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PROVENCE - kings, counts

  v4.0 Updated 06 November 2017

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Chapter 1.                KINGS of PROVENCE 855-928. 2

A.         CAROLINGIAN KING of PROVENCE 855-863. 2

B.         KINGS of PROVENCE, BOSONID FAMILY 879-928. 2

Chapter 2.                EARLY COUNTS in PROVENCE. 11

A.         UNLINKED EARLY COUNTS.. 11

B.         DESCENDANTS of BOSO COMTE d'ARLES.. 14

C.        COMTES [d´ARLES et d´AVIGNON] 19

D.        EARLY VICOMTES in PROVENCE.. 20

Chapter 3.                COMTES de PROVENCE 961-1093. 20

A.         EARLY COMTES de PROVENCE.. 21

B.         COMTES de PROVENCE 961-1112. 21

C.        COMTES de PROVENCE 1093-1113 (GEVAUDAN) 42

D.        COMTES de PROVENCE 1113-1246 (BARCELONA) 45

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of PROVENCE 855-928

 

 

 

A.      CAROLINGIAN KING of PROVENCE 855-863

 

 

1.         CHARLES, son of Emperor LOTHAIRE I & his wife Ermengarde de Tours ([845]-Lyon 25 Jan 863, bur Lyon, Saint-Pierre)Regino names "Hludowicum, Hlotharium et Carolum" as the three sons of Emperor Lothaire and his wife[1].  His father invested him in Sep 855 as CHARLES King of Provence, Lyon and Transjuranian Burgundy.  His estates were administered by Gérard Comte [de Vienne].  "Karoli rex, Hlotharii augusti filius" confirmed the privileges of the church of Villeurbane in favour of the church of Lyon at the request of "comes et parens noster ac nutritor Girardus" by charter dated 10 Oct 856[2].  "Karolus…rex Lotharii…augusti…filius" donated property "in comitatu Aurasicensis" to the church of Orange at the request of "Fulchradus et Aldricus comites ac ministeriales nostri" by charter dated [25 Aug 860][3]The Annales Bertiniani record the death in 863 of "Karolus, Hlotharii imperatoris filius et rex Provinciæ", specifying that he was "epelemptica infirmatate vexatus"[4]The 13th century obituary of the Eglise primatiale de Lyon records the death "VIII Kal Jan" of "Karolus rex filius Lotharii imperatoris"[5].  On his death, his kingdom was divided between his brothers.   

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of PROVENCE, BOSONID FAMILY 879-928

 

 

BOSON, son of comte BUVINUS [Bouvin] & his wife --- d'Arles (-Vienne, Isère 11 Jan 887, bur Vienne, cathédrale de Saint-Maurice).  The Annals of Hincmar name "Bosone filio Buvini quondam comitis" in 869[6]An agreement between Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks dated Jun 860 names "nobilis ac fidelibus laicis…Chuonradus, Evrardus, Adalardus, Arnustus, Warnarius, Liutfridus, Hruodolfus, Erkingarius, Gislebertus, Ratbodus, Arnulfus, Hugo, item Chuonradus, Liutharius, Berengarius, Matfridus, Boso, Sigeri, Hartmannus, Liuthardus, Richuinus, Wigricus, Hunfridus, Bernoldus, Hatto, Adalbertus, Burchardus, Christianus, Leutulfus, Hessi, Herimannus, item Hruodulfus, Sigehardus"[7], although it is not known whether "…Boso…" refers to the same person.  His brother-in-law King Charles II "le Chauve" granted the abbey of Saint-Maurice d'Agaune to him.  "Boso comes simulque Bernardus comes ad vicem" donated Nogent "in pago Otmense" for the soul of "quondam amici nostri Odonis comitis…uxoris suæ Guendilmodis" to Saint-Martin-des-Tours by charter dated 871 after 21 Jun[8].  He was invested as Comte de Vienne in 870 by King Charles II after the latter conquered the kingdom of Provence.  He was installed as Comte de Berry in [872] after the deposition of Gérard comte en Aquitaine.  He accompanied King Charles II to Italy in 875: an agreement dated Feb 876 of King Charles II "le Chauve" names "Bosonis…ducis et sacri palatii archiministri atque imperiali missi" among those present in Italy with the king[9].  He was invested as dux regni Italici at Pavia in Feb 876, fulfilling the role of viceroy in the absence of the king.  Recalled by Emperor Charles in early 877, Boson left his brother Richard in his place in Italy and became Governor and Comte de Provence in [877].  He took part in the general rebellion of 877, refusing to swear allegiance to Louis II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks on his accession[10].  After the death of King Louis II, "Hugo abbas et Boso et alii" sent "Walterum Episcopum Aurelianensem et Goiranum et Anscherum comites" to Ludwig III King of the East Franks to offer him part of the kingdom in 879[11]He was named King BOSON at Mantaille, near Vienne 15 Oct 879 by the archbishops of Vienne, Besançon, Lyon, Tarentaise, Aix and Arles, and crowned at Lyon a few days later.  Settipani points out that Boson´s kingdom was not referred to as Provence or Lower Burgundy (Bourgogne transjurane), doubting even that any term was used at all to describe it[12].  He installed his capital at Vienne.  The reigning Carolingian monarchs formed a league against him, captured Lyon, and besieged Vienne which fell in 882, although Boson refused to capitulate[13].  The Annales Fuldenses record that the sons of Ludwig II " der Deutsche" King of the East Franks fought "Buosonem in Galliam" in 880 and expelled him from "Madasconam urbem", accepting homage from "Bernhardum qui in ea principatum tenebat"[14].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death in 887 of "Buosone", leaving a young son by "filia Hludowici Italici regis"[15].  The epitaph of "Bosonis Regis" records his death "III Id Jan VIII anno regni sui"[16]

[m firstly ---.  The name of the supposed first wife of King Boson is not known.  The only reference to her existence so far identified is in the Annales Fuldenses which record that "Buosone comite" abducted "filiam Hludowicis imperatoris de Italiam" by force in 878, having poisoned his wife[17].  If this is correct, it is surprising that it is not reported in any other contemporary source.  However, as shown below, the chronology is favourable for one of the possible daughters attributed to King Boson to have been born from a first marriage, although as the existence of this daughter is not certain this represents a circular argument for proving the king´s supposed first marriage.] 

m [secondly] ([Mar/Jun] 876) ERMENGARDIS, daughter of Emperor LOUIS II King of Italy & his wife Engelberga --- ([852/55]-896 before 2 Jun, bur Vienne, Isère, cathédrale de Saint-Maurice).  "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted the abbey of San Salvatore to "nostra coniux…Angilberga ante filiam…nostrum Hermengardem" by charter dated at Venosa 28 Apr 868[18].  "Ludowicus…rex" granted "nepta nostra Hirmingarda" property at Morcula and Almenno in the county of Bergamo by a charter dated 26 Feb 875[19]Regino records the marriage of "Hirmingardem filiam Hludowici imperatoris" and "Bosoni germano Richildis reginæ"[20].  Abbess of San Salvatore at Brescia 878.  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Buosone comite" abducted "filiam Hludowicis imperatoris de Italiam" by force in 878, having poisoned his wife[21]"Boso…et coniunx mea Hirmingardi proles imperiales" donated property "in pago Laticense…in villa Lantinus" to the abbey of Montiérender by charter dated 25 Jul 879, subscribed by "Richardi comitis, Teutbaldi comitis, Bernardi comitis"[22]The Annales Bertiniani name "Richardus frater Bosonis" when recording that, after the capture of Vienne by the forces of King Carloman, he took “uxorem Bosonis et filiam eius” back to “comitatum suum Augustudensem” in 882[23].  She was regent for her son King Louis from 890. 

King Boson & his [first] wife had [one child]:

1.         [WILLA [Guille] (-before 924).  Chaume[24] and Hlawitschka[25] suggest that Willa, wife of Rudolf I King of Burgundy, was the daughter of King Boson, the former considering that she was the daughter of King Boson's second marriage while the latter prefers the king´s supposed first wife as her mother.  If Willa was the daughter of King Boson, it is more probable that she was the daughter of a first marriage as her husband is recorded as already having children in 888[26].  Alternatively, she may have been King Rudolf's second wife (which Chaume assumes), the king's children having been born from an unrecorded earlier marriage.  This would fit better with Willa's second marriage in 912, when her second husband would have been about 30 years old, while Willa would have been over 50 if her first children had been born in the early 880s.  m firstly ([880/85][27]) RUDOLF, son of CONRAD II [Welf] Comte d'Auxerre & his wife Waldrada --- (-25 Oct 911).  He was proclaimed RUDOLF I King of Upper Burgundy in 888.  m secondly (912) as his first wife, HUGUES d'Arles, son of THEOTBALD Comte d'Arles & his wife Berta of Lotharingia [Carolingian]  ([880]-10 Apr 947).  He succeeded as UGO King of Italy in 926.] 

King Boson & his [second] wife had three children:

2.         ENGELBERGA ([877]-919).  Her parentage and marriage are deduced from her donation to Cluny with her husband dated Jan 917, in which her brother "Ludovico" is named[28]The Annales Bertiniani record the betrothal in 878 of "filiam Bosonis" and "Karlomanno filio suo [=Hlodowici rex]"[29].  It is assumed that this daughter was Engelberga, who must have been an infant at the time, but no proof has been found which confirms that this is correct.  "Bosonis" could refer either to the future King Boson or to Count Boson, husband of the adulterous Engiltrudis (see below)While Boson of Provence had refused to swear allegiance to Louis II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks ("Hlodowici rex") on the latter's accession, it is not known whether he was still in rebellion the following year.  Assuming that some reconciliation had taken place, a marriage alliance between the two parties would have been a likely possibility.  The other Count Boson was presumably of less political importance and, in addition, his problems with his adulterous wife may have rendered his daughters unmarriageable at the time.  The Annales Bertiniani indicate that Engelberga was born from her father´s [second] marriage when they record that "Richardus frater Bosonis" took “uxorem Bosonis et filiam eius” back to “comitatum suum Augustudensem” in 882 after the capture of Vienne by the forces of King Carloman[30].  Engelberga is named as co-founder with her husband of the monastery of Cluny in a charter dated 11 Sep 910[31].  The Annales Masciacenses record in 919 the deaths of “Guilelmus famosus dux Aquitanorum...coniunx eius Ingelberga[32].  She died as a nun at San Sisto, Piacenza.  [Betrothed (11 Sep 878) to CARLOMAN, son of LOUIS II "le Bègue" King of the Franks & his first wife Ansgardis --- (867-killed accidentally Bézu-la-Forêt, near Andelys, Eure 6 Dec 884, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis)He succeeded his brother in 882 as CARLOMAN King of the West Franks.]  m (before 898[33]) GUILLAUME I "le Pieux" Duke of Aquitaine, son of BERNARD "Plantevelue" Comte d'Auvergne & his wife Ermengarde [d'Auvergne] (-6 Jul 918, bur Abbaye de Brioude, Haute-Loire). 

3.         LOUIS (late 882 or after-Arles 5 Jun 928)Herimannus names "puer Ludowicus" son of Boson "ex filia Ludowici Italiæ imperatoris" when recording that he was adopted by Emperor Karl III after his father's death[34]The Annales Bertiniani name "Richardus frater Bosonis" when recording that, after the capture of Vienne by the forces of King Carloman, he took “uxorem Bosonis et filiam eius” back to “comitatum suum Augustudensem” in 882[35], which suggests that Louis was born after the siege of Vienne.  The Annales Fuldenses record the death in 887 of "Buosone", leaving a young son by "filia Hludowici Italici regis" but does not name him[36].  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 6 Jun 903 under which "Hludovicus…imperator augustus" confirmed privileges which Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks had ceded to "fideles nostri Liutfridus, Hugo atque Teutbertus comites" at the request of "Adalelmo comite et eius coniugi Rotlindi", the charter naming "rex genitor nostri Boso"[37].  "Ludovico" is named as brother of Engelberga in the latter's donation to Cluny dated Jan 917[38].  He was adopted by his maternal great-uncle Emperor Karl III "der Dicke/le Gros" at Kirchen-am-Rhein end May 887, at the request of his mother, rendering him eligible to be elected king according to the rules of Carolingian succession[39].  He was elected LOUIS King [of Provence] at Valence in 890 by the Archbishops of Lyon, Arles, Vienne and Embrun, ruling over Provence and Viennois under the regency of his mother[40].  He was called to Italy in 896 by opponents of Berengario King of Italy, captured Pavia, expelled Berengario, and was elected LOUIS III King of Italy at Pavia 12 Oct 900, crowned the same day.  He claimed the imperial crown from Pope Benedict IV, and was crowned Emperor LUDWIG III in Rome 15 or 22 Feb 901, although this was only recognised in Lombardy and Tuscany.  He was expelled from Pavia by King Berengario in Jul 902, whereupon he returned to Vienne, but continued to call himself emperor.  He was recalled to Italy in 905 by Adalbero II Marchese of Tuscany and reconquered the kingdom, but was captured by King Berengario at Verona and blinded 21 Jul 905.  Regino records that "Hludowicus filius Bosonis" expelled "Berengarium" from Italy in 905[41].  He was freed and returned to Provence, where he continued to reign at Vienne, but in name only as Hugues Comte d'Arles was appointed governor[42].  "Ludowicus imperator augustus" restored property to the church of Avignon at the request of "comes nosterque propinquus Boso" by charter dated to [907/10][43]Betrothed ([Jun/Jul] 900]) ANNA, daughter of Emperor LEON VI & his second wife Zoe Zautsina ([886/88]-[901/early 904], bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles).  The basis for this betrothal is a letter written by Nikolaos Mystikos, which Settipani quotes in French translation, recalling the writer's admonishing Emperor Leon VI for his unsuitable third marriage (dated to Spring 900), excused because of "l'accord…conclu avec le Franc…tu lui destinais comme épouse ta fille unique…[au] cousin de Berta auquel il est arrivé l'infortune que l'on sait"[44].  The date, the relationship with "Berta" (assuming, as Settipani proposes, that this is Berta daughter of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia who married Adalberto Marchese of Tuscany), and "l'infortune" (his blinding) are consistent with "le Franc" being identified with Louis III King of Italy (his title in 900).  Settipani assumes that the marriage actually took place.  However, the translation only refers to a proposed marriage ("…tu lui destinais…") and provides no proof that the marriage ever happened or, if it did occur, that the bride ever left Byzantium for Provence.  Anna is not named in any of the surviving charters of Emperor Louis, nor has any mention of her been found in any of the primary sources so far consulted.  As this would have been the first marriage between the families of the eastern and western emperors (no previous betrothals having resulted in marriage), this absence from contemporary western documentation is therefore striking.  It also contrasts sharply with the extensive records which relate the Byzantine origin of Theophano, wife of Emperor Otto II (even though Theophano's precise ancestry is unrecorded), although it is recognised that Anna´s career was cut short by premature death in contrast to Theophano´s.  Traditional genealogies[45] show Emperor Louis III's son, Charles Constantin, as the child of this alleged first marriage of Emperor Louis, presumably because of his grandiose name.  However, another possible explanation is that the name was a symbol of the emperor's hope that his son would one day unite the two successor parts of the ancient Roman empire, in the name of his illustrious predecessors Emperors Charlemagne and Constantine I "the Great", completely independent of his maternal ancestry.  Tougher suggests that Anna was legitimate, born after her parents' marriage, and that the marriage to King Louis did not take place[46].  If he is correct about her legitimacy at birth, this excludes her from being the mother of King Louis's son Charles Constantin, if the latter's birth date is correctly estimated below.  Anna was crowned Augusta in Constantinople in [899/900], after the death of her mother and before the third marriage of her father[47].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anna et Eudocia, filiæ beati eiusdem Leonis ex [secunda uxore] Zoe", the Greek text specifying "Aννα και Aννα" although the editor suggests that "Ευδοκία" be substituted for the second Anna (without giving his reasons: this may result from confusion with Anna's older half-sister of that name), were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[48].  It is not known whether this is an error, but in any case both daughters named Anna (assuming that there were two) must have died young.  Her burial in Constantinople suggests that Anna never left her father's court.  m ([Jun 902/905]) ADELAIS, daughter of ---.  "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted property at Tressin, Viennois to "fideli nostro Girardo" at the request of "coniux nostra Adalaida" by charter dated 18 Jan 915[49].  Her origin is not known.  According to Poupardin[50], she was Adelais, relative [maybe niece] of Rudolf I King of Upper Burgundy [Welf].  Presumably this is based on the two charters dated 28 Mar 943 and 18 May 943 under which "Carolus comes" is named "consanguineus noster" by Conrad I King of Burgundy[51].  The potential problem with this is the apparently impossible marriage of King Louis with his own niece.  The solution would be either that Adelais was the daughter of King Rudolf by an earlier otherwise unrecorded marriage, or that King Rudolf's known wife Willa was not the daughter of Boson King [of Provence].  The problem is discussed fully by Settipani[52].  The discussion proceeds on the basis that Adelais was in some way related to King Rudolf, but the precise basis for this speculation does not appear to be clearly stated.  The estimated date for this relatively obscure marriage is based on its having taking place during the ex-emperor's period of exile in Vienne, before his recall to Italy, at a time when he would not have been considered a great marriage prospect by more prominent prospective fathers-in-law.  Another difficulty is that “consanguineus” in the 943 charters could indicate a more remote relationship than second cousin.  Emperor Louis III & his wife had two children:

a)         CHARLES CONSTANTIN ([905/10]-after Jan 962).  Flodoard names "Karlo Constantino, Lucdowici Orbi filio"[53].  "Hludovicus…imperator augustus" gave three serfs to "fideli nostro Bononi" at the request of "filius noster Karolus" by charter dated 3 Jun 924[54].  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of his having been a young adult or adolescent at the time of the 924 charter in which he is named.  The absence of proof that Charles Constantin was the grandson of the Byzantine emperor is discussed above in relation to his father's betrothal.  "Carolus comes" is named "consanguineus noster" by Conrad I King of Burgundy in two charters of the latter dated 28 Mar 943 and 18 May 943[55], which suggests that he may have been the son of Adelais, assuming that her Burgundian origin is correct and assuming also that the Burgundian origin of Willa, wife of Rudolf I King of Burgundy, is incorrect (see above).  He was named Comte de Vienne in 926 by his cousin Raoul King of France, in succession to his cousin Hugues Comte d'Arles, who was then proclaimed king of Italy.  King Ugo of Italy removed the county of Vienne from Charles Constantin in 928 and granted it to Héribert [II] Comte de Vermandois.  Charles Constantin remained at Vienne.  Flodoard provides an insight into the continuing rivalries regarding Vienne when he records in 933 that it was granted to "Rodulfo regi" [Rudolf II King of Upper Burgundy, see the document BURGUNDY KINGS][56]. It is supposed that, from that time, Charles Constantin continued to hold the county under the suzerainty of the kingdom of Burgundy.  Mermet records the existence of a peace treaty signed at the time between Ugo King of Italy and Rudolf II King of Burgundy which confirmed the latter’s rights to the Burgundian kingdom and Charles Constantin’s position in the county of Vienne[57].  Charles Constantin swore allegiance to Conrad "le Pacifique" King of Burgundy in 943[58].  The rivalry being the competing factions in France concerning the suzerainty over Vienne persisted, as indicated by Flodoard who recorded in 951 that Louis IV “d’Outremer” King of the West Franks summoned "Karlus Constantinus Viennæ princeps et Stephanus Arvernorum præsul" to swear allegiance[59]. "Karolus comes" sold land "in villa Brociano" by charter dated 19 May 960 which names "Teutbergi comitisse"[60]m TEUTBERGA, daughter of --- (-after 19 May 960).  "Teutbergi comitisse" is named in the charter of "Karolus comes" dated 19 May 960 which recorded the sale of land "in villa Brociano"[61].  Her origin is not known.  Her name suggests a connection with the family of the Comtes de Troyes and it has been suggested[62] that she was Teutberga [de Troyes, daughter of Warnarius [Garnier] Vicomte de Sens [Comte de Troyes] & his wife Teutberga d'Arles].  Gingins-la-Sarra points out that Teutberga was the name of the third wife and widow of Engelbert, of the family of the vicomtes de Vienne, who could have married Charles Constantin as her second husband[63].  There seems to be no basis for this speculation other than the name.  Charles Constantin & his wife had [three] children: 

i)          RICHARD (-after Jan 962).  "Richardi et Uperti filiorum suorum" are named in the charter of "Karolus comes" dated 19 May 960 selling land "in villa Brociano"[64]

ii)         HUBERT (-after Jan 962).  "Richardi et Uperti filiorum suorum" are named in the charter of "Karolus comes" dated 19 May 960 selling land "in villa Brociano"[65]same person as…?  HUMBERT (-after [995]).  Comte [de Belley].  This possible co-identity is discussed in BURGUNDY KINGDOM NOBILITY. 

iii)        [CONSTANTIA ([920/30]-after May [963]).  The affiliation of Constantia, wife of Boson, is unknown.  Chaume[66] proposed that she was the daughter of Charles Constantin Comte de Vienne for onomastic reasons only, stating that names with the root "Constant" were unknown in western royal genealogy before Charles Constantin himself.  This supposition is incorrect as numerous charters of the monastery of Cluny dated between 891 and 946 include the name "Constantia"[67], and many others during the same period name "Constantius" and "Constantinus".  Poly suggests that Constantia was in fact Charles Constantin's sister rather than his daughter[68], although this is more difficult to sustain chronologically bearing in mind the birth of her children in the early 950s.  m (before 942) BOSON Comte d'Avignon, son of ROTBALD I d'Agel & his wife --- (-[965/67]).  He succeeded as Comte d'Arles in 949.] 

b)         RAOUL [Rodolphe] (-after 19 Mar 929).  He is named "Rodulfi filii Ludowici imperatoris" in the grant of "Adeleydis comitissa soror Rodulfi" to Cluny dated 14 Jun 929[69]

4.         daughter ([after 882]-after 11 Aug 887).  The existence of more than one daughter of King Boson & his second wife is confirmed by the charter dated 11 Aug 887 under which Emperor Karl III confirms a donation by "neptam nostram Hermingardim…filioque suo Hludouuico nepoti nostro et sororibus eius"[70].  It is not known how many other daughters there may have been.  The Annales Bertiniani name "Richardus frater Bosonis" when recording that, after the capture of Vienne by the forces of King Carloman, he took “uxorem Bosonis et filiam eius” back to “comitatum suum Augustudensem” in 882[71], which suggests that any other children were born after the siege of Viennesame person as…?  [ERMENGARDE (-after Jun 924)One version of the Series abbatum Flaviniacensium, as reproduced only in a 17th century secondary source, records that "Richardus dux et Ingelbertus" installed "Vualonem, fratrem Manasserii comitis qui gener erat B fratris Richardi ducis" as abbot of Flavigny[72] which, if correct, means that the wife of Manassès was the daughter of King Boson.  If this is right, her name suggests that she was the daughter of his second wife, although Chaume proposed that she was the daughter of his first marriage[73]m MANASSES [II] Comte de Dijon, son of MANASSES [I] & his wife --- (-925 or after).] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    EARLY COUNTS in PROVENCE

 

 

 

A.      UNLINKED EARLY COUNTS

 

 

1.         TEUDOIN (-after 753)Comte [de Vienne].  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "Theudoeno comite Viennense…et Frederico Ultraiurano comite" captured and killed Grifon in 753 as he was crossing the Alps to seek refuge in Lombardy[74]

 

2.         MARCELLIN (-after 23 Feb 780).  Comte [de Digne].  "Marcellinus comes" subscribed a charter dated 23 Feb 780 relating to property "in pago Dignense"[75]

 

3.         LAIBULF (-after 16 Mar 829).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a charter dated 2 Apr 812 to the counts in the Spanish march "Berane, Gauscelino, Gisclafredo, Odilone, Ermengario, Ademaro, Laibulfo et Erlino comitibus"[76]Missus at Narbonne.  Emperor Louis I confirmed the donation of "in pago Narbonensi…salinas" designated by "noster missus Leibulfus comes" to "monasterio Amanense" by charter dated 814[77].  A charter dated 823 of Emperor Louis I records an agreement between "Leibulfus comes" and the archbishopric of Arles[78].  Noton Archbishop of Arles and "Letibulfo comitem" agreed to exchange property by charter dated 7 Nov 824[79].  "Leybulfus et uxor mea Odda" donated property to the monastery of Lérins by charter dated 16 Mar 829[80]m ODA, daughter of --- (-after 16 Mar 829).  "Leybulfus et uxor mea Odda" donated property to the monastery of Lérins by charter dated 16 Mar 829[81]

 

4.         ADALBERT (-after 2 Jul 845)Comte [en Provence].  A charter dated 2 Jul 845 records a hearing before "Rothbertum vicarium de…Adalberto comite" relating to "villa Leguino", and recites events in the time of "Leibulfi comitis"[82].  A charter of Marseille Saint-Victor, dated to the 10th century, records a description of the properties “de villa ecclesie nostre Marciana, Massiliense” which was made in the time of "Eldeberto comite, per suo misso Nortaldo vicedomino"[83].  The extent of Adalbert’s jurisdiction in Provence is uncertain, although both these charters suggest that it was extensive.  If that is correct, Adalbert presumably exercised this jurisdiction after being appointed by Emperor Lothaire I.  same person as...?  ADALBERTO I Marchese of Tuscany, son of BONIFAZIO [II] & his wife --- (-886).  A letter of Pope John VIII dated 879 addressed to “Bosoni...principi” records hearing of his activities in Provence from “Adalberto...marchionis seu Rotildæ comitissæ coniugis eius[84].  This document suggests that Marchese Adalberto enjoyed some authority in Provence.  If that is correct, the precise extent of Adalberto’s authority, and its relationship with Boso’s jurisdiction, is unknown.  Marchese Adalberto’s name suggests the possibility that he was the same person as Adalbert Comte [en Provence].  If that is correct, it would imply a degree of continuity in the government of the county of Provence over a thirty year period.  This seems surprising, especially considering that during the earlier part of this period Provence was ruled by Emperor Lothaire and his sons, while during the later part the rival party led by Emperor Charles II and his appointees held sway.   

 

5.         MILON (-after 17 Jul 835).  Comte d´Apt.  "Milo Montanus comite nobilissimo Aptensis civitatis" donated the abbey of Saint-Martin to the church of Apt, by charter dated 17 Jul 835[85]m HORTENSE, daughter of --- (-after 17 Jul 835).  "Milo Montanus comite nobilissimo Aptensis civitatis" donated the abbey of Saint-Martin to the church of Apt, by charter dated 17 Jul 835[86]

 

6.         FULCRAD (-after [25 Aug 860]).  The Gesta Francorum records in 845 that "Folcratum ducem Arelatensem et reliquos comites illarum partium" submitted to "Hlotharius" after rebelling, and that Provence was brought under control[87].  The Annales Fuldenses record the same event[88]"Karolus…rex Lotharii…augusti…filius" donated property "in comitatu Aurasicensis" to the church of Orange at the request of "Fulchradus et Aldricus comites ac ministeriales nostri" by charter dated [25 Aug 860][89]

 

7.         ALDRIC (-after [25 Aug 860]).  "Karolus…rex Lotharii…augusti…filius" donated property "in comitatu Aurasicensis" to the church of Orange at the request of "Fulchradus et Aldricus comites ac ministeriales nostri" by charter dated [25 Aug 860][90]

 

8.         BERNARD (-after 25 Jul 879).  "Boso comes simulque Bernardus comes ad vicem" donated Nogent "in pago Otmense" for the soul of "quondam amici nostri Odonis comitis…uxoris suæ Guendilmodis" to Saint-Martin-des-Tours by charter dated 871 after 21 Jun[91].  "Richardi comitis, Teutbaldi comitis, Bernardi comitis" subscribed the charter dated 25 Jul 879 under which "Boso…et coniunx mea Hirmingardi proles imperiales" donated property "in pago Laticense…in villa Lantinus" to the abbey of Montiérender[92]

 

9.         BERTOLD (-after Aug 890).  A document dated Aug 890 relating to the election of "Ludovicum…Bosonis regis filium" as king of Arles names "Bertaldum comitem"[93]

 

10.      HUGUES (-after 890).  "Ricardus…Comes, Wido Comes, Ugo Comes, Adelelmus Comes, Baterius Comes, Teutbertus Comes, Ragenardus Comes…" subscribed a charter dated to [890] which records a council held by "Ermengardis Regina et…Principes Ludovici filii Bosones" at Varennes[94]

 

11.      ADALELM (-after 890).  "Ricardus…Comes, Wido Comes, Ugo Comes, Adelelmus Comes, Baterius Comes, Teutbertus Comes, Ragenardus Comes…" subscribed a charter dated to [890] which records a council held by "Ermengardis Regina et…Principes Ludovici filii Bosones" at Varennes[95]

 

12.      BATERIUS (-after 890).  "Ricardus…Comes, Wido Comes, Ugo Comes, Adelelmus Comes, Baterius Comes, Teutbertus Comes, Ragenardus Comes…" subscribed a charter dated to [890] which records a council held by "Ermengardis Regina et…Principes Ludovici filii Bosones" at Varennes[96]

 

13.      RAINARD (-after 890).  "Ricardus…Comes, Wido Comes, Ugo Comes, Adelelmus Comes, Baterius Comes, Teutbertus Comes, Ragenardus Comes…" subscribed a charter dated to [890] which records a council held by "Ermengardis Regina et…Principes Ludovici filii Bosones" at Varennes[97]

 

 

 

B.      DESCENDANTS of BOSO COMTE d'ARLES

 

 

BOSO, son of --- (-before 855).  Comte d'Arles.  Count in Italy. 

m ---.  The name of Boso's wife is not known. 

Boso & his wife had [four] children: 

1.         [BOSO ([820/25]-[874/78]).  There is no proof that Boso, husband of the adulterous Engiltrudis, was the son of Boso Comte d'Arles.  Regino refers to "fratribus Thietbirgæ reginæ" referring her case to Pope Nicholas after her repudiation by her husband King Lothaire II[98], which shows that she had at least two brothers, one of whom may therefore have been Boso.  Count in Italy[99]m ([845/50], deserted [856/57]) ENGILTRUDIS, daughter of MATFRIED [I] Comte d'Orléans & his wife --- ([825/30]-).  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Engildrudam filiam quondam Matifredi comite" left "Busone proprio viro" and wandered for seven years[100]Regino names "Engildrudam quoque uxorem quondam Bosonis comitis" when recording her excommunication in 866 after deserting her husband and fleeing to France with "Wangerum suum vassallum"[101].]  Boso & his wife had [two] children:   

a)         [two] daughters.  They disputed their mother's inheritance with their illegitimate half-brother Godefroi.  Pope John VIII requested "Ludovicum Germani Regem" to restore the property of "Bosonis C filiabus" in 878[102]

2.         HUBERT (-killed in battle Orbe 866)Regino records that "Hucbertus abba, frater Thietbirgæ reginæ" rebelled against King Lothaire in 866[103].  Duke of Transjurania.  Abbot of St Maurice.   

-        see below

3.         TEUTBERGA (-before 875).  The Annales Lobienses name "Tietberga, sorore Hucberti abbatis" as lawful wife of "Lotharius"[104].  The Annales Bertiniani name "Teutbergam" as "materteram suam [=Bosone filio Buvini comitis]"[105].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Thieberga regina legitima uxore [Lotharii]", specifying that she relied on the advice of "Bosonis comitis" at the time of her repudiation, although her relationship to him is not specified[106]Herimannus names "Tiohtpirga uxore legitima" of King Lothaire II when recording that he repudiated her[107].  She protected the wife of Boso Count in Italy after she deserted her husband.  She was repudiated on the grounds of her alleged incest with her brother Hubert[108].  Her husband kept her prisoner after separating from her.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "uxor Lotharii" fled to "fratrem suum Hucbertum in regno Karli" in 860[109]She escaped in 860 and sought refuge with Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, who gave her the abbey of Avenay in the diocese of Reims.  The Annales Bertiniani records that "uxore [Lothario]" gave support to "uxori Bosonis et Balduino qui filiam eius [=Karoli regis] furatus fuerat in uxorem"[110].  Abbess of Sainte Glossinde at Metz 869.  "Heccardus comes" names "…Teutbergane uxore Lotharii…" among the beneficiaries under his testamentary disposition dated to [Jan 876][111].  It is not certain that this refers to the separated wife of King Lothaire II, but no other "Teutberga/Lothaire" couple has been identified at the time.  If this identification is correct, it suggests a family relationship between Teutberga and Ekkehard, which has not yet been identified.  m ([855], separated 857, repudiated 860) LOTHAIRE II King of Lotharingia, son of Emperor LOTHAIRE I King of Lotharingia & his wife Ermengarde de Tours (-Piacenza 8 Aug 868). 

4.         daughterThe existence of this sister of Teutberga is indicated by the Annales Bertiniani which name "Teutbergam" as "materteram suam [=Bosone filio Buvini comitis]"[112]m BUVINUS [Bouvin], son of --- (-[863/69]). 

 

 

HUBERT, son of BOSO Comte d'Arles, Count in Italy & his wife --- (-killed in battle Orbe 866).  The Annalium Laubacensium record Lothar King of Italy leading his army into Burgundy in 858 against "Hucbertum cognatum suum"[113]The Gesta Abbatum Gemblacensium records that "Hubertus dux, frater reginæ Tietbergæ" expelled abbot Hartpert and invaded the abbey of Lobbe in 863[114]Regino names "Hucberti abbati" when recording that he was invested with a dukedom "inter Iurum et montem Iovis", specifying that "Thietbirgam", the wife of King Lothaire II, was his sister[115]Regino records that "Hucbertus abba, frater Thietbirgæ reginæ" rebelled against King Lothar in 866[116].  Duke of Transjurania.  Abbot of St Maurice.  The Annales Mettenses records that "Hucbertus…a Conrado comite occisus est juxta castrum…Orba"[117].  The Annales Xantenses record in 866 that "Hubertus clericus…cuius sororem Lotharius rex pridem repudiatam dimisit" was killed in battle by "filiis Cuonradi fratris quondam Iuthit reginæ"[118]

m ---.  The name of Hubert's wife is not known. 

Hubert & his wife had one child: 

1.         THEOTBALD [Thibaut] (-[Jun 887/895]).  The Annales Vedastini record that "Teutbaldum filium Hucberti" was gravely wounded by "Heinricus" in the battle against "Bosonem tyrannum" in 880[119].  "Richardi comitis, Teutbaldi comitis, Bernardi comitis" subscribed the charter dated 25 Jul 879 under which "Boso…et coniunx mea Hirmingardi proles imperiales" donated property "in pago Laticense…in villa Lantinus" to the abbey of Montiérender[120].  Comte d'Arles.  m ([879/80]) as her first husband, BERTA of Lotharingia, illegitimate daughter of LOTHAIRE II King of Lotharingia & his mistress Waldrada --- ([863]-8 Mar 925, bur Lucca).  "Hugo comes et marchio" names "patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthe…" in a donation by charter dated 924[121]"Berte" is also named as mother of "Hugo rex" in the latter's donation to Cluny for the souls of his parents dated 8 Mar 934[122]Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by the Annales Bertiniani which name "Hugonem Lotharii iunioris filium" and “sororium illius Theutbaldum” in 880[123].  Her origin and second marriage are confirmed by the epitaph of "Comitissæ…Bertha" which specifies that she was "uxor Adalberti Ducis Italiæ…regalis generi…filia Lotharii" and records her death in 925[124]Liudprand provides the proof that Berta, who married Marchese Adalberto, was the widow of Theotbald when he names "Berta matre regis Hugonis", specifying that she was previously married to Adalberto, when recording her death[125].  She was regent of Tuscany after the death of her second husband in 915.  She married secondly ([890/98]) Adalberto II Marchese of Tuscany.  Theotbald & his wife had four children: 

a)         HUGUES ([880]-10 Apr 947)"Hugo comes et marchio" names "patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthe…" in a donation by charter dated 924[126]"Hugo et Lotharius…reges" name "patris et matris nostræ Teubaldi…et Berte" in their donation to Cluny dated 8 Mar 934[127], although this incorrectly implies that Ugo and Lothar were brothers instead of father and son, which is proved by other sources.  Comte de Vienne.  He was elected as UGO King of Italy in 926.   

-        KINGS of ITALY

b)         BOSO ([885]-after 936).  Liudprand names “Boso ex eodem patre regis Hugonis frater[128].  Gingins-la-Sarra suggests that this text means that Boso was born from a different marriage of his father[129].  However, the wording could just as easily be interpreted as emphasising that Boso and Hugues were born from the same marriage of their mother.  Considering the marriage dates of Boso´s daughters, it is unlikely that he was born before his brother Hugues.  Comte d'Avignon et Vaisin 911-931.  Comte d'Arles 926-931.  He was installed by his brother as BOSO Marchese of Tuscany in 931 after Lambert Marchese of Tuscany was deposed and blinded.  He rebelled against his brother in 936, encouraged by Willa "uxore sua cupidissima", but was captured and deposed[130]m (separated 936) WILLA, daughter of ---.  Willa is named "uxore…Boso Tusciæ provinciæ marchio regis frater" by Liudprand, without giving her origin, when he records the marriage of her daughter Willa in 936[131].  According to Jean-Noël Mathieu, she was Willa, daughter of Rudolf I King of Burgundy & his wife Willa ---, basing this on the fact that she was sent to Burgundy when she was separated from her husband in 936[132], this event being recorded by Liudprand[133], but there are presumably other plausible explanations for her destination.  Comte Boso & his wife had four children:

i)          BERTA (-after 18 Aug 965).  "Bertam, Willam, Richildam et Gislam" are named (in order) as the four daughters of Boso and Willa by Liudprand[134], who in a later passage names Berta as "Bosonis Arelatensis comitis viduæ" and mentions her marriage soon after the death of her first husband to Raymond, by virtue of which she was deemed guilty of incest[135].  "Raymundus comes" names "…Bertanæ et Raymundo filio meo…" in his 961 testament[136].  "Berta…comitissa et filius meus Raimundus…comes" donated property "in comitatu Nemausense" to Nîmes Notre-Dame by charter dated 7 Sep 961[137].  "Berta…comitissa" donated property "in comitatu Nemausense" to Nîmes Notre-Dame by charter dated 18 Aug 965, subscribed by "Raimundus filius meus"[138].  She is cited at the time of a synod held after 1004 (maybe [1012])[139]m firstly ([928]) BOSO Comte in Upper Burgundy, son of RICHARD "le Justicier" Duke of Burgundy & his wife Adelais d'Auxerre [Welf] (-Sep 935, bur Reims, église de l'abbaye de Saint-Rémi).  m secondly ([936]) RAYMOND I Comte de Rouergue Marquis de Septimanie, son of ERMENGAUD Comte de Rouergue & his wife Adelaida --- (-killed [Feb 961/7 Oct 962]).  Duke of Aquitaine 936. 

ii)         WILLA (-after 963).  "Bertam, Willam, Richildam et Gislam" are named (in order) as the four daughters of Boso and Willa by Liudprand[140].  Willa is named "rex Hugo neptim suam…ex Willa uxore sua Boso Tusciæ provinciæ marchio regis frater" by Liudprand when he records her marriage to Berengario[141].  She ordered the imprisonment of Adelheid, widow of her husband's predecessor Lothaire [de Provence] King of Italy.  She retreated with her husband to the fortress of San Leo in the face of Otto King of Germany's invasion, but was captured and taken to Bamberg with Berengario.  Regino records that Willa became a nun after her husband died before he was buried[142]m ([930/31]) BERENGARIO II Marchese di Ivrea, son of ADALBERTO I Conte e Marchese di Ivrea & his first wife Gisela di Friulia ([900]-in prison Bamberg 6 Jul 966).  He was proclaimed BERENGARIO II King of Italy in Dec 950. 

iii)        RICHILDE .  "Bertam, Willam, Richildam et Gislam" are named (in order) as the four daughters of Boso and Willa by Liudprand[143]

iv)       GISELA .  "Bertam, Willam, Richildam et Gislam" are named (in order) as the four daughters of Boso and Willa by Liudprand[144]

c)         TEUTBERGA ([880/90][145]-before Sep 948).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She is named "matris mee Theotberg" in the Sep 948 donation to Cluny of her son "Manases archiepiscopus Arelatensis" made for her soul[146], presumably indicating that she was then deceased.  m WARNER [Garnier] Vicomte de Sens, son of --- (-killed in battle 6 Dec 924).  Comte de Troyes 895/96. 

d)         daughter (-after 924).  As "Hugo comes et marchio" refers to "…fratrum et sororum mearum" in a donation by charter dated 924[147], Theotbald must have had at least two daughters.  No further information about this second daughter, or any further daughters, has so far been found in other primary sources. 

 

 

 

C.      COMTES [d´ARLES et d´AVIGNON]

 

 

ROTBALD [I], son of --- (-[949]).  His parentage is not known.  It has been speculated that he was the son of Boso Marchese of Tuscany, for onomastic reasons, but that Boso is not known to have had any sons[148].  In any case, Boso was a reasonably common name in the area at that time.  Rotbald supported King Louis III "the Blind"'s campaign in Italy in 900 and his efforts to be crowned emperor in Feb 901. 

m ---.  The wife of Rotbald is not known.  It has been speculated, for onomastic reasons only, that she was --- d'Aquitaine, daughter of Guillaume "le Pieux" Duke of Aquitaine & his wife Engelberga de Provence, but there appears to be no other basis for this suggestion[149].  Rotbald & his wife had two children: 

1.         BOSON (-after Oct [965/67].  "Bosoni comitis, filii Rothboldi quondam" restored property to Saint-Victor by charter dated Mar 965[150]Comte [d'Arles]. 

-        COMTES de PROVENCE

2.         GUILLAUME [I] (-after Mar 965).  "Eius filio Rothboldo et fratre eius Wilelmo comite" consented to the charter of "Bosoni comitis, filii Rothboldi quondam" dated Mar 965, signed by "comes Boso…comes Wilelmus…"[151]Comte [d´Avignon].  "Wilelmus comes" granted property "in comitatu Avenionense" to "Archimbalde filius meus clericus" by charter dated 962, signed by "Boso, comes ad vicem patris sui Wilelmi…Nevelongo vicecomite"[152].  It is not beyond doubt that "Willelmus comes" can be identified with the brother of Comte Boson but the reference to Avignon makes this likely.  m ---.  The name of this couple's possible son suggests a family connection between his mother and the family of the Seigneurs de Bourbon.  She is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[153] as the daughter of Aimon de Bourbon but it is not known whether this is speculation based only on onomastics or whether it is based on a primary source which has not yet been identified.  Guillaume & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         [BOSON (-after 962).  "Wilelmus comes" granted property "in comitatu Avenionense" to "Archimbalde filius meus clericus" by charter dated 962, signed by "Boso, comes ad vicem patris sui Wilelmi"[154].] 

b)         [ARCHAMBAUD (-[989]).  "Wilelmus comes" granted property "in comitatu Avenionense" to "Archimbalde filius meus clericus" by charter dated 962[155].] 

 

 

 

D.      EARLY VICOMTES in PROVENCE

 

 

1.         BERMOND (-after 1 Apr 976).  "Bermundus vicecomis" signed a charter at Avignon of Landry Bishop of Avignon dated 1 Apr 976[156]

 

2.         RUCTALD (-after [951/52]).  "Lucerius sacerdos" donated property "in pago Uzetico" to Cluny, for the souls of "genitoris mei Castellani et genetricis meæ Marthæ" and for the salvation of "senioris mei domni Amalrici comitis, dominæ meæ Ermengardis comitissæ et senioris mei Bermondi comitis et Rotberti consobrini mei", by charter dated to [951/52], signed by "…Bermundi comitis, Ructaldi vicecomitis…"[157]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    COMTES de PROVENCE 961-1093

 

 

 

A.      EARLY COMTES de PROVENCE

 

 

1.         HUGUES "le Noir", son of RICHARD "le Justicier" Duke of Burgundy & his wife Adelais of Burgundy [Kingdom] (-17 Dec 952, bur Besançon).  Flodoard names "Hugo filius Richardi"[158].  Comte in the area outre-Saône, the future Franche-Comté, before 914.  "Hugo inclitus comes et marchio, nosterque fidelis et propinquus" is named in the charter of Emperor Louis III [de Provence] (his first cousin) dated 920[159].  "Ugonem comte palatio filius Ricardi" is named in a charter dated 18 Jan 926 in which Bertagia challenges an inheritance[160].  He is named "Huguone aliis quoque filiis meis" in the grant by "Adeleydis comitissa soror Rodulfi" to Cluny dated 14 Jun 929, listed before Boson[161]Comte de Mâcon from 931.  "Hugonis frater meus" is named by "Rodulfus Francorum rex" in the latter's 1 Jul 931 charter[162]Comte et Marquis de Provence 936.  After the death of his brother King Raoul in 936, he and Hugues "le Blanc/le Grand" Capet, and his possible brother-in-law Giselbert, divided Burgundy between them.  He was seen by Hugues "le Grand" Capet as a potentially too powerful candidate for the French throne after his brother's death in 936, prompting Hugues to recall the future King Louis IV "d'Outremer" from England, whom Hugues "le Noir" refused to recognise as king until 938[163].  He is named "nostri principes…alter Hugo dux scilicet Burgundionum" in a charter of "Ludovicus rex" dated 1 Jul 946[164]

 

 

 

B.      COMTES de PROVENCE 961-1112

 

 

BOSON, son of ROTBALD [I] & his wife --- (-after Oct [965/67]).  "Bosoni comitis, filii Rothboldi quondam" restored property to Saint-Victor by charter dated Mar 965[165]Comte [d'Arles].  "Boso comes et uxor sua Constantia…illorum filii…Willelmus comes, Rotbaldus comes, Pontius juvenis" signed the charter dated May [963] under which "Gencius et uxor mea Aiburga" donated property "in pago Aquense superiore ad castrum…Ansoyse" to Monmajour, for the souls of "seniore meo Bosone et uxor sua quondam"[166].  "Boso comes" donated property "villam…Agello…ultra fluvium Durentia" acquired by his father to "ecclesiam sancte Marie et sancti Stephani Avinionensis", dated Oct [965/67] at Avignon but referred to only in a copy dated 24 Nov 1209[167]

m CONSTANTIA, daughter of --- (-after May [963]).  "Boso comes et uxor sua Constantia…illorum filii…Willelmus comes, Rotbaldus comes, Pontius juvenis" signed the charter dated May [963] under which "Gencius et uxor mea Aiburga" donated property "in pago Aquense superiore ad castrum…Ansoyse" to Monmajour[168].  Her affiliation is unknown.  Chaume proposed that she was Constantia, daughter of Charles Constantin Comte de Vienne, for onomastic reasons only on the basis that names with the root "Constant-" were unknown in western royal genealogy before Charles Constantin himself[169].  This supposition is, however, incorrect as numerous charters of the monastery of Cluny dated between 891 and 946 include the name "Constantia"[170], and many others during the same period the name "Constantius" and "Constantinus".  Poly suggests that Constantia, wife of Count Boson, was the sister rather than daughter of Charles Constantin[171], but this appears to be more difficult to sustain chronologically. 

Boson & his wife had three children: 

1.         GUILLAUME [II] ([955]-Avignon 993 after 29 Aug, bur Sarrians, église de Sainte-Croix)"Boso comes et uxor sua Constantia…illorum filii…Willelmus comes, Rotbaldus comes, Pontius juvenis" signed the charter dated May [963] under which "Gencius et uxor mea Aiburga" donated property "in pago Aquense superiore ad castrum…Ansoyse" to Monmajour[172].  The order of birth of the two older sons of Boson is unclear.  The May [963] charter suggests that Guillaume was his older son.  However, the name order is reversed in the charter dated Mar 965 under which "eius filio Rothboldo et fratre eius Wilelmo comite" consented to the charter of "Bosoni comitis, filii Rothboldi quondam"[173], which suggests that Rotbald was older.  Comte de Provence, charters showing that both he and his brother Rotbald were recorded as counts during the same period, although it is not known whether this was a joint countship or whether there was a geographical split between their jurisdictions. 

-        see below

2.         ROTBALD [II] (-[1008/22 Apr 1015]).  "Boso comes et uxor sua Constantia…illorum filii…Willelmus comes, Rotbaldus comes, Pontius juvenis" signed the charter dated May [963] under which "Gencius et uxor mea Aiburga" donated property "in pago Aquense superiore ad castrum…Ansoyse" to Monmajour[174].  The order of birth of the two older sons of Boson is unclear.  The May [963] charter suggests that Guillaume was his older son.  However, the name order is reversed in the charter dated Mar 965 under which "eius filio Rothboldo et fratre eius Wilelmo comite" consented to the charter of "Bosoni comitis, filii Rothboldi quondam"[175], which suggests that Rotbald was older.  Comte de Provence, charters showing that both he and his brother Guillaume were recorded as counts during the same period, although it is not known whether this was a joint countship or whether there was a geographical split between their jurisdictions.  "Rotbaldus comes" consented to the donation by "Wilelmus comes Provincie et coniunx mea Arsinna" to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated Apr 970[176].  "Willelmus comes" donated property to Cluny by charter dated 28 Aug [990] signed by "Rodbaldus comes, Adalaix comitissa, Wilelmus comes et filius eius Wilelmus"[177]"Dominus princeps et marchio istius provinciæ…Willelmus cum coniuge sua…Adelaix et filio suo…Willelmo" restored property to the abbey of Saint-Césaire d´Arles by charter dated 992, subscribed by "Domnus Rotbaldus comes…Willelmus comes filius Rotbaldi et uxor sua Lucia, Wilelmus comes Tolosanus et uxor sua Ema…"[178].  [Marquis de Provence: it is unclear whether this was a title regularly used by Rotbald [II].  He is only recorded as “marchio” in one charter, which in the subscription clause refers to him as “comes”: "Rotbaldus marchio et conjux mea…Eimildis" donated "castrum…Podium Odolinum" to Cluny by charter dated to [993/1002] signed by "Rotbaldus comes et uxor sua Eimildis, Adalax comitissa et filius suus Willelmus…"[179].]  "Rotbaldus comes et coniux mea Ermengarda" donated "villam…Pertusus…in regno Provinciæ in pago Aquense" to Monmajour by charter dated 1002, signed by "Rotbaldus comes et uxor sua Ermengarda…Willelmus nepos suus…Adalax comitissa"[180].  "Pontius…Massiliensis ecclesie pontifex" issued a charter dated 1005 with the consent of "domni Rodhbaldi comitis et domne Adalaizis comitisse, domnique Guillelmi comitis filii eius"[181]m [firstly] (before [975/80]) ERMENGARDE, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 22 Apr 1015 under which her daughter "Ema comitissa filia Rotboldi comitis et Hermengardæ uxoris eius, matris meæ" donated property "ex hereditate…in comitatu Forojuliensi in castro…Favart" to the priory of Courrenz (in Provence)[182].  [m secondly EMILDE, daughter of --- (-after [993/1002]).  "Rotbaldus marchio et conjux mea…Eimildis" donated "castrum…Podium Odolinum" to Cluny by charter dated to [993/1002] signed by "Rotbaldus comes et uxor sua Eimildis, Adalax comitissa et filius suus Willelmus…"[183].  According to Manteyer, Comte Rotbald [II] married once and "Emilde" and "Ermengarde" refer to the same person.  The later references to Ermengarde (shown below as a possible third wife) suggest that this may be correct.  However, the roots of the two names appear different, suggesting that they were two different persons.  If that is correct, the charter dated to [993/1002] shows that Emilde must have been Rotbald´s second wife, assuming that the birth date of his daughter Emma is correctly estimated as shown below.  Her origin is unknown.  Szabolcs de Vajay suggests[184] that she was Emilde de Gévaudan, daughter of Etienne Vicomte de Gévaudan & his first wife Anne ---.]  [m thirdly ([1002] or before) ERMENGARDE, daughter of ---.  "Rotbaldus comes et coniux mea Ermengarda" donated "villam…Pertusus…in regno Provinciæ in pago Aquense" to Monmajour by charter dated 1002, signed by "Rotbaldus comes et uxor sua Ermengarda…Willelmus nepos suus…Adalax comitissa"[185].  "Rotbaldus comes et coniunx mea Ermengarda" signed a charter dated [1002][186].  "Ermengardi uxor Rodbaldi comitis" was among the subscribers of the charter dated 1005 of "Pontius…Massiliensis ecclesie pontifex"[187]Europäische Stammtafeln[188] identifies her as Ermengarde, daughter of --- (-25 or 27 Aug after 1057), who married secondly ([24 Apr/28 Jul] 1011) as his second wife, Rudolf III King of Burgundy.  Presumably this is based on the charter dated 1019 which is signed by "Ermengarda regina et filii mei Ugo et Willelmus"[189], assuming that "Willelmus" was the same person as Guillaume [V] Comte de Provence, son of Comte Rotbald [II], who is shown below.  However, this co-identity is far from satisfactory.  There are two main problems.  Firstly, the sons are ordered "Ugo et Willelmus" in the 1019 document, which suggests that Hugues was the older son.  However, no reference has been found to Comte Guillaume [V] having an older brother named Hugues, which in any case is not a name which is found in the family of the comtes de Provence.  Secondly, Comte Guillaume [V] is named with his wife in a charter dated 992 which, if correctly dated, shows that he could not have been born much later than [975].  If that is correct, his mother would have been too old in 1011 to have married King Rudolf III, who was presumably hoping for an heir as he was childless by his first marriage.  Europäische Stammtafeln appears to find a way around these difficulties by stating that Ermengarde was the wife of "Rotbald [III]" who, it says, was the son of Comte Rotbald [II][190].  However, no primary source has been found which confirms that this Rotbald [III] ever existed.  In addition, the 1002 charter quoted above confirms that Guillaume son of Adelais (identified as Guillaume [III] Comte de Provence), was nepos of Ermengarde´s husband, which would be correct if Guillaume´s father and Ermengarde´s husband were brothers as shown in the reconstruction in the present document, although it is recognised that the word nepos is used flexibly in contemporary documentation.  If it is not correct that Rotbald [II]´s supposed third wife married King Rudolf, the possibility remains that Comte Rotbald [II] in fact only married once and that all the references to Ermengarde and Emilde are to the same person.]  Rotbald [II] & his first wife had one child: 

a)         EMMA ([975/80]-after 1063)"Dominus princeps et marchio istius provinciæ…Willelmus cum coniuge sua…Adelaix et filio suo…Willelmo" restored property to the abbey of Saint-Césaire d´Arles by charter dated 992, subscribed by "Domnus Rotbaldus comes…Willelmus comes filius Rotbaldi et uxor sua Lucia, Wilelmus comes Tolosanus et uxor sua Ema…"[191]"Wilelmus comes Tholose" donated "villam…Pertusus…in regno Provinciæ in pago Aquense" to the monastery of Saint-Pierre de Psalmody by charter dated 999 which names "Emam uxorem eius et…filios eorum…Raimundum et Aialricum et Pontium et Bertrannum"[192].  These two charters show that Emma was married much earlier than is generally shown in secondary sources.  "Ema comitissa filia Rotboldi comitis et Hermengardæ uxoris eius, matris meæ" donated property "ex hereditate…in comitatu Forojuliensi in castro…Favart" to the priory of Courrenz (in Provence) by charter dated 22 Apr 1015, signed by "Ema comitissa, Heldebertus de Castro-Rainaldo"[193]"Emma comitissa et filius meus Pontius" donated property to Saint-André d´Avignon by charter dated Nov 1024[194]"Wilelmus comes Tolosanus et uxor mea Ema" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 1024[195].  "Emma comitissa et filius meus Pontius" donated property in Avignon to "ecclesiæ sancti Martini in monte Andaone" by undated charter[196]m (992 or before) as his second wife GUILLAUME III "Taillefer" Comte de Toulouse, son of RAYMOND PONS Comte de Toulouse & his [second] wife Adelais d'Anjou ([970/75]-Sep 1037, bur Toulouse, Saint-Sernin). 

Rotbald [II] & his [first/second] wife had [three] children: 

b)         GUILLAUME [V] (-after 1037).  "Dominus princeps et marchio istius provinciæ…Willelmus cum coniuge sua…Adelaix et filio suo…Willelmo" restored property to the abbey of Saint-Césaire d´Arles by charter dated 992, subscribed by "Domnus Rotbaldus comes…Willelmus comes filius Rotbaldi et uxor sua Lucia, Wilelmus comes Tolosanus et uxor sua Ema…"[197].  ["Ermengarda regina et filii mei Ugo et Willelmus" signed a letter dated 1019[198].  Thietmar records that "King Rudolf's wife" commended to Emperor Heinrich II her two sons, stepsons of her husband, at a meeting at Strasbourg in 1016 but does not name them[199].  As discussed more fully above, it is doubtful whether the charter dated 1019 and Thietmar´s text refer to Guillaume [V] Comte de Provence.]  Comte de Provence.  "Vuilelmus filius Rodbaldi" donated property "in comitatu Aquense in valle…Cagnanam" to Marseille Saint-Victor by charter dated 1024, signed by "Adalaiz comitissa, Vuilelmus comes filius Rodbaldi"[200].  "Willelmus comes Provincie et uxor mea…Lucia" donated property to Saint-Victor, Marseille by charter dated 1030, signed by "Poncius comes, filius Tolosani, Bertrannus frater eius"[201][Marquis de Provence: it is unclear whether this was a title regularly used by Guillaume [V].  He is only recorded as “marchio” in one charter: “Willelmus marchio eiusque conjux Lucia comitissa” donated property to Saint-André de Gap by charter dated 9 May 1030[202].]  "Willelmus comes Provinciæ…Lucia uxor mea" donated property "Diliadam et Septem Fontes…in episcopatu Regensi" to Cluny by charter dated 1037, which is marked on the back "Willelmi comitis filii Rodbaldi"[203]m (992 or before) LUCIA, daughter of --- (-after 1037).  "Dominus princeps et marchio istius provinciæ…Willelmus cum coniuge sua…Adelaix et filio suo…Willelmo" restored property to the abbey of Saint-Césaire d´Arles by charter dated 992, subscribed by "Domnus Rotbaldus comes…Willelmus comes filius Rotbaldi et uxor sua Lucia, Wilelmus comes Tolosanus et uxor sua Ema…"[204].  The list of subscribers of this document presents dating difficulties as the last two named couples appear from other primary sources to belong to a later period.  The probable explanation is that two lists from two different documents were copied and incorrectly combined.  "Willelmus comes Provincie et uxor mea…Lucia" donated property to Saint-Victor, Marseille by charter dated 1030, signed by "Poncius comes, filius Tolosani, Bertrannus frater eius"[205]"Willelmus comes Provinciæ…Lucia uxor mea" donated property "Diliadam et Septem Fontes…in episcopatu Regensi" to Cluny by charter dated 1037, which is marked on the back "Willelmi comitis filii Rodbaldi"[206]

c)         [EMILDE .  Nun.  She is named in Europäische Stammtafeln[207] as the daughter of Rotbald [II] but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.] 

d)         [TETBERGA (-after 1010).  Armengol and his wife "Geriberga" sold property to a vassal by charter dated 11 Jun 1101[208].  Her origin is not known.  She is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[209] as Tetberga, (presumably on the basis that "Geriberga" is a mistranscription in the document cited above) [daughter of Rotbold [II] Comte de Provence & his wife Eimilde de Gevaudan], but the basis for this speculation is not known.  m (before 11 Jun 1001) ARMENGOL [I] "él de Córdoba" Comte de Urgell, son of BORELL [II] Comte de Barcelona & his first wife Ledgarda [de Toulouse] ([975]-Córdoba 1 Sep 1010).] 

Rotbald [II] & his [third] wife had [two] children: 

e)         [HUGUES (-after 1019).  "Ermengarda regina et filii mei Ugo et Willelmus" signed a charter dated 1019[210].  Thietmar records that "King Rudolf's wife" commended to Emperor Heinrich II her two sons, stepsons of her husband, at a meeting at Strasbourg in 1016 but does not name them[211].  The identification of these two brothers as the sons of Comte Rotbald [II] assumes that Comte Rotbald´s supposed third wife Ermengarde married secondly Rudolf III King of Burgundy, which as explained above is not proven beyond doubt.] 

f)          [GUILLAUME (-after 1019).  "Ermengarda regina et filii mei Ugo et Willelmus" signed a letter dated 1019[212].  Thietmar records that "King Rudolf's wife" commended to Emperor Heinrich II her two sons, stepsons of her husband, at a meeting at Strasbourg in 1016 but does not name them[213].  The identification of these two brothers as the sons of Comte Rotbald [II] assumes that Comte Rotbald´s supposed third wife Ermengarde married secondly Rudolf III King of Burgundy, which as explained above is not proven beyond doubt.  As far as Guillaume is concerned, it seems unlikely that he was the same person as Guillaume [V] Comte de Provence who, as a middle-aged adult, would not have needed to be "commended" to the emperor by his wife in 1016.  In any case, it seems unlikely that Rotbald would have given the name Guillaume to the second of the sons when his older half-brother, the future Guillaume [V] Comte de Provence, was still alive as shown above.] 

3.         PONS (-after May [963]).  "Boso comes et uxor sua Constantia…illorum filii…Willelmus comes, Rotbaldus comes, Pontius juvenis" signed the charter dated May [963] under which "Gencius et uxor mea Aiburga" donated property "in pago Aquense superiore ad castrum…Ansoyse" to Monmajour, for the souls of "seniore meo Bosone et uxor sua quondam"[214]

 

 

GUILLAUME [II] “le Libérateur”, son of BOSON Comte [d´Arles] & his wife Constantia --- ([955]-Avignon 993 after 29 Aug, bur Sarrians, église de Sainte-Croix).  "Boso comes et uxor sua Constantia…illorum filii…Willelmus comes, Rotbaldus comes, Pontius juvenis" signed the charter dated May [963] under which "Gencius et uxor mea Aiburga" donated property "in pago Aquense superiore ad castrum…Ansoyse" to Monmajour[215].  The order of birth of the two older sons of Boson is unclear.  The May [963] charter suggests that Guillaume was his older son.  However, the name order is reversed inthe charter dated Mar 965 under which "eius filio Rothboldo et fratre eius Wilelmo comite" consented to the charter of "Bosoni comitis, filii Rothboldi quondam"[216], which suggests that Rotbald was older.  Comte de Provence, charters showing that both he and his brother Rotbald were recorded as counts during the same period, although it is not known whether this was a joint countship or whether there was a geographical split between their jurisdictions.   Marquis de Provence.  "Vuilelmus marchius Arelatense Provintie" donated property "in comitatu Avinionense, in agro Rupiano, in loco…la Lona" to Saint-Victor, Marseille by charter dated 17 Apr 979, signed by "Arsinda comitissa"[217].  "Willelmus comes" donated property to Cluny by charter dated 28 Aug [990] signed by "Rodbaldus comes, Adalaix comitissa, Wilelmus comes et filius eius Wilelmus"[218]"Dominus princeps et marchio istius provinciæ…Willelmus cum coniuge sua…Adelaix et filio suo…Willelmo" restored property to the abbey of Saint-Césaire d´Arles by charter dated 992, subscribed by "Domnus Rotbaldus comes…Willelmus comes filius Rotbaldi et uxor sua Lucia, Wilelmus comes Tolosanus et uxor sua Ema…"[219]He became a monk. 

m firstly (before Apr 970) ARSINDE, daughter of --- (-after 17 Apr 979).  "Wilelmus comes Provincie et coniunx mea Arsinna" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated Apr 970[220].  "Vuilelmus marchius Arelatense Provintie" donated property "in comitatu Avinionense, in agro Rupiano, in loco…la Lona" to Saint-Victor, Marseille by charter dated 17 Apr 979, signed by "Arsinda comitissa"[221]Szabolcs de Vajay suggests that the first wife of Guillaume was the sister of Adelais, whose first testament dated 4 Oct 978 names her, basing the hypothesis on onomastics and favorable chronology[222]Under this testament of "Adelais", she donated her foundation "Narbonam…sanctique Salvatoris" to "sororibus meis et domnæ Arsindæ comitissæ", bequeathed "mea hereditas de Vidiliano" to "Arsindi sorori meæ", "alodes de Tolomiano" to "Ermesindi", and "mea hereditas de Artimiciano" to "Garsindi"[223].  The wording suggests that "Arsindi…Ermesindi…Garsindi" were all sisters of the testator.  It is probable that "domnæ Arsindæ comitissæ" in this document was the wife of Guillaume [II] Comte de Provence as no other Ctss Arsende has been identified at the time.  However, the wording of the passage in which she is named suggests that she was a different person from "Arsindi sorori meæ".  Szabolcs de Vajay suggests (as reported by Settipani: the Szabolcs article has not yet been consulted) that the testator was the possible daughter of Arnaud [I] Comte de Comminges.  She can be identified as Adelais, widow of Matfried Vicomte de Narbonne, as the document names the couple´s two sons whose affiliation is confirmed by other primary sources.  As explained more fully in the document TOULOUSE, KINGS, DUKES & COUNTS, other primary source documentation suggests that the wife of Vicomte Matfried may have been the daughter of Raymond Pons Comte de Toulouse.  If this is correct, the chronology suggests that her sister would have been too old to have married Guillaume [II] Comte de Provence. 

m secondly ([984/86]) as her fourth husband, ADELAIS [Blanche] d'Anjou, widow firstly of ETIENNE de Brioude, secondly of RAYMOND IV Comte de Toulouse, divorced wife (thirdly) of LOUIS V King of the West Franks, daughter of FOULQUES II "le Bon" Comte d’Anjou & his first wife Gerberge --- ([945/50]-1026, bur Montmajour, near Arles)Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of Saint-Pierre du Puy which names "comes Gaufridus cognomento Grisogonella…Pontius et Bertrandus eius nepotes…matre eorum Adalaide sorore ipsius"[224], the brothers Pons and Bertrand being confirmed in other sources as the sons of Etienne de Brioude, for example the charter dated 1000 under which "duo germani fratres…Pontius, alter Bertrandus" donated property to Saint-Chaffre for the souls of "patris sui Stephani matrisque nomine Alaicis"[225].  Adelais's second and third marriages are confirmed by Richer who records the marriage of Louis and "Adelaidem, Ragemundi nuper defuncti ducis Gothorum uxorem" and their coronation as king and queen of Aquitaine[226].  The Chronicon Andegavensi names "Blanchiam filiam Fulconis Boni comitis Andegavensis" as wife of the successor of "Lotharius rex Francorum", but confuses matters by stating that the couple were parents of "filiam Constantiam" wife of Robert II King of France[227].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence names "Blanchiam" as the wife of "Lotharius rex…Ludovicum filium" but does not give her origin[228]She was crowned Queen of Aquitaine with her third husband on the day of their marriage.  The Libro de Otiis Imperialibus names "Blanchiam" as wife of "Ludovicus puer [filius Lotharii]"[229].  Rodulfus Glaber refers to the unnamed wife of "Ludowicum" as "ab Aquitanis partibus uxorem", recounting that she tricked him into travelling to Aquitaine where "she left him and attached herself to her own family"[230]Richer records her marriage with "Wilelmum Arelatensem" after her divorce from Louis[231]Her fourth marriage is confirmed by the Historia Francorum which names "Blanca sorore Gaufridi comitis Andegavensis" as wife of "Guillelmi comitis Arelatensis"[232].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Blanche comitisse Arelatensis" as mother of "Constantia [uxor Robertus rex]", specifying that she was "soror Gaufridi Grisagonelli"[233].  The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum names "Blanca sorore eius" ( "eius" referring incorrectly to Foulques "Nerra" Comte d'Anjou) as wife of "Guillelmi Arelatensis comitis" and as mother of Constance, wife of Robert II King of France[234]"Dominus princeps et marchio istius provinciæ…Willelmus cum coniuge sua…Adelaix et filio suo…Willelmo" restored property to the abbey of Saint-Césaire d´Arles by charter dated 992, subscribed by "Domnus Rotbaldus comes…Willelmus comes filius Rotbaldi et uxor sua Lucia, Wilelmus comes Tolosanus et uxor sua Ema…"[235]"Adalaiz comitissa" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 1003[236].  This charter is subscribed by "Emma comitissa…Wilelmus comes", the second of whom was presumably the son of Adelais but the first of whom has not been identified.  "Pontius…Massiliensis ecclesie pontifex" issued a charter dated 1005 with the consent of "domni Rodhbaldi comitis et domne Adalaizis comitisse, domnique Guillelmi comitis filii eius"[237].  "Adalax comitissa mater Villelmi quondam Provintie comitis et Geriberga eque comitissa…eiusdem principis olim uxor" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of their late son and husband respectively by charter dated 1018[238].  No explanation has been found for her having been named Adelais in some sources and Blanche in others, as it is difficult to interpret the documentation as meaning that they refer to two separate individuals.  [Adelais may have married fifthly (before Sep 1016) as his second wife, Othon Guillaume Comte de Mâcon et de Nevers [Bourgogne-Comté].  Adelais's supposed fifth marriage is deduced from the following: Count Othon-Guillaume's wife is named Adelais in several charters[239], and Pope Benedict VIII refers to "domnæ Adeleidi comitissæ cognomento Blanchæ" with "nuruique eius domnæ Gerbergæ comitissæ" when addressing her supposed fifth husband in a document dated Sep 1016[240], Gerberga presumably being Count Othon-Guillaume's daughter by his first wife who was the widow of Adelaide-Blanche d´Anjou's son by her fourth husband.  However, the document in question appears not to specify that "domnæ Adeleidi…" was the wife of Othon Guillaume and the extracts seen (the full text has not yet been consulted) do not permit this conclusion to be drawn.  It is perfectly possible that the Pope named Adelais-Blanche in the letter only in reference to her relationship to Othon Guillaume´s daughter.  If her fifth marriage is correct, Adelais would have been considerably older than her new husband, and probably nearly sixty years old when she married (Othon-Guillaume's first wife died in [1002/04]), which seems unlikely.  Another difficulty is presented by the entries dated 1018, 1024 and 1026, quoted above and below, which appear to link Adelais to Provence while, if the fifth marriage was correct, she would have been with her husband (whose death is recorded in Sep 1026) in Mâcon.]  "Vuilelmus filius Rodbaldi" donated property "in comitatu Aquense in valle…Cagnanam" to Marseille Saint-Victor by charter dated 1024, signed by "Adalaiz comitissa, Vuilelmus comes filius Rodbaldi"[241].  A manuscript written by Arnoux, monk at Saint-André-lès-Avignon, records the death in 1026 of "Adalax comitissa"[242].  The necrology of Saint-Pierre de Mâcon records the death "IV Kal Jun" of "Adalasia comitissa vocata regali progenie orta"[243].  An enquiry dated 2 Jan 1215 records that "comitissa Blanca" was buried "apud Montem Majorem"[244]

Comte Guillaume [II] & his second wife had two children: 

1.         GUILLAUME [III] ([986/87]-1018 before 30 May, bur Abbaye de Montmajour).  "Willelmus comes" donated property to Cluny by charter dated 28 Aug [990] signed by "Rodbaldus comes, Adalaix comitissa, Wilelmus comes et filius eius Wilelmus"[245].  "Pontius…Massiliensis ecclesie pontifex" issued a charter dated 1005 with the consent of "domni Rodhbaldi comitis et domne Adalaizis comitisse, domnique Guillelmi comitis filii eius"[246].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[247], he was the son of Comte Guillaume by his first wife but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  It is probably speculative, based on his marriage date, which suggests that he was born earlier than the date of his father's second marriage.  In any case, Guillaume's parentage appears to be proved by the charter dated 1005.  Comte de Provence 992, minor until 994.   

-        see below

2.         CONSTANCE ([987/89]-Château de Melun 22 or 25 Jul 1032, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis)The Historia Francorum names "Constantiam, filiam Guillelmi comitis Arelatensis, natam de Blanca sorore Gaufridi comitis Andegavensis" as wife of King Robert[248].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines also names "Constantia filia fuit Blanche comitisse Arelatensis" as wife of "Robertus rex"[249].  The Chronicon Hugonis names "Constantiam" as wife of "Robertus", specifying that she was "cognatam Hugonis Autisiodorensis episcopi comitis Cabilonensis"[250].  This is presumably based on Rodulfus Glaber who states incorrectly that "Constantiam…filiam…prioris Willemi Aquitanie ducis" was wife of King Robert II, specifying that she was "cognatam" of Hugues Comte de Chalon Bishop of Auxerre[251].  The only relationship so far identified between the two is that Constance's maternal uncle, Geoffroy I Comte d'Anjou, was the second husband of the mother of Comte Hugues.  Rodulfus Glauber dates her marriage to "about the year 1000"[252].  The king attempted to separate from Constance in 1008 in order to take back his second wife, according to Rodulfus Glaber through the influence of "Hugo dictus Beluacensis"[253], but he restored Constance's royal prerogatives end 1009[254].  She opposed her husband's proposal to crown their second son Henri as associate king in 1026, supporting the candidature of her third son Robert[255].  She organised two revolts against King Robert and another against her son King Henri I after his accession[256].  Rodolfus Glaber records the death of Queen Constance in the same city as her husband [Melun] and in the same month [Jul] in the following year, and her place of burial[257]The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "XI Kal Aug" of "regina Constancia"[258].  The necrology of Argenteuil Priory records the death "VIII Kal Aug" of "Constancia regina"[259]m ([Sep 1001/25 Aug 1003]) as his third wife, ROBERT II King of France, son of HUGUES Capet King of France & his wife Adelais [de Poitou] (Orléans ([27 Mar] 972-Château de Melun 20 Jul 1031, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).   

 

 

GUILLAUME [III] de Provence, son of GUILLAUME [II] Comte de Provence et d'Arles & his second wife Adelais [Blanche] d´Anjou ([986/87]-1018 before 30 May, bur Abbaye de Montmajour).  "Willelmus comes" donated property to Cluny by charter dated 28 Aug [990] signed by "Rodbaldus comes, Adalaix comitissa, Wilelmus comes et filius eius Wilelmus"[260]"Dominus princeps et marchio istius provinciæ…Willelmus cum coniuge sua…Adelaix et filio suo…Willelmo" restored property to the abbey of Saint-Césaire d´Arles by charter dated 992, subscribed by "Domnus Rotbaldus comes…Willelmus comes filius Rotbaldi et uxor sua Lucia, Wilelmus comes Tolosanus et uxor sua Ema…"[261]According to Europäische Stammtafeln[262], he was the son of Comte Guillaume by his first wife but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  It is probably speculative, based on his marriage date, which suggests that he was born earlier than the date of his father's second marriage.  In any case, Guillaume's parentage appears to be proved by the charter dated 1005 quoted below.  He succeeded his father in 992 as Comte de Provence.  "Pontius…Massiliensis ecclesie pontifex" issued a charter dated 1005 with the consent of "domni Rodhbaldi comitis et domne Adalaizis comitisse, domnique Guillelmi comitis filii eius"[263].  "Wilelmus comes Provincie conjuxque mea Girberga cum filio nostro...Wilelmo" donated "in comitatu Sisterico, intra terminos de villa…Manuasca" to Marseille Saint-Victor by charter dated 1013, subscribed by “Wilelmus comes Provincie...domna Guirberga...comitissa, domnus Wilelmus eorum...soboles, Guillelmus vicecomes, Fulco frater eius, Accelena et Odila, Villelmus filius Villemi...[264]

m ([1002]) GERBERGE de Mâcon, daughter of OTHON GUILLAUME Comte de Mâcon [Bourgogne-Comté] & his first wife Ermentrude de Roucy ([985]-[1020/23]).  Rodulfus Glaber states that "Willemus…Arelatensis" married one of the daughters of "Willemus, Henrici ducis priuignus, Adalberti Longobardorum ducis filius" and his wife but does not name her[265].  She is named in several charters of Saint-Victor de Marseille.  "Wilelmus comes Provincie conjuxque mea Girberga cum filio nostro...Wilelmo" donated "in comitatu Sisterico, intra terminos de villa…Manuasca" to Marseille Saint-Victor by charter dated 1013[266].  "Adalax comitissa mater Villelmi quondam Provintie comitis et Geriberga eque comitissa…eiusdem principis olim uxor" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of their late son and husband respectively by charter dated 1018[267].  "Geriberga comitissa" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of "senioris mei Guilelmi comitis Provincie" and for "filiorumque nostrorum…Wilelmo, Fulcho, Jozfredus" by charter dated 1019[268].  "Gisberga comitissa…cum filiis meis Willelmo, Fulcone Bertranno, Gaufredo" donated property to Saint-André-lès-Avignon by charter dated 1019[269]

Comte Guillaume [III] & his wife had three children: 

1.         GUILLAUME [IV] ([1003/10]-[1019/30]).  "Wilelmus comes Provincie conjuxque mea Girberga cum filio nostro...Wilelmo" donated "in comitatu Sisterico, intra terminos de villa…Manuasca" to Marseille Saint-Victor by charter dated 1013, subscribed by “Wilelmus comes Provincie...domna Guirberga...comitissa, domnus Wilelmus eorum...soboles...[270].  "Geiriberga comitissima et filii mei Vuilelmus et Fulco sive Josfredus" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 1018[271].  "Wilelmus filius Vilelmi comitis, Fulco frater eius, Gosfredus" subscribed the charter dated 1018 under which "Adalax comitissa mater Villelmi quondam Provintie comitis et Geriberga eque comitissa…eiusdem principis olim uxor" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of their late son and husband respectively[272]GUILLAUME [IV] Comte de Provence.  "Geriberga comitissa" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of "senioris mei Guilelmi comitis Provincie" and for "filiorumque nostrorum…Wilelmo, Fulcho, Jozfredus" by charter dated 1019[273].  "Gisberga comitissa…cum filiis meis Willelmo, Fulcone Bertranno, Gaufredo" donated property to Saint-André-lès-Avignon by charter dated 1019[274].  Guillaume must have died before the charter dated 1030 when "Bertrannus comes Provincie" donated property to Saint-Victor, Marseille[275]

2.         FOULQUES BERTRAND (-[1050/54]).  "Geiriberga comitissima et filii mei Vuilelmus et Fulco sive Josfredus" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 1018[276], which indicates that Foulques was her second son.  This is confirmed by "Wilelmus filius Vilelmi comitis, Fulco frater eius, Gosfredus" subscribing the charter dated 1018 under which "Adalax comitissa mater Villelmi quondam Provintie comitis et Geriberga eque comitissa…eiusdem principis olim uxor" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of their late son and husband respectively[277], and by the charter dated 1019 under which "Geriberga comitissa" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of "senioris mei Guilelmi comitis Provincie" and for "filiorumque nostrorum…Wilelmo, Fulcho, Jozfredus"[278].  "Gisberga comitissa…cum filiis meis Willelmo, Fulcone Bertranno, Gaufredo" donated property to Saint-André-lès-Avignon by charter dated 1019[279].  This is the only document which indicates that Foulques was the same person as "Bertrand Comte de Provence" who is named in later sources.  No explanation has yet been found for his change of name.  Comte de Provence.  "Bertrannus comes" donated property to Saint-Victor Marseille by undated charter, dated to [1018/32], subscribed by "Beringarius vicecomes"[280].  "Bertrannus comes Provincie" donated property to Saint-Victor, Marseille by charter dated 1030[281].  "Duo fratres, comites Provincie, Gausfredus atque Bertrannus" made a joint donation to Cluny dated 26 May 1037[282].  "Godfredus et frater meus Bertrannus comites Proventie" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 16 Jan 1040[283]Marquis de Provence.  "Bertrannus…marchio sive comes Provincie" granted property "territorio castelli…Forcalcherium" to Saint-Victor Marseille, for the soul of "genitoris mei Willelmi", by charter dated 1044, subscribed by "Berengarius vicecomes, Miro vicecomes, Raiambaldus de Nica, Rostagnus vicecomes…", and renewed by "Vilelmus et Gauzfredus comites sive marchiones Provincie, filii prefati Bertranni" (witnessed by "Berengarius filius Berengarii vicecomitis")[284].  "Gosfredus et Bertrannus frater meus, utrique Provinciales marchiones sive comites" donated property to Saint-Victor, Marseille by charter dated 1048[285]m (before 23 Apr 1040) ELDIARDE EVEZA, daughter of ---.  "Bertrannus comes" donated property to Monmajour, with the consent of "Eldejarda Eveza uxor eius", by charter dated 23 Apr 1040[286].  Comte Bertrand & his wife had two children: 

a)         GUILLAUME [VI] BERTRAND (-before 1067)Comte de Provence, Marquis de Provence"Vilelmus et Gauzfredus comites sive marchiones Provincie, filii prefati Bertranni" (witnessed by "Berengarius filius Berengarii vicecomitis") renewed the donation by "Bertrannus…marchio sive comes Provincie" of property "territorio castelli…Forcalcherium" to Saint-Victor Marseille, for the soul of "genitoris mei Willelmi", by charter dated 1044[287].  Gérard Bishop of Sisteron founded the church of Saint-Pierre at Fontelane, on the advice of "domni Willelmi Bertranni comitis Provincie et comitisse sue uxoris, domni etiam Berengarii filii Berengarii maioris vicecomitis Sigistericensis" by charter dated 1 May 1055[288].  "Gausfredus marchyo sive comes Provincie et uxor mea Stefania et filius meus Bertrannus" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 1057[289]Comte de Provence et de Forcalquier 1044.  A charter dated 1 May 1055 records a donation to Saint-Victor, Marseille on the advice of "domni Willelmi Bertranni comitis Provincie et comitisse sue uxoris, domni etiam Berengarii filii Berengarii majoris vicecomitis Sigistericensis sueque mulieris Accelene"[290].  "Willelmus comes provincialis, Josfredus frater eius" subscribed a charter dated 14 Feb 1063[291]m firstly Infanta doña TERESA de Aragón, daughter of RAMIRO I King of Aragon & his first wife Gerberge [Ermesenda] de Foix ([1037]-after 29 Jul 1059).  The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña names "Sancha…et…Teresa" as the two daughters of King Ramiro and his wife "la filla del Comte de Bigorra nombrada Hermissenda et por baptismo Gelberda", stating that Teresa married "el Comte de Provença clamado Guillen Bertran"[292]m secondly ADELAIDE de Cavenez, sister of GUY Comte de Cavenez, daughter of --- (-after 1110).  "Adalais comitissa Fulcheriensis et mater mea Adalais et filius meus Willelmus marchio Provincie" restored "mediatem…castri…Lurs" to the bishop of Sisteron by charter dated 1110[293].  The primary source which confirms her family origin has not yet been identified.  Comte Guillaume Bertrand & his second wife had [one child]: 

i)          [ADELAIDE (-1129).  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc states that Bouche claimed that Bertrand, son of Comte Guillaume III, inherited Forcalquier from his mother and that he was ancestor of the later comtes de Forcalquier, but adds that this hypothesis was refuted by Ruffi[294].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and her marriage has not yet been identified.  Heiress of Forcalquier.  "Ermengaudus comes proles condam…comitis Barbastri…Ermengaudi, comitisse namque Adalaidis meeque coniugis" donated property to the monastery of Santa Maria de la Seu d´Urgell by charter dated 29 Aug 1087[295].  "Ermensenz mulier Rostagno Berenguerio" swore homage to "Adalax comitissa filia Adalax comitissa" by undated charter[296].  "Adalais comitissa Fulcheriensis et mater mea Adalais et filius meus Willelmus marchio Provincie" restored "mediatem…castri…Lurs" to the bishop of Sisteron by charter dated 1110[297]m ([1079]) as his second wife, ARMENGOL [IV] "él de Gerp" Conde de Urgel, son of ARMENGOL [III] "él de Barbastro" Conde de Urgel & his [first wife Adelaida de Besalú] ([1050]-28 Mar 1092).] 

b)         GEOFFROY (-[13 Feb 1065/67]Comte de Provence, Marquis de Provence"Vilelmus et Gauzfredus comites sive marchiones Provincie, filii prefati Bertranni" (witnessed by "Berengarius filius Berengarii vicecomitis") renewed the donation by "Bertrannus…marchio sive comes Provincie" of property "territorio castelli…Forcalcherium" to Saint-Victor Marseille, for the soul of "genitoris mei Willelmi", by charter dated 1044[298].  "Willelmus comes provincialis, Josfredus frater eius" subscribed a charter dated 14 Feb 1063[299].  Comte de Forcalquier.  m (before 13 Jul 1065) ERMENGARDE, daughter of --- (-after Apr 1077).  "Bertrannus comes cum Ermingarda uxore" issued a charter dated 13 Jul 1065 relating to the monastery of Saint-André[300], although "Bertrannus" is presumably an error for Geoffroy.  "Ermengarda comitissa" signed a charter dated Apr 1077 recording a donation to Saint-Victor de Marseille[301]

3.         GEOFFROY (-[15 Feb/21 Jul] 1060).  "Geiriberga comitissima et filii mei Vuilelmus et Fulco sive Josfredus" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 1018[302], which suggests that Geoffroy was her third son.  This appears confirmed by "Wilelmus filius Vilelmi comitis, Fulco frater eius, Gosfredus" subscribing the charter dated 1018 under which "Adalax comitissa mater Villelmi quondam Provintie comitis et Geriberga eque comitissa…eiusdem principis olim uxor" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of their late son and husband respectively[303], and by the charter dated 1019 under which "Geriberga comitissa" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of "senioris mei Guilelmi comitis Provincie" and for "filiorumque nostrorum…Wilelmo, Fulcho, Jozfredus"[304].  "Gisberga comitissa…cum filiis meis Willelmo, Fulcone Bertranno, Gaufredo" donated property to Saint-André-lès-Avignon by charter dated 1019[305].  His ancestry is confirmed by the charter dated 1057 under which "Gausfredus marchyo sive comes Provincie et uxor mea Stefania et filius meus Bertrannus" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille naming "avus meus Wuilelmus marchio sive comes Provincie et avia mea Adalax comitissa"[306].  "Duo fratres, comites Provincie, Gausfredus atque Bertrannus" made a joint donation to Cluny dated 26 May 1037[307]GEOFFROY [I] Marquis et Comte de Provence.  "Gauzfredus marchio sive comes Provincie" consented to the donation by "Guillelmus vicecomes Massiliensis…" to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 1045[308].  "Gosfredus et Bertrannus frater meus, utrique Provinciales marchiones sive comites" donated property to Saint-Victor, Marseille by charter dated 1048[309].  “Godfredus comes et uxor mea Stephania et filius meus Bertrannus” donated property by charter dated 15 Feb 1060[310]m (before 27 Jan 1040) [as her first husband,] ETIENNETTE [Douce], daughter of --- (-after 28 Jul 1094, maybe after 11 Sep 1095).  "Gaufredus comes" donated property to Monmajour by charter dated 1040, signed by "Bertrannus comes…Stephania comitissa"[311].  The date of her marriage is set by the charter dated 27 Jan 1040 under which "Josfredus comes et uxor mea" confirmed a donation of property to Saint-Victor de Marseille, although it is not clear from the document that the confirmation (which appears after the text which recites the original grant) was contemporaneous with the donation[312].  Raimbaud Archbishop of Arles transferred property in the presence of "Jauffredi comitis et Stephanie uxor sue" by charter dated Mar 1048[313].  "Godfredus comes Provincie et uxor mea Stephania et filius meus Bertrannus" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 1 Jul 1055[314].  "Gausfredus marchyo sive comes Provincie et uxor mea Stefania et filius meus Bertrannus" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 1057[315].  “Godfredus comes et uxor mea Stephania et filius meus Bertrannus” donated property by charter dated 15 Feb 1060[316].  A charter dated 28 Jul 1094 records that "Raimundus...comes et Provincie marchio" and “Dulcis comitissa” both donated tolls on the Durance and Rhône rivers to Saint-Victor de Marseille “atque domno Ricardo”, confirming each other’s donations[317].  A charter dated 11 Sep 1095 confirmed a donation to Saint-Victor de Marseille by “Stephania comitissa cognomento Dulcis” for the soul of “filii sui Bertranni comitis[318].  The wording of this document is silent on whether the donor was deceased at the time.  Szabolcs de Vajay indicates that the two documents dated 1094 and 1095 are the only ones which specify her alternative name “Douce” and suggests that Etiennette could have adopted the name in old age, maybe on taking the veil[319].  Szabolcs de Vajay suggests that the wife of Geoffroy [I] Comte de Provence was Etiennette [Douce] de Marseille, daughter of Guillaume [II] Vicomte de Marseille & his second wife Etiennette ---[320].  He relies on the numerous common connections between the Provence and Marseille families in the charters of Marseille Saint-Victor, which indicate the likelihood of a family connection, although he points to no specific document which supports his argument.  He also highlights that the supposed mother of Etiennette [Douce] was referred to in sources as “Stephana”, in contrast to the diminutive “Stephanetta” used by her supposed daughter, which he says is consistent with a mother/daughter relationship.  However, as can be seen from the extracts quoted in this section, Etiennette [Douce] was not consistently referred to in charters by the diminutive form of her name.  "Bertrannus comes et mater mea Stephania…[et] conjux mea Matildis" donated property to Monmajour by charter dated to Feb [1061/62][321].  [Szabolcs de Vajay suggests that Etiennette married secondly ([1062/63]) as his second wife, Bernard [II] Comte de Bigorre[322].  He bases this suggestion on the charter dated 1 Apr 1080 under which "Centullus comes et uxor mea Beatrix et mater eius Stephania" donated the monastery of Saint-Savin de Lavedan "in comitatu Bigorritano" to Marseille Saint-Victor “et abbati Ricardo[323], pointing out that the Bigorre family made no earlier donations to Marseille Saint-Victor.  He also points out that this second marriage would explain the absence of Etiennette [Douce] from any charters in Provence for more than 30 years after the death of Comte Geoffroy [I].  It should be noted that Etiennette, widow of Bermard [II] Comte de Bigorre, was absent from the similar donation made to Marseille Saint-Victor by her daughter and son-in-law dated 12 May 1087[324].  This could indicate that she was deceased by then or (as suggested by Szabolcs de Vajay) that she had returned to Provence.  Szabolcs de Vajay’s argument for this second marriage certainly has some appeal, but in the absence of other indications cannot be taken as conclusive.]  Comte Geoffroy [I] & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         BERTRAND [II] (-[29 Apr 1090/28 Jul 1094]).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 1057 under which "Gausfredus marchyo sive comes Provincie et uxor mea Stefania et filius meus Bertrannus" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille naming "avus meus Wuilelmus marchio sive comes Provincie et avia mea Adalax comitissa"[325].  “Godfredus comes et uxor mea Stephania et filius meus Bertrannus” donated property by charter dated 15 Feb 1060[326]Comte de Provence.  A charter dated 21 Jul 1060 records that "B. comes Provincie" was received into the fraternity of Marseille Saint-Victor, just as his parents had been ("sicut et parentes eius antea fuerant")[327].  The editor of the cartulary of Marseille Saint-Victor doubted the accuracy of the date of this charter.  However, it is consistent with the last mention of Bertrand’s father on 15 Feb 1060 (assuming that date was N.S.) and, if correct, may help narrow the estimated date when his father died as shown above.  "Bertrannus comes et mater mea Stephania…[et] conjux mea Matildis" donated property to Monmajour by charter dated to Feb [1061/62][328]Marquis de ProvenceBernard Comte et Marquis de Provence renounced allegiance to the empire by act dated 1081 and swore fealty to the papacy[329].  The testament of Armengol [IV] Comte de Urgell dated 29 Apr 1090 named “Bertran Conde de Arles” among the guardians of his infant son[330].  After his death the marquisate of Provence passed to Raymond IV Comte de Toulouse, as shown by the bull of Pope Urban II dated 22 Jul 1096 which confirmed the rights of the monastery of Saint-André near Avignon after its abandonment by "comes Nimirum Tholosanorum ac Ruthenensium et marchio Provintie Raimundus"[331], but the precise process by which this occurred has not yet been ascertained.  m (before Feb 1061) MATHILDE, daughter of ---.  "Bertrannus comes et mater mea Stephania…[et] conjux mea Matildis" donated property to Monmajour by charter dated to Feb [1061/62][332].  Comte Bertrand [II] & his wife had one child: 

i)          CECILE (-1150)The marriage contract between "Bertramnus comes…sua filia" and "Bernardum-Atonem" is dated 1083[333].  There is no indication that any of her children claimed succession to the county of Provence, which suggests that Cécile was junior to Gerberge, wife of Girbert Vicomte de Gévaudan, de Millau et de Carlat, whose descendants inherited the county.  It should be noted that Manteyer explains the exclusion of Cécile and her descendants by stating that “la coutume de Provence oubliait, au moment de la mort de leurs parents, les filles précédemment dotées par eux[334].  Unfortunately he cites no source on which he bases this statement nor any other examples which illustrate his argument.  "…Sisiliæ vicecomitissæ de Carcassona" subscribed the charter dated 22 Jun 1101 under which "Ermengardis Biterrensis vicecomitissa simul et Carcassonæ et filius meus Bernardus Ato pariter vicecomes" donated property to the abbey of la Grasse but her origin is not stated[335].  "Bernardus Ato vicecomes Biterrensis et Carcassensis" donated property to the abbey of la Grasse by charter dated 21 Mar 1108 subscribed by "Cecilie uxori eius, Rogerii filius eius"[336]"Cæcilia vicecomitissa quæ fuit uxor domini Bernardi-Atonis vicecomitis Biterri" names "filii eorum Rotgerius, Raymundus Trinquauel et Bernardis-Atonis vicecomites Biterris, Carcassonæ, Nemausi et Albiæ" and "maiores nostri generis…Diasfronisa vicecomitissa et Bernardus vicecomes filius eius et Gaucia eius coniux et filii eorundem Froterius Albiensis episcopus et Ato vicecomes" in a document dated 20 Oct 1146[337].  "Trencavella filia Cæciliæ Biterrensis vicecomitissæ et…Geraldus filius eiusdem Trencavellæ" donated property to "sanctæ Mariæ Vallismagnæ et Petro abbati" by charter dated 1147, witnessed by “Cæciliæ vicecomitissæ Biterrensis, Trencavellæ eiusdem filiæ, Geraldi vicecomitis de Rossellon filius prædictæ Trencavellæ[338]m (1083) BERNARD ATON [IV] Comte de Carcassonne Vicomte de Nîmes, son of RAYMOND BERNARD "Trencavel" Vicomte d'Albi et de Nîmes & his wife Ermengarde de Carcassonne (-1129). 

b)         [--- de Provence.  Her parentage and marriage are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  It is likely that the connection is speculative, presumably in an effort to explain how Raymond Comte de Toulouse later claimed the marquisate of Provence.  However, Raymond´s right could have been hereditary through his paternal grandmother, who was the sister of Guillaume [V] Comte et Marquis de Provence (see above).  The fact of Raymond´s first marriage is confirmed by the charter dated to [1066] under which "Raimundum comitem de Rutenis, filium Almodis" and "Guifredum archiepiscopum de Narbona, filium Guille comitissæ" confirmed an agreement, which was confirmed by "uxorem suam comitissam"[339] The Histoire Générale de Languedoc suggests that she was Raymond´s first cousin, the daughter of his paternal uncle Bertrand, suggesting that Raymond naming his first son Bertrand would then have been consistent with the contemporary convention of using the name of one of the child´s grandfathers for the first-born son[340] It is assumed that the marriage was terminated, maybe for consanguinity, which could explain the doubts expressed in some primary sources about the legitimacy of Raymond´s son Bertrand.  m (1066, repudiated before 1080) as his first wife, RAYMOND de Toulouse Comte de Saint-Gilles, son of PONS Comte de Toulouse & his third wife Almodis de La Marche (-castle of Mount Pèlerin near Tripoli, Palestine 28 Feb 1105).  He succeeded his brother in 1094 as RAYMOND IV Comte de Toulouse.] 

c)         [ETIENNETTE (-[1085]).  Szabolcs de Vajay suggested that the wife of Guillem [II] Comte de Besalú was the daughter of Comte Geoffroy [I][341].  Edouard de Saint-Phalle highlighted in 2004 that the theory was never supported by any documentary evidence[342].  Her marriage (but not her parentage) is confirmed by the charter dated to [1084] under which her son "Bernardus Besaldunensis comes filius qui fui Stephaniæ" swore homage to "Aymerico vicecomiti Narbonæ filio qui fuisti Fidis"[343]m (after 1054) GUILLEM [II] "Trunus" Comte de Besalú i Ripoll, son of GUILLEM [I] Comte de Besalú & his wife Adelaide --- (-murdered [1066/70]).] 

 

 

The parentage of Gerberge Ctss de Provence has not been ascertained beyond doubt.  According to the Histoire Générale de Languedoc, she was the daughter of Geoffroy [I] Comte de Provence[344].  This connection appears to be speculative, based on an idea first raised in 1664 by Honoré Bouche who, in his Histoire Chronologique de Provence a work which contains inaccuracies but does have the merit of quoting some primary sources, says over-optimistically “[je l]’estime fort vray-semblablement, par presomption et conjecture[345].  The 28 Jul 1094 charter quoted above indicates that the widow of Comte Geoffroy [I] was representing this branch of the Provence comital family, acting presumably on behalf of her descendant Gerberge who must then have still been under age.  Although Gerberge was therefore most likely descended from Geoffroy [I], the chronology of her life suggests the improbability that she was his daughter.  The birth of Gerberge´s two daughters, probably dated to the late 1090s (her younger daughter Douce is called “puella” in the 3 Feb 1112 charter quoted below), suggests that Gerberge herself would have been born in [1070/84].  This date range can be narrowed further to [1078/84] if it is correct to deduce from the 28 Jul 1094 charter that Gerberge was then still under age.  On the other hand, the marriage of Geoffroy [I] is dated to before 1040, Comte Geoffroy died in [1061/62], and the marriages of his other supposed children are dated to the early 1060s (see above).  Szabolcs de Vajay, who assumed that Gerberge was the daughter of Geoffroy [I], suggests that she was at least 30 or 32 years old when she married (he dates the marriage to [1090]) and adds that “on peut se demander si c’était sa première alliance[346].  However, this does not explain why Etiennette [Douce] made the donation under the charter dated 28 Jul 1094, as Gerberge (or her husband if she was already married) could have made the donation in her own name if she had been of age.  Another difficulty is that, if Gerberge was the daughter of Geoffroy, the descendants of Cécile, daughter of Comte Bertrand [II] would have had a superior claim to Provence, although no evidence has been found that any such claim to the county was raised.  One possibility that would solve that problem is that Gerberge was born to an otherwise unrecorded older sibling of Cécile (brother or sister) who predeceased his/her father.  From a chronological point of view, the result is tight, but does not appear impossible.  A further factor is introduced by Manteyer who explains the exclusion of Cécile and her descendants by stating that “la coutume de Provence oubliait, au moment de la mort de leurs parents, les filles précédemment dotées par eux[347].  Unfortunately he cites no source on which he bases this statement.  However, the examples of Gerberge’s two daughters (discussed below) and of Beatrix, daughter of Comte Raymond Berenger IV, both provide other cases which fit the pattern.  If Manteyer is right, the best solution to the problem could be that Gerberge was the younger sister of Cécile.  From a chronological point of view, that would also appear to be the most likely possibility for Gerberge’s parentage.  If Gerberge was the granddaughter of Comte Geoffroy [I], the charter dated 28 Jul 1094 in which her grandmother acted on her behalf suggests that both of Gerberge’s parents must have been deceased at the time. 

 

1.         GERBERGE ([1078/84]-[3 Feb 1112/Jan 1118])Ctss de ProvenceThe Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ records the death "circa 1110" of "Gilberto comite Provinciæ" and that he was survived by his widow "Tiburgia…comitissa" and "Dulcia unica filia"[348]Girberga comitissa” donated “comitatum...Provinciæ et Gavaldanensis et Carladensis et...honorem...in comitatu Rutenensi”, which came to her “voce parentum meorum et largitione viri mei Girberti comitis patris tui”, to “Dulciæ filiæ meæ” by charter dated 1 Feb 1112[349].  “Gerberga comitissa Arelatensis” granted “filiam meam in conjugium...Dulcem” to “Raymundo Berengarii comiti”, together with “omni honore meo et cum...honore qui fuit Girberti comitis patris puellæ”, by charter dated 3 Feb 1112[350]m GIRBERT Vicomte de Gévaudan, de Millau et de Carlat (part), son of BERENGER [II] Vicomte de Gévaudan et de Millau & his wife Adela Vicomtesse de Carlat (-[1110/Feb 1112]).] 

-        see below, Chapter 4.C

 

 

 

C.      COMTES de PROVENCE 1093-1113 (GEVAUDAN)

 

 

GERBERGE Ctss de Provence, daughter of --- ([1078/84]-[3 Feb 1112/Jan 1118]).  The doubts concerning the parentage of Gerberge are discussed above.  Ctss de ProvenceThe Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ records the death "circa 1110" of "Gilberto comite Provinciæ" and that he was survived by his widow "Tiburgia…comitissa" and "Dulcia unica filia"[351]Girberga comitissa” donated “comitatum...Provinciæ et Gavaldanensis et Carladensis et...honorem...in comitatu Rutenensi”, which came to her “voce parentum meorum et largitione viri mei Girberti comitis patris tui”, to “Dulciæ filiæ meæ” by charter dated 1 Feb 1112[352].  “Gerberga comitissa Arelatensis” granted “filiam meam in conjugium...Dulcem” to “Raymundo Berengarii comiti”, together with “omni honore meo et cum...honore qui fuit Girberti comitis patris puellæ”, by charter dated 3 Feb 1112[353]

m GIRBERT Vicomte de Gévaudan, de Millau et de Carlat (part), son of BERENGER [II] Vicomte de Gévaudan et de Millau & his wife Adela Vicomtesse de Carlat (-[1110/Feb 1112]).  “Berengarius vicecomes de Cartlato et uxor mea Adila et mater uxoris meæ Nobilis” founded Montsalvy monastery, with the consent of “filii nostri Ricardus, Girbertus, Raimundus”, by charter dated to [1060/71][354].  “Allebertus de Caniliaco” swore allegiance to “Berengario nec ad filios tuos Ricard et Girbert” for the château of Canillac and others by undated charter, probably dated to [1080/97][355].  "Gerberti vice comitis" subscribed the charter dated 1100 under which "Petrus Virgilius et frater meus Raimundus" donated "æcclesiam sancti Martini…Priscus…[et] mansum de Roqueta…" to Conques[356]"...Richardi vicecomitis et fratris eius Girberti..." subscribed the charter dated 1103 under which "nobili...Guidone" donated property to Saint-Chaffre[357].  The Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ records the death "circa 1110" of "Gilberto comite Provinciæ" who left a widow "Tiburgia…comitissa" and "Dulcia unica filia"[358].  It should be noted that no primary source has been identified in which Girbert is recorded as comte de Provence during his lifetime. 

Vicomte Girbert & his wife had two children: 

1.         ETIENNETTE de Gévaudan (-after 1160).  Her parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 4 Aug 1145 under which Emperor Konrad III granted the right to mint coinage at Arles, Aix and at their château de Trinquetaille to Raymond de Baux and Etiennette his wife, and reconfirmed his possessions acquired since the death of his father Guillaume-Hugues and all the possessions of comte Girbert and comtesse Françoise Gerberge, parents of Etiennette[359].  Gaufridi says that Etiennette was her parents’ older daughter, basing this on the treaty dated 1150 ending a war between Provence and Baux disputing the succession to the county (known as “Les guerres baussenques”[360]), which reads that “Gisbertus pater suus et mater sua Gerisbergua eam (=Etiennette) maritaverant et hereditaverant[361].  This extract quoted by Gaufridi is insufficient to prove his point, although it does indicate that Etiennette was married before her father died and therefore before her sister Douce.  The complete document, as published by Bouche, is an undated manuscript note which provides background to the claims, records that “Stephania uxor...Raimundi de Baucio et filii sui” claimed “partem et hæreditatem in comitatu Provinciæ” from “Berengarium Raimundi comitem Provinciæ” who answered with the statement quoted by Gaufridi, but gives no other relevant details[362].  The idea is consistent with Manteyer’s comment, in relation to the exclusion of Cécile daughter of Bertrand [II] Comte de Provence and her descendants from succession to the county (see above), that “la coutume de Provence oubliait, au moment de la mort de leurs parents, les filles précédemment dotées par eux[363].  The claim to Provence, which resulted in Les guerres baussenques, only really makes sense if based on the seniority of the Baux line to the Barcelona line.  Boisson de la Salle (writing in 1820) proceeded on the assumption that Etiennette was the older daughter of Gerberge[364]The Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ incorrectly names "Berengarius primogenitus…Gilbertus secundo-natus qui fuit Comes Provinciæ, Raimundus tertio-natus, et Stephana qui fuit uxor Raimundi de Bauxio" as the children of "Raymundus-Berengarii vulgo Cap-De stoupes…dictus, Comes Barcinonæ in Catalonia" & his wife[365]Raymond de Baux, his wife Etiennette and their son Hugues de Baux abandoned property rights in favour of the Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem by charter dated May 1121[366].  "Raimundus de Baucio…consilio…uxoris mee Stephanie et filiorum meorum" made a donation by charter dated 1143[367]m (before [1110/15]) RAYMOND de Baux Seigneur de Berre, son of GUILLAUME-HUGUES de Baux & his wife Vierne --- (-Barcelona 1150). 

2.         DOUCE [Dolça/Dulcia] de Gévaudan ([1095/1100]-[28 Nov 1127/1130]).  The Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ records that "Gilberto comite Provinciæ" left his widow "Tiburgia…comitissa" and "Dulcia unica filia" and notes the latter's marriage to "Raymundus-Berengarii vulgo Cap-De stoupes…dictus, Comes Barcinonæ in Catalonia"[368]Her parentage is confirmed by the Vita Sancti Ollegarii which names “Raymundum comitem Barchinonensem filium filiæ Roberti Guisardi principis Apuliæ” and “Dulcia comitissa Provinciæ uxor comitis[369].   “Girberga comitissa” donated “comitatum...Provinciæ et Gavaldanensis et Carladensis et...honorem...in comitatu Rutenensi”, which came to her “voce parentum meorum et largitione viri mei Girberti comitis patris tui”, to “Dulciæ filiæ meæ” by charter dated 1 Feb 1112[370]Ctss de Provence, Vicomtesse de Millau, de Gévaudan, et de Carlat (part).  Gerberga comitissa Arelatensis” granted “filiam meam in conjugium...Dulcem” to “Raymundo Berengarii comiti”, together with “omni honore meo et cum...honore qui fuit Girberti comitis patris puellæ”, by charter dated 3 Feb 1112[371].  “Dulcia Barchinonensis et Provinciæ comitissa” granted “totum meum honorem quem habeo vel habere debeo per paternam sive maternam hereditatem vel alio modo in Provincia et in Rutenensi comitatu” to “comiti Raymundo” by charter dated Jan 1113[372]"Raymondi comes Barchinonensis, Dulciæ comitissæ uxoris eius, Raimundi et Berengarii filiorum suorum…" subscribed the charter dated [4/12] Feb 1114 under which "Bernardus Wilelmi…comes Ceritaniensis" donated property to the abbey of la Grasse[373]"Dultie comitisse" signed a charter of "domni Raimundi…comitis et marchionis Burchinone et Provintie" dated 7 Mar 1125[374]m (3 Feb 1112) as his third wife, RAMÓN BERENGUER III Conde de Barcelona, son of RAMÓN BERENGUER II "Cap d'Estopes" Conde de Barcelona & his wife Mathilde di Apulia (11 Nov 1082-19 Jul 1131).  He succeeded in 1113 as Comte de Provence

-        see below, Chapter 5.  COMTES de PROVENCE 1113-1246 (BARCELONA)

 

 

 

D.      COMTES de PROVENCE 1113-1246 (BARCELONA)

 

 

DOUCE [Dolça/Dulcia] de Provence [Gevaudan], daughter of GIRBERT Vicomte de Gévaudan et de Milhaud & his wife Gerberge Ctss de Provence ([1095/1100]-[28 Nov 1127/1130])The Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ records that "Gilberto comite Provinciæ" left his widow "Tiburgia…comitissa" and "Dulcia unica filia" and notes the latter's marriage to "Raymundus-Berengarii vulgo Cap-De stoupes…dictus, Comes Barcinonæ in Catalonia"[375]Her parentage is confirmed by the Vita Sancti Ollegarii which names “Raymundum comitem Barchinonensem filium filiæ Roberti Guisardi principis Apuliæ” and “Dulcia comitissa Provinciæ uxor comitis[376].   “Girberga comitissa” donated “comitatum...Provinciæ et Gavaldanensis et Carladensis et...honorem...in comitatu Rutenensi”, which came to her “voce parentum meorum et largitione viri mei Girberti comitis patris tui”, to “Dulciæ filiæ meæ” by charter dated 1 Feb 1112[377]Ctss de Provence, Vicomtesse de Millau, de Gévaudan, et de Carlat (part).  Gerberga comitissa Arelatensis” granted “filiam meam in conjugium...Dulcem” to “Raymundo Berengarii comiti”, together with “omni honore meo et cum...honore qui fuit Girberti comitis patris puellæ”, by charter dated 3 Feb 1112[378].  “Dulcia Barchinonensis et Provinciæ comitissa” granted “totum meum honorem quem habeo vel habere debeo per paternam sive maternam hereditatem vel alio modo in Provincia et in Rutenensi comitatu” to “comiti Raymundo” by charter dated Jan 1113[379]"Raymondi comes Barchinonensis, Dulciæ comitissæ uxoris eius, Raimundi et Berengarii filiorum suorum…" subscribed the charter dated [4/12] Feb 1114 under which "Bernardus Wilelmi…comes Ceritaniensis" donated property to the abbey of la Grasse[380]"Dultie comitisse" signed a charter of "domni Raimundi…comitis et marchionis Burchinone et Provintie" dated 7 Mar 1125[381]

m (3 Feb 1112) as his third wife, RAMÓN BERENGUER III Conde de Barcelona, son of RAMÓN BERENGUER II "Cap d'Estopes" Conde de Barcelona & his wife Mathilde di Apulia (11 Nov 1082-19 Jul 1131).  He succeeded in 1113 as RAYMOND BERENGER I Comte de Provence, by right of his wife.  Ramón Berenguer III agreed a partition of the county of Provence with Alphonse Comte de Toulouse by charter dated 1125[382]

Ctss Dulce I & her husband had seven children:

1.         RAMÓN BERENGUER de Barcelona (1113-San Dalmacio near Turin 6 Aug 1162, bur Monastery of Ripoll)The Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ names "Berengarius primogenitus…Gilbertus secundo-natus qui fuit Comes Provinciæ, Raimundus tertio-natus, et Stephana qui fuit uxor Raimundi de Bauxio" as the children of "Raymundus-Berengarii vulgo Cap-De stoupes…dictus, Comes Barcinonæ in Catalonia" & his wife[383].  "Raymondi comes Barchinonensis, Dulciæ comitissæ uxoris eius, Raimundi et Berengarii filiorum suorum…" subscribed the charter dated [4/12] Feb 1114 under which "Bernardus Wilelmi…comes Ceritaniensis" donated property to the abbey of la Grasse[384]He succeeded his father in 1131 as RAMÓN BERENGUER IV Count of Barcelona, Cerdanya, Besalú, Gerona and Osona. 

-        see below

2.         BERENGUER RAMÓN de Barcelona ([1114]-murdered Melgueil Mar 1144)The Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ names "Berengarius primogenitus…Gilbertus secundo-natus qui fuit Comes Provinciæ, Raimundus tertio-natus, et Stephana qui fuit uxor Raimundi de Bauxio" as the children of "Raymundus-Berengarii vulgo Cap-De stoupes…dictus, Comes Barcinonæ in Catalonia" & his wife[385].  "Raymondi comes Barchinonensis, Dulciæ comitissæ uxoris eius, Raimundi et Berengarii filiorum suorum…" subscribed the charter dated [4/12] Feb 1114 under which "Bernardus Wilelmi…comes Ceritaniensis" donated property to the abbey of la Grasse[386], which must place the birth of Berenguer Ramón in late 1113 or early 1114, assuming that the charter is correctly dated.  He succeeded his father in 1131 as BERENGER RAYMOND I Comte de Provence, Vicomte de Rodez, de Gévaudan et de Carladet.  The Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium records that "fratre suo [=Raimundi Berengarii quarti] Berengario-Raimundi Provinciæ Comite" who ruled the county of Provence was killed by pirates "in portu Malguriensi"[387]The Annals of Caffaro record that "comes Milgorii, frater comitis Barcilonie" attacked Genoa and was killed "a quodam balistario galee", dated to [1143/44] from the context[388]m (betrothed 1132, before 1135) as her first husband, BEATRIX Ctss de Melgueil, daughter of BERNARD [IV] RAYMOND Comte de Melgueil & his wife Guillemette de Montpellier ([1124]-after 1190).  Alphonse Comte de Toulouse and Guillaume [V] Seigneur de Montpellier agreed terms relating to the county of Melgueil by charter dated 1132, agreeing that they would agree the marriage of “filia Bernardi Melgoriensis comitis” in six years time[389].  Berenger Raymond Comte de Provence and Guillaume [V] Seigneur de Montpellier agreed terms relating to the marriage of “Beatrix filia sororis tuæ Guillelmæ”, provided that, if Beatrix died under the age of 12, Berenger Raymond would marry “filiam tuam[390].  Under a charter dated 1135 “Berengarius.Raimundi filius Dulciæ comes Melgoriensis et marchio Provinciæ et…Beatrix filia Guillelmæ” agreed to pay a debt owed by "Bernardus comes pater Beatricis" to "Guillelmo Montispessulani filio Ermessendis" relating to the county of Melgueil[391].  She married secondly Bernard Pelet d'Alais, who succeeded as Comte de Melgueil by right of his wife.  Her second marriage is confirmed by the charter dated Mar [1145/46] under which "Beatrix Melgoriensis comitissa filia Guillelme et Bernardi, felicis memorie comitis Mergoriensis" and "Bernardus Peleti comes maritus hujus Beatricis" recognised obligations to "Guillelmo Montispessulani filio Ermessendis" previously agreed by "Bernardus comes, pater mei Beatricis"[392].  Comte Bérenger Raymond & his wife had one child: 

a)         RAYMOND BERENGER de Provence ([1140]-murdered Nice 1166).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 1 Apr 1172 under which "Beatrix comitissa Melgorii" divided the county of Melgueil between "filie mee Ermessende" and "Dulcie neptis mee, filie quondam filii mei Raimundi comitis Provincie"[393].  He succeeded his father 1144 as RAYMOND BERENGER II Comte de Provence, Vicomte de Rodez, de Gévaudan et de Carladet.  He was invested as Comte de Melgueil: "Raimundus comes Barcilonensis princeps Aragonensis Provincie marchio...cum nepote meo R. Berengerii comite Melgoriensi atque Provincie necnon et Amiliavense" granted duty exemptions "in villa Amiliavi quam in ipso ponte" to the abbey of Sylvanès by charter dated Apt 1156[394]The Annales Sancti Victoris Massilienses name "Raimundus comes Provincie nepos…domni comitis Barchinonensis [=Raimundi]" when recording his death in 1166[395]The Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ records that "Raymundus" was killed during the siege of Nice[396]m (after 1162) as her second husband, RYKSA of Silesia, widow of ALFONSO VII "el Emperador" King of Castile and León, daughter of WŁADYSŁAW II “Wygnaniec/the Exile” Prince of Krakow and Silesia & his wife Agnes of Austria [Babenberg] ([1130/40]-16 Jun [1185]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and her three marriages has not yet been identified.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Rikissam" as the only daughter of "dux Vergescelaus de Polonia" and his wife Agnes, specifying that "primo fuit regina Suecie", that by her second husband "regi Russie nomine Musuch" she was mother of "Sophiam reginam Dacie et Rikissam", the latter marrying "imperatoris Castelle Alfunso"[397], which contradicts other sources in many aspects.  The Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium records that "Raimundo-Berengarii…filio…Berengarii-Raimundi Comitis Provinciæ" married "neptem Imperatoris Alamanniæ"[398]She was known as RIQUILDA in Spain[399].  She married thirdly (after 1166) [as his first wife,] Albert [III] Graf von Everstein.  Comte Raymond Bérenger & his wife had one child: 

i)          DOUCE [Dolça/Dulce] de Provence (after 1162-[1 Apr/12 Dec] 1172)Her parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 1 Apr 1172 under which "Beatrix comitissa Melgorii" divided the county of Melgueil between "filie mee Ermessende" and "Dulcie neptis mee, filie quondam filii mei Raimundi comitis Provincie", which also records the betrothal between Dulcie and "Raimundo, duci Narbone, comiti Tolose, marchioni Provincie…filio"[400].  However, Beatrix made a second donation dated 12 Dec 1172 to Ermessende only, who was by then married to Raymond de Toulouse[401].  She succeeded her father in 1166 as Ctss de ProvenceBetrothed (early 1172) to RAYMOND de Toulouse, son of RAYMOND V Comte de Toulouse & his wife Constance de France (27 Oct 1156-Toulouse 2 Aug 1222).  He succeeded his father in 1194 as RAYMOND VI Comte de Toulouse, Duc de Narbonne, Marquis de Provence. 

3.         other children: see BARCELONA

 

 

RAMÓN BERENGUER de Barcelona, son of RAMÓN BERENGUER III "el Grande" Conde de Barcelona & his third wife Dulce de Gevaudan Ctss de Provence (1113-San Dalmacio near Turin 6 Aug 1162, bur Monastery of Ripoll)"Raymondi comes Barchinonensis, Dulciæ comitissæ uxoris eius, Raimundi et Berengarii filiorum suorum…" subscribed the charter dated [4/12] Feb 1114 under which "Bernardus Wilelmi…comes Ceritaniensis" donated property to the abbey of la Grasse[402]He succeeded his father in 1131 as RAMÓN BERENGUER IV Count of Barcelona, Cerdanya, Besalú, Gerona and Osona. 

m (11 Aug 1137, confirmed 1151) Infanta doña PETRONILA de Aragón, daughter of RAMIRO II “el Monje” King of Aragon and Navarre & his wife Agnès [Mathilde] d’Aquitaine ([1136]-Barcelona 17 Oct 1174).  The Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ records the marriage of "Berengarius primogenitus filius…" of "Raymundus-Berengarii vulgo Cap-De stoupes…dictus, Comes Barcinonæ in Catalonia" & his wife and "Petronillæ filiæ Ranemiri primo monachi…Aragonum regis"[403]

Conde Ramón Berenguer & Queen Petronilla had five children:

1.         other children: see ARAGON

2.         Infante don RAMÓN de Aragón (Villamayor del Valle, Huesca 1/25 Mar 1157-Perpignan 25 Apr 1195, bur Poblet, monastery of Nuestra Señora)The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father in 1162 as RAMÓN Conde de Barcelona.  He succeeded his mother 1174 as ALFONSO II “el Casto” King of Aragon.  He succeeded his brother in 1185 as ALPHONSE I Comte de Provence (declaring himself Marquis de Provence), appointing Roger Bernard Comte de Foix as procurator. 

-        see below

3.         Infante don PEDRO de Aragón ([1158]-murdered near Montpellier 5 Apr 1181, bur Melgueil).  The "Corónicas" Navarras name (in order) "don Pedro…el rey don Alfonso, que ovo nombre Remón Belenguer et el conte don Pedro de Provença et el conte don Sancho et a la muller del rey don Sancho de Portugal" as the children of the "conte de Barçalona…en esta su muller [dona Peyronela]", stating that the first named Pedro died in Huesca[404]The Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ names "Raymundum filium…secundo-genitum" as son of "Berengarius comes Barchinonæ et Provinciæ, maritus Petronillæ", recording that he succeeded as Comte de Provence[405]Conde de Cerdagne/Cerdaña.  He succeeded his cousin in 1166 as RAYMOND BERENGER III Comte de Provence.  The Annales Sancti Victoris Massilienses record that "Raimundus Berengarius comes et marchio Provintie, frater Ildefonsi Aragonensis Regis et comitis Barduinonsis" was killed "1181 in die sancto pasche"[406]The Chronicon Gaufredi Vosiensis records that "comes Provinciæ [Raymond Bérenger III Comte de Provence]...cum Guidone de Seveyrac" were killed "non lonè a Montisislerio" by knights of “Ademari filii Sicardi de Mareuil[407]The Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium records the death in 1181 of "Raimundo-Berengarii fratri suo [=Ildefonsi]" and his burial "in Magalonensi sede"[408][409]Betrothed ([1176/78], broken 1178) EVDOKIA Komnene, daughter of --- ([1160/64]-[Nov 1202/Jun 1204]).  The parentage of Evdokia is not known.  According to Sturdza[410], she was the daughter of Alexios Komnenos, son of sébastocrator Andronikos Komnenos (older brother of Emperor Manuel I) but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  Barzos suggests[411] that she was the daughter of Isaakios Komnenos, son of Emperor Ioannes II, writing that "if Eudokia [K. 143, according to his numbering] were not the daughter of Isaakios [K. 78], then she would be a daughter of Ioannes [K. 128] [son of Andronikos Komnenos sébastocrator]"[412].  The Histoire de Montpellier recounts that Evdokia travelled to Europe to marry Alfonso II King of Aragon, but found that he was already married when she arrived, and that she and her retinue waited for instructions from the emperor at Montpellier, where Guillaume [VII] proposed marriage to her[413].  The Annales Pisani (probably written [1182]) records that "l'Imperatore Emanuel" sent his envoys to arrange the betrothal of "una sua nepote…al fratello del Re di Aragona" (Raymond Bérenger III Comte de Provence), the projected marriage aimed at thwarting the influence of the Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" through an alliance with Emperor Manuel I, but the betrothal was terminated by Emperor Friedrich as suzerain over the Comté de Provence, the emperor proposing "Goglielmo di Mompellieri" [Guillaume [VIII]] as a suitable alternative[414].  She became a Benedictine nun at Aniane.  She married ([1178/79], divorced Apr 1187) as his first wife, Guillaume [VIII] Seigneur de Montpellier

4.         Infante don SANCHO de Aragón ([1161]-1226).  The "Corónicas" Navarras name (in order) "don Pedro…el rey don Alfonso, que ovo nombre Remón Belenguer et el conte don Pedro de Provença et el conte don Sancho et a la muller del rey don Sancho de Portugal" as the children of the "conte de Barçalona…en esta su muller [dona Peyronela]", stating that the first named Pedro died in Huesca[415]The Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ names "Sanxium…filium tertio-genitum" as son of "Berengarius comes Barchinonæ et Provinciæ, maritus Petronillæ", recording that he succeeded his brother as Comte de Provence[416]He succeeded in 1167 as Comte de Roussillon et de Cerdagne/Cerdaña.  He succeeded his brother in 1181 as SANCHO Comte de Provence, but was deprived in 1185.  He was Regent and Procurator General of Aragon 1214 until 1218, when he resigned. 

-        KINGS of ARAGON

 

 

Infante don RAMÓN de Aragón, son of RAMÓN BERENGUER IV Conde de Barcelona & his wife Petronila Queen of Aragon (Villamayor del Valle, Huesca 1/25 Mar 1157-Perpignan 25 Apr 1195, bur Poblet, monastery of Nuestra Señora)The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father in 1162 as RAMÓN Conde de Barcelona.  He succeeded his mother in 1174 as ALFONSO II “el Casto” King of Aragon.  He succeeded his brother in 1185 as ALPHONSE I Comte de Provence (declaring himself Marquis de Provence), appointing Roger Bernard Comte de Foix as procurator.  The Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium records the death in 1196 of "Ildefonsus" and his burial "in Monasterio Populeti" which he had founded[417]

m (Zaragoza 18 Jan 1174) Infanta doña SANCHA de Castilla, daughter of don ALFONSO VII "el Emperador" King of Castile and León & his second wife Ryksa of Poland (1155-Monastery of Sijena 9 Nov 1208).  She founded the Hospitaller priory of nuns of Nuestra Señora at San Juan de Sijena in 1188, and became a nun there herself in 1197. 

King Alfonso II & his wife had nine children:

1.         other children, see ARAGON

2.         Infante don ALFONSO BERENGUER de Aragón ([1180]-Palermo Feb 1209).  The "Corónicas" Navarras name "al yfant don Pedro, rey d'Aragón, et al marqués de Provença don Alfonso, et a don Ferrando, abbat de Mont aragón, et una filla que casaron en Ongría" as the children of "el rey don Alfonso d'Aragón" and his wife[418]The Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium names "Petrus…Alfonsus" as the oldest two of the three sons of "Ildefonsi", specifying that Alfonso succeeded his father in "Ducatum Provinciæ"[419]The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña names "Pedro…Alfonso…y Fernando" as the three sons of King Alfonso II[420].  "Ildefonsus…comes et marchio Provincie filius Ildefonsi…quondam Regis Aragonie, comitis Barchinonie et marchionis Provincie" made donations to the church of Aix dated May 1199[421].  He succeeded his father in 1195 as ALPHONSE II Comte de Provence, Millau & Razès.  m (Aix-en-Provence Jul 1193) GERSENDE de Sabran Ctss de Forcalquier, daughter of RAINON [I] de Sabran Seigneur du Caylar et d’Ansouis & his wife Gersende Ctss de Forcalquier [Barcelona-Urgel].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the wife of "Sanctio [frater rege Petro de Arragonum" [presumably an error for "Alfonso"] as "neptem…comitis de Forcalcarie"[422]Rodrigo of Toledo´s De rebus Hispaniæ records that "Aldefonso" married "neptem comitis Folocalquerii"[423].  A Brevis historia comitum Provinciæ records that "Idelfonsus...comes Provinciæ" married "Gersendem neptem comitis Folocalquerii"[424]This marriage reunited two of the rival branches of the family of the earlier comtes de Provence, extinct in the male line in the late 11th century (see Part B above).  “Garsendis uxor quondam Ildefonsi comitis Provinciæ” donated her rights “in comitatu Forcalqueriensi”, granted by “Guillelmo quondam comite Forcalqueriensi avo meo”, to “Raymundo Berengario filio meo” with “filiæ meæ sororis tuæ Garsendis” as substitute should he die, with the consent of “patre meo Raines de Castelar”, by charter dated 30 Nov 1209[425].  Nun at Celle 1222.  Alphonse II & his wife had two children: 

a)         RAYMOND BERENGER de Provence ([1198]-Aix 19 Aug 1245, bur Aix-en-Provence, église de Saint Jean de Jérusalem).  The “Garsendis uxor quondam Ildefonsi comitis Provinciæ” donated her rights “in comitatu Forcalqueriensi”, granted by “Guillelmo quondam comite Forcalqueriensi avo meo”, to “Raymundo Berengario filio meo” with “filiæ meæ sororis tuæ Garsendis” as substitute should he die, with the consent of “patre meo Raines de Castelar”, by charter dated 30 Nov 1209[426].  He succeeded his father in 1209 as RAIMOND BERENGER IV Comte de Provence.    

-        see below

b)         GERSENDE de Provence.  “Garsendis uxor quondam Ildefonsi comitis Provinciæ” donated her rights “in comitatu Forcalqueriensi”, granted by “Guillelmo quondam comite Forcalqueriensi avo meo”, to “Raymundo Berengario filio meo” with “filiæ meæ sororis tuæ Garsendis” as substitute should he die, with the consent of “patre meo Raines de Castelar”, by charter dated 30 Nov 1209[427].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  m GUILLAUME [II] Vicomte de Béarn et d’Oloron, son of GUILLAUME [I] Vicomte de Béarn [Moncada] & his wife Guilleuma de Castellvell ([1185]-1229). 

 

 

RAYMOND BERENGER de Provence, son of ALPHONSE II Comte de Provence [Aragon-Barcelona] & his wife Gersende de Sabran Ctss de Forcalquier ([1198]-Aix 19 Aug 1245, bur Aix-en-Provence, église de Saint Jean de Jérusalem).  “Garsendis uxor quondam Ildefonsi comitis Provinciæ” donated her rights “in comitatu Forcalqueriensi”, granted by “Guillelmo quondam comite Forcalqueriensi avo meo”, to “Raymundo Berengario filio meo” with “filiæ meæ sororis tuæ Garsendis” as substitute should he die, with the consent of “patre meo Raines de Castelar”, by charter dated 30 Nov 1209[428].  He succeeded his father in 1209 as RAYMOND BERENGER IV Comte de Provence et de Forcalquier.  Under his testament dated 20 Jun 1238, he designated his fourth daughter as his heir[429].  The testament of “R. Berengarius…comes et marchio Provincie et comes Forcalquerii”, dated 20 Jun 1238, names “Margaritam filiam nostrum…reginam Francie…Elionors filiam nostrum…reginam Anglie…Sanciam filiam nostram” and appoints “Beatricem filiam nostrum heredem generalem[430].  The Annales Sancti Victoris Massilienses record the death "1245 XIV Kal Sep" of "Raimundus Berengarius comes Provincie" at Aix[431].  The Obituaire of Forcalquier St Mary records the death "XIV Kal Sep" of "Raymundus Berengarii…comes Provincie et Forcalquerii"[432]The Thalamus de Montpellier records the death Aug 1244 of "R. Berenguier coms de Proensa" at Aix[433]

m (Betrothed 5 Jun 1219, Dec 1220) BEATRIX de Savoie, daughter of THOMAS I Comte de Savoie & his wife Marguerite [Beatrix] de Genève ([1205][434]-Dec 1266 or 4 Jan 1267).  Matthew of Paris names her as daughter of "comitis Sabaldiæ Thomæ iam mortui, sororem comitis Sabaldiæ adhuc viventis Amidei", when he records the marriage of her daughter to Henry III King of England[435]The contract of marriage between "Thomas…comes Sabaldie et marchio in Ytalia…filia sua" and "Raimundi Berengarii…comitis Provinciæ et Forcalquerii" is dated 5 Jun 1219, and names "A. et V. filii Thomæ comitis et A. cometissa uxor eius" as guarantors[436].  She transformed the court at Aix into one of the most celebrated in Europe.  After quarrelling with her son-in-law Charles Comte d'Anjou over the usufruct of the county of Provence she retired to Echelles in Savoy[437].  The marriage of her daughter Eléonore with Henry III King of England in 1236 signalled the establishment of close ties between the English court and the house of Savoy, the foreign immigrants becoming increasingly unpopular in England and contributing to the difficulties experienced by the king with his barons.  The testament of "Beatricis relictæ Raimundi Berengarii comitis Provinciæ", dated 14 Jan 1264, confirms her previous testaments appointing "Reginarum filiarum suarum Margarethæ Franciæ et Alienoræ Angliæ, fratrum suorum Bonifacii archiepiscopi Cantuar. et Petri comitis Sabaudiæ" as her heirs, chooses burial "in hospitali Scalarum", and adds bequests to "Philippo electo Lugdun. fratri suo altero…Agneti comitissæ Sabaudiæ dominiæ Fuciniaci, Cæciliæ relictæ Amedei Sabaudiæ comitis, Beatrici relictæ Thomæ de Sabaudia comitis...Contissoni…Eleonoræ aliæ filiæ Thomæ comitis…Contissoni dominæ Medullionis nepti suæ…Margarithæ matri marchionis Montisferrati nepti suæ, Rodulpho archiepiscopo Tarantas, A. episcopo de Dyone consanguineo testatricis, Petro episcopo Hereford…filiabus Rodolphi et Henrici de Gebennis, et filiæ domini de Camera" as well as numerous bequests to religious institutions, orders "Contissona filia Amedei comitis…Eleonoræ filiæ Thomæ fratris sui" to fulfil religious bequests, and appoints "Johannem archiepiscopum Viennensem et Rodulphum Tarantasiensem, Philippum electum Lugdun. fratrem suum, episcopum Gratianopolitanum, Humbertum abbatem Altacumbæ et Stephanum archidiaconum Cantaruensium" as her executors[438].  A second testament of "Beatrix relicta…Dom. Reymundi Berengarii comitis provinciæ", dated 22 Feb 1264, chooses burial "in ecclesia Hospitalis S. Joannis Hierosolymitani", adds bequests to "Thomam Amedeum et Ludovicum filios quondam Dom. Thome fratris mei…Alienore filie predicti comitis Thome…filie Contissone de Medullione…filie domini de Camera…Beringarie filie Dom. Benedicti de Castellione…Beatrice Andegavie comitisse"[439]The testament of "Bonifacius archiepiscopus Cantuarensis", dated 11 Oct 1264, made bequests to "sorori suæ comitissæ Provinciæ…sorori suæ alteræ comitissæ de Quiborc…"[440].  A second necrology of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne records the death "II Non Jan" of "vidua dna comitssa Provincie"[441]

Comte Raymond Bérenger IV & his wife had five children:

1.         MARGUERITE de Provence (St Maime near Forcalquier Spring 1221-Paris, Abbaye de St Marcel 21 Dec 1295, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis)The Vincentii Bellovacensis Memoriale Omnium Temporum records the marriage in 1233 of King Louis IX and "comitis Provincie filiam…Margaretam"[442]"R Berengarii…comes et marchio Provincie et comes Folcalquerii" made arrangements for the dowry of "filie nostre Margarite" by charter dated 17 May 1234[443]She was consecrated Queen 28 May 1234, Cathedral of St Etienne, Sens. The testament of “R. Berengarius…comes et marchio Provincie et comes Forcalquerii”, dated 20 Jun 1238, names “Margaritam filiam nostrum…reginam Francie…Elionors filiam nostrum…reginam Anglie…Sanciam filiam nostram” and appoints “Beatricem filiam nostrum heredem generalem[444]After disputing the succession of her youngest sister Béatrice to the county of Provence, she renounced her rights in 1287 and received Beaufort and Baugé.  The testament of "Beatricis relictæ Raimundi Berengarii comitis Provinciæ", dated 14 Jan 1264, confirms her previous testaments appointing "Reginarum filiarum suarum Margarethæ Franciæ et Alienoræ Angliæ…" as her heirs[445]The Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records the death in Paris in 1295 of "regina Franciæ Margareta" and her burial "in ecclesia sancti Dionysii in Francia juxta regem sanctissimum Ludovicum conjugem suum", adding that she had retired to "Parisius apud sanctum Marcellum cœnobium sororum minorum"[446]m (Cathedral of St Etienne, Sens, Yonne 27 May 1234) LOUIS IX King of France, son of LOUIS VIII King of France & Infanta doña Blanca de Castilla (Château de Poissy, Yvelines 25 Apr 1214-killed in battle Tunis 25 Aug 1270, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis)

2.         ELEONORE de Provence (Aix-en-Provence [1223]-Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire 24/25 Jun 1291, bur Amesbury Abbey)A charter dated 22 Jun 1235 records the marriage agreement between "Henricus III Angliæ Rex" and "Amedeo IV Sab. Com. ac Willelmo electo Valentino fratribus…nepte, sororis illorum, comitissæ Provinciæ, filia"[447]The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "Id Jan" [1236] in Canterbury of King Henry III and "Alienoram filiam comitis Proventiæ" and their joint coronation in London "XIII Kal Feb"[448].  Her marriage is recorded by Matthew Paris, who also states her parentage[449].  She was crowned Queen Consort 19/20 Jan 1236 at Westminster Abbey.  Her marriage signalled the establishment of close ties between the English court and the house of Savoy, the foreign immigrants becoming increasingly unpopular in England and contributing to the difficulties experienced by King Henry III with his barons.  The testament of “R. Berengarius…comes et marchio Provincie et comes Forcalquerii”, dated 20 Jun 1238, names “Margaritam filiam nostrum…reginam Francie…Elionors filiam nostrum…reginam Anglie…Sanciam filiam nostram” and appoints “Beatricem filiam nostrum heredem generalem[450]The testament of "Beatricis relictæ Raimundi Berengarii comitis Provinciæ", dated 14 Jan 1264, confirms her previous testaments appointing "Reginarum filiarum suarum Margarethæ Franciæ et Alienoræ Angliæ…" as her heirs[451]She became a nun at Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire 7 Jul 1284.  The Annales Londonienses record the death "in crastino Sancti Johannis Baptistæ" in 1291 of "Elianora mater regis Edwardi" and her burial "apud Ambresbury in festo nativitate beatæ Virginis"[452]m (Betrothed 22 Jun 1235, Canterbury 14 Jan 1236) HENRY III King of England, son of JOHN King of England & Isabelle d’Angoulême (Winchester Castle 1 Oct 1207-Palace of Westminster 16 Nov 1272, bur Westminster Abbey). 

3.         SANCHA de Provence (Aix-en-Provence [1225]-Berkhamstead Castle, Buckinghamshire 5 or 9 Nov 1261, bur Hayles Abbey, Gloucestershire).  The testament of “R. Berengarius…comes et marchio Provincie et comes Forcalquerii”, dated 20 Jun 1238, names “Margaritam filiam nostrum…reginam Francie…Elionors filiam nostrum…reginam Anglie…Sanciam filiam nostram” and appoints “Beatricem filiam nostrum heredem generalem[453]A charter dated Jun 1240 records the episcopal annulment of the betrothal of "Guigonem Dalphinum Viennæ et Albonis" and "filiam comitis Provinciæ" because of his prior commitment to marry "filia Barralis domini de Baucio"[454].  It is assumed that this betrothal relates to Sancha, because her two older sisters were married at that date and her younger sister probably too young to have been betrothed.  A charter dated 11 Aug 1241 records the marriage contract between "R comitis Tolosæ" and "Sanciam filiam…R Berengarii Comitis Provinciæ…et…Beatrix Comitissa"[455].   "Petrus de Sabaudia" acted as proxy for the marriage of "Richardo comite Cornubie" and "Sanccie filie…Raimundi Berengarii comitis provincie", recorded in a charter dated 17 Jul 1242[456]Her marriage is recorded by Matthew of Paris, who also confirms her parentage[457].  The Annales Halesiensibus record the death "1261 V Id Nov…apud Berhamstede" of "Sanchia regina Alemannie" and her burial "apud Heiles"[458].  The Annals of Osney record the death “die Mercurii proximo ante festum beati Martini apud Berchamstede” in 1261 of “Schenchia regina Alemanniæ, soror Elianoræ reginæ Angliæ” and her burial “ad domum de Hayles[459]Betrothed (contract before Jun 1240, annulled Jun 1240) to GUIGUES Dauphin de Viennois Comte d'Albon, son of ANDRE Comte d´Albon [Bourgogne-Capet] & his third wife Beatrice di Monferrato ([1225]-[Aug/Nov] 1269, bur Chartreuse Abbaye de Prémol)Betrothed (Aug 1241) to RAYMOND VII Comte de Toulouse, son of RAYMOND VI Comte de Toulouse & his third wife Joan of England (Beaucaire, Gard Jul 1197-Millau, Aveyron 27 Sep 1249, bur Fontevraud).  m (Contract 17 Jul 1242, Westminster 22 Nov 1243) as his second wife, RICHARD Earl of Cornwall, son of JOHN King of England & Isabelle d’Angoulême (Winchester Castle 5 Jan 1209-Berkhamstead Castle, Herts 2 Apr 1272, bur Hayles Abbey, Gloucestershire).  Elected King of Germany and King of the Romans 13 Jan 1257, crowned 17 May 1257 at Aachen Cathedral. 

4.         RAYMOND de Provence (-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

5.         BEATRICE de Provence ([1232/34]-Naples 23 Sep 1267, bur Naples, Cathedral of San Gennaro, transferred 1277 to Aix-en-Provence, Church of St Jean de Jerusalem).  The testament of “R. Berengarius…comes et marchio Provincie et comes Forcalquerii”, dated 20 Jun 1238, names “Margaritam filiam nostrum…reginam Francie…Elionors filiam nostrum…reginam Anglie…Sanciam filiam nostram” and appoints “Beatricem filiam nostrum heredem generalem[460].  Her birth date is estimated on the assumption that she was 12/14 years old at the time of her marriage in 1246.  She succeeded in 1245 as BEATRICE Ctss de Provence, in accordance with the testament of her father.  The Annales Sancti Victoris Massilienses record the marriage "1246 mense Ian pridie Kal Feb" of "Karolus comes, frater Lodovici Francorum regis" and "Beatrice filia comitis Provincie Raimundi Berengarii bone memorie"[461]A second testament of "Beatrix relicta…Dom. Reymundi Berengarii comitis provinciæ", dated 22 Feb 1264, adds bequests to "…Beatrice Andegavie comitisse"[462]The testament of "Beatrix…Regina Sicilie, Ducatus Apuliæ et Principatus Capuæ, Andegavensis, Provinciæ et Forcalquerii Comitissa" is dated "die Mercurii in crastino Beatorum Peteri et Pauli Apostolorum" in 1266, with bequests to "filium nostrum Philippum…Domini Caroli…Regis Siciliæ…mariti nostri…filiam nostram Blancham maritatam Roberto Flandrensi…Carolus filius noster primogenitus…Beatricem filiam nostram…Isabellim filiam nostram…" and naming "bonæ memoriæ Domini Raimundi Berengarii quondam patris nostri"[463].  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina records the death of "regina" in Naples, dated to 1267 from the context[464].  An inscription in Naples Cathedral records “domina regina Beatrix uxor domini Caroli de Francia rigis Siciliæ” 1267[465]m (Aix-en-Provence 31 Jan 1246) as his first wife, CHARLES de France Comte d'Anjou et de Maine, son of LOUIS VIII King of France & Infanta doña Blanca de Castilla (posthumously [21] Mar 1226/7-Foggia 7 Jan 1285, bur Naples, Cathedral of San Gennaro).  Marquis de Provence and Comte de Forcalquier 1246, by right of his wife.  Created Comte d'Anjou et du Maine Aug 1246 by his brother King Louis IX.  He was invested as CHARLES I King of Sicily at Rome 28 Jun 1265, confirmed by Pope Clement IV 4 Nov, crowned at St Peter’s Rome 6 Jan 1266. 

 

 

 

 



[1] Reginonis Chronicon 851, MGH SS I, p. 568. 

[2] Recueil Actes Provence 1, p. 1. 

[3] Recueil Actes Provence 6, p. 13. 

[4] Annales Bertiniani III 863. 

[5] Obituaires de Lyon I, Eglise primatiale de Lyon

[6] Hincmarus Annales 869, quoted in MGH SS XXIII, p. 737 footnote 8. 

[7] Adnuntatio domni Karoli, MGH LL 1, p. 469. 

[8] Recueil Actes Provence 15, p. 29. 

[9] Karoli II Conventus Ticinensis, MGH LL 1, p. 528. 

[10] Settipani (1993), pp. 369-70. 

[11] Historia Regum Francorum 879, RHGF IX, p. 41. 

[12] Settipani (1993), p. 372. 

[13] Settipani (1993), pp. 371-2. 

[14] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 880, MGH SS I, p. 394. 

[15] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 887, MGH SS I, p. 404. 

[16] Epitaphia III, MGH Poetæ latini IV, p. 1037. 

[17] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 878, MGH SS I, p. 392. 

[18] MGH Diplomata, IV, Lu II 48, p. 159. 

[19] MGH Diplomata, I, Lu D 157, p. 220. 

[20] Reginonis Chronicon 877, MGH SS I, p. 589. 

[21] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 878, MGH SS I, p. 392. 

[22] Recueil Actes Provence 16, p. 31. 

[23] Annales Bertiniani III 882. 

[24] Settipani (1993), p. 374, citing Chaume, M. (1925) Les origines du duché de Bourgogne (Dijon), Vol 1, p. 382 note 3. 

[25] Hlawitschka, E. (1976) 'Die verwandschaftlichen Verbindungen zwischen dem hochburgundischen und dem niederburgundischen Köingshaus. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Geschichte Burgunds in der 1. Hälfte des 10. Jahrhunderts', Festschrift für Peter Acht (Munich), pp. 28-57. 

[26] Settipani (1993), p. 374. 

[27] Date estimated from Rudolf having been recorded as already having children in 888, Settipani (1993), p. 374. 

[28] Cluny, Tome I, 205, p. 193. 

[29] Annales Bertiniani III 878. 

[30] Annales Bertiniani III 882. 

[31] Cluny, Tome I, 112, p. 124. 

[32] Annales Masciacenses, MGH SS III, p. 169. 

[33] ES III 731.  Settipani (1993), p. 375, gives "before 910" as the date of the marriage. 

[34] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 887, MHG SS V, p. 109. 

[35] Annales Bertiniani III 882. 

[36] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 887, MGH SS I, p. 404. 

[37] Recueil Actes Provence 42, p. 78, and Chartarium Viennensium 12, in Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas, p. 221. 

[38] Cluny Tome I, 205, p. 193. 

[39] Settipani (1993), p. 377. 

[40] Settipani (1993), p. 377. 

[41] Reginonis Chronicon 905, MGH SS I, p. 610. 

[42] Settipani (1993), pp. 377-8. 

[43] Recueil Actes Provence 42, p. 78, and Chartarium Viennensium 12, in Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas, p. 221. 

[44] Settipani (1991), p. 7 footnote 5. 

[45] For example ES II 189, replacement table at end of ES III.1. 

[46] Tougher, S. (1997) The Reign of Leo VI, pp. 147-8 [MB]. 

[47] Settipani (1991), p. 8. 

[48] De Ceremoniis, Book II, ch. 42, p. 643. 

[49] Recueil Actes Provence 42, p. 78, and Chartarium Viennensium 16, in Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas, p. 226. 

[50] Settipani (1993), p. 379 footnote 117, citing Poupardin, R. (1901) Le royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens (855-933?) (Paris), p. 206-7. 

[51] Cluny Tome I, 622, p. 579, and I.631, p. 588. 

[52] Settipani (1993), p. 379 footnote 117. 

[53] Flodoard 931, MGH SS III, p. 379. 

[54] Recueil Actes Provence 15, p. 29, and Cluny Tome I, 242, p. 233. 

[55] Cluny Tome I, 622, p. 579, and 631, p. 588. 

[56] Flodoard 933, MGH SS III, p. 381. 

[57] Mermet (1833), Vol. II, p. 292 (no citation reference to the treaty in question). 

[58] Settipani (1993), pp. 380-1. 

[59] Flodoard 951, MGH SS III, p. 400. 

[60] Cluny, Tome II, 1094, p. 186. 

[61] Cluny, Tome II, 1094, p. 186. 

[62] Rösch (1977), p. 133.  Settipani (1993), p. 381 footnote 128, highlights the absence of proof. 

[63] Gingins-la-Sarra (1851), p. 226. 

[64] Cluny, Tome II, 1094, p. 186. 

[65] Cluny, Tome II, 1094, p. 186. 

[66] Settipani (1991), p. 4, citing Chaume (1925), p. 447 note 2. 

[67] Cluny, Tome I, 45, p. 53, 390, p. 371, 530, p. 515, 572, p. 556, 683, p. 636. 

[68] Settipani (1991), p. 5, citing Poly, J.-P. (1976) La Provence et la société féodale 876-1166. Contribution à l'étude des structures dites féodales dans le Midi (Paris), p. 33 note 18. 

[69] Cluny, Tome I, 379, p. 358. 

[70] DD Karl 165, p. 267. 

[71] Annales Bertiniani III 882. 

[72] Duchesne (1625) Vergy, Preuves, p. 17, also quoted in Settipani (1993), p. 373 footnote 80, the text in question not appearing in Series abbatum Flaviniacensium, MGH SS VIII, p. 502.  

[73] Settipani (1993), p. 373, citing Chaume (1925), p. 266 n. 2. 

[74] Fredegar (Continuator), 35, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 183. 

[75] Guérard, M. (1857) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Victor de Marseille (Paris) (“Marseille Saint-Victor”), Tome I, 31, p. 43. 

[76] DD Kar. 1, 217, p. 289. 

[77] RHGF, Tome VI, III, p. 456. 

[78] RHGF, Tome VI, CXXVII, p. 540. 

[79] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Arles, Col. 79-80, no. 195, and Lérins, CCXLVII, p. 255. 

[80] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Arles, Col. 83, no. 197. 

[81] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Arles, Col. 83, no. 197. 

[82] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  26, p. 32. 

[83] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  291, p. 309. 

[84] RHGF Tome IX, XXXV, p. 180. 

[85] Apt, 2, p. 7. 

[86] Apt, 2, p. 7. 

[87] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 845, MGH SS I, p. 364. 

[88] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 845, MGH SS I, p. 364. 

[89] Recueil Actes Provence 6, p. 13. 

[90] Recueil Actes Provence 6, p. 13. 

[91] Recueil Actes Provence 15, p. 29. 

[92] Recueil Actes Provence 16, p. 31. 

[93] Ludovici Regis Arelatensis Electio, MGH LL 1, p. 558. 

[94] RHGF IX, p. 663. 

[95] RHGF IX, p. 663. 

[96] RHGF IX, p. 663. 

[97] RHGF IX, p. 663. 

[98] Reginonis Chronicon 864, MGH SS I, p. 572. 

[99] He was distinguished from Boso de Vienne by Poupardin 'Le Royaume de Provence 855-933' (1901), and Bougard 'Divorce de Lothaire II (2000). 

[100] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto [863], MGH SS I, p. 376. 

[101] Reginonis Chronicon 866, MGH SS I, p. 573. 

[102] Index Chronologicus seu Annales Gallici et Francici 878, RHGF IX, p. lii, and Epistola XXIX, p. 175. 

[103] Reginonis Chronicon 866, MGH SS I, p. 577. 

[104] Annales Lobienses 870, MGH SS XIII, p. 232. 

[105] Annales Bertiniani III 869. 

[106] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 861, MGH SS XXIII, p. 737. 

[107] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 862, MHG SS V, p.  105. 

[108] Settipani (1993), p. 271 footnote 549. 

[109] Annales Bertiniani II 860. 

[110] Annales Bertiniani III 862. 

[111] Saint-Benoît-du-Loire, XXV, p. 59. 

[112] Annales Bertiniani III 869. 

[113] Annalium Laubacensium pars secunda 858, MGH SS I, p. 15. 

[114] Gesta Abbatum Gemblacensium 15, MGH SS VIII, p. 531. 

[115] Reginonis Chronicon 859, MGH SS I, p. 570. 

[116] Reginonis Chronicon 866, MGH SS I, p. 577. 

[117] Annales Mettenses 866, RHGF VII, p. 194. 

[118] Annales Xantenses 866, MGH SS II, p. 231. 

[119] Annales Vedastini 880, MGH SS II, p. 518. 

[120] Recueil Actes Provence 16, p. 31. 

[121] Diplomata Hugonis Comitis Provinciæ et Regis Italiæ I, RHGF IX, p. 689. 

[122] Cluny Tome I, 417, p. 403. 

[123] Annales Bertiniani III 880. 

[124] RHGF IX, p. 105. 

[125] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.18, MGH SS III, p. 306. 

[126] Diplomata Hugonis Comitis Provinciæ et Regis Italiæ I, RHGF IX, p. 689. 

[127] Cluny Tome I, 417, p. 403. 

[128] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.46, MGH SS III, p. 313. 

[129] Gingins-la-Sarra (1853), p. 17. 

[130] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.10, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[131] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.7, MGH SS III, p. 317. 

[132] Mathieu 'Recherches sur les origines de deux princesses du IX siècle: la reine Guille de Bourgogne et l'impératice Engelberge' (2000), p. 173. 

[133] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.11, MGH SS III, p. 319. 

[134] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.10, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[135] Liudprandi Antapodosis V.31 and 32, MGH SS III, p. 336. 

[136] Settipani (2004), p. 22, quoting HGL, V, no. 111, col. 240-50. 

[137] Nîmes Notre-Dame, LXI, p. 102. 

[138] Nîmes Notre-Dame, LXVI, p. 109. 

[139] Settipani (2004), p. 31, citing Robertini, L. (ed.) (1994) Liber miraculorum sancte Fidis (Spoleto), I, 98. 

[140] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.10, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[141] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.7, MGH SS III, p. 317. 

[142] Reginonis Chronicon 966, MGH SS I, p. 628. 

[143] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.10, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[144] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.10, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[145] Birth date range estimated from the marriage date of her parents. 

[146] Cluny, Tome I, 726, p. 681. 

[147] Diplomata Hugonis Comitis Provinciæ et Regis Italiæ I, RHGF IX, p. 689. 

[148] Todd A. Farmerie 'Rotbald and William the Pious' at GEN-MEDIEVAL-L@rootsweb.com, 28 Jul 2003. 

[149] Nathaniel Taylor 'Rotbald and William the Pious' at GEN-MEDIEVAL-L@rootsweb.com, 29 Jul 2003. 

[150] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Marseille, Col. 47-48, no. 66, and Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  29, p. 40. 

[151] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Marseille, Col. 47-48, no. 66, and Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  29, p. 40. 

[152] Manteyer (1908), pp. 203 and 348, quoting Arch. de Vaucluse G., chap. métr., art. 27 provisoire, ff. 30 v.-31 r. 

[153] ES II 187. 

[154] Manteyer (1908), p. 203, quoting Arch. de Vaucluse G., chap. métr., art. 27 provisoire, ff. 30 v.-31 r. 

[155] Manteyer (1908), p. 203, quoting Arch. de Vaucluse G., chap. métr., art. 27 provisoire, ff. 30 v.-31 r. 

[156] Manteyer (1908), p. 351, quoting Arch. de Vaucluse G., chap. métr., art. 27 provisoire, fo. 26. 

[157] Cluny, Tome I, 817, p. 770. 

[158] Flodoard, 922, MGH SS III, p. 369. 

[159] Cluny, Tome I, 223, p. 213. 

[160] Cluny, Tome I, 256, p. 247. 

[161] Cluny, Tome I, 379, p. 358. 

[162] Cluny, Tome I, 397, p. 381. 

[163] Settipani (1993), pp. 384-5. 

[164] Cluny, Tome I, 688, p. 640. 

[165] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Marseille, Col. 47-48, no. 66, and Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  29, p. 40. 

[166] Manteyer (1908), p. 225, quoting Chantelou Histoire de Monmajour, Revue Historique de Provence, 1ère année, p. 37. 

[167] Manteyer (1908), p. 204, quoting Arch. de Vaucluse G.15, f. 101, dans l´acte du 24 Nov 1209. 

[168] Manteyer (1908), p. 225, quoting Chantelou Histoire de Monmajour, Revue Historique de Provence, 1ère année, p. 37. 

[169] Settipani (1991), p. 4, citing Chaume (1925), p. 447 note 2. 

[170] Cluny, Tome I, 45, p. 53, 390, p. 371, 530, p. 515, 572, p. 556, 683, p. 636. 

[171] Settipani (1991), p. 5, citing Poly, J.-P. (1976) La Provence et la société féodale 876-1166. Contribution à l'étude des structures dites féodales dans le Midi (Paris), p. 33 note 18. 

[172] Manteyer (1908), p. 225, quoting Chantelou Histoire de Monmajour, Revue Historique de Provence, 1ère année, p. 37. 

[173] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Marseille, Col. 47-48, no. 66, and Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  29, p. 40. 

[174] Manteyer (1908), p. 225, quoting Chantelou Histoire de Monmajour, Revue Historique de Provence, 1ère année, p. 37. 

[175] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Marseille, Col. 47-48, no. 66, and Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  29, p. 40. 

[176] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  598, p. 590. 

[177] Cluny, Tome III, 1837, p. 80.   

[178] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn., Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 153, col. 325. 

[179] Cluny, Tome III, 1987, p. 199.   

[180] Manteyer (1908), p. 267, quoting Chantelou Histoire de Monmajour, Revue Historique de Provence, 1ère année, p. 72. 

[181] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  15, p. 18. 

[182] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 172, col. 361. 

[183] Cluny, Tome III, 1987, p. 199.   

[184] Settipani (2004), p. 53, citing Szabolcs de Vajay 'Comtesses d'origine occitane dans la Marche d'Espagne aux 10e et 11e siècles. Essai sur le rattachement de Richilde, de Garsende et de Letgardis, comtesses de Barcelone, et de Thietberge comtesse d'Urgel au contexte généalogique occitan', Hidalguía 28 (1980), pp. 585-616, 601-2. 

[185] Manteyer (1908), p. 267, quoting Chantelou Histoire de Monmajour, Revue Historique de Provence, 1ère année, p. 72. 

[186] MGH, Diplomata, Die Urkunden der Burgundischen Rudolfinger, 131, p. 308. 

[187] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  15, p. 18. 

[188] ES II 187. 

[189] MGH, Diplomata, Die Urkunden der Burgundischen Rudolfinger, 136, p. 311. 

[190] ES II 187. 

[191] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 153, col. 325. 

[192] Manteyer (1908), p. 518, quoting Archives du Gard, H. 142, and H. 106, fo. 81. 

[193] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 172, col. 361. 

[194] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 180, col. 376. 

[195] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I, 652, p. 644. 

[196] Spicilegium Tome III, p. 388. 

[197] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 153, col. 325. 

[198] MGH, Diplomata,. Die Urkunden der Burgundischen Rudolfinger, 136, p. 311. 

[199] Thietmar 7.27, p. 326. 

[200] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  225, p. 252. 

[201] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, Chartularium Majus, 682, p. 22. 

[202] Manteyer (1908), p. 268, quoting Guillaume, P. (1882) Notice historique et documents inédits sur le prieuré de Saint-André de Gap, p. 10, no. 5 [not yet consulted].  

[203] Cluny, Tome IV, 2917, p. 117. 

[204] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 153, col. 325. 

[205] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, Chartularium Majus, 682, p. 22. 

[206] Cluny, Tome IV, 2917, p. 117. 

[207] ES II 187. 

[208] Bofarull y Mascaró (1836) Tomo I, p. 149, citing Archivo de Ripoll, armario 2 cajón 2, legajo pequeño. 

[209] ES II 187. 

[210] MGH, Diplomata, Die Urkunden der Burgundischen Rudolfinger, 136, p. 311. 

[211] Thietmar 7.27, p. 326. 

[212] MGH, Diplomata, Die Urkunden der Burgundischen Rudolfinger, 136, p. 311. 

[213] Thietmar 7.27, p. 326. 

[214] Manteyer (1908), p. 225, quoting Chantelou Histoire de Monmajour, Revue Historique de Provence, 1ère année, p. 37. 

[215] Manteyer (1908), p. 225, quoting Chantelou Histoire de Monmajour, Revue Historique de Provence, 1ère année, p. 37. 

[216] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Marseille, Col. 47-48, no. 66, and Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  29, p. 40. 

[217] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, Appendix, 1042, p. 509. 

[218] Cluny, Tome III, 1837, p. 80.   

[219] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 153, col. 325. 

[220] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  598, p. 590. 

[221] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, Appendix, 1042, p. 509. 

[222] Settipani (2004), p. 63 footnote 1, citing Vajay, S. de 'Comtesses d'origine occitane dans la Marche d'Espagne aux 10e et 11e siècles', Hidalguia 28 (1980), p. 756. 

[223] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 130, col. 284. 

[224] Chronicon Monasterii Sancti Petri Aniciensis, CCCCXII, p. 152. 

[225] Saint-Chaffre CXLIV, p. 70. 

[226] Richer III.XCII and XCIV, pp. 112 and 114. 

[227] Chronico Andegavensi 987, RHGF X, p. 271. 

[228] Marchegay, P. and Mabille, E. (eds.) (1869) Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (Paris) Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, p. 382. 

[229] Libro Otiis Imperialibus, RHGF IX, p. 45. 

[230] Rodulfus Glaber Opera, I.7, p. 17. 

[231] Richer III.XCV, p. 116. 

[232] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 9, MGH SS IX, p. 385, additional manuscript quoted in footnote ***. 

[233] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1013, MGH SS XXIII, p. 780. 

[234] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, p. 110. 

[235] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 153, col. 325. 

[236] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  653, p. 645. 

[237] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  15, p. 18. 

[238] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  630, p. 626. 

[239] Mâcon Saint-Vincent, 471, 490, pp. 271, 284-5, and Cluny, Tome IV, 2694, p. 721. 

[240] Bouchard (1987), p. 270, Benedict VIII, Letter 16, Patrologia Latina CXXXIX1603, and quoted in Manteyer (1908), p. 274. 

[241] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  225, p. 252. 

[242] Manteyer (1908), p. 273, quoting Bibl. nat. de Madrid, ms. Ee 40, fo 118 vo

[243] Obituaires de Lyon II, Prieuré Saint-Pierre de Mâcon, p. 482.       

[244] Manteyer (1908), p. 274, quoting Biblioth. Méjanes ms. 812, recueil Bouquier, t. 1, pp. 145-6, Catal. des mss. Départements, t. XVI, Aix, 1894 ms. 915. 

[245] Cluny, Tome III, 1837, p. 80.   

[246] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  15, p. 18. 

[247] ES II 187. 

[248] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 9, MGH SS IX, p. 385, additional manuscript quoted in footnote ***. 

[249] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1013, MGH SS XXIII, p. 780. 

[250] Chronicon Hugonis, monachi Virdunensis et divionensis abbatis Flaviniacensis I 996, MGH SS VIII, p. 368. 

[251] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.7, p. 107. 

[252] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.40, p. 165. 

[253] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.7, p. 107. 

[254] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 57. 

[255] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.34, p. 157. 

[256] Kerrebrouck (2000), pp. 56 and 57. 

[257] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.36, p. 159. 

[258] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 267.       

[259] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Prieuré d'Argenteuil, p. 348.       

[260] Cluny, Tome III, 1837, p. 80.   

[261] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 153, col. 325. 

[262] ES II 187. 

[263] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I, 15, p. 18. 

[264] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I, 646, p. 639. 

[265] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.6, p. 107. 

[266] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I, 646, p. 639. 

[267] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  630, p. 626. 

[268] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  649, p. 641. 

[269] Manteyer (1908), p. 272, quoting Ruffi, L. A. de (1712) Dissertations historiques et critiques sur les origines des comtes de Provence, p. 21, from the Cartulaire de Saint-André-lès-Avignon, p. 32. 

[270] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I, 646, p. 639. 

[271] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  226, p. 253. 

[272] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  630, p. 626. 

[273] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  649, p. 641. 

[274] Manteyer (1908), p. 272, quoting Ruffi (1712), p. 21, from the Cartulaire de Saint-André-lès-Avignon, p. 32. 

[275] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, Chartularium Majus, 681, p. 21. 

[276] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  226, p. 253. 

[277] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  630, p. 626. 

[278] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  649, p. 641. 

[279] Manteyer (1908), p. 272, quoting Ruffi (1712), p. 21, from the Cartulaire de Saint-André-lès-Avignon, p. 32. 

[280] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, Chartularium Majus, 666, p. 12. 

[281] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, Chartularium Majus, 681, p. 21. 

[282] Cluny, Tome IV, 2916, p. 116. 

[283] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  172, p. 202. 

[284] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, Chartularium Majus, 659, p. 3. 

[285] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, Chartularium Majus, 737, p. 83. 

[286] Manteyer (1908), p. 280, quoting Chantelou Histoire de Monmajour, Revue Historique de Provence, 1ère année, p. 136. 

[287] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, Chartularium Majus, 659, p. 3. 

[288] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, Chartularium Majus, 680, p. 20. 

[289] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  184, p. 213. 

[290] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, Chartularium Majus, 680, p. 20. 

[291] Cluny, Tome IV, 3387, p. 484. 

[292] Crónica de San Juan de la Peña, XVI, p. 45. 

[293] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Tome I, Aix, Instrumenta, Sisteron, Col. 449, no. XII. 

[294] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome IV, Notes, 14.XXVIII, p. 71. 

[295] Temple de Barberà, 18, p. 90. 

[296] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Tome I, Aix, Instrumenta, Fréjus, Col. 201, no. IX. 

[297] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Tome I, Aix, Instrumenta, Sisteron, Col. 449, no. XII. 

[298] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, Chartularium Majus, 659, p. 3. 

[299] Cluny, Tome IV, 3387, p. 484. 

[300] Manteyer (1908), p. 296, quoting Polycarpe de la Rivière Annales, p. 633, from the Cartulaire de Saint-André, fo. 28. 

[301] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  88, p. 116. 

[302] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  226, p. 253. 

[303] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  630, p. 626. 

[304] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  649, p. 641. 

[305] Manteyer (1908), p. 272, quoting Ruffi (1712), p. 21, from the Cartulaire de Saint-André-lès-Avignon, p. 32. 

[306] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  184, p. 213. 

[307] Cluny, Tome IV, 2916, p. 116. 

[308] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  24, p. 30. 

[309] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, Chartularium Majus, 737, p. 83. 

[310] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Etiennette dite Douce' (1962), p. 191, quoting Chanteloup ‘Histoire de Montmajour’ (1890/91), p. 171. 

[311] Manteyer (1908), p. 280, quoting Chanteloup ‘Histoire de Montmajour’ (1890/91), p. 138. 

[312] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  179, p. 209. 

[313] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Arles, Col. 160, no. 381. 

[314] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  153, p. 179. 

[315] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  184, p. 213. 

[316] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Etiennette dite Douce' (1962), p. 191, quoting Chanteloup ‘Histoire de Montmajour’ (1890/91), p. 171. 

[317] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II,  686, p. 25. 

[318] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I,  220, p. 242, and Veterum Scriptorum I, col. 556. 

[319] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Etiennette dite Douce’ (1962), p. 190. 

[320] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Etiennette dite Douce’ (1962), pp. 196-7. 

[321] Manteyer (1908), p. 57, quoting Chantelou Histoire de Monmajour, Revue Historique de Provence, 1ère année, p. 219. 

[322] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Etiennette dite Douce’ (1962), p. 192. 

[323] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I, 483, p. 486. 

[324] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I, 484, p. 487. 

[325] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome I, 184, p. 213. 

[326] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Etiennette dite Douce' (1962), p. 191, quoting Chanteloup ‘Histoire de Montmajour’ (1890/91), p. 171. 

[327] Marseille Saint-Victor, Tome II, 1080, p. 548. 

[328] Manteyer (1908), p. 57, quoting Chantelou Histoire de Monmajour, Revue Historique de Provence, 1ère année, p. 219. 

[329] Mémoires Valentinois et Diois, p. 25. 

[330] Diago (1603), Cap. LXXIII, fo. 137 second page (which does not quote extracts from the document). 

[331] Saint-Gilles, XVII, p. 35. 

[332] Manteyer (1908), pp. 57 and 300, quoting Chantelou Histoire de Monmajour, Revue Historique de Provence, 1ère année, p. 219. 

[333] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 356, col. 682. 

[334] Manteyer (1908), p. 312. 

[335] Grasse 166, p. 226. 

[336] Grasse 181, p. 241. 

[337] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, 568, cols. 1089-1090, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 150. 

[338] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn., Tome IV, Preuves, CXXXIV, p. 453. 

[339] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 273, col. 535. 

[340] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome IV, Notes, 41, p. 197. 

[341] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Etiennette dite Douce’ (1962), p. 193. 

[342] Saint-Phalle, E. de Héraldique et Généalogie (2004), p. 93 (information provided by Bert M. Kamp in a private email to the author dated 11 Jun 2014). 

[343] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 364, col. 693. 

[344] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, p. 529

[345] Bouche (1664), Tome II, p. 88. 

[346] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Etiennette dite Douce’ (1962), p. 209. 

[347] Manteyer (1908), p. 312. 

[348] Ex Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ e familia comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 361. 

[349] Marca (1688), CCCXLVII, col. 1237. 

[350] Marca (1688), CCCXLVIII, col. 1238. 

[351] Ex Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ e familia comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 361. 

[352] Marca (1688), CCCXLVII, col. 1237. 

[353] Marca (1688), CCCXLVIII, col. 1238. 

[354] Documents Carlat, Tome II, Supplement I, p. 1. 

[355] Belmon, J. ‘Aux sources du pouvoir des vicomtes’, Débax (2008), Annexe 2: Catalogue des actes des vicomtes de Millau, p. 177, quoting Boullier de Branche, H. (1940) Feuda Gabalorum (Nîmes), T. II (1ère partie), p. 57, note 1. 

[356] Conques, no. 469, p. 339.   

[357] Saint-Chaffre CCCXCIV, p. 136. 

[358] Ex Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ e familia comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 361. 

[359] Baux Chartes, 40, p. 9, citing Papon (1778), Tome II, Preuves, p. xiv, Mss du Dr Martial Millet, d'Orange.   

[360] Discussed in Bouche (1785), Tome I, p. 267, which provides no citation reference for the treaty.  

[361] Gaufridi (1694), Tome I, p. 70, quoting Registre Pargamenorum (no precise citation reference). 

[362] Bouche (1664), Tome II, p. 124. 

[363] Manteyer (1908), p. 312. 

[364] Boisson de la Salle (1820), p. 109. 

[365] Ex Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ e familia comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 361. 

[366] Baux Chartes 31, p. 7, citing Liv. authent. de Trinquetaille f. 75 v, B. du R. 

[367] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Arles, Col. 214, no. 544. 

[368] Ex Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ e familia comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 361. 

[369] Vita Sancti Ollegarii 3, España Sagrada Tomo XXIX, XXI, pp. 473-4. 

[370] Marca (1688), CCCXLVII, col. 1237. 

[371] Marca (1688), CCCXLVIII, col. 1238. 

[372] Marca (1688), CCCXLIX, col. 1238. 

[373] Grasse 194, p. 255. 

[374] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Tome I, Aix, Instrumenta, Col. 10-11, no. VIII. 

[375] Ex Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ e familia comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 361. 

[376] Vita Sancti Ollegarii 3, Florez. H. (1775) España Sagrada Tomo XXIX (Madrid), XXI, pp. 473-4. 

[377] Marca (1688), CCCXLVII, col. 1237. 

[378] Marca (1688), CCCXLVIII, col. 1238. 

[379] Marca (1688), CCCXLIX, col. 1238. 

[380] Grasse 194, p. 255. 

[381] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Tome I, Aix, Instrumenta, Col. 10-11, no. VIII. 

[382] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, LXIII, p. 395. 

[383] Ex Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ e familia comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 361. 

[384] Grasse 194, p. 255. 

[385] Ex Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ e familia comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 361. 

[386] Grasse 194, p. 255. 

[387] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 377. 

[388] Caffaro Annali Genovesi, p. 32. 

[389] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, LXXXIX, p. 413. 

[390] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, XC, p. 415. 

[391] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, XCVI, p. 422. 

[392] Maguelonne LXII, p. 161.  [J.-C. Chuat], and Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, CXXVII, p. 447. 

[393] Maguelonne, no. CLV, p. 282, and Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, CCXXIV, p. 522.

[394] Sylvanès, 457, p. 356. 

[395] Annales Sancti Victoris Massilienses 1166, MGH SS XXIII, p. 3. 

[396] Ex Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ e familia comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 363. 

[397] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1141, MGH SS XXIII, p. 834. 

[398] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 377. 

[399] Szabolcs de Vajay (1989), p. 372. 

[400] Maguelonne, no. CLV, p. 282, and Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, CCXXIV, p. 522.

[401] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, CCXXIX, p. 527.

[402] Grasse 194, p. 255. 

[403] Ex Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ e familia comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 361. 

[404] "Corónicas" Navarras, 1.10, p. 31. 

[405] Ex Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ e familia comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 363. 

[406] Annales Sancti Victoris Massilienses 1181, MGH SS XXIII, p. 3. 

[407] Ex Chronico Gaufredi Vosiensis, RHGF XII, p. 448. 

[408] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 379. 

[409] ES II 177. 

[410] Sturdza (1999), p. 276. 

[411] Barzos, K. [Genealogy of the Komnenoi], vol. II, p. 14, n. 19 .  [J.-C. Chuat]

[412] "The protosebastos Ioannes Komnenos, who had by his only known wife, a Taronite princess, Maria K. who m. firstly to King Amauri I of Jerusalem and secondly to Balian d'Ibelin, and Theodora". Barzos leans on the fact that the name Theodora was customarily given to a fourth daughter, in order to hypothesize that Ioannes had more than two daughters.

[413] D'Aigrefeuille (1875), Tome I, pp. 67-8. 

[414] Annali Pisani. Continuazione volgara, 1179, pp. 67-8

[415] "Corónicas" Navarras 1.10, p. 31. 

[416] Ex Brevi Historia Comitum Provinciæ e familia comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 363. 

[417] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 380. 

[418] "Corónicas" Navarras 1.11, p. 32. 

[419] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 380. 

[420] Crónica de San Juan de la Peña XXXIII, p. 132. 

[421] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Tome I, Aix, Instrumenta, Col. 21-22, no. XVII. 

[422] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1213, MGH SS XXIII, p. 898. 

[423] Ex Roderici archiepiscopi Toletani, De rebus Hispaniæ, Liber VI, III, RHGF, Tome XIX, p. 229. 

[424] Ex brevi historia comitum Provinciæ ex familia comitum Aragonensium, RHGF, Tome XIX, p. 231. 

[425] Papon, Tome II (1778), Preuves, XXXVI, p. xxxviii. 

[426] Papon, Tome II (1778), Preuves, XXXVI, p. xxxviii. 

[427] Papon, Tome II (1778), Preuves, XXXVI, p. xxxviii. 

[428] Papon, Tome II (1778), Preuves, XXXVI, p. xxxviii. 

[429] Matthew Paris, Vol. IV, 1245, p. 485. 

[430] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 2719, p. 378. 

[431] Annales Sancti Victoris Massilienses 1245, MGH SS XXIII, p. 5. 

[432] Forcalquier St Marie, p. 47. 

[433] Société Archéologique de Montpellier (1841) Le petit Thalamus de Montpellier, extracts available at <http://www3.webng.com/lengadoc/talamus.htm> (23 Apr 2008). 

[434] It is improbable that Béatrix de Savoie was born much later than 1205 as she gave birth to her first child in 1221. 

[435] Matthew Paris, Vol. III, 1236, p. 335. 

[436] Wurstenberger (1858), Vol. IV, 49, p. 22. 

[437] Marie José (1956), p. 40. 

[438] State Archives, volume 104, page 11, fascicule 11.1, 2 and 3, and Wurstenberger (1858), Vol. IV, 636, p. 317. 

[439] Wurstenberger (1858), Vol. IV, 639, p. 320. 

[440] State Archives, volume 104, pages 17 and 19, fascicules 13.1, 13.2 and 13.3, and Wurstenberger (1858), Vol. IV, 665, p. 342. 

[441] Maurienne Chartes, Obituaire du Chapitre, p. 356. 

[442] Vincentii Bellovacensis Memoriale Omnium Temporum 1233, MGH SS XXIV, p. 161. 

[443] Gallia Christiana Novissima, Tome I, Aix, Instrumenta, Col. 27-28, no. XXIII. 

[444] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 2719, p. 378. 

[445] State Archives, volume 104, page 11, fascicules 11.1, 2 and 3, and Wurstenberger (1858), Vol. IV, 636, p. 317. 

[446] RHGF XX, Chronicon Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 577. 

[447] Wurstenberger (1858), Vol. IV, 96, p. 42. 

[448] Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus II, Continuatio, p. 176. 

[449] Matthew Paris, Vol. III, 1236, pp. 334-6. 

[450] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 2719, p. 378. 

[451] State Archives, volume 104, page 11, fascicules 11.1, 2 and 3, and Wurstenberger (1858), Vol. IV, 636, p. 317. 

[452] Annales Londonienses, p. 99. 

[453] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 2719, p. 378. 

[454] Wurstenberger (1858), Vol. IV, 129, p. 64. 

[455] Spicilegium Tome III, p. 621. 

[456] Wurstenberger (1858), Vol. IV, 154, p. 87. 

[457] Matthew Paris, Vol. IV, 1243, p. 263. 

[458] Annales Halesiensibus 1261, MHG SS XVI, p. 483. 

[459] Annales de Osneia, p. 128. 

[460] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 2719, p. 378. 

[461] Annales Sancti Victoris Massilienses 1246, MGH SS XXIII, p. 5. 

[462] Wurstenberger (1858), Vol. IV, 639, p. 320. 

[463] Spicilegium, Tome III, p. 660. 

[464] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, IV, XX, p. 291. 

[465] Minieri Riccio (1857), p. 89, footnote 131.