FRANKS, carolingian kings

  v2.0 Updated 07 February 2011

 

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.            KINGS of the FRANKS 751-840 (CAROLINGIANS) 3

PEPIN 751-768, CARLOMAN 768-771. 4

CHARLES I 768-814. 8

LOUIS I 814-840. 18

Chapter 2.                KINGS of the WEST FRANKS 751-840 (CAROLINGIANS) 23

CHARLES II 843-877. 23

LOUIS II 877-879, LOUIS III 879-882, CARLOMAN 882-884. 28

CHARLES III 893-922. 32

LOUIS IV 936-954. 37

LOTHAIRE 954-986, LOUIS V 986-987. 40

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

This document sets out the family of the Frankish kings and emperors known to history as the Carolingians until the division of the empire under the Treaty of Verdun in 843, and thereafter the Carolingian rulers of the kingdom of the West Franks (France) until their extinction in the male line in 987.  The kings of Lotharingia and kings of the East Frankish kingdom (Germany), both also formed under the 843 treaty, are shown in the documents LOTHARINGIA, KINGS, and GERMANY, KINGS & EMPERORS respectively.  The Carolingian kings of Italy and kings of Aquitaine are set out in the two documents ITALY, EMPERORS & KINGS, and AQUITAINE DUKES.  All these documents are hyperlinked from this document. 

 

The Carolingian monarchy was established in 751 when Pépin "le Bref", maior domus of Childeric III, last king of the Merovingian dynasty (see the document FRANKS, MEROVINGIAN NOBILITY), deposed his nominal lord and declared himself king with the support of the Papacy.  At that time, the Frankish empire covered Francia (Austrasia and Neustria), Alemannia, Burgundy, Provence, Thuringia and the archbishoprics of Metz and Trier.  The territory of the empire was considerably extended during the succeeding fifty years.  King Pépin conquered Aquitaine in 768.  King Charles I subjugated the Italian Lombard kingdom in 773, Friulia in 776, Saxony in 777, and the march of Spain in 778.  Bavaria and Carinthia were incorporated into the Frankish kingdom in 787, with full control over Alemannia, Hessen and Thuringia being confirmed by 797.  The Frankish empire was formally established when Charles was crowned emperor by the Pope in Rome in 800. 

 

The inherent weakness of the Carolingian Frankish empire was the continual process of territorial division designed to placate junior members of the dynasty, although presumably some sort of regional sub-rule was inevitable given the empire's geographic extent and ethnic diversity.  The tradition of dividing the territory between family members started when King Pépin died in 768, when his younger son Carloman was granted Burgundy, Provence, Gothia [Septimania], Alsace and Swabia, while the older son Charles ruled in Neustria, Aquitaine and the larger part of Austrasia, although the kingdom was reunited after Carloman died in 771.  Emperor Charles formalised another division in 806, under which his oldest son Charles ruled Austrasia, Neustria, northern Burgundy, northern Alemannia, Thuringia, Saxony, Frisia and the Bavarian Nordgau, his second son Pépin was confirmed as king of Italy and in addition received Bavaria, Carinthia (except Nordgau) and Alemannia south of the river Danube, while the third son Louis became sovereign of Aquitaine, Gascony, Septimania, Provence and southern Burgundy.  This territorial split was also short-lived as the two older sons predeceased their father.  The numerous territorial divisions promulgated by Emperor Louis I were particularly controversial, especially after his youngest son by his second marriage was brought into the picture in 829 when he was invested with Alemannia, Rhætia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at the age of six.  The following ten years saw civil war between the emperor's four sons, only finally settled by the Treaty of Verdun in 843 which brought about the final division of the empire into the three separate kingdoms of the West Franks (France), the East Franks (Germany), and Lotharingia, an artificial creation between the other two kingdoms stretching from the North Sea coast in the north to Italy in the south. 

 

After the 843 partition, the imperial title was retained by the senior Lotharingian/Italian branch of the dynasty until the death of Emperor Louis II (see ITALY, EMPERORS & KINGS) without male heirs in 875.  After this date, the title was borne by his youngest paternal uncle, Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks.  On his death two years later, it passed to the East Frankish branch (see GERMANY, KINGS & EMPERORS), with whom it remained until the extinction of the dynasty in the male line in 911. 

 

A striking feature of the genealogy of the Carolingian dynasty is the absence of detailed information concerning the daughters of the family.  The examples are numerous:

The case of Frederuna, first wife of Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks, is also interesting as only sketchy information is known about her origin (although presumably she was from a prominent family), and very little is known about her six daughters. 

 

Presumably some, if not all, of these Carolingian princesses contracted marriages with the nobility and left descendants, although few hints concerning such descents are provided in the primary sources so far consulted.  This absence of information is curious as the prestige of descent from the Carolingian dynasty was such that later sources frequently refer indirectly to such descents, but without giving enough detail to reassure the researcher about the accuracy of the assertion.  Two such dubious cases have been included in this document, in square brackets to indicate doubt:  firstly, the descendants of Chunibert, supposed grandson of King Pépin, and secondly the possible descent of the Udalrichinger counts in northern Switzerland from an otherwise unknown sister of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks. 

 

It is also possible that descents in the male line exist from the illegitimate sons of the Carolingian emperors and kings.  For example, Arnoul, illegitimate son of Emperor Louis I who installed him as Comte de Sens, may have married and had children about whom nothing is revealed in the sources.  The same is true of Arnoul and Drogo, illegitimate sons of Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks, about whom only their names and parentage are known from the primary sources. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of the FRANKS 751-840 (CAROLINGIANS)

 

 

PEPIN 751-768, CARLOMAN 768-771

 

PEPIN, son of CHARLES "Martel" & his first wife Chrothrudis (715-Saint-Denis 24 Sep 768, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint Denis).  Einhard names "Karlomannum…et Pippinum atque Grifonem" as the three sons of "Karlus maior domus" when recording the latter's death[1].  He succeeded his father as maior domus jointly with his brother Carloman.  They deprived their half-brother Grifo of his inheritance and defeated him after he rebelled against them.  In the division of territories agreed with his brother Carloman, Pépin governed Neustria, Burgundy, Provence, Metz and Trier.  The brothers were faced with revolts in Frisia, Bavaria, Alemannia and Aquitaine.  As a symbolic assertion of their authority, they nominated Childeric III as Merovingian king in 743.  In 745, Pépin appropriated the province of Alemannia for himself.  He deposed King Childeric III at Soissons in Nov 751, with approval from Pope Zacharius[2], and succeeded as PEPIN “le Bref” King of the Franks.  He was anointed king at Saint-Denis 28 Jul 754 by Pope Stephen III [II], who had come to France to seek Pépin's help against the Lombards[3].  During his expedition to Italy the following year, Pépin obliged the Lombards to accept the independence of Rome, marking the beginning of the Papal State.  He captured Narbonne from the Muslim invaders in [759], and finally conquered Aquitaine after the death of Duke Waifar in 768.  The necrology of Prüm records the death "768 VIII Kal Oct" of "Pippinus vir illuster"[4].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "VIII Kal Oct" of "Pipinus rex"[5].  The Annales Metenses record the death "VIII Kal Oct" of "Pippinus" and his burial "in basilica beati Dionysii"[6].  His burial place is confirmed by the Annales Laurissenses which record that the body of "domna Berta regina" was transferred to "ecclesia sancti Dionysii martiris" next to her husband[7]

m ([743/44]) BERTRADA [Berta] "au Grand Pied", daughter of CHARIBERT Comte de Laon & his wife --- ([720]-Choisy-au-Bac, near Compiègne 12 Jul 783[8], bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint Denis).  The Annales Laurissenses record the marriage in 749 of "Bertradem cognomine Bertam, Cariberti Laudunensis comitis filiam" and "Pippinus"[9].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus"[10].  Pépin planned to divorce his wife, but was convinced otherwise by Pope Paul I in 762.  After the death of her husband, she assumed a prominent role in government.  She tried unsuccessfully to reconcile her two sons, meeting with Carloman at Seltz and also travelling to Italy in 770[11].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Berhta regina" brought "filiam Desiderii regis Langobardorum" back from Italy as the wife for "Karolo filio suo"[12].  The Annales Laurissenses record the death "783 IV Id Jul" of "domna Berta regina", her burial "in Cauciaco", and the subsequent transfer of her body to "ecclesia sancti Dionysii martiris" next to her husband[13].  The necrology of Argenteuil Priory records the death "IV Id Jul" of "Bertrada regina"[14]

King Pépin & his wife had six children:

1.         CHARLES (near Aix-la-Chapelle 2 Apr 748-Aix-la-Chapelle 28 Jan 814, bur Aix-la-Chapelle, Chapelle Sainte-Marie).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum et Karlomannum et Gislam" as children of "Pipinus rex…ex Bertrada regina"[15].  On the death of his father, he received the larger part of Austrasia, Neustria and western Aquitaine, succeeding as CHARLES I Joint-King of the Franks, crowned 9 Oct 768 at Noyon. 

-        see below

2.         CARLOMAN (751-Samoussy, near Laon 4 Dec 771, bur Reims, église de l'abbaye de Saint-Rémi).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum et Karlomannum et Gislam" as children of "Pipinus rex…ex Bertrada regina"[16].  He is named second son of King Pépin and Bertrada in the Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin[17].  At the coronation of his father in 754, Carloman was also anointed by the Pope with his brother Charles[18].  On the death of his father, he received Burgundy, Provence, Gothia [Septimania], Alsace and Swabia, succeeding as CARLOMAN Joint King of the Franks.  He refused to support his brother in suppressing a revolt in Aquitaine in Mar 769, but they were reconciled in early 770.  His death is recorded in the Royal Frankish Annals[19].  Einhard records the death "II Non Dec" 771 of "Karlomannus frater [Karoli]" at "villa Salmontiaco"[20].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death "II Non Dec 771 in villa Salmuntiaco" of "Karlomannus rex" and his burial "Remis"[21].  The Annalium Sancti Amandi records the death at "Salmuniaco 771 pridie Non Dec" of "Karlomannus"[22].  The Annales Xantenses record the death "II Non Dec 771" of "Karlomannus rex"[23].  The Annales Laurissenses record that "Carlomanni" was buried "iuxta urbem Remorum in basilicam beati Remigii" in 771[24].  The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "II Non Dec" of "Karlomannus Francorum rex"[25]m ([769]) GERBERGA, daughter of --- (-772 or after).  The Annales Laurissenses name "Girberga uxor Carlomanni" when recording that she left for Italy after her husband died[26].   She is not mentioned in any of the surviving charters of her husband[27].  The Annales Lobienses record that "uxor eius [=Karlomannus] cum duobus filiis et Otgario marchione" took refuge with "Desiderium regem, patrem suum" after the death of her husband[28], which would mean that she was Gerberga of the Lombards, daughter of Desiderius King of the Lombards.  Settipani highlights that this may be incorrect, assuming that the text results from confusion with the first wife of Carloman's older brother King Charles being the daughter of King Desiderius, and the fact that Gerberga sought refuge at the Lombard court[29].  Another factor is also significant in deciding the question:  numerous authorities, for example the Annales Fuldenses[30], record the visit to Italy of Queen Berta, mother of Charles and Carloman, to bring back the bride for her son Charles, but none mentions two sisters being brought back as brides for the two brothers.  On the other hand, the fact that King Desiderius supported the candidacy of Gerberga's son Pépin to succeed his father could have been motivated by a close family relationship (see below).  There is no direct proof of the date of Gerberga's marriage.  If Gerberga was the daughter of King Desiderius, it is reasonable to suppose that the marriage would have taken place at the same time as the marriage of Carloman's brother, whose first wife was the daughter of King Desiderius, although this would leave little time for two children to have been born from the marriage before Carloman died.  King Carloman & his wife had two children: 

a)         PEPIN (770-after 774).  The Annales Petaviani record the birth in 770 of "Pipini filii Karlomanni"[31].  The Annales Lobienses record his mother's departure to Italy "cum duobus filiis" after her husband's death[32].  Einhard also records that "Karlomannus frater [Karoli]…uxor eius et filii" went to Italy after Carloman died[33].  Desiderius King of the Lombards supported Pépin's claim to succeed his father, and requested Pope Adrian I to crown him.  He fled King Charles I to Verona in 774 and was later confined to a monastery[34]

b)         child (-after 772).  The evidence for the existence of this second child is provided by the Annales Lobienses which record his mother's departure to Italy "cum duobus filiis" after her husband died[35].  Einhard also records that "Karlomannus frater [Karoli]…uxor eius et filii" went to Italy after Carloman died[36].  Although he does not specify how many children were involved, there was presumably insufficient time between Carloman's marriage and his death for his wife to have given birth to more than two children.  There is no indication of the sex of this second child. 

3.         GISELA (757-Chelles 30 Jul 810).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum et Karlomannum et Gislam" children of "Pipinus rex…ex Bertrada regina"[37].  Einhard names "Gisla unica soror" of King Charles, specifying that she was "a puellaribus annis religiosæ conversationi mancipata"[38].  The continuator of the Annales Petaviani record the birth in 757 of "Gislanæ"[39].  Abbess of Chelles 788.  "Ghysela regis filia Pippini et Bertredane regine" donated "Villa Putialis" to Saint-Denis by charter dated 12 Jun 799[40].  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the donation to the abbey of Saint-Denis by "illustris deo sacrata Gisla…soror nostra" by charter dated 15 Jun 799 which names "domne Bertradane genitricis nostre"[41][42]Betrothed (765, contract broken 766) to LEON of Byzantium, son of Emperor KONSTANTINOS V "Kopronymos" & his first wife Eirene [née Chichek] of the Khazars (Jan 750-8 Sep 780, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  He succeeded in 775 as Emperor LEON IV.  [m WENILO [Bishop of Laon].  Settipani discusses this possible marriage, noting that "Gisela and her husband Wenilo" are listed in the obituary of Argenteuil[43].  However, the couple's being named together in this obituary does not appear consistent with Gisela's monastic career which, as shown above, she started more than twenty years before she died.] 

4.         PEPIN (759-[761/62]).  The Annales Laurissenses record the birth in 759 of "Pippinus regis filius" who was named after his father, specifying that he lived two years and died in his third year[44].  His birth and death two years later are recorded in the Royal Frankish Annals[45]

5.         CHROTHAIS (-young, bur Metz, Saint Arnoul).  "Rodthaid" is named daughter of King Pépin in the Pauli Gesta, when recording her place of burial[46].  Paulus Diaconus wrote a poem in memory of "Rothaidis filiæ Pippini regis", which names "germanus…Karolus, Pippinus pater…Pippinus proavus…abavus Anschisa…[huius] pater…beatus Arnulfus"[47]

6.         ADELAIS (-young, bur Metz, Saint Arnoul).  "Adelaid" is named daughter of King Pépin in the Pauli Gesta, when recording her place of burial[48].  Paulus Diaconus wrote a poem in memory of "Adheleidis filiæ [Pippini regis]"[49]

7.         [daughter .  The only reference to this unnamed daughter is in the Vita Maximini Episcopi Trevirensis which records that "Pippini regis ex filia nepos…Chunibertus" was "atrociter a dæmone vexatus" and cured after he was taken to the saint[50], assuming that "nepos" in this context is correctly translated as grandson.  This contradicts Einhard who names Gisela as the only sister of Charles I King of the Franks[51]m ---.]  [One possible child:]

a)         [CHUNIBERT .  The Vita Maximini Episcopi Trevirensis records that "Pippini regis ex filia nepos…Chunibertus" was "atrociter a dæmone vexatus" and cured after he was taken to the saint[52].]  The Annales Murbacenses record the foundation of the monastery in 715 by "comes…Eberhardus, filius ducis Adelberti", and his donations following the death of "filio predicti comitis", with the consent of "fratris sui Leudofredi et coniugis sue Emeltrudis", and his burial in the monastery[53]

8.         [daughter .  The only reference to this unnamed daughter is in the Annales Murbacenses which records that "sanctus Sintpertus sive Simbertus, Caroli magni ex sorore nepos" was fifth abbot of the monastery of Murbach[54]m ---.]  [One possible child:] 

a)         [SINTBERT .  The Annales Murbacenses name "sanctus Sintpertus sive Simbertus, Caroli magni ex sorore nepos" as fifth abbot of the monastery of Murbach[55].] 

 

 

CHARLES I 768-814

 

CHARLES, son of PEPIN "le Bref" King of the Franks & his wife Bertrada [Berta] "au Grand Pied" (near Aix-la-Chapelle 2 Apr 748-Aix-la-Chapelle 28 Jan 814, bur Aix-la-Chapelle, Chapelle Sainte-Marie)He is named first son of King Pépin and Bertrada in the Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin[56].  At the coronation of his father in 754, Charles was also anointed by Pope Stephen III [II][57].  On the death of his father, he received the larger part of Austrasia, Neustria and western Aquitaine, succeeding as CHARLES I joint King of the Franks, jointly with his brother Carloman, and was crowned 9 Oct 768 at Noyon.  He suppressed the revolt of Hunald in Aquitaine in 769, over which he quarrelled with his brother Carloman[58].  On the death of his brother in 771, he set aside the rights of his nephew and became sole king of the Franks.  He defended the Pope against the Lombards, conquering their kingdom in 773.  He is recorded in charters as having used the title "rex Francorum et Langobardorum" from 5 Jun 774, adding "atque patricius Romanorum" from 16 Jul 774[59].  He accepted the submission of Saxony at Paderborn in 777.  During his campaign in Spain in 778, he captured Pamplona, while Zaragoza, Huesca, Barcelona and Girona swore allegiance to him.  He had his sons crowned king of the Lombards and king of the Aquitainians by Pope Adrian I at Rome 15 Apr 781.  He incorporated Bavaria and Carinthia into his kingdom in 787, followed by Thuringia, Hessen and Alemannia, by 797.  He re-established Pope Leo III after the latter was ambushed by the Romans in 799, and was crowned CHARLES I “Charlemagne” Emperor of the Romans in St Peter's Rome 25 Dec 800, which the Pope justified technically on the basis of an alleged vacancy of the imperial throne, which could not be occupied by a woman, during the reign at Constantinople of Empress Eirene.  At the assembly of Thionville 6 Feb 806, Emperor Charles decided the division of territories between his sons.  Byzantine ambassadors from Emperor Mikhael I finally recognised Charlemagne as emperor (although not "Roman Emperor") at Aix-la-Chapelle in 812[60].  After the death of his two older sons, he crowned his son Louis as associate emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle 11 Sep 813.  The necrology of Prüm records the death "814 V Kal Feb" of "Karolus imperator"[61].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death "814 V Kal Feb" of "Karolus imperator" at Aachen at the age of about 71[62]

m firstly (769, repudiated [770/early 771]) --- of the Lombards, daughter of DESIDERIUS King of the Lombards & his wife Ansa ---.  Einhard calls King Charles's first wife "filiam Desiderii regis Langobardorum"[63].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Berhta regina" brought "filiam Desiderii regis Langobardorum" back from Italy as the wife for "Karolo filio suo"[64].  Her husband sent her back to her father after repudiating her. 

m secondly (Aix-la-Chapelle 771 before 30 Apr) HILDEGARD, daughter of GEROLD Graf im Kraichgau [Udalrichinger] & his wife Imma (758-Thionville, Moselle 30 Apr 783[65], bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul[66]).  Einhard refers to Hildegard as "de gente Suavorum"[67].  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names her "Hildigardam quæ erat de cognatione Gotefridi ducis Alamannorum" and specifies that she was the daughter of Imma[68].  The Annales Laurissenses record the death "783 pridie Kal Mai" of "Hildegardis regina" and her burial "iuxta urbem Mettensem in basilica apostolorum et beati Arnulfi"[69].  She died from the after effects of childbirth, according to the epitaph of her daughter Hildegard[70].  Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Hildegardis regina"[71]

m thirdly (Worms Oct 783[72]) FASTRADA, daughter of RADULF Graf & his wife --- (-Frankfurt-am-Main 10 Oct 794, bur Mainz, St Alban[73]).  The Annales Laurissenses record the marriage in 783 at Worms of King Charles and "domne Fastradæ regina"[74].  Einhard's Annals record the king's marriage in 783 to "filiam Radolfi comitis natione Francam, nomine Fastradam"[75].  Fastrada, wife of King Charles, is referred to as "de Orientalium Francorum, Germanorum videlicet" by Einhard[76].  Her cruelty triggered the revolt of her husband's illegitimate son Pépin "le Bossu" in 792[77].  The Annales Xantenses record the death in Frankfurt in 794 of "Fastrada regina"[78].  Einhard records the death in 794 of "Fastrada regina" at Frankfurt and her burial "Mogontiaci apud sanctum Albanum"[79].  Theodulf wrote the epitaph of "Fastradæ reginæ"[80]

m fourthly ([794/autumn 796]) LIUTGARD, daughter of --- (-Tours 4 Jun 800, bur Tours, église Saint-Martin[81]).  Einhard names "Liudgardam Alamannam" as King Charles's fourth wife, specifying that she died childless[82].  Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names "Liutgardis" as the wife of King Charles[83].  The Annales Laurissenses Continuatio records the death "II Non Iun 800" at Tours of "domnæ Liutgardæ coniugis" and her burial at Tours[84]

Mistress (1): HIMILTRUD, daughter of ---.  "Himiltrude nobili puella" is named mother of "Pippinum" in the Gesta Mettensium[85]

Mistress (2): ---.  Einhard refers to "Ruodhaidem" as the daughter of King Charles and an unnamed concubine[86]

Mistress (3): [MADELGARD] , daughter of ---.  Settipani names Madelgardis as the mistress of King Charles, and mother of Rothildis abbess of Faremoutiers[87].  However, he cites no primary source on which this is based, apart from a reference to an early 9th century list of nuns at Faremoutiers which includes the name.  No reference has been found to her in any of the sources so far consulted. 

Mistress (4): GERSWINDA, daughter of ---.  Einhard names King Charles's concubine "Gersuindam Saxonici generis", and her daughter Adaltrud[88]

Mistress (5): REGINA, daughter of ---.  800.  Einhard names King Charles's concubine "Reginam", and her sons "Drogonem et Hugum"[89]

Mistress (6): ADELINDIS, daughter of ---.  806.  Einhard names King Charles's concubine "Adallindem", and her son "Theodricum"[90]

King Charles I & his second wife had nine children[91]:

1.         CHARLES ([772/73]-in Bavaria 4 Dec 811[92]).  He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' first son[93].  The Chronicon Fontanellense records that Charles I King of the Franks proposed a marriage between “Offæ Rege Anglorum sive Merciorum…filiam” and “Carolus iunior”, but that King Offa refused unless “Berta filia Caroli Magni” was also married to his son which was unacceptable to the Frankish king[94].  King Charles ordered an embargo on trade imports from England as a result[95].  His father associated Charles in the government of Francia and Saxony in 790[96].  The Annales Laurissenses record that "rex Carolus" installed "primogenitum filium suum Carolum" in "ultra Sequaname…ducatum Cenomannicum" but that this reverted to his father in the summer of the same year[97].  From this time Charles used the title king, and was crowned King of the Franks at Rome 25 Dec 800.  Einhard records that "Karolum filium suum [Karoli imperatoris]" invaded "terram Sclavorum…Sorabi" in 806 as far as "super Albium fluvium" and that "Miliduoch Sclavorum dux" was killed during the campaign[98].  At the partition agreed at Thionville in 806, Charles was designated sovereign of Francia (Austrasia and Neustria), northern Burgundy, northern Alemannia, Thuringia, Saxony, Frisia and the Bavarian Nordgau[99].  The Gesta Francorum records the death "811 II Non Dec" of "Karolus filius imperatoris qui maior natu erat"[100].  Einhard's Annales also record the death "811 II Non Dec" of "Karlus filius imperatoris qui maior natu erat"[101].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death "811 II Non Dec" of "Karolus filius imperator qui maior natu erat"[102]

2.         ADELAIS (in Italy [Sep 773/Jun 774]-in Italy [Jul/Aug] 774, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul).  She was born during the siege of Pavia, but died during the return journey to France[103].  "Adelaid" is named daughter of King Charles in the Pauli Gesta, when recording her place of burial[104].  Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Adeleidis filia Karoli regis" specifying that she was born in Italy[105]

3.         HROTHRUDIS [Rotrud] ([775]-6 Jun 810[106]).  "Hruodrudem et Bertham et Gislam" are named daughters of King Charles & Hildegard by Einhard[107].  Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[108].  Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla …Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[109].  The betrothal of "Hruodrudem…quæ filiarum eius primogenita" with "Constantino, Græcorum imperatore" is recorded by Einhard[110].  Theophanes records that Empress Eirene sent ambassadors to "Carolum Francorum rege" to negotiate the betrothal of "filiæ eius Erythrus" and "filio suo Constantino", dated to 781, in a later passage recording that the empress terminating the treaty "cum Francis" (dated to 787)[111].  The Annales Fuldenses record the betrothal of "Hruodtrudis filia regis" and "Constantino imperator" in 787[112].  She was given the name ERYTHRO in Greek[113].  Her father kept her and her sisters at court refusing them permission to marry[114].  Her relationship with Rorico [I] is proved by the Annales Bertiniani which record the death "867 V Id Ian" of "Hludowicus abbas monasterii et nepos Karoli imperatoris ex filia maiori natu Rohtrude"[115], read together with an earlier part of the same source in which her son Louis is named "Ludowicum abbatem monasterii Sancti Dyonisii cum fratre ipsius Gauzleno"[116].  The Gesta Francorum records the death "810 VIII Id Iun" of "Hruoddrud filia imperatoris quæ natu maior erat"[117].  Einhard records the death "VIII Id Iun 810" of "Hruodtrud filia imperatories"[118].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "III Non Jun" of "Rotrudis filia Karoli imperatoris"[119]Betrothed (781, contract broken 787[120]) to Emperor KONSTANTINOS VI, son of Emperor LEON IV & his wife Eirene (14 Jan 771-Prinkipo Island [15 Aug 797/before 806][121], bur Constantinople, Monastery of St Euphrosyne).  Mistress: ([800]) of RORICO [I], son of GAUZLIN & his wife Adeltrudis --- (-after 1 Mar 839 [840], bur Abbaye de Saint-Maur de Glanfeuil, Anjou).  He lived at the court of Charlemagne.  Comte de Rennes 819.  Comte du Maine [832].   

4.         CARLOMAN [Pépin] (777-Milan 8 Jul 810, bur Verona, San Zeno Maggiore)"Pippinus" is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' second son[122]He was baptised "PEPIN" in Rome 15 Apr 781 by Pope Hadrian, Settipani commenting that his name was changed from Carloman[123] but the primary source which identifies him by this name has not so far been identified.  Crowned PEPIN I King of Italy 15 Apr 781 at Rome.  

-        KINGS of ITALY

5.         HLUDOWIC [Louis] (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou {Vienne} [16 Apr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul).  He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' third son, born a twin with Hlothar[124]On his father's death, he adopted the title Emperor LOUIS I “der Fromme/le Pieux” 2 Feb 814, crowned at Reims [Jul/Aug] 816 by Pope Stephen IV. 

-        see below

6.         HLOTHAR [Lothar] (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou {Vienne} [16 Apr/Sep] 778-[779/780]).  He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' fourth son "qui biennis occubuit", born a twin with Hludowic[125]Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Chlodarii pueri regis" naming "Karolus…rex genitorque tuus, genitrix regina…Hildigarda" and specifying that he was a twin[126]

7.         BERTRADA [Berta] ([779/80]-11 Mar, 824 or after).  "Hruodrudem et Bertham et Gislam" are named daughters of King Charles & Hildegard by Einhard[127].  Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[128].  Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh …Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[129].  The Chronicon Fontanellense records that Charles I King of the Franks proposed a marriage between “Offæ Rege Anglorum sive Merciorum…filiam” and “Carolus iunior”, but that King Offa refused unless “Berta filia Caroli Magni” was also married to his son which was unacceptable to the Frankish king[130].  Her father kept her and her sisters at the court of Aix-la-Chapelle refusing them permission to marry, but she was banished from court by her brother Emperor Louis I on his accession[131].  The Vita Angilberti records the relationship between "Berta filia [rex de regina Hildigarda]" and "domnus Angilbertus"[132].  The Chronicon Centulensis records that “Angilbertus” married “regis filiam Bertam” and that they had “duos filios Harnidum et Nithardum[133].  Nithard names Bertha, daughter of King Charles, as his mother[134].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "V Id Mar" of "Berta filia Karoli imperatoris qui dedit superiorem Curtem"[135]Mistress: (from [795]) of ANGILBERT "the Saint", son of [NITHARD & his wife Richarda] ([750]-18 Feb 814, bur Saint-Riquier, église du Saint-Sauveur et de Saint-Richard).   

8.         GISELA (781 before May-after 800, maybe after 814).  "Hruodrudem et Bertham et Gislam" are named daughters of King Charles & Hildegard by Einhard[136].  Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[137].  Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh …Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[138].  The Annales Laurissenses record that "filia eius [Karoli regis] domna Gisla" was baptised by "archiepiscopo…Thoma" in 781[139].  She was baptised in Milan in [May] 781[140]

9.         HILDEGARD (Thionville [Mar/Apr] 783-[1/8] Jun 783, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul).  "Hildigard" is named daughter of King Charles in the Pauli Gesta, when recording her place of burial[141].  Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Hildegardis filiæ [Karoli regis]" specifying that she lived 40 days[142]

King Charles I & his third wife had two children:

10.      THEODRADA ([785]-[9 Jan 844/853]).  "Theoderadam et Hiltrudem" are named daughters of King Charles & Fastrada by Einhard[143].  Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[144].  Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[145].  Named as abbess of Notre-Dame d'Argenteuil, near Paris by her father before 814, until 828.  "Ludowicus…rex" names "Theodrada amita nostra filia…avi nostri" in a charter dated 9 Jan 844 which confirms her life interest in the abbey of Schwarzach-am-Main, donated to the church of Würzburg, previously belonging to "Blutendæ filiæ Folkberti quondam comitis"[146].  Theodrada arranged for the church of Würzburg to recognise her great niece Hildegard, daughter of Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks as her successor.  This must have taken place before 853, at which date Hildegard was abbess of Zürich[147]

11.      HILTRUD ([787]-after 800, maybe after 814).  "Theoderadam et Hiltrudem" are named daughters of King Charles & Fastrada by Einhard[148].  Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege names (in order) "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[149].  She lived at her father’s court until his death in 814.  Wilhelm Kurze appears to have disproved the theory of the alleged marriage of Hiltrud to Eberhard [I] Graf [von Calw], a court official of Emperor Charlemagne[150].  According to Rösch[151], Hiltrud was the mistress (between [799/804]) of Richwin Count of Padua, brother of Richbod Bishop of Trier, who was at the court of Emperor Charlemagne between 792 and 814, and was the mother of an illegitimate son by him.  He cites no primary source on which this is based and no reference to this has been found in the sources so far consulted.  It is possibly based on onomastic speculation from the use of the first name Richbod.  One possible illegitimate son: 

a)         [RICHBOD ([800/805]-killed in battle Angoulême 14 Jun 844).  Abbé de Saint-Riquier 840/44.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Richbote abbas…consobrinus regum, nepos…Karoli imperatoris ex filia" was among those killed in 844[152].  It is possible, but not certain, that his mother was Hiltrud, as explained above.] 

King Charles I had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

12.       PEPIN “le Bossu” ([770]-Abbey of Prüm 811).  He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was born before his father married Queen Hildegard[153]He rebelled against his father in 792, allegedly due to the cruelty of Queen Fastrada[154], was judged by an assembly at Regensburg and imprisoned in the Abbey of St-Gallen.  He was transferred to the Abbey of Prüm in 794[155]

King Charles I had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (2):

13.       CHROTHAIS [Rotaïde] ([784]-after 800, maybe after 814).  "Ruodhaidem" is named daughter of King Charles and an unnamed concubine by Einhard[156]Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege names (in order) "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[157]

King Charles I had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (3):

14.       ROTHILDIS [Rouhaut] ([784]-24 Mar 852).  Abbess at Faremoutiers from before Oct 840[158]Her parentage is proved by the necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés which records the death "XI Kal Apr" of "Rothildis abbatisse et monache filia regis magni Karoli"[159].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XI Kal Mar" of "Rotildis abbatissa"[160]. 

King Charles I had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (4):

15.       ADALTRUD .  Einhard names "Adaltrud" daughter of King Charles by his concubine "Gersuindam Saxonici generis"[161]

King Charles I had two illegitimate sons by Mistress (5):

16.       DROGO [Dreux] (17 Jun 801-drowned Himeriacum, Bourgogne 8 Dec 855, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul).  Einhard names "Drogonem et Hugum" as sons of King Charles by his concubine "Reginam"[162].  The Annales Weissemburgenses record the birth "802 aut 803 15 Kal Iul" of Drogo[163].  He and his brother Hugues, and their half-brother Thierry, were brought up in the palace of their half-brother Emperor Louis I after their father died, but after the revolt of Bernard King of Italy in 818 they were forcibly tonsured and "put under free custody into monasteries"[164].  Abbé de Luxeuil 820.  Emperor Louis installed "Druagoni fratri suo" as Bishop of Metz in 823[165]The Annales Fuldenses record that "Druogonem archicapellum et Adalbertum comitem" were sent to the east bank of the Rhine in 840[166].  He became Vicar of the Pope in France in Jun 844.  He died after falling into the River Oignon in which he was fishing[167]A list of bishops of Metz records "domnus Drogo archiepiscopus et sacri palate summus capellanus, filius Karoli imperatoris" as 40th bishop, holding the position for 32 years, 5 months and 7 days, his death "VI Id Dec in Burgundia, prædio sancti Petri Mimeriaco" and his burial in "urbem Medimmatricorum…in ecclesia beati Iohannis apostoli"[168].

17.       HUGO [Hugues] "l´Abbé" ([802/06]-killed in battle Angoulême 14 Jun 844, bur Abbaye de Charroux).  Einhard names "Drogonem et Hugum" as sons of King Charles by his concubine "Reginam"[169].  He is named "Hugo venerabilis filius Karoli regis magni" in the Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin[170].  He and his brother Drogo, and their half-brother Thierry, were brought up in the palace of their half-brother Emperor Louis I after their father died, but after the revolt of Bernard King of Italy in 818 they were forcibly tonsured and "put under free custody into monasteries"[171].  Monk at Charroux 818.  Abbé de Saint-Quentin 822/23, Abbé de Lobbes.  Abbé de Saint-Bertin 836[172].  Abbé de Noaillé.  Arch-chancellor of Emperor Louis I 834-840.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Hugonem fratrem suum sed et Adalgarium comitem" visited the emperor [in 836][173]He joined Charles "le Chauve" in Sep 841 after the battle of Fontenoy, becoming his Arch-chaplain[174]The Annales Fuldenses record that "Hugo abbas, patruus Karoli et Rihboto abbas, Rhaban quoque signifer" were killed "844 VII Id Jun" in the battle in which "Pippini duces" defeated the army of Charles II " le Chauve" King of the Franks[175]

King Charles I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (6):

18.       THEODERIC [Thierry] (807-after 818).  Einhard names "Theodricum" as son of King Charles by his concubine "Adallindem"[176].  The birth of "imperatori filius nomine Theodericus" is recorded in 807[177].  He and his half-brothers Drogo and Hugues were brought up in the palace of their half-brother Emperor Louis I after their father died, but after the revolt of Bernard King of Italy in 818 they were forcibly tonsured and "put under free custody into monasteries"[178]

 

 

LOUIS I 814-840

 

LOUIS [Hludowic], son of CHARLES I King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegard (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou {Vienne} [16 Apr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul[179]).  He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' third son, born a twin with Hlothar[180]Crowned King of the Aquitainians in Rome 15 Apr 781 by Pope Hadrian I.  His armies occupied Girona, Urgel and Cerdanya in 785 and besieged Barcelona in 802, establishing the "March of Spain"[181].  At the partition of territories agreed at Thionville in 806, he was designated sovereign of Aquitaine, Gascony, Septimania, Provence and southern Burgundy.  His father named him as his successor at Aix-la-Chapelle, crowning him as joint emperor 11 Sep 813[182].  On his father's death, he adopted the title Emperor LOUIS I “der Fromme/le Pieux” 2 Feb 814, and was crowned at Reims [Jul/Aug] 816 by Pope Stephen IV.  He did not use the titles king of the Franks or king of Italy so as to emphasise the unity of the empire[183].  He promulgated the Ordinatio Imperii at Worms in 817, which established his eldest son as his heir, his younger sons having a subordinate status, a decision which was eventually to lead to civil war between his sons.  His nephew Bernard King of Italy, ignored in the Ordinatio Imperii, rebelled against his uncle, but was defeated and killed.  After his death, Italy was placed under the direct rule of the emperor.  Emperor Louis crowned his son Lothaire as joint emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle in Jul 817, his primary status over his brothers being confirmed once more at the assembly of Nijmegen 1 May 821.  In Nov 824, Emperor Louis placed Pope Eugene II under his protection, effectively subordinating the papal role to that of the emperor.  The birth of his son Charles by his second marriage in 823 worsened relations with his sons by his first marriage, the tension being further increased when Emperor Louis invested Charles with Alemannia, Rhætia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug 829, reducing the territory of his oldest son Lothaire to Italy.  His older sons revolted in Mar 830 and captured their father at Compiègne, forcing him to revert to the 817 constitutional arrangements.  However, Emperor Louis reasserted his authority at the assemblies of Nijmegen in Oct 830 and Aix-la-Chapelle in Feb 831, depriving Lothaire of the imperial title and relegating him once more to Italy.  A further revolt of the brothers followed.  Emperor Louis was defeated and deposed by his sons at Compiègne 1 Oct 833.  He was exiled to the monastery of Saint-Médard de Soissons.  His eldest son Lothaire declared himself sole emperor but was soon overthrown by his brothers Pépin and Louis, who freed their father.  Emperor Louis was crowned once more at Metz 28 Feb 835.  He proposed yet another partition of territories in favour of his son Charles at the assembly of Aix-la-Chapelle in 837, implemented at the assembly of Worms 28 May 839 when he installed his sons Lothaire and Charles jointly, setting aside the claims of his sons Pépin and Louis.  This naturally led to revolts by Pépin in Aquitaine and Louis in Germany, which their father was in the process of suppressing when he died[184].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death "in insulam quondam Rheni fluminis prope Ingilenheim XII Kal Iul 840" of Emperor Louis and his burial "Mettis civitatem…in basilica sancti Arnulfi"[185].  The necrology of Prüm records the death "840 12 Kal Iul" of "Ludvicus imperator"[186].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Hludowicus imperator in insula Rheni quiæ est sita iuxta palatium Ingelheim"[187].  The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Ludovicus imperator"[188].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Ludovicus imperator"[189]

m firstly ([794]) ERMENGARD, daughter of ENGUERRAND Comte [de Hesbaye] & his wife --- ([775/80]-Angers 3 Oct 818[190], bur Angers).  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names the wife of Emperor Ludwig "filiam nobilissimi ducis Ingorammi…Irmingarda"[191].  The Gesta Francorum records the death "818 V Non Oct" of "Irmingardis regina"[192].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the death "V Non Oct" of "Hirmingardis regina" three days after falling ill[193]

m secondly (Aix-la-Chapelle Feb 819) JUDITH, daughter of WELF [I] Graf [von Altdorf] & his wife Heilwig --- ([805]-Tours 19 Apr 843, bur Tours Saint-Martin).  The Annales Xantenses record the marriage in Feb 819 of "Ludewicus imperator" and "Iudith"[194].  Thegan names "filiam Hwelfi ducis sui, qui erat de nobolissima progenie Bawariorum…Iudith…ex parte matris…Eigilwi nobilissimi generic Saxonici" as second wife of Emperor Ludwig, specifying that she was "enim pulchra valde"[195].  Einhard's Annales record that Emperor Louis chose "Huelpi comitis filiam…Judith" as his wife in 819 after "inspectis plerisque nobelium filiabus"[196].  Judith was influential with her husband, which increased the tensions with the emperor's sons by his first marriage.  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "quondam duce Bernhardo, qui erat de stirpe regali" was accused of violating "Iudith reginam" but comments that this was all lies[197].  Judith was exiled to the monastery of Sainte-Croix de Poitiers during the first rebellion of her stepsons in 830, was released in 831, but exiled again to Tortona in Italy in 833 from where she was brought back in Apr 834[198].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XIII Kal Mai" of "Judith regina"[199].  The Annales Xantenses record the death in 843 of "Iudhit imperatrix mater Karoli" at Tours[200]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Emperor Lothar's mistress or mistresses is not known. 

Emperor Louis I & his first wife had six children:

1.         LOTHAIRE [Lothar] (795-Kloster Prüm 29 Sep 855, bur Kloster Prüm).  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Ludwig I & his wife Ermengard[201].  He was crowned joint Emperor LOTHAIRE I, jointly with his father, in Jul 817 at Aix-la-Chapelle.    

-        KINGS of LOTHARINGIA

2.         PEPIN ([797]-Poitiers 13 Dec 838, bur Poitiers, église collégiale de Sainte-Radégonde).  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Ludwig I & his wife Ermengard[202].  Under the Ordinatio Imperii promulgated by his father at Worms in 817, he became PEPIN I King of Aquitaine

-        KINGS of AQUITAINE

3.         HROTRUD [Rotrude] ([800]-).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Pipinum et Hludovicum Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Yrmingardi regina"[203]

4.         BERTA .  Settipani cites charters which name Berta as the daughter of Emperor Louis[204]

5.         HILDEGARD ([802/04]-857, or maybe after [23 Aug 860]).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Pipinum et Hludovicum Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Yrmingardi regina"[205].  Hildegard is named as sister of Charles by Nithard[206].  Abbess of Notre-Dame and Saint-Jean at Laon.  She supported her brother Lothaire against her half-brother Charles and, in Oct 841, imprisoned Adalgar at Laon.  After Laon was besieged, she surrendered Adalgar but was herself released by her half-brother206.  The Annales Formoselenses record the death in 857 of "Hildegard, Lothawici regis filia"[207], corroborated in the Annales Alemannici[208]

6.         LOUIS ([806]-Frankfurt-am-Main 28 Aug 876, bur Kloster Lorsch).  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Ludwig I and his wife Ermengardis[209].  Under the Ordinatio Imperii promulgated by his father at Worms in 817, he became King of Bavaria and Carinthia.  Under the partition of territories agreed by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, Louis was installed as LUDWIG II "le Germanique/der Deutsche" King of the East Franks.   

-        KINGS of the EAST FRANKS (GERMANY)

Emperor Louis I & his second wife had [three] children:

7.         GISELA ([819/822]-after 1 Jul 874, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum et Gislam" children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Iudith ymperatrice"[210].  Her marriage is deduced from a charter in which Gisela states that their eldest son Unruoch brought back the body of Eberhard from Italy[211].  She founded the abbey of St Calixtus at Cysoing, Flanders, where she lived as a widow.  "Gisle" granted "le fisc de Somain en Ostrevant" to "filii…Adelarde" by charter dated 14 Apr 869, which names "rex Karolus meus…germanus…senioris mei dulcis memorie Evrardi…tres infantes meos Rodulfum…et Berengarium…et…Adelarde"[212].  The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records that “Gisla” donated property to Cysoing abbey for her burial next to “coniugis mei dulcis memoriæ Evrardi”, by charter dated 2 Apr 870 which names “filiæ meæ Ingiltrudis…filius meus Rodulfus”, and by charter dated “Kal Jul anno XXXV regnante Carolo Rege”, naming “filii mei Unroch…filiorum meorum Adalardo atque Rodulfo” and signed by “Odelrici Comitis[213].  "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][214]m ([836]) EBERHARD Marchese di Friulia, son of UNRUOCH Comte [en Ternois] & his wife Engeltrude (-in Italy 16 Dec 866, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus). 

8.         CHARLES (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the birth of "Karolus filius Ludowici" in Frankfurt "Idus Iun 824"[215].  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names Charles as son of his father by his second wife[216].  Under the division of Imperial territories by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, he became CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks

-        KINGS of the WEST FRANKS

9.         [daughter .  The Casus Monasterii Petrishusensis records that "rex Francorum qui et imperator Romanorum" (which appears to indicate Charles II "le Chauve") gave his sister in marriage to "vir nobilissimo genere decoratus", that the couple had two sons to whom their uncle gave "in Alemannia loca…Potamum et Brigantium, Ubirlingin et Buochorn, Ahihusin et Turingen atque Heistirgou, Wintirture…et in Retia Curiensi Mesouch", and that one of the sons returned to France while the other "Oudalricus" retained all the property in Alamannia[217].  The editor of the MGH SS compilation dates this source to the mid-12th century[218].  The information has not been corroborated in any earlier primary source, although it is not known what prior documentation may have been available to the compiler of the Casus.  There are several other difficulties with this marriage which suggest that the report in the Casus should be treated with caution.  If the information is accurate, it is likely that the bride was a full sister of King Charles, although if this is correct her absence from contemporary documentation is surprising.  If she had been Charles's half-sister, it is difficult to see how Charles would have had much influence on her marriage, which would have been arranged by one of her full brothers.  In any case, it is unlikely that Emperor Louis's first wife would have had further children after [812/15] at the latest, given the birth of her eldest son in 795.  If that estimated birth date is correct, then it is more likely that this daughter's marriage would have been arranged by her father Emperor Louis before his death in 840.  Another problem is the potential consanguinity between the parties.  Although the precise relationship between the couple's son Udalrich [III] and the earlier Udalrichinger cannot be established from available documentation, it is probable that he was closely related to Hildegard, first wife of Emperor Charles I, who was the paternal grandmother of Emperor Louis's children.  Lastly, Udalrich [III] is recorded in charters dated 847 and 854, suggesting a birth date in the 820s assuming that he was adult at the time, which is inconsistent with Charles II "le Chauve" (born in 823) having arranged his parents' marriage.  m --- [Udalrichinger].] 

Emperor Louis I had [two] illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

10.       [ALPAIS ([793/94]-23 Jul 852 or after, bur [Reims])Flodoard refers to "Ludowicus Alpheidi filie sue uxori Begonis comitis"[219].  The Annales Hildesheimenses name "filiam imperatoris…Elpheid" as the wife of "Bicgo de amici regis" when recording the death of her husband[220].  Settipani discusses the debate about the paternity of Alpais, preferring the theory that Emperor Charles I was her father[221].  If Emperor Louis was her father, it is unlikely that she was born before [793/94], given his known birth date in 778.  It would therefore be chronologically tight for her to have had [three] children by her husband before his death in 816.  However, no indication has been found in primary sources of the age of these children when their father died.  The question of Alpais's paternity is obviously not beyond doubt, but it is felt preferable to show her as the possible daughter of Emperor Louis in view of the clear statement in Flodoard.  No indication has been found of the name of Alpais's mother.  If Alpais was the daughter of Emperor Louis, it is likely that she was not her husband's only wife in view of Bego's estimated birth date.  After her husband died, she became abbess of Saint-Pierre-le-Bas at Reims in [817].  She was still there 29 May 852.  m ([806]) [as his second wife,] BEGO, son of [GERARD [I] Comte de Paris & his wife Rotrud] ([755/60]-28 Oct 816).  He governed the county of Toulouse as "marchio" for Septimania in 806.  Comte de Paris in [815], succeeding comte Stephanus.]  

11.       ARNOUL ([794]-after [Mar/Apr] 841).  The Chronicon Moissacense names "quartum…filium [Ludovici]…ex concubina…Arnulfum" recording that his father gave him the county of Sens[222]Comte de Sens 817.   He was a supporter of his half-brother Emperor Lothaire in [Mar/Apr] 841[223]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KINGS of the WEST FRANKS 751-840 (CAROLINGIANS)

 

 

CHARLES II 843-877

 

CHARLES, son of Emperor LOUIS I "le Pieux" & his second wife Judith [Welf] (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the birth of "Karolus filius Ludowici" in Frankfurt "Idus Iun 824"[224].  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names Charles as son of his father by his second wife[225].  His father invested Charles as dux in Alemania, Rhetia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug 829, reducing the territory of his oldest brother Lothaire to Italy.  This triggered the revolt of his older half-brothers in Mar 830, when they captured their father at Compiègne and forced him to revert to the constitutional arrangements decided in 817.  His father installed Charles as King of Aquitaine in Sep 832, having deprived Charles's half-brother Pépin.  His father restored Aquitaine to Pépin 15 Mar 834 at Quierzy-sur-Oise.  His father accorded Charles the land between Frisia and the Seine at the assembly of Aix-la-Chapelle in 837, Maine and the land between the Seine and the Loire (as well as a royal crown) in 838, and Francia between the Meuse and the Seine, western and southern Burgundy, Provence, Neustria, the march of Bretagne, Aquitaine, Gascony and Septimania at the assembly of Worms 28 May 839.  On the death of his father, he became King of the Franks of the West.  His brother Emperor Lothaire sought to deprive him of his lands.  Charles allied himself with his half-brother Ludwig and together they defeated Lothaire at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye 25 Jun 841.  Under the division of imperial territories agreed under the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, he became CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks.  King of Aquitaine in 848, when he deposed his nephew Pépin II.  When King Charles II was faced with widespread rebellion, his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks invaded his kingdom in Aug 858 but was defeated 15 Jan 859 in the Laonnais and forced to withdraw.  In 865, Charles agreed with King Ludwig II the future division of the territories of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia, but on the latter's death in 869 Charles invaded Lotharingia and proclaimed himself CHARLES King of Lotharingia before Ludwig could assert his rights.  A settlement was reached at Meerssen in Aug 870 under which Charles received the Meuse valley, Lyonnais, Viennois and Vivarais, declaring himself king of Lotharingia in 869.  He was crowned Emperor CHARLES II at Rome 25 Dec 875 by Pope John VIII, and elected king of Italy at Pavia in 876[226].  The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the death of "Karolus imperator Prid Non Oct 877"[227].  The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "III Non Oct" of "Karolus Calvus rex Francorum"[228]

m firstly (Quierzy, Aisne 13 Dec 842, separated 867) ERMENTRUDIS, daughter of EUDES Comte [d’Orléans] & his wife Engeltrudis (27 Sep [830]-Saint-Denis 6 Oct 869, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 842 of "Ermendrud neptem Adalardi comitis" and "Karolus" at "Carisiacum palatium"[229].  Nithard names "Hirmentrude, daughter of Odo and Ingiltrud" as wife of Charles[230].  She was crowned in Aug 866 at Saint-Médard de Soissons.  After she was separated from her husband, she retired to a monastery.  The Annales Bertiniani record the death "869 II Non Oct in monasterio Sancti Dyonisii" of "Hyrmentrudem uxorem suam [=Karoli]" and her burial at Saint-Denis[231].  The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "Non Oct" of "Irmentrudis regina uxor Caroli"[232].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "Non Oct" of "Hirmentrudis regina"[233]

m secondly (12 Oct 869, confirmed Aix-la-Chapelle 22 Jan 870) RICHILDIS, daughter of comte BUVINUS [Bouvin] & his wife --- d'Arles (-[30 Jan] [910 or after]).  The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage "869 VII Id Oct" of "sororem…Bosonis…Richildem" and King Charles II[234].  She was crowned empress at Tortona in Lombardy by Pope John VIII in 877.  “Richildis quondam regina” donated property, among which “in pago Gerbercinse in Langeii villa”, to Gorze Abbey by charter dated 910[235].  The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "III Kal Feb" of "RICHILDIS"[236]

Emperor Charles II & his first wife had nine children:

1.         JUDITH ([844]-after 870).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Iudith et Hildegardim, Hirmintrudim et Gislam" as the four daughters of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina", specifying that she married "Balduinus comes"[237].  The Annales Bertiniani record the betrothal in Jul 856 of "Iudith filiam Karli regis" and "Edilvulf rex occidentalium Anglorum" after the latter returned from Rome and their marriage "Kal Oct in Vermaria palatio", during which "Ingmaro Durocortori Remorum episcopo" set a queen's diadem on her head[238].  Her first husband placed her "by his own side on the regal throne", contrary to normal practice in the kingdom of Wessex[239].  The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage of "Iudit reginam" and "Adalboldus filius eius [=Edilvulf regis]" in 858 after the death of her first husband[240].  Asser records that when King Æthelwulf was dead, his son Æthelbald married Judith daughter of Charles king of the Franks "contrary to God's prohibition and the dignity of a Christian, contrary also to the custom of all the pagans…and drew down much infamy upon himself"[241].  The Annales Bertiniani record that Judith returned to her father after the death of her second husband, lived at Senlis "sub tuitione paterna", and from there was abducted by "Balduinum comitem" with the consent of her brother Louis, her father consenting to the marriage the following year[242].  Flodoard names "Balduini comitis et Iudita…Karoli regis filia, Edilvulfo regi Anglorum qui et Edelboldus in matrimonium"[243]m firstly (Verberie-sur-Oise, near Senlis 1 Oct 856) as his [second/third] wife, ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex, son of ECGBERT King of Wessex & his wife Redburga --- ([795/800]-13 Jan 858, bur Winchester).  m secondly (858) ÆTHELBALD King of Wessex, son of ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex & his [second] wife Osburga --- (-20 Dec 860, bur Sherborne).  m thirdly (Auxerre 13 Dec 862) BAUDOUIN I Count of Flanders, son of ODACRE [Audacer/Odoscer] Graf van Harlebeek & his wife --- ([837/840]-Arras 879, bur Abbaye de Saint-Bertin near Saint-Omer).    

2.         LOUIS (1 Nov 846-Compiègne 10 Apr 879, bur Compiègne, église collégiale Saint-Corneille).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[244].  He succeeded his father in 877 as LOUIS II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks

-        see below

3.         CHARLES ([847/48]-near Buzançais, Indre 29 Sep 866, bur Bourges, église de Saint-Sulpice).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[245].  Elected King of Aquitaine in Oct 855 at Limoges, and crowned.  His residence was at Bourges.  He married against the wishes of his father, and was deprived of his titles in 863.  He was restored as king of Aquitaine in 865.  The Annales Bertiniani record the death "866 III Kal Oct in villa secus Bosentiacas" of "Karoli filius Karolus et Aquitanorum rex" two years after suffering severe brain injuries, and his burial "in ecclesia sancti Sulpitii apud Biturigum"[246].  The Chronico Floriacensi records that "duo filii illius [Karolo Ludovici filio]…Hlotharius Abbas et Karolus Rex Aquitanorum" died in 866[247]m (862, annulled 863) as her second husband, ---, widow of HUMBERT Comte [de Bourges], daughter of ---.  The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 862 of "Karolus rex Aquitannorum, Karoli regis filius" and "relictam Humberti comitis", on the advice of "Stephani" against the will of his father[248]

4.         CARLOMAN (-[877/78]).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[249].  "Carlomannum" is named son of King Charles by Folcuin, who specifies that his father installed him as abbot "Laubiensi"[250].  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Karlus rex Karlommanum filium suum" was tonsured in 854[251].  Abbé de Saint-Médard at Soissons 860.  He conspired against his father, was imprisoned at Senlis and deprived of his abbeys in 870.  He escaped to Belgium.  He was rejected by the church by judgment of the bishops meeting at Senlis in 873.  His father had him blinded and imprisoned at the monastery of Corbie in 873.  He fled to Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks.  He was sent to Luxembourg where he became Abbot of Echternach in 874[252]

5.         LOTHAIRE (-14 Dec 865).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[253].  He was lame from birth.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Karlus rex filium Lotharium claudum" became a monk "in monasterio Sancti Iohannis" in 861[254].  He became a monk at the abbey of Moutier Saint-Jean in 861.  Abbé de Saint-Germain at Auxerre[255].  The Chronico Floriacensi records that "duo filii illius [Karolo Ludovici filio]…Hlotharius Abbas et Karolus Rex Aquitanorum" died in 866[256].  One necrology of Saint-Germain d´Auxerre records the death "XIX Kal Jan" of "domni Lotharii abbatis"[257]

6.         HILDEGARDIS.  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Iudith et Hildegardim, Hirmintrudim et Gislam" as the four daughters of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[258]

7.         ERMENTRUDIS (-after 11 Jul 877).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Iudith et Hildegardim, Hirmintrudim et Gislam" as the four daughters of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[259].  The Historia Monasterii Hasnonensis names "Ermentrudis imperatrix et regina cum filia Ermendtrude"[260].  Abbess of Hasnon near Douai 11 Jul 877. 

8.         GISELA.  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Iudith et Hildegardim, Hirmintrudim et Gislam" as the four daughters of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[261]

9.         [ROTRUDIS ([850]-).  Settipani names Rotrudis as the daughter of King Charles II but appears to base this on her being named as such in the Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis[262], but this does not appear to be the case.  Flodoard names "Rotrudi" when recording her election as abbess of "monasterii Sanctæ Crucis et Sanctæ Radegundis" but does not give her parentage[263].  Abbess of Sainte-Radégonde at Poitiers 868-870.] 

Emperor Charles II & his second wife had five children:

10.      ROTHILDIS ([871]-22 Mar 929).  Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks confirmed donations of property "in comitatu quoque Cœnomannico" made by "Hugo comes et mater sua Rothildis", at the request of "genitrix nostra Adeleidis et…comes Hugo consanguineus, necnon et…comes Ecfridus" by charter dated 1 Nov 900[264].  The charter dated 929 subscribed by "Hugonis comitis filii Rotgerii comitis" suggests that Rothildis must have been the wife of Roger[265].  Flodoard names "Rothildis, amitæ suæ [regis Karoli], socrus autem Hugonis" when recording that the king deprived her of "abbatiam…Golam" [Chelles] in favour of his favourite Haganon, the context dictating that "Hugonis" was "Hugo filius Rotberti"[266].  As the paternal aunt of King Charles III, chronology determines that she must have been the daughter of her father's second marriage, although no source has so far been identified which states this to be the case.  She acquired the monasteries of Chelles, and Notre-Dame and Saint-Jean at Laon.  She retreated to Chelles in 922 but was deprived of the monastery by her nephew Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks in favour of his favourite Haganon, an event which led to the rebellion of Robert Marquis en Neustrie who was the father of Rothildis's son-in-law (Hugues, later "le Grand" Duc des Francs)[267].  Her death is dated to late 928/early 929 as Flodoard names "Rothildis…nuper defunctæ" when recording that "Heribertus et Hugo comites" (specifying that "Hugo" was "gener ipsius Rothildis") attacked "Bosonem Rodulfi regis frater" in 929 over the property of Rothildis[268].  This is also the only source so far identified from which her marriage is deduced.  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "XI Kal Apr" of "Rothildis abbatisse et monache filia regis magni Karoli"[269].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XI Kal Mar" of "Rotildis abbatissa"[270].  These entries could refer alternatively to Rothildis, daughter of Emperor Charlemagne, but it is more likely that the former entry would have referred to her father as "imperator" if that was the case.  m ([890]) ROTGER [Roger] Comte, nephew of [HUGUES Comte de Bourges], son of --- (-before I Nov 900).  Comte du Maine 897. 

11.      DROGO ([872/73]-[873/74], bur Abbaye de Saint-Amand, Flanders).  The Chronico Floriacensi records the birth and death of "de Caroli Carolus…rex…Pippinus…simulque Drogo"[271].  Twin with Pépin.

12.      PEPIN ([872/73]-[873/74], bur Abbaye de Saint-Amand, Flanders).  The Chronico Floriacensi records the birth and death of "de Caroli Carolus…rex…Pippinus…simulque Drogo"[272].  Twin with Drogo. 

13.      son (23 Mar 875-soon after).  The Annales Bertiniani record that in 875 "Richildis uxor eius [=Karoli]" gave birth to a child "noctu ante quartam feriam paschæ" which died immediately after being baptised[273]

14.      CHARLES (10 Oct 876-877 before 7 Apr, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  The Annales Bertiniani record the death in early 877 of "filius eius [=Karoli]…Karolus" and his burial at Saint-Denis[274]

 

 

LOUIS II 877-879, LOUIS III 879-882, CARLOMAN 882-884

 

LOUIS, son of CHARLES II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks & his first wife Ermentrudis [d'Orléans] (1 Nov 846-Compiègne 11 Apr 879, bur Compiègne, église collégiale Saint-Corneille).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[275].  His father awarded him the duchy of Mans and part of Neustria and arranged his betrothal in Feb 856, from which time he seems to have received the title king.  He was expelled from Brittany after the rebellion which followed the murder of King Erispoé, and sought refuge with his father.  He was suspected of having helped his sister Judith elope with Comte Baudouin and was obliged to flee in 861.  He revolted against his father in 862, the revolt being instigated by the Rorgonid family[276].  He was pardoned by his father, given the county of Meaux in 862, and entrusted with the governorship of the whole of Neustria with the title king in 865.  The latter appointment was removed from him in the following year[277].  His father invested him as Comte d'Autun in 866.  He was installed as King of Aquitaine in Mar 867, following the death of his brother Charles[278].  He succeeded his father in 877 as LOUIS II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks, and LUDWIG III King of West Lotharingia, crowned at Compiègne 8 Dec 877 and at Troyes 7 Sep 878 by Pope John VIII.  The Gesta Francorum records the death "879 III Id Apr…apud Compendium…palatium" of "Hludowicus Karoli regis filius" and his burial in the same place[279].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death "879 III Id Apr apud Compendium" of "Hludowicus, Karoli regis filius" and his burial in the same place[280].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "III Id Apr" of "Ludovicus rex"[281]

Betrothed (Feb 856, contract broken end 857) to ---[de Bretagne], daughter of ERISPOE King of Brittany & his wife ---.  The Annales Bertiniani record the betrothal of "Respogio Brittone…filiam eius" and "Karlus rex…filio suo Ludoico" in early 856[282]

m firstly (Mar 862, repudiated [876/77]) ANSGARDIS, daughter of comte HARDUIN & his wife --- (-2 Nov [880/82]).  The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 862 of "Hludowicus frater Karoli [regis Aquitannorum, Karoli regis filius]" and "filiam Harduini…sororem…Odonis", against the will of his father[283]Regino names "Ansgard" wife of "Hludowicus rex filius Caroli" without giving her origin, specifying that they married without the consent of his father who obliged his son to repudiate his wife[284].  The necrology of Reims Cathedral records the death "IV Non Nov" of "Ansgardis regina"[285]

m secondly ([875][286]) ADELAIS, daughter of ADALHARD Comte Palatin [Angoulême] & his wife --- ([855/60]-18 Nov [901], bur Compiègne, église abbatiale Saint-Corneille).  Regino names "Adalheidis" second wife of "Hludowicus rex filius Caroli", married after he repudiated his first wife[287].  Her paternity is indicated by Wulfhard (who would have been the brother of Adelais) being named sororius of King Louis II[288].  Her marriage was not recognised by the church which did not accept her husband's separation from his first wife.  The Pope refused to crown her with her husband at Troyes 878, considering that she was not his legitimate wife[289].  Her children were considered illegitimate by the church. 

King Louis II & his first wife had five children:

1.         LOUIS ([863/65]-Saint Denis 5 Aug 882, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum et Karlomannum et Hildegardim" as the children of "Hlodovicus rex…ex Ansgardi vocata regina"[290].  He succeeded his father in 879 as LOUIS III King of the West Franks.  This was challenged by Ludwig III King of the East Franks, who withdrew after receiving compensation[291].  He was crowned with his brother Carloman in Sep 879 at the Abbaye de Ferrières-en-Gâtinais.  Ludwig III recognised his cousins' sovereignty by the Treaty of Ribemont in Feb 880.  Louis III and Carloman agreed a division of their territories at Amiens in Mar 880, Louis receiving the northern part of the kingdom, Francia and Neustria.  He fell from his horse at Tours, dying soon afterwards[292].  The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "Non Aug" of "Ludovicus rex Francie"[293].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "Non Aug" of "Ludovici regis"[294]

2.         GISELA (-[11 Apr 879/12 Dec 884]).  King Carloman donated property "in comitatu Trecassino, in curtem Argenteam mansum unum, de Clariaco…" to Montièramey, at the request of "fidelis noster Rotbertus comes", for the soul of "Gislæ sororis nostræ eiusque uxoris", by charter dated to [11 Apr 879/12 Dec 884], the original of which is lost[295].  Gisela was the daughter of King Louis's first marriage according to Rösch[296].  Jackman[297] maintains that she must have been the daughter of his second marriage to avoid her being the first cousin of her husband, although this would mean that she was a child bride.  However, he is presumably assuming co-identity between Eudes, brother of Ansgardis, and Eudes Comte de Troyes, father of Comte Robert, which does not appear to be correct.  m ROBERT Comte Palatin de Troyes, son of EUDES Comte de Châteaudun, later Comte de Troyes & his wife Wandilmodis --- (-killed in battle Troyes Feb 886). 

3.         CARLOMAN ([866/68]-killed accidentally Bézu-la-Forêt, near Andelys, Eure 6 Dec 884, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum et Karlomannum et Hildegardim" as the children of "Hlodovicus rex…ex Ansgardi vocata regina"[298].  He was crowned with his brother Louis III in Sep 879 at the Abbaye de Ferrières-en-Gâtinais.  Louis III and Carloman agreed a division of their territories at Amiens in Mar 880, Carloman receiving the southern part of the kingdom, Aquitaine and Burgundy[299].  “Carlomannus…Rex” restored property “villam Taniacum” to the church of Autun, at the request of “Richardi Comiti Augustodensis”, by charter dated 1 Dec 880, the text ending with “Theodoricus Comes ambasciavit[300].  He succeeded his brother in 882 as CARLOMAN King of the West Franks.  On his death, Emperor Charles III "le Gros" was proclaimed King of the West Franks.  The Annales Vedastini record that "rex…in Basiu silva" was injured in the leg by "quidam a suis, Bertoldus" while hunting in 884, and died in the same place seven days later "Id Dec" aged about 18, and was buried "in monasterium sancti Dionysii"[301].  The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the death "Non Dec 884" of "Karlomannus rex"[302].  The necrology of Argenteuil Priory records the death "VIII Id Dec" of "Karlomannus rex"[303]Betrothed (11 Sep 878) to [ENGELBERGA], daughter of BOSO Comte de Vienne [later King] & his wife Ermengardis of Italy.  The Annales Bertiniani record the betrothal in 878 of "filiam Bosonis" and "Karlomanno filio suo [=Hlodowici rex]"[304].  It is assumed that this daughter was Engelberga, who was an infant at the time, but no proof has been found which confirms that this is the case.  "Bosonis" could refer either to the future King Boson or to Count Boson, husband of the adulterous Engiltrudis.  While Boson of Provence had refused to swear allegiance to Louis II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks ("Hlodowici rex") on the latter's accession, it is not known whether he was still in rebellion the following year.  Assuming that some reconciliation had taken place, a marriage alliance between the two parties would have been a likely possibility.  The other Count Boson was presumably of less political importance and, in addition, his problems with his adulterous wife may have rendered his daughters unmarriageable at the time. 

4.         HILDEGARD (-after 896).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum et Karlomannum et Hildegardim" as the children of "Hlodovicus rex…ex Ansgardi vocata regina"[305]

King Louis II & his second wife had two children:

5.         ERMENTRUD ([875/78][306]-).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum quoque postumum et Irmintrudim" as children of "Hlodovicus rex…ex Adelheidi regina"[307].  According to Settipani, Ermentrudis was the daughter of King Louis by his first marriage[308], although he cites no primary source on which this is based.  It is certainly correct that the chronology is tight for Ermentrud to have been the daughter of her father's second marriage, assuming that the affiliation of her supposed daughter Kunegund is correct as shown here.  m ---.  Nothing is known about the husband of Ermentrud.  Ermentrud & her husband had one child: 

a)         CUNIGONDE ([895/905]-).  The mother of Siegfried Count of Luxembourg is named "Cynigund", daughter of "Irmindrud" daughter of Louis II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks, in an 11th century genealogy which traces the ancestry of Siegfried's daughter Empress Kunigund[309].  Although this genealogy provides no sources on which it is based, other details are corroborated by primary source data.  This older Cunigonde has traditionally been associated with the wife of Wigerich [III], for example in Rösch[310].  This is allegedly supported by a reference in one of Gerbert's letters to Siegfried being patruus of the Wigerich's grandson Gozelo[311], but the chronology suggests that it is unlikely that Siegfried could have been the son either of Wigerich or of his wife's second husband Richwin, as explained in the document LUXEMBOURG.  It is therefore assumed that patruus in this source should be interpreted more broadly to indicate a more remote relationship in the previous generation, that Siegfried's father was an otherwise unrecorded brother of Wigerich [III], and that Cunigonde, wife of Wigerich [III], was not the same person as Cunigonde, mother of Siegfried.  m [---, brother of WIGERICH [III], son of ---.] 

6.         CHARLES (posthumously 17 Sep 879-Péronne 7 Oct 929, bur Péronne St Fursy).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum quoque postumum et Irmintrudim" as children of "Hlodovicus rex…ex Adelheidi regina"[312].  He was crowned 28 Jan 893 at Reims as CHARLES III "le Simple" King of the West Franks, as anti-king to Eudes, sole king from 1 Jan 898. 

-        see below

 

 

CHARLES III 893-922

 

CHARLES, son of LOUIS II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks & his second wife Adelais (posthumously 17 Sep 879-Péronne 7 Oct 929, bur Péronne, monastère de Saint-Fursy).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum quoque postumum et Irmintrudim" as children of "Hlodovicus rex…ex Adelheidi regina"[313].  His parentage is also given in the Annalista Saxo[314]Regino specifies that he was born posthumously[315].  On the death of King Louis II, Emperor Charles III "le Gros" was elected King of the West Franks, and on the latter's death in 888, Eudes [Capet] was elected king.  Louis II's son, Charles, sought refuge with Ramnulf II Comte de Poitou[316]Regino names "Folcone episcopo, Heriberto et Pippino comitibus in Remorum civitate" when recording that they supported the accession of Charles as king in 892 in opposition to King Eudes[317].  Supported by Fulco Archbishop of Reims, he was crowned 28 Jan 893 at Reims as CHARLES III "le Simple" King of the West Franks, as anti-king to Eudes, who later agreed to appoint him as his successor and whom he succeeded from 1 Jan 898.  The early years of his reign appear to have been dominated by Viking raids in the north which led to the treaty with Rollo in 911 and the grant of territory in the future duchy of Normandy.  He was chosen as CHARLES King of Lotharingia 1 Nov 911, in succession to Ludwig IV "das Kind" King of the East Franks and Lotharingia, representing a significant extension of the royal domain.  He used the title "King of the Franks/rex francorum", and later "King of France/rex franciæ".  He captured Alsace early in 912, and fought the army of Konrad I King of Germany three times in Lotharingia[318].  From [920], he fell under the influence of Haganon, a Lotharingian described in a charter of 921 as his cousin on his mother's side[319].  This triggered the revolt of Robert Marquis en Neustrie [Capet] and other nobles during which King Charles was obliged to seek refuge with Heriveus Archbishop of Reims.  Although the king was restored after seven months, tension continued and Charles's award of the monastery of Chelles to Haganon in 922 triggered another revolt which led to the king's deposition 30 Jun 922 in favour of Robert, who was elected as Robert I King of France.  Ex-king Charles fled to Lotharingia.  He returned, but was defeated at Soissons 15 Jun 923, although King Robert was killed in the battle.  Raoul de Bourgogne was elected king of France 13 Jul 923.  Ex-king Charles was tricked into capture by Héribert II Comte de Vermandois and imprisoned at Château-Thierry.  He was transferred in 924 to the château de Péronne, where he remained captive for the rest of his life[320].  He was briefly declared king once more in 927 by Comte Héribert during the latter's unsuccessful attempt to capture Laon[321].  According to Thietmar of Merseburg, Heinrich I King of Germany secured his release from prison and in return was rewarded with "the right hand of St Denis and the entire kingdom of the Lotharingians"[322]

m firstly ([1/18] Apr 907) FREDERUNA, sister of BOVO [II] Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne, daughter of --- (-10 Feb 917, bur Reims, église abbatiale de Saint-Rémi).  The charter of "Karolus…rex" dated "907 XIII Kal Mai" refers to "quondam nobili prosapia puellam…Frederunam" who had recently become his wife[323].  The charter of "Karolus…rex" dated "917 VII Kal Aug" refers to "nostra uxor Frideruna…frater eius Bovo Catalannensis Antistes Ecclesiæ"[324].  Nothing definite is known about the origins of Bovo, although Flodoard refers to "Berengario Transrhenensi clerico" as "nepoti Bovonis Catalaunensis quondam episcopi" when recording his appointment as Bishop of Cambrai in 956[325].  McKitterick assumes that Frederuna was of Lotharingian origin[326].  Settipani speculates that Queen Frederuna was probably a close relation of Mathilde, second wife of Heinrich I King of Germany[327].  This could be explained if Mathilde's mother, Reginlind, was Queen Frederuna's sister, as hypothesised in the document GERMANY EARLY NOBILITY.  The charter of "Karolus…rex" dated "918 IV Id Feb" refers to the death of "nostræ…coniugis Friderunæ"[328], and the charter dated "918 II Id Mar" that she had died "IV Id Feb"[329].  The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "IV Id Feb" of "Frederuna regina"[330]

m secondly ([917/19]) as her first husband, EADGIFU, daughter of EDWARD I "the Elder" King of England & his second wife Ælfleda ([902/05]-after 951, bur église Saint-Médard de Soissons).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names "Otgiva" wife of "Karolus rex" after the death of "Frederuna regina"[331].  She fled with her two-year-old son to England in 923 after her husband was deposed, returning to France in 936 after the death of King Raoul.  Abbess of Notre-Dame de Laon, this was taken from her 951 by her son on her second marriage.  Flodoard names "Ottogeba regina, mater Ludowici regis" when recording her second marriage[332].  She married secondly (951) Héribert Comte "le Vieux" [de Vermandois] (-980/84). 

Mistresses: ---.  The names of King Charles III's mistresses are not known. 

King Charles III & his first wife had six children:

1.         ERMENTRUDE ([908/16]-).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hyrmintrudim, Frederunam, Adelheidim, Gislam, Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as the children of "Karolus rex…ex Frederuna regina"[333].  Hlawitschka suggests[334] that Ermentrude, daughter of King Charles III, was the wife of Gottffied Graf im Jülichgau.  This appears to be based on the combined reading of four strings of entries in the Liber Memorialis of Remiremont: (1) "Dumnus Gislibertus dux…Dumna Girberga, Ainricus, Haduidis…", which is followed by (2) "Gottefridus comes cum infantibus…suis, Ermentridis comitissa"[335]; (3) "Gotefridus, Ermendrudis, Gotefridus, Gebardus, Gerardus, Adelardus, Girberga" assumed to be Gottfried, his wife, four sons and daughter[336], and (4) "…Caroli imperatoris…Hludowici imperatoris, Hlotarii, Caroli, Ermentrudis"[337], which may represent an abbreviated attempt to set out the ancestry of Ermentrude wife of Graf Gottfried.  However, the connection between entries (1) to (3) and entry (4) appears to be speculation.  [m (before [934]) GOTTFRIED Graf im Jülichgau, son of Graf GERHARD [Matfride] & his wife Oda [Ottonen] (-26 Mar after 949).] 

2.         FREDERUNA ([908/16]-).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hyrmintrudim, Frederunam, Adelheidim, Gislam, Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as the children of "Karolus rex…ex Frederuna regina"[338]

3.         ADELAIS ([908/16]-).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hyrmintrudim, Frederunam, Adelheidim, Gislam, Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as the children of "Karolus rex…ex Frederuna regina"[339].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "comes Rodulfus" (referring to Raoul [II]) was "nepos…ex sorore" of Louis IV King of France[340].  It appears chronologically unlikely for any of King Louis's sisters, whose dates of birth can be estimated to [908/17], to have been the mother of Raoul [II] who was killed in battle in 944, presumably when he was already adult.  It appears more likely that the family relationship was one generation further back, and that a member of the Unruochingi family, descended from the sister of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and who originated in the same area in northern France, would provide a good match.  Nevertheless, the earlier primary source on which Alberic based his information has not yet been identified and it is possible that the source is inaccurate in its report.  However, the poem Raoul de Cambrai states that "Raoul Taillefer" married "Aalais", sister of King Louis IV[341] which, if correct, would mean that his wife could be identified with Adelais, daughter of Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks by his first marriage.  This would mean that Raoul [II] was an infant when his father died.  It would also mean that Raoul [I] and his wife were closely related, as the Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines also implies that Raoul's mother was the daughter of Adelais's paternal great aunt Gisela who married Eberhard, ancestor of the Marchesi of Friulia.  The poem Raoul de Cambrai cannot claim to be historically accurate.  Nevertheless, it is not impossible that the detail of Raoul's marriage was not fabricated.  [m [920/24]) RAOUL [I] Comte de Gouy, son of HUCBERT Comte [d'Ostrevant] & his wife Heilwig [of Friulia] (-926).] 

4.         GISELA ([908/16]-).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hyrmintrudim, Frederunam, Adelheidim, Gislam, Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as the children of "Karolus rex…ex Frederuna regina"[342].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks granted Rollo "tout le territoire maritime qui s´étend depuis la rivière d´Epte jusqu´aux confines de la Bretagne" together with "sa fille…Gisèle", and their marriage which took place after Rollo´s baptism[343].  Her marriage is recorded in the Norman annals for 912, which state that she died without issue, presumably soon after the marriage when Gisela must still have been an infant.  The chronicle of Dudo of Saint-Quentin[344] describes her as of "tall stature, most elegant…", which is of course inconsistent with her supposed birth date range.  The Liber Modernorum Regum Francorum records the marriage of "filiam suam [=rex Karolus] nomine Gillam" to "Rollo"[345].  Settipani considers that the marriage did not occur, and that the Norman sources confused it with the marriage of Gisela, daughter of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia, to the Viking leader Gotfrid[346]m ([912]) as his third wife, ROLLO of Normandy, later known as ROBERT I Comte [de Normandie], son of [RAGNVALD "the Wise" Jarl of Möre in Norway & his wife Ragnhild] ([846]-[928]). 

5.         ROTRUDE ([908/16]-).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hyrmintrudim, Frederunam, Adelheidim, Gislam, Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as the children of "Karolus rex…ex Frederuna regina"[347]

6.         HILDEGARDE ([908/16]-).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hyrmintrudim, Frederunam, Adelheidim, Gislam, Rotrudim et Hildegardim" as the children of "Karolus rex…ex Frederuna regina"[348]

King Charles III & his second wife had one child:

7.         LOUIS ([10 Sep 920/10 Sep 921]-Reims 10 Sep 954, bur Reims, Abbaye de Saint-Rémi).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names "Hludovicum" as son of "Karolus rex [ex] Otgivam"[349].  He succeeded in 936 as LOUIS IV "d´Outremer" King of the Franks.   

-        see below

King Charles III had illegitimate children by his Mistresses. 

8.          ARNULF.  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Arnulfum, Drogonem, Roriconem et Alpaidem" as the children of "Karolus rex…ex concubina"[350]

9.          DROGO.  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Arnulfum, Drogonem, Roriconem et Alpaidem" as the children of "Karolus rex…ex concubina"[351]

10.       RORICO (-20 Dec 976, bur Laon Saint-Vincent).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Arnulfum, Drogonem, Roriconem et Alpaidem" as the children of "Karolus rex…ex concubina"[352].  Elected Bishop of Laon 949. 

11.       ALPAIS .  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Arnulfum, Drogonem, Roriconem et Alpaidem" as the children of "Karolus rex…ex concubina"[353]same person as…?  ALPAIS"Erleboldus…et uxor mea Alpaidis" founded the monastery of Salles "in pago…Haynau in loco…Macons" by charter dated 8 Sep 887 which names "filius noster Wiermiundus"[354].  Secondary sources suggest that she was the wife of Erlebold was the illegitimate daughter of Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  If it is correct, the 887 charter quoted above must be misdated (assuming that it is genuine).  m ERLEBOLD Comte de Castres, son of --- (-killed in battle 920).  He possessed territories in pagus Lommensis (near Namur), pagus Castricensis (near Mézières), Charpaigne, and probably also the Saulnois (near Metz)[355]

 

 

LOUIS IV 936-954

 

LOUIS, son of CHARLES III "le Simple" King of the Franks & his second wife Eadgifu of England ([10 Sep 920/10 Sep 921]-Reims 10 Sep 954, bur Reims, Abbaye de Saint-Rémi).  Rodulfus Glaber names "Ludowicum filium…regis Caroli"[356].  After his father was deposed in 923, his mother fled with Louis to England where he was brought up at the court of Æthelstan King of Wessex.  His return to France after the death of King Raoul in early 936 was negotiated by Hugues "le Grand" [Capet].  He was crowned 19 Jun 936 at Laon by the Archbishop of Reims as LOUIS IV "d´Outremer" King of the Franks.  He asserted his autonomy from Hugues "le Grand", to whom he awarded the title dux francorum, by establishing himself with his mother at Laon in 937[357].  His reign was characterised by constant disputes with his nobles, in particular Hugues "le Grand", Héribert II Comte de Vermandois, Arnoul Count of Flanders and Guillaume "Longuespée" Comte [de Normandie].  Despite constant military activity, he only increased the territory directly held by the kings of France by the counties of Laon (captured in 938 from Héribert II Comte de Vermandois) and Reims.  He also temporarily held Amiens and Ponthieu.  Following a revolt in Lotharingia against Otto I "der Große" King of Germany, Louis was offered the crown of Lotharingia in 939 by Duke Giselbert.  King Otto responded by raiding Frankish territory, allying himself with Hugues "le Grand", Héribert II Comte de Vermandois, Arnoul I Count of Flanders and Guillaume "Longuespée" Comte [de Normandie], and obliged King Louis to renounce Lotharingia.  Héribert and Hugues besieged Reims, forcing the restoration of Héribert's son as archbishop, and besieged King Louis at Laon.  After the murder of Guillaume "Longuespée" Comte [de Normandie], King Louis detained Richard his heir, but was held captive himself by the people of Rouen after Richard escaped.  King Otto launched a revenge attack, but was defeated by the Normans.  After Louis was released by Hugues "le Grand", he was transferred to the custody of Thibaut Comte de Blois who held him captive for a year in 945/46[358].  King Louis died after falling from his horse on his way from Reims to Laon[359]

m (end 939) as her second husband, GERBERGA of Germany, widow of GISELBERT Graf [im Maasgau] Duke of Lotharingia, daughter of HEINRICH I King of Germany & his second wife Mathilde von Ringelheim [Immedinger] (Nordhausen [913/14]-Reims 5 May 984, bur Abbaye de Reims).  Liutprand states that the wife of "Gislebertum Lotharingorum ducem" was "regis sororem"[360].  Flodoard names her "Gerbergam" when recording her second marriage[361].  King Louis married her without the permission of her brother Otto I King of Germany, presumably to increase his hold on Lotharingia (which had been ruled by her first husband).  She was active in the defence of Laon in 941 and of Reims in 946, accompanied her husband on expeditions to Aquitaine in 944 and Burgundy in 949, and was active during his period of imprisonment in 945/46[362].  An educated person, she commissioned from Adso of Moutier-en-Der the De ortu et tempore antichristi[363].  Her husband gave her the abbey of Notre-Dame de Laon in 951, taken from his mother on her second marriage.  Abbess of Notre Dame de Soissons in 959[364].  "Gerberga…Francorum regina" donated "alodo…Marsnam in comitatu Masaugo" to Reims Saint-Rémy, confirmed by "comitibus Emmone et Ansfrido", for the souls of "senioris nostri piæ memoriæ Gisleberti suique…patris…et matris Rageneri et Albradæ", by charter dated 10 Feb 968, signed by "Arnulfi comitis…Emmonis comitis, Ansfridi comitis…"[365].  The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "III Non Feb" of "Gerberga Francorum regina"[366]

King Louis IV & his wife had seven children:

1.         LOTHAIRE (Laon end-941-Laon 2 Mar 986, bur Reims Saint-Rémi).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Karolum Ludovicum et Mathildim" as children of "Hludovicum ex regina Gerberga"[367].  Flodoard names "Lotharius puer, filius Ludowici", when recording his accession[368].  He was elected to succeed his father 12 Nov 954 as LOTHAIRE King of the Franks

-        see below

2.         MATHILDE (end-943-26/27 Jan [981/992], bur Vienne, cathédrale Saint-Maurice).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Karolum Ludovicum et Mathildim" as children of "Hludovicum ex regina Gerberga"[369].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the marriage of "rex Francorum Lotharius…sororem suam Mathildem" and "Conradus rex Burgundie"[370].  "Mathilde et Alberada" are named as daughters of "Gerberga" in the Continuator of Flodoard, which specifies that Mathilde was mother of "Rodulfus rex et Mathildis soror eius"[371].  Her brother King Lothaire arranged this marriage to strengthen his position in south-eastern France.  Her dowry consisted of the counties of Lyon and Vienne[372]m ([964]) as his second wife, CONRAD I "le Pacifique" King of Burgundy [Welf], son of RUDOLF II King of Upper Burgundy & his wife Berta of Swabia ([922/25]-Vienne 19 Oct 993, bur Vienne, cathédrale Saint-Maurice).

3.         CHARLES (Laon Jan 945-Rouen before 953).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Karolum Ludovicum et Mathildim" as children of "Hludovicum ex regina Gerberga"[373], "Karolum" presumably being the older son of that name as indicated by the order, who presumably died after 951 which is the earliest date of the range during which the Genealogia was compiled[374].  Guillaume de Jumièges records that a son of King Louis was given as hostage to the Normans in 945 to secure the release of his father[375], although it is not known whether this son was Charles who would have been a baby at the time, normally too young to have been used as a hostage according to then current practice. 

4.         daughter ([947/early 948]-).  Flodoard records that "Chonradus…dux" baptised "filiam Ludowici regis" in the middle of his passage dealing with 948[376].  She must have been born in the previous year, or very early in the same year, if the timing of the birth of King Louis's son Louis is correctly dated to the end of 948. 

5.         LOUIS ([Dec] 948-Laon 954 before 10 Sep).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Karolum Ludovicum et Mathildim" children of "Hludovicum ex regina Gerberga"[377].  Flodoard records the birth of "regi Ludowico filius…patris ei nomen imponens" at the end of his passage concerning 948[378]

6.         CHARLES (Laon summer 953-in prison Orléans 12 Jun 991, bur 1001 Maastricht, St Servatius).  Flodoard records the birth of twins to "Gerberga regina" in 953 "unus Karolus, alter Heinricus, sed Henricus mox post baptismum defunctus est"[379].  Emperor Otto II created him Duke of Lower Lotharingia in May 977 at Diedenhofen. 

-        DUKES of LOTHARINGIA

7.         HENRI (Summer 953-young).  Flodoard records the birth of twins to "Gerberga regina" in 953 "unus Karolus, later Heinricus, sed Henricus mox post baptismum defunctus est"[380]

 

 

LOTHAIRE 954-986, LOUIS V 986-987

 

LOTHAIRE, son of LOUIS IV "d'Outremer" King of the Franks & his wife Gerberga of Germany (Laon end-941-Laon 2 or 10 Mar 986, bur Reims Saint-Rémi).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hlotharium Karolum Ludovicum et Mathildim" as children of "Hludovicum ex regina Gerberga"[381].  Flodoard names "Lotharius puer, filius Ludowici", when recording his accession[382].  Rodulfus Glaber names "Lotharium" son of "Ludowicus ex Gerberga, uxore quondam Gisleberti ducis"[383].  He was elected to succeed his father 12 Nov 954 as LOTHAIRE King of the Franks, and was crowned at Reims immediately.  He ruled through the regency of Hugues "le Grand" until 956, and that of his maternal uncle Bruno Archbishop of Köln until 965.  Thereafter Hugues "Capet" became the real ruler throughout the remainder of Lothaire's reign[384].  King Lothaire fought lengthy campaigns to recapture Lotharingia.  In 978, he captured Aachen, but Emperor Otto II pursued him and besieged Paris in Sep 978 although he retreated in November[385].  King Lothaire and King Otto made peace at Margut in Jun 980, the former renouncing his claim to Lotharingia[386].  However, after Emperor Otto died in 983, King Lothaire renewed his efforts against Lotharingia, conquered Verdun and captured Thierry Duke of Upper Lotharingia.  He died while preparing another offensive against Liège and Cambrai[387].  The Historia Francorum Senonensis records the death in 956 of "Hlotharius rex" and his burial "in basilica beati Remigii Remis"[388].  The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "VI Id Mar" of "Clotharius rex"[389]

m (early 966) EMMA of Italy, daughter of LOTHAR King of Italy & his wife Adelais of Burgundy ([948/50]-2 Nov after 988).  Flodoard names "Emmam filiam…regis quondam Italici" when recording her marriage to "Lotharius rex"[390].  The Annalista Saxo specifies that the daughter of Empress Adelaida by her first marriage was the wife of King Lothaire, but does not give her name[391].  Her brother-in-law Charles accused Queen Emma of adultery with Adalbero Bishop of Laon[392].  She retired to Dijon after the death of her husband[393]

Mistress (1): (before 967) ---, sister of Comte ROBERT, daughter of ---.  Her family origin is confirmed by the Acts of the Concile de Saint-Basle in 991 which record "avunculum suum Rotbertum, Karoli servum comitem fidissimum" in relation to Arnoul Archbishop of Reims, illegitimate son of King Lothaire[394].  Settipani states that the mistress of King Lothaire was the sister of comte Robert, mayor of the palace of Charles Duke of Lotharingia[395]

King Lothaire & his wife had two children:

1.         LOUIS ([966/67]-Compiègne 22 May 987, bur Compiègne, église collégiale de Saint-Corneille).  Rodulfus Glaber names Louis as son of King Lothaire, commenting that he "had not inherited the energy of his father"[396].  His father declared him associate king in 978, crowned 8 Jun 979.  He was crowned king of Aquitaine on the day of his marriage in 982.  Rodulfus Glaber records that his father "escorted his son home" after he was left by his wife and that "they lived together for some years"[397].  The impression left by these texts is that Louis was in some way subnormal.  He succeeded his father 2 Mar 986 as LOUIS V King of the Franks.  He quarrelled with his mother, banished Adalbero Bishop of Laon, and besieged Reims[398].  Richer records that he died 22 May from injuries received when falling from his horse while hunting[399].  The Historia Francorum Senonensis records the death in 987 of "Hludovicus, filius eius [=Hlotharius rex] iuvenis" and his burial "in basilica beati Cornelii martiris Compendio"[400].  The necrology of Auxerre cathedral records the death 22 May of "Hludovicus iuvenis Rex"[401]m (Vieux-Brioude, Haute-Loire 982, divorced 984) as her third husband, ADELAIS [Blanche] d'Anjou, widow firstly of ETIENNE de Brioude and secondly of RAYMOND Comte de Toulouse, daughter of FOULQUES II "le Bon" Comte d’Anjou & his first wife Gerberge --- ([945/50]-1026, bur Montmajour, near Arles).  Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of Saint-Pierre du Puy which names "comes Gaufridus cognomento Grisogonella…Pontius et Bertrandus eius nepotes…matre eorum Adalaide sorore ipsius"[402], the brothers Pons and Bertrand being confirmed in other sources as the sons of Etienne de Brioude, for example the charter dated 1000 under which "duo germani fratres…Pontius, alter Bertrandus" donated property to Saint-Chaffre for the souls of "patris sui Stephani matrisque nomine Alaicis"[403].  Adelais's second and third marriages are confirmed by Richer who records the marriage of Louis and "Adelaidem, Ragemundi nuper defuncti ducis Gothorum uxorem" and their coronation as king and queen of Aquitaine[404].  The Chronicon Andegavensi names "Blanchiam filiam Fulconis Boni comitis Andegavensis" as wife of the successor of "Lotharius rex Francorum", but confuses matters by stating that the couple were parents of "filiam Constantiam" wife of Robert II King of France[405].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence names "Blanchiam" as the wife of "Lotharius rex…Ludovicum filium" but does not give her origin[406].  She was crowned Queen of Aquitaine with her third husband on the day of their marriage.  The Libro de Otiis Imperialibus names "Blanchiam" as wife of "Ludovicus puer [filius Lotharii]"[407].  Rodulfus Glaber refers to the unnamed wife of "Ludowicum" as "ab Aquitanis partibus uxorem", recounting that she tricked him into travelling to Aquitaine where "she left him and attached herself to her own family"[408].  Richer records her marriage with "Wilelmum Arelatensem" after her divorce from Louis[409].  Her fourth marriage is confirmed by the Historia Francorum which names "Blanca sorore Gaufridi comitis Andegavensis" as wife of "Guillelmi comitis Arelatensis"[410].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Blanche comitisse Arelatensis" as mother of "Constantia [uxor Robertus rex]", specifying that she was "soror Gaufridi Grisagonelli"[411].  The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum names "Blanca sorore eius" ( "eius" referring incorrectly to Foulques "Nerra" Comte d'Anjou) as wife of "Guillelmi Arelatensis comitis" and as mother of Constance, wife of Robert II King of France[412].  "Adalaiz comitissa" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 1003[413].  This charter is subscribed by "Emma comitissa…Wilelmus comes", the second of whom was presumably the son of Adelais but the first of whom has not been identified.  "Pontius…Massiliensis ecclesie pontifex" issued a charter dated 1005 with the consent of "domni Rodhbaldi comitis et domne Adalaizis comitisse, domnique Guillelmi comitis filii eius"[414].  "Adalax comitissa mater Villelmi quondam Provintie comitis et Geriberga eque comitissa…eiusdem principis olim uxor" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of their late son and husband respectively by charter dated 1018[415].  No explanation has been found for her having been named Adelais in some sources and Blanche in others, as it is difficult to interpret these documents to mean that they referred to two separate individuals.  Adelais's supposed fifth marriage is deduced from the following: Count Othon-Guillaume's wife is named Adelais in several charters[416], and Pope Benedict VIII refers to "domnæ Adeleidi comitissæ cognomento Blanchæ" with "nuruique eius domnæ Gerbergæ comitissæ" when addressing her supposed husband in a document dated Sep 1016[417], Gerberga presumably being Count Othon-Guillaume's daughter by his first wife who was the widow of Adelaide-Blanche d´Anjou's son by her fourth husband.  However, the document in question appears not to specify that "domnæ Adeleidi…" was the wife of Othon Guillaume and the extracts seen (the full text has not yet been consulted) do not permit this conclusion to be drawn.  It is perfectly possible that the Pope named Adelais-Blanche in the letter only in reference to her relationship to Othon Guillaume´s daughter.  If her fifth marriage is correct, Adelais would have been considerably older than her new husband, and probably nearly sixty years old when she married (Othon-Guillaume's first wife died in [1002/04]), which seems unlikely.  Another difficulty is presented by three entries dated 1018, 1024 and 1026 which appear to link Adelais to Provence while, if the fifth marriage was correct, she would have been with her husband (whose death is recorded in Sep 1026) in Mâcon.  These entries are: firstly, "Adalax comitissa mater Villelmi quondam Provintie comitis et Geriberga eque comitissa…eiusdem principis olim uxor" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of their late son and husband respectively by charter dated 1018[418]; secondly, "Vuilelmus filius Rodbaldi" donated property "in comitatu Aquense in valle…Cagnanam" to Marseille Saint-Victor by charter dated 1024, signed by "Adalaiz comitissa, Vuilelmus comes filius Rodbaldi"[419]; and thirdly, a manuscript written by Arnoux, monk at Saint-André-lès-Avignon, records the death in 1026 of "Adalax comitissa"[420].  The necrology of Saint-Pierre de Mâcon records the death "IV Kal Jun" of "Adalasia comitissa vocata regali progenie orta"[421].  She married fourthly Guillaume II "le Libérateur" Comte d'Arles Marquis de Provence, [and fifthly (before 1016) as his second wife, Othon Guillaume Comte de Mâcon et de Nevers [Bourgogne-Comté]].  An enquiry dated 2 Jan 1215 records that "comitissa Blanca" was buried "apud Montem Majorem"[422]

2.         OTTO (-13 Nov before 986).  The necrology of Odelric Provost of Reims records the death "Id Nov" of "Otto puer et canonicus filius Lotharii regis"[423].  Settipani assumes that he was King Lothaire´s legitimate son[424]

King Lothaire had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1):

3.          ARNOUL (before 967-5 Mar 1021, bur Reims cathedral).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines quotes contradictory sources concerning the paternity of Arnoul: "Guido", which names "Arnulfo Remorum archiepiscopo…frater…regis Lotharii sed non uterinus", and "Sigebertus", which names "Arnulfi regis Lotharii filius"[425].  The Historia Francorum Senonensis names "frater Hlotharii regis ex concubina, nomine Arnulfus" as Archbishop of Reims[426].  Richer names "Arnulfus Lotharii regis ex concubina filius" when recording that he offered his services to Hugues Capet in return for his appointment as archbishop of Reims[427].  In another passage, Richer records that "Karolum…cum uxore Adelaide et filio Ludovico, et filiabus duabus, quarum altera Gerberga, altera Adelaidis dicebatur, necnon et Arnulfo nepote" were imprisoned[428].  A letter of Gebert names "Arnulfus regis Hlotharii, ut fama est, filius" when recording that he was appointed as archbishop of Reims[429]There appears no way of resolving Arnoul's affiliation definitively.  A later rather than earlier birth appears consistent with his death in 1021, which would favour King Lothaire as his father (and his birth in [960/65]) rather than King Louis IV (which would place his birth before 954), although it is recognised that the difference is marginal if Arnoul was born towards the end of King Louis's life.  Arnoul supported the claim of Charles Duke of Lower Lotharingia to the French throne after the death of King Louis V.  However, after the death of Adalberon Archbishop of Reims in 988, Arnoul offered his services to Hugues Capet who arranged his election as Archbishop of Reims  [end Mar] 989.  He betrayed Hugues Capet and delivered Reims to Duke Charles in [Aug/Sep] 989.  At first pardoned by Hugues, he was captured and taken to Orléans.  He was deposed as archbishop 18 Jun 991 by the council of Saint-Basle de Verzy.  He was released by King Robert II and restored as archbishop in 998 and, as such, anointed Hugues, son of King Robert II, as king at Compiègne 9 Jun 1017[430]

4.          RICHARD (-after 991).  "Richardus frater tuus" defended Arnoul Archbishop of Reims at the concile de Saint-Basle in 991[431]. 

 

 



[1] Annales Einhardi 741, MGH SS I, p. 135. 

[2] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”), 749, p. 39. 

[3] RFA 753 and 754, p. 40. 

[4] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. 

[5] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 327.       

[6] Annales Metenses 768, MGH SS I, p. 335. 

[7] Annales Laurissenses 783, MGH SS I, p. 164. 

[8] RFA 783, p. 61. 

[9] Annales Laurissenses 749, MGH SS I, p. 136. 

[10] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[11] RFA 770, p. 48. 

[12] Annales Fuldenses 770, MGH SS I, p. 348. 

[13] Annales Laurissenses 783, MGH SS I, p. 164. 

[14] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Prieuré d'Argenteuil, p. 348.       

[15] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 302. 

[16] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 302. 

[17] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Bertin (Paris), p. 56. 

[18] RFA 754, p. 40. 

[19] RFA 771, p. 48. 

[20] Einhardi Annales 771, MGH SS I, p. 149. 

[21] Annales Fuldenses 771, MGH SS I, p. 348. 

[22] Annalium Sancti Amandi Continuatio Altera 771, MGH SS I, p. 12. 

[23] Annales Xantenses 771, MGH SS II, p. 222. 

[24] Annales Laurissenses 771, MGH SS I, p. 148. 

[25] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 272. 

[26] Annales Laurissensis 771, MGH SS I, p. 148 (only in one ms.). 

[27] DD Kar I 43 to 54, pp. 61-76. 

[28] Annales Lobienses 771, MGH SS XIII, p. 228. 

[29] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 186. 

[30] Annales Fuldenses 770, MGH SS I, p. 348. 

[31] Annales Petaviani 770, MGH SS I, p. 13. 

[32] Annales Lobienses 771, MGH SS XIII, p. 228. 

[33] Einhardi Annales 771, MGH SS I, p. 149. 

[34] Settipani (1993), p. 186, citing Lib. Pontif. 97, Vita Hadriani papæ c. 9, pp. 126-27, Davis. 

[35] Annales Lobienses 771, MGH SS XIII, p. 228. 

[36] Einhardi Annales 771, MGH SS I, p. 149. 

[37] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 302. 

[38] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[39] Annalium Petavianorum Continuatio 757, MGH SS I, p. 11. 

[40] DD Kar I 319, p. 483. 

[41] DD Kar. 1, 190, p. 254. 

[42] McCormick, M. 'Byzantium and the West, 700-900', in The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 2: c. 700-c. 900, ed. R. McKitterick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 365, and Herrin, J. The Formation of Christendom (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987), p. 381, and BMPZ No. 4243. 

[43] Settipani (1993), p. 186. 

[44] Annales Laurissenses 759, MGH SS I, p. 142. 

[45] RFA 759, p. 43. 

[46] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. 

[47] Pauli Diaconi Carmina, XX Epitaphium Rothaidis filiæ Pippini regis, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 57. 

[48] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. 

[49] Pauli Diaconi Carmina, XXI Epitaphium Adheleidis filiæ cuius supra, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 57. 

[50] Vita Maximini Episcopi Trevirensis 23, MGH SS rer. Merov. III, p. 81. 

[51] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[52] Vita Maximini Episcopi Trevirensis 23, MGH SS rer. Merov. III, p. 81. 

[53] Annales Murbacenses I, p. 7. 

[54] Annales Murbacenses I, p. 8. 

[55] Annales Murbacenses I, p. 8. 

[56] Saint-Bertin, p. 56. 

[57] RFA 754, p. 40. 

[58] RFA 769, p. 47. 

[59] DD Kar I 80 and 81, pp. 114-16. 

[60] Ostrogorsky, G. (1952) Geschichte des byzantinischen Staates, French translation (1977) Histoire de l'Etat Byzantin (Payot), pp. 227-8. 

[61] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. 

[62] Annales Fuldenses 814 MGH SS I, p. 356. 

[63] Einhard 18, p. 453. 

[64] Annales Fuldenses 770, MGH SS I, p. 348. 

[65] RFA 783, p. 61. 

[66] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265.  Her epitaph is quoted on p. 266. 

[67] Einhard 18, p. 453. 

[68] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 2, MGH SS II, p. 590-1. 

[69] Annales Laurissenses 783, MGH SS I, p. 164. 

[70] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 267. 

[71] Pauli Diaconi Carmina, XXII Epitaphium Hildegardis reginæ, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 58. 

[72] RFA 783, p. 61. 

[73] RFA 794, p. 73. 

[74] Annales Laurissenses 783, MGH SS I, p. 164. 

[75] Einhardi Annales 783, MGH SS I, p. 165. 

[76] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[77] RFA 792, p. 71. 

[78] Annales Xantenses 794, MGH SS II, p. 222. 

[79] Einhardi Annales 794, MGH SS I, p. 181. 

[80] Theodulfi Carmina, XXIV Epitaphium Fastradæ reginæ, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 483. 

[81] RFA 800, p. 80. 

[82] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[83] Angilberti (Homeri) Carmina, I, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 360. 

[84] Annales Laurissenses Continuatio usque ad a. 829 Auctore Einhardo 800, MGH SS I, p. 186. 

[85] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. 

[86] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[87] Settipani (1993), p. 200. 

[88] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[89] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[90] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[91] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265, specifies that the couple had four sons (named) and five daughters (not named). 

[92] RFA 811, p. 94. 

[93] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. 

[94] Chronicon Fontanellense XVI, Spicilegium II, p. 278. 

[95] Kirby, D. P. (revised 2000) The Earliest English Kings (Longman), p. 146. 

[96] McKitterick, R. (1983) Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987 (Longman, London and New York), p. 266. 

[97] Annales Laurissenses 790, MGH SS I, p. 176. 

[98] Einhardi Annales 806, MGH SS I, p. 193. 

[99] MGH LL Capitularia regum Francorum, Tome I, Divisio Imperio 806, p. 126. 

[100] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 811, MGH SS I, p. 355. 

[101] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 199. 

[102] Annales Fuldenses 811 MGH SS I, p. 355. 

[103] Settipani (1993), p. 203. 

[104] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. 

[105] Pauli Diaconi Carmina, XXIII Epitaphium Adeleidis filia Karoli regis quæ in Italia nata est, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 59. 

[106] RFA 810, p. 91. 

[107] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[108] Angilberti (Homeri) Carmina, I, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, pp. 359-60. 

[109] Theodulfi Carmina, XXV Ad Carolum Rege, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 486. 

[110] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 19, MGH SS II, pp. 453-4. 

[111] Classen, J. (ed.) (1839) Theophanes Chronographia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Vol. I, 6274/774, p. 705 and 6281/781, p. 718. 

[112] Annales Fuldenses 787, MGH SS I, p. 350. 

[113] Settipani (1993), p. 204. 

[114] Settipani (1993), p. 204. 

[115] Annales Bertiniani III 867. 

[116] Annales Bertiniani II 858. 

[117] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 810, MGH SS I, p. 354. 

[118] Einhardi Annales 810, MGH SS I, p. 197. 

[119] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 318.        

[120] RFA 787, p. 64. 

[121] Brooks, E. W. 'On the Date of the Death of Constantine the Son of Irene', Byzantinische Zeitschrift 9 (1900), 654-7. 

[122] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. 

[123] Settipani (1993), p. 211. 

[124] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. 

[125] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. 

[126] Pauli Diaconi Carmina, XXXIX Epitaphium Chlodarii pueri regis, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 71. 

[127] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[128] Angilberti (Homeri) Carmina, I, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, pp. 359-60. 

[129] Theodulfi Carmina, XXV Ad Carolum Rege, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 486. 

[130] Chronicon Fontanellense XVI, Spicilegium II, p. 278. 

[131] Settipani (1993), pp. 204 and 205. 

[132] Anschero, Vita Angilberti 2, MGH SS XV.I, p. 180. 

[133] Ex Chronico Centulensi sive Sancti Richarii, RHGF V, p. 371. 

[134] Nithard IV.5, p. 172. 

[135] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 310.       

[136] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[137] Angilberti (Homeri) Carmina, I, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, pp. 359-60. 

[138] Theodulfi Carmina, XXV Ad Carolum Rege, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 486. 

[139] Annales Laurissenses 781, MGH SS I, p. 160. 

[140] RFA 781, p. 59. 

[141] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. 

[142] Pauli Diaconi Carmina, XXIV Epitaphium Hildegardis filiæ cuius supra, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 59. 

[143] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[144] Angilberti (Homeri) Carmina, I, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, pp. 359-60. 

[145] Theodulfi Carmina, XXV Ad Carolum Rege, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 486. 

[146] LD I, 34, p. 43. 

[147] Settipani (1993), p. 207 footnotes 116 and 117. 

[148] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[149] Theodulfi Carmina, XXV Ad Carolum Rege, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 486. 

[150] Wilhelm Kurze, 'Adalbert und Gottfried von Calw', Z. württ. Landesgesch. (1965), pp 241-308, 417-420. 

[151] Rösch, S. (1977) Caroli Magni Progenies (Verlag Degener & Co, Neustadt an der Aisch), p. 71. 

[152] Annales Bertiniani II 844. 

[153] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. 

[154] RFA 792, p. 71. 

[155] Settipani (1993), p. 203. 

[156] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[157] Theodulfi Carmina, XXV Ad Carolum Rege, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 486. 

[158] Settipani (1993), p. 208. 

[159] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 254.       

[160] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 312.       

[161] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[162] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[163] Annales Weissemburgenses 802 aut 803, MGH SS I, p. 111. 

[164] Nithard I.2, p. 130. 

[165] Annales Xantenses 823, MGH SS II, p. 225, and RFA 823, p. 113.  

[166] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 840, MGH SS I, p. 362. 

[167] Settipani (1993), p. 209 footnote 126. 

[168] Catalogus Epsicoporum Mettensium, MGH SS 2, p. 269. 

[169] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[170] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Bertin (Paris), II.1, 834, p. 82. 

[171] Nithard I.2, p. 130. 

[172] Saint-Bertin, II.1, 834, p. 82. 

[173] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 55, MGH SS II, p. 641. 

[174] Settipani (1993), p. 209. 

[175] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 844, MGH SS I, p. 364. 

[176] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, MGH SS II, p. 453. 

[177] Annales Lobienses 747-870, MGH SS II, p. 195. 

[178] Nithard I.2, p. 130. 

[179] Nithard I.8, p. 140. 

[180] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. 

[181] Settipani (1993), p. 250. 

[182] RFA 813, p. 95. 

[183] Settipani (1993), p. 252. 

[184] Settipani (1993), pp. 252-3. 

[185] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 840, MGH SS I, p. 362. 

[186] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. 

[187] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[188] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris, p. 227.       

[189] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 320.       

[190] RFA 818, p. 104.  

[191] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591. 

[192] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 818, MGH SS I, p. 356. 

[193] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 31, MGH SS II, p. 623. 

[194] Annales Xantenses 819, MGH SS II, p. 224. 

[195] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 26, MGH SS II, p. 596. 

[196] Einhardi Annales 819, MGH SS I, p. 206. 

[197] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 36, MGH SS II, p. 597. 

[198] Settipani (1993), pp. 254-5. 

[199] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 315.       

[200] Annales Xantenses 843, MGH SS II, p. 227. 

[201] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591. 

[202] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591. 

[203] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[204] Settipani (1993), p. 255 footnote 446, citing MGH Dipl Carol, no. 48, p. 143, 101, 241, 197, p. 353, spur. 34, p. 441.

[205] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[206] Nithard III.4, p. 160. 

[207] Annales Formoselenses 857, MGH SS V, p. 35. 

[208] Annales Alemannici 857, MGH SS I, p. 50 "Hludovici regis filia Hiltikart", footnote 1 referring to "Necrolog S Galli" recording "X Kal Dec". 

[209] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591. 

[210] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[211] Coussemaker, I. de (ed.) (1886) Cartulaire de l´abbaye de Cysoing et de ses dépendances (Lille) ("Cysoing"), V, p. 10. 

[212] Cysoing III, p. 7. 

[213] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, pp. 878 and 879, and Cysoing IV and V, pp. 8 and 10. 

[214] Cysoing VI, p. 11. 

[215] Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 824, MGH SS V, p. 39. 

[216] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 35, MGH SS II, p. 597. 

[217] Casus Monasterii Petrishusensis I.2, MGH SS XX, p. 628. 

[218] MGH SS XX, pp. 622-25. 

[219] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ IV, XLVI, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 448. 

[220] Annales Hildesheimenses 815, MGH SS III, p. 42. 

[221] Settipani (1993), pp. 200-02. 

[222] Chronicon Moissacense 817, MGH SS I, p. 312. 

[223] Settipani (1993), p. 255. 

[224] Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 824, MGH SS V, p. 39. 

[225] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 35, MGH SS II, p. 597. 

[226] Settipani (1993), pp. 302-6. 

[227] Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 877, MGH SS V, p. 39. 

[228] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 272. 

[229] Annales Bertiniani II 842. 

[230] Nithard IV.6, p. 173. 

[231] Annales Bertiniani III 869. 

[232] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris, p. 230.       

[233] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 328.       

[234] Annales Bertiniani III 869. 

[235] D´Herbomez, A. (ed.) (1898) Cartulaire de l´abbaye de Gorze, Mettensia II (Paris), 87, p. 157. 

[236] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 272 (upper-case in original). 

[237] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[238] Annales Bertiniani II 856. 

[239] Giles, J. A. (trans.) (2000) Asser, Annals of the Reign of Alfred the Great (Cambridge, Ontario, In parentheses Publications) Part I. 

[240] Annales Bertiniani II 858. 

[241] Asser, p. 8. 

[242] Annales Bertiniani auct Hincmari Remensis 862 and 863, MGH SS I, pp. 456 and 462. 

[243] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ III.12, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 218. 

[244] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[245] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[246] Annales Bertiniani III 866. 

[247] Chronico Floriacensi apud Chesnium Tomo 3, p. 355, cited in RHGF 7, p. 272. 

[248] Annales Bertiniani III 862. 

[249] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[250] Folcuini Gesta Abbatum Lobiensium 14, MGH SS IV, p. 61. 

[251] Annales Bertiniani II 854. 

[252] Settipani (1993), p. 310. 

[253] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[254] Annales Bertiniani II 861. 

[255] Settipani (1993), p. 310. 

[256] Chronico Floriacensi apud Chesnium Tomo 3, p. 355, cited in RHGF 7, p. 272. 

[257] Obituaires de Sens Tome III, Abbaye de Saint-Germain d´Auxerre, p. 274.       

[258] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[259] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[260] Tomelli, Historia Monasterii Hasnonensis 4, MGH SS XIV, p. 151. 

[261] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[262] Settipani (1993), p. 511 footnote 814. 

[263] Flodoardi Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ III , MGH SS XIII, p. 548. 

[264] RHGF X, p. 489. 

[265] 'Catalogue des actes des évêques du Mans jusqu'à la fin du XIII siècle', Revue historique et archéologique du Maine, t. 63 (1908) 2, pp. 32-63 and 144-185, quoted in Latouche Histoire du Maine, p. 15 footnote 4. 

[266] Flodoard 922, MGH SS III, p. 370. 

[267] Settipani, p. 406. 

[268] Flodoard 929, MGH SS III, p. 378. 

[269] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 254.       

[270] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 312.       

[271] Epitaphium Drogonis et Pippini, Caroli Calvi filiorum, cited in RHGF 7, p. 224. 

[272] Epitaphium Drogonis et Pippini, Caroli Calvi filiorum, cited in RHGF 7, p. 224. 

[273] Annales Bertiniani III 875. 

[274] Annales Bertiniani III 877. 

[275] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[276] McKitterick (1983), p. 266. 

[277] McKitterick (1983), p. 266. 

[278] Settipani (1993), pp. 313-4. 

[279] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 879, MGH SS I, p. 392. 

[280] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 879, MGH SS I, p. 392. 

[281] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 314.       

[282] Annales Bertiniani II 856. 

[283] Annales Bertiniani III 862. 

[284] Reginonis Chronicon 878, MGH SS I, p. 589. 

[285] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 272. 

[286] Jackman, D. C. (1997) Criticism and Critique, sidelights on the Konradiner (Oxford Unit for Prosopographical Research), p. 119, refers to the different theories concerning the date of King Louis II's second marriage, which support dates ranging from [866/69] to Dec 877. 

[287] Reginonis Chronicon 878, MGH SS I, p. 589. 

[288] Settipani (1993), p. 316 footnote 857 which does not cite the source for this reference. 

[289] Annales Bertiniani III, 878. 

[290] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[291] Jackman (1997), p. 115. 

[292] Settipani (1993), p. 319. 

[293] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris, p. 228.       

[294] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 268.       

[295] Giry, A. 'Etudes carolingiennes. Documents carolingiens de l'abbaye de Montiéramey', Etudes d'histoire du moyen âge dédiées à Gabriel Monod (Paris, 1896), pp. 107-36, no. 17, p. 130, and Bautier, R. H. (ed.) (1978) Recueil des actes de Louis II le Bègue, Louis III et Carloman II (Paris) no. 80, p. 213, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 317 footnote 862. 

[296] Rösch, p. 100. 

[297] Jackman (1997), pp. 120-1. 

[298] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[299] Settipani (1993), p. 320. 

[300] RHGF IX, p. 418. 

[301] Annales Vedastini 884, MGH SS II, p. 522. 

[302] Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 884, MGH SS V, p. 40. 

[303] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Prieuré d'Argenteuil, p. 351.       

[304] Annales Bertiniani III 878. 

[305] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[306] Rösch, p. 100, although the author gives no information on which he bases this estimation. 

[307] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[308] Settipani (1993), p. 318. 

[309] Tabula Genealogica ex Codice Bibl. Regiæ Monacensis, MGH SS II, p. 314. 

[310] Rösch, p. 119. 

[311] Havet, J. (ed.) (1889) Lettres de Gerbert 983-997 (Paris), 52, p. 48, and Epistola XXXV, RHGF 9, p. 283. 

[312] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[313] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[314] Annalista Saxo 887. 

[315] Reginonis Chronicon 878, MGH SS I, p. 589. 

[316] Richard, Alfred (1903) Histoire des Comtes de Poitou (republished Princi Negue, 2003), Tome I, p. 57. 

[317] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 605. 

[318] Settipani (1993), pp. 322-3. 

[319] McKitterick (1983), p. 308. 

[320] France, J., Bulst, N. and Reynolds, P. (eds. and trans.) (1989) Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque, Rodulfus Glaber Opera (Oxford) I.5, p 13. 

[321] McKitterick (1983), p. 312. 

[322] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press), 1. 23, p. 84. 

[323] RHGF IX, XXXVII, p. 504. 

[324] RHGF IX, LXVIII, p. 534. 

[325] Flodoard Annales 956, MGH SS III, p. 403. 

[326] McKitterick (1983), p. 308. 

[327] Settipani (1993), p. 325 footnote 324. 

[328] RHGF IX, LXV, p. 531. 

[329] RHGF IX, LXIX, p. 536. 

[330] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 273. 

[331] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[332] Flodoard 951, MGH SS III, p. 401. 

[333] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[334] Hlawitschka, E. (1969) Die Anfänge des Hauses Habsburg-Lothringen, Genealogische Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Lothringens und des Reiches im 9. 10 and 11 Jahrhundert (Saarbrücken), pp. 68-9. 

[335] Liber Memorialis de Remiremont, p. 9, Hlawitschka (1969), p. 57, suggesting the estimated date. 

[336] Liber Memorialis de Remiremont, p. 9, Hlawitschka (1969), p. 57, suggesting the estimated date. 

[337] Liber Memorialis de Remiremont, p. 2. 

[338] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[339] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[340] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 943, MGH SS XXIII, p. 763. 

[341] Meyer, P. and Longnon, A. (eds.) (1882) Raoul de Cambrai, Chanson de Geste (Paris), discussed in the Introduction, and mentioned i.a. CCXLIX, p. 224. 

[342] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[343] Guizot, M. (ed.) (1826) Histoire des ducs de Normandie, par Guillaume de Jumiège (Paris) (“WJ”), II.17, pp. 52-3, and IV.19, p. 55. 

[344] Felice Lifshitz (ed.) Dudo of St Quentin's Gesta Normannorum, The Online Reference Book for Medieval Sources, <http://orb.rhodes.edu/ORB_done/Dudo/dudindex.html> (6 Jan 2003), Chapter 12. 

[345] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus MGH SS IX, p. 381, undated but the following sentence records the baptism of Rollo in 912 by "Franco Rothomagensis archiepiscopus" which presumably indicates that the two events were simultaneous or at least related. 

[346] Settipani (1993), p. 326. 

[347] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[348] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[349] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[350] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[351] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[352] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[353] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[354] Duvivier, C. (1903) Actes et documents anciens interéssant la Belgique, Nouvelle série (Brussels), 1, p. 1. 

[355] Settipani (1993), p. 326 footnote 317. 

[356] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum I.7, p. 15. 

[357] McKitterick (1983), p. 315. 

[358] McKitterick (1983), p. 316. 

[359] Settipani (1993), pp. 328-9. 

[360] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.20, MGH SS III, p. 321. 

[361] Flodoard 939, MGH SS III, p. 386. 

[362] McKitterick (1983), p. 318. 

[363] McKitterick (1983), p. 278. 

[364] Settipani (1993), p. 330. 

[365] Miraeus (Le Mire), A. (1723) Opera diplomatica et historica, 2nd edn. (Louvain), Tome I, XXXVII, p. 48. 

[366] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 273. 

[367] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[368] Flodoard 954, MGH SS III, p. 402. 

[369] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[370] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 986, MGH SS XXIII, p. 773. 

[371] Flodoard Addit codex 1 (inserted after 966), MGH SS III, p. 407. 

[372] McKitterick (1983), p. 322. 

[373] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[374] MGH SS IX, p. 302, Introduction to Witgeri Genealogia Arnulfi Comitis, specifying that it was compiled between 951 and 959, presumably during the earlier part of this date range considering which children of King Louis are named. 

[375] WJ IV.8, p. 91. 

[376] Flodoardi Annales 948, MGH SS III, p. 397. 

[377] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[378] Flodoard 948, MGH SS III, p. 398. 

[379] Flodoard 953, MGH SS III, p. 402. 

[380] Flodoard 953, MGH SS III, p. 402. 

[381] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303. 

[382] Flodoard 954, MGH SS III, p. 402. 

[383] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum I.7, p. 17. 

[384] According to McKitterick (1983), p. 305, this judgment is based on a statement by Gerber in a letter dated 980 and is questionable. 

[385] Thietmar 3.8, p. 133. 

[386] McKitterick (1983), p. 326. 

[387] Settipani (1993), p. 332. 

[388] Hugonis Floriacensis, Historia Francorum Senonensis, MGH SS IX, p. 367. 

[389] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris, p. 225.       

[390] Flodoard 966, MGH SS III, p. 407. 

[391] Annalista Saxo 999. 

[392] McKitterick (1983), p. 325.   

[393] Settipani (1993), p. 333. 

[394] Olleris Actes du concile de Saint-Basle, cap. IX, p. 182, quoted in Lot, F. (1891) Les derniers Carolingiens (Paris), p. 108 footnote 2.  

[395] Settipani (1993), p. 333. 

[396] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum I.7, p. 17 "…iuvenem patre minus fore industrium". 

[397] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum I.7, p. 17 "…iuvenem patre minus fore industrium". 

[398] McKitterick (1983), p. 327. 

[399] Guadet, J. (ed.) (1845) Richeri Historiarum (Paris), IV.V, p. 147. 

[400] Hugonis Floriacensis, Historia Francorum Senonensis, MGH SS IX, p. 367. 

[401] L'abbé Lebeuf (1855) Mémoires concernant l'histoire civile et ecclésiastique d'Auxerre et de son ancient diocese (Auxerre), Tome IV, p. 14. 

[402] Chevalier, U. (ed.) (1884) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Chaffre du Monastier et Chronique de Saint-Pierre du Puy (Montbéliard, Paris), Chronicon Monasterii Sancti Petri Aniciensis, CCCCXII, p. 152. 

[403] Saint-Chaffre CXLIV, p. 70. 

[404] Richer III.XCII and XCIV, pp. 112 and 114. 

[405] Chronico Andegavensi 987, RHGF X, p. 271. 

[406] Marchegay, P. and Salmon, A. (eds.) (1856) Chroniques d'Anjou, Tome I (Paris), Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, p. 382. 

[407] Libro Otiis Imperialibus, RHGF IX, p. 45. 

[408] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum I.7, p. 17. 

[409] Richer III.XCV, p. 116. 

[410] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 9, MGH SS IX, p. 385, additional manuscript quoted in footnote ***. 

[411] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1013, MGH SS XXIII, p. 780. 

[412] Marchegay, P. and Salmon, A. (eds.) (1856) Chroniques d'Anjou, Tome I (Paris), Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, p. 110. 

[413] Guérard, M. (1857) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Victor de Marseille (Paris) Tome I, 653, p. 645. 

[414] Marseille Saint-Victor I, 15, p. 18. 

[415] Marseille Saint-Victor I, 630, p. 626. 

[416] Mâcon 471, 490, pp. 271, and 284-5, and Cluny Tome IV, 2694, p. 721-22. 

[417] Benedict VIII, Letter 16, Patrologia Latina CXXXIX1603, cited in Bouchard (1987), p. 270, and quoted in Manteyer, G. de (1908) La Provence du 1ère au 12ème siècles (Paris), p. 274. 

[418] Guérard, M. (1857) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Victor de Marseille (Paris) Tome I, 630, p. 626. 

[419] Marseille Saint-Victor I, 225, p. 252. 

[420] Manteyer (1908), p. 273, quoting Bibl. nat. de Madrid, ms. Ee 40, fo 118 vo

[421] Obituaires de Lyon II, Prieuré Saint-Pierre de Mâcon, p. 482.       

[422] Manteyer (1908), p. 274, quoting Biblioth. Méjanes ms. 812, recueil Bouquier, t. 1, pp. 145-6, Catal. des mss. Départements, t. XVI, Aix, 1894 ms. 915. 

[423] Codex Odalrici prepositi Remensis, Mabillon, J. Annales Benedictini, Tome IV, p. 32, quoted in Lot (1891), p. 108 footnote 2.  

[424] Settipani (1993), p. 334. 

[425] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 987, MGH SS XXIII, p. 773. 

[426] Hugonis Floriacensis, Historia Francorum Senonensis, MGH SS IX, p. 368. 

[427] Richer IV.XXV and XXVI, pp. 176 and 178. 

[428] Richeri Historiæ IV 49, MGH SS III, p. 642. 

[429] Gebert 217, p. 203. 

[430] Settipani (1993), pp. 333-4. 

[431] Olleris Actes du concile de Saint-Basle, cap. IX, p. 182, quoted in Lot (1891), p. 108 footnote 2.