constantinople, LATIN EMPIRE

  v2.1 Updated 15 September 2012

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.            LATIN EMPERORS of CONSTANTINOPLE (COUNTS of FLANDERS) 3

BAUDOUIN I 1204-1205, HENRI I 1205-1216. 3

Chapter 2.            LATIN EMPERORS of CONSTANTINOPLE (SEIGNEURS de COURTENAY) 5

PIERRE 1216-1219, ROBERT 1219-1228. 6

BAUDOUIN II 1228-1261. 13

Chapter 3.            EMPEROR of CONSTANTINOPLE (BRIENNE) 16

JEAN 1229-1237. 16

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Following the deposition of the newly installed co-emperors of Byzantium, Isaakios II and Alexios IV, in January 1204, and the brief reign of Alexios V Dukas Mourzouflos, the crusading army and the Venetians agreed in March 1204 the partition of the Byzantine empire and the creation of the Latin empire of Constantinople under the Acti Partitio Imperii Romanae.  The army of the Fourth Crusade took control of Constantinople 13 Apr 1204 and a council composed of six Venetians and six Franks met to elect a new Latin emperor, in accordance with the treaty.  The Venetian votes ensured the election of Baudouin VIII Count of Flanders, considered the less powerful and therefore more malleable candidate, over his rival Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato.  The Latin empire initially extended over approximately one quarter of the territory of the former empire of Byzantium, covering Thrace, the north-west part of Asia Minor, and several islands in the Aegean including Lesbos, Chios and Samos. 

 

Emperor Baudouin was captured in battle by the Bulgarians and died in a Bulgarian prison the following year.  He was succeeded by his more powerful brother Henri who agreed frontiers with the rival Greek emperor in Nikaia and an alliance with his brother's former competitor for the imperial throne, Bonifazio di Monferrato, who had by then been installed as king of Thessaloniki.  Emperor Henri was succeeded by his brother-in-law Pierre de Courtenay Comte de Nevers who was crowned emperor in Rome in 1217, but persuaded by the Venetians to attempt the capture of Durazzo on his journey to Constantinople.  He was captured in the Albanian mountains by Theodoros Angelos Lord of Epirus and disappeared.  Pending news of his fate, his widow succeeded as regent of the empire but died two years later.  She was succeeded as regent by her son Robert, who was crowned emperor in 1221 after it became known that his father had been murdered.  Under the rule of Emperor Robert, the empire was considerably weakened by his defeat by the Nikaians in 1224, the loss of his most important vassal the kingdom of Thessaloniki, and the agreement to transfer the Latin empire's last territory in Anatolia to Nikaia in return for Nikaian support against a threatened invasion by Theodoros Angelos Lord of Epirus 

 

Emperor Robert was succeeded in 1228 by his infant brother Baudouin, for whom Jean de Brienne ex-King of Jerusalem was appointed regent in 1229.  Jean was crowned emperor on his arrival in Constantinople in 1231.  The Latin empire was under constant threat of attack from Thessaloniki to the west, Bulgaria to the north and the empire in Nikaia to the east.  The Latin emperors were unable to mobilise effective support from western Europe and in 1261 Constantinople was captured by Mikhael Palaiologos, co-emperor in Nikaia, who revived the Greek empire of Byzantium as Emperor Mikhael VIII.  Emperor Baudouin escaped to France where he survived in exile by selling his titular rights over the kingdom of Thessaloniki to Hugues IV Duke of Burgundy and over the rest of Greece (except the city of Constantinople) to Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet]. 

 

The idea behind the Latin empire remained a powerful symbol in western Europe long after it had ceased to exist as a political reality, as reflected in the numerous high profile betrothals of Catherine, granddaughter of the last emperor Baudouin, and her eventual marriage (as his second wife) to Charles Comte de Valois, younger brother of Philippe IV King of France.  Catherine transferred her titular rights to the empire to her husband in 1301.  He obtained Venetian support for an invasion of Byzantium in 1306, and in 1308 landed in western Greece where he was joined by the Catalan company, although the campaign fizzled out by 1310.  Meanwhile, the rival Angevin claim to the title was maintained by Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] who in 1294 transferred all his rights in Greece to his son Philippe Principe di Tarento.  The rival Courtenay and Anjou claims were combined in 1313 when Philippe di Tarento married Catherine, eldest daughter and heiress of Charles de Valois by his second wife.  After the death of Philippe in 1332, Catherine and her sons installed themselves in Morea in 1338 and were able to establish authority over the principality of Achaia with the help of the powerful Acciaiuoli banking family from northern Italy.  Catherine was succeeded by her son Robert, who on dying in 1364 transferred his titular rights to the empire of Constantinople to his brother Philippe.  The ability of Philippe to establish himself in Achaia was compromised by the multiplicity of rival claims to the principality which blossomed over the course of the 14th century.  Without an effective base in Greece, the recapture of Constantinople was never a practical possibility and over time western European attention was diverted from the idea of reviving the Latin empire to more pressing issues. 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    LATIN EMPERORS of CONSTANTINOPLE (COUNTS of FLANDERS)

 

 

 

BAUDOUIN I 1204-1205, HENRI I 1205-1216

 

Brothers: 

1.         BAUDOUIN de Flandre, son of BAUDOUIN V Comte de Hainaut [BAUDOUIN VIII Count of Flanders] & his wife Marguerite I Ctss of Flanders (Jul 1171-in prison in Bulgaria 11 Jun 1205).  The Chronicon Hanoniense records the birth "1171 mense Iulio…Valencenis" of "filium…Balduinum" to "Balduinus [et] Margharetam…Mathie comitis Boloniensis sororem"[1].  The Flandria Generosa names (in order) "Balduinum, Philippum et Henricum" as the three sons of Count Baudouin and his wife Marguerite, specifying that Baudouin was later Emperor of Constantinople[2].  He succeeded his mother in 1194 as BAUDOUIN IX Count of Flanders, and his father in 1195 as BAUDOUIN VI Comte de Hainaut.  He was among the first leaders to take the cross following the call of Pope Innocent III.  After the army of the Fourth Crusade took control of Constantinople 13 Apr 1204, a council of 6 Venetians and 6 Franks met to elect a new Latin emperor, as agreed the previous March in the Acti Partitio Imperii Romanae between the crusaders and Venice.  The votes of the Venetian block of electors ensured the success of Count Baudouin over the rival candidate, Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato, Enrico Dandolo Doge of Venice considering him the less powerful candidate[3].  At the same time, in accordance with the terms of the March treaty, Tomaso Morosini (from Venice) was installed as first Latin patriarch of Constantinople, his first task being to crown Baudouin as BAUDOUIN I Emperor of Constantinople at St Sophia 16 May 1204.  His title was Basileus Romaion, the same as borne by his predecessor Byzantine emperors[4].  The constitution which was adopted gave little power to the emperor whose decisions were subject to review by a council of tenants-in-chief which also directed military operations[5].  The new patriarch declared the union of the Catholic and Orthodox churches, but the Greek aristocracy in Thrace rebelled.  Kalojan Tsar of Bulgaria intervened, defeated Baudouin near Adrianople 14 Apr 1205, and captured and transported the emperor to Bulgaria where he died in prison soon after[6].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Balduinus imperator" was captured by "regem Bulgarorum Ioannem"[7]

2.         HENRI de Hainaut ([1176]-murdered Thessaloniki 11 Jul 1216).  The Flandria Generosa names (in order) "Balduinum, Philippum et Henricum" as the three sons of Count Baudouin and his wife Marguerite, specifying that Henri later succeeded his brother Baudouin as Emperor of Constantinople[8].  In the absence of his brother Emperor Baudouin on campaign in Thrace, he was elected in 1205 as regent of the Latin Empire of Constantinople.  After rumours of the emperor's death were confirmed, he was elected HENRI I Emperor of Constantinople, crowned 20 Aug 1206.  A strong ruler in contrast to his brother and predecessor, he reconquered eastern Thrace from Kalojan Tsar of Bulgaria.  He invaded Nikaia end-1206, but concluded a two-year peace in 1207 after being forced to retreat because of new hostilities from Bulgaria in Thrace.  Emperor Henri defeated Boril Tsar of Bulgaria at Philippopolis in 1208[9].  He enforced the allegiance of Thessaloniki in 1209, during the minority of the infant Demetrio di Monferrato King of Thessaloniki[10].  He defeated Theodoros Emperor in Nikaia at Leopadion in 1211 but agreed the Treaty of Nymphaeon which confirmed the territorial gains of each of the two empires at the end of 1214, the Latin Empire controlling the north-west corner of Mysia, including Kiminas and Akhyraous, in Asia Minor[11].  He was poisoned by Oberto di Biandrate, ex-regent of Thessaloniki, whom Emperor Henri had expelled from Thessaloniki[12].  Gardner says that he died "by the machinations, it was said, of his Bulgarian bride" but cites no source[13]m firstly (Constantinople 4 Feb 1207) AGNESE di Monferrato, daughter of BONIFACIO I Marchese di Monferrato, King of Thessaloniki & his first wife Elena di Bosco (-1208).  Villehardouin records the marriage of Emperor Henri and "the Marquis de Montferrat's…daughter" at Constantinople "in the church of Santa Sophia on the Sunday after Candlemas Day", naming her "the Empress Agnes"[14].  Her marriage was arranged to confirm her father's alliance against her future husband in the face of Bulgarian aggression in northern Greece[15]m secondly (1213) MARIJA of Bulgaria, daughter of KALOJAN I Tsar of the Bulgarians & his wife --- Kuman princess (-after 1216).  William of Tyre (Continuator) records that Emperor Henri "fist pais as Blas et prist la fille au seignor de Blaquie"[16].  Her marriage was arranged to seal the alliance between her stepfather Boril Tsar of Bulgaria and her future husband[17]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of the mistress of Emperor Henri I is not known.  Emperor Henri I & his first wife had one child:

a)         son (early 1208-young).  Villehardouin records that Empress Agnes was expecting a baby in Sep 1207[18]

Emperor Henri I had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1): 

b)         daughter (-1213 or before[19]).  Henri de Valenciennes records the marriage of the daughter of Emperor Henri with "Esclas", but does not name her[20]Georgius Akropolites names "Sthlavus Asani regis affinis" when recording that he married "imperatore Constantinopolitane Erico…filiam e pellice"[21].  Ephræmius records that "Sthlabus…Bulgarus gente Asanisque affinis" married "imperatore Henrico…notam filiam"[22].  m (Constantinople 1208) as his first wife, ALEXII SLAV of Bulgaria Voivode of Melnik, son of --- & his wife [--- of Bulgaria] (-after 1230).  He opposed the succession of his first cousin Boril as Tsar of the Bulgarians in 1207, seceded and established his own state in the Rhodope mountains[23].  He allied himself with Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople after the latter defeated Tsar Boril at Philippopolis in 1208, which was sealed by his marriage to the Emperor's illegitimate daughter.  He was awarded the title despot[24]

3.         other children: - see FLANDERS

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    LATIN EMPERORS of CONSTANTINOPLE (SEIGNEURS de COURTENAY)

 

 

PIERRE 1216-1219, ROBERT 1219-1228

 

PIERRE de Courtenay, son of PIERRE de France Seigneur de Courtenay & his wife Elisabeth de Courtenay (after 1158-Epirus after Jun 1219).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "comitem Petrum Autissiodorensem et Robertum de Cortenaio et quondam Guillemum" as sons of "Petro de Cortenaio regis Philippi patruo" & his wife[25].  “Petrus regis frater et Curtiniacensis dominus” confirmed donations to Fontaine-Jean abbey, with the consent of “uxor mea Ysabel et primogenitus meus Petrus”, by charter dated 1170, witnessed by “Ex parte domini et pueri...[26], indicating that Pierre [II] was still a child at the time.  Bouchet says that “on peut dire avec quelque forte certitude [que Pierre] n´avoit pour lors tout au plus que douze ans, puisque d´ordinaire on ne se sert point du terme puer pour exprimer une jeunesse au delà de cet âge[27].  He succeeded his father as Seigneur de Courtenay.  A charter dated “die festivo de Ramis palmarum” [=10 Apr] 1183 records that “Petrus de Curtiniaco regis Galliæ Philippi patruus” when he was alive donated “villam...Heruauuilla” to Notre-Dame la Royalle de Rosoy, with the consent of “Elisabeth uxor eius et Petrus eorundem maior filius et alii...Robertus, Philippus, Willelmus[28].  He succeeded as Comte de Nevers et d'Auxerre in 1184, by right of his first wife.  He accompanied Philippe II King of France on the Third Crusade in 1190, returning to France in 1193.  After his defeat by Hervé de Donzy, following their dispute over the château de Gien, Pierre de Courtenay was confirmed as Comte d'Auxerre et de Tonnerre for life in 1199 but was obliged to cede the county of Nevers, as well as his daughter's hand in marriage, to Hervé.  Comte Pierre took part in the crusade against the Albigeois in 1210 and was present at the siege of Toulouse.  He fought at the battle of Bouvines in 1214[29].  He succeeded as Marquis de Namur in 1213, by right of his second wife.  He was elected in 1216 to succeed his brother-in-law Henri de Flandres as PIERRE I Emperor of Constantinople.  Leaving France, he travelled to Rome where he was crowned 9 Apr 1217 by Pope Honorius III at the Church of San Lorenzo fuori i Muri[30].  He sent his wife and daughters directly to Constantinople, but the Venetians persuaded Emperor Pierre to help recapture Durazzo on his way.  After succeeding in this enterprise, he was captured in the Albanian mountains by Theodoros Angelos Lord of Epirus, and disappeared[31] presumably murdered although his fate did not become known until [early 1221][32].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "Namucensis comes Petrus" was captured by "duce Durachis Theodoro" in 1217[33]

m firstly (1184) AGNES Ctss de Nevers, d'Auxerre et de Tonnerre, daughter of GUY [I] Comte de Nevers, d'Auxerre et de Tonnerre & his wife Mathilde de Bourgogne Dame de Montpensier [Capet] ([1170]-[Mailly] 2 or 6 Feb 1193).  The Chronologia Roberti Altissiodorenses records that "Philippus Rex" arranged the marriage of "Guidonis Comitis filiam" and "Petro patrueli suo", and installed him as Comte de Nevers[34].  "Petrus comes Nivernensis et Agnes comitissa uxor eiusdem comitis et filia Guidonis comitis" confirmed the privileges of the church of St Etienne, Nevers by charter dated 1185 which refers to but does not name "filiam nostram"[35].  She and her husband bought Tonnerre from her mother in 1191[36].  "Petrus comes Nivernensis et Agnes comitissa uxor eius" agreed to renounce rights previously held by their predecessors, naming "Willelmus comes sepultus in ecclesia sancti Germani Autissiodonrensis…et filius eius Villelmus qui in Bethleem requiescit", in favour of Saint-Cyr by charter dated 10 Jun 1190[37].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Agnes…unica filia comitis Guidonis Nivernensis" as first wife of "comitis Petris"[38]

m secondly (contract 24 Jul 1193, Soissons 1 Jul 1193) YOLANDE de Flandre, daughter of BAUDOUIN VIII Count of Flanders [BAUDOUIN V Comte de Hainaut] & his wife Marguerite Ctss of Flanders ([1175]-Constantinople 24 or 26 Aug 1219).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines in 1191 names "Elizabeth Francie reginam…Hyolenz uxorem Petri Autisiodorensis et Sibiliam domnam Bellioci uxorem Wichardi" as the three daughters of "Balduinus [Haynaco]"[39].  In a later passage, the same source names "Hyolenz…soror comitis Philippi Namucensis" as wife of "comes Petrus Autisiodorensis", specifying that her husband became Comte de Namur by right of his wife[40].  The Historia Episcoporum Autissiodorensium records that Pierre married "Yolandam sororem Henrici Constantinopolitani Imperatoris" as his second wife after the death of "Agnete uxore sua"[41].  She succeeded as Marquise de Namur in 1213.  She was crowned empress of Constantinople with her husband by the Pope 9 Apr 1217 at Rome[42].  She was appointed regent of the Latin empire of Constantinople after arriving safely at Constantinople by sea in 1217, in the absence of her husband whose fate at that time was unknown.  She was able to stop the attacks of Theodoros Emperor in Nikaia, and arranged his marriage to her daughter Marie to seal the peace which was agreed[43]

Pierre [II] & his first wife had [two] children: 

1.         [daughter (1185-).  "Petrus comes Nivernensis et Agnes comitissa uxor eiusdem comitis et filia Guidonis comitis" confirmed the privileges of the church of St Etienne, Nevers by charter dated 1185 which refers to but does not name "filiam nostram"[44].  It is not known whether this daughter was different from Mathilde.  If she was, she died young as no other reference to her has been found.] 

2.         MATHILDE de Courtenay ([1188]-29 Jul 1257, bur Abbaye de Réconfort, near Monceaux-le-Comte).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Mathildem" as only daughter of "comitis Petris" & his first wife, specifying that she married firstly "Herveio Gaufridi filio de Giam et de Dunzeio" and secondly "comiti Gugoni Forensi"[45].  She succeeded her mother in 1193 as Ctss de Nevers, d'Auxerre et de Tonnerre, under the guardianship of her father.  The Chronologia Roberti Altissiodorenses records the marriage in 1199 of "Petri Comitis Nivernensis filiam" and "Herveo de Giemo"[46].  Philippe II King of France granted permission for the marriage of “Herveus dominus Donziaci” and “filiam Petri comitis Nivernensis, cum comitatu", for which "nos et Renaldus frater noster" granted "Giemum cum tota castellania" to the king, by charter dated Oct 1199[47].  "Mathildis comitissa Nivernensis" donated property to the abbey of Corbigny by charter dated May 1226 for the soul of "H quondam bone memorie domini et mariti nostri comitis Nivernensis"[48].  "Guido Nivernensis comes et Mathildis comitissa uxor eiusdem comitis" took under their protection a family belonging to Saint-Cyr by charter dated Jan 1229[49].  "G. comes et M. comitissa Nivernensis et Forensis" donated property to the abbey of Bénissons Dieu, for the soul of "bonæ memoriæ quondam comitis Nivernensis", by charter dated Jan 1236[50].  The necrology of Sens cathedral records the death "IV Kal Aug" of "Matildis comitissa Nivernensis"[51][52]Betrothed (1193) to PHILIPPE de Flandre, son of BAUDOUIN VIII Count of Flanders [BAUDOUIN V Comte de Hainaut] & his wife Marguerite Ctss of Flanders (Valenciennes Mar 1174-15 Oct 1212, bur Namur, cathédrale de Saint-Aubin).  m firstly (contract Paris Oct 1199, Papal dispensation 20 Dec 1213) HERVE [IV] Seigneur de Donzy, de Gien et de Saint-Aignan, son of HERVE [III] Seigneur de Donzy et de Gien & his first wife Mathilde Goët Dame de Montmirail (-Château de Saint-Aignan 22 Jul 1222, bur Abbaye de Pontigny near Auxerre).  He disputed possession of the château de Gien with Pierre de Courtenay, but defeated the latter and obliged him to agree to the hand in marriage of his daughter as well as the transfer of the county of Nevers.  The arrangement was confirmed by Philippe II King of France in Nov 1199.  "Herveus comes Nivernensis et Mathildis comitissa uxor eiusdem comitis et neptis Guidonis comitis" granted privileges to the church of St Etienne, Nevers by charter dated [1206][53].  His father-in-law invested him as Comte de Tonnerre before leaving France in early 1217 following his appointment as Emperor of Constantinople.  He succeeded his father-in-law in 1219 as Comte d'Auxerre[54].  The necrology of the Cathedral of Nevers records the death "X Kal Feb" of "Herveus comes Nivernensis"[55]m secondly (Jul 1226) as his third wife, GUY [IV] Comte de Forez, son of GUY [III] Comte de Lyon et de Forez [Albon] & his second wife Alix --- (-Castellaneta, Apulia 29 Oct 1241, bur Notre-Dame de Montbrison).  He succeeded as Comte de Nevers in 1226, by right of his wife.  He died while returning from Crusade with Thibaut King of Navarre, Comte de Champagne[56]

Pierre [II] & his second wife had [fourteen] children: 

3.         MARGUERITE [Sibylle] de Courtenay ([1194/98]-Marienthal convent 17 Jul 1270, bur Marienthal).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "secundam filiarum eius [Namucensis comitis Petri] Sibiliam" as the wife firstly of "Radulfus de Essolduno in Bituria" and secondly of "comes Heinricus de Vienne et Ardenna".  He also cites her supposed third marriage to "Lascarus Grecus…imperator Nicee", but is here confusing her with her younger sister Marie[57].  Her birth date is estimated assuming that she was one of her parents´ older children and married aged 12 or soon afterwards.  "Radulphus dominus Exolduni" sold land at Germigny to Eudes Duke of Burgundy, with the consent of "Margarita uxore mea", by charter dated 1210[58].  She succeeded her first husband in 1216 as Dame de Châteauneuf-sur-Cher et de Mareuil-en-Berry.  She took possession of Namur as Marquise de Namur in 1229 on the death of her brother Henri.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that, on the death in 1229 of "comite Namucensi Henrici puero", his sister "Sibilia comitissa Vienne" occupied "castrum Namuci" against the competing claim of Fernando Count of Flanders[59].  "Henricus marchio Namucensis et Viennæ comes et Margarita marcionissa et comitissa uxor eius" confirmed the foundation of the abbey of Grandpré by "prædecessoris ac fratris nostri Philippi bonæ memoriæ" by charter dated Aug 1231[60].  She was obliged to transfer Namur to her brother Baudouin in 1237.  The testament of “Bauduins...Empereres de Romenie”, dated Jun 1247 at Namur, bequeathed “nostre terre de Namur” to “nostre enfant”, and in default to “nostre seror ainznée Marguerite Contesse de Viane...nostre seror Isabeau Dame de Montagu...nostre autre seror Agnes Princesse de Achaye[61].  "Henricus et Margarita comitissa Viennensis" founded a monastery at Vianden, with the consent of "Philippi nostri primogeniti", as well as anniversaries for themselves "et filiorum nostrorum…Friderici et Philippi", by charter dated Jun 1248[62].  She became a nun at the convent of Marienthal near Luxembourg after the death of her second husband[63]m firstly ([1210]) RAOUL [III] Sire d'Issoudun, son of EUDES [III] Sire d'Issoudun & his wife Alix de Montbard (-1 Mar 1212).  m secondly (1216) HEINRICH [I] Graf von Vianden, son of FRIEDRICH [III] Graf von Vianden & his wife Mechtild von der Neuerburg (-Palestine 19 Nov 1253[64]).  He succeeded as Marquis de Namur from 1229 to 1237, by right of his wife.  

4.         PHILIPPE [III] "à la Lèvre" de Courtenay ([1194/96]-killed in battle Saint-Flour en Auvergne 1226, bur Abbaye de Vaucelles, near Cambrai).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Philippus dictus de labra comes Namucensis" as first of the four son of "comitis Petris"[65].  His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was of age when he succeeded in 1216 as Seigneur de Courtenay et de Montargis, at the time his father was elected emperor of Constantinople.  He remained in France while the other members of his family travelled eastwards.  His parents installed him as regent of Namur in 1217[66].  He succeeded as Marquis de Namur in 1219 on the death of his father.  William of Tyre records that, when his father died, he refused to leave France for Constantinople to claim the imperial throne[67].  “Philippus marchio Namurcii” swore allegiance to Philippe II King of France, with “dominum...Robertum de Courtenay...Dom. Petrum de Donjone et Iohannem et Petrum filios eius...et Guidonem de Donjone et Ferricum ac Guillelmum filios eius” acting as guarantors in specified sums, by charter dated Jun 1223[68].  The document does not specify any family relationships between Philippe and the guarantors.  There are two possibilities for the identity of “dominum...Robertum de Courtenay”: Philippe´s paternal uncle or his younger brother Robert Emperor of Constantinople.  The latter is more likely as there appears no reason for Philippe to have resigned the seigneurie de Courtenay, which the document suggests he must have done presumably when he was installed as regent in Namur, in favour of his uncle when he had living younger brothers.  This hypothesis appears to be supported by the charter dated Nov 1217 under which Gui du Donjon chevalier” guaranteed the loyalty of “Robert de Courtenai” to the king[69], the dating of which suggests that it could also relate to the future Emperor Robert.  It is also clear that the seigneurie de Courtenay was held by this branch of the family in 1300, when it was granted by Catherine de Courtenay to her husband Charles de Valois (see below), so it is unlikely that it was transferred temporarily at any time to a younger branch of the family.  The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis records the death in 1226 of "le comte de Namur, parent du roi de France, et frère de Henri empereur de Constantinople", returning from his campaign against the Albigeois[70].  He was killed at the siege of Saint-Flour. 

5.         PIERRE de Courtenay .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Priest at Vézélay: Bouchet states that Pierre de Courtenay “est qualifié Clerc dans une charte de l´an 1210 pour l´abbaye de Vezelay, selon le tesmoignage de du Tillet”, without citing the reference, adding that du Tillet “s´est imaginé qu´il estoit Bastard, parce, dit-il, qu´il auroit esté pour lors trop jeune pour estre d´Eglise”, an argument which Bouchet dismisses[71].    

6.         ELISABETH de Courtenay ([1199][72]-1269[73] or after).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the marriage of "quintam filiarum eius [Namucensis comitis Petri]" and "Galtherus de Barro super Sequanam comitis Milonis filius" and her second marriage to "Odo, Alexandri filius, frater ducis Burgundie Odonis"[74].   A document dated Sep 1224 names “Odo dominus Montisacuti et...Elizabetha uxor ipsius Odonis[75].  “Balduinus...Romaniæ...Augustus consanguineus suus” addressed “Blanchæ...Francorum Reginæ”, naming “Elysabeth dominam Montis-Acuti sororem nostram et Odonem eiusdem castri dominum virum suum” with a view to the betrothal of “unam de filiabus suis”, by charter dated 5 Aug 1243[76].  The testament of “Bauduins...Empereres de Romenie”, dated Jun 1247 at Namur, bequeathed “nostre terre de Namur” to “nostre enfant”, and in default to “nostre seror ainznée Marguerite Contesse de Viane...nostre seror Isabeau Dame de Montagu...nostre autre seror Agnes Princesse de Achaye[77]m firstly (before Feb 1219[78]) GAUCHER du Puiset, son of MILON [IV] du Puiset Comte de Bar-sur-Seine, Seigneur du Puiset et Vicomte de Chartres & his wife Hélissende de Joigny (-killed in battle near Damietta 30 Jul 1219).  m secondly (1220) EUDES [I] Seigneur de Montagu, son of ALEXANDRE de Bourgogne [Capet] Seigneur de Montagu & his wife Béatrix de Rion Dame de Gergy ([1196]-[1243/47]). 

7.         [daughter.  This daughter of Pierre is mentioned by Fine, who says that her marriage was arranged by her uncle Henri Emperor of Constantinople to seal his alliance with Tsar Boril[79].  She is not referred to in Kerrebrouck[80] or Europäische Stammtafeln[81].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  If her parentage is correctly represented, it is possible that she was the same person as one of the other daughters who are named here, for example Elisabeth, Marie or Eléonore whose known marriages are recorded after the deposition (and death?) of Tsar Boril.  m ([1213]) as his second wife, BORIL Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of STREZ, voyvode & his wife --- [of Bulgaria] (-1218 or after).  He was deposed in 1218 by his cousin Ivan Asen and blinded.] 

8.         YOLANDE de Courtenay ([1200]-1233, bur Egrecz Abbey).  William of Tyre (Continuator) specifies that the queen of Hungary (unnamed) was the sister of the Latin emperor of Constantinople[82].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "unam filiarum eius [Namucensis comitis Petri] Hyolenz" as the wife of "Andreas rex Ungarie"[83].  Her marriage was arranged by her uncle, Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople, to obtain Hungarian support for his new ally Boril Tsar of Bulgaria[84].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1233 of "regina Hoilanz de Hungaria" and her burial "in abbatia de Egis"[85]m (Feb 1215) as his second wife, ANDRÁS II King of Hungary, son of BÉLA III King of Hungary & his first wife Agnès [Anna] de Châtillon-sur-Loing (1176-21 Sep 1235, bur Egrecz Abbey). 

9.         ROBERT de Courtenay ([1201]-Morea end Jan 1228).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Robertus imperator Constantinopolitanus" as second of the four son of "comitis Petris"[86].  He remained in France after his father's election as emperor in 1216.  [Seigneur de Courtenay [1217/19]: it is possible that Robert succeeded as seigneur de Courtenay when his older brother Philippe was installed as regent in Namur, or when Philippe succeeded as marquis de Namur.  This is suggested by the charter dated Jun 1223 under which “Philippus marchio Namurcii” swore allegiance to Philippe II King of France, with “dominum...Robertum de Courtenay...Dom. Petrum de Donjone et Iohannem et Petrum filios eius...et Guidonem de Donjone et Ferricum ac Guillelmum filios eius” acting as guarantors in specified sums[87].  The document does not specify any family relationships between Philippe and the guarantors.  There are two possibilities for the identity of “dominum...Robertum de Courtenay”: Philippe´s paternal uncle or his younger brother Robert Emperor of Constantinople.  The latter is more likely as there appears no reason for Philippe to have resigned the seigneurie de Courtenay in favour of his uncle when he had living younger brothers.  The hypothesis appears to be supported by the charter dated Nov 1217 under which Gui du Donjon chevalier” guaranteed the loyalty of “Robert de Courtenai” to the king[88], the dating of which suggests that it could also relate to the future Emperor Robert.  It is also clear that the seigneurie de Courtenay was held by this branch of the family in 1300, when it was granted by Catherine de Courtenay to her husband Charles de Valois (see below), so it is unlikely that it was transferred temporarily at any time to a younger branch of the Courtenay family.]  He succeeded his mother in 1219 as regent of the Latin empire of Constantinople, left France in 1220, and was crowned ROBERT Emperor of Constantinople at St Sophia 25 Mar 1221 after his father's fate became known.  Although he had made peace with Theodoros Laskaris Emperor in Nikaia in 1222, he declared war on the successor Emperor Ioannes III Vatatzes, but was defeated by the latter at Pimarin in 1224[89].  The Latin empire was weakened considerably by the loss in 1224 of its most important vassal when the kingdom of Thessaloniki fell to Theodoros Angelos Lord of Epirus, who had himself crowned emperor at Arta in 1225.  Theodoros moved on Constantinople, allied with Ivan Asen I Tsar of Bulgaria.  To counter the threat, Emperor Robert agreed an alliance with Emperor Ioannes, agreeing to transfer the Latin empire's last territory in Anatolia to Nikaia in return for Nikaian support against Theodoros, although the attack from the latter did not in fact materialise[90].  William of Tyre (Continuator) records that Emperor Robert left Constantinople to seek redress from the Pope at Rome following the attack on his wife, but died at the court of Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia on his return journey[91]Betrothed (1222) to EVDOKIA Laskarina, daughter of THEODOROS I Emperor in Nikaia and his first wife Anna Angelina ([1210/12]-[1247/53]).  Georgius Akropolites records that "Robertus" was betrothed to "Eudociæ filiæ" but that "Manuelem…patriarcham" objected to the marriage[92]Ephræmius records the betrothal of "imperatori Lascari…tertiam filiam Eudociam" and "Robertum", stating that "Manuele patriarcha" objected to the marriage[93].  This betrothal was arranged in confirmation of the peace between the empire in Nikaia and the Latin empire, but the Patriarch of Nikaia objected to the marriage on the grounds of consanguinity[94]m (secretly 1228) --- de Neufville, daughter of BAUDOUIN de Neufville & his wife ---.  William of Tyre (Continuator) records that the emperor "avoit une veve dame en Constantinople qui fille avoit esté a li chevalier d'Artois … Bauduin de Nuevile", married her secretly, and installed her and her mother "en son manoir".  When "li chevalier de Constantinople" learnt of this, they cut the lips and nostrils of Emperor Robert's wife and mother-in-law and threw them into the sea[95].  

10.      AGNES de Courtenay ([1202]-in France after Jun 1247).  William of Tyre (Continuator) specifies that the daughter of Pierre de Courtenay (unnamed) married the son of Geoffroy de Villehardouin while she and her mother were travelling through Morea en route to Constantinople[96].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the marriage of "quartam filiarum eius [Namucensis comitis Petri]" and "Gaufridus iunior de Villa Harduini filius Gaufridi principis de insula Montionis"[97].  The testament of “Bauduins...Empereres de Romenie”, dated Jun 1247 at Namur, bequeathed “nostre terre de Namur” to “nostre enfant”, and in default to “nostre seror ainznée Marguerite Contesse de Viane...nostre seror Isabeau Dame de Montagu...nostre autre seror Agnes Princesse de Achaye[98]m (1217 after Apr) GEOFFROY de Villehardouin, son of GEOFFROY I Prince of Achaia & Elisabeth [de Chappes] (-[May 1246], bur Andravida, church of St James).  He succeeded his father in [1225/27] as GEOFFROY II Prince of Achaia.  He was Seigneur de Courtenay from Feb 1241 to 20 Feb 1242[99].  Lord of Messenia with Kalamata and Arkadia.  Lord of the islands of the archipelago (Euboea) 1240/44.  No issue. 

11.      CONSTANCE de Courtenay (-after 1210).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Bouchet states that she “se trouve nommée avec le comte Pierre son père dans une charte pour l´abbaye de Vezelay de l´an 1210, selon du Tillet” but does not cite the reference[100]

12.      MARIE de Courtenay ([1204]-Sep 1228).  Georgius Akropolites records that "Theodorum Lascarim imperatorem" married "sorore Italorum principis (Roberto…et Erico patruo successerat" after repudiating his second wife[101]Ephræmius records the marriage of "imperatori Lascari" and "Petri Maria filia", recording that his first wife had died and that he had repudiated his second wife "Cilice-gente natam"[102].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Lascarus Grecus…imperator Nicee" as third husband of "secundam filiarum eius [Namucensis comitis Petri] Sibiliam" but confuses Sibylle with her younger sister Marie[103].  Her marriage may have been proposed by Emperor Theodoros, during the interregnum which followed the disappearance of her father, with a view to his taking over the Latin empire himself but the statements of contemporary chroniclers are confusing[104].  Regent of Nikaia 1222.  She was chosen as regent of Constantinople by the barons in 1228 on the death of her brother Emperor Robert, and styled herself "Empress"[105]m (1219) as his third wife, THEODOROS I Emperor in Nikaia, son of --- Laskaris & his wife --- ([1175]-Nov 1221, bur monastery of Hyakinthos).  

13.      ELEONORE de Courtenay ([1208]-before 1230, bur Paris, Abbaye Saint-Antoine des Champs).  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Phelippe de Monfort" married "la fille au comte d'Ausseure"[106].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m (before 1228) as his first wife, PHILIPPE de Montfort, son of GUY de Montfort Seigneur de la Ferté-Alais et de Castres & his first wife Helvis Ibelin ([1206]-murdered 17 Mar 1270).  He succeeded his father in 1228 as Seigneur de La Ferté-Alais et de Castres-en-Albigeois.  He arrived in Palestine in 1239, and became Lord of Tyre in 1243. 

14.      SIBYLLE de Courtenay ([1210 or after?]-Fontevraud [after 1223?]).  She became a nun at Fontevraud Abbey.  Bouchet states that “Sibylle de Courtenay...fut religieuse à Fontevraut” adding that “son père fit une donation en sa faveur...ce qui fut confirmé par son frère Philippes de Courtenay Marquis de Namur l´an 1223 au mois de Mars” but does not provide the citation reference for either document[107].  It is not clear from Bouchet´s paragraph whether Sibylle was still alive at the date of her brother´s confirmation of the donation.  The necrology of Fontevraud records the death of “Sibylla...virgo apud Fontem-Ebrardi ætatis XIII annorum filia comitis Autissiodorensis et Yolendis de Flandrie”; Bouchet adds the date “1223” in the margin but it is unclear whether the necrology records the year[108]

15.      HENRI de Courtenay ([1212/16]-1229).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Henricus comes Namucensis" as third of the four son of "comitis Petris"[109].  He succeeded his older brother in 1226 as Marquis de Namur.  He succeeded his older brother Emperor Robert in 1228 as Seigneur de Courtenay et de Montargis, but renounced the imperial throne[110].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1229 of "comite Namucensi Henrici puero" specifying that he was "sub tutela Ingelranni de Coci"[111], which provides an indication of his date of birth. 

16.      BAUDOUIN de Courtenay (Constantinople [late 1217/early 1218]-Naples 1273 after 15 Oct, bur Barletta).  William of Tyre (Continuator) specifies that the wife of Pierre de Courtenay gave birth to a son soon after arriving in Constantinople[112].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "iuvenis Balduinus qui modo est imperator" as youngest of the four son of "comitis Petris"[113].  He succeeded his brother in 1228 as BAUDOUIN II Emperor of Constantinople.    

-        see below

 

 

BAUDOUIN II 1228-1261

 

BAUDOUIN de Courtenay, son of PIERRE Emperor of Constantinople, Seigneur de Courtenay & his second wife Yolande de Flandre Marquise de Namur (Constantinople [late 1217/early 1218]-Naples 1273 after 15 Oct, bur Barletta Cathedral).  William of Tyre (Continuator) specifies that the wife of Pierre de Courtenay gave birth to a son soon after arriving in Constantinople[114].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "iuvenis Balduinus qui modo est imperator" as youngest of the four son of "comitis Petris"[115].  He succeeded his brother in 1228 as BAUDOUIN II Emperor of Constantinople, Seigneur de Courtenay et de Montargis.  Georgius Akropolites records the death of "Robertus" and the succession of "frater eius Balduinus puer"[116].  Jean de Brienne ex-King of Jerusalem was appointed regent, by agreement at Perugia in Apr 1229, and crowned emperor on his arrival in Constantinople in 1231.  Theodoros Angelos Lord of Epirus, who had crowned himself emperor in 1225, marched on Constantinople in 1230 but changed course and attacked Bulgaria, and was defeated and captured by Tsar Ivan Asen II at Klokotniça in Apr 1230, once more averting the threat to the Latin empire[117].  Tsar Ivan Asen and his Nikaian allies laid siege to Constantinople in 1236, but the city was saved by a quarrel between the two allies[118].  In 1236, Emperor Baudouin left for the west to mobilise crusaders to help defend Constantinople.  While in France, he took possession of Courtenay and his other lands in France and obliged his sister Marguerite to transfer Namur to him in 1237[119].  Emperor Baudouin returned to Constantinople in Jul 1239, marching overland through Hungary and Bulgaria.  He captured the Nikaian fortress of Tzurulum in 1240, although his forces appear thereafter to have dispersed[120].  He was crowned emperor at St Sofia at Easter 1240.  “Balduinus...Romaniæ...Augustus consanguineus suus” addressed “Blanchæ...Francorum Reginæ”, naming “Elysabeth dominam Montis-Acuti sororem nostram et Odonem eiusdem castri dominum virum suum” with a view to the betrothal of “unam de filiabus suis”, by charter dated 5 Aug 1243[121].  He was in France once again from end-1243 until he joined the Fifth Crusade.  The testament of “Bauduins...Empereres de Romenie”, dated Jun 1247 at Namur, bequeathed “nostre terre de Namur” to “nostre enfant”, and in default to “nostre seror ainznée Marguerite Contesse de Viane...nostre seror Isabeau Dame de Montagu...nostre autre seror Agnes Princesse de Achaye[122].  He was present at the siege of Damietta in Jun 1249.  He returned to Constantinople after learning of the death of Theodoros II Emperor in Nikaia in 1257.  Mikhael Palaiologos, co-Emperor in Nikaia, captured Constantinople 25 Jul 1261.  Emperor Baudouin was wounded during the attack, but sailed for Euboea [Evia] on a Venetian ship, eventually reaching France in 1262.  He sold his rights to Namur 20 Mar 1263 to Guy de Dampierre, who later succeeded as Count of Flanders[123].  In Jan 1266, he sold his titular rights to the kingdom of Thessaloniki to Hugues IV Duke of Burgundy for 13,000 livres tournois[124].  Under the Treaty of Viterbo, concluded 27 May 1267, Emperor Baudouin ceded all his rights over Greece (except the city of Constantinople) to Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet], the agreement being confirmed by the betrothal of his son to Charles's daughter[125]

m (contract Perugia 19 Apr 1229, in person 1234) MARIE de Brienne, daughter of JEAN de Brienne ex-King of Jerusalem & his third wife Infanta doña Berenguela de Castilla (Capua Apr 1225-in Italy after 5 May 1275, bur Assisi).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the marriage of "rex…Iohannes super Grecos…filiam suam Mariam" and "Balduini iuveni…filius comitis Petri"[126].  Her marriage was agreed at the same time as her father was appointed regent for her husband. 

Emperor Baudouin II & his wife had [two] children:

1.         PHILIPPE de Courtenay (Constantinople 1243-Viterbo 15 Dec 1283).  He was sent by his father as a hostage to Venice as security for loans contracted by his father[127].  “Philippus primogenitus imperatoris Constantinopolitani et hæres eiusdem imperii” consented to the sale of the county of Namur by “domino nostro et patri...Balduino...Constantinopolitano imperatori” by charter dated Dec 1269[128].  Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] appointed him Captain and Vicar-General of Sicily during his absence on crusade in 1270[129].  He succeeded his father in 1273 as PHILIPPE I titular Emperor of Constantinople, Seigneur de Courtenay et de Montargis.  m (Betrothed 27 May 1267, Foggia 15 Oct 1273) BEATRICE of Sicily, daughter of CHARLES I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] & his first wife Béatrice Ctss de Provence ([1252]-1275).  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina records that the second "ex filiabus" [of Charles I King of Sicily by his first wife] married "Philippo nato imperatoris Costantinopolitani"[130].  Her parentage is confirmed by Pachymeres who records the betrothal of "Michælis filii [imperatoris Andronici]" and "filiam ex Balduini filio et filia Caroli natam…Aecaterina"[131]The Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records that "Balduino imperatore...Philippus eiusdem filius" married "filiam Karoli regis Siciliæ"[132]Her name is confirmed by the testament of "Beatrix…Regina Sicilie, Ducatus Apuliæ et Principatus Capuæ, Andegavensis, Provinciæ et Forcalquerii Comitissa", dated 1266, which leaves bequests to "…Beatricem filiam nostram…"[133].  This marriage was arranged as part of the second Treaty of Viterbo 24 May 1267 between her father and her future father-in-law[134].  Philippe de Courtenay & his wife had one child:

a)         CATHERINE de Courtenay (1274-Paris 11 Oct 1307 or 2 Jan 1308, bur Paris, église des Jacobins)The Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis names "Catherina" as only daughter of "Balduino imperatore...Philippus eiusdem filius" and his wife "filiam Karoli regis Siciliæ"[135]Pachymeres records the betrothal of "Michælis filii [imperatoris Andronici]" and "filiam ex Balduini filio et filia Caroli natam…Aecaterina"[136].  She was brought up at the court of the Angevin Kings of Sicily.  She succeeded her father in 1283 as CATHERINE I titular Empress of Constantinople, Dame de Courtenay, de Montargis et de Blacon.  Catharina...Imperatrix Constantinopolitana” transferred “terram nostram de Cortenayo, de Blacon, de Hellebek et de Breviller” to “domini nostri Caroli germani...Philippi...Francorum regis“, stated in the document to be before their marriage, by charter dated [end Jan] 1300 (O.S.?)[137]The Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records the second marriage in 1300 of "Karolus comes Valesii" and "Catharinam...Philippi filii Balduini imperatoris Græciæ quondam expulsi filiam", adding that she brought with her "jus imperii"[138]She transferred her rights to Courtenay, Namur and the empire of Constantinople to her husband 23 Apr 1301[139].  The necrology of Maubuisson records the death "V Id Oct" of "Catharina imperatrix Constantinopolitana"[140]The Continuatio of the Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records the death "præcedenti die lunæ...in villa sancti Audoeni, apud Prædicatores parisienses" in 1307 of "Catherina heres Constantinopolitani imperii, Karoli fratris regis uxor secunda" and her burial "die Jovis post festum beati Dionysii martyris"[141]According to Kerrebrouck, she died 2 Jan 1308[142]Betrothed firstly (1288, contract broken 1295) to MIKHAEL Dukas Angelos Komnenos Palaiologos, son of Emperor ANDRONIKOS II & his first wife Anna of Hungary (1277-12 Oct 1320).  He was crowned 21 May 1294 as co-Emperor MIKHAEL IXBetrothed secondly ([Jun] 1295) to Infante don FADRIQUE de Aragón, son of don PEDRO III King of Aragon & his wife Constance of Sicily [Hohenstaufen].  As a condition of this betrothal, don Fadrique promised to renounce his rights to Sicily and give help to reconquer the Latin Empire of Constantinople, but this proposal was opposed by Philippe IV King of France and the betrothal was terminated[143].  He was recognised as FEDERIGO I King of Sicily in Jan 1296.  Betrothed thirdly (24 Jan 1299) to Infante don JAIME de Mallorca, son of Infante don JAIME de Aragón King of Mallorca & his wife Esclarmonde de Foix ([1274]-[1330]).  He renounced his rights of succession to the Kingdom of Mallorca in 1299 and became a Franciscan monk.  m (Priory of Saint-Cloud, near Paris 28 Feb 1301) as his second wife, CHARLES de France Comte de Valois, son of PHILIPPE III "le Hardi" King of France & his first wife Infanta doña Isabel de Aragón (Vincennes 12 Mar 1270-Le Perray, Yvelines 16 Dec 1325, bur Paris, église des Jacobins). 

2.         [son ([1244]-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  His existence may be speculative on the basis of the charter dated Dec 1269 under which “Philippus primogenitus imperatoris Constantinopolitani et hæres eiusdem imperii” consented to the sale of the county of Namur by “domino nostro et patri...Balduino...Constantinopolitano imperatori[144], use of the word “primogenitus” possibly implying that Emperor Baudouin had other children besides Philippe.] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    EMPEROR of CONSTANTINOPLE (BRIENNE)

 

 

JEAN 1229-1237

 

JEAN de Brienne, son of ERARD [II] de Brienne & his wife Agnès de Montfaucon ([1170/75]-27 Mar 1237).  "Johan de Briene" is named brother of Gauthier de Brienne by William of Tyre (Continuator), after his brother Guillaume[145].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Iohannis frater eiusdem comitis [Galteri comitis Briennensis" when recording that he succeeded as Comte de Brienne after the death of his brother[146].  He was crowned in 1210 as JEAN King of Jerusalem.  He lost the kingdom of Jerusalem to his son-in-law Emperor Friedrich II in 1225.  He was appointed regent of the Latin empire of Constantinople, by agreement at Perugia in Apr 1229, and was crowned JEAN Emperor of Constantinople on his arrival in the city in 1231.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1237 in Constantinople of "rex Iohannes"[147]

 



[1] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 519. 

[2] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 326. 

[3] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 477. 

[4] Sturdza (1999), p. 488. 

[5] Runciman, S. (1951, 1952 and 1954) A History of the Crusades, Vol. 1 (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 3, p. 125. 

[6] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), pp. 81-2. 

[7] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1836) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Georgius Akropolites 12, p. 24. 

[8] Flandria Generosa (Continuatio Bruxellensis), MGH SS IX, p. 326.   

[9] Fine (1994), p. 94. 

[10] Fine (1994), pp. 88-9. 

[11] Gardner, A. (1912) The Lascarids of Nicæa, The Story of an Empire in Exile (Methuen, London), pp. 85-6. 

[12] Sturdza (1999), p. 488. 

[13] Gardner (1912), p. 93. 

[14] Shaw, M. R. B. (trans.) (1963) Joinville and Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades (Penguin) (“Villehardouin”), 19, pp. 146 and 148. 

[15] Sturdza (1999), p. 542. 

[16] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") Continuator (“WTC”) XXIX.XIII, p. 289. 

[17] Fine (1994), p. 101. 

[18] Villehardouin, 21, p. 158. 

[19] Fine (1994), p. 102. 

[20] Michaud and Poujoulat (eds.) Continuation de l'histoire de Villehardouin d'après les mémoires de Henri de Valenciennes, Nouvelle Collection des Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de France, 1e série, I (Paris) ("Henri de Valenciennes"), 17 and 21, pp. 127 and 129, the latter specifying that the marriage took place in Constantinople. 

[21] Georgius Akropolites 24, p. 42. 

[22] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1840) Ephræmii Monachi Imperatorum et Patriarcharum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Ephræmius") 8130, p. 326. 

[23] Fine (1994), pp. 93-4. 

[24] Fine (1994), p. 94. 

[25] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1196, MGH SS XXIII, p. 874. 

[26] Bouchet, J. du (1661) Histoire généalogique de la maison royale de Courtenay (Paris), Preuves, p. 7. 

[27] Bouchet (1661), p. 29. 

[28] Bouchet (1661), Preuves, p. 11. 

[29] Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 (Villeneuve d'Asq), p. 457. 

[30] Gardner (1912), p. 93. 

[31] WTC XXIX.XV, XVI and XVII, pp. 292-3. 

[32] Fine (1994), p. 113, and Gardner (1912), p. 94. 

[33] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[34] Chronologia Roberti Altissiodorensis, RHGF XVIII, p. 252. 

[35] Bernard, A. and Bruel, A. (eds.) (1876-1903) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny (Paris), Tome V, 4297, p. 660. 

[36] Bouchard, C. B. (1987) Sword, Miter, and Cloister: Nobility and the Church in Burgundy 980-1198 (Cornell University Press), p. 349. 

[37] Lespinasse, R. de (ed.) (1916) Cartulaire de Saint-Cyr de Nevers (Nevers, Paris), 102, p. 169. 

[38] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[39] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1191, MGH SS XXIII, p. 868. 

[40] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1214, MGH SS XXIII, p. 899. 

[41] Ex Historia Episcoporum Autissiodorensium LVIII, RHGF XVIII, p. 728. 

[42] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 457. 

[43] Sturdza (1999), p. 489. 

[44] Cluny, Tome V, 4297, p. 660. 

[45] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[46] Chronologia Roberti Altissiodorensis, RHGF XVIII, p. 263. 

[47] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes V, 128, p. 44. 

[48] Charmasse, A. de (ed.) (1889) Chartes de l'abbaye de Corbigny (Autun), 13, p. 18. 

[49] Nevers Saint-Cyr 103, p. 171. 

[50] La Mure, J. M. de (1675 manuscript, 1860) Histoire des ducs de Bourbon et des comtes de Forez (Paris), Tome III, Preuves, 48, p. 41. 

[51] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Eglise cathédrale de Sens, Obituaire du xiii siècle, p. 2.        

[52] 'La Chronique de Gislebert de Mons', Vanderkindere, L. (ed.) (1904) Recueil de textes pour servir à l'étude de l'histoire de Belgique (Bruxelles), pp. 285-6, cited in Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 458. 

[53] Cluny, Tome V, 4426, p. 798. 

[54] Kerrebrouck (2000), pp. 457-8. 

[55] Nécrologe de la Cathédrale de Nevers, Never Saint-Cyr, p. 214. 

[56] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 458. 

[57] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[58] Petit, E. (1891) Histoire des ducs de Bourgogne de la race Capétienne (Paris), Vol. III, 1229, p. 431. 

[59] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1229, MGH SS XXIII, p. 924. 

[60] Miraeus (Le Mire), A. (1723) Opera diplomatica et historica, 2nd edn. (Louvain), Tome I, Diplomata Belgica, Liber II, XC, p. 306. 

[61] Du Chesne, A. (1628) Histoire géneálogique des ducs de Bourgogne de la maison de France (Paris), Preuves, p. 138. 

[62] Foppens, J. F. (1748) Diplomatum Belgicorum nova collectio, sive supplementum ad opera diplomatica Auberti Miræi (Brussels), Tome IV, Pars IV, LXII, p. 554. 

[63] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 459. 

[64] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 459.  According to ES VII 35 (Die Grafen von Vianden), he died between 20 Aug and 19 Nov 1252. 

[65] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[66] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 458. 

[67] WTC XXIX.XVIII, p. 294. 

[68] Bouchet (1661), Preuves, p. 17. 

[69] Delisle (1856), 1781, p. 393. 

[70] Guizot, M. (ed.) (1825) Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis, Collection des Mémoires relatifs à l'histoire de France (Paris), p. 136. 

[71] Bouchet (1661), p. 54. 

[72] ES III 68 (Les Seigneurs de Montagu I).   

[73] The date of her will, ES II 17 (Die Herren von Courtenay, Lateinische Kaiser von Konstantinopel). 

[74] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[75] Du Chesne (1628), Preuves, p. 134. 

[76] Du Chesne (1628), Preuves, p. 137. 

[77] Du Chesne (1628), Preuves, p. 138. 

[78] ES III 660 (Les Vicomtes de Chartres et Sires du Puiset-en-Beauce). 

[79] Fine (1994), p. 101. 

[80] Kerrebrouck (2000), pp. 458-61. 

[81] ES II 17. 

[82] WTC XXIX.XVIII, p. 294. 

[83] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[84] Fine (1994), p. 101. 

[85] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1233, MGH SS XXIII, p. 933. 

[86] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[87] Bouchet (1661), Preuves, p. 17. 

[88] Delisle (1856), 1781, p. 393. 

[89] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 461. 

[90] Fine (1994), p. 123. 

[91] WTC XXIX.XIX, p. 295. 

[92] Georgius Akropolites 18, p. 33. 

[93] Ephræmius 7720, p. 312. 

[94] Sturdza (1999), p. 304, and Gardner (1912), p. 95. 

[95] WTC XXIX.XIX, pp. 294-5. 

[96] WTC XXIX.XIV, p. 291. 

[97] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[98] Du Chesne (1628), Preuves, p. 138. 

[99] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 460. 

[100] Bouchet (1661), p. 61. 

[101] Georgius Akropolites 15, p. 29. 

[102] Ephræmius 7715, p. 311. 

[103] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[104] Gardner (1912), pp. 94-5. 

[105] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 459. 

[106] Nielen, M.-A. (ed.) (2003) Lignages d'Outremer (Paris), Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XLIII, p. 107. 

[107] Bouchet (1661), p. 61. 

[108] Bouchet (1661), p. 61. 

[109] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[110] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 459. 

[111] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1229, MGH SS XXIII, p. 924. 

[112] WTC XXIX.XIV, p. 291. 

[113] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[114] WTC XXIX.XIV, p. 291. 

[115] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[116] Georgius Akropolites 27, p. 47. 

[117] Fine (1994), p. 124. 

[118] Fine (1994), p. 130. 

[119] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 462. 

[120] Fine (1994), p. 132. 

[121] Du Chesne (1628), Preuves, p. 137. 

[122] Du Chesne (1628), Preuves, p. 138. 

[123] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 462. 

[124] Sturdza (1999), p. 489. 

[125] Fine (1994), p. 170. 

[126] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1233, MGH SS XXIII, p. 933. 

[127] Sturdza (1999), p. 489. 

[128] Bouchet (1661), Preuves, p. 21. 

[129] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 463. 

[130] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, IV, XX, Re, G. del (ed.) (1868) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 2 (Naples), p. 291. 

[131] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 19, p. 153. 

[132] RHGF XX, Chronicon Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 567.  

[133] Spicilegium Tome III, p. 660. 

[134] Fine (1994), p. 170. 

[135] RHGF XX, Chronicon Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 567. 

[136] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 19, p. 153. 

[137] Bouchet (1661), Preuves, p. 22. 

[138] RHGF XX, Chronicon Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 582. 

[139] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 464. 

[140] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Abbaye de Maubuisson, p. 656. 

[141] RHGF XX, Continuatio Chronici Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 595. 

[142] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 464.   

[143] Kerrebrouck, Les Capétiens, p. 464. 

[144] Bouchet (1661), Preuves, p. 21. 

[145] WTC XXVII.XIV, p. 235. 

[146] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1201, MGH SS XXIII, p. 879. 

[147] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1237, MGH SS XXIII, p. 941.