carolingian NOBILITY

  v2.0 Updated 20 January 2011

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.            CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY in FRANCE. 6

A.       FAMILY of ADALHARD and WALA.. 6

B.       DESCENDANTS of GERARD COMTE [de PARIS] 10

C.      DESCENDANTS of EUDES COMTE d'ORLEANS.. 17

D.      FAMILY of HIERONYMUS.. 22

E.       FAMILY of ENGUERRAND COMTE de PARIS.. 24

F.       DESCENDANTS of VULFARD COMTE de FLAVIGNY (later COMTES d'ANGOULÊME) 27

G.      FAMILY of ADALHARD [COMTE de LOCHES] 29

H.      DESCENDANTS of MATFRIED COMTE d'ORLEANS.. 30

I.    DESCENDANTS of LANTBERT [MARQUIS of BRETON MARCH] 33

J.       FAMILIES of NIBELUNG, CHILDEBRAND and THEODERIC.. 35

K.       DESCENDANTS of HUGUES [COMTE d'AUVERGNE] 58

L.       DESCENDANTS of SEGUIN COMTE [de NEVERS] 58

M.      FAMILY of NITHARD.. 59

N.      FAMILY of HARDUIN.. 62

O.      FAMILY of ADELRAMN COMTE [de TROYES] 63

P.       FAMILY of UNRUOCH.. 69

Q.      FAMILY of HUGUES [DUKE of BURGUNDY] 71

R.      FAMILY of WICFRED COMTE de BOURGES.. 72

S.       CAROLINGIAN COUNTS near PARIS.. 73

Chapter 2.            OTHER UNCONNECTED CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY in FRANCE. 76

A.       EIGHTH CENTURY.. 76

B.       NINTH CENTURY.. 97

C.      TENTH CENTURY.. 127

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

This document sets out the families of Frankish nobility from the late 8th to 10th centuries, covering the period of rule by the Carolingian monarchs.  It shows nobles associated with the Carolingian empire prior to the partition of territories agreed under the 843 Treaty of Verdun and, after that date, those connected mainly with the western Frankish kingdom.  Early nobility which can be linked post-843 principally with the eastern Frankish kingdom, or with one of the original provinces of Germany, is found in the document GERMANY, EARLY NOBILITY.  There is inevitably some overlap in the coverage of these two documents due to the fluidity of movement of the nobility within the empire, as discussed further below.  The Merovingian nobility in earlier centuries is shown in the document MEROVINGIAN NOBILITY.  Similarity of names suggests many unprovable connections between the Carolingian nobility and the earlier Merovingian nobility.  It is felt that, in the absence of direct proof from primary sources, speculation about family connections is unproductive, especially if based solely on onomastics, given the numerous possible family relationships through both agnatic and cognatic lines. 

 

Nineteen family groups of Carolingian nobility have been partially reconstructed.  These are set out in the different parts of Chapter 1.  They include the descendants of junior members of the Carolingian royal family: the family of Nibelung (descendants of Childebrand, illegitimate son of Pepin [II] "le Gros" maior domus of Neustria), and the descendants of Bernard and Hieronymus, illegitimate sons of Charles "Martel".  The children of Bernard included the monks Adalhard and Walo, prominent figures at court under both Emperor Charlemagne and his son Emperor Louis I, while the descendants of Hieronymus were closely associated with the monastery of Saint-Bertin in Flanders.  Many of the family reconstructions are sketchy and uncertain.  In addition, numerous references have been found to nobles who cannot at this time be linked with any confidence to any family grouping.  They are set out in Chapter 2, in alphabetical order and split between the 8th, 9th and 10th centuries for ease of reference.  It is hoped that this method of displaying the information will facilitate the correct incorporation of further data as it comes to light and maximise the chances of positing more family connections. 

 

The difficulty in reliably reconstructing the families of the Carolingian nobility is due to the relative absence of information in contemporary primary sources concerning family relationships.  References in royal and imperial diplomas are mainly limited to the names and titles of subscribers or of those "faithful nobility" who are recorded as present.  Events recounted in contemporary chronicles rarely place the nobles in their family context, despite the fact that the family of the Carolingian monarchs can be reconstructed with relative certainty from these sources.  Other sources are selective in the family information which they record, in line with the purpose for which the documents were created.  For example, contemporary records of saintly lives mainly name other saintly relatives of the eponymous saint, adding to the aura of sanctity of the main protagonist, and usually ignore lay members of the family.  For example, the Vita Adalhardi, which records the life and deeds of Adalhard (nephew of King Pepin "le Bref") names his five brothers and sisters whose lives were devoted to religion[1].  The Vita Fulcuini deals with the descendants of Hieronymus, another nephew of King Pepin, but also concentrates almost exclusively on family members with a monastic vocation, to such an extent that at least two generations of the family appear to have been ignored altogether[2].  In the case of both these families, closely related to the Carolingian monarchs, it is reasonable to suppose that other unknown siblings led military or diplomatic careers or, in the case of daughters, married into other noble families.  Information obtained from these sources is supplemented by some unusual lists of names from the Carolingian era.  These include a list of Saxons in Westphalia and Ostphalia, dated Jan/Feb 802, which records the names of 32 Saxons (also naming their fathers) each linked to the name of a Frankish nobleman[3].  From the context, it appears that the Franks were assigned responsibility for the allegiance sworn to the emperor by the Saxon captives, although this is not specified in the document.  Among the Franks listed, are eight with the title count (Ansbert, Audracus, Bertold, Gereman, Ripoin, Unruoch, Vulfald and Waning), most of whom are also named in other contemporary records.  Other useful lists are the signatories of peace with the Vikings in 811[4], and the fifteen witnesses of the testament of Emperor Charlemagne dated 811[5].  A greater amount of genealogical information is contained in two other sources which deserve special mention: the Manual of Dhuoda, which records advice from Doda (wife of Bernard Marquis of Septimania) to her son Guillaume, later count of Bordeaux[6], and the so-called donation of Ekkehard, a series of documents which record the testamentary dispositions of count Ekkehard, who died in [876/77], and name 43 different individuals (not all of whom can be identified with certainty)[7]

 

This apparent lack of interest in family relationships in Carolingian era primary sources may be due to the fluidity of movement of Frankish nobles within the Carolingian empire.  The sources reveal continual changes in appointments of nobles to govern particular territories.  In many cases, there is no apparent family connection between successive appointees.  For example, any family relationship between the three counts of Auvergne noted in this document in the middle years of the 9th century is unproven.  In the case of the county of Paris, this is recorded in the late 8th and early 9th centuries as being held by count Gérard [I] and two of his sons, but was also governed by count Enguerrand, who was apparently unrelated to the earlier and later counts, during the later years of the 8th century.  The example of count Gérard also shows that sources, especially in the earlier period, rarely specify which territory a particular count governed.  Gérard, whose death is recorded in 779, is known to history as count of Paris.  However, he is named in five charters dated between 747 and 775, none of which refer to his territorial holding when noting his title.  Count Gérard's family also demonstrates how many different territories could be held at different times by members of a single family, his sons being recorded as counts of Paris, marquis of Septimania and count of Fezensac, while the latter's son was count of Vienne.  Insufficient information has been found to prove whether this practice of changing appointments resulted from a conscious decision on the part of the Carolingian monarchs to avoid creating new local power-bases, although the examples of Bavaria and Aquitaine, where the ruling families were a constant thorn in the side of King Pepin in the mid-8th century, would have justified such a policy.  A further factor was the geographical extent of the empire which inevitably meant rebellions would sprout in different places from time to time.  The focus for enforcing control would therefore change over time.  The central imperial authorities reacted quickly to these situations, as shown by the late 8th and early 9th century Frankish appointments to rule the duchy of Spoleto and the march of Friulia, and the installation of Wido as count and prefect in the march of Brittany in the late 790s.  However, control of such territories rarely passed between family members.  The last point which demonstrates the lack of strong territorial connections among the nobility is the process of appointing trusted members of the senior nobility as royal or imperial missi, often named in contemporary documentation in pairs, one nominee being a religious figure, the other from the lay nobility.  The role of missus was a flexible one.  Some missi led diplomatic missions to other courts (notably to the Byzantine emperors), while others are recorded as commanding armies of conquest (for example in the subjugation of Saxony and the march of Spain).  However, one individual could be appointed successively as missus in many different areas of the empire, although the sources are not sufficiently precise to determine how long each appointment lasted.  Nor is it clear whether the missi were appointed only for a specific mission or whether there were long-term missi appointed as resident imperial representatives in particular territories.  The result of all these various factors is that recording the names of other family members of a newly appointed official was presumably considered irrelevant by the compiler of a chronicle, if the relative had no prior connection with the territory in question. 

 

The difficulties in family reconstruction are highlighted by the example of the family of the various individuals named Nibelung, Childebrand and Theoderic (Chapter 1, part J).  If a precise reconstruction of this family presents challenges, despite these unusual names which should in the normal course greatly facilitate family reconstruction, it is unsurprising that even greater difficulties arise where the family names are more common. 

 

There is also remarkably little information available on the wives of the Carolingian nobility.  In most cases, their names are not known and, where they are named in the sources, it is rare to find a reference to their parentage. 

 

Only relatively few male line descents from Carolingian nobility can be traced into later times.  This document shows descents to the later comtes d'Angoulême, different ruling families of the duchy of Spoleto, the dukes of Aquitaine, the marchesi of Friulia (later, kings of Italy), the vicomtes de Turenne, the comtes de Vermandois, and maybe the comtes de Metz.  However, there are many examples of names used by the early Carolingian nobility which are similar to those used by later nobility in France, suggesting a large number of other descents which are unascertainable because of the absence of data in the sources. 

 

A few words on titles.  The title comes palatii, recorded so frequently among the nobility of the later Merovingian period, is relatively absent from sources which name Carolingian nobility.  Only four examples are cited in the current document: those of Chrodoin (in 770), Anselm ([775]), Adalhard [I] (800), and Adalhard [II] (824).  It is possible that this title was of less significance during the Carolingian era as the Carolingian monarchs ruled their empire by constantly travelling from palace to palace, as shown from the places where imperial diploma were issued.  It is nevertheless clear that the title was never forgotten, as shown by the importance which the position "Pfalzgraf" (presumably derived from comes palatii) later acquired in the German courts of Bavaria, Lotharingia and Saxony.  The vast majority of titled Carolingian nobles are described as "count".  The only recorded examples of "dux" so far identified are the single reference in Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris to the first wife of Emperor Louis I being "filiam nobilissimi ducis Ingorammi…Irmingarda"[8] (which may have been included to boost the prestige of the emperor's wife's family rather than reflect the reality of a ducal position), and the reference of "Burchardus miles, filius Alberici ducis" in the charter of "Lotharius…Francorum rex" dated 10 Dec 958[9] ("Albericus dux" has not been identified from any other source).  Semi-autonomous territories in Italy, such as Spoleto, continued to be ruled by dukes, apparently the only exception.  No other official titles are cited in early Carolingian diplomas, which contrasts with the numerous court officials such as grafio, domesticus, and referendarius, who are named in documentation from the Merovingian period. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY in FRANCE

 

 

 

A.      FAMILY of ADALHARD and WALA

 

 

BERNARD, illegitimate son of CHARLES "Martel" & his mistress Chrothais --- (before 732-787).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Pipinum, Karlomannum, Griphonem et Bernardum" as sons of "Karolus senior…ex regina"[10].  Bernard's relationship to the Carolingian kings is confirmed by Einhard's Annales which name "Walanem filium Bernhardi patruelis sui" when recording that he was sent to Italy in 812 as guardian for "Bernhardum filium Pippin nepotem suum [Karoli imperatoris]"[11].  The Royal Frankish Annals record that Charles I King of the Franks sent Bernard to lead part of his army to Italy, through the Great St Bernard Pass, in response to the Pope's call for help against the Lombards in 773[12].  The Chronicon Moissiacensis records that “Bernardum avunculum suum” (referring to King Charles) led part of the army “per Jovis-montem in Italia”, in 770 but dated to 773[13].  The Annales Moselleni record the death in 787 of "Remigius et Bernehardus"[14].

m firstly ---.  Settipani states that the first wife of Bernard was of Frankish origin but does not cite the source on which this is based[15]

m secondly ---.  Settipani states that the second wife of Bernard was of Saxon origin but does not cite the source on which this is based[16]

Bernard & his first wife had one child: 

1.         ADALHARD [I] ([752]-2 Jan 826).  The Vita Adalhardi refers to "quinque…viri propagati…maior natu senex noster sanctissimus", referring to Adalhard, recording in an earlier passage that he entered holy orders at the age of 20[17].  Although the passage does not name Adalhard's father, it names his younger brother "Wala" whose father is named in Einhard's Annales which record "Walach comes filius Bernhardi"[18].  The Annales Laurissenses record that King Charles came to "Corbonaeum villam" in 771 with "Wilcharius archiepiscopus et Folradus capellanus…Warinus et Adalhardus comites"[19].  Although it is not certain that this "Adalhardus" was the son of Bernard or a different person, no reference to another contemporary of the same name has so far been found.  Abbé de Corbie 781.  A Capitulum of Charles I King of the Franks dated Jun 800 names "Adalardo comiti palatio nostri"[20].  "Comiti Hadalhardus, Fulradus, Unrocus seu Hrocculfus" are named as imperial missi in a document of Emperor Charlemagne dated 806[21].  Adalhard was tutor of Pepin King of Italy, son of Charlemagne, and was appointed regent for Pepin's son Bernard King of Italy in 813[22].  He was exiled to Noirmoutier after the death of Charlemagne in 814, but returned to favour in 821.  Einhard's Annales record that "Adalhardum quoque de Aquitania" was appointed "Corbeiæ monasterio abbatem" in 821[23].  The primary source which records the date of death of Adalhard has not yet been identified. 

Bernard & his second wife had [five] children: 

2.         WALO [Walacho] ([772/73]-Bobbio 31 Aug 836).  Einhard's Annales record "Walach comes filius Bernhardi" as one of the signatories of peace with the Vikings in 811[24].  The Vita Adalhardi refers to "quinque…viri propagati…maior natu senex noster sanctissimus…", referring to Adalhard, "…deinde Wala…"[25].  There does not appear to be any direct proof that Walo was born from his father's second marriage, other than the indirect indication from the twenty year difference between the estimated birth dates of Walo and Adalhard [I].  A list of Saxons in Ostphalia dated Jan/Feb 802 records that "Fredegarium filium Wicharii habuit Walah", presumably indicating that the last named had responsibility for the allegiance sworn to the emperor by the first-named[26].  Assuming that this refers to Walo son of Bernard, it shows that he bore the title count only after this date, as the source specifies the titles in the case of many other individuals who are named.  The Translatio Sancti Viti names "Walonem" as "frater prioris Adalhardi"[27].  Governor of Saxony.  Einhard names "Walacho comes" as one of the 15 witnesses of the testament of Emperor Charlemagne dated 811[28].  Einhard's Annales record that "Walanem filium Bernhardi patruelis sui" was sent to Italy in 812 as guardian for "Bernhardum filium Pippin nepotem suum [Karoli imperatoris]"[29].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Walam et Warnarium, necnon et Lambertum sed et Ingobertum" as missi [in 813], recording that "Warnarius comes…accito nepote Lantberto" acted without the knowledge of "Wala et Ingelberto"[30].  Walo became a monk in [814/15] following the death of Emperor Charlemagne.  Einhard's Annales record that Emperor Louis I sent "Walahum monachum propinquum suum [imperatoris] fratrem…Adalhardi abbatis" to Italy in 822 with "Hlotharius…filium suum"[31].  Abbé de Corbie 826-836, in succession to his brother.  He became abbot of Bobbio in Italy in 836.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Wala Corbeiensis abbas, Matfridus, Hugo, Lantbertus, Godefridus, itemque filius eius Godefridus, Agimbertus comes Pertensis…sed et Richardus" died between "Kal Sep usque ad missam sancti Martini" [in 836][32]m ---.  No explicit reference to the wife of Walo has so far been found in primary sources.  However, the Vita Wala names "sceleratus Naso…Amisarius" when recording Walo's exploits in Spain, states that Walo married  "sororem ipsius, filiam nobilissimi viri…", and adds that her brother was blinded[33].  Settipani cites sources which, from these references, identify Walo's wife as the sister of Bernard Marquis de Septimanie and Heribert (who was blinded) and therefore daughter of St Guillaume Comte de Toulouse.  Assuming that this identification is correct, of the possible candidates Settipani eliminates Helmburgis from the known daughters of Guillaume, suggesting that she died young, as well as Gerberga, who was murdered in 834 at Chalon by allies of Walo, which leaves Chrodlindis [Rothlindis], daughter of [St] Guillaume Comte de Toulouse, as the only possibility[34].  The link is credible but is not without doubt, particularly because of the uncertainties about the parentage of Heribert which are discussed below.  Walo & his wife had one child: 

a)         BERTRUDIS (-13 Aug ----).  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "Id Aug" of "Bertrut filia Walonis comitis"[35]

3.         GUNDRADA .  The Vita Adalhardi names "quibus…soror [eius] Gundrada", this text following the paragraph which records "quinque…viri propagati…"[36].  According to Settipani, Gundrada became a nun in 814 but he does not cite the primary source on which this is based[37]

4.         BERNHAR ([776]-after 821).  Bernhar is named as brother of Adalhard in the Royal Frankish Annals[38].  The Vita Adalhardi refers to "reliqui…duo…Bernarius noster…et Theodrada soror eius", this text following the paragraph which records "quinque…viri propagati…"[39].  Monk at Corbie 801.  He lived in exile with his brother Walo in 821, but was recalled and restored to Corbie[40].  Einhard's Annales record that "Adalhardum quoque de Aquitania" was appointed "Corbeiæ monasterio abbatem" in 821 and that "Bernharium frater eius" returned to the monastery at the same time[41]

5.         THEODERADA .  The De Sancto Ratberto Abbate Corbeiensi names "Thedradam apud Sanctam Mariam Suessionis abbatissam…Adalardi et Wale sororem"[42].  The Vita Adalhardi names "Bernarius…et Theodrada soror eius", this text following the paragraph which records "quinque…viri propagate…"[43].  According to Settipani, Theodrada became a nun in 814 but he does not cite the primary source on which this is based[44].  Abbess of Sainte-Marie de Soissons.  m ---.  The name of Theoderada's husband is not known. 

a)         IMMA .  Settipani names Imma as daughter of Theoderada, recording that she succeeded her mother as abbess of Sainte-Marie de Soissons, but does not cite the source on which this is based[45]

6.         [IDA .  The Vita Sancti Idæ names Ida as only daughter of an unnamed count[46], the Introduction to the MGH SS edition citing "annalibus Corbeiensibus in bibliotheca Regia" which name Ida as "Adalhard et Walæ soror, uxor Egberti quem Brunonis Angrariorum principis filium fuisse", commenting that she died aged 100[47].  She is not named as the sister of Adalhard in the Vita Adalhardim EKBERT, son of BRUNO & his wife ---.] 

 

 

1.         ADALHARD [II] (-[Aug] 824).  He was appointed Duke of Spoleto in Mar 824.  Einhard's Annales record the appointment of "Adalhardus comes palatii, qui iunior vocabatur" after the death of "Suppo dux Spolitinus" and that he died after 5 months[48].  The corresponding Adalhard "senior" may have been either Adalhard Abbot of Corbie (see above) or Adalhard [III], son of Liuthard, seneschal of Emperor Louis I (see below, Part B), although the latter's son Adalhard [IV] is recorded later in the 9th century.  The reference to "iunior" does not necessarily mean that the two persons named Adalhard were related, but this is a possibility.  The reference to comes palatii does suggest a connection between Adalhard [I] and Adalhard [II], both of whom are recorded as holding this position.  Although there is no proof that such an offence was inherited within the same family, this is a possibility. 

 

 

 

B.      DESCENDANTS of GERARD COMTE [de PARIS]

 

 

1.         GERARD [I] (-779).  Comte de Paris, although the source which confirms that he held this county has not yet been identified.  "Pippinus maior domus" donated property to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 11 Feb 747, which names "fidelibus nostris…Haginone, Theudeberto, Remedio, Gerehardo, Fulgario, Bovilone, Walcherio, Rauchingo et Ermenaldo comite palatii nostro"[49].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to Fulrad Abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 1 Mar 752 which names "fidelibus nostris…Milone, Rotgario, Cheimgaudo, Crothardo, Gerichardo, Autgario et Wiberto comite palatii nostri"[50].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to the abbey of Saint-Denis by "Gerardum comitem" by charter dated 30 Oct 759[51].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus" and was subscribed by (first column) "Droconi comitis, Warini comitis, Baugulfi comitis, Troanie comitis, Herloini comitis, Rachulfi comitis" and (second column) "Chrodardi comitis, Welenti comitis, Gerhardi comitis, Waltarii comitis, Gunberti comitis, Warini comitis"[52].  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" granted the monastery of Plaisir to Folrad abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 28 Jul 775 which name "fidelibus…Ghaerardo, Bernardo, Radulfo, Hilderado, Ermenaldo, Hebroino, Theudbaldo, Agneone comitibus, Haltberto, Laumberto, Haererico et Anselmo comite palatio nostro"[53]m ROTRUD, daughter of ---.  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "III Non Dec" of "Hrottrudis coniugis Gerehardi"[54].  Gerard & his wife had four children: 

a)         STEPHANUS [I] ([754]-[16 Aug] [815]).  The primary source which establishes that Stephanus was the son of Gerard has not yet been identified.  However, he was the brother of Liuthard as shown by the charter dated 811 under which "Stephanus…comes…Amaltrudis comitissa" donated property "in pago Parisiaco in loco…Sulciacus [et]…Nocetus" to "Inchadus Parisiace urbis episcopus", subscribed by "Leutardi germanum Stephani comitis"[55]Comte de Paris.  Emperor Charlemagne´s Capitularius dated 802 names “missi…Fardulfus et Stephanus” in Paris[56].  Einhard names "Stephanus comes" as one of the 15 witnesses of the testament of Emperor Charlemagne dated 811[57].  “Stephanus comes” donated property to Paris Sainte-Marie by charter dated to [820], subscribed by “comitis Stephani, comitisse A., Wilelmi filii comitis, Tebaldi filii comitis, Stephani filii comitis[58].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "XVII Kal Sep" of "Stephani comitis"[59]m AMALTRUD, daughter of ---.  “Stephanus…comes…et Amaltrudis coniugis eius…et comitisse” donated property to Paris Sainte-Marie by charter dated 811[60].  The necrology of the Eglise Cathédrale de Paris records the death "XVII Kal Sep" of "Stephani comitis et Amaltrudis uxoris eius qui dederunt nobis Suci villam"[61], the date of death referring to Stephanus.  Stephanus [I] & his wife had three children: 

i)          GUILLAUME .  “Stephanus comes” donated property to Paris Sainte-Marie by charter dated to [820], subscribed by “comitis Stephani, comitisse A., Wilelmi filii comitis, Tebaldi filii comitis, Stephani filii comitis[62]

ii)         THIBAUT .  “Stephanus comes” donated property to Paris Sainte-Marie by charter dated to [820], subscribed by “comitis Stephani, comitisse A., Wilelmi filii comitis, Tebaldi filii comitis, Stephani filii comitis[63]

iii)        STEPHANUS [II] .  “Stephanus comes” donated property to Paris Sainte-Marie by charter dated to [820], subscribed by “comitis Stephani, comitisse A., Wilelmi filii comitis, Tebaldi filii comitis, Stephani filii comitis[64]

b)         [BEGO ([755/60]-28 Oct 816).  The primary source which establishes that Bego was the son of Gérard has not yet been identified.  Marquis de Septimanie: Bego governed the county of Toulouse as "marchio" for Septimania from 806.  He was chambrier, equivalent to viceroy, for Louis King of Aquitaine (son of Emperor Charlemagne)[65]Comte de Paris in [815], succeeding comte Stephanus.  He founded the Abbey of Saint-Maur-des-Fossés near Paris.  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "V Kal Nov" of "Begoni comitis"[66].  [m firstly ---.  There is no proof of this possible first marriage of Bego.  However, as noted below, if his wife Alpais was the daughter of Emperor Louis, there would have been a considerable age difference between her and Bego, which suggests the possibility of an earlier marriage.]  m [secondly] ([806]) ALPAIS, illegitimate daughter of [Emperor LOUIS I & his mistress ---] ([793/94]-23 Jul 852 or after, bur [Reims]).  Flodoard refers to "Ludowicus Alpheidi filie sue uxori Begonis comitis"[67].  The Annales Hildesheimenses name "filiam imperatoris…Elpheid" as the wife of "Bicgo de amici regis" when recording the death of her husband[68].  Settipani discusses the debate about the paternity of Alpais, preferring the theory that Emperor Charles I was her father[69].  If Emperor Louis was her father, it is unlikely that she was born before [793/94], given his known birth date in 778.  It would therefore be chronologically tight for her to have had [three] children by her husband before his death in 816.  However, no indication has been found in primary sources of the ages of these children when their father died.  The question of her paternity is obviously not beyond doubt, but it is felt preferable to show her as the probable daughter of Emperor Louis in view of the clear statement in Flodoard.  If Alpais was the daughter of Emperor Louis, it is likely that she was not her husband's only wife in view of his estimated birth date.  After her husband died, she became abbess of Saint-Pierre-le-Bas at Reims in [817].  She was still there 29 May 852.  Bego & his [second] wife had three children:   

i)          LIUTHARD .  Flodoard names "ipsius Alpheidis vel filiorum eius Letardi et Ebrardi" when recording their mother's donation to the church of Reims[70]

ii)         EBERHARD .  Flodoard names "ipsius Alpheidis vel filiorum eius Letardi et Ebrardi" when recording their mother's donation to the church of Reims[71]

iii)        SUSANNA ([805/10]-).  The primary source which establishes that Susanna was the daughter of Bego has not yet been identified.  "Vulfardus" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire for the souls of "genitoris mei Vulfardi et genetrice mea Susannane necnon et germanorum fratrum meorum Adelardo, Vulgrino, Ymo et sorore mee Hildeburga vel nepote meo Vulgrino" by charter dated 2 Nov 889[72]m ([825/30]) VULFHARD, son of ---. 

c)         LIUTHARD (-3 Jan [813] or after).  "Leutardi germanum Stephani comitis" subscribed the charter dated 811 under which "Stephanus…comes…Amaltrudis comitissa" donated property to "Inchadus Parisiace urbis episcopus"[73].  The primary source which identifies that he was the son of Gerard has not so far been identified.  Comte de Fézensac.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the death of "Burgundio" [in 801] and that "comitatus eius Fedentiacus" was granted to "Liutardo"[74].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Liutardum, Isembardum" [in 813][75].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "III Non Jan" of "Leuthardi comitis"[76]m GRIMHILD, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by the testament of "Gerardus [comes]" which names "…genitoribus atque parentibus…Luthardi et Grimildis atque…Hugonis et Bavæ…filiis et filiabus ipsorum"[77].  Liuthard & his wife had three children: 

i)          GERARD [II] (-[11 Feb or 4 Mar] 874, bur Avignon).  His parentage is confirmed by his testament under which "Gerardus [comes]" names "coniugis meæ…Berthæ…genitoribus atque parentibus…Luthardi et Grimildis atque…Hugonis et Bavæ…filiis et filiabus ipsorum" and "consanguinitate, affinitate et propinquitate etiam nobis junctis, id est Leufredi et Adalardi Comitum", and which is signed by "Gerardi comitis, Bertæ coniugis…Evæ filiæ ipsorum"[78].  Emperor Lothar confirmed a donation of property "in pago Arduennensi sitam…Villantia" to the abbey of Prüm by "Richardus quondam comes…per Biuinum fratrem suum, et Gerardum et Basinum qui et Tancredus comites" by charter dated 12 Nov 842[79], although it is not known whether this is the same Gerard.  However, as both Gerard and the descendants of Bivin were associated with Provence, it is possible that their association started earlier in the Ardennes.  Comte de Vienne.  Emperor Lothar returned property to the church of Lyon, at the request of “Gerardus…comes atque marchio”, by charter dated to [852][80].  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Folcoinus episcopus, Adalgarius, Engilscalcus et Berengarius" as missi in "comitatu Berengarii, Engilscalchi, Gerardi et in comitatibus Reginarii"[81], although it is not known whether this count Gerard is the same as the one named in the other references listed below.  "Karoli rex, Hlotharii augusti filius" confirmed the privileges of the church of Villeurbane in favour of the church of Lyon at the request of "comes et parens noster ac nutritor Girardus" by charter dated 10 Oct 856[82].  The precise relationship between Comte Gérard and the Carolingian monarchs has not been established.  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks confirmed the foundation of the monastery "in pago Avalensi in parrochia Augustudunensis civitatis in loco…Virziliacus" by "Gerardus…comes", with the consent of "coniugis sue Berthæ", by charter dated 6 Jan 868[83].  The Chronico Vezeliacensi records that "Comes Girardus fundator hujus loci" died in 847 and was buried "apud Avinionem civitatem suam"[84], although this year is incorrect.  The 13th century obituary of the Eglise primatiale de Lyon records the death "III Non" of "Geraldus comes"[85].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "IV Non Mar" of "Gerardi comitis"[86]m BERTA, daughter of HUGUES Comte de Tours & his wife Ava --- (-[6 Nov] 877).  Pope John VIII recalls "Gerardus comes…cum Berta quondam conjuge sua" as founders of the monastery referred to in his letter[87].  Her parentage is confirmed by her husband's testament under which "Gerardus [comes]" names "coniugis meæ…Berthæ…genitoribus atque parentibus…Luthardi et Grimildis atque…Hugonis et Bavæ…filiis et filiabus ipsorum"[88].  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks confirmed the foundation of the monastery "in pago Avalensi in parrochia Augustudunensis civitatis in loco…Virziliacus" by "Gerardus…comes", with the consent of "coniugis sue Berthæ", by charter dated 6 Jan 868[89].  The Chronico Vezeliacensi records that "Berta comitissa hujus loci fundatrix" died in 844 and was buried "apud Pulterias"[90], although the year is incorrect.  The 13th century obituary of the Eglise primatiale de Lyon records the death "VIII Id Nov" of "Berta comitissa"[91].  Gérard [II] & his wife had one child: 

(a)       EVA .  The testament of "Gerardus [comes]" is signed by "Gerardi comitis, Bertæ coniugis…Evæ filiæ ipsorum"[92]

ii)         [ADALHARD [III] (-after 865).  The primary source which identifies Adalhard as the son of Liuthard has not yet been identified, although the testament of "Gerardus [comes]" names "consanguinitate, affinitate et propinquitate etiam nobis junctis, id est Leufredi et Adalardi Comitum"[93].  Seneschal of Emperor Louis I "le Pieux".  Nithard says that he "cared little for the public good and tried to please everyone…and ruined the kingdom altogether"[94]The Breve Chronicon Epternacense names “Adelardus comes” as abbot of Echternach from 850 to 856[95]Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks donated property to "Aeduensi S. Symphoricui mon" naming "Adelardus comes", by charter dated 855[96].  "Adelhardus comes" was "provisor monasterii S. Maximini" in Jul 855[97].  "Hlotharius…rex" donated property "in pago Eiflinse in comitatu Matfridi" at the request of "Adalardus et Matfridus…comites" to "vassallo præfati Matfridi Otberto" by charter dated 28 Jun 856[98].  An agreement between Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks dated Jun 860 names "nobilis ac fidelibus laicis…Chuonradus, Evrardus, Adalardus, Arnustus, Warnarius, Liutfridus, Hruodolfus, Erkingarius, Gislebertus, Ratbodus, Arnulfus, Hugo, item Chuonradus, Liutharius, Berengarius, Matfridus, Boso, Sigeri, Hartmannus, Liuthardus, Richuinus, Wigricus, Hunfridus, Bernoldus, Hatto, Adalbertus, Burchardus, Christianus, Leutulfus, Hessi, Herimannus, item Hruodulfus, Sigehardus"[99].  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Carlomannus, Hlodowici regis Germaniæ" sought refuge with "Adalardo, Yrmintrudis reginæ avunculo, suo autem propinquo" after he was banished by his father following his rebellion in 861[100].  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Adalardo Yrmintrudis reginæ avunculo" was "propinquo" of the brothers Udo (ancestor of the Franconian Konradiner family), Berengar and Waldo who were expelled from Germany in 865[101], and in a later passage record that "Adalardo…et suis propinquis Hugonis et Berengario" fought the Vikings in 865[102].  "Leudo episcopus et Adelardus comes missi dominici in comitatu Augustidunense" heard a dispute between "Vulfaldum episcopum et Heccardum comitem" concerning land at Perrecy, the proceedings recorded in a charter dated to [866/75][103]m ---.  The name of Adalhard's wife is not known.  Adalhard [III] & his wife had [three] children: 

(a)       [STEPHANUS [III] (-after 18 Sep 882).  "Hildebertus filius quondam Berengarii comitis" donated property "res…mee in comitatu Vuabrinse prope fluvio…Cherus villam…Beuram" for "germano meo Berengario" to Verdun Sainte-Vanne by charter dated 18 Sep 882, subscribed by "Stephanus comes, Matfridus comes, Witpertus comes"[104]

(b)       [ADALHARD [IV] (-[2 Jan] 890).  The primary source which identifies Adalhard [IV] as the son of Adalhard [III] has not yet been identified.  However, the Catalogus abbatem Epternacensium, which names "Adelardus iunior comes" as [lay] abbot of Echternach in 878 until 890, indicates that this may be correct[105]The Breve Chronicon Epternacense also names “Adelardus junior comes” as abbot of Echternach from 878 to 890[106]"Hludowicus…rex" confirmed a donation of property "in pago Muselahgeuui in comitatu Adalhardi villam…Berge" to Kloster Fulda by charter dated 24 Jul 880[107].  Emperor Karl III granted property "in Weitereiba in comitatu Adalhardi ad Rosbach" to Kloster Fulda by charter dated 7 Apr 884[108].  The Liber Memorialis of Remiremont records the death "4 Non Jan" of "Adellardus"[109], although it is not certain that this refers to Adalhard [IV].  Hlawitschka suggests that Adelhard [IV] married a daughter of Matfried [II] or of Matfried's sister and that the couple were the parents of the three brothers Gebhard and Matfried Counts of Metz and Richer Bishop of Verdun[110].] 

-         [COMTES de METZ.] 

(c)       daughter .  The Annales Bertiniani record that the son of Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks was betrothed to "filiam Adelardi" against his father's will but did not marry her[111]Betrothed (865) to LUDWIG, son of LUDWIG II " der Deutsche" King of the East Franks & his wife Hemma --- ([835]-Frankfurt-am-Main 20 Jan 882, bur Kloster Lorsch). 

iii)        [ENGELTRUDIS .  The wife of Eudes is named by Nithard who records "Hirmentrude, daughter of Odo and Ingiltrud" as the wife of Charles[112].  The primary source which establishes that she was the daughter of Adalhard [III] has not so far been identified.  However, the Annales Bertiniani suggest that she was the sister of Adalhard [IV] when they record that "Carlomannus, Hlodowici regis Germaniæ" sought refuge with "Adalardo, Yrmintrudis reginæ avunculo, suo autem propinquo" after he was banished by his father following his rebellion in 861[113]m [as  his second wife,] EUDES [Odo] Comte d'Orléans, [ADRIANUS [Udalrichinger] & his wife Waldrada ---] ([770/80]-killed in battle [Touraine] Jun 834).] 

d)         ROTHILDE (-24 May ----).  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "IX Kal Jun" of "Chrotildis filia Gerehardi"[114]

 

 

 

C.      DESCENDANTS of EUDES COMTE d'ORLEANS

 

 

[Three] siblings, parents not known.  The poem by Gosbert, addressed to the brother "Guillelmum Blesensium comitem", which refers to him as "Francigenum primo proavis abavisque peralto"[115] suggests that their ancestry was illustrious.  Levillain identifies Eudes with Odo, son of [Adrianus [Udalrichinger] & his wife Waldrada ---][116].  This seems unlikely to be correct as the name Guillaume/Wilhelm (brother of Eudes Comte d´Orléans) does not appear at all in the Udalrichinger family, although it is possible that the name could have been introduced from their mother´s family.  A possible clue about the origins of Eudes's mother is provided by the Vita Hludowici Imperatoris which records the blinding of "Heribertus Bernhardi frater" and his exile with "Hodo consobrinus illius"[117].  The previous passage in the Vita records the confiscation of Orléans from Eudes Comte d'Orléans.  It is possible that he was the same person as "Hodo", although if this is correct the precise nature of the relationship between him and Héribert has not been established.  Assuming that Héribert was the son of Guillaume de Toulouse and his first wife Cunigundis (about which there is some doubt, as explained elsewhere in this document), and assuming also that "consobrinus" is used in the text in its strict sense, Cunegundis and the mother of Eudes Comte d'Orléans would have been sisters. 

 

1.         EUDES ([770/80]-killed in battle [Touraine] Jun 834).  His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was already mature when named for the first time in 810/11, but bearing in mind his active participation in the 834 battle in which he was killed.  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Odo legatus imperatoris…orientalium Saxonum præsidium" was captured by "Wilzis" in 810[118].  Einhard's Annales record "Uodo comes" as one of the signatories of peace with the Vikings in 811[119].  He became Comte d'Orléans after the territory was forfeited by Matfried[120]: the Miracula Sancti Bernardi records that "Matfrido, comite quondam Aurelianensi" was deprived of his honours "culpam inertiæ" and "Odo" appointed in his place[121], presumably dated to [828].  From that time, Eudes and his brother Guillaume were the most powerful supporters of Emperor Louis "le Pieux" against his son Lothaire, whose rebellion was supported by Matfried.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Aurelianensem urbem" was taken from "Hodone" and restored to "Mathfrido" [in 830][122].  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Odo et Willelmus frater eius" were among those killed fighting "Lantbertum et Matfridem" in 834[123].  Merlet suggests that the battle took place in Touraine[124].  The Annales Xantenses record that "Uodo comes et Theodo abbas" were killed in 834[125].  The Annales Fuldenses record the rebellion of "Mahtfredo et Lantberto" in 834 and the battle in which "Udo comes Aurelianensium et Theodo abbas sancti Martini Turonensis" were killed[126].  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Odo Aurelianorum comes" was killed fighting "Lamberto Nannetensi comite"[127].  The Miracula Sancti Bernardi names "Odonem fratremque illius Guillelmum, comitem Blesensium, Teutonem denique abbatem Sancti Martini, Guidonem comitem Cenomanensem" among those killed in battle against Lambert Comte de Nantes[128].  The Chronica Rainaldi records that "Odo comes Aurelianensium, Willelmus frater eius comes Blesensium, Guido comes Cenomanensium" died in battle fighting "Lambertum" in 835[129].  It is more likely that this battle took place in 834, assuming that it is correct that Count Lantbert was established in Italy later that year.  [m firstly ---.  The charter quoted below, which records the confirmation of a donation to Tours Saint-Martin made by Comte Eudes and his son Guillaume, suggests that Guillaume must have been considerably older than his sister Ermentrudis (whose birth is estimated to [830], see below).  If this is correct, it is possible that Guillaume was born from an earlier marriage of his father.  The possibility of such an earlier marriage is also indicated by Eudes´s estimated birth date as shown above.]  m [secondly] ENGELTRUDIS, sister of ADALHARD [IV], daughter of [LIUTHARD Comte de Fézensac & his wife Grimhild ---].  The wife of Eudes is named by Nithard who records "Hirmentrude, daughter of Odo and Ingiltrud" as the wife of Charles[130].  The primary source which establishes that she was the daughter of Adalhard [III] has not yet been identified.  However, the Annales Bertiniani suggest that she was the sister of Adalhard [IV] when they record that "Carlomannus, Hlodowici regis Germaniæ" sought refuge with "Adalardo, Yrmintrudis reginæ avunculo, suo autem propinquo" after he was banished by his father following his rebellion in 861[131].  Comte Eudes & his [first] wife had one child: 

a)         GUILLAUME (-executed 866).  Barthélemy quotes a charter under which "Robertus…beati Martini abbas…et comes" confirmed donations to Tour Saint-Martin made "olim…ab Odone quondam comite Aurelianensi avunculo nostro et Willelmo eius filio" by charter dated 20 Feb "anno XXVII regnante domino Carolo…rege"[132].  As noted above, this charter suggests that Guillaume must have been considerably older than his sister Ermentrudis (whose birth is estimated to [830], see below, and therefore possibly born from an otherwise unrecorded earlier marriage of his father.  The Annales Bertiniani name "Willelmum…Odonis quondam comitis Aurelianensis filium" as "Karolus…sobrinum suum" when recording his capture in Burgundy and execution at "Silvanectum civitatem" in 866[133]

Comte Eudes & his [first/second] wife had [one possible child]: 

b)         [GEBHARD (-after 879).  Jackman suggests that Gebhard (ancestor of the Konradiner) was the brother of Ermentrude, first wife Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, therefore the son of Eudes Comte d'Orléans[134].  However, this appears chronologically dubious if Gebhard is identified with "Gebehardus" who founded Kloster Kettenbach, as recorded in the charter of "Ludowicus…rex" dated 31 Mar [845] in which the king donated land in "in pago Logonense iuxta fluvium Arda" to the monastery[135], unless he was born from an earlier marriage of his father.  Nevertheless, an interesting possible corroboration for Gebhard's relationship with this family is provided by the Annales Bertiniani which record that "Adalardo Yrmintrudis reginæ avunculo" was "propinquo" of the brothers Udo (ancestor of the Franconian Konradiner family), Berengar and Waldo who were expelled from Germany in 865[136], and in a later passage that "Adalardo…et suis propinquis Hugonis et Berengario" fought the Vikings in 865[137].  "Adalardo" was Adalhard [III], maternal uncle of Gebhard assuming the relationship is as shown here, and the brothers Udo, Berengar and Waldo were Gebhard's sons.  m --- [im Nordgau], sister of Graf ERNST, daughter of ---.  The relationship between the sons of Gebhard and Graf Ernst is clarified by the Annales Bertiniani which record that "nepotes ipsius [Ernestus]" were expelled from the kingdom in 861[138].  If the suggestion by Jackman concerning Gebhard's affiliation is correct, Gebhard would have been the brother-in-law not brother of Ernest, married to the latter's sister.] 

Comte Eudes & his [second] wife had one child: 

c)         ERMENTRUDIS (27 Sep [830]-Saint-Denis 6 Oct 869, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 842 of "Ermendrud neptem Adalardi comitis" and "Karolus" at "Carisiacum palatium"[139].  Nithard names "Hirmentrude, daughter of Odo and Ingiltrud" as wife of Charles[140].  She was crowned in Aug 866 at Saint-Médard de Soissons.  After she was separated from her husband, she retired to a monastery.  The Annales Bertiniani record the death "869 II Non Oct in monasterio Sancti Dyonisii" of "Hyrmentrudem uxorem suam [=Karoli]" and her burial at Saint-Denis[141].  The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "Non Oct" of "Irmentrudis regina uxor Caroli"[142].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "Non Oct" of "Hirmentrudis regina"[143]m (Quierzy, Aisne 13 Dec 842, separated 867) as his first wife, CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks, son of Emperor LOUIS I "le Pieux" & his second wife Judith [Welf] (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  He was crowned Emperor CHARLES II in 875. 

2.         GUILLAUME ([772/90]-killed in battle [Touraine] Jun 834).  His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was younger than his brother Eudes, which is suggested by the order in which their names appear when named together in primary sources.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Odo et Willelmus frater eius" were among those killed fighting "Lantbertum et Matfridem" in 834[144]Comte de Blois et de Châteaudun: Merlet cites a charter of Emperor Louis I "le Pieux" dated 19 Nov 832 which confirms that these two territories were administered together at the time, referring to property "quæ est in pago Blisense vel Dunense"[145].  Merlet suggests that, in addition to Blois and Châteaudun, Guillaume administered Chartres as, from the 10th century, all three territories were administered by the same comte and he supposes that the same arrangement already existed in the 9th century (although no primary source exists which confirms this supposition)[146].  Constable: the Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "in Frantiam Eggebardus comes et Willelmus comes stabuli" in the context of events in 833[147].  A poem by Gosbert is addressed to "Guillelmum Blesensium comitem" refers to him as "Francigenum primo proavis abavisque peralto"[148].  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Odo et Willelmus frater eius" were among those killed fighting "Lantbertum et Matfridem" in 834[149].  Merlet suggests that the battle took place in Touraine[150].  The Chronica Rainaldi records that "Odo comes Aurelianensium, Willelmus frater eius comes Blesensium, Guido comes Cenomanensium" died in battle fighting "Lambertum" in 835[151].  It is more likely that this battle took place in 834, assuming that it is correct that Count Lantbert was established in Italy later that year. 

3.         [sister .  The possible identity of the mother of Robert "le Fort" is suggested by the charter dated 20 Feb "anno XXVII regnante domino Carolo…rege" under which "Robertus…beati Martini abbas…et comes" confirmed donations to Tour Saint-Martin made "olim…ab Odone quondam comite Aurelianensi avunculo nostro et Willelmo eius filio"[152].  The dating clause of this document suggests that it refers to Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks, rather than King Charles II "le Chauve", indicating that the donor was the future Robert I King of France, rather than Robert "le Fort", although this would not change the significance of the relationship described ("avunculus" could also have been used in the document in the sense of "great-uncle").  As discussed further in the document FRANCE CAPETIAN KINGS, Anatole de Barthélemy uses this document as part of his argument for identifying Guillaume Comte de Blois as the father of Robert "le Fort".  However, "avunculus" in its strict sense indicates "maternal uncle" and, while the terms "patruus" (paternal uncle) and "avunculus" (maternal uncle) are frequently used interchangeably in contemporary primary source documentation, it is possible that the relationship was through a sister of the two brothers Eudes Comte d´Orléans and Guillaume Comte de Blois, who could have been the mother of Robert "le Fort".  It should be emphasised that this hypothesis is speculative.  Another possibility is that, assuming that the donor was the future Robert I King of France, the relationship could have been through his mother, the wife of Robert "le Fort", who could have been the niece of the brothers Eudes Comte d´Orléans and Guillaume Comte de Blois.  m ---.  One child]: 

a)         [ROBERT "le Fort" ([815/30]-killed in battle Brissarthe 2 Jul 866).  The question of the paternal ancestry of Robert "le Fort" is fully discussed in the document FRANCE CAPETIAN KINGS.] 

 

 

 

D.      FAMILY of HIERONYMUS

 

 

HIERONYMUS, illegitimate son of Charles "Martel" & his mistress --- (-after [782])Herimannus names "Hieronimo Pipini fratre"[153].  754, 775.  Abbé de Saint-Quentin.  The Vita Fulcuini names "matre Erkensinda, patre Hieronimo, quorum prior de gente Gothorum…alter {Karolo] regis avunculus" as parents of "Folcuinus"[154].  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which names "fidelibus…Erhardo, Walerano, Ernust, Warnario, Huncelinus, Warlando, Waltario, Rimigaudo, Hainrico, Gaeroni et Hieronimo comitibus…et Walachario seu comiti palatii nostri"[155]

m [ERCHESWINDA or ERMENTRUDIS], daughter of ---.  The Vita Fulcuini names "matre Erkensinda, patre Hieronimo, quorum prior de gente Gothorum…alter {Karolo] regis avunculus" as parents of "Folcuinus"[156].  On the other hand, the cartulaire of Saint-Bertin names "Ermentrudis genetrix beati præsulis Folquini"[157].  Settipani supports the theory that Hieronymus married twice, Ermentrudis being his first wife and Ercheswinda his second, Audouen, Fulrad and Richarda being his children by his first wife while Fulcuin was his son by his second wife[158].  However, this appears to ignore the fact that both of the sources referred to above purport to name the mother of Fulcuin.  Unless new information comes to light, it appears preferable to assume that both sources refer to the same person. 

Hieronymus & his wife had [four] children: 

1.         AUDOEN .  The cartulaire of Saint-Bertin names "Odwini…frate beati præsulis Folquini"[159]m ---.  The name of Audoen's wife is not known.  Audoen & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [---.] 

i)          [---.] 

(a)       AUDOEN .  The cartulaire of Saint-Bertin names "Odwini, filii alterius Odwini, qui erat frate beati præsulis Folquini"[160], although this is chronologically unsustainable unless two generations are interposed, as shown here.  m ---.  The name of Audoen's wife is not known.  Audoen & his wife had two children:

(1)       FULCUIN .  The cartulaire of Saint-Bertin names "Folquinus filii Odwini, filii alterius Odwini", which also specifies that he was the father of Fulcuin[161]m THEODALA, daughter of ---.  "Thiedala" is named as mother of Fulcuin in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[162].  Fulcuin & his wife had two children: 

a.         FULCUIN (-Saint-Bertin [975]).  His parentage is specified in the first part of the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin, of which he was the author, written in 961/62[163].  His parents consecrated him as a monk at Saint-Bertin in early Nov 948[164].  He has been incorrectly described as abbé of Lobbes from 965 by a 16th century source[165]

b.         GODESCHALCH .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

(2)       REGENWALA .  The cartulaire of Saint-Bertin names "Regenwala frater suus [Folquinus]"[166]

2.         FULRAD (-31 Jan 826).  The Vita Fulcuini names "Folradum Sancti Quintini" as one of the brothers of "Folcuinus"[167].  Abbé de Saint-Quentin 771.  The Annales Laurissenses record that King Charles came to "Corbonaeum villam" in 771 with "Wilcharius archiepiscopus et Folradus capellanus…Warinus et Adalhardus comites"[168].  "Comiti Hadalhardus, Fulradus, Unrocus seu Hrocculfus" are named as imperial missi in a document of Emperor Charlemagne dated 806[169].  Abbé de Lobbes 823. 

3.         [RICHARDA .  She received property from Fulrad [her brother] in 769-782[170]m NITHARD, son of ---.] 

4.         FULCUIN (-Esquelbecq, Nord 15 Dec 855, bur Sithiu).  The Vita Fulcuini names "matre Erkensinda, patre Hieronimo, quorum prior de gente Gothorum…alter {Karolo] regis avunculus" as parents of "Folcuinus"[171].  The cartulaire of Saint-Bertin names "Hieronimus pater beati præsulis Folquini"[172].  Bishop of Thérouanne [end-816/early 817]. 

 

 

In addition to the above, Settipani suggests[173] a speculative descent of the kings of Provence (family of Boson King [of Provence]) from Comte Hieronymus, illegitimate son of Charles "Martel".  The trail starts with a reference by the late 10th century historian Richer who states that “Karolus Constantinus, Viennæ civitatis princeps” (son of Emperor Louis III – see the document PROVENCE) was “ex regio quidem genere natus” but “concubinali stemmate usque ad tritavum[174].  Settipani interprets the text as applying to the ancestor in the direct male line, and suggests that the chronology supports the “tritavus” being Comte Hieronymus.  He bases the next two generations solely on similarity of names and geographic proximity of the counties referred to, as follows:

Generation 1: RICHARD, Comte de Rouen in 787, and provisor of the royal domains in 795[175], possible son of Comte Hieronymus & [his second wife Ercheswinda]. 

Generation 2: RICHARD Comte d'Amiens (-after 801)same person as…?  RICHARD (-after 796).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 16 Dec 781 which names "fidelibus…Richardo comite, Gunthardo comite, Theutbaldo comite, Griphone, Geroldo, Nortboldo, Winegiso, Walberto, Gisloldo, Aroino, Theutboldo, Constabili et Waraldo comite palatii nostri"[176].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Willebertus…Rotomagæ postea urbis archiepiscopum et Richardum comitem" as royal missi in 796[177].    

Generation 3: RICHARD (-before 12 Nov 842), and his brother Buvinus [Bouvin] (-[863/69]), the latter being the father of Boson named King in Provence in 879. 

This is an interesting speculation which is worth noting, but there seem to be many other possibilities to explain the text and Settipani cites little documentary evidence in support. 

 

 

 

E.      FAMILY of ENGUERRAND COMTE de PARIS

 

 

1.         SIGRAMNUS m LANDRADA, daughter of ---.  The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names "Chrodegangus antistes…ex pago Hasbaniensi oriundus, patre Sigramno, matre Landrada, Francorum ex genere primæ nobilitatis progenitus" as Bishop of Metz[178].  The charter dated 25 May 765 under which her son "Grodegangus…archiepiscopus" [son of Sigramnus and Landrada] donated property "in pago Wormacensi…[et] in villa Dagosbesher…in Hostoven, Burdus, in villa Flamersheim ecclesiam" to Gorze, with the consent of "Pipini…Francorum regis, avunculi mei"[179], suggests that she was Landrada, supposed daughter of Charles "Martel" maiordomus of Austrasia and Neustria [Carolingian].  The supposed affiliation of Landrada is suggested by Settipani who quotes an Aquitaine necrology which lists "Willelmus…pater eius Theodericus, mater Aldana soror Hiltrudis et Landradæ"[180].  He suggests that "Hiltrudis" was the wife of Odilo Duke of Bavaria, and therefore that all three sisters were daughters of Charles "Martel".  The theory is attractive but not conclusive, as its validity depends on there being no other contemporary Hiltrudis, which is not provable.  If it is correct, there is no indication about the mother of Landrada and Aldana.  Hlawitschka highlights the case against the affiliation[181].  However, the evidence of the 25 May 765 charter suggests that Settipani´s hypothesis may be correct.  Sigramnus & his wife had two children: 

a)         CHRODGANG [Hruotgang] (-7 Mar [766], bur Monastery of Gorze).  Bishop.  The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names "Chrodegangus antistes…ex pago Hasbaniensi oriundus, patre Sigramno, matre Landrada, Francorum ex genere primæ nobilitatis progenitus" as Bishop of Metz, specifying that he was referendarius in the palace of maior domus Charles "Martel"[182].  A list of bishops of Metz records "Chrodegangus archiepiscopus" as 37th bishop, holding the position for 23 years, 5 months and 5 days, his death "pridie Non Mar" and his burial in the monastery of Gorze[183].  "Grodegangus…archiepiscopus" donated property "in pago Wormacensi…[et] in villa Dagosbesher…in Hostoven, Burdus, in villa Flamersheim ecclesiam" to Gorze, with the consent of "Pipini…Francorum regis, avunculi mei", by charter dated 25 May 765, witnessed by "Grifonis majoris domus fratris domini Pipini regis, Carli filii regis, Hildradi ducis, Rodingi comitis, Hamedei advocati…"[184].  Other sources name Archbishop Chrodgang as brother of Heimrich Graf im Wormsgau (see the document FRANCONIA NOBILITY): "Heimericus" names "germano suo domino Ruodgango archiepiscopo" in an undated charter relating to a donation to Kloster Lorsch[185]; "Karolus…rex Francorum", in an undated charter (placed in the compilation with charters dated 772) related to Kloster Lorsch, names "avia…Heimerici…Williswinda vel genitor suus Cancor, germano suo domino Ruodgango archiepiscopo"[186].  It appears beyond coincidence that two archbishops named Chrodgang existed at the same time.  It is possible therefore that all the sources refer to the same person and that "germanus" in the Lorsch sources should be interpreted more broadly than "brother".] 

b)         son .  Thegan names "nobilissimi ducis Ingorammi…filius fratris Hruotgangi, sancti pontificis"[187], but does not name his brother.  m ---.  The name of the mother of Enguerrand is not known.  One child: 

i)          ENGUERRAND ([740/50]-).  Thegan names "nobilissimi ducis Ingorammi…filius fratris Hruotgangi, sancti pontificis"[188].  According to Settipani[189], he was related to the family of Robert [Capet].  This is presumably based on the connection through the county of Hesbaie, in relation to which Robert (son of Lambert, died before 764, and supposed ancestor of the Robertiner family, see the document MEROVINGIAN NOBILITY) is recorded in 742.  However, no primary source has yet been identified which directly links Enguerrand to the county of Hesbaie (apart from the reference to the origin of his paternal uncle, see above).  Comte de Paris, although the primary source which proves that he held this county has not so far been identified.  The birth date of Robert son of Lambert can be estimated to [700/10].  He would therefore presumably have belonged to the generation of Enguerrand's father or grandfather.  Any relationship between Enguerrand and Robert on the paternal side could not have been closer than second cousin, which seems remote for the county of Hesbaie to have been transmitted between the two.  It is possible that the relationship was through Enguerrand's mother, who could have been a sister of Robert, but this is a mere guess not based on any documentary evidence.  m ROTRUD, daughter of ---.  The primary source which names the wife of Enguerrand has not so far been identified.  Enguerrand & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ERMENGARD ([775/80]-Angers 3 Oct 818, bur Angers).  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names the wife of Emperor Louis "filiam nobilissimi ducis Ingorammi…Irmingarda"[190].  The Gesta Francorum records the death "818 V Non Oct" of "Irmingardis regina"[191].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the death "V Non Oct" of "Hirmingardis regina" three days after falling ill[192]m ([794]) as his first wife, LOUIS King of the Aquitainians, son of CHARLES I "Charlemagne" King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegard (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou {Vienne} [16 Apr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul).  He was crowned Emperor LOUIS I “der Fromme/le Pieux” in 816. 

 

 

 

F.      DESCENDANTS of VULFARD COMTE de FLAVIGNY (later COMTES d'ANGOULÊME)

 

 

1.         VULGRIN .  The primary source which names Vulgrinus and his brother Vulfard has not so far been identified.  Comte d'Angoulême et de Périgord 806. 

2.         VULFARD.  The primary source which names Vulgrinus and his brother Vulfard has not so far been identified.  Emperor Louis I confirmed the donation of "Vulfarius comes" of property to "cellulæ in pago Albiensi…Bella-Cella", by charter dated 819[193].  Comte de Flavigny {Flavigny-sur-Ozerain, Côte d'Or}[194]m ([825/30]) SUSANNA, daughter of BEGO Comte de Paris & his wife Alpais [Carolingian] ([805/10]-).  "Vulfardus" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire for the souls of "genitoris mei Vulfardi et genetrice mea Susannane necnon et germanorum fratrum meorum Adelardo, Vulgrino, Ymo et sorore mee Hildeburga vel nepote meo Vulgrino" by charter dated 2 Nov 889[195].  The primary source which establishes that Susanna was the daughter of Bego has not yet been identified.  Vulfard & his wife had [seven] children: 

a)         VULFARD ([830]-after 2 Nov 889).  Archbishop of Bourges 866-868.  His parentage is established by the charter dated 2 Nov 889 under which "Vulfardus" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire for the souls of "genitoris mei Vulfardi et genetrice mea Susannane necnon et germanorum fratrum meorum Adelardo, Vulgrino, Ymo et sorore mee Hildeburga vel nepote meo Vulgrino"[196]

b)         ADALHARD ([830]-after 890).  His parentage is established by the charter dated 2 Nov 889 under which "Vulfardus" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire for the souls of "genitoris mei Vulfardi et genetrice mea Susannane necnon et germanorum fratrum meorum Adelardo, Vulgrino, Ymo et sorore mee Hildeburga vel nepote meo Vulgrino"[197].  He inherited the villa Sennecey from his maternal uncle comte Eberhard.  Comte 875.  Comte palatin 877.  Comte de Paris [885].  m ---.  The name of Adalhard's wife is not known.  Adalhard & his wife had two children: 

i)          VULFARD ([855]-6 Sep [880/93]).  Vulfard is named sororius of King Louis II[198].  The source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He founded the Benedictine abbey of Flavigny.  Abbé de Flavigny 875. 

ii)         ADELAIS ([855/60]-18 Nov [901], bur Compiègne, église abbatiale Saint-Corneille)Regino names "Adalheidis" second wife of "Hludowicus rex filius Caroli", stating that he married her after repudiating his first wife[199].  Her paternity is indicated by Vulfard (who would have been the brother of Adelais) being named sororius of King Louis II[200].  Her marriage was not recognised by the church which did not accept her husband's separation from his first wife.  The Pope refused to crown Adelais with her husband at Troyes 878, considering that she was not his legitimate wife.  Her children were considered illegitimate by the church.  m ([875][201]) as his second wife, LOUIS King of Aquitaine, son of CHARLES II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks & his first wife Ermentrude [d'Orléans] (1 Nov 846-Compiègne 10 Apr 879, bur Compiègne, église collégiale Saint-Corneille).  He succeeded his father in 875 as LOUIS II "le Bègue King of the West Franks.

c)         VULGRIN (-3 May 886, bur Angoulême Saint-Cybard).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks installed "Vulgrimnum propinquum suum, fratrem Aldoini abbatis" with "Engolisme et Petragorice" after Comte Emenon was killed (in 866), commenting that Vulgrin had been missus in Aquitaine for "Carlo magno imperatore fratre eius" and was already "senex" when appointed to Angoulême[202], although this is inconsistent with his parents' marriage date as shown above.  Vulgrin's family relationship with the Carolingian kings was through his mother as shown above.  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 2 Nov 889 under which "Vulfardus" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire for the souls of "genitoris mei Vulfardi et genetrice mea Susannane necnon et germanorum fratrum meorum Adelardo, Vulgrino, Ymo et sorore mee Hildeburga vel nepote meo Vulgrino"[203].  The death in 886 of "Vulgrimnus comes" is recorded in the Annales Engolismenses[204]

-        COMTES d'ANGOULÊME

d)         AUDOUIN .  His parentage is proved by the Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes which records that Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks installed "Vulgrimnum propinquum suum, fratrem Aldoini abbatis ex monasterio Sancti Dionisi" with "Engolisme et Petragorice" after Comte Emenon was killed (in 866)[205].  Abbot of Saint-Denis. 

e)         IMMO .  His parentage is established by the charter dated 2 Nov 889 under which "Vulfardus" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire for the souls of "genitoris mei Vulfardi et genetrice mea Susannane necnon et germanorum fratrum meorum Adelardo, Vulgrino, Ymo et sorore mee Hildeburga vel nepote meo Vulgrino"[206]

f)          HILDEBURG .  Her parentage is established by the charter dated 2 Nov 889 under which "Vulfardus" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire for the souls of "genitoris mei Vulfardi et genetrice mea Susannane necnon et germanorum fratrum meorum Adelardo, Vulgrino, Ymo et sorore mee Hildeburga vel nepote meo Vulgrino"[207]

g)         [--- .  m ---.]  One possible child: 

i)          [VULGRIN .  His relationship with this family is established by the charter dated 2 Nov 889 under which "Vulfardus" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire for the souls of "genitoris mei Vulfardi et genetrice mea Susannane necnon et germanorum fratrum meorum Adelardo, Vulgrino, Ymo et sorore mee Hildeburga vel nepote meo Vulgrino"[208].  The names of the parents of Vulgrin are not known.] 

3.         HILDUIN [Audouin] .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Abbot of Saint-Denis. 

 

 

 

G.      FAMILY of ADALHARD [COMTE de LOCHES]

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         ADALHARDm ---.  The name of Adalhard's wife is not known.  Adalhard & his wife had two children: 

a)         GARNIER .  The Gesta Consulum Andegavensium names "Guarnerius…filius Adalaudi, illius scilicet Carolus Calvus Lochas dedit… [et] Ambasium"[209]m TESCENDA, daughter of ---.  "Falco comes Andecavorum iuvenis" names "uxor mea Roscila et filii mei Guido et Fulco" in a donation of property "pro anima Ingelgerii patris mei et iterum Ingelgerii filii mei et Vuarnerii soceri mei et uxoris suæ Tescendæ" by charter dated 929[210].  "Fulco Andecavorum comes abbas quoque Sancti Albini Sanctique Lizinii necnon et uxor mea Roscilla et filii mei Widdo ac Fulco" donated property to Saint-Aubin d'Angers for the souls of "…Warnerio socro meo et uxore sua Tescenda" by charter dated to [929/30][211].  Garnier & his wife had one child: 

i)          ROSCILLE ([870]-).  The Gesta Consulum Andegavensium records the marriage of Comte Foulques and "de pago Turonico…Roscillam, Warnerii filiam", specifying that "Warnerius…filius Adalaudi" had three castles "in Turonico…Lochas atque Villentrasti et Haia" which Foulques later acquired[212]m (before 5 Jul 905) FOULQUES, son of INGELGER Comte [d'Anjou] & his wife Adelais --- ([888]-[941/42]).  He succeeded in 909 as Vicomte de Tours et d'Anjou.  He was installed as Comte d'Anjou in 929 by Raoul King of France. 

b)         ADALHARD .  The Gestis Consulum Andegavensium names "Adalaudo Episcopo filio suo [Adalaudi]"[213].  Bishop. 

2.         RAYMOND (-after [before 5 Jul 905]).  The Gestis Consulum Andegavensium names "fratri suo [Adalaudi] Raimoni, cum adhuc vivus esset"[214], the latter comment presumably referring to his being alive when his great-niece married Foulques d'Anjou. 

 

 

 

H.      DESCENDANTS of MATFRIED COMTE d'ORLEANS

 

 

Two possible brothers, or brother and sister, parents not known: 

1.         MATFRIED [I] (-836 after Sep 1).  Emperor Louis I confirmed the donation by "Madephrido fideli nostro" of property of "Theodemarus…in pago Scarponensi", except that held by "Hartmannus comes", to the monastery of Gorze by charter dated 815[215]Comte d'Orléans before [827].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Hugonem et Mathfridum comites" as missi of Pepin King of Aquitaine [in 827] but failed in their mission in Barcelona and Girona[216].  The Miracula Sancti Bernardi records that "Matfrido, comite quondam Aurelianensi" was deprived of his honours "culpam inertiæ" and "Odo" appointed in his place[217], presumably dated to [828].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Aurelianensem urbem" was taken from "Hodone" and restored to "Mathfrido" [in 830][218].  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that Emperor Louis was met at "Compendium" by "Pippinus filius eius cum magnatis primis patris sui…Hug et Matfrido…Gotefrido"[219].  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Mathfridus" took part in the rebellion in 832[220].  Nithard specifies that "Mathfrid" was one of the supporters of the rebellion of co-Emperor Lothaire I in 833/34, but was expelled from the Breton march by "Wido" and other supporters of Emperor Louis I[221].  The Annales Xantenses record that "Mahtfridum atque Landbertum, principes Lotharii consules" were captured and killed in 834[222].  The Annales Fuldenses record the rebellion of "Mahtfredo et Lantberto" in 834 and the battle in which "Udo comes Aurelianensium et Theodo abbas sancti Martini Turonensis" were killed[223].  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the death in 836 of "Matfridus…qui erat maximus incentor"[224].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Wala Corbeiensis abbas, Matfridus, Hugo, Lantbertus, Godefridus, itemque filius eius Godefridus, Agimbertus comes Pertensis…sed et Richardus" died between "Kal Sep usque ad missam sancti Martini" [in 836][225]m ---.  The name of Matfried's wife is not known.  Matfried [I] & his wife had one child: 

a)         ENGELTRUDIS ([825/30]-).  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Engildrudam filiam quondam Matifredi comite" left "Busone proprio viro" and wandered for seven years[226]Regino names "Engildrudam quoque uxorem quondam Bosonis comitis" when recording her excommunication in 866 after deserting her husband and fleeing to France with "Wangerum suum vassallum"[227]m [firstly] ([845/50], deserted [856/57]) BOSO, son of --- (-[874/78]).  [m] secondly WANGAR, son of ---. 

2.         [--- .  m ---.]  One possible child: 

a)         [MATFRIED [II] ([820]-after 18 Sep 882).  A close family connection between Matfried [II] and Matfried [I] is suggested by the name.  This is confirmed by the letter dated 878 from Pope John VIII to "Mactefrido illustri comiti" referring to Engeltrud wife of Boso (who was the daughter of Matfried [I]) as "proxime vestre"[228], although this wording suggests a more remote relationship than father and son.   "Hlotharius…imperator augustus" granted property "in pago Lugdunense" to "cuidam vassallo…Immoni", at the request of "Matfredus…comes vel ministerialis noster", by charter dated 15 Dec 843[229]Graf von Eifel: "Hlotharius…imperator augustus" granted property "in pago Eiflense…in villa…Bettinga" to "cuidam fideli nostro Fulcrado", at the request of "Matfridus…ministerialis noster", by charter dated 17 Feb 844[230].  "Hlotharius…imperator augustus" granted property "in pago Riboariense in comitatu Iuliacense" to "vassallo…Matfredi…comitis, Hrotgario", at the request of "ministerialis nostri Matfridi…comitis", by charter dated 7 May 846[231].  "Hlotharius…imperator augustus" donated property "in pago Eiflinse in comitatu Matfridi" to Kloster Prüm by charter dated 28 Jan 855[232].  "Hlotharius…rex" donated property "in pago Eiflinse in comitatu Matfridi" at the request of "Adalardus et Matfridus…comites" to "vassallo præfati Matfridi Otberto" by charter dated 28 Jun 856[233].  An agreement between Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks dated Jun 860 names "nobilis ac fidelibus laicis…Chuonradus, Evrardus, Adalardus, Arnustus, Warnarius, Liutfridus, Hruodolfus, Erkingarius, Gislebertus, Ratbodus, Arnulfus, Hugo, item Chuonradus, Liutharius, Berengarius, Matfridus, Boso, Sigeri, Hartmannus, Liuthardus, Richuinus, Wigricus, Hunfridus, Bernoldus, Hatto, Adalbertus, Burchardus, Christianus, Leutulfus, Hessi, Herimannus, item Hruodulfus, Sigehardus"[234].  An agreement dated 14 Jun 877 of Emperor Charles II "le Chauve", presumably written with his own death in mind, names "Arnulfus comes, Gislebertus, Letardus, Matfridus, Widricus, Gotbertus, Adalbertus, Ingelgerus, Rainerus" as those willing to support the emperor's son if he travels across the Meuse[235].  Pope John VIII wrote a letter to "Mactefrido illustri comiti" dated 878 referring to the property of the two daughters of Count Boso in upper Italy & his wife Engeltrud "proxime vestre"[236].  "Hildebertus filius quondam Berengarii comitis" donated property "res…mee in comitatu Vuabrinse prope fluvio…Cherus villam…Beuram" for "germano meo Berengario" to Verdun Sainte-Vanne by charter dated 18 Sep 882, subscribed by "Stephanus comes, Matfridus comes, Witpertus comes"[237]m ---.  The name of Matfried's wife is not known.]  Count Matfried [II] & his wife had one possible child: 

i)          [daughter .  Hlawitschka suggests that Adelhard [II] married a daughter of Matfried [II] or of his sister and that the couple were the parents of the three brothers Gebhard and Matfried Counts of Metz and Richer Bishop of Verdun[238].  This would certainly explain the transmission of the name Matfried into the family of the counts of Metz but there appears to be no other indication that the theory might be correct.  m ADALHARD [II], son of ADALHARD [I] & his wife --- (-2 Jan 890).  The Catalogus abbatem Epternacensium names "Adelardus iunior comes" as [lay] abbot of Echternach in 878 until 890[239].  The Liber Memorialis of Remiremont records the death "IV Non Jan" of "Adellardus"[240], although it is not certain that this is the same Adelhard.]  

 

 

 

I.        DESCENDANTS of LANTBERT [MARQUIS of BRETON MARCH]

 

 

LANTBERT, son of --- .  He was related to Liutwin "der Heilige" Bishop of Trier, who died in [717].  Graf.  Vogt of Kloster Hornbach and Kloster Mettlach (founded in 742 by Bishop Liutwin). 

m DEOTBRIC, daughter of --- (-768).  The source which names the wife of Lantbert has not yet been identified. 

Lantbert & his wife had [six] children: 

1.         WIDO (-814).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which records privileges granted to "Karolus quondam maiorem domus Miloni" and by King Pepin to "Miloni", names "Leudonius quondam episcopus genitor Miloni et Widoni", specifying that Milo succeeded Leudonius as bishop, and details the dispute between "Wicberto misso et filios Lantberti, Widoni et Hrodoldo vel Warnario"[241].  He and his brother Werner were owners of Kloster Mettlach in 796[242].  The Royal Frankish Annals record that Wido was installed as prefect of the march of Brittany "comes ac praefectus Britanni limites" in 799 by Charles I King of the Franks, subdued the Bretons in 799 and brought the Breton chief's weapons, engraved with his name, to the king at Worms[243].  The Annales Laurissenses Continuatio records that "Wido comes" was appointed to "marca Brittaniæ" in 799[244].  Imperial missus in 802[245].  "Wido comite" is referred to in an 814 document of Kloster Redon[246]m ---.  The name of Wido's wife is not known.  Wido & his wife had two children: 

a)         WIDO (-killed in battle 834).  The primary source which confirms the parentage of Wido has not yet been identified.  Comte de Vannes.  "Wido" supported Emperor Louis I during the rebellion of the latter's sons and in 834 was sent to Brittany to drive out "Mathfrid, Lambert [presumably Wido's brother, although this is not specified] and all the others of Lothar's party" but was killed[247].  The Annales Xantenses record that "Mahtfrdum atque Landbertum, principes Lotharii consules" were captured and killed in 834[248], "Landbertum" presumably being an error for "Widonem" as Wido's brother Lambert was killed in Italy.  The Chronica Rainaldi records that "Odo comes Aurelianensium, Willelmus frater eius comes Blesensium, Guido comes Cenomanensium" died in battle fighting "Lambertum" in 835[249]

b)         LAMBERT (-Ticino 30 Dec 836).  The primary source which confirms the parentage of Lambert has not yet been identified.  He succeeded as Count of the Breton march.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Walam et Warnarium, necnon et Lambertum sed et Ingobertum" as missi [in 813], recording that "Warnarius comes…accito nepote Lantberto" acted without the knowledge of "Wala et Ingelberto"[250].  He was expelled from Aachen with his uncle Warner in 814 by King Louis I after the death of Emperor Karl I, Warner being killed in the conflict which followed[251].  The Royal Frankish Annals record that the forces of "Count Lambert" defeated and killed Wihomarc who had rebelled in Brittany in 825[252].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "comitem Lantbertum" was custodian of Nijmegen [in 830][253], presumably a temporary appointment as "comes palatii" of the royal palace at Nijmegen maybe for the period of the emperor's visit.  "Lambert" was one of the supporters of the rebellion of co-Emperor Lothaire I in 833/34, and consequently lost his position in the Breton march[254].  The Annales Fuldenses record the rebellion of "Mahtfredo et Lantberto" in 834 and the battle in which "Udo comes Aurelianensium et Theodo abbas sancti Martini Turonensis" were killed[255].  In 834, he was sent to Italy where Lothar gave him land and installed him as Marchese and Duke of Spoleto.    

-        DUKES of SPOLETO

2.         HRODOALD .  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which records privileges granted to "Karolus quondam maiorem domus Miloni" and by King Pepin to "Miloni", names "Leudonius quondam episcopus genitor Miloni et Widoni", specifying that Milo succeeded Leudonius as bishop, and details the dispute between "Wicberto misso et filios Lantberti, Widoni et Hrodoldo vel Warnario"[256]

3.         WARNER [Werner] (-killed 814).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which records privileges granted to "Karolus quondam maiorem domus Miloni" and by King Pepin to "Miloni", names "Leudonius quondam episcopus genitor Miloni et Widoni", specifying that Milo succeeded Leudonius as bishop, and details the dispute between "Wicberto misso et filios Lantberti, Widoni et Hrodoldo vel Warnario"[257].  He and his brother Wido were owners of Kloster Mettlach in 796[258].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Walam et Warnarium, necnon et Lambertum sed et Ingobertum" as missi [in 813], recording that "Warnarius comes…accito nepote Lantberto" acted without the knowledge of "Wala et Ingelberto"[259].  He was expelled from Aachen with his nephew Lambert in 814 by King Louis I after the death of Emperor Karl I, and was killed in the conflict which followed[260]same person as…?  WARNER (-before 834).  Emperor Louis I confirmed the donation to "Duserensi monasterio" made by "Warnarius quondam comes…villam Masteces…in pago Tricastinensi…cum uxore…Hildisnota…defuncta" by charter dated 834[261]m HILDISNOT, daughter of --- (-before 834).  Emperor Louis I confirmed the donation to "Duserensi monasterio" made by "Warnarius quondam comes…villam Masteces…in pago Tricastinensi…cum uxore…Hildisnota…defuncta" by charter dated 834[262]

4.         WARIN (-796).  Wido donated property to Hornbach im Bliesgau for the soul of his brother Warin in 796[263]

5.         [WILLIGART .  Schenkerin von Willgartswiesen 828[264].] 

6.         [---.  m ---.]  One possible child: 

a)         WARNERNepos of Willigart[265]

 

 

 

J.      FAMILIES of NIBELUNG, CHILDEBRAND and THEODERIC

 

 

Settipani reconstructs possible family relationships between the individuals named Nibelung and Childebrand who are recorded in documentation in the 8th and 9th centuries.  The onomastic connection is obvious, given these unusual names.  However, there are too many variables, including the possibility of family relationships through cognatic as well as agnatic lines, for such a reconstruction to be meaningful.  It has therefore been considered more appropriate to list the individuals in approximately chronological order, without attempting to suggest relationships unless these are indicated by information in the sources (as is the case, for example, with the children of Childebrand [III]).  Although the chronology suggests four different individuals named Nibelung and two named Childebrand over this period, there is no certainty about which of the references cited below apply to which individuals.  The way in which the citations have been linked to the individuals named in this document should therefore be considered approximate. 

 

 

NIBELUNG [I], illegitimate son of CHILDEBRAND [I] & his mistress --- ([705/20]-before 786[266]).  Fredegar names Nibelung as son of Childebrand, specifying that he was the continuator of work on the chronicle after his father died[267].  An approximate birth date range of [705/20] is assigned to Nibelung for the purposes only of narrowing the possible birth date ranges of his supposed descendants.  A charter dated to [866/75] relating to a dispute between "Vulfaldum episcopum et Heccardum comitem" concerning land at Perrecy, heard before "Leudo episcopus et Adelardus comes missi dominici in comitatu Augustidunense", refers to a charter "de temporibus domni Pipini regis sive de nomen Nivelongi"[268]

 

 

1.         NIBELUNG [II], son of --- ([750/60]-[after 805]).  Comte Nibelung donated property "Calliacum" in the county of Madrie to La Croix-Saint-Ouen for the souls of his unnamed parents and children by charter dated to [788][269].  Nibelung donated property to Saint-Denis by charter dated 805[270], although this could alternatively refer to Nibelung [III].  Settipani suggests that Nibelung [II] was the son of Nibelung [I][271].  However, children of Nibelung [I] would probably have been born in the range [730/45].  If this is correct, [788] seems late for the first mention of Nibelung [II] in historical records.  m ---.  The [788] document cited above refers to the children (unnamed) of Nibelung [II] so he was presumably married, although there is no indication of the name of his wife.  Settipani highlights the onomastic connections with the family of St Guillaume suggested by the names Bernard and Theoderic borne by the possible descendants of Nibelung [II] shown below[272].  He suggests that, if there was a connection between the two families, it may have been through the wife of Nibelung [II] who could have been either Abba or Berta, one of the sisters of (St) Guillaume Comte de Toulouse.  The difficulty with this hypothesis is that the Vita S. Willelmi implies that Guillaume´s sisters remained unmarried when it records that he had “duæ sorores virgines…Albana…Bertana[273].  Nibelung [II] & his wife had --- children: 

a)         --- .  The [788] document cited above refers to the children (unnamed) of Nibelung [II]. 

 

2.         CHILDEBRAND [II], son of --- ([760/70-after 796).  Missus at Autun in 796: under a charter dated Feb 796, Dodo recognises himself as serf of the king in the presence of "Ansberto et Hildebrandus missis dominicis" at Autun and "Moyses advocatus Hildebranno comite"[274].  "Hildebrannus" is recorded in the cartulary of Perrecy pursuing a serf from the villa "Jovo" in the pagus Autun before royal commissioners by charter dated 796[275].  Settipani suggests that Childebrand [II] was the son of Nibelung [I][276].  However, children of Nibelung [I] would probably have been born in the range [730/45].  If this is correct, 796 seems late for the first mention of Childebrand in historical records if he was Nibelung [I]'s son. 

 

3.         NIBELUNG [III], son of --- (-after Apr 818).  The judgment of "Theoderico comite" ordered the restitution of property at Baugy claimed by "Fulchardus advocatus…Nivelongo comiti" in a charter dated Apr 818[277].  Settipani suggests that this refers to a different person from Nibelung [II][278].  This is likely to be correct if the birth date range estimated above for Nibelung [II] is correct.  He also suggests that Nibelung [III] was the son of Nibelung [II][279].  However, the onomastic connections are just as strong in the case of Childebrand [II]. 

 

4.         CHILDEBRAND [III], son of --- (-[827/36]).  Settipani suggests that Childebrand [III] was the son of Childebrand [II], but in a later passage that he may have been the son of Nibelung [II][280].  His name suggests a close connection with both, but there appears no way of deciding which is the preferred choice.  "Fredelus advocatus Hildebrandi comitis" is named in a judgment of "Theodericus comes" in a charter dated Mar 818[281].  A document of Emperor Louis I issued from Ingelheim and dated Oct 826 deals, among other business, with a claim by "Hildebrandi comitis"[282].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Elisachar abbatem et Hildebrandum comitem necnon et Donatum" as imperial missi in Spain [in 827][283].  Einhard's Annales name "Helisachar presbiterum et abbatum et…Hildebrandum atque Donatum comites" as imperial missi to Spain in 827[284].  Settipani highlights that the testament of Ekkehard, son of Childebrand [III], refers to the villa of Perrecy in the Autunois inherited from Childebrand [I], father of Nibelung [I], which suggests a direct descent.  He also cites a spurious charter, fabricated in the 18th century, which names Childebrand son of Nibelung but dismisses this as of little value[285]. m DUNNA, daughter of ---.  The Donatio Ecchardi names "Childebrandi genitoris mei et genetricis mei Donnanæ…"[286].  There is no indication of her origin.  Settipani highlights the onomastic connection with Ekkehard, recorded in the Annales Bertiniani as killed in 844 at the siege of Toulouse and, on the basis that the other Count Ekkehard recorded in the same source as being captured at the same time may have been Dunna's son, suggests that Dunna may have been the sister of the former[287].  However, there were other contemporaries named "Ekkehard" as shown by the Gesta quorundam regum Francorum which records the death in battle in 837 of "Eggihardum…comitem [in Walchram insulam]" while defending "Dorestadum" against the Vikings[288].  "Heccardus comes" placed his assets at the disposal of testamentary executors by charter dated to [Jan 876], for the souls of "genitoris mei Hildebranni…genitrice mea Dunana germanoque meo Theoderico necnon et uxoribus Albegundis et Richildis"[289].  A Saxon connection is one of the possibilities for the ancestry of Count Theoderic [I] (see below); if this is correct, it is possible that the wife of Childebrand [III] was related to Theoderic [I], the name Theoderic being transmitted into the family of Nibelung/Childebrand through her.  Childebrand [III] & his wife had [five] children: 

a)         THEODERIC [V] ([810]-).  Settipani quotes a list from Faremoutiers which names "Hiltibrandus mo[nachos]…Theoterichus com[es], Hæckardus, Bernardus…", suggesting that the last three were brothers, sons of the first named[290].  "Heccardus comes" placed his assets at the disposal of testamentary executors by charter dated to [Jan 876], for the souls of "genitoris mei Hildebranni…genitrice mea Dunana germanoque meo Theoderico necnon et uxoribus Albegundis et Richildis"[291].  It is not certain that Theoderic was deceased at this date: same person as…?  THEODERIC [VI] "le Trésorier" (-882 or 883).  Settipani suggests that Theoderic "le Trésorier" was the brother of Ecchard.  However, this would imply a time-span of more than 40 years of activity as an adult, which seems rather long for the 9th century.  In addition, the testamentary disposition of Ecchard makes no connection between "…Theoderico et Richardo filio eius…" (which presumably refers to Theoderic "le Trésorier" and his son) and "…germanoque meo Theoderico…" (one of the named individuals for whose souls the dispositions were made).  Another charter issued by "Heccardus comes" around the same time jointly with "coniunx mea Richeldis" proves that not all the named "soul" beneficiaries were dead[292].  However, it is likely that the testator would have named "Richardo" his "nepos" if such a relationship was correct, as the document refers to his other known niece and nephew as such.  Comte d'Autun. 

-        see below

b)         EKKEHARD [Ecchard] ([810/15]-8 Apr [876/77], bur monastère de Fleury-sur-Loire, Nièvre).  "Hludovvicus…imperator augustus" granted land "in pago Augustodunense in agro Patriciacense…villa Patriacus" to "fideli nostro Ecchardo" by charter dated 29 Dec 839[293].  The Annales Bertiniani record that "filii Etkardi comitis duo, item Eokardus, Guntardus et Richuinus comites" were captured at the siege of Toulouse in 844[294], Settipani suggesting that "item Eokardus" refers to Ekkehard son of Childebrand [III] and his wife Dunna[295].  Ekkehard was one of the rebels against King Charles "le Chauve" in 858.  Invested as Comte de Chalon in 863, Comte d'Autun et de Mâcon in 873.  A charter dated to [866/75] relates to a dispute between "Vulfaldum episcopum et Heccardum comitem" concerning land at Perrecy, heard before "Leudo episcopus et Adelardus comes missi dominici in comitatu Augustidunense", refers to a charter "de temporibus domni Pipini regis sive de nomen Nivelongi"[296].  "Heccardus comes" placed his assets at the disposal of testamentary executors by charter dated to [Jan 876], for the souls of "genitoris mei Hildebranni…genitrice mea Dunana germanoque meo Theoderico necnon et uxoribus Albegundis et Richildis", also naming "germani mei Bernardi".  The names of the executors are recorded as "Leutboldus, Engelbodus, Winetarius, Luvininus, Otgarius, Bettilo, Vulgis, Adelingo, Ildebodo, Eriberto, Dudino, Eribrando, Adefredo presbiteros et Nivelongo atque Theoderico germano suo".  The beneficiaries are "Adane germanæ meæ…Gerbergæ nepta mea…Johanne aut filio eius Johanne…Theoderico et Richardo filio eius…Bernardo filio Malguino…Richildi…Therico filio Nivelongo…Ademare fratre suo…Heccardo filio Heccardi…Teutbergane uxore Lotharii…Otgario…Fulcoino…Pedilono…Warnegario…Eriberto…Gautberto"[297].  The Miracula Sancti Bernardi records that "Echardus comes Burgundionum" was buried "Sancto Benedicto et fratribus Floriacensis cœnobio"[298].  The necrology of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire records the death “VI Id Apr” of “comes Achatus, qui dedit Parriciacum[299].  She is not named, so it is not possible to link this entry with certainty to the first wife of Robert de Courtenay.  m firstly ALBEGUNDIS, daughter of ---.  "Heccardus comes" placed his assets at the disposal of testamentary executors by charter dated to [Jan 876], for the souls of "genitoris mei Hildebranni…genitrice mea Dunana germanoque meo Theoderico necnon et uxoribus Albegundis et Richildis"[300]m secondly ([863] before 8 Aug 869) RICHILDIS, daughter of --- (-[882]).  "Heccardus comes" placed his assets at the disposal of testamentary executors by charter dated to [Jan 876], for the souls of "genitoris mei Hildebranni…genitrice mea Dunana germanoque meo Theoderico necnon et uxoribus Albegundis et Richildis"[301].  "Eccardus…comes et coniunx mea Richeldis" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire by charter dated to [Jan 876][302].  Settipani suggests that she was Richildis, daughter of [Richard Comte d'Amiens & his wife ---Richildis] but cites no source on which this speculation is based[303]

c)         BERNARD "le Veau" (-murdered 872).  Settipani quotes a list from Faremoutiers which names "Hiltibrandus mo[nachos]…Theoterichus com[es], Hæckardus, Bernardus…", suggesting that the last three were brothers, sons of the first named[304].  He was invested as Comte d'Autun by King Louis "le Bègue" in 868.  Bernard was murdered by Bernard "Plantevelue" Comte d'Auvergne [Aquitaine], who had been dispossessed as Comte d'Autun in favour of Comte Bernard.  "Heccardus comes" names "germani mei Bernardi" in his testamentary disposition dated to [Jan 876][305]

d)         ADA .  "Heccardus comes" names "Adane germanæ meæ…" among the beneficiaries under his testamentary disposition dated to [Jan 876][306].  Nun at Faremoutiers, maybe Abbess. 

e)         [---.  m ---.]  [Two] children: 

i)          WINITHAR [I] (-after 25 May 898).  "Heccardus comes" names "…mei nepotis Guiniterii" in the charter dated to [Jan 876] under which he defines the territory of his property at Perrecy[307].  "Wineterius" with the consent of "filii sui Wineterio et Theoderico" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire "quicquid senior meus Heccardus comes mihi dedit" by charters dated May 895 and 25 May 898[308]

-         see below

ii)         [GERBERGA (-before 885).  "Heccardus comes" names "…Gerbergæ nepta mea…" among the beneficiaries under his testamentary disposition dated to [Jan 876][309].  "Heccardus comes" names "Gebergane neptæ meæ" as residual beneficiary of property bequeathed to "mei nepotis Guiniterii" in the charter dated to [Jan 876] defining the territory of his property at Perrecy[310], which suggests a brother/sister relationship.  Some of such property bequeathed to her in 876 had reverted to [her brother] Winithar by 885.] 

5.         [--- .  m ---.]  [Two possible children]: 

a)         [NIBELUNG [IV] ([810/20]-after 879).  Settipani suggests that Nibelung [IV] was the son of Nibelung [III] but the time span between the only mention of the latter (in 818) and the last mention of the former (879) appears too long for them to have been father and son.  Nibelung [IV]'s birth date range is estimated on the basis of his being active in service of the king in early adulthood in 843, and his last known mention in 879.  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks granted property "in pago Otisioderinse seu Wastinense…curtem…Hermoldi super fluvium Betus…villa…Villasallum" to "fidelis nostro…Nivelongo" by charter dated 843[311].  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Hugo, Gozso, Nivilungus" as missi in "Niverniso, Alciodriso, Avaliso"[312].  Comte in Vexin: Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks donated property "in pago Vulcassino…Pontisaræ" to the abbey of Saint-Denis with the consent of "Nivelongo comite", by charter dated 864[313].  "Heccardus comes" names "…Nivelongo atque Theoderico germano suo" among the executors of his testamentary disposition dated to [Jan 876][314].  Nibelung [IV]'s estimated birth date range as shown above is consistent with his belonging to the same generation as Ekkehard and his brothers, maybe their first cousin.  Nibelung subscribed a charter of comte Adelramm, maybe his son-in-law, dated 879[315]m ---.  The name of the wife of Nibelung [IV] is not known.]  Nibelung [IV] & his wife had [three] children: 

i)          THEODERIC [VIII] .  "Heccardus comes" names "…Therico filio Nivelongo…Ademare fratre suo…" among the beneficiaries under his testamentary disposition dated to [Jan 876][316].  m ---.  The name of Theoderic´s wife is not known.  Theoderic [VIII] & his wife had [one child]: 

(a)       [daughter.  Settipani suggests[317] this affiliation for the wife of Pépin in view of the transmission of land in the Vexin to his descendants.  m (before [845]) PEPIN, son of BERNARD I King of Italy & his wife Cunegundis --- ([815]-after 850).] 

ii)         ADHEMAR .  "Heccardus comes" names "…Therico filio Nivelongo…Ademare fratre suo…" among the beneficiaries under his testamentary disposition dated to [Jan 876][318]

iii)        [--- .  Settipani speculates that the wife of Adelramn [II] was the daughter of Nibelung [IV] because of the transmission of the name Theoderic to one of the couple's probable sons and the apparent transmission of Vexin, previously held by Nibelung [IV], to their son Adelramn [III][319]m ADELRAMN [II], son of ---.] 

b)         [THEODERIC [VII] .  "Heccardus comes" names "…Nivelongo atque Theoderico germano suo" among the executors of his testamentary disposition dated to [Jan 876][320].] 

 

 

WINITHAR [I], son of --- (-after 25 May 898).  "Heccardus comes" names "…mei nepotis Guiniterii" in the charter dated to [Jan 876] under which he defines the territory of his property at Perrecy[321].  "Wineterius" with the consent of "filii sui Wineterio et Theoderico" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire "quicquid senior meus Heccardus comes mihi dedit" by charters dated May 895 and 25 May 898[322]

m ---.  The name of the wife of Winithar is not known. 

Winithar [I] & his wife had two children: 

1.         WINITHAR [II] .  "Wineterius" with the consent of "filii sui Wineterio et Theoderico" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire "quicquid senior meus Heccardus comes mihi dedit" by charters dated May 895 and 25 May 898[323]

2.         THEODERIC [X] .  "Wineterius" with the consent of "filii sui Wineterio et Theoderico" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire "quicquid senior meus Heccardus comes mihi dedit" by charters dated May 895 and 25 May 898[324]

…  Possible descendants of either Winithar [II] or Theoderic [X]:

a)         [--- .] 

i)          [NARDUIN (-after 16 Oct 982).  "Narduinus" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire which "Winiterius" had donated for the soul of "senioris Heccardi comitis", by charter dated 16 Oct 982[325].  This strongly suggests that Narduin was a descendant of Winithar [I], although no proof has been found that this is correct.  m ODILIA, daughter of ---.  "Narduinus" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire by charter dated Mar 981, subscribed by "Odiliæ uxoris suæ, Willelmi, Arnulfi"[326]

(a)       [ERMENGARDE .  The unusual name "Narduin" given by Hugues [II] Comte d'Atuyer to his third son suggests that his wife Ermengard may have been the daughter of Narduin & his wife Odilia, but there is no proof that this is correct.  This also appears to be sustainable from a chronological point of view, although no specific dates are known for either Hugues or his wife.  m HUGUES [II] de Dijon Comte d'Atuyer, son of HUGUES [I] Comte de Dijon & his wife Adalburgis ---.] 

 

 

1.         THEODERIC [VI] "le Trésorier", son of --- (-882 or 883).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Pardulus episcopus, Altmarus, Theodacrus" as missi in "Lauduniso, Portiano, Suessonico, Urciso et Vadiro"[327].  A list of those who swore allegiance to Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks at Reims, dated "V Non Iul 854", names "Teudacrus…" first among those who had previously sworn allegiance[328].  An agreement dated 6 Mar 870 between Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks names "Ingelramnus comes" as representative of the former and, as present, "Adalelmus comes, Ingelramnus comes, Liutfridus comes, Theodericus comes, item Adalelmus comes"[329].  An agreement dated 14 Jun 877 of Emperor Charles II "le Chauve", presumably written with his own death in mind, names "…ex comitibus aut Tedericus, aut Balduinus, sive Chuonradus, seu Adalelmus" as those willing to support the emperor's son[330].  Settipani cites various other sources which name "Tetrici comitis Augustudensis" (charter of King Louis II "le Bègue" dated 23 Jan 879), "Theodericus comes" (act of King Carloman dated 30 Nov 880), "Theodericus comes" (letter of King Louis III to Hincmar dated 881)[331].  However, it is not clear whether all these documents refer to the same person named Theoderic.  The citations are obviously both West Frankish and East Frankish in origin, a geographical distance which suggests that two different people may be involved.  He was invested as Comte d'Autun in 878 by King Louis II "le Bègue".  The Annales Bertiniani record his resignation of Autun in 879 after Boso disputed his possession of it[332].  He took the villa of Perrecy on the death of his brother.  “Carlomannus…Rex” restored property “villam Taniacum” to the church of Autun, at the request of “Richardi Comiti Augustodensis”, by charter dated 1 Dec 880, the text ending with “Theodoricus Comes ambasciavit[333]m --- [d'Amiens], [daughter of RICHARD Comte d'Amiens & his wife ---].  Settipani suggests that the wife of Theoderic was the sister of Richard and Buvinus, presumably because of the transmission of the name Richard into the family of Theoderic [VI], as he cites no source on which this is based[334].  Theoderic [VI] & his wife had four children: 

a)         RICHARD .  "Heccardus comes" names "…Theoderico et Richardo filio eius…" among the beneficiaries under his testamentary disposition dated to [Jan 876][335].  "Theodericus et Urso, filius et gener quondam Theoderici comitis" restored property to Saint-Benoît granted by "bone memorie Heccardus comes" which "fratri suo iam defuncto et fratri Richardo" had wrongly appropriated, in the presence of "Hildebrandus et Ermenoldus, ipsorum propinqui", by charter dated Apr 885[336].  

b)         son (-before 885).  "Theodericus et Urso, filius et gener quondam Theoderici comitis" restored property to Saint-Benoît granted by "bone memorie Heccardus comes" which "fratri suo iam defuncto et fratri Richardo" had wrongly appropriated, in the presence of "Hildebrandus et Ermenoldus, ipsorum propinqui", by charter dated Apr 885[337].  

c)         THEODERIC [IX] .  "Theodericus et Urso, filius et gener quondam Theoderici comitis" restored property to Saint-Benoît granted by "bone memorie Heccardus comes" which "fratri suo iam defuncto et fratri Richardo" had wrongly appropriated, in the presence of "Hildebrandus et Ermenoldus, ipsorum propinqui", by charter dated Apr 885[338]

d)         daughter.  m URSO ---.  "Theodericus et Urso, filius et gener quondam Theoderici comitis" restored property to Saint-Benoît granted by "bone memorie Heccardus comes" which "fratri suo iam defuncto et fratri Richardo" had wrongly appropriated, in the presence of "Hildebrandus et Ermenoldus, ipsorum propinqui", by charter dated Apr 885[339].  

 

 

The precise relationship of the following two individuals to Theoderic [IX] is not known, nor whether the two were brothers. 

1.         CHILDEBRAND [IV] .  "Hildebrandus et Ermenoldus, ipsorum propinqui" were present when "Theodericus et Urso, filius et gener quondam Theoderici comitis" restored property to Saint-Benoît granted by "bone memorie Heccardus comes" which "fratri suo iam defuncto et fratri Richardo" had wrongly appropriated, by charter dated Apr 885[340]

 

2.         ERMENOLD .  "Hildebrandus et Ermenoldus, ipsorum propinqui" were present when "Theodericus et Urso, filius et gener quondam Theoderici comitis" restored property to Saint-Benoît granted by "bone memorie Heccardus comes" which "fratri suo iam defuncto et fratri Richardo" had wrongly appropriated, by charter dated Apr 885[341]

 

 

1.         THEODEBERT, son of [NIBELUNG & his wife ---] ([775/85][342]-).  "Pipinus…rex Aquitanorum" granted privileges to Saint-Julien de Brioude, for the souls of "uxorisque nostræ Ingeltrudis reginæ…Hermeingardæ quondam reginæ, genetricisque nostræ Thetberti ac Nebelongi comitis, patris et avi eiusdem Ingeltrudis et prolis" by charter dated 12 Mar 836[343].  Settipani casts doubt on the veracity of the information in this charter[344].  If it is correct, this could indicate either that "Nebelongi [comitis]" was the father of Theodebert or the father of Theodebert's wife.  The problem arises when deciding to which Nibelung this might refer: Nibelung [II] would appear to have been born too early to have been the father of Theodebert or his wife, and Nibelung [III] too late.  Comte de Madrie.  m ---.  The name of the wife of Theodebert is not known.  Theodebert & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         ROBERT (-[after Nov 853]).  Seigneur [comte] à Sesseau en Berry.  The Miraculis Sancti Genulfi refers to "sororem [Robertus]" as wife of "Pipinus"[345].  [Emperor Louis I donated property "in territorio Magalonensi…Villanova" held by "Robertus comes" to the church of Saint-Pierre de Magelone by charter dated 819[346].  "Landramnus archiepiscopus et Hruodbertus comes" are named as imperial missi in "Turones" in documents of Emperor Louis dated May 825 and 827[347].  "Heistulfus episcopus et Ruodbertus comes" are named as imperial missi "in Mogontia quæ est diocesis Heistulfi archiepiscopi" in documents of Emperor Louis dated May 825 and 827[348].  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Dodo episcopus, Hrotbertus et Osbertus" as missi in "Cinnomannio, Andegavensi, atque Turonico, Corboniso, et Sagiso"[349].  It is not known whether these references all relate to the same Robert.]  There is a possibility that Robert was the same person as Robert "le Fort", ancestor of the Capetian dynasty.  This is indicated by Europäische Stammtafeln[350], which names the first wife of Comte Robert "le Fort" as "[Agane]".  It cites no corresponding primary source, but presumably the suggestion is based on the Miraculis Sancti Genulfi which names "Agana filia…Byturicensium comes…Wifredus [et]…Oda coniux" as wife of "Roberto viro primoque palatii Pipini regis"[351].  If this was correct, it would be consistent with the Saxon origin which is suggested by Richer and by the Miracula Sancti Benedicti (see the document FRANCE, CAPETIAN KINGS).  The connection between Saxony and the family of Nibelung and Childebrand (to which the supposed father of Robert de Sesseau was, it is suspected, related) is suggested by the name Theoderic (nine different individuals named Theoderic have been identified in the family), which was first recorded in Saxony in the family of Widukind by Einhard in 782 (see the document SAXONY).  If this co-identity is correct, Agana would have been too old to have been the mother of the recorded children of Robert "le Fort".  m AGANA, daughter of WICFRED Comte de Bourges & his wife Oda ---.  The Miraculis Sancti Genulfi names "Agana filia…Byturicensium comes…Wifredus [et]…Oda coniux" as wife of "Roberto viro primoque palatii Pipini regis"[352]

b)         RINGARDIS ([805/10][353]- ----, bur Poitiers, église collégiale de Sainte-Radégonde).  The wife of King Pepin I is called "filia Theotberti comitis" in the Vita Hludowicis Imperatoris[354].  Einhard's Annales record the marriage in 822 of "Pippinum…in Aquitanium" and "filiam Theotberti comitis Matricensis"[355].  The Miraculis Sancti Genulfi refers to "sororem [Robertus]" as wife of "Pipinus"[356].  A contemporary poem in honour of King Pepin names "Irmgart" as his wife[357], although Settipani highlights that the original manuscript of this poem names her "Ringart"[358].  "Pipinus…rex Aquitanorum" granted privileges to Saint-Julien de Brioude, for the souls of "uxorisque nostræ Ingeltrudis reginæ…Hermeingardæ quondam reginæ, genetricisque nostræ Thetberti ac Nebelongi comitis, patris et avi eiusdem Ingeltrudis et prolis" by charter dated 12 Mar 836[359], which misnames his mother but which gives an intriguing insight into the possibilities that her father was descended from the Nibelung/Theoderic family as discussed above.  m (Sep 822) PEPIN I King of Aquitaine, son of Emperor LOUIS I "le Pieux" & his first wife Ermengardis [de Hesbaye] (795-Kloster Prüm 29 Sep 855, bur Kloster Prüm ([797]-Poitiers 13 Dec 838, bur Poitiers, église collégiale de Sainte-Radégonde).   

 

 

The common connection with Autun, and the common use of the name "Theoderic", suggest that the following family was closely related to the family of Nibelung and Childebrand.  If this is correct, the only possibility from a chronological point of view is that either Theoderic [I] or his wife was the child of Nibelung [I].  A different speculation is that Theoderic [I] may have been related to the early Saxon leader Widukind (see SAXONY), in whose family references have been found to "Theoderich".  The presence of Comte Theoderic, whom it seems likely was the same person as Theoderic [I], in Saxony as recorded by Einhard in 782 (see below) suggests that he may have been acting in some official capacity for the Franks, maybe because of his prior connection with Saxony.  It is not impossible that Theoderic was one of the Saxon leaders who surrendered to Charles I King of the Franks in 777 and was rewarded with appointments at the royal court.  If this speculation is correct, the name Theoderic may have entered the Nibelung/Childebrand family through Dunna, the wife of Childebrand [III], whose origin is unknown.  A third possibility is that Theoderic was a Frankish name which predated the Carolingian conquest of Saxony, as shown by the charter dated 8 Jul 753 under which "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Theuderico…"[360].  (see MEROVINGIAN NOBILITY). 

 

THEODERIC [I], son of --- (-[791/15 Dec 804]).  The origin of Comte Theoderic is not known.  An interesting speculation is a relationship with the early Saxon leader Widukind, as explained above.  Comte d'Autun.  Einhard indicates that Theoderich was related to Charles I King of the Franks when he records that in 782 the king sent his three missi "Adalgiso camerario et Geilone comite stabuli et Worado comite palati" to meet "in…Saxonis…Theodericus comes, propinquus regis"[361], the relationship probably being through the wife of Theoderic [I] (see below).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" gave a judgment by charter dated to [Dec 775] which names "fidelibus…Widrigo, Odrigo, Theodrico, Bernehardo, Albuino, Aginhardo, Berngario comitibus et Anshelmo comite palacii nostri"[362].  Einhard records that Charles I King of the Franks sent "Theodorico comite et Meginfredo camerario suo" to "aquilonalem Danubii ripam" in 791[363].  "Willelmus…comes" names "genitore meo Theuderico et genitrice mea Aldana" in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone[364]

m ALDANA, daughter of ---.  "Willelmus…comes" names "genitore meo Theuderico et genitrice mea Aldana" in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone[365].  Settipani quotes an Aquitaine necrology which lists "Willelmus…pater eius Theodericus, mater Aldana soror Hiltrudis et Landradæ"[366].  He suggests that "Hiltrudis" was the wife of Odilo Duke of Bavaria, and therefore that the wife of Theoderic was Aldana, daughter of Charles "Martel" maiordomus of Austrasia and Neustria [Carolingian].  The theory is attractive but not conclusive, as its validity depends on there being no other contemporary Hiltrudis, which is not provable.  Hlawitschka highlights the case against the affiliation[367].  However, the evidence of the 25 May 765 charter, quoted in the document MEROVINGIAN NOBILITY under Aldana´s supposed sister Landrada, suggests that Settipani´s hypothesis may be correct.  In addition, Einhard indicates that Theoderic [I] was related to Charles I King of the Franks when he records that in 782 King Charles sent his three missi "Adalgiso camerario et Geilone comite stabuli et Worado comite palati" to meet "in…Saxonis…Theodericus comes, propinquus regis"[368].  One possible relationship being between the king and Theoderic [I] would have been through his wife, if she had been the king's paternal aunt.  

Theoderic [I] & his wife had [seven] children: 

1.         TEUDOIN (-826 or after).  "Willelmus…comes" names "fratribus meis Theudoino et Adalelmo" (version two: "fratre meo Teodoino et Teoderico et Adalelmo") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone[369]Comte d'Autun 804/26.  m ---.  The name of the wife of Teudoin is not known. 

a)         THEODERIC [III] (-[after 826]).  816/21.  Theoderic is named as son of Teudoin in Europäische Stammtafeln[370] but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  The Manual of Dhuoda names "domnus Teodericus…condam" as godfather of Doda's son Bernard (born in 826), although it does not specify a family relationship between the two[371].  Of the three possible individuals in the family named Theoderic, Theoderic [II] is a less likely possibility because of his presumed age.  Theoderic [IV] is named in another section of the Manual, without any reference to his being Bernard's godfather.  Theoderic [III] therefore appears the most likely possibility. 

2.         THEODERIC [II] (-after 811).  "Willelmus…comes" names "fratribus meis Theudoino et Adalelmo" (version two: "fratre meo Teodoino et Teoderico et Adalelmo") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone, Theoderic being named in only one of the versions365.  Einhard's Annales record "Theotheri comes" as one of the signatories of peace with the Vikings in 811[372]

3.         ADALELM .  "Willelmus…comes" names "fratribus meis Theudoino et Adalelmo" (version two: "fratre meo Teodoino et Teoderico et Adalelmo") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone365

4.         [--- .  m ---.]  One possible child: 

a)         [BERTRAND .  "Willelmus…comes" names "nepote meo Bertranno" in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone365.  There is no more precise indication of the relationship between Guillaume and Bertrand although, if nepos is in this context correctly translated as nephew, Bertrand must have been the son of a brother or sister of Guillaume who is not otherwise named in the charter, presumably deceased at the time.] 

5.         GUILLAUME ([750/55]-Gellone [28 May [812/13]/21 May 815]).  Comte de Toulouse, Marquis de Septimanie.  "Willelmus…comes" names "genitore meo Theuderico et genitrice mea Aldana" and "fratribus meis Theudoino et Adalelmo" (version two: "fratre meo Teodoino et Teoderico et Adalelmo") "sororibus meis Albana et Bertana" "filiabus meis et filiis Barnardo, Witchario, Gotcelmo, Helimbruch" (version two: "filios meos et filias Witcario, Hildehelmo et Helinbruch") "uxoribus meis Cunegunde et Guitburge" (version two: "Witburg et Cunegunde") "nepote meo Bertranno" in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone[373]

-        see below

6.         ABBA [Albana] (-after 804).  "Willelmus…comes" names "sororibus meis Albana et Bertana" in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone[374].  The Vita S. Willelmi records that “beatus Willelmus” had “duæ sorores virgines…Albana…Bertana[375].  Nun in 804.  [m NIBELUNG [II], son of [NIBELUNG [I] Count in Burgundy & his wife --- (-after 805).  Settipani highlights the onomastic connections between the family of St Guillaume and the family of Nibelung, suggested by the names Bernard and Theoderic borne by the possible descendants of Nibelung [II][376].  He suggests that, if there was a connection between the two families, it would most likely have been through the wife of Nibelung [II] who could have been either Abba or Berta, sisters of St Guillaume.  There is, however, no indication at all of the first name of the wife of Nibelung [II].  This would of course be incorrect if the connection was through either Abba's father or mother, as referred to above.  The other difficulty with this hypothesis is that the Vita S. Willelmi implies that Guillaume´s sisters remained unmarried when it records that he had “duæ sorores virgines…Albana…Bertana[377].] 

7.         BERTA [Bertana].  "Willelmus…comes" names "sororibus meis Albana et Bertana" in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone[378]

 

 

GUILLAUME, son of THEODERIC [I] Comte d'Autun & his wife Aldana --- ([750/55]-Gellone [28 May [812/13]/21 May 815]).  The Vita S. Willelmi records that “beatus Willelmus” was born during the reign of King Pepin to “consule Theoderico…mater…comitissa…Aldana[379].  Comte de Toulouse, Marquis de Septimania.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Willelmus primus, signifier Hadhemarus" fought the Saracens in Córdoba [in 801][380], although it is not certain that "Willelmus primus" refers to Guillaume Comte de Toulouse.  He founded the Abbey of Gellone in 804, becoming a monk there in 806.  "Willelmus…comes" names "genitore meo Theuderico et genitrice mea Aldana" and "fratribus meis Theudoino et Adalelmo" (version two: "fratre meo Teodoino et Teoderico et Adalelmo") "sororibus meis Albana et Bertana" "filiabus meis et filiis Barnardo, Witchario, Gotcelmo, Helimbruch" (version two: "filios meos et filias Witcario, Hildehelmo et Helinbruch") "uxoribus meis Cunegunde et Guitburge" (version two: "Witburg et Cunegunde") "nepote meo Bertranno" in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone[381].  The Manual of Dhuoda names (in order) "Willelmus, Chungundis, Gariberga, Vuithbergis, Teddericus, Gothzelmus, Guarnarius, Rothlindis" as relatives of Bernard, husband of Doda, implying that all were deceased at the date the manual was written (843)[382].  Canonised 1066. 

m firstly CUNIGUNDIS, daughter of ---.  "Willelmus…comes" names "uxoribus meis Cunegunde et Guitburge" (version two: "Witburg et Cunegunde") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone373, rendering it impossible to decide from this text which was his first and which his second wife.  However, the Manual of Dhuoda names (in order) "Willelmus, Chungundis, Gariberga, Vuithbergis, Teddericus, Gothzelmus, Guarnarius, Rothlindis" as relatives of Bernard, husband of Doda, implying from this order that "Chungundis" was more senior than "Vuithbergis"[383].  A possible clue about the origins of Cunigundis is provided by the Vita Hludowici Imperatoris which records the blinding of "Heribertus Bernhardi frater" and his exile with "Hodo consobrinus illius"[384].  The previous passage in the Vita records that Orléans was confiscated from Eudes Comte d'Orléans.  It is therefore possible that this was the same person as "Hodo", although the precise nature of the relationship between him and Heribert has not been established.  Assuming that Heribert was the son of Guillaume de Toulouse & his first wife Cunigundis (about which there may be some doubt, see below under Heribert), and assuming also that "consobrinus" is used in the text in its strict sense, Cunegundis and the mother of Eudes Comte d'Orléans would have been sisters. 

m secondly GUITBURGIS [Wibourg], daughter of ---.  "Willelmus…comes" names "uxoribus meis Cunegunde et Guitburge" (version two: "Witburg et Cunegunde") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone[385].  The Manual of Dhuoda names (in order) "Willelmus, Chungundis…Vuithbergis…" as relatives of Bernard, husband of Doda[386], these three individuals being identifiable as the father of Bernard and his two wives. 

Guillaume & his [first] wife had [six] children:

1.         GUITCAIRE (-before [824]).  "Willelmus…comes" names "filiabus meis et filiis Barnardo, Witchario, Gotcelmo, Helimbruch" (version two: "filios meos et filias Witcario, Hildehelmo et Helinbruch") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone[387]

2.         HILDEHELM (-before [824]).  "Willelmus…comes" names "filiabus meis et filiis Barnardo, Witchario, Gotcelmo, Helimbruch" (version two: "filios meos et filias Witcario, Hildehelmo et Helinbruch") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone, Hildehelm being named in only one of the versions[388]

3.         [HERIBERT ([780/85]-after 843).  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Heribertus, Bernhardi frater" when recording that he was sent to suppress the rebellion of "Hodo consobrinus illius", the latter surrendering and being exiled[389].  "Willelmus…comes" names "filiabus meis et filiis Barnardo, Witchario, Gotcelmo, Helimbruch" (version two: "filios meos et filias Witcario, Hildehelmo et Helinbruch") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone[390], it being possible that "Helimbruch" refers to Heribert and is not a separate person.  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of his having been adult in 809 when he was probably recorded in Spain (see below).  It is not entirely clear that Heribert was the full brother of Bernard.  In the Manual of Dhuoda (written in 843), Doda reminds her son that, when a member of his family dies, he should add the deceased's name to the list of family members for whom prayers should be said.  She adds at the end of the paragraph a reminder that he should do the same in respect of "domno Ariberto avunculo tuo"[391].  There are three possible explanations for this special position accorded to Heribert in the text.  The obvious case is that Heribert, because of his disgrace and mutilation, was considered to have forfeited his rights to the respect generally accorded to deceased family members, Doda thinking it worthwhile to remind her son that this was not the appropriate way to treat his uncle.  The second possibility is that he was not so obviously a "family member" as the other named individuals, either because he was illegitimate or because he was a uterine half-brother of Bernard.  The third possibility, although this appears less likely, is that Heribert was Bernard's brother-in-law, bearing in mind the strict meaning of the word avunculus as maternal uncle.  However, the Manual refers only to the need to pray for the family of Bernard's father, in which case it would seem odd for the text to single out Heribert from all other maternal relatives if he was related to Bernard through his mother.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Heribertum" was awarded Tortosa after its capture [in 809][392], which it is assumed refers to Heribert son of Duke Guillaume as no other contemporary with this name has so far been identified.  If this is correct, Heribert must have been one of his father's older children, certainly older than Bernard assuming that the latter's birth date is correctly estimated to [795].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Heriberto" as missus of King Louis I [in 812][393].  Nithard names "Herbert" brother of Bernard Duke of Septimania, when recording that he was captured, blinded and imprisoned in Italy in [Apr 830] when his brother was banished by the sons of Emperor Louis I[394].  The Annales Bertiniani record the capture and blinding of "Herebertum fratrem Bernardi" in 830[395].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Heribertus Bernhardi frater" was blinded [in 830] and exiled with "Hodo consobrinus illius"[396].  The previous passage in the Vita records that Orléans was confiscated from Eudes Comte d'Orléans.  It is possible that he was the same person as "Hodo", although the precise nature of the relationship between him and Heribert has not been established.  m ---.  The name of Heribert's wife is not known.] 

a)         [CUNIGUNDIS (-after 15 Jun 835).  Settipani suggests[397] that Cunigundis, wife of Bernard I King of Italy, was the daughter of Heribert in order to explain the transmission of his name into the family.  This is highly speculative.  It would also mean that Heribert was older than suggested above, as it is unlikely that Cunigundis was born later than 800 assuming that the birth date of her son is correctly estimated at [815].  m ([813]) BERNARD I King of Italy, illegitimate son of PEPIN I King of Italy & his mistress Chrothais ([797]-Milan 17 Aug 818, bur Milan, San Ambrosio).] 

4.         [HELIMBRUC (-before [824]).  "Willelmus…comes" names "filiabus meis et filiis Barnardo, Witchario, Gotcelmo, Helimbruch" (version two: "filios meos et filias Witcario, Hildehelmo et Helinbruch") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone[398].  It is possible that "Helimbruch" refers to Heribert and is not a separate person.] 

5.         BERNARD ([795]-executed Toulouse Saint-Sernin [Jan/Jun] 844).  The Vita S. Willelmi names “Bernardo…et Gaucelino” as sons of Guillaume[399].  He is named in one version of his father's 804 charter, in which he is listed first among the children.  Comte d'Autun until 830.  Marquis de Septimanie until 831. 

-        see below

6.         GERBERGE (-drowned Chalon-sur-Saône 834).  Nun at Chalon.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "sororem Bernardi sanctimonialem" was drowned "in Ararim fluvium" in 834[400].  The Manual of Dhuoda names (in order) "Willelmus, Chungundis, Gariberga, Vuithbergis, Teddericus, Gothzelmus, Guarnarius, Rothlindis" as relatives of Bernard, husband of Doda[401].  The position of "Gariberga" in the list, immediately after "Chungundis" and before "Vuithbergis" (identifiable as the two wives of Guillaume), implies that she was the daughter of the former.  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "sanctimonialis feminam…soror ducis Bernhardi…Gerbirch" was "iussit in vase vinatico claudere" and thrown into "flumen Ararim" [in 834][402].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Gotselmus comes itemque Sanila comes necnon et Madalelmus vassallus dominus" were beheaded at Chalon [in 834] and that "Gerberga filia quondam Willelmi comitis" was drowned[403]

Guillaume & his [second] wife had [four] children: 

7.         GAUCELM (-beheaded Chalon-sur-Saône 834).  The Vita S. Willelmi names “Bernardo…et Gaucelino” as sons of Guillaume[404].  "Willelmus…comes" names "filiabus meis et filiis Barnardo, Witchario, Gotcelmo, Helimbruch" (version two: "filios meos et filias Witcario, Hildehelmo et Helinbruch") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone, Gaucelm being named in only one of the versions[405].  The Manual of Dhuoda names (in order) "Willelmus, Chungundis, Gariberga, Vuithbergis, Teddericus, Gothzelmus, Guarnarius, Rothlindis" as relatives of Bernard, husband of Doda[406], which suggests that the last four named were the children of Guillaume by his second wife "Vuithbergis", assuming that all four were his children.  Emperor Louis I granted property to "monasterio S. Andrea Suredensis in diocese Helenensi" by charter dated 829, which names "Gaucelmus comes"[407].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Adrebaldus abbas et Gautselmus comes" were missi [in 834][408].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Gotselmus comes itemque Sanila comes necnon et Madalelmus vassallus dominus" were beheaded at Chalon [in 834] and that "Gerberga filia quondam Willelmi comitis" was drowned[409]

8.         THEODERIC [IV] (-soon after 826).  The Manual of Dhuoda names (in order) "Willelmus, Chungundis, Gariberga, Vuithbergis, Teddericus, Gothzelmus, Guarnarius, Rothlindis" as relatives of Bernard, husband of Doda[410], which suggests that the last four named were the children of Guillaume by his second wife "Vuithbergis", assuming that all four were his children.  Comte d'Autun.  "Theodericus comes in Augustiduno civitate" issued a charter dated Dec 815 subscribed by "Dotinus, Ado, Bligario vicecomite, Girbaudus vicarius"[411].  "Fredelus advocatus Hildebrandi comitis" is named in a judgment of "Theodericus comes" in a charter dated Mar 818[412].  The judgment of "Theoderico comite" ordered the restitution of property at Baugy claimed by "Fulchardus advocatus…Nivelongo comiti" in a charter dated Apr 818[413]

9.         WARNER (-before 843).  The Manual of Dhuoda names (in order) "Willelmus, Chungundis, Gariberga, Vuithbergis, Teddericus, Gothzelmus, Guarnarius, Rothlindis" as relatives of Bernard, husband of Doda[414], which suggests that the last four named were the children of Guillaume by his second wife "Vuithbergis", assuming that all four were his children. 

10.      [CHRODLINDIS [Rothlindis] (-before 843).  The Manual of Dhuoda names (in order) "Willelmus, Chungundis, Gariberga, Vuithbergis, Teddericus, Gothzelmus, Guarnarius, Rothlindis" as relatives of Bernard, husband of Doda[415], which suggests that the last four named were the children of Guillaume by his second wife "Vuithbergis", assuming that all four were his children.]  same person as…?  --- m WALO [Walacho], son of comte BERNARD & his wife --- ([772/73]-Bobbio 31 Aug 836).  The wife of Walo is not named explicitly in contemporary sources.  However, the Vita Wala names "sceleratus Naso…Amisarius" recording the exploits in Spain of this individual, and states that Walo married  "sororem ipsius, filiam nobilissimi viri…", and also that her brother was blinded[416].  Settipani cites sources which, from these cryptic references, identify Wala's wife as the sister of Bernard Marquis de Septimanie and Heribert (who was blinded), and therefore daughter of Guillaume Comte de Toulouse.  Assuming that this identification is correct, of the possible candidates Settipani eliminates Helmburgis from the known daughters of Guillaume, suggesting that she died young, as well as Gerberga, who was murdered in 834 at Chalon by allies of Walo, which leaves Chrodlindis as the only possibility[417].  The link is credible but not without doubt, particularly because of the uncertainties about the parentage of Heribert which are discussed above.] 

 

 

1.         GERARD .  The Chronico Richardi Pictavensis records that "Geraldus" was "Willelmo Pio propinquus"[418], but the precise relationship has not been traced. 

 

 

BERNARD, son of GUILLAUME Comte de Toulouse, Marquis de Septimanie & his first wife Cunigundis --- ([795]-executed Toulouse Saint-Sernin [Jan/Jun] 844).  The Vita S. Willelmi names “Bernardo…et Gaucelino” as sons of Guillaume[419].  "Willelmus…comes" names "filiabus meis et filiis Barnardo, Witchario, Gotcelmo, Helimbruch" (version two: "filios meos et filias Witcario, Hildehelmo et Helinbruch") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone, Bernard being named in only one of the versions[420].  Flodoard refers to "Bernardo comiti Tolosano, propinquo suo [Teodulfo comite]"[421].  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "quondam duce Bernhardo, qui erat de stirpe regali" was accused of violating "Iudith reginam" but comments that this was all lies[422]Comte d'Autun until 830.  Marquis de Septimanie until 831.  He was installed as Count of Barcelona in 827 or before: Einhard's Annales name "Bernhardus…Barcinonæ comes" in 827[423].  It is not certain whether this means that the "March of Spain" was at that time part of the marquisate of Septimania.  It is possible that Bernard was appointed to Barcelona after the disgrace of Bero in 820, but no primary source has been identified which confirms that this is correct.  Einhard's Annales name "Bernhardus…Barcinonæ comes" in 827[424].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Barnhardus comes Barcinonensis" was made camerarius in the palace in 829[425].  Emperor Louis I appointed "Bernard Duke of Septimania" as his chamberlain and entrusted his son Charles to him, but he "recklessly abused the imperial power…and undermined it entirely".  He was banished to Septimania in [Apr 830] by the emperor's sons who rebelled against their father[426].  The Annales Bertiniani record that "præfatus Bernardus" fled to Barcelona in 830[427].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Bernhardus" fled into exile in Spain and was deprived of his honours [in 831][428].  The same source records that "Werinus et Bernhardus comites" gathered a force in Burgundy and reached "Matronam fluvium" [in 834][429].  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Bernardus comes marcæ Hispanicæ" was sentenced to death in 844[430].  The Annales Xantenses record that "Bernhardus comes" was killed "a Karolo" in 844, after which "filio Bernhardi" and "Pippinus rex Aquitainiæ, filius Pippini" defeated the king's army[431].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Karolus" killed "Bernhardum Barcenonensium ducem" in 844 "incautem et nihil ab eo suspicantem"[432]

m (Aix-la-Chapelle 24 Jun 824) DHUODA [Doda], daughter of --- (-after 2 Feb 843).  The Manual of Dhuoda records the marriage "anno XI domino nostro Ludoico VIII Kal Iul" at "Aquisgrani palatio" of Doda and Bernard[433].  The Manual was written in 843 and consists of her instructions to her son. 

Bernard & his wife had three children:

1.         GUILLAUME (29 Nov 826-killed in battle Barcelona 850).  The Manual of Dhuoda records the birth "in XIII anno regni eius III Kal Dec" of "fili primogenite [Willelme]" of Doda and Bernard[434].  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Guilhelmus filius Bernardi" captured "Impurium et Barcinonam" in 848, and captured "Aledramnum et Isembardum comites" in the march of Spain in 850 but was himself captured and killed at Barcelona[435].  The Chronicon Fontanellensis records that "Wilhelmus filius Bernardi Ducis" captured Barcelona and expelled "Aledranno custode illius urbis et limitis Hispanici", dated to [849/50], in a later passage recording that "Wilhelmo invasore urbis Barcinonæ" captured "Isembardus filius Warini et Aledrannus" but that Guillaume was later defeated and killed by "factione Aledranni et quorundam Gothorum"[436]

2.         BERNARD "Plantevelue" (Uzès 22 Mar 841-[20 Jun 885/Aug 886]).  The Manual of Dhuoda records the birth "XI Kal Apr", in the year following the death of Emperor Louis, at "Uzecia urbes" of the second child [Bernard] of Doda and Bernard[437].  The Annales Bertiniani name "rex markiones Bernardum scilicet Tolosæ et iterum Bernardum Gothiæ, itemque Bernardum alium" in 868[438].  Lay Abbot of Brioude 857/68.  Comte d'Autun 864/69, deposed.  Comte de Rodez 864/74.  Comte d'Auvergne after 872. 

-        DUKES of AQUITAINE

3.         [REGELINDIS ([843/44]-).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that Vulgrin's wife was "sororem Willelmi Tolosani" and that he held "Aginnum…urbem" through her[439].  The identity of "Willelmi Tolosani" is unclear.  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc speculates that he was Guillaume Comte de Bordeaux (who it refers to as comte de Toulouse) and therefore that Regelindis was the daughter of Bernard and his wife Doda[440].  This seems far from certain as this Guillaume, if he was indeed comte de Toulouse, could only have ruled the town briefly.  In addition, it seems strange that the relationship with her more illustrious (or notorious) father, Bernard, would not have been used in the source to place the wife of Vulgrin, if she had been the daughter of Bernard.  The difficulty is that no other comte de Toulouse named Guillaume has been identified in the mid-9th century.  If she was the daughter of Bernard and Doda, she must have been born in [842/44] as the Manual of Dhuoda states that their second son Bernard was his mother's second child[441].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m ([860]) VULGRIN [I] Comte d'Angoulême, son of VULFARD [d'Angoulême] & his wife Susanna de Paris (-3 May 886, bur Angoulême Saint-Cybard).] 

 

 

 

K.      DESCENDANTS of HUGUES [COMTE d'AUVERGNE]

 

 

1.         HUGUESm ---.  The name of Hugues's wife is not known.  Hugues & his wife had one child: 

a)         STEPHANUS (-killed Auvergne 864).  The Annales Bertiniani name "Stephani" as advising "Karolus rex Aquitannorum, Karoli regis filius" to marry in 862 against his father's wishes[442]Comte d'Auvergne.  The Annales Bertiniani record that the Vikings killed "Stephanum, Hugonis filium" when they attacked Auvergne in 864[443].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Stephanus comes Arvernorum" was killed by the Danes in 844[444], but presumably this refers to the same person and event which is misdated.  m (before 860) --- de Toulouse, daughter of RAYMOND I Comte de Toulouse & his wife Berthe ---.  Hincmar Archbishop of Reims addressed a letter to bishops in France dated 860 relating to the marriage of "Stephanum" and "Regimundis comitis…filiam" relating that the latter complained of non-consummation of the marriage dated "7 Kal Jun Indictione XIII"[445]

 

 

 

L.      DESCENDANTS of SEGUIN COMTE [de NEVERS]

 

 

1.         SEGUIN (-[13 Jan] before May 966).  "Comes Siguinus" requested the villa of Cougny in the county of Nevers from Charles "le Simple" King of the West Franks, naming "sue conjugi Grimeldi" by charter dated 28 Mar 919, which names "Tetbaldus filius meus" and is witnessed by "Anserici vicecomitis, Hugonis filii eius"[446].  There must be some suspicion about this charter, apparently witnessed by the same persons as the charter of Seguin's widow dated 966.  The reference to the county of Nevers suggests that this may have been Seguin's base at the time but this is not beyond doubt.  In any case, it is not clear that he should correctly be referred to as "comte de Nevers" as his power may have been limited to a specific castle or castles in the area.  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "Id Jan" of "Segoini comitis"[447]m firstly GRIMELDIS --- (-after 28 Mar 919).  "Comes Siguinus" requested the villa of Cougny in the county of Nevers from Charles "le Simple" King of the West Franks, naming "sue conjugi Grimeldi" by charter dated 28 Mar 919[448]m secondly BERTA, daughter of ---.  "Berta comitissa" donated property to Saint-Cyr "pro remedio animæ meæ seu senioris meis Siguini comitis filiorumque meorum" by charter dated May 966, which names "Tetbaldus filius meus" and is witnessed by "Anserici vicecomitis, Hugonis filii eius"[449].  Seguin & his first wife had one child: 

a)         THIBAUT ([before 28 Mar 919]-).  "Comes Siguinus" requested the villa of Cougny in the county of Nevers from Charles "le Simple" King of the West Franks, naming "sue conjugi Grimeldi" by charter dated 28 Mar 919, which names "Tetbaldus filius meus" and is witnessed by "Anserici vicecomitis, Hugonis filii eius"[450].  As noted above, there must be some suspicion about this charter, apparently witnessed by the same persons as the charter of Seguin's widow dated 966.  "Berta comitissa" donated property to Saint-Cyr "pro remedio animæ meæ seu senioris meis Siguini comitis filiorumque meorum" by charter dated May 966, which names "Tetbaldus filius meus" and is witnessed by "Anserici vicecomitis, Hugonis filii eius"[451].  There is no proof that this is the same Thibaut who was the son of Seguin.  He may have been the son of Berta by an earlier marriage. 

 

 

 

M.     FAMILY of NITHARD

 

 

1.         NITHARD (-after 778).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed the rights of the abbey of Saint-Denis to market customs duties by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[452].  He owned land in Saalgau in 778.  m RICHARDA, daughter of [HIERONYMUS & his wife Ercheswinda/Ermentrudis ---].  She received property from Fulrad [her brother] 769-782[453].  Nithard & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [ANGILBERT "the Saint" ([750]-18 Feb 814, bur Saint-Riquier, église du Saint-Sauveur et de Saint-Richard).  Nithard records that his father Angilbert "was a descendant of a family not unknown in those days, Madhelgaud, Richard and he came from the same stock"[454].  No proof has been found that Angilbert was the son of Nithard but there must have been a close relationship between the two in view of Angilbert giving his older son the same name.  Leader of the council of Pepin King of Italy 780-790.  He was called the "Homer of the court"[455].  He became a monk at the abbey of Saint-Riquier 790, elected Abbé 794.  The Chronicon Centulensis records that “Angilbertus” was granted “totius maritimæ terræ Ducatus”, in addition to “Palatini honoris”, and that he visited “Pontivum” after accepting the dukedom[456].  The Chronicon Centulensis records the death of “Angilbertus” in the same year as Emperor Charlemagne[457]Mistress (1): (from [795]) BERTRADA [Berta], daughter of CHARLES I King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegard ([779/80]-11 Mar, 824 or after).  "Hruodrudem et Bertham et Gislam" are named daughters of King Charles and Hildegard by Einhard[458].  Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[459].  Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh …Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[460].  She may have been the daughter whose hand in marriage Offa King of Mercia requested for his son Ecgfrith as a condition for agreeing to her father's proposal that her older brother Charles should marry one of Offa's daughters[461].  Her father kept her and her sisters at the court of Aix-la-Chapelle refusing them permission to marry, but she was banished from court by her brother Emperor Louis I on his accession[462].  The Vita Angilberti records the relationship between "Berta filia [rex de regina Hildigarda]" and "domnus Angilbertus"[463].  The Chronicon Centulensis records that “Angilbertus” married “regis filiam Bertam” and that they had “duos filios Harnidum et Nithardum[464].  Nithard names Bertha, daughter of King Charles, as his mother[465].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "V Id Mar" of "Berta filia Karoli imperatoris qui dedit superiorem Curtem"[466].]  Angilbert had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1):

i)          NITHARD (before 800-killed in battle [against the Normans?] 15 May 845).  Son of Angilbert & Bertha according to his own chronicle[467].  He and his brother were commemorated in a poem written by their father in 800[468].  Graf.  He continued to live at court in Aix-la-Chapelle after his father’s death in 814.  Lay-abbot of St Riquier.  Historian.  [m ERCHENFRIDA, daughter of ---.  Heinrich Archbishop of Trier describes the boundaries of the parish of Mersch by charter dated 960, which includes details of property donations, among others that of "comite Nithado et coniuge eius Erkenfrida"[469].  As no other count Nithard has so far been identified in other sources, it is assumed that this refers to Nithard son of Angilbert.] 

ii)         HARTNID (before 800-).  Nithard names Hartnid as his brother in his own chronicle[470]

2.         MADELGAUD (-after 802).  Nithard records that his father Angilbert "was a descendant of a family not unknown in those days, Madhelgaud, Richard and he came from the same stock"[471].  "Magnardus episcopus et Madelgaudus" are named as missi in Maine in a document of Emperor Charlemagne dated 802[472]m ---.  The name of Madelgaud's wife is not known.  Madelgaud & his wife had one child: 

a)         ADALELM (-20 Jan ----).  The epitaph of "Adelelmi filii Madelgaudi Francorum quondam ducis" records that he adopted the clerical habit as a child and died "XIII Kal Feb" in his 24th year[473]

3.         RICHARD (-after 796).  Nithard records that his own father Angilbert "was a descendant of a family not unknown in those days, Madhelgaud, Richard and he came from the same stock"[474].  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 16 Dec 781 which names "fidelibus…Richardo comite, Gunthardo comite, Theutbaldo comite, Griphone, Geroldo, Nortboldo, Winegiso, Walberto, Gisloldo, Aroino, Theutboldo, Constabili et Waraldo comite palatii nostri"[475].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Willebertus…Rotomagæ postea urbis archiepiscopum et Richardum comitem" as royal missi in 796[476]same person as…?  RICHARD Comte d'Amiens

 

 

 

N.      FAMILY of HARDUIN

 

 

1.         HARDUIN, son of --- (-[854/57][477]).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Eirardus episcopus, Teodericus abba, Herloinus, Hardoinus" as missi in "Aprincato, Constantino, Bagisino, Coriliso, Ot Lingua Saxonia, et Harduini, Oxiniso et in Lisuino"[478]m WARIMBURG, daughter of ---.  She is named as mother of Odo and Ansgard in a charter dated 859[479].  Harduin & his wife had two children: 

a)         EUDES [Odo] (-after Mar 862).  The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 862 of "Hludowicus frater Karoli [regis Aquitannorum, Karoli regis filius]" and "filiam Harduini…sororem…Odonis", against the will of his father[480].  Comte [de Mâcon].  He was the enemy of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, encouraging his sister to marry the king's son[481]

b)         ANSGARDIS (-2 Nov [880/82]).  The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 862 of "Hludowicus frater Karoli [regis Aquitannorum, Karoli regis filius]" and "filiam Harduini…sororem…Odonis", against the will of his father[482]Regino names "Ansgard" wife of "Hludowicus rex filius Caroli" without giving her origin, specifying that they married without the consent of his father who later obliged his son to repudiate his wife[483]m (Mar 862, repudiated [876/77]) as his first wife, LOUIS, son of CHARLES II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks & his first wife Ermentrude [d'Orléans] (1 Nov 846-Compiègne 10 Apr 879, bur Compiègne, église collégiale Saint-Corneille).  He succeeded his father in 877 as LOUIS II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks

 

 

 

O.      FAMILY of ADELRAMN COMTE [de TROYES]

 

 

There is a possible connection between Robert "le Fort", ancestor of the Capetian kings of France, and the family of Adelramn [I] Comte de Troyes.  Such indications are provided by Regino who names "Waltgerius comes, nepos Odonis regis, filius scilicet avunculi eius Adalhelmi in Aquitanien" when recording his battle against "Ramnulfum et fratrem eius Gozbertum et Ebulonem abbatum de sancto Dionysio " in Jul 892, and names "Megingaudus comes, nepos supradicti Odonis regis [son of Robert "le Fort"]" when recording his death, also in 892[484].  A further indication is found in the charter dated 14 Sep 937, under which Robert "le Fort"´s grandson "Hugues abbé de Saint-Martin" donated "son alleu de Lachy…dans le comté de Meaux" to Tours Saint-Martin, specifying that he had inherited the property from "comte Aledramnus" who had been granted it by Charlemagne[485].  It should be noted, however, that all these sources would be consistent with the family connection between Robert "le Fort" and Adelramn being through the female line, even through Robert´s wife. 

 

 

1.         ADELRAMN [I] [Aleran] (-[killed in battle 852])Missus dominicus in Nursia, Italy in 820.  Comte de Troyes.  "Comitis Aledramni" donated property for the foundation of the abbey of Montiéramy, recorded in the foundation charter dated 837[486].  It is possible that he was Comte de Barcelona from before 848, as suggested by the Annales Bertiniani which record that "Guilhelmus filius Bernardi" captured "Impurium et Barcinonam" in 848, and captured "Aledramnum et Isembardum comites" in the march of Spain in 850 but was himself captured and killed at Barcelona[487].  The Chronicon Fontanellensis records that "Wilhelmus filius Bernardi Ducis" captured Barcelona and expelled "Aledranno custode illius urbis et limitis Hispanici", dated to [849/50], in a later passage recording that "Wilhelmo invasore urbis Barcinonæ" captured "Isembardus filius Warini et Aledrannus" but that Guillaume was later defeated and killed by "factione Aledranni et quorundam Gothorum"[488].  He accompanied Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks at the siege of Toulouse in 849.  "Karolus…rex" named "Odo…comes [et] predecessoris sui Aledramni…comitis ex comitatu Tricasino" in a charter dated 25 Apr 854 or 855 relating to the abbey of Montéramey[489].  He was probably killed in a Muslim raid[490].  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks confirmed a donation of property "quod…Odo…comes…prædecessoris sui Aledranni quondam…comes…ex comitatu Tricassino" to "mon. Arremarensi", by charter dated 25 Apr 864[491]m WILDRUT, daughter of ---.  The primary source which names the wife of Aledramn [I] has not so far been identified.  The origin of Wildrut is not known.  Jackman suggests that she was Wildrut, daughter of Robert [III] Graf im Wormsgau, the name Wildrut appearing in a Reichenau memorial book[492].  Adelramn [I] & his wife had [one] child: 

a)         [ADELRAMN [II] [Aleran] (-14 Jul, after 885).  The primary source which names Adelramn [II] as the son of Adelramn [I] has not so yet been identified.  Comte de Laon.  Charles II " le Chauve" King of the West Franks donated property to "mon. Cellensi" which had been taken "per violentiam et vim cuiusdam Aleranni comitis", by charter dated 856[493].  "Adelelm et Bernard comtes de la region du Laonnais" donated property to Sainte-Marie de Laon as executors of the testament of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the Franks[494].  It is possible that "Adelelm" refers to "Adelramn".  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "II Id Jul" of "Alerannus comes"[495].  The necrology of Argenteuil Priory records the death "II Id Jul" of "Alerannus comes"[496]m ---.  The name and origin of the wife of Count Adelramn [II] are not known.  However, Settipani speculates that she was ---, daughter of Count Nibelung [IV] because of the transmission of the name Theoderic to one of the couple's probable sons and the apparent transmission of Vexin, previously held by Nibelung [IV], to their son Adelramn [III][497].]  Adelramn [II] & his wife had [four] children: 

i)          GAUTHIER .  Comte de Laon.  The primary source which proves his existence has not so far been identified. 

ii)         [ADELRAMN [III] [Aleran] .  The Miracula Sancti Huberti record that "cuius [Theodericus] frater Alerammus" was also active in "comitatum Arduennensem"[498].  Settipani suggests that he and his brother were sons of Adelramn [II][499]

iii)        [THEODERIC .  “Carlomannus…Rex” restored property “villam Taniacum” to the church of Autun, at the request of “Richardi Comiti Augustodensis”, by charter dated 1 Dec 880, the text ending with “Theodoricus Comes ambasciavit[500].  Abbo's Bella Parisiciæ Urbis names "Teoderici procerum ast Aledramni" as famed at the siege of Paris in 886[501], although it is not certain that this refers to the same person as the following passages.  The Annales Vedastini record that "Theodericum comitem" was sent to Italy to invite "imperatorem Karolum" to take control of the kingdom of the West Franks after the death of Carloman in 884[502].  The Annales Vedastini record that "Theodericus comes" was a main supporter of the candidature of "Odonem" as king of France in 888[503].  The editor of the MGH SS compilation suggests that this was the same person as "Theodericus camerarius" who had been awarded "comitatum Augustodunensem" in 878 at "concilio Trecensi" which decided the redistribution of the assets of "Bernardo Gothiæ marchione", and as the Theoderic who possessed "castrum sancti Quintini" in 895[504].  The Miracula Sancti Huberti record that "Comitatum Arduennensem agebat Theodericus", in a passage that appears to be datable to the early 10th century[505].  Settipani suggests that he and his brother were sons of Adelramn [II][506]

iv)       [THEODERADA .  "Odo…rex" confirmed the possessions of "monasterio Vedastino" by charter dated 21 May [891/92] which names "coniux nostra Theoderada"[507].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[508], the wife of Eudes King of France was the possible daughter of Adelramn [II], but Settipani says that this has no historical basis[509].  Nevertheless, Theoderic, supposed son of Adelramn [II], was a strong supporter of King Eudes, as recorded in the Annales Vedastini[510], which is best explained by a family connection: if the relationship is correct, he would have been Theoderada´s brother.  Her second marriage is confirmed by the Kalendarium Sanctæ Mariæ Virdunensis, which records the death "XIV Kal Jul" of "Otto comes venerabilis qui dedit fratribus Haraudi montem, Bresadi villam, Samepodium"[511], read together with the necrology of Verdun Cathedral which records the death "XV Kal Nov" of "Theudrada regina et postea sancti monialis qui cum viro suo Hattone dedit fratribus Haraldi montem"[512].  These two sources make it clear that "viro suo Hattone" named in the second cannot refer to Eudes King of France, who would not have been called "Otto comes" in the first, and in any case is recorded in other sources as having died on 3 Jan (in 898). m firstly EUDES Marquis en Neustrie, son of ROBERT "le Fort" Comte [de Tours], Marquis en Neustrie & his [second] wife --- (in Neustrie [after 852][513]-La Fère-sur-Oise 3 Jan 898).  He was acclaimed as EUDES King of France in 888.  m secondly (898 or after) [as his second wife,] OTTO, son of --- (-19 Jun ----).] 

 

 

1.         EUDES [Odo], son of [RODBERT Graf im Wormsgau & his wife Wiltrud] (-1 Aug 871).  René Merlet suggests that Eudes was the brother of Robert "le Fort", ancestor of the Capetian dynasty, tracing what appears to be the parallel development of their careers[514].  If this is correct, the chronology suggests that Eudes must have been the older brother.  Comte de Châteaudun.  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks restored property to Hincmar Archbishop of Reims which he had previously granted to his supporters, including property granted to "…Odo comes…", by charter dated 1 Oct 845[515].  "Le comte Eudes et sa femme Guandilmode" donated property "dans le Dunois, dans la viguerie de Châteaudun…villa Mauro, sur le Loir" to Saint-Martin de Tours by charter dated May 846[516].  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks granted property "in pago Otininse in villam Novientum" to "Odonem…comitem atque Ministerialem nostrum", by charter dated 11 Oct 849[517].  852/59 and 866/70.  "Karolus…rex" authorised "Dodo…Andecavorum episcopus" and "Odo comes" to exchange land at Angers by charter dated 3 Jul 851[518].  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Wenilo episcopus, Odo et Donatus" as missi in "pago Senonico, Trecasino, Wasteniso, Miliduniso, Morviso, Proviniso, et ini tribus Arcisisis et in duobus Brionensis"[519]Comte de Troyes: "Karolus…rex" named "Odo…comes [et] predecessoris sui Aledramni…comitis ex comitatu Tricasino" in a charter dated 25 Apr 854 or 855 relating to the abbey of Montéramey[520].  A document of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 21 Mar 858 is subscribed by "Hungarius, Engilramnus, Isembardus, Odo, Osbertus, Ratbodus, Hunfridus, Odalricus, Rhodulfus, Engilschalcus, Herluinus, Hitto"[521]Comte de Blois.  The Annales Fuldenses name "Adalhartus abbas et Oto comes" as missi "ab occidente" in Jul 858[522], the editor of the compilation suggesting that "Oto" was "comes Blesensis"[523].  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks confirmed a donation of property "quod…Odo…comes…prædecessoris sui Aledranni quondam…comes…ex comitatu Tricassino" to "mon. Arremarensi", by charter dated 25 Apr 864[524].  The Annales Bertiniani name "Rodbertus et Odo" (the former identified as Robert "le Fort") as "præfecti" in the Seine valley area in 866 when recording that they repelled the Vikings who had sailed up river as far as "castrum Milidunum"[525]m (before May 846) WANDILMODIS, daughter of ---.  "Le comte Eudes et sa femme Guandilmode" donated property "dans le Dunois, dans la viguerie de Châteaudun…villa Mauro, sur le Loir" to Saint-Martin de Tours by charter dated May 846[526].  "Odo comes et uxor mea Guandilmodis" donated property "in pago Dunensi…et in pago Blesensi" to Marmoutier by charter dated Mar 849, subscribed by "Archambaldi, Burchardi…"[527].  "Boso comes simulque Bernardus comes ad vicem" donated Nogent "in pago Otmense" for the soul of "quondam amici nostri Odonis comitis…uxoris suæ Guendilmodis" to Saint-Martin-des-Tours by charter dated 871 after 21 Jun[528].  Jackman suggests that she was the daughter of Count Aledram [I] of Troyes[529].  Eudes & his wife had three children: 

a)         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are deduced from the charter dated Feb 893 under which her son "Adalelmus…comes" confirmed the donation of "Cadusciam fiscum" {domaine de Chaource} to the abbey of Montiéramey by "Rotbertus…comes avunculus noster"[530]m EMENON Comte de Poitiers, son of --- ([810]-Rancogne 22 Jun 866, bur Angoulême Saint-Cybard). 

b)         EUDES [Odo] (-after 886).  The primary source which identifies Eudes and his brother Robert as sons of Eudes Comte de Troyes has not yet been identified.  On the other hand, a different origin is posited by the Chronicle of St Bénigne de Dijon which names "duo filii Rotberti Andegavorum comitis…senior Odo..Robertus alter"[531].  "Karolus…rex" granted "villam Cadusiam" to "fideli sui Roberto" in a charter dated 25 Oct 877 which names "Odoni comiti fratri Roberti…cum Tournodrinsis ville pagensibus"[532]Comte de Tonnerre.  Abbo's Bella Parisiciæ Urbis records the part played by "comites Odo fraterque suus…Rotbertus pariterque comes" at the siege of Paris in 886[533].  "Karolus…imperator augustus" confirmed a donation by "Hugo…propinquus noster" of property "villam Apiarias in pago Aurelianensi" to "episcopo Adalaldo archiepiscopo simulque Rainoni episcopo, fratri eiusdem" at the request of "Odo comes" by charter dated 27 Oct 886[534]

c)         ROBERT (-killed in battle Paris Feb 886).  The primary source which identifies Eudes and his brother Robert as sons of Eudes Comte de Troyes has not yet been identified.  On the other hand, a different origin is posited by the Chronicle of St Bénigne de Dijon which names "duo filii Rotberti Andegavorum comitis…senior Odo..Robertus alter"[535].  "Karolus…rex" granted "villam Cadusiam" to "fideli sui Roberto" in a charter dated 25 Oct 877 which names "Odoni comiti fratri Roberti…cum Tournodrinsis ville pagensibus"[536]Come Palatin de Troyes.  Abbo's Bella Parisiciæ Urbis records the part played by "comites Odo fraterque suus…Rotbertus pariterque comes" at the siege of Paris in 886[537].  He was killed fighting the Vikings[538]m GISELA, daughter of LOUIS II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks & his first wife Ansgardis --- (-[11 Apr 879/12 Dec 884]).  King Carloman donated property "in comitatu Trecassino, in curtem Argenteam mansum unum, de Clariaco…" to Montièramey, at the request of "fidelis noster Rotbertus comes", for the soul of "Gislæ sororis nostræ eiusque uxoris", by charter dated to [11 Apr 879/12 Dec 884], the original of which is lost[539].  Gisela was the daughter of King Louis's first marriage according to Rösch[540].  Jackman[541] maintains that she must have been the daughter of his second marriage to avoid her being the first cousin of her husband, although this would mean that she was a child bride.  However, he is presumably assuming co-identity between Eudes, brother of Ansgardis, and Eudes Comte de Troyes, father of Comte Robert, which does not appear to be correct. 

 

 

 

P.      FAMILY of UNRUOCH

 

 

1.         UNRUOCH, son of --- (-13 Nov before 853).  A list of Saxons in Westphalia dated Jan/Feb 802 records that "Adalgaudum filium Suigaut habuit Unrocus comis", presumably indicating that the last named had responsibility for the allegiance sworn to the emperor by the first-named[542].  "Comiti Hadalhardus, Fulradus, Unrocus seu Hrocculfus" are named as imperial missi in a document of Emperor Charlemagne dated 806[543].  Einhard names "Unruochus comes" as one of the 15 witnesses of the testament of Emperor Charlemagne dated 811[544].  Einhard's Annales record "Unrochus comes" as one of the signatories of peace with the Vikings in 811[545].  Comte en Ternois 839.  "Unrici comitis" signed a charter dated 20 Jun 839 issued by "Folquinus…Morinorum episcopus"[546].  "Undrici comitis" signed a charter dated 29 Jun 839 issued by "Hugo abbas…Sithiensis"[547].  Monk at St Bertin[548]m ENGELTRUDE, daughter of ---.  The primary source which names Engeltrude as wife of Unruoch and mother of his children has not yet been identified.  Unruoch & his wife had three children: 

a)         BERENGER ([790/95]-killed in battle [836/37]).  The original manuscript of Thegan´s Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Beringarii, Hunroci quondam comitis filii"[549].  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "…Berengarium sapientem, propinquum suum" as missus of Emperor Louis[550].  The precise family relationship between Berengar and Emperor Louis I to which this refers is not known.  It is possible that it refers to the marriage, which took place shortly before the events recorded in this passage in the Vita, between Berengar's younger brother Eberhard and the emperor's daughter Gisela, although this is remote.  No indication has yet been found of any possible Carolingian ancestry of either of Berengar's parents.  Berengar's birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was adult when he was recorded as count in 819, but also bearing in mind the estimated birth date range of his younger brother Eberhard.  Comte de Toulouse 819.  Einhard's Annales name "Berengario Tolosæ et Warino Arverni comite" as fighting "Lupus Centulli Wasco" in 819[551].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the rebellion of "Wasco, Lupus Centulli cognomento" and fighting "Werinum Arvernorum comitem et Berengarium Tholosanum"[552]Duke of Septimania.  "Ragnarius episcopus et Berengarius comes" are named as imperial missi in "sex…comitatus…Remis, Catolonis, Suessionis, Silvanectis, Belvacus et Laudunum…[et] quatuor…episcopatus …Noviomacensem, Ambianensem, Tervanensem et Camaracensem" in documents of Emperor Louis dated May 825 and 827[553].  Emperor Louis I granted "comitatum Brivatensem" to "fideli nostro Berengario…comiti" by charter dated 825[554].  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Badaradum episcopum Saxonicum et Gerhardum…ducem et Berengarium sapientem, propinquum suum" as missi of Emperor Louis[555], the passage being undated but included among text which records events in the first half of the 830s.  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the death in 836 of "Berengarius dux fidelius et sapiens" whom Emperor Louis and his sons "luxit multo tempore"[556]

b)         EBERHARD ([805/10]-in Italy 16 Dec 866, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus).  His origin is stated in the poem by Sedulius addressed to "Everhardum comitem…Hunroci proles"[557].  His birth date is estimated on the basis of his marriage in [836].  He stopped the invasion of the Slavs and received the March of Friulia from Emperor Lothaire I, becoming EBERHARD Duke of the March of Friulia

-        MARCHESI of FRIULIA

c)         ADALHARD (-Saint-Amand 3 Feb 864, bur Saint-Amand).  The cartulaire of Saint-Bertin records that "Adalardus" succeeded Hugues as Abbé de Saint-Bertin, adding that he had been offered to the monastery "a patre Hunroco"[558].  Abbé de Saint Bertin et de Saint Amand.  The cartulaire of Saint-Bertin records the death "III Non Feb apud sancti Amandi monasterium" in 864 of "Adalardo" only three years after he was installed as abbot, and his burial "in eodem monasterio", adding that "hujus…pater Hunrocus" had introduced him to Saint-Bertin as a monk[559]

d)         [daughter .  The wife of Suppo III is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[560] as the daughter of Unruoch but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  It is probably speculative, based on the name of his son who was called "consanguineus" of Berengar I King of Italy in the latter´s charter dated 12 May 890.  m SUPPO III Marchese di Spoleto, son of --- (-[878/79]).] 

e)         [--- .  The exact relationship of Adalric to Graf Eberhard is not known, but assuming that nepos in the latter´s testament should be translated by nephew, one of Adalric´s parents was Eberhard´s sibling.  m ---.]  One child: 

i)          ADALRIC [Udalrich] (-after 866).  The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, dated “Hludovico Augusto anno regni eius XXIV” and witnessed by “Adalroch nepos noster[561].  This may be the same person as “Odelrici Comitis” who signed the charter dated “Kal Jul anno XXXV regnante Carolo Rege” under which “Gisla” donated property to Cysoing abbey for her burial next to “coniugis mei dulcis memoriæ Evrardi”, recorded in the Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis[562]

2.         [--- .  m ---.]  One possible child: 

a)         [ALBGARIUS (-after 817).  Einhard's Annales name "Albgarius Unrochi nepos" as imperial legate in "Dalmatiam" in 817[563].  The precise relationship between Albgarius and Unruoch is not known.] 

 

 

 

Q.      FAMILY of HUGUES [DUKE of BURGUNDY]

 

 

1.         HUGUES m ---.  The name of Hugues's wife is not known.  Hugues & his wife had two children: 

a)         HUGUES .  The Gestis Consulum Andegavensium names "Hugo Dux Burgundiæ, filius alterius Hugonis" was "ex parte matris suæ [Fulco] consanguineus"[564].  [Duke of Burgundy].  This is the only reference so far identified to a duke of Burgundy in the late 9th century and should presumably therefore be treated with caution. 

b)         PETRONILLA .  The Gesta Consulum Andegavensium records the marriage of "Tertullus nobilem dux" and "ducis Burgundiæ filiam nomine Petronillam"[565].  The Chronico Turonensi names "Ingelgerius comes Andergavensis" as "nepos Hugonis Ducis Burgundiæ"[566]m TERTULLUS, son of TORQUATIUS & his wife ---. 

 

 

The precise relationship between the following family sub-group and Hugues [Duke of Burgundy] (their "propinquus", see below) has not been identified.  The issue is complicated by the fact that Ingelger, husband of Adelais, was the son of Petronilla and Tertullus (see above).  This suggests that the relationship (if there was one) may have been a remote one, maybe indirectly through one of the wives of Hugues or his father. 

1.         ---.  m ---.  One child: 

a)         ADELAIS .  The Historia Comitum Andegavorum records that Ingelger married "Rursus Adelardus et Raymo ambo germani fratres, Turonensium et Andegavensium pontifices, neptem suam Aelindis" and that her dowry consisted of "alodiis suis…Ambazio, Busenciaco et Castellione"[567].  The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum records that Ingelger married "Landonensis castri sive Gastinensis pagi consul nomine Gaufredus…filiam unicam…Adelam", and thereby inherited "Landonensi castro" as she was the heir of her father who had no surviving male issue[568], but this text may confuse Ingelger's wife with the first wife of Comte Foulques II "le Bon", Gerberge de Gâtinais.  The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum records that, after the death of her husband, Adelais was unjustly accused of adultery by a group of nobles led by "Guntrannus parens Ingelgerii" but later exonerated[569]m INGELGER Comte [d'Anjou], son of TERTULLUS & his wife Petronilla of Burgundy (-[888], bur Châteauneuf église Saint-Martin).   

2.         ADALHARD .  "Karolus…imperator augustus" confirmed a donation by "Hugo…propinquus noster" of property "villam Apiarias in pago Aurelianensi" to "episcopo Adalaldo archiepiscopo simulque Rainoni episcopo, fratri eiusdem" at the request of "Odo comes" by charter dated 27 Oct 886[570].  Bishop of Tours. 

3.         RAINO .  "Karolus…imperator augustus" confirmed a donation by "Hugo…propinquus noster" of property "villam Apiarias in pago Aurelianensi" to "episcopo Adalaldo archiepiscopo simulque Rainoni episcopo, fratri eiusdem" at the request of "Odo comes" by charter dated 27 Oct 886[571].  Bishop of Angers. 

 

 

 

R.      FAMILY of WICFRED COMTE de BOURGES

 

 

1.         WICFRED (-838)Comte de Bourges.  A charter of Charles III “le Simple” King of the West Franks dated 3 Nov 908, confirming the assets of “monasterio Crassensi”, mentions property “in territorio Narbonensi” exchanged between “Wifredus comes cum Fredaldo episcopo[572]m ODA, daughter of ---.  The Miraculis Sancti Genulfi names "Agana filia…Byturicensium comes…Wifredus regali prosapia oriundus [et]…Oda coniux"[573].  Wicfred & his wife had one child: 

a)         AGANA .  The Miraculis Sancti Genulfi names "Agana filia…Byturicensium comes…Wifredus regali prosapia oriundus [et]…Oda coniux" as wife of "Roberto viro primoque palatii Pipini regis"[574]m ROBERT Seigneur [comte] à Sesseau en Berry, son of THEODEBERT Comte de Madrie & his wife ---. 

2.         RAOUL [Rodolphe] (-843, bur abbey of Saint-Geniez de Savarzac).  The Introduction of the Cartulaire de Beaulieu en Limousin states that Raoul Comte de Turenne was related to Wicfred Comte de Bourges, but does not give further details of the precise relationship[575].  Comte de Turenne.  "Pipinus…Aquitaniæ rex" granted property "in orbe Lemovicensi in pago Asnacense" to "fidelum nostrum Rodulfum"[576]

-        VICOMTES de TURENNE

 

 

 

S.      CAROLINGIAN COUNTS near PARIS

 

 

PEPIN [I], son of BERNARD I King of Italy [Carolingian] & his wife Cunegundis --- ([815]-after 850)Regino names "Pippinum" son of "Bernhardus filius Pippin rex Italiæ"[577].  Seigneur de Péronne et de Saint-Quentin[578].  Comte near Paris after 834.  He supported Emperor Lothaire after the death of Emperor Louis I "le Pieux", despite having sworn allegiance to Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks[579].  The Annales Bertiniani name "Ratholdus…episcopus, Bonifacius comes, Pippinus consanguineus imperatoris" as supporters of Emperor Louis I in 834[580]

m ---.   The name of Pépin's wife is not known.  Settipani suggests[581] that she was --- [du Vexin], daughter of THEODERIC, son of NIBELUNG Comte du Vexin, bearing in mind that Pépin's descendants inherited estates in the Vexin. 

Comte Pépin & his wife had five children:

1.         BERNARD [I] ([845]-[before 893]).  Regino names (in order) "Bernardum, Pippinum et Heribertum" as the three children of "Pippinum"[582].  According to Italian authors[583], Bernard went to Italy and was the ancestor of the Bernardhengi.  Settipani is sceptical about this, particularly as the names Pepin and Heribert are not found among the alleged descendants.  He suggests that comte Bernard may be the same Bernard recorded as one of the executors of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks in 877[584].  "Adelelm et Bernard comtes de la region du Laonnais" donated property to Sainte-Marie de Laon as executors of the testament of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the Franks[585]

2.         PEPIN [II] ([845]-after 28 Jan 893]).  Regino names (in order) "Bernardum, Pippinum et Heribertum" as the three children of "Pippinum"[586].  At the court of Emperor Charles “le Chauve” in 877[587], thereafter Comte to the north of Paris.  Emperor Karl III confirmed a grant of property including "villamque in Pipenensi comitatatu quæ Nogenlis dicitur" to the church of Grandval by charter dated 20 Sep 884[588]Regino names "Folcone episcopo, Heriberto et Pippino comitibus in Remorum civitate" when recording that they supported the accession of Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks in 892 in opposition to King Eudes, but does not specify the relationship between Heribert and Pepin[589]

3.         HERIBERT ([850]-killed [900/6 Nov 907])Regino names (in order) "Bernardum, Pippinum et Heribertum" as the three children of "Pippinum", specifying that Heribert killed "Rodulfum comitem filium Balduini comitis"[590].  "Heribertus, Bernhardi frater" is named in the Vita Hludowicis Imperatoris[591]Regino names "Folcone episcopo, Heriberto et Pippino comitibus in Remorum civitate" when recording that they supported the accession of Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks in 892 in opposition to King Eudes, but does not specify the relationship between Heribert and Pepin[592].  Heribert became Comte de Vermandois in 896.   

-        COMTES de VERMANDOIS

4.         [CUNEGUNDIS.  Cunegundis was cited in a list of relations of comte Odo, son-in-law of Héribert I Comte de Vermandois, without any indication of how she may have been related to the family[593].] 

5.         [daughter .  [m firstly BERENGER Comte [de Bayeux], son of --- (-13 Dec [892 or after]).  As explained below, one way of reconciling the apparently contradictory sources which recount the origin of Poppa, wife of Rollo of Normandy, is that her mother married firstly Berengar Comte de Bayeux and secondly Guy Comte de Senlis.  There is no proof that this is correct.]  m [secondly] WIDO [Guy] Comte de Senlis , son of ---.  [One possible child] [of second marriage]: 

a)         [BERNARD [II] ([880]-after 945).  Comte de Senlis.  Flodoard records that "Heribertus comes" sent "Bernardum consobrinum suum" against Charles III "le Simple" King of the Franks in 923[594].  He was instrumental in helping Richard Comte [de Normandie] escape from Louis IV King of the Franks, after the latter had taken him following the murder of his father in 942[595].  Guillaume de Jumièges records that Richard was taking to Senlis where "le comte Bernard" was concerned for "son neveu Richard"[596].  He was involved in negotiations for the betrothal in 945 of Richard I Comte [de Normandie] to Emma, daughter of Hugues Duc des Francs[597].  Flodoard names "Bernardus Silvanectis comes et Tetbaldus Turonensis cum Heriberto castellum regis" when recording that they attacked "Montiniacum" at Easter 945 during the rebellion against King Louis[598]Hugo Floriacensis records that the king acted on bad advice from "Bernardi comitis Silvanectensis et alterius Bernardui Rothomagensis" which resulted in his defeat by "pagano Aygroldo regi Danorum" in 945[599].] 

 

 

The following individuals were probably related to the previous family group but the connection has not yet been established.  The later transmission of Beauvais to the family of the Comtes de Vermandois indicates that a family relationship is probable[600].  The most likely possibility is that Bernard and his unnamed sibling were children of Pépin (-after 28 Jan 893). 

 

1.         BERNARD [III] (-after 10 Nov 949)Comte de Beauvais.  A charter of King Louis IV dated 25 Jul 936 names "Bernardus Belvacensium comes"[601].  Flodoard records that "rex Ludowicus" besieged Reims with "Erluino…et Artoldo episcopi…comitibus quoque Bernardo ac Theoderico nepote ipsius" in 945 and reinstalled the bishop[602]Hugo Floriacensis records that the king acted on bad advice from "Bernardi comitis Silvanectensis et alterius Bernardui Rothomagensis" which resulted in his defeat by "pagano Aygroldo regi Danorum" in 945[603].  It is possible that one of these counts named Bernard was the same person as the comte de Beauvais.  He may also be identical to the king's adviser who is recorded in 10 Nov 949. 

2.         [---.  m ---.]  One possible child: 

a)         [THEODERIC [Thierry] (-after 949).  Flodoard records that "rex Ludowicus" besieged Reims with "Erluino…et Artoldo episcopi…comitibus quoque Bernardo ac Theoderico nepote ipsius" in 945 and reinstalled the bishop[604].  Flodoard records that "Dodo frater domini Artoldi cum fidelibus ipsius et Theodericus comes" besieged "Altmontem" in 949[605].] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    OTHER UNCONNECTED CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY in FRANCE

 

 

 

A.      EIGHTH CENTURY

 

 

1.         ABBON (-after 3 Aug 794).  He was appointed Comte en Poitou by Charles I King of the Franks in 778, his power extending over the towns of Poitiers and Angoulême.  He is recorded in few documents, 18 Nov 780 presiding over two lawsuits concerning the abbey of Noaillé, 28 Apr 791 subscribing a judgment at Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers and 3 Aug 794 witnessing another document relating to the abbey of Noaillé[606]

 

2.         ABBON (-after 831).  "Count Abo" was one of the Frankish nobles who confirmed the peace between Emperor Charles I and Hemming King of the Danes in 811[607].  A charter of Emperor Louis I dated 831 names "Abbo comes qui et vicum…Eppaonis…ex episcopate Viennensi"[608]

 

3.         ADALGIS (-after 782).  The Annales Laurissenses name "Adalghisum et Gailonem atque Woradum" as royal missi to the Saxons in 782[609].  Einhard records that in 782 Charles I King of the Franks sent his three missi "Adalgiso camerario et Geilone comite stabuli et Worado comite palati" to meet "in…Saxonis…Theodericus comes, propinquus regis"[610].  His name suggests a Lombard connection. 

 

4.         ADEMAR (-after 2 Apr 812).  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Willelmus primus, signifier Hadhemarus" fought the Saracens in Córdoba [in 801][611].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Isembardum, Hudemarum, Beram, Burellum" as those leading the campaign against Tortosa [in 809][612].  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a charter dated 2 Apr 812 to the counts in the Spanish March "Berane, Gauscelino, Gisclafredo, Odilone, Ermengario, Ademaro, Laibulfo et Erlino comitibus"[613]

 

5.         AGINHARD (-after [Dec 775]).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" gave a judgment by charter dated to [Dec 775] which names "fidelibus…Widrigo, Odrigo, Theodrico, Bernehardo, Albuino, Aginhardo, Berngario comitibus et Anshelmo comite palacii nostri"[614]

 

6.         AGNEONE (-after 28 Jul 775).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" granted the monastery of Plaisir to Folrad abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 28 Jul 775 which name "fidelibus…Ghaerardo, Bernardo, Radulfo, Hilderado, Ermenaldo, Hebroino, Theudbaldo, Agneone comitibus, Haltberto, Laumberto, Haererico et Anselmo comite palatio nostro"[615]

 

7.         AIMERY (-after 8 Mar 812).  Einhard records that "Haimricum comitem" was captured by the Saracens and handed to "Abulaz" in 810[616].  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a judgment by charter dated 8 Mar 812 which names "fidelibus nostri: Gerulfus, Guntlandus, Hedo, Armannus, Hamricus, Sicardus, Rotbertus comitibus…Amalricus comiti palatii nostro"[617]

 

8.         ALBERIC .  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" donated property rights "de Hassega de comitatos, quos Albericos et Marcoardus nunc tempore visi sunt" to Kloster Hersfeld by charter dated 8 Mar 780[618]m ---.  The name of Alberic´s wife is not known.  Alberic & his wife had one child: 

a)         THEODELINDIS (-after 795).  “Gagenfridus comes filius Megenfridi et coniunx sue Theidlindis filia Albrici comitis” donated property “in pago Virdunensi in fine Ingaricense in villa…Hingarigo” to the abbey of Gorze by charter dated 795[619]m GAGENFRIED, son of MEGENFRIED & his wife --- (-after 795). 

 

9.         ALBERIC .  "Uualtrat et Voto" donated property "in pago Wormacense in castello Pingna" to Fulda by charter dated 15 Feb 824, subscribed by "Albrichi comitis"[620]

 

10.      ALBUIN (-804).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" gave a judgment by charter dated to [Dec 775] which names "fidelibus…Widrigo, Odrigo, Theodrico, Bernehardo, Albuino, Aginhardo, Berngario comitibus et Anshelmo comite palacii nostri"[621].  The Annales Sancti Emmerammi Ratisponensis record the death in 804 of "Alhwinus"[622]

 

11.      AMALRIC (-after 8 Mar 812).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a judgment by charter dated 8 Mar 812 which names "fidelibus nostri: Gerulfus, Guntlandus, Hedo, Armannus, Hamricus, Sicardus, Rotbertus comitibus…Amalricus comiti palatii nostro"[623]

 

12.      AMALWIN (-after 785).  The Annales Laurissenses record that Charles I King of the Franks sent his missus "Amelwinum" to besiege "Widochindum et Abbionem" in 785[624]

 

13.      ANSBERT (-after [Jan/Feb] 802).  Under a charter dated Feb 796, Dodo recognises himself as serf of the king in the presence of "Ansberto et Hildebrandus missis dominicis" at Autun and "Moyses advocatus Hildebranno comite"[625].  A list of Saxons in Westphalia dated Jan/Feb 802 records that "Odonem filium Emmoni habuit Ansbertus comis", presumably indicating that the last named had responsibility for the allegiance sworn to the emperor by the first-named[626]

 

14.      ANSELM, son of [ROTBERT Graf im Oberrheingau und Wormsgau & his wife ---] (-killed in battle Spain [780/90]).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" granted the monastery of Plaisir to Folrad abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 28 Jul 775 which name "fidelibus…Ghaerardo, Bernardo, Radulfo, Hilderado, Ermenaldo, Hebroino, Theudbaldo, Agneone comitibus, Haltberto, Laumberto, Haererico et Anselmo comite palatio nostro"[627].  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" gave a judgment by charter dated to [Dec 775] which names "fidelibus…Widrigo, Odrigo, Theodrico, Bernehardo, Albuino, Aginhardo, Berngario comitibus et Anshelmo comite palacii nostri"[628].  Einhard records that "Eggihardus regiæ mensæ præpositus, Anselmus comes palatii et Hruodlaudus Brittanici limitis præfectus" were killed in Spain, dated from the context to the 780s[629]

 

15.      ARIACAS (-[after 817]).  Emperor Louis I confirmed the possessions of "monasterio Soriciniensi…in pago Tolosano" including what was donated by "Ariacas olim comes nobis…in pago Ausciensi", by charter dated 817[630]

 

16.      ARMANNUS (-after 8 Mar 812).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a judgment by charter dated 8 Mar 812 which names "fidelibus nostri: Gerulfus, Guntlandus, Hedo, Armannus, Hamricus, Sicardus, Rotbertus comitibus…Amalricus comiti palatii nostro"[631]

 

17.      AUDACRUS [Odacre] (-after [Jan/Feb] 802).  The Annales Laurissenses name "Grahamannus et Audacrus" as royal missi who were present at the third battle between the Bavarians and the Avars "in campo Iboso" in 788, defeating the invaders[632].  A list of Saxons in Ostphalia dated Jan/Feb 802 records that "Vulferi filium Sieri habuit Audracus comis", presumably indicating that the last named had responsibility for the allegiance sworn to the emperor by the first-named[633].  It is interesting to note the similarity of this name to that of the supposed father of Baudouin I Count of Flanders

 

18.      AUDULF (-after 7 Aug 807).  The Annales Laurissenses record that in 786 Charles I King of the Franks sent his army to "partibus Brittaniæ" with his missus "Audulfo sinescalco".  In the same paragraph, it is clarified that this refers to "Brittania insula" not Brittany[634].  The suffix "-ulf" in his name suggests an Anglo-Saxon connection,  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the exchange of property between Agilward Bishop of Würzburg and "Audulfus…comis" by charter dated 7 Aug 807[635]

 

19.      BERENGER (-after [Dec 775]).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" gave a judgment by charter dated to [Dec 775] which names "fidelibus…Widrigo, Odrigo, Theodrico, Bernehardo, Albuino, Aginhardo, Berngario comitibus et Anshelmo comite palacii nostri"[636]

 

20.      BERNARD (-[826/28]).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" granted the monastery of Plaisir to Folrad abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 28 Jul 775 which name "fidelibus…Ghaerardo, Bernardo, Radulfo, Hilderado, Ermenaldo, Hebroino, Theudbaldo, Agneone comitibus, Haltberto, Laumberto, Haererico et Anselmo comite palatio nostro"[637].  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" gave a judgment by charter dated to [Dec 775] which names "fidelibus…Widrigo, Odrigo, Theodrico, Bernehardo, Albuino, Aginhardo, Berngario comitibus et Anshelmo comite palacii nostri"[638].  Einhard's Annales record "Bernhardus comes" as one of the signatories of peace with the Vikings in 811[639].  [Comte de Poitou.]  Presumably appointed Comte en Poitou by Pepin I King of Aquitaine, he is named in a lawsuit at Poitiers 20 Jun 815[640]

 

21.      BERTHOLD (-after [Jan/Feb] 802).  A list of Saxons in Ostphalia dated Jan/Feb 802 records that "Sidugath filium Benninc habuit Bertaldus comis", presumably indicating that the last named had responsibility for the allegiance sworn to the emperor by the first-named[641].  The same source also states, in the following line, that "Ricohardum filium Unvani habuit Bertaldus comis".  It is not known whether this means that there were two counts named Bertoldus or whether the same person held both the named Saxons.  The remaining parts of the document are unhelpful in deciding between these two options, as there are examples where a single named individual is specified as holding two Saxons and also one other case where the name of a single person is repeated twice (both entries also immediately adjacent) in relation to different captives. 

 

22.      BOSO (-after 770).  “Boso…comes” donated property “villam…Quinciaco in finem Wavrense super fluvium Azenna” to the abbey of Gorze by charter dated 770, subscribed by “Eilberti comitis, Hisewardi comitis[642]

 

23.      BURGUNDIO (-[801])Comte de Fezensac.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the death of "Burgundio" [in 801] and that "comitatus eius Fedentiacus" was granted to "Liutardo"[643]

 

24.      BURKHARD (-after 811).  He was related to the Carolingians, as shown by the charter which names his daughter (see below), but the precise connection has not yet been identified.  Einhard records that "Burchardus" defeated the Moors in Corsica with his ships in 807[644].  The Annales Fuldenses record that the emperor sent "Burchardum comitem stabuli sui" with a fleet to defend Corsica against the Moors[645].  Einhard names "Burchardus comes" as one of the 15 witnesses of the testament of Emperor Charlemagne dated 811[646].  Einhard's Annales record "Burchardus comes" as one of the signatories of peace with the Vikings in 811[647]m ---.  The name of Burkhard's wife is not known.  Burkhard & his wife had one child: 

a)         [GERBERGE (-after 30 Jan 845).  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (possibly spurious, as explained in the Introduction to the documents AQUITAINE DUKES and GASCONY) names "Gerberge" as wife of "Asinarii nunc etiam Lupiniacensis ac Solensis vicecomitis" and states that "nobilis consanguineus noster Burchardus Dux" who fought "contra Mauros de Corsica" was her father[648]m AZNAR, son of [WANDREGISIL Comte in Aquitaine & his wife Marie ---] (-after 30 Jan 845).  Vicomte de Soule et de Louvigny.] 

 

25.      CHRODOIN [Hroduin] (-after May 770).  "Carolomannus…rex Francorum" granted property "in loco…Benutzfelt infra centina Belslango infra vasta Ardinna" to "Chrodoinus comes palatii nostri" by charter dated May 770[649]

 

26.      EBROIN (-after 28 Jul 775).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" granted the monastery of Plaisir to Folrad abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 28 Jul 775 which name "fidelibus…Ghaerardo, Bernardo, Radulfo, Hilderado, Ermenaldo, Hebroino, Theudbaldo, Agneone comitibus, Haltberto, Laumberto, Haererico et Anselmo comite palatio nostro"[650]

 

27.      EILBERT (-after 770).  “Boso…comes” donated property “villam…Quinciaco in finem Wavrense super fluvium Azenna” to the abbey of Gorze by charter dated 770, subscribed by “Eilberti comitis, Hisewardi comitis[651]

 

28.      EKKEHARD (-killed in battle Spain [780/90]).  Einhard records that "Eggihardus regiæ mensæ præpositus, Anselmus comes palatii et Hruodlaudus Brittanici limitis præfectus" were killed in Spain, dated from the context to the 780s[652]

 

29.      ERCHANGER (-after 811).  Einhard names "Ercangarius comes" as one of the 15 witnesses of the testament of Emperor Charlemagne dated 811[653]

 

30.      ERCHANBALD (-after 802).  Einhard records that Emperor Charles I sent "Ercanbaldum" as missus to Liguriam[654]

 

31.      ERHARD (-after [782]).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which names "fidelibus…Erhardo, Walerano, Ernust, Warnario, Huncelinus, Warlando, Waltario, Rimigaudo, Hainrico, Gaeroni et Hieronimo comitibus…et Walachario seu comiti palatii nostri"[655]

 

32.      ERMENGAR [Armengol] (-after 2 Apr 812).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a charter dated 2 Apr 812 to the counts in the Spanish March "Berane, Gauscelino, Gisclafredo, Odilone, Ermengario, Ademaro, Laibulfo et Erlino comitibus"[656]

 

33.      ERNST (-after [782]).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which names "fidelibus…Erhardo, Walerano, Ernust, Warnario, Huncelinus, Warlando, Waltario, Rimigaudo, Hainrico, Gaeroni et Hieronimo comitibus…et Walachario seu comiti palatii nostri"[657]

 

34.      FARDULF (-after 802).  "Fardulfus et Stephanus" are named as missi in Paris in a document of Emperor Charlemagne dated 802[658]

 

35.      FARINIAC (-after 17 Aug 806).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the judgment by "Gunfridum comitem" relating to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 17 Aug 806 which names "fidelibus…Guigirico, Gunfredo, Farinico, Hrotgario, Walacaudo, item Hrotgario et Theodrado comitibus"[659]

 

36.      FRODEGAR (-after [772]).  "Karolus…rex Francorum", in an undated charter (placed in the compilation with charters dated 772) related to Kloster Lorsch, names "fidelibus…Hagino, Rothlando, Wichingo, Frodegario comitibus"[660]

 

37.      GAILO [Geilo] (-after 782).  The Annales Laurissenses name "Adalghisum et Gailonem atque Woradum" as royal missi to the Saxons in 782[661].  Einhard records that in 782 Charles I King of the Franks sent his three missi "Adalgiso camerario et Geilone comite stabuli et Worado comite palati" to meet "in…Saxonis…Theodericus comes, propinquus regis"[662].  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which names "fidelibus…Erhardo, Walerano, Ernust, Warnario, Huncelinus, Warlando, Waltario, Rimigaudo, Hainrico, Gaeroni et Hieronimo comitibus…et Walachario seu comiti palatii nostri"[663].  It is assumed that "Gaeroni" and "Gailo" are the same names, but this is not certain. 

 

38.      GAUZLIN (-after 2 Apr 812).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a charter dated 2 Apr 812 to the counts in the Spanish march "Berane, Gauscelino, Gisclafredo, Odilone, Ermengario, Ademaro, Laibulfo et Erlino comitibus"[664]same person as…?   GAUZLIN m ADELTRUDIS, daughter of ---.  "Rorgo comes" names "genitor meus Gauzlinus et mater mea Adeltrudis, germanus noster Gausbertus…filium nostrum Gauslinum" in his charter dated 1 Mar 839[665]

-        COMTES du MAINE

 

39.      GERMANUS (-after [Jan/Feb] 802).  The Annales Laurissenses name "Grahamannus et Audacrus" as royal missi who were present at the third battle between the Bavarians and the Avars "in campo Iboso" in 788, defeating the invaders[666].  A list of Saxons in Westphalia dated Jan/Feb 802 records that "Baldricum filium Rotgeri habuit Geremannus comis", presumably indicating that the last named had responsibility for the allegiance sworn to the emperor by the first-named[667]

 

40.      GERULF (-after 8 Mar 812).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a judgment by charter dated 8 Mar 812 which names "fidelibus nostri: Gerulfus, Guntlandus, Hedo, Armannus, Hamricus, Sicardus, Rotbertus comitibus…Amalricus comiti palatii nostro"[668]

 

41.      GISCLAFRED (-after 2 Apr 812).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a charter dated 2 Apr 812 to the counts in the Spanish March "Berane, Gauscelino, Gisclafredo, Odilone, Ermengario, Ademaro, Laibulfo et Erlino comitibus"[669].  According to Cros-Mayrevieille, he is named in charters dated 812 as governor of Carcassonne but he does not cite the sources[670].  He is not named as such in the charter quoted above.  

 

42.      GODEFROI (-after 802).  Emperor Charlemagne´s Capitularius dated 802 names “missi Magnus Archiepiscopus et Godefridus comes” in the area between Orléans, the rivers Seine and Loire[671]

 

43.      GUNTFRIED (-after 17 Aug 806).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the judgment by "Gunfridum comitem" relating to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 17 Aug 806[672]

 

44.      GUNTHARD (-after 16 Dec 781).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 16 Dec 781 which names "fidelibus…Richardo comite, Gunthardo comite, Theutbaldo comite, Griphone, Geroldo, Nortboldo, Winegiso, Walberto, Gisloldo, Aroino, Theutboldo, Constabili et Waraldo comite palatii nostri"[673]

 

45.      GUNTLAND (-after 8 Mar 812).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a judgment by charter dated 8 Mar 812 which names "fidelibus nostri: Gerulfus, Guntlandus, Hedo, Armannus, Hamricus, Sicardus, Rotbertus comitibus…Amalricus comiti palatii nostro"[674]

 

46.      HAGINO (-after [772]).  "Karolus…rex Francorum", in an undated charter (placed in the compilation with charters dated 772) related to Kloster Lorsch, names "fidelibus…Hagino, Rothlando, Wichingo, Frodegario comitibus"[675]

 

47.      HATTO [Hedo] (-after 823).  A list of Saxons in Ostphalia dated Jan/Feb 802 names those received by "Haito episcopus et Hitto comes" in Westphalia[676].  It is not known whether "Hitto" and "Hatto" refer to the same person.  "Hattoni comitis" subscribed a charter dated 20 Mar 786 under which "Uualuramnus et coniux mea Uualtrat" donated property "in civitate Mogontiæ" to Fulda[677].  "Hattoni comitis" subscribed a charter dated 10 Mar 797 under which "Uto" donated property "in civitate Mogontia" to Fulda[678].  "Hattoni comitis" subscribed a charter dated 6 May 800 under which "Helmsuuind et Crapucha" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse" to Fulda[679].  Einhard names "Hatto comes" as one of the 15 witnesses of the testament of Emperor Charlemagne dated 811[680].  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a judgment by charter dated 8 Mar 812 which names "fidelibus nostri: Gerulfus, Guntlandus, Hedo, Armannus, Hamricus, Sicardus, Rotbertus comitibus…Amalricus comiti palatii nostro"[681].  The Annales Guelferbytanni record that "Hatto comes et vassus domni regis Peretolt" accused each other in 823 before the imperial court[682]

 

48.      HEINRICH (-after [782]).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which names "fidelibus…Erhardo, Walerano, Ernust, Warnario, Huncelinus, Warlando, Waltario, Rimigaudo, Hainrico, Gaeroni et Hieronimo comitibus…et Walachario seu comiti palatii nostri"[683]

 

49.      HELMGAUDm DECLANE, daughter of ---.  "Le comte Helingaud" donated "la villa d´Allement…dans le pays de Meaux" to Tours Saint-Martin, for the souls of "Helingaud son aïeul, de Declane son aïeule, de Gauzelin son père et d´Hagasindane sa mère", by charter dated 813[684].  Helmgaud & his wife had one child: 

a)         GAUZLIN (-after 17 Aug 790).  "Gauzohelmus et sa femme Harisinde" donated "la villa Trusendo dans le pays de Broussi, la villa Velcina dans le pays de Melun et la villa Hilvio dans le pays d´Etampes" to Saint-Martin de Tours by charter dated 17 Aug 790[685].  "Le comte Helingaud" donated "la villa d´Allement…dans le pays de Meaux" to Tours Saint-Martin, for the souls of "Helingaud son aïeul, de Declane son aïeule, de Gauzelin son père et d´Hagasindane sa mère", by charter dated 813[686]m HARISINDE, daughter of --- (-after 17 Aug 790).  "Gauzohelmus et sa femme Harisinde" donated "la villa Trusendo dans le pays de Broussi, la villa Velcina dans le pays de Melun et la villa Hilvio dans le pays d´Etampes" to Saint-Martin de Tours by charter dated 17 Aug 790[687].  "Le comte Helingaud" donated "la villa d´Allement…dans le pays de Meaux" to Tours Saint-Martin, for the souls of "Helingaud son aïeul, de Declane son aïeule, de Gauzelin son père et d´Hagasindane sa mère", by charter dated 813[688].  Gauzlin & his wife had one child: 

i)          HELMGAUD (-after 813).  Einhard records that Emperor Charles I sent "Iesse episcopum Ambianensem et Helmgaudum comitem" as missi to Constantinople in 802 and that they returned in 803[689].  The Annales Fuldenses also record that the emperor sent "Iesse episcopum Ambianensem et Helmgaudum comitem" to Constantinople in 802 and their return in 803[690].  Pope Leo III wrote a letter to Emperor Charlemagne dated 806 which names “missi vestry Helmengaudus…atque Hunfridus…comites[691].  Theodulf Bishop of Orléans wrote an epitaph for “Helmengaldus nobilis”, commenting that he “Palatina fuit hic præfectus in aula[692].  "Le comte Helingaud" donated "la villa d´Allement…dans le pays de Meaux" to Tours Saint-Martin, for the souls of "Helingaud son aïeul, de Declane son aïeule, de Gauzelin son père et d´Hagasindane sa mère", by charter dated 813[693]

 

50.      HERLUIN (-after 2 Apr 812).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a charter dated 2 Apr 812 to the counts in the Spanish march "Berane, Gauscelino, Gisclafredo, Odilone, Ermengario, Ademaro, Laibulfo et Erlino comitibus"[694]

 

51.      HILDIGERUS (-after 818).  Einhard names "Hildigerus comes" as one of the 15 witnesses of the testament of Emperor Charlemagne dated 811[695].  The Chronicon Besuense names “Hildegarnus comes” in a charter dated to the 4th year of the reign of Emperor Louis I (818)[696].  It is assumed that Hildegerus and Hildegarnus refer to the same person although this is not beyond all doubt. 

 

52.      HISEWARD (-after 770).  “Boso…comes” donated property “villam…Quinciaco in finem Wavrense super fluvium Azenna” to the abbey of Gorze by charter dated 770, subscribed by “Eilberti comitis, Hisewardi comitis[697]

 

53.      HRUOCULF (-[817]).  Emperor Louis I confirmed the donations of "Ingobertum et Hartmannum missos nostros" of property held by "Hruoculfus comes" to "claustre canoniarum Tornacensium", by charter dated 817[698]

 

54.      HRUODALD (-killed in battle Spain [780/90]).  Einhard records that "Eggihardus regiæ mensæ præpositus, Anselmus comes palatii et Hruodlaudus Brittanici limitis præfectus" were killed in Spain, dated from the context to the 780s[699]

 

55.      HUNCELINUS (-after [782]).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which names "fidelibus…Erhardo, Walerano, Ernust, Warnario, Huncelinus, Warlando, Waltario, Rimigaudo, Hainrico, Gaeroni et Hieronimo comitibus…et Walachario seu comiti palatii nostri"[700]

 

56.      LAIBULF (-after 16 Mar 829).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a charter dated 2 Apr 812 to the counts in the Spanish march "Berane, Gauscelino, Gisclafredo, Odilone, Ermengario, Ademaro, Laibulfo et Erlino comitibus"[701]Missus at Narbonne.  Emperor Louis I confirmed the donation of "in pago Narbonensi…salinas" designated by "noster missus Leibulfus comes" to "monasterio Amanense" by charter dated 814[702].  A charter dated 823 of Emperor Louis I records an agreement between "Leibulfus comes" and the bishopric of Arles[703].  Comte Laibulf and his wife Odde donated property to the monastery of Lérins by charter dated 16 Mar 829[704]

-        PROVENCE

 

57.      LANTFRIED (-801).  Einhard records that Emperor Charles I sent "Lantfrido et Sigimundo" as legates to "regem Persarum" in 801 and that they both died during the journey[705]

 

58.      MAGNIER (-after 791).  A charter dated 5 Dec 791 relates to the delimitation of the town of Caunes by order of “Magnario comite de Narbona[706], although the document is suspect as contemporary documentation rarely applies a territorial epithet to counts. 

 

59.      MARQUARD .  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" donated property rights "de Hassega de comitatos, quos Albericos et Marcoardus nunc tempore visi sunt" to Kloster Hersfeld by charter dated 8 Mar 780[707]

 

60.      MEGINFRIED (-after 791).  Einhard records that Charles I King of the Franks sent "Theodorico comite et Meginfredo camerario suo" to "aquilonalem Danubii ripam" in 791[708]m ---.  The name of Meginfred´s wife is not known.  Meginfred & his wife had one child: 

a)         GAGENFRIED (-after 795).  “Gagenfridus comes filius Megenfridi et coniunx sue Theidlindis filia Albrici comitis” donated property “in pago Virdunensi in fine Ingaricense in villa…Hingarigo” to the abbey of Gorze by charter dated 795[709]m THEODELINDIS, daughter of ALBERIC & his wife --- (-after 795).  “Gagenfridus comes filius Megenfridi et coniunx sue Theidlindis filia Albrici comitis” donated property “in pago Virdunensi in fine Ingaricense in villa…Hingarigo” to the abbey of Gorze by charter dated 795[710]

 

61.      MEGINHARD (-after 811).  Einhard names "Meginhardus comes" as one of the 15 witnesses of the testament of Emperor Charlemagne dated 811[711].  Einhard's Annales record "Meginhardus comes" as one of the signatories of peace with the Vikings in 811[712]

 

62.      MILO (-after 5 Jun 782).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to Fulrad Abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 1 Mar 752 which names "fidelibus nostris…Milone, Rotgario, Cheimgaudo, Crothardo, Gerichardo, Autgario et Wiberto comite palatii nostri"[713].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[714].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to the abbey of Saint-Denis by "Gerardum comitem" by charter dated 30 Oct 759 which names as present "Uuidone, Raulcone, Milone, Helmgaudo, Rothardo, Gislehario…et Uuicberto comite palatii nostro"[715].  A judgment dated 5 Jun 782 was issued by “missi…domno nostro Carolo Rege Francorum in Narbona civitate…Vvaltario, Adalberto, Fulcone et Guibuino” relating to property “in pago Narbonense” which “Milone comite” alleged was granted to him by King Charles[716]

 

63.      ODILO (-after 2 Apr 812).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a charter dated 2 Apr 812 to the counts in the Spanish March "Berane, Gauscelino, Gisclafredo, Odilone, Ermengario, Ademaro, Laibulfo et Erlino comitibus"[717]

 

64.      ODO (-after 810).  The Annales Fuldenses record that "castellum…Hohbuochi Albiæ fluminum adpositum", where "Odo legatus imperator et orientalium Saxonum erat præsidium", was captured in 810 by "Wilzis"[718]

 

65.      ODRIGO (-after [Dec 775]).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" gave a judgment by charter dated to [Dec 775] which names "fidelibus…Widrigo, Odrigo, Theodrico, Bernehardo, Albuino, Aginhardo, Berngario comitibus et Anshelmo comite palacii nostri"[719]

 

66.      OSTDAG (-after 811).  Einhard's Annales record "Ostdag comes" as one of the signatories of peace with the Vikings in 811[720]

 

67.      OTGER (-after 771).  The Annales Lobienses record that "uxor eius [=Karlomannus] cum duobus filiis et Otgario marchione" took refuge with "Desiderium regem, patrem suum" after the death of her husband in 771[721]

 

68.      OTULF (-after 811).  Einhard names "Otulfus comes" as one of the 15 witnesses of the testament of Emperor Charlemagne dated 811[722]

 

69.      RACULF [Roculf] (-after 811).  "Comiti Hadalhardus, Fulradus, Unrocus seu Hrocculfus" are named as imperial missi in a document of Emperor Charlemagne dated 806[723].  Einhard names "Roculfus comes" as one of the 15 witnesses of the testament of Emperor Charlemagne dated 811[724]

 

70.      RADBERT (-807).  Einhard records that "Radbertus missus imperatoris" died in 807 after returning from the Orient[725].  It is possible that "Radbertus" refers to "Rodbertus".  If this is correct, this may be the same person as ROBERT [II], son of THURINGBERT Grundherr im Rheingau und Wormsgau & his wife --- (-[805]). 

 

71.      RADO (-806 or after).  A list of imperial missi in a document of Emperor Charlemagne dated 806 names "Radoni" as a legate, naming deputies in case of his illness[726]

 

72.      RICHWIN (-after 811).  Einhard names "Rihwinus comes" as one of the 15 witnesses of the testament of Emperor Charlemagne dated 811[727]Comte de Poitou.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Northbertum Regiensium epsicopum et Richoinum Pictavium comitem" as missi [in 814][728]

 

73.      RIMIGAUD [Rimigar] (-after [782]).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which names "fidelibus…Erhardo, Walerano, Ernust, Warnario, Huncelinus, Warlando, Waltario, Rimigaudo, Hainrico, Gaeroni et Hieronimo comitibus…et Walachario seu comiti palatii nostri"[729].  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" donated property to Kloster Prüm by charter dated 20 Jan 806 which names "missus noster Rimigarius comis"[730]

 

74.      RIPUIN (-after [Jan/Feb] 802).  A list of Saxons in Ostphalia dated Jan/Feb 802 records that "Titbaldum filium Sigibaldi habuit Ripoinus comis", presumably indicating that the last named had responsibility for the allegiance sworn to the emperor by the first-named[731]

 

75.      ROSTAIN (-after [801]).  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Rostagnus comes Gerundæ præfuit" in "Ruscellioni" [in 801][732]Conde de Gerona

 

76.      ROTGER [Hrotgar/Roger] (-after 17 Aug 806).  A poem by Theodulf Bishop of Orléans entitled “De Loco Carrof Dicto” names “Rotharius comes…coniuge…Eufrasia[733].  The Vita S. Austreminii records that “Rotgerius Dux…ex Francorum genere…in Curia…Regis altus est nobiliter” built “locum…in honore Domini Salvatoris…Karrofulum[734].  The Vita S. Genulfi records that “Lemovicæ urbi Rotherium comitem” founded “Cœnobii Karrofensis[735].  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the judgment by "Gunfridum comitem" relating to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 17 Aug 806 which names "fidelibus…Guigirico, Gunfredo, Farinico, Hrotgario, Walacaudo, item Hrotgario et Theodrado comitibus"[736]m ([764]) EUPHRASIA, niece of HECTOR Comte d´Auvergne, daughter of ---.  A poem by Theodulf Bishop of Orléans entitled “De Loco Carrof Dicto” names “Rotharius comes…coniuge…Eufrasia[737].  The Vita S. Austreminii names “Rotgerius Dux…ex Francorum genere…in Curia…Regis altus est nobiliter” among those present at a synod, dated to 764, adding that he married “Eufrasiam…sobolem” after the death of “Arvernorum quondam comite…Hectore[738]

 

77.      ROTGER [Hrotgar/Roger] (-after 17 Aug 806).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the judgment by "Gunfridum comitem" relating to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 17 Aug 806 which names "fidelibus…Guigirico, Gunfredo, Farinico, Hrotgario, Walacaudo, item Hrotgario et Theodrado comitibus"[739]

 

78.      ROTHLAND (-after [772]).  "Karolus…rex Francorum", in an undated charter (placed in the compilation with charters dated 772) related to Kloster Lorsch, names "fidelibus…Hagino, Rothlando, Wichingo, Frodegario comitibus"[740]

 

79.      SICARD (-after 8 Mar 812).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a judgment by charter dated 8 Mar 812 which names "fidelibus nostri: Gerulfus, Guntlandus, Hedo, Armannus, Hamricus, Sicardus, Rotbertus comitibus…Amalricus comiti palatii nostro"[741]

 

80.      SIEGMUND (-801).  Einhard records that Emperor Charles I sent "Lantfrido et Sigimundo" as legates to "regem Persarum" in 801 and that they both died during the journey[742]

 

81.      THEUDBALD [Theotbald] (-after 16 Dec 781).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" granted the monastery of Plaisir to Folrad abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 28 Jul 775 which name "fidelibus…Ghaerardo, Bernardo, Radulfo, Hilderado, Ermenaldo, Hebroino, Theudbaldo, Agneone comitibus, Haltberto, Laumberto, Haererico et Anselmo comite palatio nostro"[743].  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 16 Dec 781 which names "fidelibus…Richardo comite, Gunthardo comite, Theutbaldo comite, Griphone, Geroldo, Nortboldo, Winegiso, Walberto, Gisloldo, Aroino, Theutboldo, Constabili et Waraldo comite palatii nostri"[744]

 

82.      THEODOALD (-after 799).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the grant of property to "Theodoldus comis fidelis" by charter dated [31 Mar/12 Apr] 797[745].  “Theudaldus comes” donated property “sitas in pago Camliacense” (in the future county of Beaumont-sur-Oise, north of Paris) to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 799[746]

 

83.      THEODRAD (-after 17 Aug 806).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the judgment by "Gunfridum comitem" relating to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 17 Aug 806 which names "fidelibus…Guigirico, Gunfredo, Farinico, Hrotgario, Walacaudo, item Hrotgario et Theodrado comitibus"[747]

 

84.      VOLMER (-after 15 Jun 787).  Angelram Bishop of Metz "sub advocati et ministri comitis Wolmeri nostri advocati" donated property "Walo…juxta Morspec castrum in Elisacia…" to the abbey of Saint-Nabor by charter dated 15 Jun 787[748]

 

85.      VULFARD (-after [Jan/Feb] 802).  A list of Saxons in Ostphalia dated Jan/Feb 802 records that "filium Macconis habuit Vulfaldus comis", presumably indicating that the last named had responsibility for the allegiance sworn to the emperor by the first-named[749]

 

86.      WALCAUD (-after 17 Aug 806).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the judgment by "Gunfridum comitem" relating to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 17 Aug 806 which names "fidelibus…Guigirico, Gunfredo, Farinico, Hrotgario, Walacaudo, item Hrotgario et Theodrado comitibus"[750]

 

87.      WALERAN (-after [782]).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which names "fidelibus…Erhardo, Walerano, Ernust, Warnario, Huncelinus, Warlando, Waltario, Rimigaudo, Hainrico, Gaeroni et Hieronimo comitibus…et Walachario seu comiti palatii nostri"[751]

 

88.      WANINGUS (-after [Jan/Feb] 802).  A list of Saxons in Westphalia dated Jan/Feb 802 records that "Theodoar filium Audradi habuit Waningus comis", presumably indicating that the last named had responsibility for the allegiance sworn to the emperor by the first-named[752]

 

89.      WARALD (-after 16 Dec 781).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 16 Dec 781 which names "fidelibus…Richardo comite, Gunthardo comite, Theutbaldo comite, Griphone, Geroldo, Nortboldo, Winegiso, Walberto, Gisloldo, Aroino, Theutboldo, Constabili et Waraldo comite palatii nostri"[753].  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which names "fidelibus…Erhardo, Walerano, Ernust, Warnario, Huncelinus, Warlando, Waltario, Rimigaudo, Hainrico, Gaeroni et Hieronimo comitibus…et Walachario seu comiti palatii nostri"[754]

 

90.      WARIN (-after 2 Sep 786).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus" and was subscribed by (first column) "Droconi comitis, Warini comitis, Baugulfi comitis, Troanie comitis, Herloini comitis, Rachulfi comitis" and (second column) "Chrodardi comitis, Welenti comitis, Gerhardi comitis, Waltarii comitis, Gunberti comitis, Warini comitis"[755].  It is assumed that this indicates that there were two different "Warini comitis".  "Carolomannus…rex Francorum, vir inluster Uuarinus comis" issued a charter dated 22 Mar 769 relating to Klosterlein Münster[756].  The Annales Laurissenses record that King Charles came to "Corbonaeum villam" in 771 with "Wilcharius archiepiscopus et Folradus capellanus…Warinus et Adalhardus comites"[757].  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which names "fidelibus…Erhardo, Walerano, Ernust, Warnario, Huncelinus, Warlando, Waltario, Rimigaudo, Hainrico, Gaeroni et Hieronimo comitibus…et Walachario seu comiti palatii nostri"[758].  It is assumed that "Warnario" refers to the same person as "Warin", other documentation apparently showing that these two names were interchangeable (see above).  m FREDERUNA, daughter of --- (-after 2 Sep 786).  "Carolus…imperator augustus" confirmed the donation by "Warinus comes et uxor eius Friderun" of property "in pago Moyngowz…Biberbah" to Fulda by charter dated 2 Sep 786[759], although presumably this is a later fabrication in view of the anachronistic attribution of the imperial title to King Charles. 

 

91.      WARLAND (-after [782]).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which names "fidelibus…Erhardo, Walerano, Ernust, Warnario, Huncelinus, Warlando, Waltario, Rimigaudo, Hainrico, Gaeroni et Hieronimo comitibus…et Walachario seu comiti palatii nostri"[760]

 

92.      WICBERT (-after [782]).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to Fulrad Abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 1 Mar 752 which names "fidelibus nostris…Milone, Rotgario, Cheimgaudo, Crothardo, Gerichardo, Autgario et Wiberto comite palatii nostri"[761].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[762].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to the abbey of Saint-Denis by "Gerardum comitem" by charter dated 30 Oct 759 which names as present "Uuidone, Raulcone, Milone, Helmgaudo, Rothardo, Gislehario…et Uuicberto comite palatii nostro"[763].  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which names "Wicbertus missus noster"[764]m ADA, daughter of ---.  The Vita S. Hiltrudis Virginis names “comes quidam…Wibertus…pago Pictaviensi ex nobilissima prosapia ortus” and “uxor illi…Ada ex nobilioribus Francorum” during the early part of the reign of Pepin I King of the Franks, “illis filius Guntradus”, who became a monk, and “illis et filia Hiltrudis” whom “Burgundionum princeps Hugo” wished to marry but who married “alteram de filiabus…Bertam” after Hiltrudis became a nun[765].  Wicbert & his wife had three children: 

a)         GUNTRAD .  The Vita S. Hiltrudis Virginis names “comes quidam…Wibertus…pago Pictaviensi ex nobilissima prosapia ortus” and “uxor illi…Ada ex nobilioribus Francorum” during the early part of the reign of Pepin I King of the Franks, “illis filius Guntradus”, who became a monk[766]

b)         HILTRUDE .  The Vita S. Hiltrudis Virginis names “comes quidam…Wibertus…pago Pictaviensi ex nobilissima prosapia ortus” and “uxor illi…Ada ex nobilioribus Francorum” during the early part of the reign of Pepin I King of the Franks, “illis et filia Hiltrudis” whom “Burgundionum princeps Hugo” wished to marry but who married “alteram de filiabus…Bertam” after Hiltrudis became a nun[767]

c)         BERTA .  The Vita S. Hiltrudis Virginis names “comes quidam…Wibertus…pago Pictaviensi ex nobilissima prosapia ortus” and “uxor illi…Ada ex nobilioribus Francorum” during the early part of the reign of Pepin I King of the Franks, “illis et filia Hiltrudis” whom “Burgundionum princeps Hugo” wished to marry but who married “alteram de filiabus…Bertam” after Hiltrudis became a nun[768]m HUGUES, son of ---. 

 

93.      WICHING (-after [772]).  "Karolus…rex Francorum", in an undated charter (placed in the compilation with charters dated 772) related to Kloster Lorsch, names "fidelibus…Hagino, Rothlando, Wichingo, Frodegario comitibus"[769]

 

94.      WIDRIGO (-after [Jul 775]).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" gave a judgment by charter dated to [Dec 775] which names "fidelibus…Widrigo, Odrigo, Theodrico, Bernehardo, Albuino, Aginhardo, Berngario comitibus et Anshelmo comite palacii nostri"[770]

 

95.      WIGERICH [I] [Guigirico] (-after 17 Aug 806).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the judgment by "Gunfridum comitem" relating to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 17 Aug 806 which names "fidelibus…Guigirico, Gunfredo, Farinico, Hrotgario, Walacaudo, item Hrotgario et Theodrado comitibus"[771].  His name suggests a connection with the family of Wigerich in Lower Lotharingia. 

 

96.      WORAD (-after 781).  The Annales Laurissenses name "Adalghisum et Gailonem atque Woradum" as royal missi to the Saxons in 782[772].  Einhard records that in 782 Charles I King of the Franks sent his three missi "Adalgiso camerario et Geilone comite stabuli et Worado comite palati" to meet "in…Saxonis…Theodericus comes, propinquus regis"[773].  "Karolus…rex Francorum et Longobardorum ac patricius Romanorum" issued a charter dated to [782] relating to the foundation of Kloster Mettlach which names "fidelibus…comiti palate nostri Uuoradi"[774]

 

 

 

B.      NINTH CENTURY

 

 

1.         ADALBERT (-killed in battle Rhaetia 13 May 841).  "Hetti archiepiscopus et Adalbertus comes" are named as imperial missi "in Treveris" in documents of Emperor Louis dated May 825 and 827[775].  The Annales Fuldenses record that the emperor crossed the Rhine "839 VII Id Ian" to meet the Saxons and also to bring "Adalberti comitis" under control[776].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Druogonem archicapellum et Adalbertum comitem" were sent to the east bank of the Rhine in 840[777].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Adalbertus comes et incentor discordiarum" was killed in battle "in Retiense…III Id Mai 841"[778]

 

2.         ADALBERT (-after 879).  Pope John VIII requested "Bosonem comitem" to allow "Adelberto et Rotildi eius conjugi" to retain property which they had in Provence in 879[779]m ROTHILDE, daughter of ---.  Pope John VIII requested "Bosonem comitem" to allow "Adelberto et Rotildi eius conjugi" to retain property which they had in Provence in 879[780]

 

3.         ADALELM (-[864/29 Aug 867]).  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks confirmed a donation to St Bavo, Gent by "fidelis noster Adelmus comes", by charter dated 864[781].  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks donated property "villam Cadussam super fluvium Seræ in comitatu Laudunensi" previously held by "Adalelmus comes" to the abbey of Saint-Denis, by charter dated 29 Aug 867[782]

 

4.         ADALGER (-after [Nov 853]).  A charter dated 26 Oct 834 recording a donation of property "in pago Nibelgauue" to St Gallen terminates with "sub Adalgero comite"[783].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Hugonem fratrem suum sed et Adalgarium comitem" visited the emperor [in 836][784].  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Folcoinus episcopus, Adalgarius, Engilscalcus et Berengarius" as missi in "comitatu Berengarii, Engilscalchi, Gerardi et in comitatibus Reginarii"[785], although it is not known whether this refers to the same Adalger as the 834 reference. 

 

5.         AGIMBERT (-836)Comte du Perche.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Wala Corbeiensis abbas, Matfridus, Hugo, Lantbertus, Godefridus, itemque filius eius Godefridus, Agimbertus comes Pertensis…sed et Richardus" died between "Kal Sep usque ad missam sancti Martini" [in 836][786]

 

6.         AGINULF (-after 832).  Emperor Louis I granted "sitas in pago Asbanio in villa…Liniaco et in pago Bragbantensi in villa…Isca…in pago Namucensi in villa…Beiss…[et] Vulpilionis" to "fidelem nostrum Aginulfum" by charter dated 832[787]

 

7.         AIRBOLD (-after Feb 876).  An agreement dated Feb 876 of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks names "Bosonis…ducis et sacri palatii archiministri atque imperiali missi, Richardi comitis, Walfridi comitis, Liutfridi comitis, Alberici comitis, Supponis comitis, Hardingi comitis, Bodradi comitis palatii, Cuniberti comitis, Bernardi comitis, Airboldi comitis" as present in Italy with the king[788]

 

Two brothers, their parents not so far identified. 

8.         ALBERIC (-killed [30 Nov] 896).  Regino names "Stephanus, Ruodbertus, Wicbertus, Thietbaldus comites, Albricus et frater eius Stephanus" recording that they opposed "Hugo filius Hlotharii" in France in 883[789]Regino records that "Albericus comes, qui Megingaudum occiderat" was killed by "Stephano fratris Walonis" in 896 "circa festivitatem sancti Andreæ"[790]

9.         STEPHANUS (-after 883).  Regino names "Stephanus, Ruodbertus, Wicbertus, Thietbaldus comites, Albricus et frater eius Stephanus" recording that they opposed "Hugo filius Hlotharii" in France in 883[791]

 

10.      ALTMAR (-after Nov 853).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Pardulus episcopus, Altmarus, Theodacrus" as missi in "Lauduniso, Portiano, Suessonico, Urciso et Vadiro"[792]

 

11.      AMEDEE (-after [827]).  Emperor Louis I confirmed the restoration of the church of St Bénigne by "Amadeo comite, Heliæ et Waldo Isembardo et Barbarto vassis nostris" by charter dated to [827][793]

 

12.      ANSCHER (-after 879).  After the death of Louis "le Bègue" King of the Franks, "Hugo abbas et Boso et alii" sent "Walterum Episcopum Aurelianensem et Goiranum et Anscherum comites" to Louis King of Germany to offer him part of the kingdom in 879[794]

 

13.      APOLLON (-after 872).  "Apollonius comes" donated property to the church of Agde by charter dated 13 Sep 872[795]

 

14.      ARNAUD (-after 822).  Emperor Louis I confirmed the donation of "Arnaldus comes" of property "in pago Biterrense villam de Cinciaco" to the monastery of Aniane by charter dated 822[796]

 

15.      AUGARIUS (-after 24 Apr 866).  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks confirmed the foundation of "cella Sancti Juliani et Sancti Vincenti in pago Bisuldunensi" by "Augarius…comes", by charter dated 24 Apr 866[797]

 

16.      AUTHARIUS (-after Oct 826).  A document of Emperor Louis I issued from Ingelheim and dated Oct 826 deals, among other business, with a forest claimed by "Autharius comes"[798]

 

17.      BALDRIC (-after [827]).  Einhard's Annales name "Baldrico" as imperial legate with the Saxons and Abotrites who in 815 crossed "Aegidoram fluvium in terram Nordmannorum vocabulo Sinlendi" to help the deposed Harald King of Denmark[799].  He was installed as Duke of Friulia in 819.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the death of "Cadolach dux Foroiuliensis" and the succession of "Baldricus"[800].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Baldrico" expelled "Liudovitus"[801].  Einhard's Annales record that "Bertricum palatii comitem" sent "Baldricum et Geroldum comites" to fight the Avars in 826[802].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Georgius quidam presbyter de Venetia, cum Baldrico comite Foroiuliense veniens, organum ydraulicum Aquisgrani fecit" in 826[803].  Einhard's Annales names "Bertricum palatii comitem et Baldricum et Geroldum comites" as imperial missi to "Bulgarorum regem" in 826[804].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Baldrico duci Foroiulensi" was expelled [in 827] after which the dukedom was divided into four counties[805]

 

18.      BASINUS [Tancred] (-after 12 Nov 842).  Emperor Lothar confirmed a donation of property "in pago Arduennensi sitam…Villantia" to the abbey of Prüm by "Richardus quondam comes…per Biuinum fratrem suum, et Gerardum et Basinum qui et Tancredus comites" by charter dated 12 Nov 842[806]

 

19.      BEGO (-killed in battle late 843, bur Durin).  The Chronicle of Nantes records that Charles II " le Chauve" King of the Franks appointed "Bego" as Duke of Aquitaine in 843, that he built "castrum Begonis" near Nantes aiming to expel Lambert Comte de Nantes and his supporters from the region, but was killed in battle and buried "apud Durenum"[807]

 

20.      BERENGER (-Oct 868).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Folcoinus episcopus, Adalgarius, Engilscalcus et Berengarius" as missi in "comitatu Berengarii, Engilscalchi, Gerardi et in comitatibus Reginarii"[808].  An agreement between Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of Germany dated Jun 860 names "nobilis ac fidelibus laicis…Chuonradus, Evrardus, Adalardus, Arnustus, Warnarius, Liutfridus, Hruodolfus, Erkingarius, Gislebertus, Ratbodus, Arnulfus, Hugo, item Chuonradus, Liutharius, Berengarius, Matfridus, Boso, Sigeri, Hartmannus, Liuthardus, Richuinus, Wigricus, Hunfridus, Bernoldus, Hatto, Adalbertus, Burchardus, Christianus, Leutulfus, Hessi, Herimannus, item Hruodulfus, Sigehardus"[809].  The necrology of Fulda records the death "868 Kal Oct" of "Bernger com"[810]m HILTRUDE, daughter of Emperor LOTHAIRE I & his wife Ermengarde de Tours ([826]-after [865/66]).  Pope Nicholas I names "Helletrude Berengarii Comitis quondam relicta" in an undated letter which refers to her as "Lothario sorore sua"[811].  Berengar & his wife had two children: 

a)         CHILDEBERT [Hildebert] (-after 882).  Conte di Camerino 850/82.  Hildebert, son of Count Berengar donated property to St Vanne, Verdun by charter dated 882, subscribed by "Matfridus comes"[812]

b)         BERENGER (-after 882).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte.  850/82. 

 

21.      BERENGER (-[886 or after]).  Comte de Bayeux.  According to Orderic Vitalis, Rollo "stormed and captured Bayeux, slew its count Berengar and took to wife his daughter Poppa"[813].  In another passage, the same source records that Rollo besieged Paris, captured Bayeux, killed "Berengarium comitem" and married his daughter Popa, in 886[814], although this date appears early in light of the likely birth date range of the couple's son Guillaume.  m [as her first husband] --- [du Vexin], daughter of PEPIN [Carolingian] & his wife ---.  One way of reconciling the apparently contradictory sources which recount the origin of Poppa, wife of Rollo of Normandy, is that her mother married firstly Berengar Comte de Bayeux and secondly Guy Comte de Senlis.  There is no proof that this is correct.  [She married secondly Wido [Guy] Comte de Senlis.]  Berengar & his wife had one child: 

a)         POPPA .  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Rollo took "Popa, fille de Bérenger, homme illustre" when he captured Bayeux and "s´unit avec elle, à la manière des Danois"[815].  According to Orderic Vitalis, Rollo "stormed and captured Bayeux, slew its count Berengar and took to wife his daughter Poppa"[816].  In another passage, the same source records that Rollo besieged Paris, captured Bayeux, killed "Berengarium comitem" and married his daughter Popa, in 886[817], although this date appears early in light of the likely birth date range of the couple's son Guillaume.  The Chronico Rotomagensis records that "mortua a Gisla, accepit Rollo propriam uxorem filiam comitis Silvanectensis Widonis"[818].  Robert of Torigny combines the information, recording that "Rollo dux Northmannorum" married "Popam prius repudiatam uxorem…filiam…Berengarii comitis Baiocensis neptem vero Widonis comitis Silvanectensis"[819].  Guillaume de Jumièges records that "le comte Bernard" (presumably identifiable as Bernard [II] Comte de Senlis, who, assuming that the reconstruction proposed in the present document is correct, was Poppa´s uterine half-brother) welcomed "son neveu Richard" (grandson of Rollo) at Senlis after his escape from captivity[820], although in another passage he describes how Rollo captured Bayeux and took "une très-noble jeune fille Popa, fille de Bérenger" in the town, marrying her "à la manière des Danois"[821], in a later passage adding that Rollo married Poppa, whom he had previously repudiated, a second time after the death of his wife[822].  It would be possible to reconcile the different versions if Comte Bernard's mother was married twice, her first husband being Bérenger Comte de Bayeux.  m (886 or after, repudiated, remarried after 912) as his second wife, ROLLO, later known as ROBERT I Comte [de Normandie], son of [RAGNVALD "the Wise" Jarl of Möre in Norway & his wife Ragnhild] ([846]-[928]).  

 

22.      BERENGER (-13 Dec [892 or after]).  [Comte du Maine].  A notice of Saint-Martin de Tours records that officials of the church went to Le Mans 13 Jun 892 demanding justice from "comte Béranger"[823].  The necrology of Le Mans Cathedral records the death "Id Dec" of "Beringerius comes"[824]

 

23.      BERNARD (-after May [852] or [902])Comte d'Auvergne.  "Bernardus comes et uxor mea Lieugardis" donated property "in pago Arvernico in vice Mussiacensi in villa…Morennum" to Saint-Julien de Brioude by charter dated May [852] or [902] ("anno nono regnante Karolo rege Francorum"), signed by "Gaufredi"[825]m LIEGARDIS, daughter of ---.  "Bernardus comes et uxor mea Lieugardis" donated property "in pago Arvernico in vice Mussiacensi in villa…Morennum" to Saint-Julien de Brioude by charter dated May [852] or [902] ("anno nono regnante Karolo rege Francorum"), signed by "Gaufredi"[826].  Bernard & his wife had one child: 

a)         ERMENGARDE (-after 21 Jul 883).  "Bernardus comes et uxor eius Ermengardis" donated property "ecclesiam…in villa…Viciaco…et in villa Lubiriaco…et in villa…Dignaciaco…in…patria Arvernica in vicaria Randanensi" to Saint-Julien de Brioude by charter dated 10 Mar [867][827]"Bernardus comes et uxor mea Hermengardis" donated property to Conques abbey by charter dated 21 Jul 883[828]"Princeps et marchio Willelmus" donated property to the church of Holy Trinity "pro…animæ patris mei Bernardi et matris meæ Ermengardis…" by charter dated Nov 916[829].  Her parents are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[830] but the primary source on which this is based has not so far been identified.  m (840 or before) BERNARD "Plantevelue", son of BERNARD Marquis of Septimania & his wife Doda --- (Uzès 22 Mar 841-[20 Jun 885/16 Aug 886], maybe 6 Jan 886).  Comte d'Autun 864-869.  Comte d'Auvergne after 872. 

 

24.      BERNARD (-[after 880]).  An agreement dated Feb 876 of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks names "Bosonis…ducis et sacri palatii archiministri atque imperiali missi, Richardi comitis, Walfridi comitis, Liutfridi comitis, Alberici comitis, Supponis comitis, Hardingi comitis, Bodradi comitis palatii, Cuniberti comitis, Bernardi comitis, Airboldi comitis" as present in Italy with the king[831].  It is not known to which "Bernardi comitis" this refers.  The same document is signed by "Bernardi comitis…item Bernardi", which could refer to his supposed son (see below).  He may be the same Bernard who is named in the Annales Fuldenses which record that the sons of Ludwig II " der Deutsche" King of the East Franks fought "Buosonem in Galliam" in 880 and expelled him from "Madasconam urbem", accepting homage from "Bernhardum qui in ea principatum tenebat"[832]m ---.  The name of Bernard's wife is not known.  Bernard & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [BERNARD (-after 866).  The Annales Bertiniani record that "comitatum quoque Augustidunensem" was occupied by "Bernardo filio Bernardi" in 866[833], although it is not known whether his father was the same Bernard as shown above.] 

 

25.      BERNARIUS (-executed 883)Comte de Charpeigne.  Walo Bishop of Metz noted donations of property in “pago Scarponinse, in comitatu Berneri” by “Leutchardis et filius suus Nithardus” to Gorze Abbey, by charter dated 874[834].  A charter dated 882 names property "in pago Scarponensi in comitatu Berneri in villa Hodingas super fluvio Alsoncia", although Vanderkindere highlights that the river Alsoncia or Alzette is not located in this area, concluding that this detail raises doubts about the authenticity of the charter[835]Regino names "Stephanus, Ruodbertus, Wicbertus, Thietbaldus comites, Albricus et frater eius Stephanus" recording that they opposed "Hugo filius Hlotharii" in France in 883, specifying that Wicbert was killed by Hugo and thereafter "Bernarius" executed[836]m as her second husband, FRIDERADA, widow of ENGUERRAND, daughter of ---.  Regino names "Friderada" as wife of "Engilrammo ex qua filiam quam postmodem Richwinus comes in coniugem accepti", also referring to her subsequent marriages[837].  "Hugo filius Lotharii Regis" had "Wicbertum comitem" murdered and married his wife "Frideradam" in 883[838].  She married thirdly (883) Wicbert, and fourthly (883) Hugues, illegitimate son of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia. 

 

26.      BERTRIC (-after 826).  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "misso Bertrico comite palatii" was falsely accused before being exonerated and restored as missus [in 826][839].  Einhard's Annales names "Bertricum palatii comitem et Baldricum et Geroldum comites" as imperial missi to "Bulgarorum regem" in 826[840].  

 

27.      BONIFACE (-after 838).  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that Emperor Louis I sent "Bonifatius comes et Donatus…comes…et Adrebaldus Flaviniacensis monasterii abbas" as missi to Septimania [in 838][841]

 

28.      BUVINUS [Bouvin] (-after 895).  Robert Bishop of Metz approved the foundation of the chapel at Doncourt by the abbot of Gorze, at the request of “quidam vir nobilis Bivinus”, by charter dated 886[842].  “Bivinus” donated property “in Belcialdi curtem” to Gorze Abbey by charter dated 895[843].  “Fridericus…Francorum dux” recorded the settlement of a property “in pago et comitatu Scarponinse et Wabrensi, Virdunensi quoque” between Gorze Abbey and “vir illustrus…Aquinus…cum coniuge sua Adelindi” dispute by charter dated 959, which names “Bivinum avum memorate Adelindis…unius eorum prolis…Ursonis…coniuge eius Warne…Urso filius eius patris equivocus…Adelindis soror eius[844]m ---.  The name of Buvinus´s wife is not known.  Buvinus & his wife had one child: 

a)         URSUS .  “Fridericus…Francorum dux” recorded the settlement of a property “in pago et comitatu Scarponinse et Wabrensi, Virdunensi quoque” between Gorze Abbey and “vir illustrus…Aquinus…cum coniuge sua Adelindi” dispute by charter dated 959, which names “Bivinum avum memorate Adelindis…unius eorum prolis…Ursonis…coniuge eius Warne…Urso filius eius patris equivocus…Adelindis soror eius”, adding that the older Ursus was killed[845]m ---.  The name of Ursus´s wife is not known.  Ursus & his wife had two children: 

i)          URSUS .  “Fridericus…Francorum dux” recorded the settlement of a property “in pago et comitatu Scarponinse et Wabrensi, Virdunensi quoque” between Gorze Abbey and “vir illustrus…Aquinus…cum coniuge sua Adelindi” dispute by charter dated 959, which names “Bivinum avum memorate Adelindis…unius eorum prolis…Ursonis…coniuge eius Warne…Urso filius eius patris equivocus…Adelindis soror eius[846]

ii)         ADELINDIS (-after 959).  “Fridericus…Francorum dux” recorded the settlement of a property “in pago et comitatu Scarponinse et Wabrensi, Virdunensi quoque” between Gorze Abbey and “vir illustrus…Aquinus…cum coniuge sua Adelindi” dispute by charter dated 959, which names “Bivinum avum memorate Adelindis…unius eorum prolis…Ursonis…coniuge eius Warne…Urso filius eius patris equivocus…Adelindis soror eius[847].  Her first marriage is suggested by the subscriptions to the same charter “…Aquinus, Adelindis uxoris eius, Framberti, Wigirici, Huberti, filiorum Adelindis” which imply that Aquinus was not the father of the three children of Adelindis.  m firstly ---.  m secondly AQUINUS, son of --- (-after 959).  Adelindis & her first husband had three children: 

(a)       FRAMBERT (-after 959).  “…Aquinus, Adelindis uxoris eius, Framberti, Wigirici, Huberti, filiorum Adelindis” subscribed a charter dated 959 under which “Fridericus…Francorum dux” recorded the settlement of a property “in pago et comitatu Scarponinse et Wabrensi, Virdunensi quoque” between Gorze Abbey and “vir illustrus…Aquinus…cum coniuge sua Adelindi[848]

(b)       WIGERIC (-after 959).  “…Aquinus, Adelindis uxoris eius, Framberti, Wigirici, Huberti, filiorum Adelindis” subscribed a charter dated 959 under which “Fridericus…Francorum dux” recorded the settlement of a property “in pago et comitatu Scarponinse et Wabrensi, Virdunensi quoque” between Gorze Abbey and “vir illustrus…Aquinus…cum coniuge sua Adelindi[849]

(c)       HUBERT (-after 959).  “…Aquinus, Adelindis uxoris eius, Framberti, Wigirici, Huberti, filiorum Adelindis” subscribed a charter dated 959 under which “Fridericus…Francorum dux” recorded the settlement of a property “in pago et comitatu Scarponinse et Wabrensi, Virdunensi quoque” between Gorze Abbey and “vir illustrus…Aquinus…cum coniuge sua Adelindi[850]

 

29.      BODRAD (-after Feb 876).  An agreement dated Feb 876 of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks names "Bosonis…ducis et sacri palatii archiministri atque imperiali missi, Richardi comitis, Walfridi comitis, Liutfridi comitis, Alberici comitis, Supponis comitis, Hardingi comitis, Bodradi comitis palatii, Cuniberti comitis, Bernardi comitis, Airboldi comitis" as present in Italy with the king[851]

 

30.      DADO (-after Nov 853).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Teutboldus episcopus, Ionas episcopus, Isembardus, et Abbo abba, Daddo" as missi in "in comitatibus Milonis, et in comitatibus Isembardi, Augustuduno scilicet, Matisconense, Divionense, Cabillone, Hatuariis, et in Tornedriso, et in Belniso, et in Dusmiso comitatu Attelæ, et in comitatu Romoldi"[852].  A list of those who swore allegiance to Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks at Reims, dated "V Non Iul 854", names "…Dodo…" among those who had previously sworn allegiance[853]

 

31.      DONATUS (-after Nov 853).  "Hieremias archiepiscopus et Donatus comes" are named as imperial missi in "Senones" in documents of Emperor Louis dated May 825 and 827[854].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Elisachar abbatem et Hildebrandum comitem necnon et Donatum" as imperial missi in Spain [in 827][855].  Einhard's Annales name "Helisachar presbiterum et abbatum et…Hildebrandum atque Donatum comites" as imperial missi to Spain in 827[856].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Bonifatius comes et Donatus itidem comes et Adrebaldus Flaviniacensis monasterii abbas" as missi [in 838][857].  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Wenilo episcopus, Odo et Donatus" as missi in "pago Senonico, Trecasino, Wasteniso, Miliduniso, Morviso, Proviniso, et ini tribus Arcisisis et in duobus Brionensis"[858]

 

32.      EBLES (-[Córdoba] 824 or after).  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Eblus atque Asenarius comites" were ordered across the Pyrenees to Pamplona in 824[859].  Einhard's Annales record that "Aeblus et Asinarius comites" were sent to Pamplona with riches from Gascony but were captured, "Aeblus" being sent to Córdoba while "Asinarius" was allowed to return home as he was "quasi…consanguineus eorum"[860]

 

33.      EGGIDEO (-after 817).  Einhard's Annales name "Eggideo inter amicos regis primus, et Reginhardus camerarius eius et Reginharius Meginharii comitis filius, cuius maternus avus Hardradus olim in Germania…contra Karlum iperatorem coniuravit" as conspirators in 817[861].  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Egitthaum, Reginhardum et Reginharium, qui erat filius filiæ Hardradæ, qui erat dux Austriæ infidelissimus"[862].  

 

34.      EGILO (-822).  The Annales Antiqui Fuldenses record the death in 822 of "Eigil"[863]

 

35.      EGILO (-after 838).  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Adalgarius et Egilo comes" were sent by Emperor Louis to fight the "Obodritos et Wilzos" in 838 and their return with hostages[864]

 

36.      EKFRID [Egfrid] (-after 892).  The Annales Vedastini record the death "Non Ian 892" of "Rodulfus abba", that "castellani Egfridum comitem" was sent to announce the news to the king, and that in his absence "Balduinum a Flandris…per consilium Evreberti qui nimis fuerat versutissimus" seized the abbacy against the wishes of the king who had promised it to Egfrid[865].  His name suggests a connection with Anglo-Saxon England. 

 

37.      EKKEHARD (-killed in battle Toulouse 844).  [Comte de Hesbaie].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that Lothar captured his father Emperor Louis in "pagum Hasbaniensem", where "Eggebardus comes et alii illius proceres pagi" tried to procure his release [in 834][866].  It is possible that "Eggebardus" is a transcription error for "Eggehardus".  No other reference to a count Eggebard has been found.  The Annales Bertiniani record "Etkardus quoque et Ravanus comites" among those killed in 844 at the siege of Toulouse against Pepin II King of Aquitaine and "filii Etkardi comitis duo, item Eokardus, Guntardus et Richuinus comites" among those captured[867]m ---.  The name of Ekkehard's wife is not known.  Ekkehard & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         EKKEHARD (-[after 876]).  The Annales Bertiniani record "filii Etkardi comitis duo, item Eokardus, Guntardus et Richuinus comites" among those captured in 844 at the siege of Toulouse against Pepin II King of Aquitaine in which their father was killed[868].  "Echardus comes Burgundiæ" gave the land of Pressi to the monastery of Fleury in 876[869], although it is not known whether this is the same Count Ekkehard. 

b)         [GUNTHARD (-after 844).  The Annales Bertiniani record "filii Etkardi comitis duo, item Eokardus, Guntardus et Richuinus comites" among those captured in 844 at the siege of Toulouse against Pepin II King of Aquitaine in which their father was killed[870], although it is not entirely clear from this text whether Gunthard was one of the two sons of Ekkehard.] 

 

38.      EMUND (-after 827).  "Hadaboldus archiepiscopus et Eemundus comes" are named as imperial missi "in Colonia" in documents of Emperor Louis dated May 825 and 827[871]

 

39.      ENGELWIN (-after Nov 853).  The Annales Bertiniani record "Engilwinus" among those captured in 844 at the siege of Toulouse against Pepin II King of Aquitaine[872].  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Hludowicus abba, Yrminfridus episcopus, Ingilwinus, Gozselmus" as missi in "Parisiaco, Silvanectensis, Vircesinis, Belvacense et Vinloiliso"[873]

 

40.      ENGELSCHALK (-after 21 Mar 858).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Hincmarus episcopus, Ricuinus, Engilscalchus" as missi in "Remitiano, Vonziso, Stadiniso, Pertiso, Barriso, Camiziso, Catalaunio, Virtudiso, Bagensoniso, Tardaniso"[874].  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Folcoinus episcopus, Adalgarius, Engilscalcus et Berengarius" as missi in "comitatu Berengarii, Engilscalchi, Gerardi et in comitatibus Reginarii"[875].  It is not known whether the references are to one of two different counts Engelschalk.  A document of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 21 Mar 858 is subscribed by "Hungarius, Engilramnus, Isembardus, Odo, Osbertus, Ratbodus, Hunfridus, Odalricus, Rhodulfus, Engilschalcus, Herluinus, Hitto"[876]

 

41.      ENGUERRAND [Engilram/Ingelram] ([810/30]-[875/80]).  The origin of Enguerrand has not been identified.  His broad birth date range is estimated from his probable date of death and from his being named as count (presumably as an adult) in 853.  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Imino episcopus, Adalardus abba, Waltcaudus, Odelricus" as missi in "Noviomiso, Vermandiso, Adertiso, Curticiso, Flandra, comitatibus Engilramni, et in comitatibus Waltcaudi"[877].  The editor of the MGH Scriptores series suggests that this reference "cannot be other than to the son of Lideric"[878], referring to the alleged ancestor of Baudouin I Count of Flanders (see FLANDERS).  From a chronological point of view this appears impossible, assuming that Count Baudouin's supposed ancestry is correct.  In any case, no information has been found to corroborate the suggestion that this Enguerrand was part of the family of the early counts of Flanders.  It is unlikely that the 853 reference should be interpreted as indicating that Enguerrand was sole count over the whole of the territories named (Noyon, Vermandois, Artois, Courtrai and Flanders) particularly because of the reference to the otherwise unknown count Waltcaud.  Other sources, particularly relating to early German nobility, suggest that overlapping or interlocking jurisdictions were not infrequent in northern Europe during the 9th and 10th centuries, presumably based on holding scattered fortified locations in a given area although no example has so far been found where such holdings can be identified precisely.  A document of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 21 Mar 858 is subscribed by "Hungarius, Engilramnus, Isembardus, Odo, Osbertus, Ratbodus, Hunfridus, Odalricus, Rhodulfus, Engilschalcus, Herluinus, Hitto"[879].  The Annales Fuldenses also record that "Hincmarum Remensem episcopum et Engilramnum comitem" were the appointed representatives of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks at a meeting with his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks in Sep 864 at "Duriacum villam"[880], confirming the importance of the role played by Count Enguerrand at the West Frankish court at the time.  An agreement dated 6 Mar 870 between Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks names "Ingelramnus comes" as representative of the former and, as present, "Adalelmus comes, Ingelramnus comes, Liutfridus comes, Theodericus comes, item Adalelmus comes"[881].  The Annales Blandinienses name "Inghelramno abate vel comite" as abbot of "sancto Petro" (presumably St Peter's, Gent) when recording a donation of land at "Berenga" by "Herebertus"[882].  The Annales Blandinienses record that "Ingelramno abbate" persuaded "Hludowicus" to lay waste "regnum Karoli" in 875[883].  Further details of this latter event are provided by Hincmar who names "Engelranno quondam Caroli regis camerario et domestico" when recording that he persuaded Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks to invade "Attiniacum"[884].  [m firstly ---.  There is no proof of this proposed earlier marriage of Enguerrand.  However, assuming that his active career spanned at least from 853 to 875, an earlier marriage is probable considering that his [second] wife Friderada was still of marriageable age after Enguerrand's death.  m [secondly] as her first husband, FRIDERADA, daughter of ---.  Regino names "Friderada" as wife of "Engilrammo ex qua filiam quam postmodem Richwinus comes in coniugem accepti", also referring to her subsequent marriages[885].  "Hugo filius Lotharii Regis" had "Wicbertum comitem" murdered and married his wife "Frideradam" in 883[886].  She married secondly Bernarius, thirdly (883) Wicbert, and fourthly (883) Hugues, illegitimate son of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia.  Enguerrand & his [second] wife had one child: 

a)         daughter Regino names "Friderada" as wife of "Engilrammo ex qua filiam quam postmodem Richwinus comes in coniugem accepti"[887].  In the same passage, Regino also records that Richwin ordered the beheading of his first wife for her unchastity.  m as his first wife, RICHWIN, son of --- (-murdered 923).  Comte [de Verdun]. 

 

42.      ERCHANGER (-after 7 Nov 921).  The Annales Vedastini record that "Herkengero comite" sent letters to Germany requesting help when the Vikings attacked Paris in 886[888].  The Annales Vedastini record that "Rodulfus comes" took the property of "Heribertus et Erkingerus" in 896, the editor of the compilation suggesting that the latter was Comte de Melun[889].  The Sermone de Adventu SS Wandregisili, Ansberti et Vulfranni recalls that "Erkengerus comes et Arnoldus" brought back part of the hand of "sancti enim Chiliani" from "Germania" to "Bononiensem civitatem", probably dated to the late 9th or early 10th century[890].  The Vita Bertulfi Renticensis records that "Bononiensium comes fuit Erkengarius", during the reign of "Carolus rex" which must refer to Charles III "le Simple" King of France as the preceding sentence refers to the king's capture by "Heribertus comes Viromanduorum" which is dated to 922[891].  It therefore appears that Erchanger was Comte de Boulogne.  A document dated 7 Nov 921 recording a meeting between Charles III "le Simple" King of France and Heinrich I King of Germany names "Matfredus, Erkengerus, Hagano, Boso, Waltherus, Isaac, Ragenberus, Theodricus, Adalardus, Adelelmus" as representatives of the former[892]

 

43.      FOULQUES (-murdered 903).  Archbishop of Reims.  Regino names "Folcone episcopo, Heriberto et Pippino comitibus in Remorum civitate" when recording that they supported the accession of Charles as king in 892 in opposition to King Eudes[893]Regino records that "Winemare satellite Baldwini comitis" killed "Folco Remorum archiepiscopum" in 903[894]

 

44.      GAUZBERT (-killed Mar before 854).  The Annales Engolismenses record that "Gausberto" killed "Lambertus…852 Kal Mai" and was himself killed "mense martio"[895].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Lambertus comes Namnetensium" was killed fighting "Gauberto comite Cenomannensium" in 852, who was himself killed later in the same year[896]Regino names "Lambertus qui ducatum tenebat inter Ligerim et Sequanam" recording in 860 that he killed "Vivianum", but was himself killed by "Gauzbertus comes", the latter being beheaded by "iussi Caroli"[897], although these events should be dated earlier.  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Hludowicus filius Hludowicus regis" fled to Aquitaine in 854 after "Karolus" took offence because he killed "Gozberti eorum propinqui"[898]

 

45.      GAUZELM (-after Nov 853).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Hludowicus abba, Yrminfridus episcopus, Ingilwinus, Gozselmus" as missi in "Parisiaco, Silvanectensis, Vircesinis, Belvacense et Vinloiliso"[899]

 

46.      GAUZLIN (-after 887)Regino names "Gozzelino eiusdem urbis [=Paris?] episcopo" in 887, recording that he left the church and married "Richardem sic enim Augusta vocabatur"[900]m as her second husband, RICHARDIS, widow of Emperor KARL III, daughter of Graf ERCHANGER [II] & his wife Imma --- (-Abbey of Andlau, Alsace 18 Sep before [906/11]). 

 

47.      GIBERT (-before 23 Aug 838).  Comte de Rouergue.  "Pippinus…Aquitanorum rex" recites the previous history of Conques in a charter dated 23 Aug 838 which records that the monastery was established "in pago Rotinico per licentiam Giberti quondam comitis"[901]

 

48.      GODEFROI (-836 after 1 Sep).  "Magnus archiepiscopus et Godefridus comes" are named as missi in the city of Orléans and in various towns in Burgundy in a document of Emperor Charlemagne dated 802[902].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Wala Corbeiensis abbas, Matfridus, Hugo, Lantbertus, Godefridus, itemque filius eius Godefridus, Agimbertus comes Pertensis…sed et Richardus" died between "Kal Sep usque ad missam sancti Martini" [in 836][903]m ---.  The name of Godefroi's wife is not known.  Godefroi & his wife had one child: 

a)         GODEFROI (-836 after 1 Sep).  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Wala Corbeiensis abbas, Matfridus, Hugo, Lantbertus, Godefridus, itemque filius eius Godefridus, Agimbertus comes Pertensis…sed et Richardus" died between "Kal Sep usque ad missam sancti Martini" [in 836][904]

 

49.      GOIRANUS (-after 879).  After the death of Louis "le Bègue" King of the Franks, "Hugo abbas et Boso et alii" sent "Walterum Episcopum Aurelianensem et Goiranum et Anscherum comites" to Louis King of Germany to offer him part of the kingdom in 879[905]

 

50.      GOZO (-after Nov 853).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Hugo, Gozso, Nivilungus" as missi in "Niverniso, Alciodriso, Avaliso"[906]

 

51.      GUY (-killed in battle Jun 834)Comte du Maine.  The Miracula Sancti Bernardi names "Odonem fratremque illius Guillelmum, comitem Blesensium, Teutonem denique abbatem Sancti Martini, Guidonem comitem Cenomanensem" among those killed in battle against Lambert Comte de Nantes[907].  The Chronica Rainaldi records that "Odo comes Aurelianensium, Willelmus frater eius comes Blesensium, Guido comes Cenomanensium" died in battle fighting "Lambertum" in 835[908].  It is more likely that this battle took place in 834, assuming that it is correct that Count Lantbert was established in Italy later that year.

 

52.      HARDING (-after Feb 876).  An agreement dated Feb 876 of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks names "Bosonis…ducis et sacri palatii archiministri atque imperiali missi, Richardi comitis, Walfridi comitis, Liutfridi comitis, Alberici comitis, Supponis comitis, Hardingi comitis, Bodradi comitis palatii, Cuniberti comitis, Bernardi comitis, Airboldi comitis" as present in Italy with the king[909]

 

53.      HARTMANN (-after 817).  Emperor Louis I confirmed the donation by "Madephrido fideli nostro" of property of "Theodemarus…in pago Scarponensi", except that held by "Hartmannus comes", to the monastery of Gorze by charter dated 815[910].  Emperor Louis I confirmed the donations of "Ingobertum et Hartmannum missos nostros" of property held by "Hruoculfus comes" to "claustre canoniarum Tornacensium", by charter dated 817[911]

 

54.      HATTO (-before 29 Sep 898).  m ---, sister of GUNBERT, daughter of ---.  "Ardradus" donated property "in pago Aurelianense" for the soul of "genitoris mei domni Attonis" with the consent of "frater meus Atto" to Saint-Martin d'Angers by charter dated 29 Sep 898, signed by "Ardradi, Attonis fratris sui vicecomitis, Gunberti avunculi ipsorum"[912].  Assuming that avunculus is used in its strict sense (which is not beyond doubt), Gunbert would have been Hardrad's maternal uncle.  Hatto & his wife had two children: 

a)         HATTO (-after 29 Sep 898).  vicecomes.  "Ardradus" donated property "in pago Aurelianense" for the soul of "genitoris mei domni Attonis" with the consent of "frater meus Atto" to Saint-Martin d'Angers by charter dated 29 Sep 898, signed by "Ardradi, Attonis fratris sui vicecomitis"[913]

b)         HARDRAD [Hardrad] (-after 29 Sep 898).  "Ardradus" donated property "in pago Aurelianense" for the soul of "genitoris mei domni Attonis" with the consent of "frater meus Atto" to Saint-Martin d'Angers by charter dated 29 Sep 898[914]

 

55.      HERLAND (-after 865).  The Annales Bertiniani record that "de comitibus Milo, Ratharius, Herlandus, Theutmarus, Weremboldus, Rocolfus, comes" witnessed the agreement dated 865 under which Lothar II King of Lotharingia agreed to take his wife Theutberga back[915]

 

56.      HERLUIN (-after 21 Mar 858).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Paulinus episcopus, Hilmeradus episcopus, Herloinus, Hungarius" as missi in "Rotinense, Telleu, Vitnau, Pontiu, Ambianense"[916].  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Eirardus episcopus, Teodericus abba, Herloinus, Hardoinus" as missi in "Aprincato, Constantino, Bagisino, Coriliso, Ot Lingua Saxonia, et Harduini, Oxiniso et in Lisuino"[917].  It is not known whether these refer to one of two individuals named Herluin.  A document of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 21 Mar 858 is subscribed by "Hungarius, Engilramnus, Isembardus, Odo, Osbertus, Ratbodus, Hunfridus, Odalricus, Rhodulfus, Engilschalcus, Herluinus, Hitto"[918]

 

57.      HIERONYMUS (-killed in battle 876).  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Raganarius et Hieronimo comites" were killed in 876[919]

 

58.      HITTO (-after 21 Mar 858).  A document of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 21 Mar 858 is subscribed by "Hungarius, Engilramnus, Isembardus, Odo, Osbertus, Ratbodus, Hunfridus, Odalricus, Rhodulfus, Engilschalcus, Herluinus, Hitto"[920]

 

59.      HUGUES (-Ticino 30 Dec 836).  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Lantbertus et Hugus" were among the "plureo ex primoribus Italiæ" who were killed at Ticino "837 III Kal Ian noctu octies" when "tremuisse perhibetur"[921]

 

60.      HUGUES (-after Nov 853).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Hugo, Gozso, Nivilungus" as missi in "Niverniso, Alciodriso, Avaliso"[922]

 

61.      HUGUES (-after 18 Aug 878).  A bull of Pope John VIII dated 18 Aug 878, relating to papal authority over the monastery of Saint-Gilles, is subscribed by "Raimundus comes, Berengarius vicecomes…Emenus vicecomes, Oddo vicecomes, Ugo comes"[923]

 

62.      HUMBERT [Hunibert] (-before 862).  Comte [de Bourges].  The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 862 of "Karolus rex Aquitannorum, Karoli regis filius" and "relictam Humberti comitis", on the advice of "Stephani" against the will of his father[924]m as her first husband, ---.  She married secondly (862, annulled 863) Charles King of Aquitaine, son of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks & his first wife Ermentrude [d'Orléans] ([847/48]-near Buzançais, Indre 29 Sep 866, bur Bourges, église de Saint-Sulpice). 

 

63.      HUNGARIUS (-after 21 Mar 858).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Paulinus episcopus, Hilmeradus episcopus, Herloinus, Hungarius" as missi in "Rotinense, Telleu, Vitnau, Pontiu, Ambianense"[925].  A document of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 21 Mar 858 is subscribed by "Hungarius, Engilramnus, Isembardus, Odo, Osbertus, Ratbodus, Hunfridus, Odalricus, Rhodulfus, Engilschalcus, Herluinus, Hitto"[926]

 

64.      INGOBERT (-after 827).  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Walam et Warnarium, necnon et Lambertum sed et Ingobertum" as missi [in 813], recording that "Warnarius comes…accito nepote Lantberto" acted without the knowledge of "Wala et Ingelberto"[927].  Emperor Louis I confirmed the donations of "Ingobertum et Hartmannum missos nostros" of property held by "Hruoculfus comes" to "claustre canoniarum Tornacensium", by charter dated 817[928].  "Willibertus archiepiscopus et Ingobertus comes" are named as imperial missi in "Rothomagum" in documents of Emperor Louis dated May 825 and 827[929]

 

65.      ISEMBARD (-after [827]).  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Isembardum, Hudemarum, Beram, Burellum" as those leading the campaign against Tortosa [in 809][930].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Liutardum, Isembardum" [in 813][931].  Emperor Louis I confirmed the restoration of the church of St Bénigne by "Amadeo comite, Heliæ et Waldo Isembardo et Barbarto vassis nostris" by charter dated to [827][932]

 

66.      KONRAD (-after 14 Jun 877).  An agreement dated 14 Jun 877 of Emperor Charles II "le Chauve", presumably written with his own death in mind, names "…ex comitibus aut Tedericus, aut Balduinus, sive Chuonradus, seu Adalelmus" as those willing to support the emperor's son[933]

 

67.      MAINER (-before 834, bur Sens Saint-Pierre).  Comte de Sens.  The Chronicon Sancti Petri Vivi Senonensis records that “Mainerii comitis Senonicæ urbis” was already buried “in basilica beati Petri in Oratorio sancti Andreæ Apostoli” when his wife died[934]m ROTHILDIS, daughter of --- (-28 Jul 834, bur Saint-Maurice “Vallilias”).  The Chronicon Sancti Petri Vivi Senonensis records the death in “anno 20 Hludovici Imperatoris Regni…V Kal Aug” of “Hrotlaus matrona nobilis, coniux Mainerii comitis Senonicæ urbis” and her burial “in basilica beati Mauritii apud Vallilias in sua hereditate[935]

 

68.      ODALRIC (-after 21 Mar 858).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Imino episcopus, Adalardus abba, Waltcaudus, Odelricus" as missi in "Noviomiso, Vermandiso, Adertiso, Curticiso, Flandra, comitatibus Engilramni, et in comitatibus Waltcaudi"[936].  A document of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 21 Mar 858 is subscribed by "Hungarius, Engilramnus, Isembardus, Odo, Osbertus, Ratbodus, Hunfridus, Odalricus, Rhodulfus, Engilschalcus, Herluinus, Hitto"[937]

 

69.      OSBERT (-after 21 Mar 858).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Dodo episcopus, Hrotbertus et Osbertus" as missi in "Cinnomannio, Andegavensi, atque Turonico, Corboniso, et Sagiso"[938].  A document of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 21 Mar 858 is subscribed by "Hungarius, Engilramnus, Isembardus, Odo, Osbertus, Ratbodus, Hunfridus, Odalricus, Rhodulfus, Engilschalcus, Herluinus, Hitto"[939]

 

70.      RACULF (-after 865).  The Annales Bertiniani record that "de comitibus Milo, Ratharius, Herlandus, Theutmarus, Weremboldus, Rocolfus, comes" witnessed the agreement dated 865 under which Lothar II King of Lotharingia agreed to take his wife Theutberga back[940]

 

71.      RAOUL (-866).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Burcardus episcopus et Hrodulfus, et Heinricus abba" as missi in "Blesiso, Aurelianensi, Vindusniso, Cerentiso, Durcasino, Duniso, Ebricino, Stampiso, Castriso, Pincesiso, Madreciso"[941].  A document of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 21 Mar 858 is subscribed by "Hungarius, Engilramnus, Isembardus, Odo, Osbertus, Ratbodus, Hunfridus, Odalricus, Rhodulfus, Engilschalcus, Herluinus, Hitto"[942].  The Adonis Continuatio records the death in 866 of "avunculus quoque eius [Carolo, Ludovici filii"] Radulfus, consiliarius primusque palatii"[943]

 

72.      RAOUL (-after 30 Jul 886).  Emperor Karl III granted property to "fidelem nostrum Jacob" in "pago sive comitatu Barrinse", on the request of "Rodulfo comite, Pipini videlicet patre", by charter dated 30 Jul 886[944].  Although it is not entirely clear from the text that Raoul was count in Bar, this is a reasonable interpretation of the document.  The name of his son suggests a Carolingian connection although this has not been established as no other reference to this count Raoul has been identified.  m ---.  The name of Raoul's wife is not known.  Raoul & his wife had one child: 

a)         PEPIN (-after 30 Jul 886).  Emperor Karl III granted property to "fidelem nostrum Jacob" in "pago sive comitatu Barrinse", on the request of "Rodulfo comite, Pipini videlicet patre", by charter dated 30 Jul 886[945]

 

73.      RATHER (-killed in battle Fontenoy 25 Jun 841).  Comte de Limoges.  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Ruterium comitem" received "Lemovicæ", after "Emeno [comes Pictavinus]" was expelled from Poitou[946].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Ebroinus…Pictavensis episcopo Flateram…Reginardus comes, Gerardus itidem comes et gener quondam Pippini regis [et] Ratharius…comes Pippini gener" [in 839][947].  If this is correct, the two counts were much older than their wives.  Some authors have therefore suggested that "brothers-in-law" is a more accurate translation of generes and that the two counts were therefore married to two daughters of Emperor Louis I[948].  Settipani[949] argues that this is incompatible with the context in which the term is used in the Vitam --- d'Aquitaine, daughter of PEPIN I King of Aquitaine [Carolingian] & his wife Ringardis. 

 

74.      RATHER (-after 865).  The Annales Bertiniani record that "de comitibus Milo, Ratharius, Herlandus, Theutmarus, Weremboldus, Rocolfus, comes" witnessed the agreement dated 865 under which Lothar II King of Lotharingia agreed to take his wife Theutberga back[950]

 

75.      REGINAR [Reginhard] (-after 839).  Camerarius of Emperor Louis I.  Einhard's Annales name "Eggideo inter amicos regis primus, et Reginhardus camerarius eius et Reginharius Meginharii comitis filius, cuius maternus avus Hardradus olim in Germania…contra Karlum iperatorem coniuravit" as conspirators in 817[951].  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Egitthaum, Reginhardum et Reginharium, qui erat filius filiæ Hardradæ, qui erat dux Austriæ infidelissimus"[952].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Reginherus olim comes palatii imperatoris filius Meginherii comitis, sed et Reginhardus præpositus cameræ regalis" [in 817][953].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Ebroinus…Pictavensis episcopo Flateram…Reginardus comes, Gerardus itidem comes et gener quondam Pippini regis [et] Ratharius…comes Pippini gener" [in 839][954]

 

76.      REGINAR [Renier] (-killed in battle 876).  The Breve Chronicon Epternacense names “Raginarius comes” as abbot of Echternach from 863 to 870[955]The Annales Bertiniani record that "Raganarius et Hieronimo comites" were killed in 876[956]

 

77.      RENAUD (-killed in battle Blain 24 May 843)Comte de Nantes.  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks granted property "in pago Wilchissino…Cormilias quem Reginaldus comes in beneficio habebat" to "fideli nostro…Gailino" by charter dated 842[957].  The Chronicle of Nantes records that "Rainaldo" was given "comitatum Namneticum et Pictavensem" in [841], and killed in battle after which Lambert was restored as Comte de Nantes[958].  The Chronicle of Nantes records that "Rainaldus, eximius Karoli dux, genero Aquitanicus, Namneticæ urbis comes" fought "super fluvium Vicenoniam in loco…Meciacus" in 843[959].  The Chronica Rainaldi records that "Lamberti comitis" was granted Nantes after "Rainaldo…comite Nannetensium" was killed in 843 fighting "Herispoium, Noremoi filium at alios Britannos apud Metiacum"[960].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Rainaldus comes Arbatilicensis" was killed by "Lamberto Namnetis comite" in 844[961]m ---.  The name of Renaud's wife is not known.  Renaud & his wife had one child: 

a)         HERVE (-killed in battle 845).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Bernardus comes Pictavensis et Arveus filius Rainaldi" were killed fighting "Lamberto comite" in 845[962]

 

78.      RICHWIN (-killed in battle Fontenoy 25 Jun 851).  The Annales Bertiniani record "Richuinus [comes]" among those captured in 844 at the siege of Toulouse against Pepin II King of Aquitaine[963].  The Chronicle of Nantes records that "Richuwinus" was appointed Comte de Nantes after the death of Lambert in [834][964].  The cartulaire of Redon records "tenente Richovino comptatum Namneticum"[965]

 

Two siblings: 

79.      RICHWIN (-after 865).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Hincmarus episcopus, Ricuinus, Engilscalchus" as missi in "Remitiano, Vonziso, Stadiniso, Pertiso, Barriso, Camiziso, Catalaunio, Virtudiso, Bagensoniso, Tardaniso"[966].  An agreement between Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of Germany dated Jun 860 names "nobilis ac fidelibus laicis…Chuonradus, Evrardus, Adalardus, Arnustus, Warnarius, Liutfridus, Hruodolfus, Erkingarius, Gislebertus, Ratbodus, Arnulfus, Hugo, item Chuonradus, Liutharius, Berengarius, Matfridus, Boso, Sigeri, Hartmannus, Liuthardus, Richuinus, Wigricus, Hunfridus, Bernoldus, Hatto, Adalbertus, Burchardus, Christianus, Leutulfus, Hessi, Herimannus, item Hruodulfus, Sigehardus"[967].  “Richini” donated property “in Columbaria” to the monastery of St Gregory “super fluvium Phachina in pago Alsacinse”, for the soul of “Adalrici nepoti mei”, by charter dated 865[968]

80.      --- .  m ---.  One child: 

a)         [ADALRIC (-[before 865]).  “Richini” donated property “in Columbaria” to the monastery of St Gregory, for the soul of “Adalrici nepoti mei”, by charter dated 865[969].  It is not certain whether “nepos” in this document should be translated as nephew or grandson.  It is unclear from the text whether Adalric was alive or deceased at the date of the charter, although his absence from the list of subscribers suggests that he may have been dead.] 

 

81.      ROBERT (-killed 893).  Regino names "Stephanus, Ruodbertus, Wicbertus, Thietbaldus comites, Albricus et frater eius Stephanus" recording that they opposed "Hugo filius Hlotharii" in France in 883[970].  The Annales Alammanici record that "Ruodpertus" was killed in 893[971]

 

82.      ROBERT (-after Nov 902)Comte de BloisComte de Tours.  "Roberti comitis" subscribed the charter dated Nov 902 under which "Warnegaudi vicecomitis et uxoris eius Helenæ" donated property[972]

 

83.      ROTFRIED (-after 827).  "Ruothadus episcopus et Hruotfridus comes" are named as imperial missi "in Remis" in the absence of "Ebo archiepiscopus", in documents of Emperor Louis dated May 825 and 827[973].  The Commemoratio Missis Data dated 825 [before Nov] names "…in Remis Ebo archiepiscopus…Ruothadus episcopus eius vice et Hruotfridus comes sint super sex…comitatus…Remis, Catolonis, Suessionis, Silvanectis, Belvacus et Laudunum…"[974]

 

84.      ROTMUND [Hruotmund] (-after Oct 826).  Einhard's Annales name "Theotharisu et Hruodmundus comites" as imperial missi to "filios Godofredi"[975].  A document of Emperor Louis I issued from Ingelheim and dated Oct 826 deals, among other business, with a claim by "Rothmundi comitis"[976]

 

85.      SANILA (-beheaded Chalon-sur-Saône 834).  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Gotselmus comes itemque Sanila comes necnon et Madalelmus vassallus dominus" were beheaded at Chalon [in 834] and that "Gerberga filia quondam Willelmi comitis" was drowned[977]

 

86.      STEPHANUS (-after 883).  Regino names "Stephanus, Ruodbertus, Wicbertus, Thietbaldus comites, Albricus et frater eius Stephanus" recording that they opposed "Hugo filius Hlotharii" in France in 883[978]

 

97.      SUPPO [I] (-[5 Mar] 824[979]).  Of Frankish origin.  Count of Brescia, Parma, Piacenza, Modena and Bergamo in 817.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Rathaldo episcopi et Suppone comite Brixiensi" as missi [in 817][980].  He was instrumental in suppressing the revolt of Bernard ex-King of Italy[981].  He was installed as SUPPO I Duke of Spoleto in 822[982].  Einhard's Annales record that "Winigisius dux Spolitinus" died in 822 after becoming a monk, and that he was succeeded by "Suppo Brixiæ civitatis comes"[983].  Einhard's Annales record the announcement of the death "III Non Mar" of "Suppo dux Spolitinus"[984].  He was succeeded as Duke of Spoleto by "Adalhard the younger", who died "after holding the office for barely five months"[985]

-        DUKES of SPOLETO

 

87.      THEODO (-killed in battle 834).  Abbot of Tours Saint-Martin.  The Annales Fuldenses record fighting with "Mahtfredo et Lantberto" in 834, during which battle "Uodo comes Aurelianensium et Theodo abbas sancti Martini Turonensis" were killed[986]

 

88.      THEODO (-after 910).  “Teudonis comitis” subscribed a charter dated 910 under which “Richildis quondam regina” donated property to Gorze Abbey[987]

 

89.      THEOTBALD [Thibaut] (-after 883).  Regino names "Stephanus, Ruodbertus, Wicbertus, Thietbaldus comites, Albricus et frater eius Stephanus" recording that they opposed "Hugo filius Hlotharii" in France in 883[988].  This appears to be too early to refer to Thibaut, later Vicomte de Tours and Comte de Blois, who died in [942]. 

 

90.      THEOTBERT [Teutbert] (-killed in battle Meaux 888).  The Annales Vedastini record that "Teutbertus comes" resisted the Viking siege of "Meldis civitatem" in 888 but was killed in the battle[989]

 

91.      THEOTHER (-after 823).  Einhard's Annales name "Theotharisu et Hruodmundus comites" as imperial missi to "filios Godofredi"[990]

 

92.      THEOTMAR (-after 865).  The Annales Bertiniani record that "de comitibus Milo, Ratharius, Herlandus, Theutmarus, Weremboldus, Rocolfus, comes" witnessed the agreement dated 865 under which Lothar II King of Lotharingia agreed to take his wife Theutberga back[991]

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

93.      VIVIAN (-killed 852).  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks granted property to monasteriolum "in pago Andegavense super fluvium Ligeris…Conaldus", confirmed by "fidelem nostrum Vivianum", by charter dated 24 Oct 845[992].  "Vivianus comes" donated property "in pago Andecavense secus fluvium Ligeris…Cunaldus" to Tournus Saint-Philibert by charter dated 27 Dec 845, signed by "Lambertus comes, Raino…"[993].  A charter dated 849 of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks refers to property "quid…Vivianus comes" granted to "levitus…Adalmannus"[994]Regino names "Lambertus qui ducatum tenebat inter Ligerim et Sequanam" recording in 960 that he killed "Vivianum", but was himself killed by "Gauzbertus comes", the latter being beheaded by "iussi Caroli"[995]

94.      RENAUD (-after 8 Jan 846).  "Rainaldus cellamajoris monasterii Abba" supported "germani sui Viviani comitis" in a charter dated 8 Jan 846 relating to Tournus Saint-Philibert[996]

 

95.      WALCHER [Waltcaud] (-after 892).  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Imino episcopus, Adalardus abba, Waltcaudus, Odelricus" as missi in "Noviomiso, Vermandiso, Adertiso, Curticiso, Flandra, comitatibus Engilramni, et in comitatibus Waltcaudi"[997]Comte de Laon.  The Annales Vedastini record that "Balduinus" captured Artois, that King Eudes besieged the castle of Laon ("castrum Laudunensium") previously obtained "per tyrannidem" by "Walcherus, eius [Balduinus] consobrinus", and that peace was restored between Baudouin and Walcher through "Evrebertum"[998]

 

96.      WARIN [Werinus] (-853)Comte d'Auvergne.  Einhard's Annales name "Berengario Tolosæ et Warino Arverni comite" as fighting "Lupus Centulli Wasco" in 819[999].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the rebellion of "Wasco, Lupus Centulli cognomento" and fighting "Werinum Arvernorum comitem et Berengarium Tholosanum"[1000].  "Cluniacum villam Warino comite et Albane sive Ave uxoris eius" exchanged property with "Hildebaldus Matiscensis episcopus" by charter dated 825[1001].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Werinus et Bernhardus comites" gathered a force in Burgundy and reached "Matronam fluvium" [in 834][1002].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Werinus comes" fortified "castrum Cavillonum" [in 834][1003].  Emperor Louis I confirmed the donation to the church of Saint-Marcel, Chalon by "Garinus comes" of "vico…Hubiliacus" by charter dated 836[1004]Duke.  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Garinus dux cum Tolosanis et Provincianis" expelled Lothar, son of Emperor Louis I, in 841[1005], presumably referring to his expulsion from Aquitaine.  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks granted property "in pago Lugdunensem…in loco…Benignum" to "fidelem…nostrum Hriculfum, vassallum…Warini comitis", by charter dated 20 Aug 847[1006].  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks confirmed a donation of property "in pago Alsinse" to Flavigny by "Warinus comes", by charter dated 25 Jun 849[1007].  The Annales Flaviniacenses record the death in 853 of "Warinus comes"[1008]m ALBANE [AVA], daughter of ---.  A charter dated 825 of Emperor Louis I records that "Warinus comes…et uxori suæ Albanæ" founded the monastery of Cluny "in pago Matescense villam…Cluniaco"[1009].  Warin & his wife had one child: 

a)         ISEMBARD ([815/30]-after 881).  His parentage is established by the Chronici Fontanellensis which records that "Isembardus filius Warini et Aledrannus" were captured by "Wilhelmo [filius Bernardi ducis]" in Barcelona in [849/50][1010].  His birth date is estimated on the basis of his having been adult at the time.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Guilhelmus filius Bernardi" captured "Impurium et Barcinonam" in 848, and captured "Aledramnum et Isembardum comites" in the march of Spain in 850[1011].  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks confirmed the restoration of "ecclesia S. Crucis…ecclesiæ Aeduensi" with the consent of "comitis Isembardi", by charter dated 853[1012].  A document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Teutboldus episcopus, Ionas episcopus, Isembardus, et Abbo abba, Daddo" as missi in "in comitatibus Milonis, et in comitatibus Isembardi, Augustuduno scilicet, Matisconense, Divionense, Cabillone, Hatuariis, et in Tornedriso, et in Belniso, et in Dusmiso comitatu Attelæ, et in comitatu Romoldi"[1013].  A document of King Charles II dated 21 Mar 858 is subscribed by "Hungarius, Engilramnus, Isembardus, Odo, Osbertus, Ratbodus, Hunfridus, Odalricus, Rhodulfus, Engilschalcus, Herluinus, Hitto"[1014].  "Isembardus nepos Ludovici Fr Regis" withdrew to "Guermundum Norm. Regem", having been unjustly expelled from the kingdom, in 881[1015].  His precise relationship with the Carolingians is not known.  It is likely that "Ludovici Fr Regis" refers to King Louis II "le Bègue", whose death is recorded in an earlier passage in the same text.  If this is correct, use of the word "nepos" is surprising as Isembard must have been close in age to the generation of King Louis II's father. 

 

97.      WARNEGAUD (-after 902).  "Garnegaudus vicecomes et sa femme Hélène" donated property granted by Eudes King of France "dans le Blésois, dans la viguerie de Suèvre", to Tours Saint-Martin by charter dated 29 Jul 895[1016].  "Warnegaudi vicecomitis et uxoris eius Helenæ" donated property by charter dated Nov 902, subscribed by "Roberti comitis, Burchardi comitis"[1017]m HELENA, daughter of ---.  "Garnegaudus vicecomes et sa femme Hélène" donated property granted by Eudes King of France "dans le Blésois, dans la viguerie de Suèvre", to Tours Saint-Martin by charter dated 29 Jul 895[1018].  "Warnegaudi vicecomitis et uxoris eius Helenæ" donated property by charter dated Nov 902, subscribed by "Roberti comitis, Burchardi comitis"[1019]

 

98.      WEREMBOLD (-after 865).  The Annales Bertiniani record that "de comitibus Milo, Ratharius, Herlandus, Theutmarus, Weremboldus, Rocolfus, comes" witnessed the agreement dated 865 under which Lothar II King of Lotharingia agreed to take his wife Theutberga back[1020]

 

99.      WIDERICH (-before 859).  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks donated property "in pago Morivensi" to the abbey of Saint-Denis previously held by "comes Widricus…ac postea Echardus filius eius", by charter dated 859[1021]m ---.  The name of Widerich's wife is not known.  Widerich & his wife had one child: 

a)         EKKEHARD (-[before 859]).  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks donated property "in pago Morivensi" to the abbey of Saint-Denis previously held by "comes Widricus…ac postea Echardus filius eius", by charter dated 859[1022]

 

100.    WINICHIS [Winigisus] (-822).  Of Frankish origin, he was sent by Charles I King of the Franks in 788 with Frankish troops to check the activities of Hildeprand dux of Spoleto and Grimoald dux of Benevento.  He defeated the Byzantine troops under Theodoros in Calabria[1023].  He was later appointed Duke of Spoleto to succeed Hildeprand.  He escorted Pope Leo III to safety in Spoleto after he was rescued following the assaults on him 25 Apr 799[1024].  He was besieged by Grimoald Duke of Benevento at Lucera, surrendered in 802 and was "held in honourable captivity", but released in 803[1025].  Einhard records that "Grimaldus Beneventanorum dux" captured "Winigisum comitem Spoletii" at "Luceria" and released him the following year[1026].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Winigisus dux Spolitanus" was besieged and captured by  "Grimoldo" in 803[1027].  Bernard King of Italy sent Winichis to suppress a revolt by the Romans when Pope Leo III was dying in 815[1028].  He retired in 822 and became a monk, dying soon after.  Einhard's Annales record that "Winigisius dux Spolitinus" died in 822 after becoming a monk, and that he was succeeded by "Suppo Brixiæ civitatis comes"[1029].  The Royal Frankish Annals also record that he was succeeded as dux of Spoleto by Suppo Count of Brescia[1030].

 

101.    WINEMAR (-after 903).  Regino records that "Winemare satellite Baldwini comitis" killed "Folco Remorum archiepiscopum" in 903[1031]

 

Two brothers, their parents not so far identified: 

102.    WALO (-after 896).  Regino records that "Albericus comes, qui Megingaudum occiderat" was killed by "Stephano fratris Walonis" in 896 "circa festivitatem sancti Andreæ"[1032]

103.    STEPHANUS (-murdered 901).  Regino records that "Albericus comes, qui Megingaudum occiderat" was killed by "Stephano fratris Walonis" in 896 "circa festivitatem sancti Andreæ"[1033]Regino records that in 897 "Stephanus, Odacar, Gerardus et Matfridus comites" had their honours confiscated, and the reconciliation of "Stephanus, Gerhardus et Matfridus" with King Zwentibold soon after[1034]Regino records the death in 901 of "Stephanus comes frater Walonis", shot by a poisoned arrow fired through the window of the cubicle where he was purging his bowels at night[1035]

 

 

 

C.      TENTH CENTURY

 

 

1.         ADALHARD (-after 933).  m PLECTRUDIS, daughter of ---.  "Rodulfus…Francorum rex" names "Adelardo fideli nostro et uxori eius Plectrudi, atque nepoti eius Geiloni" in a charter dated 933[1036]

2.         [---.  m ---.]  One possible child: 

a)         [GEILO (-after 933).  "Rodulfus…Francorum rex" names "Adelardo fideli nostro et uxori eius Plectrudi, atque nepoti eius Geiloni" in a charter dated 933[1037].] 

 

3.         ADSO (-after 6 Sep 971).  "Adso, Rosniacensis territorii comes" donated property "in pago Pertense" to Montiérender by charter dated [968], subscribed by "Ingelberti comitis, Ysvardi comitis"[1038].  "Gualo…Trecassine ecclesie presul" noted a donation by "Adso" of property "sita in comitatu Brigonense" by charter dated 6 Sep 971[1039]

 

4.         ALBERIC [Aubry] .  duxm ---.  The name of Alberic's wife is not known.  Alberic & his wife had two children: 

a)         BOUCHARD (-after 10 Dec 958).  "Lotharius…Francorum rex" confirmed the foundation of "monasterium…super Sequanam fluvium prope Brajacum in honore Domini Salvatoris" by "Burchardus miles, filius Alberici ducis…cum consensu Hildegardis uxoris eius et de consilio Theobaldi domini de Centumliis fratris eius" in a charter dated 10 Dec 958[1040]m HILDEGARDIS, daughter of ---.  "Lotharius…Francorum rex" confirmed the foundation of "monasterium…super Sequanam fluvium prope Brajacum in honore Domini Salvatoris" by "Burchardus miles, filius Alberici ducis…cum consensu Hildegardis uxoris eius et de consilio Theobaldi domini de Centumliis fratris eius" in a charter dated 10 Dec 958[1041]

b)         THIBAUT (-after 10 Dec 958).  Seigneur de "Centumliis" (which has not so far been identified).  "Lotharius…Francorum rex" confirmed the foundation of "monasterium…super Sequanam fluvium prope Brajacum in honore Domini Salvatoris" by "Burchardus miles, filius Alberici ducis…cum consensu Hildegardis uxoris eius et de consilio Theobaldi domini de Centumliis fratris eius" in a charter dated 10 Dec 958[1042]

 

Related to Hugues "Capet" King of France, the precise relationship has not yet been identified: 

5.         ARCHAMBAUD (-after Jul 995).  Hugues King of France confirmed a donation of property "in terra Archimbaldi comitis cum Maliis" to "monasterii Silviniacensis", at the request of "Archimbaldo comite et Archimbaldo filio suo…consanguineis nostris, et Burchardo comite", by charter dated Jul 995[1043]m ---.  The name of Archambaud's wife is not known.  Archambaud & his wife had one child: 

a)         ARCHAMBAUD (-after Jul 995).  Hugues King of France confirmed a donation of property "in terra Archimbaldi comitis cum Maliis" to "monasterii Silviniacensis", at the request of "Archimbaldo comite et Archimbaldo filio suo…consanguineis nostris, et Burchardo comite", by charter dated Jul 995[1044]

 

6.         BURCHARD (-after Jul 995).  Hugues King of France confirmed a donation of property "in terra Archimbaldi comitis cum Maliis" to "monasterii Silviniacensis", at the request of "Archimbaldo comite et Archimbaldo filio suo…consanguineis nostris, et Burchardo comite", by charter dated Jul 995[1045]

 

7.         EBBO (-after 910).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Ebbo" founded "Bituricus" in 910, where "filius eius Rodulfus" became a monk[1046]m ---.  The name of Ebbo's wife is not known.  Ebbo & his wife had one child: 

a)         RAOUL (-after [917]).  Monk.  The Chronico Richardi Pictavensis records that "Ebo vero Bituricus…filius eius Radulfus" became a monk at Cluny in [917][1047]

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

8.         GAUZLIN (-7 Sep 962).  Bishop of Toul 922.  The Gesta Episcoporum Tullensium names "domnus Gauzlinus…qui Francorum nobili sanguine ortus in palatio inter regni procures est altus" when recording his appointment as Bishop of Toul in 922[1048]

9.         HARDRAD .  The Gesta Episcoporum Tullensium names "Hardradus præfati pontificis Gauzlini frater germanus"[1049]

 

10.      GAUZLIN (-after 1037).  The Annales Sangallenses record the battle between "Gozelinum et Uotonem comittibus" in 1037 in which Comte Uoto was defeated and killed[1050]

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

11.      GEOFFROY (-[942/54] or after).  "Gauzfredus comes…et Ava uxor Gauzfredus" donated property "pro anima Wilelmi senioris mei et Boso filii eius" to Cluny by two charters dated 8 Apr 936 and Jun 936[1051].  This presumably indicates that the family was Aquitanian nobility, but Geoffroy's county has not so far been identified.  "Gauzfredus comes…et Ava uxor Gauzfredus" donated property to Cluny by charter dated Jul 940 witnessed by "Rodberti filium Heriberti comitis…"[1052].  "Gauzfredus" donated property "in villis Tisiaco, Mochias, Tresdet" to Cluny with the consent of "Eva uxor Gauzfredus" by charter dated 942[1053].  "Gauzfredus" donated property "in Calmo, Tredeto, Coletas" to Cluny by charter dated [942/54] witnessed by "Eve uxor Gaufredi, Girbaldi, Vuicardi, Hugonis, Antelmi filii sui, Gauzberti, Bernardi fratris ipsius Gaufredi"[1054]m EVA, daughter of --- (-[942/54] or after).  "Gauzfredus" donated property "in villis Tisiaco, Mochias, Tresdet" to Cluny with the consent of "Eva uxor Gauzfredus" by charter dated 942[1055].  "Gauzfredus" donated property "in Calmo, Tredeto, Coletas" to Cluny by charter dated [942/54] witnessed by "Eve uxor Gaufredi, Girbaldi, Vuicardi, Hugonis, Antelmi filii sui, Gauzberti, Bernardi fratris ipsius Gaufredi"[1056].  Geoffroy & his wife had four children: 

a)         GIRBAUD .  "Gauzfredus" donated property "in Calmo, Tredeto, Coletas" to Cluny by charter dated [942/54] witnessed by "Eve uxor Gaufredi, Girbaldi, Vuicardi, Hugonis, Antelmi filii sui, Gauzberti, Bernardi fratris ipsius Gaufredi"[1057]

b)         WICKARD .  "Gauzfredus" donated property "in Calmo, Tredeto, Coletas" to Cluny by charter dated [942/54] witnessed by "Eve uxor Gaufredi, Girbaldi, Vuicardi, Hugonis, Antelmi filii sui, Gauzberti, Bernardi fratris ipsius Gaufredi"[1058]

c)         HUGUES .  "Gauzfredus" donated property "in Calmo, Tredeto, Coletas" to Cluny by charter dated [942/54] witnessed by "Eve uxor Gaufredi, Girbaldi, Vuicardi, Hugonis, Antelmi filii sui, Gauzberti, Bernardi fratris ipsius Gaufredi"[1059]

d)         ANSELM [Antelm] .  "Gauzfredus" donated property "in Calmo, Tredeto, Coletas" to Cluny by charter dated [942/54] witnessed by "Eve uxor Gaufredi, Girbaldi, Vuicardi, Hugonis, Antelmi filii sui, Gauzberti, Bernardi fratris ipsius Gaufredi"[1060]

12.      BERNARD (-[942/54] or after).  "Gauzfredus" donated property "in Calmo, Tredeto, Coletas" to Cluny by charter dated [942/54] witnessed by "Eve uxor Gaufredi, Girbaldi, Vuicardi, Hugonis, Antelmi filii sui, Gauzberti, Bernardi fratris ipsius Gaufredi"[1061]

 

13.      GIRBAUD (-1 May ----).  Comte d'Auxerre [890].  The necrology of Reims Cathedral records the death "Kal Mai" of "Gerbaldus comes"[1062]

 

14.      HADERICH (-1 Feb ----).  The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "Kal Feb" of "Hadericus comes"[1063]

 

15.      HAGANO (-24 Dec 941).  The necrology of Chartres Cathedral records the death “IX Kal Jan 941” of “Haganus episcopus et comes, Leobino…primus consimilis[1064]

 

16.      ISEMBARD (-after [980]).  "Adso, Rosniacensis territorii comes" donated property "in pago Pertense" to Montiérender by charter dated [968], subscribed by "Ingelberti comitis, Ysvardi comitis"[1065].  "Heribertus Francorum comes" donated property to Montiérender by charter dated 980, subscribed by "domni Odonis comitis filii sui, Willelmi, Ysvardi comitis…"[1066], although this is dubious as no Comte Heribert has been identified at that date with a son named Odo. 

 

17.      ISEMBARD (-after [1035]).  "Comiti…Isambardo" donated property to Montiérender by charter dated [1035 or before] for the soul of "coniugis sue Helvidis…filio eius Isembardo"[1067]m HELVIS, daughter of --- (-1035 or before).  Isembard & his wife had one child: 

a)         ISEMBARD (-1035 or before).  "Comiti…Isambardo" donated property to Montiérender by charter dated [1035 or before] for the soul of "coniugis sue Helvidis…filio eius Isembardo"[1068]

18.      [MANASSES (-after 1035).  "Manasses consulates Rosnacensis advocatus filiusque meus Isembardus" donated property to Montiérender by charter dated 1035[1069].  No proof has been found that Manassès was related to Isembard, but this is probable because of the common use of this unusual name in the two families.  m ---.  The name of Manassès's wife is not known.  Manassès & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         ISEMBARD (-after 1035).  "Manasses consulates Rosnacensis advocatus filiusque meus Isembardus" donated property to Montiérender by charter dated 1035[1070]

b)         [WARIN (-after 1082).  "Guarinus dictus comes Rosnacensis territorii" donated property to Montiérender by charter dated 1082, subscribed by "comes…Tebaldus et uxor eius Alaidis et Odo filius eius"[1071]

 

19.      MANEGOLDm ---.  The name of Manegold's wife is not known.  Manegold & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROBERT (-after 962).  "Lotharius…Francorum rex" confirmed the donation by "Willelmus comes…uxoris suæ Adelæ", naming "Rotbertus filius Mangaudi comitis", in a charter dated 962[1072]

 

Two siblings, parents not yet identified: 

20.      ROBERT (-after [991]).  Settipani states that the maternal uncle of Arnoul Archibishop of Reims, illegitimate son of Lothaire King of the West Franks, was mayor of the palace of Charles Duke of Lotharingia[1073]

21.      sister .  Her family origin is confirmed by the Acts of the Concile de Saint-Basle in 991 which record "avunculum suum Rotbertum, Karoli servum comitem fidissimum" in relation to Arnoul Archbishop of Reims, illegitimate son of King Lothaire[1074].  Settipani states that the mistress of King Lothaire was the sister of comte Rodbert, mayor of the palace of Charles Duke of Lotharingia[1075]Mistress (before 967) of LOTHAIRE King of the West Franks, son of LOUIS IV "d'Outremer" King of the West Franks [Carolingian] & his wife Gerberga of Germany (Laon end-941-Laon 2 Mar 986, bur Reims Saint-Rémi). 

 

22.      ROGER (-after Aug 981).  Louis IV King of France confirmed the property of Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers, in the presence of "Guillelmus comes et marchio et frater eius Ebolus atque Rotgarius comes", by charter dated 5 Jan 942[1076].  "Rodgarius comes [Venanciacum]" donated property by charter dated Aug 981, signed by "Adelaieæ comitisse uxoris Rodgarii comitis, Regimundi, Bernardi filiorum eius"[1077]m ADELA, daughter of ---.  Roger & his wife had two children: 

a)         RAYMOND (-after Aug 981).  "Rodgarius comes [Venanciacum]" donated property by charter dated Aug 981, signed by "Adelaieæ comitisse uxoris Rodgarii comitis, Regimundi, Bernardi filiorum eius"[1078]

b)         BERNARD (-after Aug 981).  "Rodgarius comes [Venanciacum]" donated property by charter dated Aug 981, signed by "Adelaieæ comitisse uxoris Rodgarii comitis, Regimundi, Bernardi filiorum eius"[1079]

 

23.      WALDRIC (-after 19 Jun 966)Comte de Soissons.  "Gaufridus…Andecavorum comes" issued a charter dated 19 Jun 966 subscribed by "…Waldrici Suessionionis comitis"[1080]

 

 



[1] Vita Adalhardi 32 and 8, MGH SS II, pp. 524-32. 

[2] Vita Fulcuini 3, MGH SS XV.1, pp. 423-30. 

[3] Mandatum de Saxonibus Obsidibus, MGH LL 1, p. 89. 

[4] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[5] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[6] Bondurand, E. (ed.) (1887) Le Manuel de Dhuoda 843 (Paris). 

[7] Prou, M. & Vidier, A. (eds.) (1907) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, XXV, p. 59. 

[8] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591. 

[9] Diplomata Lotharii Regis VIII, RHGF IX, p. 622. 

[10] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 302. 

[11] Einhardi Annales 812, MGH SS I, p. 199. 

[12] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”) 773, p. 49. 

[13] Ex Veteri Chronico Moissiacensis seu Musciacensis Cœnobii, RHGF V, p. 69. 

[14] Annales Moselleni 787, MGH SS XVI, p. 495. 

[15] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 355. 

[16] Settipani (1993), p. 355. 

[17] Vita Adalhardi 32 and 8, MGH SS II, pp. 527 and 525. 

[18] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[19] Annales Laurissenses 771, MGH SS I, p. 148. 

[20] Capitulum pro pago Cenomannico, MGH LL 1, p. 82. 

[21] Capitula missorum Dominicorum, MGH LL 1, p. 137. 

[22] RFA 812 and 813, p. 95. 

[23] Einhardi Annales 821, MGH SS I, p. 208. 

[24] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[25] Vita Adalhardi 32, MGH SS II, p. 527. 

[26] Mandatum de Saxonibus Obsidibus, MGH LL 1, p. 89. 

[27] Historia Translationis S. Viti 7, MGH SS II, p. 578. 

[28] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[29] Einhardi Annales 812, MGH SS I, p. 199. 

[30] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 21, MGH SS II, p. 618. 

[31] Einhardi Annales 822, MGH SS I, p. 209. 

[32] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 56, MGH SS II, p. 642. 

[33] Vita Wala II 8, 9 and 10, MGH SS II, pp. 551-2 and 555. 

[34] Settipani (1993), p. 357 footnotes 1132 and 1135. 

[35] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 269.       

[36] Vita Adalhardi 33, MGH SS II, p. 527. 

[37] Settipani (1993), p. 358. 

[38] RFA 821, p. 110. 

[39] Vita Adalhardi 33, MGH SS II, p. 527. 

[40] RFA 821, p. 110. 

[41] Einhardi Annales 821, MGH SS I, p. 208. 

[42] De Sancto Ratberto Abbate Corbeiensi , MGH SS XV.I, p. 452. 

[43] Vita Adalhardi 33, MGH SS II, p. 527. 

[44] Settipani (1993), p. 358. 

[45] Settipani (1993), p. 358. 

[46] Vita Sancti Idæ auctore Uffingo Monacho Werthinensi 1, MGH SS II, p. 570.  

[47] MGH SS II, p. 569. 

[48] Einhardi Annales 824, MGH SS I, p. 213. 

[49] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 18, p. 104. 

[50] DD Kar. 1, 1, p. 3. 

[51] DD Kar. 1, 12, p. 17. 

[52] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[53] DD Kar. 1, 102, p. 146. 

[54] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 280.       

[55] Lasteyrie, R. D. (ed.) (1887) Cartulaire général de Paris Tome I 528-1180 (Paris), I, 29, p. 37. 

[56] RHGF V, p. 661. 

[57] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[58] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1850) Cartulaire de l'église Notre-Dame de Paris (Paris) Tome I, II, p. 288. 

[59] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 269.       

[60] Paris Notre-Dame I, III, p. 290. 

[61] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Eglise Cathédrale de Paris, p. 167.       

[62] Paris Notre-Dame I, II, p. 288. 

[63] Paris Notre-Dame I, II, p. 288. 

[64] Paris Notre-Dame I, II, p. 288. 

[65] Settipani (1993), p. 201. 

[66] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 276.       

[67] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ IV, XLVI, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 448. 

[68] Annales Hildesheimenses 815, MGH SS III, p. 42. 

[69] Settipani (1993), pp. 200-02. 

[70] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ IV, XLVI, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 448. 

[71] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ IV, XLVI, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 448. 

[72] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXXI, p. 85. 

[73] Cartulaire-Général de Paris, I, 29, p. 37. 

[74] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 13, MGH SS II, p. 612. 

[75] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 16, MGH SS II, p. 615. 

[76] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 247.       

[77] RHGF XII, p. 317. 

[78] RHGF XII, p. 317. 

[79] Beyer, H. (ed.) (1860) Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der, jetzt die Preussischen Regierungsbezirke Coblenz und Trier bildenden Mittelrheinischen Territorien (Coblenz), Vol. I, (“Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch)”, 70, p. 75, consulted at <http:/www.rlb.de/mrHist/> (12 Dec 2007). 

[80] D Lo I 126, p. 287. 

[81] Karoli II Conventus Silvacensis, Missi…et pagi… 4, MGH LL 1, p. 426. 

[82] Poupardin, R. (ed.) (1929) Recueil des actes des rois de Provence 855-928 (Paris), 1, p. 1. 

[83] RHGF VIII, CCVII, p. 608. 

[84] Chronico Vezeliacensi I, p. 394, RHGF VII, p. 272. 

[85] Obituaires de Lyon I, Eglise primatiale de Lyon, footnote 2 associating the entry with Gérard Comte de Vienne who died in 847.     

[86] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 252.       

[87] Epistola XXLIII, p. 185. 

[88] RHGF XII, p. 317. 

[89] RHGF VIII, CCVII, p. 608. 

[90] Chronico Vezeliacensi I, RHGF VII, p. 271. 

[91] Obituaires de Lyon I, Eglise primatiale de Lyon, footnote 3 associating the entry with the wife of Gérard Comte de Vienne.     

[92] RHGF XII, p. 317. 

[93] RHGF XII, p. 317. 

[94] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“Nithard”) IV.6, p. 173. 

[95] Breve Chronicon Epternacense, Veterum Scriptorum IV, col. 506. 

[96] RHGF VIII, CXXXII, p. 540. 

[97] Glöckner, K. (1933) Codex Laureshamensis II, 1922, p. 482, quoted in Hlawitschka, E. (1969) Die Anfänge des Hauses Habsburg-Lothringen, Genealogische Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Lothringens und des Reiches im 9. 10 and 11 Jahrhundert (Saarbrücken), p. 74. 

[98] D Lo II 5, p. 389. 

[99] Adnuntatio domni Karoli, MGH LL 1, p. 469. 

[100] Annales Bertiniani III 861. 

[101] Annales Bertiniani 865. 

[102] Annales Bertiniani 865. 

[103] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXIV, p. 57. 

[104] Bloch, H. (ed.) ´Die älteren Urkunden des Klosters S. Vanne zu Verdun´, Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde, 10th year, 1898 (“Verdun Saint-Vanne (1898)”), p. 384. 

[105] Catalogus abbatem Epternacensium MGH SS XXIII, p. 31 and MGH SS XIII, pp. 739 and 741. 

[106] Breve Chronicon Epternacense, Veterum Scriptorum IV, col. 507. 

[107] D LJ 17, p. 356. 

[108] D Karl 97, p. 157. 

[109] Liber Memorialis de Remiremont, quoted in Hlawitschka (1969), p. 72. 

[110] Hlawitschka (1969), p. 168. 

[111] Annales Bertiniani 865. 

[112] Nithard IV.6, p. 173. 

[113] Annales Bertiniani III 861. 

[114] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 262.       

[115] Ermoldi Nigelli Carmina, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, Gosberti Carmen Acrostichum, p. 621. 

[116] Levillain, L. 'Les Nibelungen historiques et leurs alliances de famille' Annales du Midi 49 (1937) 337-407, 50 (1938) 5-66, 31-43, cited in Jackman, D. C. (1997) Criticism and Critique, sidelights on the Konradiner (Oxford Unit for Prosopographical Research), p. 126. 

[117] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 44 and 45, MGH SS II, p. 633. 

[118] Annales Fuldenses 810, MGH SS I, p. 355. 

[119] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[120] Jackman (1997), p. 134. 

[121] Certain, E. de (ed.) (1858) Miracula Sancti Benedicti (Paris), auctore Adrevaldo Monacho Floriacensi, Liber I, XX, p. 47. 

[122] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 44 and 45, MGH SS II, p. 633. 

[123] Annales Bertiniani I 834. 

[124] Merlet, R. ´Les comtes de Chartres, de Châteaudun et de Blois aux IX et X siècles´, Mémoires de la Société archéologique d´Eure-et-Loir, Tome XII, 1895-1900 (Chartres, 1901), p. 24. 

[125] Annales Xantenses 834, MGH SS II, p. 226. 

[126] Annales Fuldenses 834, MGH SS I, p. 360. 

[127] Chavanon, J. (ed.) (1897) Adémar de Chabannes, Chronique (Paris), III, 16, p. 131. 

[128] Miracula Sancti Benedicti, auctore Adrevaldo Monacho Floriacensi, Liber I, XXI, p. 51. 

[129] Marchegay, P. and Mabille, E. (eds.) (1869) Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (Paris), Chronica domni Rainaldi archidiaconi sancti Mauricii Andegavensis, p. 5.

[130] Nithard IV.6, p. 173. 

[131] Annales Bertiniani III 861. 

[132] Barthélemy ´Origines de la maison de France´, p. 121, quoting Lecointe, C. (1673) Annales ecclesiastici francorum, Vol. VIII, p. 101 (not yet consulted). 

[133] Annales Bertiniani III 866. 

[134] Jackman (1997), p. 117. 

[135] MGH Diplomata, I, LD 40, p. 52. 

[136] Annales Bertiniani 865. 

[137] Annales Bertiniani 865. 

[138] Annales Bertiniani 861. 

[139] Annales Bertiniani II 842. 

[140] Nithard IV.6, p. 173. 

[141] Annales Bertiniani III 869. 

[142] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris, p. 230.       

[143] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 328.       

[144] Annales Bertiniani I 834. 

[145] Merlet ´Les comtes de Chartres´, p. 14. 

[146] Merlet ´Les comtes de Chartres´, p. 13. 

[147] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 49, MGH SS II, p. 637. 

[148] Ermoldi Nigelli Carmina, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, Gosberti Carmen Acrostichum, p. 621. 

[149] Annales Bertiniani I 834. 

[150] Merlet ´Les comtes de Chartres´, p. 24. 

[151] Marchegay, P. and Mabille, E. (eds.) (1869) Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (Paris), Chronica domni Rainaldi archidiaconi sancti Mauricii Andegavensis, p. 5. 

[152] Barthélemy, A. de ´Origines de la maison de France´, Revue des questions historiques, Tome XIII, 1 (1873), p. 121, quoting Lecointe, C. (1673) Annales ecclesiastici francorum, Vol. VIII, p. 101 (not yet consulted). 

[153] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 754, MHG SS V, p. 99. 

[154] Vita Fulcuini 3, MGH SS XV.1, p. 427. 

[155] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[156] Vita Fulcuini 3, MGH SS XV.1, p. 427. 

[157] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Bertin (Paris), II.74, 928, p. 140. 

[158] Settipani (1993), pp. 359-60. 

[159] Saint-Bertin II.74, 928, p. 140. 

[160] Saint-Bertin II.74, 928, p. 140. 

[161] Saint-Bertin II.74, 928, p. 140, and II.77, p. 146. 

[162] Saint-Bertin II.77, p. 146. 

[163] Saint-Bertin II.77, p. 146. 

[164] Saint-Bertin, p. 146. 

[165] Saint-Bertin, Preface, iii. 

[166] Saint-Bertin II.74, 928, p. 140. 

[167] Vita Fulcuini 3, MGH SS XV.1, p. 427. 

[168] Annales Laurissenses 771, MGH SS I, p. 148. 

[169] Capitula missorum Dominicorum, MGH LL 1, p. 137. 

[170] Settipani (1993), p. 361, which does not cite the primary source. 

[171] Vita Fulcuini 3, MGH SS XV.1, p. 427. 

[172] Saint-Bertin II.74, 928, p. 140. 

[173] Settipani (1993), pp. 363-5. 

[174] Guadet, J. (ed.) Richeri Historiarum (1845) (Paris), Tome I, XCVIII, p. 270. 

[175] Settipani (1993), p. 363. 

[176] DD Kar. 1, 138, p. 188. 

[177] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 6, MGH SS II, p. 610. 

[178] Pauli Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis , MGH SS II, p. 267. 

[179] Calmet, A. (1748) Histoire de Lorraine (Nancy), Tome II, Preuves, col. cv. 

[180] Settipani (1993), p. 173, quoting Mabillon Acta Sanctorum ord. s. Ben. IV 1, p. 71. 

[181] Hlawitschka, E. 'Die Vorfahren Karls des Großen', Beumann, H. (ed.) (1965) Karl der Große (Düsseldorf), pp. 76-78, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 174. 

[182] Pauli Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis , MGH SS II, p. 267. 

[183] Catalogus Epsicoporum Mettensium, MGH SS 2, p. 269. 

[184] Calmet (1748), Tome II, Preuves, col. cv. 

[185] Lorsch 65, p. 94. 

[186] DD Kar. 1, 65, p. 94. 

[187] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591. 

[188] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591. 

[189] Settipani (1993), p. 253. 

[190] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591. 

[191] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 818, MGH SS I, p. 356. 

[192] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 31, MGH SS II, p. 623. 

[193] RHGF VI, LXXXIII, p. 515. 

[194] J. C. Chuat, in a private email to the author dated 13 Jun 2007. 

[195] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXXI, p. 85. 

[196] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXXI, p. 85. 

[197] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXXI, p. 85. 

[198] Settipani (1993), p. 316 footnote 857 which does not cite the source for this reference. 

[199] Reginonis Chronicon 878, MGH SS I, p. 589. 

[200] Settipani (1993), p. 316 footnote 857 which does not cite the source for this reference. 

[201] Jackman (1997), p. 119, refers to the different theories concerning the date of King Louis II's second marriage, which support dates ranging from [866/69] to Dec 877. 

[202] Adémar de Chabannes III, 19, p. 137. 

[203] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXXI, p. 85. 

[204] Annales Engolismenses, MGH SS IV, p. 5. 

[205] Adémar de Chabannes III, 19, p. 137. 

[206] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXXI, p. 85. 

[207] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXXI, p. 85. 

[208] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXXI, p. 85. 

[209] Marchegay, P. and Salmon, A. (eds.) (1856) Chroniques d´Anjou (Paris), Gestis Consulum Andegavensium, p. 65. 

[210] Urseau, C. (ed.) (1908) Cartulaire noir de la cathédrale d'Angers (Paris, Angers) 33, p. 74. 

[211] Broussillon, B. de (ed.) (1903) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Aubin d'Angers (Paris), 177, p. 203. 

[212] Gestis Consulum Andegavensium, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 65. 

[213] Gestis Consulum Andegavensium, RHGF IX, p. 30. 

[214] Gestis Consulum Andegavensium, RHGF IX, p. 30. 

[215] RHGF VI, XXIX, p. 477. 

[216] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 41, MGH SS II, p. 630. 

[217] Miracula Sancti Benedicti, auctore Adrevaldo Monacho Floriacensi, Liber I, XX, p. 47. 

[218] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 44 and 45, MGH SS II, p. 633. 

[219] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 36, MGH SS II, p. 597. 

[220] Annales Bertiniani I 832. 

[221] Nithard I.5, p. 135, and McKitterick, R. (1983) Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987 (Longman, London and New York), p. 266. 

[222] Annales Xantenses 834, MGH SS II, p. 226. 

[223] Annales Fuldenses 834, MGH SS I, p. 360. 

[224] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 55, MGH SS II, p. 602. 

[225] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 56, MGH SS II, p. 642. 

[226] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto [863], MGH SS I, p. 376. 

[227] Reginonis Chronicon 866, MGH SS I, p. 573. 

[228] MGH Epistola VII 111, p. 102, and 129, p. 114, quoted in Hlawitschka (1969), p. 159.  . 

[229] D Lo I 83, p. 204. 

[230] D Lo I 84, p. 206 (marked "Verunechtet?" in the compilation). 

[231] D Lo I 96, p. 233. 

[232] D Lo I 137, p. 307. 

[233] D Lo II 5, p. 389. 

[234] Adnuntatio domni Karoli, MGH LL 1, p. 469. 

[235] Karoli II Imp. Conventus Carisiacensis, MGH LL 1, p. 537. 

[236] MGH Epistola VII 111, p. 102, and 129, p. 114, quoted in Hlawitschka (1969), p. 159.  . 

[237] Verdun Sainte-Vanne (1898), p. 384. 

[238] Hlawitschka (1969), p. 168. 

[239] Catalogus abbatem Epternacensium MGH SS XXIII, p. 31 and MGH SS XIII, pp. 739 and 741. 

[240] Liber Memorialis de Remiremont, quoted in Hlawitschka (1969), p. 72. 

[241] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[242] Thiele, Andreas Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln, Band II Teilband 2, Tafel 389. 

[243] RFA 799, p. 78. 

[244] Annales Laurissenses Continuatio usque ad a. 829 Auctore Einhardo 799, MGH SS I, p. 186. 

[245] Thiele, Andreas Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln, Band II Teilband 2, Tafel 389. 

[246] RFA 799, p. 78. 

[247] Nithard I.5, p. 135, and Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 825, MGH SS I, p. 359. 

[248] Annales Xantenses 834, MGH SS II, p. 226. 

[249] Chronica domni Rainaldi archidiaconi sancti Mauricii Andegavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 5.  

[250] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 21, MGH SS II, p. 618. 

[251] Mitterauer, Michael Karolingische Marken in Südosten, p. 69. 

[252] RFA 825, p. 117. 

[253] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 45, MGH SS II, p. 633. 

[254] Nithard I.5, p. 135, and McKitterick (1983), p. 266. 

[255] Annales Fuldenses 834, MGH SS I, p. 360. 

[256] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[257] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[258] Thiele, Andreas Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln, Band II Teilband 2, Tafel 389. 

[259] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 21, MGH SS II, p. 618. 

[260] Mitterauer, Michael Karolingische Marken in Südosten, p. 69. 

[261] RHGF VI, CXCVII, p. 598. 

[262] RHGF VI, CXCVII, p. 598. 

[263] Mitterauer, Michael Karolingische Marken in Südosten, p. 69. 

[264] Thiele, Andreas Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln, Band II Teilband 2, Tafel 389. 

[265] Thiele, Andreas Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln, Band II Teilband 2, Tafel 389. 

[266] Date at which his villa at Marolles-sur-Seine was in the hands of a comte Aubert, Settipani (1993), p. 342. 

[267] Fredegar (Continuator), 6, MGH SS rer Merov II, 34. 

[268] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXIV, p. 57. 

[269] Kasten, B. 'Erbrechtliche Verfügungen des 8. und 9. Jahrhunderts. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Organisation und zur Schriftlichkeit bei der Verwaltung adeliger Grundherrschaften am Beispiel des Grafen Heccard aus Burgund', Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, Germ. Abt. 107 (1990), pp. 236-338, 302, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 344. 

[270] Levillain, L. 'Les Nibelungen historiques et leurs alliances de famille', Annales du Midi 49 (1937), pp. 337-408, 347, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 344. 

[271] Settipani (1993), p. 344. 

[272] Settipani (1993), p. 344. 

[273] Ex Vita S. Willelmi, RHGF V, p. 470. 

[274] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire IX, p. 23. 

[275] Pérard, E. (1664) Recueil de plusieurs pieces curieuses servant à l'histoire de Bourgogne (Paris), 14, p. 34, and Philipon, E. 'Note sur la famille du roi Raoul', Bulletin de l'école des chartes 60 (1899), pp. 497-509, 500, both cited in Settipani (1993), p. 345. 

[276] Settipani (1993), p. 342. 

[277] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XIII, p. 29. 

[278] Settipani (1993), p. 352. 

[279] Settipani (1993), p. 344. 

[280] Settipani (1993), p. 344. 

[281] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XII, p. 28. 

[282] Capitula 10, MGH LL 1, p. 255. 

[283] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 41, MGH SS II, p. 630. 

[284] Einhardi Annales 827, MGH SS I, p. 216. 

[285] Settipani (1993), pp. 345-6. 

[286] Levillain, L. 'Les Nibelungen historiques et leurs alliances de famille', Annales du Midi 49 (1937), pp. 337-408, 357 footnote 2, quoted in Settipani (1993), p. 350, footnote 1080. 

[287] Settipani (1993), p. 346. 

[288] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 837, MGH SS I, p. 361. 

[289] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXV, p. 59. 

[290] Settipani (1993), p. 346, footnote 1047. 

[291] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXV, p. 59. 

[292] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXVII, p. 74. 

[293] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXI, p. 49, and RHGF VI, CCXI, p. 628. 

[294] Annales Bertiniani II 844, "filii Etkardi comitis duo, item Eokardus, Guntardus et Richuinus comites". 

[295] Settipani (1993), p. 346. 

[296] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXIV, p. 57. 

[297] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXV, p. 59. 

[298] Miracula Sancti Benedicti, auctore Aimoini monachi Floriacensis secundus, Liber III, XV, p. 161. 

[299] Obituaires de Sens Tome III, Abbaye de Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, Calendrier du XIV siècle, p. 150. 

[300] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXV, p. 59. 

[301] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXV, p. 59. 

[302] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXVII, p. 74. 

[303] Settipani (1993), p. 366. 

[304] Settipani (1993), p. 346, footnote 1047. 

[305] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXV, p. 59.  

[306] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXV, p. 59. 

[307] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXVI, p. 67. 

[308] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXXII and XXXIII, pp. 87 and 89. 

[309] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXV, p. 59. 

[310] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXVI, p. 67. 

[311] RHGF VIII, p. 435.  . 

[312] Karoli II Conventus Silvacensis, Missi…et pagi… 12, MGH LL 1, p. 426. 

[313] RHGF VIII, CLXXXV, p. 589. 

[314] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXV, p. 59. 

[315] Levillain, L. 'Les Nibelungen historiques et leurs alliances de famille', Annales du Midi 49 (1937), pp. 337-408, 348-9, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 352. 

[316] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXV, p. 59. 

[317] Settipani (1993), p. 215. 

[318] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXV, p. 59. 

[319] Settipani (1993), p. 352. 

[320] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXV, p. 59. 

[321] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXVI, p. 67. 

[322] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXXII and XXXIII, pp. 87 and 89. 

[323] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXXII and XXXIII, pp. 87 and 89. 

[324] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXXII and XXXIII, pp. 87 and 89. 

[325] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire LXVIII, p. 179. 

[326] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire LXVII, p. 177. 

[327] Karoli II Conventus Silvacensis, Missi…et pagi… 3, MGH LL 1, p. 426. 

[328] MGH LL 1, p. 429. 

[329] Hludowici Germ. et Karoli II Pacto, Aquensis, MGH LL 1, p. 516. 

[330] Karoli II Imp. Conventus Carisiacensis, MGH LL 1, p. 537. 

[331] Settipani (1993), p. 346, footnote 1047. 

[332] Annales Bertiniani 879. 

[333] RHGF IX, p. 418. 

[334] Settipani (1993), p. 366. 

[335] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXV, p. 59. 

[336] RHGF IX, p. 705, and Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXX, p. 83. 

[337] RHGF IX, p. 705, and Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXX, p. 83. 

[338] RHGF IX, p. 705, and Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXX, p. 83. 

[339] RHGF IX, p. 705, and Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXX, p. 83. 

[340] RHGF IX, p. 705, and Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXX, p. 83. 

[341] RHGF IX, p. 705, and Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XXX, p. 83. 

[342] Birth date range estimated on the basis of the estimated birth date range of his daughter. 

[343] Brioude 340, p. 350. 

[344] Settipani (1993), p. 353. 

[345] Miraculis Sancti Genulfi 6, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1206. 

[346] RHGF VI, LXXXIV, p. 516. 

[347] Capitula Missorum 1, and Capitula 25, MGH LL 1, pp. 246 and 295. 

[348] Capitula Missorum 1, and Capitula 25, MGH LL 1, pp. 246 and 295. 

[349] Karoli II Conventus Silvacensis, Missi…et pagi… 8, MGH LL 1, p. 426. 

[350] ES II 10. 

[351] Miraculis Sancti Genulfi 6, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1206. 

[352] Miraculis Sancti Genulfi 6, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1206. 

[353] Birth date range estimated on the basis of Ringardis having been a young adolescent at the date of her marriage. 

[354] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 626. 

[355] Einhardi Annales 822, MGH SS I, p. 209. 

[356] Miraculis Sancti Genulfi 6, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1206. 

[357] Ermoldi Nigelli Carmina, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini II, p. 90. 

[358] Settipani (1993), p. 277 footnote 601. 

[359] Brioude 340, p. 350. 

[360] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9. 

[361] Einhardi Annales 782, MGH SS I, p. 163.  

[362] DD Kar. 1, 110, p. 155. 

[363] Einhardi Annales 791, MGH SS I, p. 177. 

[364] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[365] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[366] Settipani (1993), p. 173, quoting Mabillon Acta Sanctorum ord. s. Ben. IV 1, p. 71. 

[367] Hlawitschka, E. 'Die Vorfahren Karls des Großen', Beumann, H. (ed.) (1965) Karl der Große (Düsseldorf), pp. 76-78, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 174. 

[368] Einhardi Annales 782, MGH SS I, p. 163. 

[369] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[370] ES III 731. 

[371] Manuel de Dhuoda LXII, p. 213. 

[372] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[373] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[374] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[375] Ex Vita S. Willelmi, RHGF V, p. 470. 

[376] Settipani (1993), p. 344. 

[377] Ex Vita S. Willelmi, RHGF V, p. 470. 

[378] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[379] Ex Vita S. Willelmi, RHGF V, p. 470. 

[380] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 13, MGH SS II, p. 612. 

[381] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[382] Manuel de Dhuoda LXXII, p. 237. 

[383] Manuel de Dhuoda LXXII, p. 237. 

[384] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 44 and 45, MGH SS II, p. 633. 

[385] Manuel de Dhuoda LXXII, p. 237. 

[386] Manuel de Dhuoda LXXII, p. 237. 

[387] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[388] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[389] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 45, MGH SS II, p. 633. 

[390] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[391] Manuel de Dhuoda LXXII, p. 238. 

[392] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 16, MGH SS II, p. 615. 

[393] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 17, MGH SS II, p. 615. 

[394] Nithard I.3, p. 131. 

[395] Annales Bertiniani I 830. 

[396] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 44 and 45, MGH SS II, p. 633. 

[397] Settipani (1993), p. 213.  

[398] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[399] Ex Vita S. Willelmi, RHGF V, p. 475. 

[400] Annales Bertiniani I 834. 

[401] Manuel de Dhuoda LXXII, p. 237. 

[402] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 52, MGH SS II, p. 601. 

[403] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 52, MGH SS II, pp. 637-8. 

[404] Ex Vita S. Willelmi, RHGF V, p. 475. 

[405] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[406] Manuel de Dhuoda LXXII, p. 237. 

[407] RHGF VI, CLIV, p. 562. 

[408] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 50, MGH SS II, p. 637. 

[409] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 52, MGH SS II, pp. 637-8. 

[410] Manuel de Dhuoda LXXII, p. 237. 

[411] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire X, p. 24. 

[412] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XII, p. 28. 

[413] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire XIII, p. 29. 

[414] Manuel de Dhuoda LXXII, p. 237. 

[415] Manuel de Dhuoda LXXII, p. 237. 

[416] Vita Wala II 8, 9 and 10, MGH SS II, pp. 551-2 and 555. 

[417] Settipani (1993), p. 357 footnotes 1132 and 1135. 

[418] Chronico Richardi Pictavensis, RHGF IX, p.21. 

[419] Ex Vita S. Willelmi, RHGF V, p. 475. 

[420] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[421] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ III, XXVI, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 338. 

[422] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 36, MGH SS II, p. 597. 

[423] Einhardi Annales 827, MGH SS I, p. 216. 

[424] Einhardi Annales 827, MGH SS I, p. 216. 

[425] Annales Fuldenses 829, MGH SS I, p. 360. 

[426] Nithard I.3, p. 131. 

[427] Annales Bertiniani I 830. 

[428] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 46 and 47, MGH SS II, pp. 634-5. 

[429] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 50, MGH SS II, p. 637. 

[430] Annales Bertiniani II 848 and 850. 

[431] Annales Xantenses 844, MGH SS II, p. 227. 

[432] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 844, MGH SS I, p. 364. 

[433] Manuel de Dhuoda, Introduction, 5, p. 52. 

[434] Manuel de Dhuoda, Introduction, 5, p. 52. 

[435] Annales Bertiniani II 842. 

[436] Fragmentum Chronici Fontanellensis, RHGF VII, pp. 41-2. 

[437] Manuel de Dhuoda, Introduction, 5, p. 52. 

[438] Annales Bertiniani III 868, footnote 1 naming "tertius Bernardus qui honoribus privatus fuerat 864 in conventu Pistensi filius erat Bernardus Septimaniæ ducis qui in 844 a Carolo Calvo occisus est". 

[439] Adémar de Chabannes III, 19, p. 137. 

[440] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn., Tome II, p. 413

[441] Manuel de Dhuoda, Introduction, 5, p. 52. 

[442] Annales Bertiniani III 862, footnote 1 specifying that he was "comes Arvernorum". 

[443] Annales Bertiniani III 863. 

[444] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 362. 

[445] Epistola V, RHGF VII, p. 594. 

[446] Lespinasse, R. de (ed.) (1916) Cartulaire de Saint-Cyr de Nevers (Nevers, Paris), 26, p. 54. 

[447] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 248.       

[448] Nevers Saint-Cyr 26, p. 54. 

[449] Nevers Saint-Cyr 19, p. 40. 

[450] Nevers Saint-Cyr 26, p. 54. 

[451] Nevers Saint-Cyr 19, p. 40. 

[452] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9. 

[453] Settipani (1993), p. 361, which does not cite the primary source. 

[454] Nithard IV.5, p. 172. 

[455] Letter of [796] from Charles I King of the Franks to Angilbert, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 206 footnote 103. 

[456] Ex Chronico Centulensi sive Sancti Richarii, RHGF V, p. 371. 

[457] Ex Chronico Centulensi sive Sancti Richarii, RHGF V, p. 372. 

[458] Einhard 18, p. 453. 

[459] Angilberti (Homeri) Carmina, I, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, pp. 359-60. 

[460] Theodulfi Carmina, XXV Ad Carolum Rege, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 486. 

[461] Stenton, F. M. (2001) Anglo-Saxon England 3rd edn (Oxford University Press), p. 220. 

[462] Settipani (1993), pp. 204 and 205. 

[463] Anschero, Vita Angilberti 2, MGH SS XV.I, p. 180. 

[464] Ex Chronico Centulensi sive Sancti Richarii, RHGF V, p. 371. 

[465] Nithard IV.5, p. 172. 

[466] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 310.       

[467] Nithard IV.5, p. 172. 

[468] Settipani (1993), p. 206 footnote 100. 

[469] Beyer, H. (ed.) (1860) Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der, jetzt die Preussischen Regierungsbezirke Coblenz und Trier bildenden Mittelrheinischen Territorien (Coblenz), Vol. I, (“Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch I, I”), 207, p. 267, consulted at <http:/www.rlb.de/mrHist/> (12 Dec 2007). 

[470] Nithard IV.5, p. 172. 

[471] Nithard IV.5, p. 172. 

[472] Capitula missorum per missaticum Parisiense et Rodomense 21, MGH LL 1, p. 98. 

[473] Carmen ad Agobardum Archiepiscopum Missum, MGH Poeta Latini II, p. 118 footnote 4. 

[474] Nithard IV.5, p. 172. 

[475] DD Kar. 1, 138, p. 188. 

[476] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 6, MGH SS II, p. 610. 

[477] Jackman (1997), p. 124. 

[478] Karoli II Conventus Silvacensis, Missi…et pagi… 7, MGH LL 1, p. 426. 

[479] Tardif, J. (ed.) (1866) Monuments historiques (Paris), no. 170, cited in Jackman (1997), p. 122. 

[480] Annales Bertiniani III 862. 

[481] Settipani (1993), p. 316. 

[482] Annales Bertiniani III 862. 

[483] Reginonis Chronicon 878, MGH SS I, p. 589. 

[484] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, pp. 604 and 605. 

[485] Mabille, E. (ed.) (1866) La pancarte notre de Saint-Martin de Tours brulée en 1793 (Paris, Tours) ("Tours Saint-Martin") LVIII, p. 95. 

[486] Lalore, C. (ed.) (1890) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Montiéramey, Collection des principaux cartularies du diocèse de Troyes Tome VII (Paris, Troyes), 1, p. 1. 

[487] Annales Bertiniani II 842. 

[488] Fragmentum Chronici Fontanellensis, RHGF VII, pp. 41-2. 

[489] Montiéramey 2, p. 2. 

[490] Saint-Phale, E. de 'Comtes de Troyes et de Poitiers au IX siècle, histoire d'un double échec', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 156. 

[491] RHGF VIII, CLXXXVII, p. 591. 

[492] Jackman (1997), p. 123. 

[493] RHGF VIII, CXXXIX, p. 547. 

[494] Bourgeois, E. (1885) Le capitulaire de Kiersy-sur-Oise (Paris), p. 23. 

[495] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 321.       

[496] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Prieuré d'Argenteuil, p. 348.       

[497] Settipani (1993), p. 352. 

[498] Ex Miraculis Sancti Huberti 15, MGH SS XV.2, p. 911. 

[499] Settipani (1993), p. 216 footnote 182. 

[500] RHGF IX, p. 418. 

[501] Abbonis Bella Parisiacæ Urbis II, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini IV.I, p. 107. 

[502] Annales Vedastini 884, MGH SS II, p. 522. 

[503] Annales Vedastini 888, MGH SS II, p. 525. 

[504] MGH SS I, p. 525 footnote 50. 

[505] Ex Miraculis Sancti Huberti 15, MGH SS XV.2, p. 911. 

[506] Settipani (1993), p. 216 footnote 182. 

[507] Diplomata Odonis Regis XIV, RHGF IX, p. 452. 

[508] ES II 10. 

[509] Settipani (1993), p. 405, citing Kalckstein, C. von (1871) Robert der Tapfere, Markgraf von Anjou, der Stammvater des Kapetingischen Hauses (Berlin), as the originator of the theory. 

[510] Annales Vedastini 888, MGH SS II, p. 203. 

[511] Aimond, C. 'Le nécrologe de la cathédrale de Verdun', Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde Year 21 (second part) (1910), Appendice Kalendarium S. Mariæ Virdunensis, p. 312. 

[512] Aimond, C. 'Le nécrologe de la cathédrale de Verdun', Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde Year 21 (second part) (1910), p. 285. 

[513] When his father is first cited in Neustria, Settipani (1993), p. 402. 

[514] Merlet, R. ´Origine de Robert le Fort´, Mélanges Julien Havet (Paris, 1895), pp. 106-7. 

[515] RHGF VIII, Diplomata, LV, p. 478. 

[516] Tours Saint-Martin, CI, p. 118. 

[517] RHGF VIII, LXXXIX, p. 505. 

[518] Angers 9, p. 23. 

[519] Karoli II Conventus Silvacensis, Missi…et pagi… 10, MGH LL 1, p. 426. 

[520] Montiéramey 2, p. 2. 

[521] Karoli II Conventus Carisiaensis acta, MGH LL 1, p. 450. 

[522] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 858, MGH SS I, p. 371. 

[523] MGH SS I, p. 371 footnote 42. 

[524] RHGF VIII, CLXXXVII, p. 591. 

[525] Annales Bertiniani 866, MGH SS I, p. 471. 

[526] Tours Saint-Martin CI, p. 118. 

[527] Métais, C. (ed.) (1910) Chartes Vendômoises (Vendôme), XVI, p. 22. 

[528] Poupardin, R. (ed.) (1920) Recueil des actes des rois de Provence 855-928 (Paris), 15, p. 29, and Tours Saint-Martin CXLV, p. 145. 

[529] Jackman (1997), p. 123. 

[530] Giry, A. 'Etudes carolingiennes. Documents carolingiens de l'abbaye de Montiéramey', Etudes d'histoire du moyen âge dédiées à Gabriel Monod (Paris, 1896), no. 23, p. 133. 

[531] Abbé E. Bougaud (ed.) (1875) Chronique de l'abbaye de Saint-Bénigne de Dijon (Dijon), p. 109. 

[532] Montiéramey 6, p. 8. 

[533] Abbonis Bella Parisiacæ Urbis I, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini IV.I, p. 81. 

[534] Angers 14, p. 34. 

[535] Chronicle St-Bénigne de Dijon, p. 109. 

[536] Montiéramey 6, p. 8. 

[537] Abbonis Bella Parisiacæ Urbis I, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini IV.I, p. 81. 

[538] Settipani (1993), p. 318. 

[539] Giry 'Etudes carolingiennes', 17, p. 130, and Bautier, R. H. (ed.) (1978) Recueil des actes de Louis II le Bègue, Louis III et Carloman II (Paris) no. 80, p. 213, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 317 footnote 862. 

[540] Rösch, S. (1977) Caroli Magni Progenies (Verlag Degener & Co, Neustadt an der Aisch), p. 100. 

[541] Jackman (1997), pp. 120-1. 

[542] Mandatum de Saxonibus Obsidibus, MGH LL 1, p. 89. 

[543] Capitula missorum Dominicorum, MGH LL 1, p. 137. 

[544] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[545] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[546] Saint-Bertin, IV, p. 85. 

[547] Saint-Bertin, V, p. 88. 

[548] Settipani (1993), p. 257 footnote 455. 

[549] Favre, E. ´La famille d´Evrard marquis de Frioul dans le royaume franc de l´ouest', Etudes d'histoire du moyen âge dédiées à Gabriel Monod (Paris, 1896), p. 156, citing Wenck, W. B. (1852) Die Erhebung Arnulfs und der Zerfall des karolingischen Reiches, p. 69 n., correcting Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris, 57, MGH SS II, p. 603. 

[550] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 54, MGH SS II, p. 602. 

[551] Einhardi Annales 819, MGH SS I, p. 205. 

[552] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 624. 

[553] Capitula Missorum 1, and Capitula 25, MGH LL 1, pp. 246 and 295. 

[554] RHGF VI, CXXXV, p. 547. 

[555] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 54, MGH SS II, p. 602. 

[556] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 58, MGH SS II, p. 603. 

[557] Sedulii Scotti Carmina II 67, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini III, pp. 220-1. 

[558] Saint-Bertin, IX, p. 92. 

[559] Saint-Bertin, XXXVIII, p. 110. 

[560] ES II 188A. 

[561] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, p. 876. 

[562] Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis, Spicilegium II, p. 878. 

[563] Einhardi Annales 817, MGH SS I, p. 203. 

[564] Gestis Consulum Andegavensium, RHGF IX, p. 29. 

[565] Gestis Consulum Andegavensium, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 36, footnote 3 noting that 2 mss record her as "consanguinea" not "filia". 

[566] Chronico Turonensi, RHGF IX, p. 47. 

[567] Historia Comitum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 320. 

[568] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, pp. 40-1. 

[569] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, pp. 41-4. 

[570] Angers 14, p. 34. 

[571] Angers 14, p. 34. 

[572] RHGF IX, XXXIX, p. 505. 

[573] Miraculis Sancti Genulfi 6, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1206. 

[574] Miraculis Sancti Genulfi 6, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1206. 

[575] Deloche, M. (ed.) (1859) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Beaulieu en Limousin (Paris), Introduction, p. ccxix. 

[576] RHGF VIII, p. 355. 

[577] Reginonis Chronicon 818, MGH SS I, p. 567. 

[578] Rösch, p. 86. 

[579] Nithard, Historiarum libri IV, ed. P. Lauer (Paris, 1926), cited in Settipani (1993), p. 214. 

[580] Annales Bertiniani I 834. 

[581] Settipani (1993), p. 215. 

[582] Reginonis Chronicon 818, MGH SS I, p. 567. 

[583] Pocchetino, G. (1922), 'I Pipinidi in Italia (sec. VIII-XII)', Archivio storico Lombardo, 54 (1927), pp. 1-43, and Violante, C. (1974) 'Quelques caractéristiques des structures familiales en Lombardie, Emilie et Toscane aux XI et XII siècles', Famille et parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Rome), pp. 87-147, 128, both cited in Settipani (1993), p. 215.   

[584] Settipani (1993), p. 215 footnote 177. 

[585] Bourgeois, E. (1885) Le capitulaire de Kiersy-sur-Oise (Paris), p. 23. 

[586] Reginonis Chronicon 818, MGH SS I, p. 567. 

[587] Settipani (1993), p. 215. 

[588] D Karl 108, p. 172, headed "verunechtet" in the compilation. 

[589] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 605. 

[590] Reginonis Chronicon 818, MGH SS I, p. 567. 

[591] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 633. 

[592] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 605. 

[593] Settipani (1993), p. 217. 

[594] Flodoardi Annales 923, MGH SS III, p. 372. 

[595] Felice Lifshitz (ed.) Dudo of St Quentin's Gesta Normannorum, The Online Reference Book for Medieval Sources, <http://orb.rhodes.edu/ORB_done/Dudo/dudindex.html> (6 Jan 2003), Chapters 37-38. 

[596] Guizot, M. (ed.) (1826) Histoire des ducs de Normandie, par Guillaume de Jumiège (Paris) (“WJ”), IV.4, p. 83. 

[597] Dudo of Saint-Quentin, Chapter 44. 

[598] Flodoardi Annales 945, MGH SS III, p. 392. 

[599] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 5, MGH SS IX, p. 383. 

[600] Settipani (1993). p. 216. 

[601] Lauer, P. (1914) Recueil des actes de Louis IV roi de France (936-954) (Paris), 1, p. 2, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 215 footnote 180. 

[602] Flodoardi Annales 945, MGH SS III, p. 392. 

[603] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 5, MGH SS IX, p. 383. 

[604] Flodoardi Annales 945, MGH SS III, p. 392. 

[605] Settipani (1993), pp. 216-7. 

[606] Richard, Alfred (1903) Histoire des Comtes de Poitou (republished Princi Negue, 2003), Tome I, pp. 14-15. 

[607] RFA, 811, p. 93. 

[608] RHGF VI, CLXVI, p. 570. 

[609] Annales Laurissenses 782, MGH SS I, p. 162. 

[610] Einhardi Annales 782, MGH SS I, p. 163. 

[611] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 13, MGH SS II, p. 612. 

[612] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 13, MGH SS II, p. 613. 

[613] DD Kar. 1, 217, p. 289. 

[614] DD Kar. 1, 110, p. 155. 

[615] DD Kar. 1, 102, p. 146. 

[616] Einhardi Annales 810, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[617] DD Kar. 1, 216, p. 288. 

[618] DD Kar. 1, 129, p. 179. 

[619] D´Herbomez, A. (ed.) (1898) Cartulaire de l´abbaye de Gorze, Mettensia II (Paris), 37, p. 69. 

[620] Dronke, E. F. J. (ed.) (1850) Codex Diplomaticus Fuldensis (Cassel, reprint Aalen 1962), 429, p. 192. 

[621] DD Kar. 1, 110, p. 155. 

[622] Annales Sancti Emmerammi Ratisponensis 804, MGH SS I, p. 93. 

[623] DD Kar. 1, 216, p. 288. 

[624] Annales Laurissenses 785, MGH SS I, p. 168. 

[625] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire IX, p. 23. 

[626] Mandatum de Saxonibus Obsidibus, MGH LL 1, p. 89. 

[627] DD Kar. 1, 102, p. 146. 

[628] DD Kar. 1, 110, p. 155. 

[629] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[630] RHGF VI, LXV, p. 501. 

[631] DD Kar. 1, 216, p. 288. 

[632] Annales Laurissenses 788, MGH SS I, p. 174. 

[633] Mandatum de Saxonibus Obsidibus, MGH LL 1, p. 89. 

[634] Annales Laurissenses 786, MGH SS I, p. 168. 

[635] DD Kar. 1, 206, p. 275. 

[636] DD Kar. 1, 110, p. 155. 

[637] DD Kar. 1, 102, p. 146. 

[638] DD Kar. 1, 110, p. 155. 

[639] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[640] Richard (1903), Tome I 17-18. 

[641] Mandatum de Saxonibus Obsidibus, MGH LL 1, p. 89. 

[642] Gorze 19, p. 43. 

[643] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 13, MGH SS II, p. 612. 

[644] Einhardi Annales 807, MGH SS I, p. 194. 

[645] Annales Fuldenses 807, MGH SS I, p. 354. 

[646] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[647] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[648] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[649] DD Kar. 1, 51, p. 70. 

[650] DD Kar. 1, 102, p. 146. 

[651] Gorze 19, p. 43. 

[652] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[653] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[654] Einhardi Annales 801, MGH SS I, p. 190. 

[655] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[656] DD Kar. 1, 217, p. 289. 

[657] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[658] Capitula missorum per missaticum Parisiense et Rodomense 21, MGH LL 1, p. 98. 

[659] DD Kar. 1, 204, p. 273. 

[660] DD Kar. 1, 65, p. 94. 

[661] Annales Laurissenses 782, MGH SS I, p. 162. 

[662] Einhardi Annales 782, MGH SS I, p. 163. 

[663] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[664] DD Kar. 1, 217, p. 289. 

[665] Marchegay, P. (ed.) (1843) Archives d'Anjou, Recueil de documents et mémoires inédits sur cette province, Cartularium Monasterii Glarnefoliensis sive Sancti Mauri ad Ligeriam (Angers) (“Saint-Maur-sur-Loire”), XXXIV, p. 378. 

[666] Annales Laurissenses 788, MGH SS I, p. 174. 

[667] Mandatum de Saxonibus Obsidibus, MGH LL 1, p. 89. 

[668] DD Kar. 1, 216, p. 288. 

[669] DD Kar. 1, 217, p. 289. 

[670] Cros-Mayrevieille (1846) Histoire du comté et de la vicomté de Carcassonne, Tome I (Paris), p. 145 footnote 1. 

[671] RHGF V, p. 661. 

[672] DD Kar. 1, 204, p. 273. 

[673] DD Kar. 1, 138, p. 188. 

[674] DD Kar. 1, 216, p. 288. 

[675] DD Kar. 1, 65, p. 94. 

[676] Mandatum de Saxonibus Obsidibus, MGH LL 1, p. 89. 

[677] Fulda 90, p. 55. 

[678] Fulda 140, p. 80. 

[679] Fulda 161, p. 91. 

[680] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[681] DD Kar. 1, 216, p. 288. 

[682] Annales Guelferbytanni 823, MGH SS I, p. 46. 

[683] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[684] Tours Saint-Martin LIV, p. 93. 

[685] Tours Saint-Martin LXXXVII, p. 111. 

[686] Tours Saint-Martin LIV, p. 93. 

[687] Tours Saint-Martin LXXXVII, p. 111. 

[688] Tours Saint-Martin LIV, p. 93. 

[689] Einhardi Annales 802 and 803, MGH SS I, pp. 190 and 191. 

[690] Annales Fuldenses 802, MGH SS I, p. 352. 

[691] Epistolæ Leonis III Papæ II, RHGF V, p. 598. 

[692] Carmina Theodulfi Aurelianensis Episcopi VIII, RHGF V, p. 422. 

[693] Tours Saint-Martin LIV, p. 93. 

[694] DD Kar. 1, 217, p. 289. 

[695] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[696] Chronicon Besuense, Spicilegium II, p. 402. 

[697] Gorze 19, p. 43. 

[698] RHGF VI, LXXIV, p. 509. 

[699] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[700] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[701] DD Kar. 1, 217, p. 289. 

[702] RHGF VI, III, p. 456. 

[703] RHGF VI, CXXVII, p. 540. 

[704] Albanès, J.-H. and Chevalier, U. (1901) Histoire des Archevèchés, Evèchés et Abbayes de France, Gallia Christiana Novissima, Province d'Arles (Paris), Col. 83, no. 197. 

[705] Einhardi Annales 801, MGH SS I, p. 190. 

[706] Cros-Mayrevieille (1846) Histoire du comté et de la vicomté de Carcassonne, Tome I (Paris), Documents, III, p. 7, citing Mabillon De re diplomatica, pp. 396 and 504. 

[707] DD Kar. 1, 129, p. 179. 

[708] Einhardi Annales 791, MGH SS I, p. 177. 

[709] Gorze 37, p. 69. 

[710] Gorze 37, p. 69. 

[711] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[712] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[713] DD Kar. 1, 1, p. 3. 

[714] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9. 

[715] DD Kar. 1, 12, p. 17. 

[716] Cros-Mayrevieille (1846) Histoire du comté et de la vicomté de Carcassonne, Tome I (Paris), Documents, II, p. 5. 

[717] DD Kar. 1, 217, p. 289. 

[718] Annales Fuldenses 810, MGH SS I, p. 355. 

[719] DD Kar. 1, 110, p. 155. 

[720] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[721] Annales Lobienses 771, MGH SS XIII, p. 228. 

[722] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[723] Capitula missorum Dominicorum, MGH LL 1, p. 137. 

[724] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[725] Einhardi Annales 807, MGH SS I, p. 194. 

[726] Capitula missorum Dominicorum, MGH LL 1, p. 137. 

[727] Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 463. 

[728] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 21, MGH SS II, p. 618. 

[729] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[730] DD Kar. 1, 203, p. 272. 

[731] Mandatum de Saxonibus Obsidibus, MGH LL 1, p. 89. 

[732] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 13, MGH SS II, p. 612. 

[733] Carmina Theodulfi Aurelianensis Episcopi VII, RHGF V, p. 421. 

[734] Ex Vita et Passione S. Austreminii, RHGF V, p. 432. 

[735] Ex Vita S. Genulfi Confessoris, RHGF V, p. 470. 

[736] DD Kar. 1, 204, p. 273. 

[737] Carmina Theodulfi Aurelianensis Episcopi VII, RHGF V, p. 421. 

[738] Ex Vita et Passione S. Austreminii, RHGF V, p. 432. 

[739] DD Kar. 1, 204, p. 273. 

[740] DD Kar. 1, 65, p. 94. 

[741] DD Kar. 1, 216, p. 288. 

[742] Einhardi Annales 801, MGH SS I, p. 190. 

[743] DD Kar. 1, 102, p. 146. 

[744] DD Kar. 1, 138, p. 188. 

[745] DD Kar. 1, 181, p. 244. 

[746] Donet-D´Arcq, L. (1855) Historiques et critiques sur les anciens comtes de Beaumont-sur-Oise du XI au XIII siècles (Amiens), p. xi. 

[747] DD Kar. 1, 204, p. 273. 

[748] Calmet (1748), Tome II, Preuves, col. cxviii. 

[749] Mandatum de Saxonibus Obsidibus, MGH LL 1, p. 89. 

[750] DD Kar. 1, 204, p. 273. 

[751] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[752] Mandatum de Saxonibus Obsidibus, MGH LL 1, p. 89. 

[753] DD Kar. 1, 138, p. 188. 

[754] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[755] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[756] DD Kar. 1, 45, p. 64. 

[757] Annales Laurissenses 771, MGH SS I, p. 148. 

[758] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[759] Fulda 84, p. 51. 

[760] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[761] DD Kar. 1, 1, p. 3. 

[762] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9.  

[763] DD Kar. 1, 12, p. 17. 

[764] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[765] Ex Vita S. Hiltrudis Virginis, RHGF V, p. 442. 

[766] Ex Vita S. Hiltrudis Virginis, RHGF V, p. 442. 

[767] Ex Vita S. Hiltrudis Virginis, RHGF V, p. 442. 

[768] Ex Vita S. Hiltrudis Virginis, RHGF V, p. 442. 

[769] DD Kar. 1, 65, p. 94. 

[770] DD Kar. 1, 110, p. 155. 

[771] DD Kar. 1, 204, p. 273. 

[772] Annales Laurissenses 782, MGH SS I, p. 162. 

[773] Einhardi Annales 782, MGH SS I, p. 163. 

[774] DD Kar. 1 148, p. 201. 

[775] Capitula Missorum 1, and Capitula 25, MGH LL 1, pp. 246 and 295. 

[776] Annales Fuldenses Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 839, MGH SS I, p. 361. 

[777] Annales Fuldenses Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 840, MGH SS I, p. 362. 

[778] Annales Fuldenses Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 841, MGH SS I, p. 362. 

[779] Index Chronologicus seu Annales Gallici et Francici 879, RHGF IX, p. liii. 

[780] Index Chronologicus seu Annales Gallici et Francici 879, RHGF IX, p. liii. 

[781] RHGF VIII, CXCI, p. 594. 

[782] RHGF VIII, CC, p. 601. 

[783] Württembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band I c 700-1137 (Stuttgart, 1849, reprint 1972), 94, p. 108. 

[784] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 55, MGH SS II, p. 641. 

[785] Karoli II Conventus Silvacensis, Missi…et pagi… 4, MGH LL 1, p. 426. 

[786] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 56, MGH SS II, p. 642. 

[787] RHGF VI, CLXXII, p. 574. 

[788] Karoli II Conventus Ticinensis, MGH LL 1, p. 528. 

[789] Reginonis Chronicon 883, MGH SS I, p. 594. 

[790] Reginonis Chronicon 896, MGH SS I, p. 607. 

[791] Reginonis Chronicon 883, MGH SS I, p. 594. 

[792] Karoli II Conventus Silvacensis, Missi…et pagi… 2, MGH LL 1, p. 426. 

[793] RHGF VI, CXXXV, p. 547. 

[794] Historia Regum Francorum 879, RHGF IX, p. 41. 

[795] Vic, Dom C. de and Dom Vaissete (1841) Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. (Paris), Tome II, Preuves, XCVII, p. 660. 

[796] RHGF VI, CIX, p. 531. 

[797] RHGF VIII, CXCVIII, p. 600. 

[798] Capitula 3, MGH LL 1, p. 255. 

[799] Einhardi Annales 815, MGH SS I, p. 202. 

[800] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 624. 

[801] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 625. 

[802] Einhardi Annales 826, MGH SS I, p. 214. 

[803] Annales Fuldensis 826, MGH SS I, p. 359. 

[804] Einhardi Annales 826, MGH SS I, p. 214. 

[805] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 42, MGH SS II, p. 631. 

[806] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch I, 70, p. 75. 

[807] Merlet, R. (ed.) (1896) La chronique de Nantes (Paris), VIII, pp. 22 and 24. 

[808] Karoli II Conventus Silvacensis, Missi…et pagi… 4, MGH LL 1, p. 426. 

[809] Adnuntatio domni Karoli, MGH LL 1, p. 469. 

[810] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[811] Epistola XLII, RHGF 7, p. 438. 

[812] Parisot, R. Le royaume de Lorraine, p. 764, cited in Hlawitschka 1969, p. 159. 

[813] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Book III, p. 7. 

[814] Orderic Vitalis I 886, RHGF IX, p. 11. 

[815] WJ II.11, p. 46. 

[816] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book III, p. 7. 

[817] Orderic Vitalis I 886, RHGF IX, p. 11. 

[818] Chronico Rotomagensis 913, RHGF IX, p. 88. 

[819] Delisle, L. (ed.) (1872) Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbé de Mont-Saint-Michel (Rouen), I, 912, p. 14. 

[820] WJ IV.4, p. 83. 

[821] WJ II.12, p. 46. 

[822] WJ II.22, p. 59. 

[823] Favre Eudes, comte de Paris et roi de France, p. 242, cited in Latouche Histoire du Maine, p. 12 footnote 7. 

[824] Busson, G. & Ledru, A. (eds.) (1906) Nécrologe-obituaire de la Cathédrale du Mans, Arc