].  He succeeded his father in 1258 as Emperor IOANNES IV, under the regency of Georgios Muzalon, appointed by his father under his will, who was overthrown after nine days by Mikhael Palaiologos and killed in the church at Sosandra[164]Ephræmius names "Georgius Muzalo" as the tutor of Emperor Ioannes after his accession[165].  Mikhael Palaiologos engineered his own coronation as co-emperor at Nymphaison 1 Jan 1259, Emperor Ioannes being persuaded to refuse his own coronation[166].  The Nikaians concluded the Treaty of Nymphaeon with the Genoese in Mar 1261, to gain their support with a view to attacking Constantinople[167].  The city was captured easily by Alexios Strategopolos 25 Jul 1261, in an unplanned attack after he found that the Frankish garrison was absent[168].  Co-Emperor Mikhael VIII rushed to the city, leaving Ioannes IV in Anatolia, and had himself crowned emperor alone.  Emperor Ioannes was deposed 25 Dec 1261, blinded and imprisoned.  He became a monk as IOASAPH

d)         THEODORA Laskarina (-after 1273).  Georgius Akropolites names "Ioannem…Theodoram et Eudociam" as the three remaining unmarried children of Emperor Theodoros II[169]Ephræmius names "parvulum Ioannem…duasque virgunculas, Eudociam…ac Theodoram" as the three children still remaining at home when "Theodorus" died[170].  Pachymeres records that "pueri Ioannis sorores germanas…unam" married "nobili Latino Malo de Belicarto" and that "tertiam" married "Bulgaro Sphentisthlabo…circa Hæmum regionis in Mysia principi"[171].  As Georgius Akropolites (a contemporary) only names four sisters in total, it is likely that two of the three marriages recorded by Pachymeres relate to the same daughter.  As Evdokia left south-eastern Europe after her marriage (see below), it is more likely that Theodora's (first) husband died early and that she was the daughter who married the Bulgarian prince.  The primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified.  m firstly (after 1258) MATHIEU de Mons Baron of Velligosti in Morea, son of --- (-before 1264).  m secondly (1273) JAKOV SVETOSLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of --- (-murdered [1275/77]). 

e)         EVDOKIA Laskarina (1254-).  Georgius Akropolites names "Ioannem…Theodoram et Eudociam" as the three remaining unmarried children of Emperor Theodoros II[172]Ephræmius names "parvulum Ioannem…duasque virgunculas, Eudociam…ac Theodoram" as the three children still remaining at home when "Theodorus" died[173].  Pachymeres records that "pueri Ioannis sorores germanas…alteram" married "Latino…magistani…Vintimilia ex urbe Genua"[174].  She was sent to Barcelona by Emperor Mikhael VIII to join her step-grandmother who arranged her first marriage[175].  Her son by her first marriage adopted the name Laskaris.  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.  m firstly (before winter 1262) GUILLAUME PIERRE di Ventimiglia Seigneur de Tenda, son of GUILLAUME [III] Seigneur de Roquebrune & his wife --- (-[1278]).  He was banished by Charles I King of Sicily in 1276[176]m secondly (1281) as his second wife, ARNAUD ROGER [I] Conde de Pallars, son of ROGER [II] Conde de Pallars Vicomte de Couserans & his second wife Sibila de Berga (-1288). 

 

 

The following individual claimed to be the son of Emperor Theodoros II but he was an imposter[177]

1.         IOANNES Drymis [Glykys] .  He claimed the throne in 1305/06, seeking to unseat the Palaiologoi with the help first of the Asanoi, and later the Catalan Company, the Turks, Hungarians and Walachians[178]

 

 

 

C.      OTHER BATATZES

 

 

It is not known how the following Batatzes individuals and family groups were related to the main Batatzes families, if at all.  The name "Diplobatatzes" presumably originated with an individual both of whose parents were named Batatzes, hence "diplo-" or "double-" Batatzes.  However, the name evolved into a family name which was passed down through the generations. 

 

 

1.         IOANNES Batatzes (-murdered 1345).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Ioannes Batatzes, Achyraïtarum aciei præpositus", in a passage dated to [1341][179].  Grand stratopedarchosEpitropos of Thessaloniki.  Originally a supporter of Alexios Apokavkos in the civil war which followed the death in 1341 of Emperor Andronikos III, he defected to Ioannes Kantakouzenos in 1344[180]m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes Batatzes & his wife had three children: 

a)         --- Batatzaina.  Nicephoras Gregoras refers to "Ioanne Batatze…filia" as the wife of "Apocauco filium suum" who had been governor of Thessaloniki[181]m IOANNES Apokavkos megadux, son of ALEXIOS Apokavkos & his first wife ---. 

b)         --- Batatzaina.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m --- Emir of Karesi in Asia Minor. 

c)         --- Batatzes.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Batatzes…filio suo" married "patriarchæ filiam", in a passage dated to [1343][182]m ---, daughter of IOANNES [XIV] Kalekas Patriarch of Constantinople & his wife ---. 

 

 

2.         --- Diplobatatzaina .  Pachymeres records that "Diplobatatzina" was the mother of "filiam…notham…Mariam" of Emperor Mikhael VIII[183]Mistress ([1240/50]) of MIKHAEL Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos, son of ANDRONIKOS Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos megas domestikos & his wife Theodora Palaiologina ([1224/25]-11 Dec 1282).  He succeeded in 1259 as Emperor MIKHAEL VIII

 

3.         --- Diplobatatzes (-after 1350).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "præfectum Berrhœæ Diplobatatzem protovestiarium" in Thrace, in a passage dated to [1350][184]

 

4.         GEORGIOS Diplobatatzes (-killed in battle [Granada] [after 1477]).  A document dated 5 Aug 1457 at Rhodes records that "Nobilis Dominus Georgius Diplovatatius de Constantinopoli Graecus, ex Imperiali sobole genitus" was "dominus…castri in insula Stalliminea" after the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans[185].  A document issued by Pope Sixtus IV dated 6 Nov 1477 at Rome records the same information and adds that "duo eius filii" travelled "ex Corcyra insula…versus Apuliam" but were captured by the Turks and taken to Constantinople[186].  A document dated 30 Sep 1503 records that "Giorgio" escaped from Corfu, sought help from the king of Naples and the Pope, and eventually entered the service of the Spanish king, being killed in the war in Granada[187]m MARIA Laskaris, daughter of ---.  A document dated 30 Sep 1503 records that "Giorgio…[e] Maria Lascari" had seven sons, the youngest of whom was "Tommaso", names "Costantino Lascari, cugino di Maria" and "Demetrio Spandolino suo parente", quotes a document naming "dominus Mathaeus Spandolinus, patricius Constantinopolitanus, affinis meus", and records the settlement between "Giovanni Sforza Signore di Pesaro" and "Matteo Tiepolo Patrizio Venati" concerning the former´s marriage to "dominæ Juniperæ"[188].  Georgios Diplobatatzes & his wife had seven children: 

a)         two sons .  A document issued by Pope Sixtus IV dated 6 Nov 1477 at Rome records the same information and adds that "duo eius filii" travelled "ex Corcyra insula…versus Apuliam" but were captured by the Turks and taken to Constantinople[189]

b)         five sons .  A document dated 30 Sep 1503 records that "Giorgio…[e] Maria Lascari" had seven sons, the youngest of whom was "Tommaso"[190]

c)         THOMAS Diplobatatzes .  A document dated 30 Sep 1503 records that "Giorgio…[e] Maria Lascari" had seven sons, the youngest of whom was "Tommaso"[191].  He sought refuge in Italy 1454.  m ---.  The name of Thomas's wife is not known.  Thomas & his wife had [one possible child]: 

i)          [THOMAS (Corfu 1468-Granada 1541).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.] 

 

 



[1] Gardner, A. (1912) The Lascarids of Nicæa, The Story of an Empire in Exile (Methuen, London), p. 67. 

[2] Fine (1994), pp. 90-1. 

[3] Gardner (1912), pp. 85-6. 

[4] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn). 

[5] Bekkerus, I. (ed.) (1836) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn). 

[6] Prosopography of the Byzantine World ("PBW"), Prosopographical Reading of Byzantine Sources 1025-1102, second edition (2006.02), consulted at <http://www.pbw.kcl.ac.uk/content/index.html> (Sep 2007). 

[7] ES II 182. 

[8] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[9] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1840) Ephræmii Monachi Imperatorum et Patriarcharum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Ephræmius") 7635, p. 309. 

[10] Gardner (1912), p. 212. 

[11] Georgius Akropolites 59 and 60, pp. 129 and 130. 

[12] Georgius Akropolites 66, p. 148. 

[13] Gardner (1912), p. 212. 

[14] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 16, p. 206. 

[15] Ephræmius 7635, p. 309. 

[16] "Konstantinos 20453" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4953. 

[17] Gardner (1912), p. 64. 

[18] Villehardouin, 15, p. 112. 

[19] Ephræmius 7635, p. 309. 

[20] Georgius Akropolites 22, p. 37. 

[21] Georgius Akropolites 22, p. 38, and Gardner (1912), p. 119. 

[22] Georgius Akropolites 22, p. 37. 

[23] Georgius Akropolites 22, p. 38, and Gardner (1912), p. 119. 

[24] Miller, p. 572. 

[25] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 549. 

[26] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[27] Ephræmius 7635, p. 309. 

[28] Gardner (1912), pp. 45 and 53-4.   

[29] Gardner (1912), p. 54. 

[30] Niketas Choniates, Alexius Ducas Murzuflus, 3, p. 755. 

[31] Gardner (1912), p. 57. 

[32] Gardner (1912), p. 57. 

[33] Gardner (1912), p. 58 and Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 122. 

[34] Gardner (1912), p. 60. 

[35] Gardner (1912), p. 66. 

[36] Georgius Akropolites 6, p. 13. 

[37] Gardner (1912), p. 82. 

[38] Gardner (1912), pp. 85-6. 

[39] Bar Hebræus, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 87. 

[40] Gardner (1912), p. 95. 

[41] Ephræmius 7859, p. 317. 

[42] Georgius Akropolites 18, pp. 34-5. 

[43] Gardner (1912), p. 115. 

[44] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605. 

[45] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674. 

[46] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10. 

[47] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, p. 66. 

[48] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 102, 665 A.E [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217]. 

[49] Georgius Akropolites 15, p. 29. 

[50] Gardner (1912), pp. 87-8. 

[51] Georgius Akropolites 15, p. 29. 

[52] Ephræmius 7715, p. 311. 

[53] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[54] Gardner (1912), pp. 94-5. 

[55] Kerrebrouck, p. 459. 

[56] Georgius Akropolites 15, p. 29. 

[57] Ephræmius 7720, p. 312. 

[58] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1221, MGH SS XXIII, p. 911. 

[59] Georgius Akropolites 15, p. 29. 

[60] Ephræmius 7720, p. 312. 

[61] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1221, MGH SS XXIII, p. 911. 

[62] Thomas Archdeacon of Split 25, p. 165. 

[63] Annales Polonorum I 1270, MGH SS XIX, p. 638. 

[64] Necrologium Altahæ Superioris, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 224. 

[65] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[66] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1270, MGH SS XVII, p. 406. 

[67] Florianus, M. (ed.) (1884) Chronicon Dubnicense, Historiæ Hungaricæ fontes domestici, Pars prima, Scriptores, Vol. III (Lipsia) ("Chronicon Dubnicense"), p. 105. 

[68] Georgius Akropolites 15, p. 29. 

[69] Ephræmius 7720, p. 312. 

[70] Georgius Akropolites 18, p. 33. 

[71] Georgius Akropolites 22, p. 37. 

[72] Sturdza (1999), p. 304, and Gardner (1912), p. 95. 

[73] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1221, MGH SS XXIII, p. 911. 

[74] Georgius Akropolites 47, p. 92. 

[75] Ephræmius 8615, p. 346. 

[76] Sturdza (1999), p. 304, and Gardner (1912), p. 95. 

[77] Georgius Akropolites 18, p. 34. 

[78] Georgius Akropolites 18, p. 34. 

[79] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, p. 66. 

[80] Georgius Akropolites 18, p. 34. 

[81] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 51, p. 263. 

[82] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[83] "Bryennios 20101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1659. 

[84] Cedrenus II, cols. 295 and 298. 

[85] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 597. 

[86] Muratori, L. A. (ed.) (1724) Anonymi Barensis Chronicon, Rerum Italicarum scriptores V (Milan), p. 151, cited in PBW (2006.2). 

[87] "Theodoros 20301" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4952. 

[88] "Nikephoros 20104" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 227 and 228. 

[89] "Nikephoros 20104" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4506. 

[90] "Nikephoros 20104" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 269. 

[91] "Nikephoros 20104" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 155. 

[92] "Georgios 20235" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4819. 

[93] "Nikephoros 20104" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 269. 

[94] Ioannes Kinnamos VI, 3, p. 260. 

[95] "Leon 20177" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1660. 

[96] "Theodoros 20291" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4820. 

[97] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 351. 

[98] Ioannes Cinnamos Liber III, 10, p. 114. 

[99] "Andronikos 17010" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3038. 

[100] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 412. 

[101] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007, referring to Magdalino, P. (2002) The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143-1180 (Cambridge), and K. Varzos (1984) He Genealogia ton Komnenon, 2 vols. (Thessaloniki, Kentron Byzantinon erevnon). 

[102] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 16, p. 340. 

[103] "Isaakios 20110" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3874. 

[104] "Basileios 20241" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3049. 

[105] ES II 179. 

[106] Ephræmius 8865, p. 355. 

[107] Georgius Akropolites 51, p. 107. 

[108] Georgius Akropolites 51, p. 107. 

[109] Georgius Akropolites 51, p. 107. 

[110] Ephræmius 8865, p. 355. 

[111] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 20, p. 55. 

[112] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 19, pp. 154-5. 

[113] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 19, p. 155. 

[114] Georgius Akropolites 49, p. 99. 

[115] Georgius Akropolites 23, p. 38. 

[116] Gardner (1912), p. 232. 

[117] Gardner (1912), p. 119. 

[118] Gardner (1912), p. 137. 

[119] Fine (1994), pp. 126 and 129, and Gardner (1912), p. 148. 

[120] Fine (1994), p. 134. 

[121] Fine (1994), p. 135, and Gardner (1912), p. 185. 

[122] Gardner (1912), pp. 164-7. 

[123] Fine (1994), pp. 157-8. 

[124] Gardner (1912), p. 192. 

[125] Georgius Akropolites 15, p. 29. 

[126] Ephræmius 7720, p. 312. 

[127] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1221, MGH SS XXIII, p. 911. 

[128] Gardner (1912), p. 202. 

[129] Gardner (1912), pp. 155-6. 

[130] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 7, p. 181. 

[131] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, Re, G. del (ed.) (1868) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 2 (Naples), p. 414. 

[132] Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, MGH SS XXII, p. 517. 

[133] Gardner (1912), p. 168. 

[134] Georgius Akropolites 52, p. 110. 

[135] Gardner (1912), p. 210. 

[136] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 7, p. 181. 

[137] Sturdza (1999), p. 304. 

[138] Georgius Akropolites 52, p. 110. 

[139] Gardner (1912), pp. 169-70, and Appendix, p. 300, which reproduces a translation of the record of the event written by Blemmydas. 

[140] Gardner (1912), p. 232. 

[141] Georgius Akropolites 31, p. 52. 

[142] Ephræmius 8905, p. 358. 

[143] Gardner (1912), pp. 157 and 183. 

[144] Gardner (1912), p. 212. 

[145] Fine (1994), p. 159, and Gardner (1912), pp. 211-13.  . 

[146] Gardner (1912), pp. 201, 212 and 231. 

[147] Georgius Akropolites 55 and 60, pp. 116 and 131. 

[148] Gardner (1912), p. 204. 

[149] Georgius Akropolites 31 and 32, pp. 52 and 54. 

[150] Ephræmius 8175, p. 329. 

[151] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1240, MGH SS XXIII, p. 950. 

[152] Fine (1994), pp. 126 and 129, and Gardner (1912), p. 148. 

[153] Gardner (1912), pp. 151-2. 

[154] Georgius Akropolites 50, p. 106. 

[155] Georgius Akropolites 73, p. 162. 

[156] Ephræmius 9240 and 9290, pp. 369 and 371. 

[157] Gardner (1912), p. 245, citing Pachymeres ii 26. 

[158] Georgius Akropolites 49 and 64, pp. 95 and 142. 

[159] Ephræmius 8655, p. 348. 

[160] Fine (1994), p. 160, and Gardner (1912), p. 219.   

[161] Georgius Akropolites 74, p. 164. 

[162] Georgius Akropolites 74 and 75, p. 164. 

[163] Ephræmius 9285, p. 371. 

[164] Gardner (1912), p. 234-5. 

[165] Ephræmius 9300, p. 372. 

[166] Gardner (1912), p. 238. 

[167] Fine (1994), p. 164. 

[168] Fine (1994), p. 165. 

[169] Georgius Akropolites 74, p. 164. 

[170] Ephræmius 9285, p. 371. 

[171] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 6, pp. 180-1. 

[172] Georgius Akropolites 74, p. 164. 

[173] Ephræmius 9285, p. 371. 

[174] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 6, pp. 180-1. 

[175] Sturdza (1999), pp. 304-5. 

[176] ES III 760 (I Conti di Ventimglia fino al 1300). 

[177] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[178] ES II 182. 

[179] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 29, p. 180. 

[180] Nicol (1972), p. 206. 

[181] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XIV, 11, p. 740. 

[182] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 76, p. 475. 

[183] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 3, p. 174. 

[184] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 20, p. 135. 

[185] Sathas Tome IX (1890), p. xxxi. 

[186] Sathas Tome IX (1890), p. xxxii. 

[187] Sathas Tome IX (1890), p. xxxiii, quoting Memorie di Tommaso Diplovatazio, patrizio Costantinopolitano, e Pesarese, raccolte da Annibale degli Abati Olivieri, In Pesaro 1771, pp. vi-ix. 

[188] Sathas Tome IX (1890), p. xxxiii, quoting Memorie di Tommaso Diplovatazio, patrizio Costantinopolitano, e Pesarese, raccolte da Annibale degli Abati Olivieri, In Pesaro 1771, pp. vi-ix. 

[189] Sathas Tome IX (1890), p. xxxii. 

[190] Sathas Tome IX (1890), p. xxxiii, quoting Memorie di Tommaso Diplovatazio, patrizio Costantinopolitano, e Pesarese, raccolte da Annibale degli Abati Olivieri, In Pesaro 1771, pp. vi-ix. 

[191] Sathas Tome IX (1890), p. xxxiii, quoting Memorie di Tommaso Diplovatazio, patrizio Costantinopolitano, e Pesarese, raccolte da Annibale degli Abati Olivieri, In Pesaro 1771, pp. vi-ix.