MILAN

  v2.0 Updated 18 February 2011

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.            LORDS of MILAN (della TORRE) 4

Chapter 2.            LORDS of MILAN, DUKES of MILAN (VISCONTI) 9

A.       ORIGINS.. 9

B.       LORDS of MILAN.. 14

C.      DUKES of MILAN.. 17

GIAN GALEAZZO 1395-1402, GIOVANNI MARIA 1402-1412, FILIPPO MARIA 1412-1447. 17

Chapter 3.            DUKES of MILAN (SFORZA) 17

A.       ORIGINS.. 17

B.       DUKES of MILAN 1450-1535. 17

FRANCESCO I 1450-1466, GALEAZZO MARIA 1466-1476, GIAN GALEAZZO II 1476-1494, LODOVICO 1494-1508, MASSIMILIANO 1512-1515, FRANCESCO II 1521-1535. 17

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The history of Milan in the 13th to 16th centuries was dominated by three dynasties: della Torre, Visconti and Sforza.  References to counts of Milan have been found in the 9th century, see the document NORTHERN ITALY (1), but at no later period.  In the 13th and early 14th centuries, northern Italian cities had abandoned their ruling counts and were governed by consuls who were elected to office for short periods and ruled ostensibly in the name of the people.  By the mid-14th century, powerful families were emerging as leaders in each northern Italian city, and ensuring that their positions became quasi-hereditary.  The title "count" was still avoided, but the concept of the county persisted, as shown by a charter dated 6 Dec 1278 issued by Ottone Visconti Archbishop of Milan which refers both to "Communi Mediolani" and "terram comitatus Mediolani"[1].  The title "count" continues to appear in unexpected circumstances from time to time.  For examples, a charter dated 16 Sep 1339 refers to "Johannes…episcopus Novariensis et comes…ac Luchinus fratres de Vicecomitibus, civitatis Mediolani…domini generales"[2], the comital title of the bishop presumably being associated with a temporal lordship over the town held in his capacity as bishop of Novara. 

 

The della Torre family (see Chapter 1) first gained power in Milan in 1240, as confirmed by the Annales Mediolanenses which record that "populus Mediolanensis" elected "Paganeum de la Turre" to the "Capitaneum Populi" in 1240[3].  The title "Capitaneo Populi" was a reflection of the earlier practice of consular rule, although there is no reason to suppose that the "Capitaneo" ruled any differently from a count.  The della Torre family retained power in Milan until 1277. 

 

Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Dominum Archiepiscopum Ottonem Vicecomitem" expelled "Dominus Nappe de la Torre" and ruled as "Dominus Mediolani" for 18 years[4].  As can be seen, the title was reverting away from the capitaneo concept, although Ottone´s great-nephew Matteo is reported in the Annales Mediolanenses as using "Capitaneo Populi Mediolani" when he delegated the position to his son Galeazzo in 1298[5].  The Visconti family retained power in Milan until 1447, except for a nine year period in the early 14th century when a member of the della Torre family was restored as Lord of Milan (see Chapter 2).  Gian Galeazzo Lord of Milan was created duke by the emperor in 1395.  The Visconti family married into many of the other European dynasties, as can be seen in the present document, behaving as any other ruling family. 

 

During the 14th century, the Visconti Lords of Milan extended their power in northern Italy far from Milan itself.  The spread of Visconti influence can be plotted from a series of extracts from Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum, together with the testament of Gian Galeazzo Duke of Milan, which name the northern Italian cities controlled by the family at six data points between 1339 and 1385: 1339 (death of Azzo Visconti), 1349 (death of Lucchino Visconti), 1354 (death of Giovanni Visconti), 1378 (death of Galeazzo [II] Visconti), 1385 (death of Bernabň Visconti), and 1397 (testament of Gian Galeazzo Duke of Milan[6]), as shown in Figure 1 below. 

 

Figure 1: Cities governed by Milan 1339-1397

City

1339

1349

1354

1378/1385

1397

Alba

 

 

 

 

Alessandria

 

Asti

 

 

 

Bergamo

Bobbio

 

Bologna

 

 

 

 

Brescia

Cremona

Cumara

 

Genoa

 

 

 

 

Lodi

Milan

Novara

Parma

 

Pavia

 

 

 

Piacenza

Reggio

 

 

 

Terdona

 

Vercelli

 

After the death in 1447 of Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan, without legitimate heirs, republicans based at the university of Pavia established the "Golden Ambrosian Republic", but in early 1450 one of its leaders Francesco Sforza defected to the Venetians.  The city of Milan surrendered to him in Mar 1450 when he declared himself capitano del popolo and duke of Milan, by right of his wife who was the illegitimate daughter of the last Visconti duke (see Chapter 3).  The Sforza family continued to rule Milan until 1535, although they were driven from the city by the French in 1499, between 1500 and 1513, and from 1515 until 1525 when the city was captured by Emperor Charles V who installed Francesco II Sforza as duke of Milan. 

 

One of the features of both the Visconti and Sforza families is the surprising number of illegitimate children who acquired power.  As was the case in many other northern Italian cities in the 14th and 15th centuries, illegitimacy seems to have been no bar to succession.  Many northern Italian rulers maintained long-standing relationships with particular mistresses and produced numerous children, in some cases in parallel with the families born to their legitimate spouses. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    LORDS of MILAN (della TORRE)

 

 

 

1.         MARTINO della Torrem ---.  The name of Martino´s wife is not known. Martino & his wife had one child: 

a)         GIACOMO della Torre .  The Annales Mediolanenses name "Martinus giganteus" as father of "Jacobus"[7]m ---.  The name of Giacomo´s wife is not known. Giacomo & his wife had three children: 

i)          PAGANO della Torre (-1247).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Jacobus" had "tres filii…Paganus…primus de Domo Turrianorum dominus civitatis, et Jacobus, et Antimanus archiprebyter"[8]

-         see below

ii)         GIACOPO della Torre .  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Jacobus" had "tres filii…Paganus…primus de Domo Turrianorum dominus civitatis, et Jacobus, et Antimanus archiprebyter"[9]m ---.  The name of Giacopo´s wife is not known. Giacopo & his wife had three children: 

(a)       MARTINO "Magno" della Torre (-18 Jan 1264, bur Chiaravalle Abbey).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Giacopo" had two sons "Martinus Magnus et Philippus Magnus"[10].  The Annales Mediolanenses records the death 18 Jan 1264 of "Martinus Magnus de la Turre", his burial "in Claravalle…juxta tumulum Pagani de la Turre patris sui", and the succession of "Philippo fratri suo" to "dominium civitatis Mediolani et civitatis Laudensis et Novarić"[11]

(b)       FILIPPO "Magno" della Torre (-1265).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Giacopo" had two sons "Martinus Magnus et Philippus Magnus"[12].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in 1265 of "Dominum Philippum de la Turre…civitatum…Brixić, Cumarum, Pergami, Novarić, Vercellarum et Laude", leaving "filium…Salvinus", but the succession of "Neapoleo sive Napus consanguineus eius germanus" to "dominium civitatis Mediolani"[13]m ---.  The name of Filippo´s wife is not known. Filippo & his wife had one child: 

(1)       SALVINO della Torre .  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in 1265 of "Dominum Philippum de la Turre…civitatum…Brixić, Cumarum, Pergami, Novarić, Vercellarum et Laude" leaving "filium…Salvinus"[14]

iii)        ANTIMANO della Torre .  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Jacobus" had "tres filii…Paganus…primus de Domo Turrianorum dominus civitatis, et Jacobus, et Antimanus archiprebyter"[15]

 

 

PAGANO della Torre, son of GIACOMO della Torre & his wife --- (-1247).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Jacobus" had "tres filii…Paganus…primus de Domo Turrianorum dominus civitatis, et Jacobus, et Antimanus archiprebyter"[16]The Annales Mediolanenses record that "populus Mediolanensis" elected "Paganeum de la Turre" to the "Capitaneum Populi" in 1240, that he arrived with "Hermannus de la Turre filius eius, cum uxore et filiis et universis consanguineis suis" and established "primum Adventarium communitatis Mediolani"[17]

m ---.  The name of Pagano´s wife is not known. 

Pagano & his wife had six children: 

1.         ERMANO della Torre .  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Paganus…primus de Domo Turrianorum dominus civitatis" had "sex filii…Hermannus, Napus, Franciscus, Carnevŕ, Raymundus Patriarcha Aquilensis, et Paganinus qui fuit interfectus in Vercellis"[18].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "populus Mediolanensis" elected "Paganeum de la Turre" to the "Capitaneum Populi" in 1240, that he arrived with "Hermannus de la Turre filius eius, cum uxore et filiis et universis consanguineis suis" and established "primum Adventarium communitatis Mediolani"[19]

2.         NAPOLEONE [Napo] della Torre .  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Paganus…primus de Domo Turrianorum dominus civitatis" had "sex filii…Hermannus, Napus, Franciscus, Carnevŕ, Raymundus Patriarcha Aquilensis, et Paganinus qui fuit interfectus in Vercellis"[20].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in 1265 of "Dominum Philippum de la Turre…civitatum…Brixić, Cumarum, Pergami, Novarić, Vercellarum et Laude", leaving the succession of "Neapoleo sive Napus consanguineus eius germanus" to "dominium civitatis Mediolani"[21].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that Rudolf I King of Germany invested "Napum de la Turre" as Vicar-General in Milan in 1274[22].  "Dominis Napoleone de la Turre et Francisco de la Turre" are named as present in a charter dated 14 Mar 1275 under which "Dominus Veneticus domini Alberti Cazinimici Potestas Mediolani" granted rights the Monasterio Maggiore at Milan, which also names "domino Samuello de la Turre…Pagano fratri dicti domini Samuell"[23].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Napus de la Turre Dominus civitatis cum Musca filio suo et Franciscus de la Turre cum Guideto eius filius et Carnevŕ cum duobus suis nepotibus…Herech et Lombardus" opposed Ottone Archbishop of Milan in 1277, and that "Napus cum Musca suo filio, Guido, Carnevŕ, Herech and Lombardus" were captured and imprisoned "in castro de Baradello"[24].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Dominum Archiepiscopum Ottonem Vicecomitem" expelled "Dominus Nappe de la Torre" from Milan in 1277 and ruled as "Dominus Mediolani" for 18 years[25]m ---.  The name of Napoleone´s wife is not known. Napoleone & his wife had two children: 

a)         CASSONO della Torre (-beheaded 25 May 1281).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Cassonus de la Turre filius Napi" relieved "Populi Varisii" and besieged "castrum de Angleria" with "multitudine militum Theotonicorum" in 1275[26].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Cassonus de la Turre" was beheaded 25 May 1281[27]

b)         MUSCA della Torre (-1305, bur Milan Franciscan Church).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Napus de la Turre Dominus civitatis cum Musca filio suo et Franciscus de la Turre cum Guideto eius filius et Carnevŕ cum duobus suis nepotibus…Herech et Lombardus" opposed Ottone Archbishop of Milan in 1277, and that "Napus cum Musca suo filio, Guido, Carnevŕ, Herech and Lombardus" were captured and imprisoned "in castro de Baradello"[28]The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Guido de la Turre…et Musca, Embaria et Zonfredus" took part in the rebellion against "Matthćum Vicecomitem Dominum civitatis Mediolani" in 1302[29].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in 1305 of "Musca de la Turre" and his burial "in Domo Fratrum Minorem"[30]

3.         FRANCESCO della Torre (-killed in battle Desio 1281).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Paganus…primus de Domo Turrianorum dominus civitatis" had "sex filii…Hermannus, Napus, Franciscus, Carnevŕ, Raymundus Patriarcha Aquilensis, et Paganinus qui fuit interfectus in Vercellis"[31].  Podestâ of Brescia, Alessandria, Bergamo, Lodi and Novara.  "Dominis Napoleone de la Turre et Francisco de la Turre" are named as present in a charter dated 14 Mar 1275 under which "Dominus Veneticus domini Alberti Cazinimici Potestas Mediolani" granted rights the Monasterio Maggiore at Milan, which also names "domino Samuello de la Turre…Pagano fratri dicti domini Samuell"[32].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Napus de la Turre Dominus civitatis cum Musca filio suo et Franciscus de la Turre cum Guideto eius filius et Carnevŕ cum duobus suis nepotibus…Herech et Lombardus" opposed Ottone Archbishop of Milan in 1277[33]m ---.  The name of Francesco´s wife is not known. Francesco & his wife had one child:

a)         GUIDO della Torre (-after 27 Nov 1311).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Napus de la Turre Dominus civitatis cum Musca filio suo et Franciscus de la Turre cum Guideto eius filius et Carnevŕ cum duobus suis nepotibus…Herech et Lombardus" opposed Ottone Archbishop of Milan in 1277, and that "Napus cum Musca suo filio, Guido, Carnevŕ, Herech and Lombardus" were captured and imprisoned "in castro de Baradello"[34]Lord of Milan.  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Guido de la Turre…et Musca, Embaria et Zonfredus" took part in the rebellion against "Matthćum Vicecomitem Dominum civitatis Mediolani" in 1302[35].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Guido de la Turre" was installed as "Dominus generalis Populi Mediolani" in 1306[36].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that Emperor Heinrich VII expelled "Guidonem de la Turre" in 1311[37]"Dominus Guido de la Turre et Symon eius filius, Oliverius et Passarinus de la Turre…de parte Guelfa…Mediolani" issued a charter dated 27 Nov 1311[38]m (May 1276) BEATRICE, daughter of SIMONE Conte di Batifoglia & his wife ---.  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage in May 1276 of "Guido de la Turre" and "Dominam Beatricem…filiam Simonis…comitis de Battifolle de Terra Florentić"[39].  Guido & his wife had one child: 

i)          SIMONE della Torre"Dominus Guido de la Turre et Symon eius filius, Oliverius et Passarinus de la Turre…de parte Guelfa…Mediolani" issued a charter dated 27 Nov 1311[40]

4.         CANEVŔ della Torre .  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Paganus…primus de Domo Turrianorum dominus civitatis" had "sex filii…Hermannus, Napus, Franciscus, Carnevŕ, Raymundus Patriarcha Aquilensis, et Paganinus qui fuit interfectus in Vercellis"[41].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Napus de la Turre Dominus civitatis cum Musca filio suo et Franciscus de la Turre cum Guideto eius filius et Carnevŕ cum duobus suis nepotibus…Herech et Lombardus" opposed Ottone Archbishop of Milan in 1277, and that "Napus cum Musca suo filio, Guido, Carnevŕ, Herech and Lombardus" were captured and imprisoned "in castro de Baradello"[42]

5.         RAIMONDO della Torre (-1299).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Paganus…primus de Domo Turrianorum dominus civitatis" had "sex filii…Hermannus, Napus, Franciscus, Carnevŕ, Raymundus Patriarcha Aquilensis, et Paganinus qui fuit interfectus in Vercellis"[43]Bishop of Como 1262.  Patriarch of Aquileja 1273.  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in 1298 of "Raymundus de la Turre Patriarcha Aquilejensis" (as the last reported event in that year)[44]

6.         PAGANINO della Torre (-killed Vercelli 1266, bur Milan San Dionisio).  The Annales Mediolanenses records the murder in 1266 of "Paganino fratri suo [referring to "Napo de la Turre"] juniori…[Dominum] civitatis Vercellensis" on the road to Pavia and his burial in Milan "in monasterio Sancti Dionysii"[45]

 

 

1.         CASTONE della Torre (-1319).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Castonus de la Turre" was elected Archbishop of Milan in 1307[46].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Castonus de la Turre Archiepiscopus Mediolani" was installed as Patriarch of Aquileja in 1317[47]

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         SAMUELE della Torre (-after 14 Mar 1275).  "Dominis Napoleone de la Turre et Francisco de la Turre" are named as present in a charter dated 14 Mar 1275 under which "Dominus Veneticus domini Alberti Cazinimici Potestas Mediolani" granted rights the Monasterio Maggiore at Milan, which also names "domino Samuello de la Turre…Pagano fratri dicti domini Samuell"[48]

2.         PAGANO della Torre (-after 14 Mar 1275).  "Dominis Napoleone de la Turre et Francisco de la Turre" are named as present in a charter dated 14 Mar 1275 under which "Dominus Veneticus domini Alberti Cazinimici Potestas Mediolani" granted rights the Monasterio Maggiore at Milan, which also names "domino Samuello de la Turre…Pagano fratri dicti domini Samuell"[49]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    LORDS of MILAN, DUKES of MILAN (VISCONTI)

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         OTTONE Visconti (-Chiaravalle Abbey Aug 1295).  Archbishop of Milan 1262.  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Dominum Archiepiscopum Ottonem Vicecomitem" expelled "Dominus Nappe de la Torre" from Milan in 1277 and ruled as "Dominus Mediolani" for 18 years[50].  Towards the end of this period, Ottone ceded powers in Milan to his great-nephew Matteo, although he continued as archbishop.  The relative positions of power in the city during this later period are unclear from the documentation.  The Annales Mediolanenses record 1284 as "sub dominio Ottonis Vicecomitis Archiepiscopi", 1285 and 1286 as "sub dominio Ottonis Archiepiscopi et Matthći Vicarii", from 1287 until 1292 as "vivente Ottone Archiepiscopo, dominante Matthćo Vicecomite", and 1293 as "vacante sede…Archiepiscopali, dominante Matthćo Vicecomite"[51].  A charter dated 21 Dec 1289 records "Matheus Vicecomes, populi Mediolani capitaneus, universis et singulis civitatis et districtus Mediolani" and does not mention the archbishop[52].  "Otto…sancte Mediolanensis ecclesie archiepiscopus" issued a charter dated 21 Feb 1292 without referring either to his own temporal position or to his great-nephew Matteo[53].  The mention in the Annales Mediolanenses in 1293 of "vacante sede…Archiepiscopali, dominante Matthćo Vicecomite" suggests that Ottone retired from active life, presumably due to ill-health[54].  However, a new archbishop of Milan is not recorded in the Annales until 1295, which suggests that Ottone continued to exercise influence behind the scenes, and that his successor was not elected until after he died.  This would place Ottone´s death in 1295, although the Annales make no reference to the event. 

2.         OBIZZO Visconti (-after 1258).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   m FIORINA Mandelli, daughter of RUFFINO Mandelli & his wife Aldesia Pietrasanta.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Obizzo & his wife had two children: 

a)         TIBALDO Visconti (-beheaded Gallarate 1276).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Archiepiscopum Ottonem…Tibaldi nepotis sui" was beheaded "in Galerate" in 1276[55]m ANASTASIA Pirovano, niece of Cardinal Uberto Pirovano Archbishop of Milan, daughter of --- (-1276, bur [Milan San Eustorgio]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Tibaldo & his wife had [four] children: 

i)          MATTEO [I] Visconti (Invorio 15 Jul 1250-Crescenzago 28 Jun 1322).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Dominus Mafćus Vicecomes nepos Domini Ottonis Vicecomitis Archiepiscopi Mediolani" was installed as "Populi Mediolani Capitaneus" in 1287 and shortly after as "Dominus Generalis civitatis Mediolani"[56]Lord of Milan

-         see below

ii)         UBERTO Visconti (-22 Apr 1315, bur Milan Dominican Church).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in 1315 of "Nobilis Miles Ubertus Vicecomes frater magni Matthći Vicecomitis" and his burial "in conventu Fratrum Prćdicatorum"[57]

iii)        [STEFANO Visconti (-1327, bur Milan San Eustorgio).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in 1327 of "nobilis Miles Stephanus Vicecomes" and his burial "apud Sanctum Eustorgium cum matre sua"[58].  The source does not specify Stefano´s parentage but it is possible that he was another otherwise unrecorded brother of Matteo [I] Visconti Lord of Milan.] 

iv)       [OTTORINO Visconti ([12/14] Oct 1336, bur Milan San Eustorgio).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in 1336 of "nobilis Miles Ottorinus Vicecomes" and his burial "in ecclesia Sancti Eustorgii" 15 Oct[59].  His place of burial suggests that Ottorino may have been the brother of Stefano Visconti.] 

b)         PIETRO Visconti (-after 1301).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Petrus Vicecomes Dominus Seprii et frater patris Matthći" rebelled against "Matthćum Vicecomitem Dominum civitatis Mediolani" in 1301 but was captured and held "in castro de Serezano"[60]m ---.  The name of Pietro´s wife is not known.  Pietro & his wife had one child: 

i)          daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Annales Mediolanenses which record that "Petrus Vicecomes Dominus Seprii et frater patris Matthći" incited "Ruscam Dominum civitatis Cumanć generum suum" to rebel against Matteo [I] Visconti Lord of Milan in 1301, the succeeding passage recording "Conradus Rusca Dominus civitatis Cumanć" among the rebels[61]m CORRADO "Rusca" Signore di Cuma, son of --- (-after 1301). 

 

 

The relationship between the following individuals and small family groups and the main Visconti family has not yet been traced. 

 

1.         ALIPRANDO Visconti (-after 25 Apr 1297).  A charter dated 25 Apr 1297 records a judgment in a claim by "dominos Andream et Galvaneum fratres filios emancipatos domini Aliprandi Vicecomitis"[62]m ---.  The name of Aliprando´s wife is not known.  Aliprando & his wife had two children: 

a)         ANDREA Visconti (-after 25 Apr 1297).  A charter dated 25 Apr 1297 records a judgment in a claim by "dominos Andream et Galvaneum fratres filios emancipatos domini Aliprandi Vicecomitis"[63]

b)         GALVANEO Visconti (-after 25 Apr 1297).  A charter dated 25 Apr 1297 records a judgment in a claim by "dominos Andream et Galvaneum fratres filios emancipatos domini Aliprandi Vicecomitis"[64]

 

2.         VERCELLINO Visconti (-after 1332).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "nobilis Miles Vercellinus Vicecomes" visited Avignon to make peace with the church in 1332[65]

 

3.         MARGHERITA Visconti (-after 1339).  The Annales Mediolanenses name "Dominam Margaritam de Vicecomitibus" as the wife of "Dominus Franciscolus de Pusterla" when recording that the latter opposed the succession of Lucchino Visconti as Lord of Milan in 1339[66]m FRANCESCO di Pusterla, son of --- (-after 1339). 

 

4.         LODRISIO Visconti (-after 1350).  m ---.  The name of Lodrisio´s wife is not known.  Lodrisio & his wife had one child: 

a)         AMBROGIO Visconti .  The Annales Mediolanenses record that the marriage of "Domino Ambrosio filio Domini Lodrisii Vicecomitis" was celebrated "in palatio…Domini Archiepiscopi" at the same time as the marriages of Bernabň and Galeazzo Visconti, but does not name his wife[67]m (Sep 1350) ---.  The Annales Mediolanenses record that the marriage of "Domino Ambrosio filio Domini Lodrisii Vicecomitis" was celebrated "in palatio…Domini Archiepiscopi" at the same time as the marriages of Bernabň and Galeazzo Visconti. but does not name his wife[68].  Ambrogio & his wife had two children: 

i)          SIMONE Visconti (-after 7 Aug 1419).  Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan granted the right to use water from the river Olona to "Symonis et Johannis fratrum de Vicecomitibus natorum quondam…militis domini Ambrosii olim nati…domini Lodrixii" by charter dated 7 Aug 1419[69]

ii)         GIOVANNI Visconti (-after 7 Aug 1419).  Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan granted the right to use water from the river Olona to "Symonis et Johannis fratrum de Vicecomitibus natorum quondam…militis domini Ambrosii olim nati…domini Lodrixii" by charter dated 7 Aug 1419[70]

 

5.         GASPARINO Visconti (-after 1350).  The Annales Mediolanenses record "Dominus Gasparinus Vicecomes" supported "Domini Archiepiscopi" and was made Potestŕ of Bologna, dated to [1350] from the context[71]m ---.  The name of Gasparino´s wife is not known.  Gasparino & his wife had one child: 

a)         son (-after 1363).  The Annales Mediolanenses name "quidam filius Domini Gasparis de Comite de Mediolano" among those captured in 1363 when Bernabň Visconti Lord of Milan attacked Guastalla[72]

 

6.         GIOVANNI Visconti di Olegio (-after 1359).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Domini Archiepiscopi" installed "Dominum Johannem de Olegio de Vicecomitibus" as "Capitaneo et Locumtenente", dated to [1350] from the context[73].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death 28 Sep 1355 of "Matthćus", implying that it was hastened by "Dominus Johannes Vicecomes de Olegio"[74].  The Annales Mediolanenses names "Johannes de Olegio" as one of the godfathers at the baptism in Sep 1358 of "unus filius…Domini Barnabovis…Ludovicus", but adding that he did not come to Milan in person but sent "suum nepotem Gerardum"[75].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that Bernabň Visconti Lord of Milan attacked "Johannem de Olegio" in 1359 and captured Bologna[76]

7.         ---.  m ---.  One child: 

a)         GERARDO (-after Sep 1358).  The Annales Mediolanenses names "Johannes de Olegio" as one of the godfathers at the baptism in Sep 1358 of "unus filius…Domini Barnabovis…Ludovicus", but adding that he did not come to Milan in person but sent "suum nepotem Gerardum"[77]

 

8.         VERCELLINO Visconti (-after 19 Oct 1382).  "Vercellinus Vicecomes" requested "domino Francisco de Gonzaga, domino Mantue" to pay a debt contracted by "quondam dominam Ziliola quondam consorte domini Mathei Vicecomitis" by charter dated 19 Oct 1382[78]m ---.  The name of Vercellino´s wife is not known.  Vercellino & his wife had one child: 

a)         ANTONIO Visconti (-[31 Oct 1407/2 Jul 1413]).  "Antonius Vicecomes miles" requested "domino Ludovicho de Gonzaga" to obtain a good falcon for him by charter dated 1 Jan 1382[79].  ["Dux Mediolani" appointed "domino Antonio de Vicecomitibus" as ambassador of the commune of Milan by charter dated 9 Sep 1396[80].  It is not known whether this document relates to the same Antonio Visconti.]  Giovanni Maria Duke of Milan granted "hospitium della Balla…in civitate Mediolani in porta Ticinensi in parochia sancti Sebastiani" to "Antonius filius…militis domini Vercellini de Vicecomitibus…primus camerarius et consiliarius noster" by charter dated 31 Oct 1407[81]m VALENTINA Visconti, illegitimate daughter of BERNABŇ Visconti Lord of Milan & his mistress --- (-after 10 Apr 1414).  Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan granted "Melegnani…Basilicapetri…Belzoyosii" {Melegnano, Bescapč and Belgiojoso} to "Johanne Vicecomite nato quondam…domini Ludovici, Francisco et Hestore fratribus de Vicecomitibus natis quondam…domini Hestoris, et Bernabove Vicecomite nato quondam…domini Mastini", with reversion to "domini Antonii de Vicecomitibus…germano prelibati dominum Ducis" in execution of a convention between "Franciscum dictum Carmagnolam de Boxonis" and "dominam Valentinam de Vicecomitibus natam quondam…domini Bernabovis tunc gubernatricem castri Modoetie", by charter dated 10 Apr 1414[82].  Antonio & his wife had one child: 

i)          GENTILE Visconti (-after 2 Jul 1413).  Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan declared "Gentilis de Vicecomitibus filius…militis Domini Antonii" innocent of the murder of his brother Duke Giovanni Maria and restored to him "castri nostri Modoetie" by charter dated 2 Jul 1413[83]

 

 

 

B.      LORDS of MILAN

 

 

MATTEO [I] Visconti, son of --- (Invorio 15 Jul 1250-Crescenzago 28 Jun 1322).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Dominus Mafćus Vicecomes nepos Domini Ottonis Vicecomitis Archiepiscopi Mediolani" was installed as "Populi Mediolani Capitaneus" in 1287 and shortly after as "Dominus Generalis civitatis Mediolani"[84].  The Annales Mediolanenses record 1284 as "sub dominio Ottonis Vicecomitis Archiepiscopi", 1285 and 1286 as "sub dominio Ottonis Archiepiscopi et Matthći Vicarii", from 1287 until 1292 as "vivente Ottone Archiepiscopo, dominante Matthćo Vicecomite", and 1293 as "vacante sede…Archiepiscopali, dominante Matthćo Vicecomite"[85]Lord of Milan.  "Matheus Vicecomes, populi Mediolani capitaneus, universis et singulis civitatis et districtus Mediolani" granted exemptions to inhabitants of specified towns from providing workers to Chiaravalle monastery by charter dated 21 Dec 1289[86].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that the emperor installed "Mathćum Vicecomitem" as "Vicarium generalem in civitate Mediolani et comitatu" in 1295[87].  He is named as "domini Mathei Vicecomitis…domini regis Romanorum et imperii in Lombardia vicarii generalis et capitanei populi Mediolani" in a charter dated 25 Apr 1297[88].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Matthćus" appointed "Galeaz filium suum…Capitaneum Populi Mediolani" in 1298, while retaining the position Vicar-General himself[89].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that Matteo was exiled in 1302 after a rebellion led by his paternal uncle and the della Torre family but restored as Lord of Milan in 1311[90].  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records the death in 1322 of "Dominus Matthćus Vicecomes"[91].  The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis records the death of "Matheo Mediolanensi domino", dated to 1322 from the context[92].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death 28 Jun 1322 of "Dominus Maphćus Vicecomes Dominus Mediolani"[93].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death 21 Jun 1322 of "Matthćus Vicecomes…apud Carsenziagum", adding that his death was kept secret for 15 days (presumably to ensure a peaceful transition to the rule of his son) and that his body was never found[94]

m (1269) VIOLANTA Borri, daughter of SQUARCINO Borri & his wife --- (-Milan 15 Jan 1321).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Maphćolus…de Vicecomitibus" married "Dominam Violantam de Burris"[95]

Matteo [I] & his wife had seven children: 

1.         GALEAZZO [I] Visconti (21 Jan 1277-Pescia 6 Aug 1328).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Galeaz primogenito, Johannes, Marcus, Luchinus et Stephanus" as the children of "Maphćolus…de Vicecomitibus" and his wife "Dominam Violantam de Burris"[96].  The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis names "Goleaceo, Iohanne, Marco, Luca et Stephano" as the sons of "Matheo Mediolanensi domino"[97].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Matthćus" appointed "Galeaz filium suum…Capitaneum Populi Mediolani" in 1298, while retaining the position Vicar-General himself[98].  Podestŕ di Novara 1298/1299.  Vicar General of Piacenza 1313.  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Dominus Galeaz Vicecomes" was appointed "Vicarius civitatis Placentić" by the emperor 18 May 1313[99].  Podesta di Treviso 1310.  Capitano del Popolo and Lord of Milan 24 Jun 1322 to 8 Nov 1322, and from 29 Dec 1322 to 5 Jul 1327 when he was deposed.  The Annales Mediolanenses record the capture [5] Jul 1327 of "Galeazium Vicecomitem Dominum Civitatis et Azzonem filius eius et duo fratres ipsius Galeazii…Johannem Ordinarium Ecclesić Majoris et Luchinum" and their imprisonment "in castro de Modoëtia", and the appointment by Emperor Ludwig of "Guillielmum comitem de Monteforti" as "in civitate Mediolani…suum Vicarium"[100].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the release from captivity in 1328 of "Galeaz Vicecomes" and his death returning "in territorio de Luca in loco…Pesia"[101]m (Modena 24 Jun 1300) as her second husband, BEATRICE d'Este, widow of UGOLINO Visconti Judge of Gallura, daughter of OBIZZO [II] Marchese d'Este & his first wife Giacobina Fieschi ([1267]-Milan 1 or 15 Sep [1334 or 1337], bur Milan Franciscan Church).  The Annales Veteres Mutinensium record the marriage "in Prato Entesini, Burgi Bajovarić Mutinć" in 1300 of "Azzo Estensis Marchio…dominam Beatricem sororem suam, uxorem olim Judicis de Gallura" and "domino Galeacio filio domini Massei de Vicecomitibus domini Mediolani"[102].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage in 1299 between "Azzo Marchio Estensis sororem suam Beatricem" and "Galeazio Vicecomiti"[103].  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Dominus Galeazius Mediolani vicarius imperialis" married "parentelć de marchionibus Estensibus de Ferraria…Beatricem"[104].  Heiress of Galura.  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death 1 Sep (in 1337 from the context) of "Domina Beatrix de Este de Ferraria mater Domini Azzonis" and her burial "in ecclesia Fratrum Minorem Mediolani"[105].  Galeazzo [I] & his wife had two children: 

a)         AZZONE Visconti (Ferrara 7 Dec 1302-Milan 16 Aug 1339)The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Dominum Azonem" as the son of "Dominus Galeazius Mediolani vicarius imperialis" and his wife[106].  The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis names "Atzonem filium Goleacii"[107].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the capture [5] Jul 1327 of "Galeazium Vicecomitem Dominum Civitatis et Azzonem filius eius et duo fratres ipsius Galeazii…Johannem Ordinarium Ecclesić Majoris et Luchinum" and their imprisonment "in castro de Modoëtia"[108].  Capitano del Popolo and Lord of Milan 1329.  Imperial Vicar of Milan 15 Jan 1329, confirmed 23 Sep 1329.  He is named "Miles dominus Azo Vicecomes civitatis et districtus Mediolani vicarius generalis" dated 21 Feb 1334[109] and "Azo Vicecomes civitatis et districtus Mediolani…dominus generalis" in a charter dated 20 Oct 1336[110].  Signore di Vercelli 1334, confirmed Sep 1335.  Signore di Como 29 Jul 1335.  Signore di Parma 15 Dec 1336.  Signore di Brescia 8 Oct 1337.  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death in Aug 1339 of "Dominus Azo Vicecomes civitatum Mediolani, Placentić, Cremonć, Brixić, Pergami, Vercellarum, Novarić, et Laudć, et Castrorum Cremć, et Burgi S. Donini Dominus generalis"[111]m (Milan 1 or 10 Oct 1330) as her first husband, CATHERINE de Savoie, daughter of LOUIS II de Savoie Baron de Vaud & his wife Isabelle de Chalon [Bourgogne-Comté] (-18 Jan 1388, bur Namur, couvent des Franciscains).  Her first marriage is confirmed by an agreement dated 22 Jan 1339 between "Lodovico di Savoia Signore di Vaud" and "Cattarina di Savoia sua figlia Moglie d'Azone Visconti Signore di Milano" relating to the payment of her dowry[112].  She married secondly (contract Dec 1340[113], before 19 Dec 1340[114]) Raoul [II] de Brienne Comte d'Eu et de Guines, and thirdly (Mar 1352) Guillaume I "le Riche" Comte de Namur

b)         RICCARDA Visconti (-after 2 Aug 1361, bur Revello Santa Maria).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Dominam Rizardam" as the daughter of "Dominus Galeazius Mediolani vicarius imperialis" and his wife, adding that she married "Domino Frailino marchioni Salutiarum"[115].  A continuation of the Chronica Jacobi de Aquis records that "Thomas", son of "Federico primo", married "Richiarda sorella del Signor Galeazzo Maria Visconte Signore di Milano"[116].  "Marchese Federico di Saluzzo" gave a quittance dated 5 Oct 1329 for payment of the dowry of "Ricarda figlia del Conte Galeazzo Visconti di Milano Moglie del Marchese Tomaso di Saluzzo figlio detto Marchese Federico"[117].  The testament of "Thomas Marchio Salutiarum…filius…Domini Friderici de Salutiis", dated 5 Aug 1357, bequeathes property to "…Dominć Riccardć comitissć Salutiarum consortis ipsius Domini Marchionis"[118].  The testament of "Domina Ricciarda de Vicecomitibus Mediolani relicta…Thomć Marchionis Salutiarum", dated 2 Aug 1361, chooses burial "in monasterio Revelli…in sepulchro prćfati Domini Thomć", and bequeathes property to "Galeatio, Azoni, Eustachio, Constantio, Luchini et fratri Jacobo eius filiis et filiis quondam domini Thomć Marchionis eius viri…dominum Federicum Marchionem eius filium"[119]m (before 5 Oct 1329) TOMMASO di Saluzzo, son of FEDERIGO Marchese di Saluzzo & his first wife Marguerite de la Tour-du-Pin ([1304]-Saluzzo 15 Aug 1357, bur Revello Santa Maria).  He succeeded his father in 1336 as TOMMASO II Marchese di Saluzzo

2.         CATARINA Visconti .  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage in 1291 of "Catherina filia Matthći Vicecomitis" and "Albuino de la Scala"[120].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by an earlier passage in the Annales Mediolanenses which name "Albuinus…gener Matthći Vicecomitis"[121]m (1291) as his first wife, ALBOINO della Scala Signore di Verona, son of ALBERT [I] della Scala Signore di Verona & his wife Verde di Salizolo (Verona [1284]-Verona 28 Oct 1311). 

3.         GIOVANNI Visconti (-Milan 5 Oct 1354).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Galeaz primogenito, Johannes, Marcus, Luchinus et Stephanus" as the children of "Maphćolus…de Vicecomitibus" and his wife "Dominam Violantam de Burris"[122].  The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis names "Goleaceo, Iohanne, Marco, Luca et Stephano" as the sons of "Matheo Mediolanensi domino"[123].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the capture [5] Jul 1327 of "Galeazium Vicecomitem Dominum Civitatis et Azzonem filius eius et duo fratres ipsius Galeazii…Johannem Ordinarium Ecclesić Majoris et Luchinum" and their imprisonment "in castro de Modoëtia"[124].  Bishop of Novara.  Lord of Milan 1339, jointly with his brothers until 1349.  "Johannes…episcopus Novariensis et comes…ac Luchinus fratres de Vicecomitibus, civitatis Mediolani…domini generales" confirmed concessions to the monastery of Chiaravalle by charter dated 16 Sep 1339[125].  Archbishop of Milan 1339.  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records the death 4 Oct 1354 of "Dominus Archiepiscopus"[126].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death 5 Oct 1354 in Milan of "Dominus Johannes Vicecomes Sanctć Mediolanensis ecclesić Archiepicopus, ac civitatum Mediolani, Placentić, Cremonć, Bononić, Brixić, Pergami, Januć, Cumarum, Vercellarum, Albć, Novarić, Terdonć, Alexandrić, Ast, Bobii, et Laudć, ac etiam Castrorum quamplurum Dominus generalis"[127].  Giovanni had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

a)         LEONARDO (-after [1376]).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Dominus Archiepiscopus" had "filium naturalem…Leonardum" whom he appointed Podestŕ in Novaria[128]m CATERINA di Viozzallo, daughter of MARTINO di Viozzallo dei Signori di Palestro & his wife ---.  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Domina Catharina…filia quondam Domini Martini de Viozzallo ex Dominis de Palestro" as the wife of Leonardo, son of "Dominus Archiepiscopus"[129]

4.         MARCO Visconti "Balatrone" (-murdered Milan 5 Sep 1329).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Galeaz primogenito, Johannes, Marcus, Luchinus et Stephanus" as the children of "Maphćolus…de Vicecomitibus" and his wife "Dominam Violantam de Burris"[130].  The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis names "Goleaceo, Iohanne, Marco, Luca et Stephano" as the sons of "Matheo Mediolanensi domino"[131].  Signore di Lucca 15 Apr 1329.  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Dominus Marcus" was unmarried but had "spurios multos", and that he died in 1329[132]

5.         LUCCHINO Visconti (-murdered Milan 24 Jan 1349, bur Milan, Crescentiaghi Church).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Galeaz primogenito, Johannes, Marcus, Luchinus et Stephanus" as the children of "Maphćolus…de Vicecomitibus" and his wife "Dominam Violantam de Burris"[133].  The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis names "Goleaceo, Iohanne, Marco, Luca et Stephano" as the sons of "Matheo Mediolanensi domino"[134].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the capture [5] Jul 1327 of "Galeazium Vicecomitem Dominum Civitatis et Azzonem filius eius et duo fratres ipsius Galeazii…Johannem Ordinarium Ecclesić Majoris et Luchinum" and their imprisonment "in castro de Modoëtia"[135]Lord of Milan 1339, jointly with his brothers.  "Johannes…episcopus Novariensis et comes…ac Luchinus fratres de Vicecomitibus, civitatis Mediolani…domini generales" confirmed concessions to the monastery of Chiaravalle by charter dated 16 Sep 1339[136].  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records the death 25 Jan 1348 (O.S.) of "Dominus Luchinus" and his burial "in ecclesia Crescentiaghi"[137].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death 24 Jan 1348 of "Magnificus Dominus Luchinus Vicecomes civitatum Mediolani, Placentić, Parmć, Cremonć, Brixić, Pergami, Cumarum, Vercellarum, Novarić, Terdonć, Alexandrić, Ast, Bobii, et Laudć, nec non Castrorum Cremć, Burgi S. Donini, et Pontremuli Dominus generalis"[138]m firstly (1316) CATERINA Spinola, daughter of OBERTO Spinola Patrizio of Genoa & his wife --- (-1317).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Luchinus…Vicecomes" married "uname de Spinolis"[139]m secondly ([1318]) ELISABETTA Fieschi, daughter of CARLO Fieschi Capitano of Genoa & his wife Teodora --- (-[after 1331 or after 1349]).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Luchinus…Vicecomes" married "Dominam Elisabetham de Flisco sororem…Domini Johannis de Flisco" after the death of his first wife[140].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death in battle at "Parabiago in comitatu Mediolani" in 1337 of "Dominus Johannes de Flisco de Janua…cuius sororem Dominus Luchinus duxerat in uxorem"[141].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Domina Elisabet de Flisco uxor…Domini Luchini" visited the church of San Marco in Venice in 1346 and that, after the death of her husband, she fled Milan "cum filio suo parvulo Luchino novello" and settled in Genoa[142].  [m thirdly (1339) as her second husband, VIOLANTE di Saluzzo, widow of OBIZZO Spinola, daughter of TOMMASO I Marchese di Saluzzo & his wife Aloisia di Ceva.  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.   Secondary sources show Violante as the third wife of Lucchino and mother of his three younger legitimate children.  However, this inconsistent with the sources which record his wife Elisabetta as still alive when Lucchino was killed and as mother of his son Lucchino and also appears to be chronologically impossible.]  Lucchino & his first wife had one child: 

a)         CATERINA Visconti .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (Florence 6 Jun 1342) as his third wife, BERTOLDO d´Este Signore di Ferrara, son of FRANCESCO d´Este Signore di Reggio & his wife Orsina Orsini (-21 Jul 1343). 

Lucchino & his second wife had three children: 

b)         ORSINA Visconti (1343-after 8 Apr 1404).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Ursinam" as the daughter of "Luchinus…Vicecomes" and his second wife "Dominam Elisabetham de Flisco sororem…Domini Johannis de Flisco"[143].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   m BALZARINO Pusterla Patrizio of Milan, son of ---. 

c)         LUCCHINO Visconti (24 Aug 1346-Venice 1399).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Luchinum" as the son of "Luchinus…Vicecomes" and his second wife "Dominam Elisabetham de Flisco sororem…Domini Johannis de Flisco"[144].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Domina Elisabet de Flisco uxor…Domini Luchini", after the death of her husband, fled Milan "cum filio suo parvulo Luchino novello" and settled in Genoa[145].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Domino Luchino Novello Vicecomitis" secretly returned to Milan in 1370[146].  He became a citizen of Venice.  The testament of "dominus Luchinus Vicecomes natus quondam…domini Luchini Vicecomitis olim Mediolani…vicaris generalis, civis Venetiarum et Mediolani", dated 7 Jul 1399, requested burial "Mediolani in capella…sanctum Francischum" or, if the duke of Milan did not consent, at "Florentie ad locum sancti Francisci", bequeathed property to "domine Magdalene consorti mee…filiarum mearum, tam natarum, quam nasciturarum et etiam filiorum meorum…Catherine et Magdalene filiabus meis…" and referred to the marriage contract between "Isabella filia mea cum Galeoto de Branchaleonibus de Castro Durante"[147]m MADDALENA, daughter of --- (-after 7 Jul 1399).  The testament of "dominus Luchinus Vicecomes natus quondam…domini Luchini Vicecomitis olim Mediolani…vicaris generalis, civis Venetiarum et Mediolani", dated 7 Jul 1399, bequeathed property to "domine Magdalene consorti mee…filiarum mearum, tam natarum, quam nasciturarum et etiam filiorum meorum…Catherine et Magdalene filiabus meis…"[148].  Lucchino & his wife had three children: 

i)          ISABELLA Visconti (-after 7 Jul 1399).  The testament of "dominus Luchinus Vicecomes natus quondam…domini Luchini Vicecomitis olim Mediolani…vicaris generalis, civis Venetiarum et Mediolani", dated 7 Jul 1399, referred to the marriage contract between "Isabella filia mea cum Galeoto de Branchaleonibus de Castro Durante"[149]Betrothed (before 7 Jul 1399) to GALEOTTO di Brancaleono, son of ---. 

ii)         CATARINA Visconti (-after 7 Jul 1399).  The testament of "dominus Luchinus Vicecomes natus quondam…domini Luchini Vicecomitis olim Mediolani…vicaris generalis, civis Venetiarum et Mediolani", dated 7 Jul 1399, bequeathed property to "…Catherine et Magdalene filiabus meis…"[150]

iii)        MADDALENA Visconti (-after 7 Jul 1399).  The testament of "dominus Luchinus Vicecomes natus quondam…domini Luchini Vicecomitis olim Mediolani…vicaris generalis, civis Venetiarum et Mediolani", dated 7 Jul 1399, bequeathed property to "…Catherine et Magdalene filiabus meis…"[151]

d)         GIOVANNI Visconti (24 Aug 1346-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

Lucchino had illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

e)         BRIZIO Visconti (-Venice 1356).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Brusium, Forestinum et Borsium" as the illegitimate children of "Luchinus…Vicecomes" and his second wife "Dominam Elisabetham de Flisco sororem…Domini Johannis de Flisco"[152]

f)          FORESTINO Visconti (-after 1349).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Brusium, Forestinum et Borsium" as the illegitimate children of "Luchinus…Vicecomes" and his second wife "Dominam Elisabetham de Flisco sororem…Domini Johannis de Flisco"[153].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Forestinus filius naturalis quondam Domini Luchini" entered the service of his uncle "Domini Archiepiscopi" in the same year in which his father was killed[154]. 

g)         BORSO Visconti (-after 1349).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Brusium, Forestinum et Borsium" as the illegitimate children of "Luchinus…Vicecomes" and his second wife "Dominam Elisabetham de Flisco sororem…Domini Johannis de Flisco"[155]

6.         STEFANO Visconti (-Milan 4 Jul 1337).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Galeaz primogenito, Johannes, Marcus, Luchinus et Stephanus" as the children of "Maphćolus…de Vicecomitibus" and his wife "Dominam Violantam de Burris"[156]Lord of Milan, jointly with his brothers. 

-        see below

7.         AGNESE Visconti .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Annales Mediolanenses which name "Cichum generum Matthći Vicecomitis"[157]m as his first wife, CECCHINO della Scala, son of BARTOLOMEO della Scala Signore di Verona & his wife --- (-1325). 

 

 

STEFANO Visconti, son of MATTEO [I] Visconti Lord of Milan & his wife Violanta di Borri (-Milan 4 Jul 1337).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Galeaz primogenito, Johannes, Marcus, Luchinus et Stephanus" as the children of "Maphćolus…de Vicecomitibus" and his wife "Dominam Violantam de Burris"[158].  The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis names "Goleaceo, Iohanne, Marco, Luca et Stephano" as the sons of "Matheo Mediolanensi domino"[159].  Signore di Arona 1322.  Lord of Milan, jointly with his brothers. 

m (1318) as her second husband, VALENTINA Doria, widow of FRANCESCO di Caretto, daughter of BERNABŇ Doria Signore di Sasello e del Logoduro & his wife Eliana Fieschi (Genoa 1290-Milan 27 Aug 1359).  The testament of "Domina Tiburgia uxor quondam domini Alberti bonć memorić Marchionis de Carreto", dated 28 Jun 1324, bequeathes property to "…domina Valentina filia domini Bernabo de Auria uxor quondam domini Francisci de Carreto […dictus Albertus…eius filius]…"[160].  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Domina de Auria de Janua" as the mother of "Matthćus, Barnabos et Galeaz fratres, filii quondam Domini Stephani"[161].  "Domina Valentina relicta quondam…domini Franceschini Marchionis de Carreto et postea relicta quondam nobilis militis domini Stephani de Vicecomitibus…et filia quondam nobilis viri Barnaboe de Auria de Janua" confirmed receipt of her dower from "domino Enrico de Carreto Marchione Saonć filio quondam domini Jacobi…vice dominorum Antonii, Alberti, Manfredi et Franceschini fratrum suorum similiter Marchionum Savonć", with the consent of "domini Cosmi de Auria honore potestatis Mediolani filii quondam item domini Cosmi de Auria…cognati dictć dominć Valentinć", by charter dated 7 Mar 1350[162]

Stefano & his wife had four children: 

1.         MATTEO [II] Visconti (1319-Milan [26/29] Sep 1355).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Matthćus, Barnabos et Galeaz fratres, filii quondam Domini Stephani" and "Domina de Auria de Janua"[163].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Matthćum…[filium] quondam domini Stephani Vicecomitis" was exiled "in dominio Marchionis Montisferrati in Terra Morani cum uxore sua Domina Ziliola" by his uncle Lucchino in 1339[164].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus Archiepiscopus" allowed the return of "nepotes suos…Dominos Matthćum, Barnabovem et Galeazium fratres" in 1349 after their uncle Lucchino Visconti Lord of Milan was killed[165].  Lord of Milan 1349, jointly with his brothers and his uncle.  Signore di Piacenza, Lodi, Parma, Bologna, Monza e San Donnino 1354.  Vicar Imperial of Milan, Genoa, Savona, Ventimiglia, Albenga and Noli 20 Dec 1354, confirmed 5 May 1355.  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death 28 Sep 1355 of "Matthćus", implying that it was hastened by "Dominus Johannes Vicecomes de Olegio"[166].  He was rumoured to have been poisoned by one of his brothers[167]m (1339 or before) GIGLIOLA Gonzaga, daughter of FILIPPINO Gonzaga & his first wife Anna da Dovara di Cremona (-1354).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Matthćus…[filius] quondam Domini Stephani" married "Domina Ziliola filia Domini Philippini de Gonzaga de Mantua"[168].  The Annales Mediolanenses name "Matthćum…[filium] quondam domini Stephani Vicecomitis" and "Domini Philippi de Gonzaga soceri sui" when recording that Matteo was exiled "in dominio Marchionis Montisferrati in Terra Morani cum uxore sua Domina Ziliola" in 1339[169].  Matteo [II] & his wife had one child: 

a)         CATARINA Visconti (1342-Milan 10 Oct 1382).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Matthćus" left "unica filia" when he died[170].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage in 1358 of "Dominam Catherinam filiam quondam Domini Mathći" and "Domino Ugolino [de Gonzaga]"[171].  "Caterina nata…quondam domini…Mathei Vicecomitis" sought to protect the monastery of Santa Margherita by charter dated 15 Apr 1369[172].  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.   m firstly (Milan 1358) as his third wife, UGOLINO Gonzaga di Mantua, son of GUIDO Gonzaga Signore di Mantua & his third wife Beatrice di Bari (-1362).  m secondly as his second wife, FELTRINO Gonzaga Signore di Bagnolo e Novellara, son of LODOVICO [I] Gonzaga & his first wife Richilda --- (-after May 1371). 

2.         BERNABŇ Visconti ([1322/23]-Castillo di Trezzo 18 Dec 1385, bur Milan, San Giovanni di Concha).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Matthćus, Barnabos et Galeaz fratres, filii quondam Domini Stephani" and "Domina de Auria de Janua"[173].  He was exiled from Milan with his brother Galeazzo by their uncle Luchino Visconti in 1346, and sought refuge in Savoy[174].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus Archiepiscopus" allowed the return of "nepotes suos…Dominos Matthćum, Barnabovem et Galeazium fratres" in 1349 after their uncle Lucchino Visconti Lord of Milan was killed[175]Signore di Bergamo, Brescia, Cremona, Soncino, Lunato e Valcamonica 1354.  Signore di Lodi, Bologna, Pontremoli e Parma 1355. Lord of Milan 1349, jointly with his brothers and his uncle.  Vicar Imperial of Milan, Genoa, Savona, Ventimiglia, Albenga and Noli 20 Dec 1354, confirmed 15 May 1355.  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Domini Bernabos et Galeaz Vicecomites Mediolani Vicarii Imperiales" divided "civitas Mediolani cum comitatu" between them after their brother Matteo died in Sep 1355, with Bernabň taking "Laudum, Parmam, Cremonam et Bononiam, item Melegnanum, Pandinum et Vaprium"[176].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that Bernabň Visconti Lord of Milan attacked "Johannem de Olegio" in 1359 and captured Bologna[177].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Dominus Bernabos Vicecomes civitatum Pergami, Brixić, Cremonć, Parmć et Laudć, et medietatis civitatis Mediolani, et totius castri Cremć, Sarzanć, et Burgi S. Donini Dominus generali" had "dominium civitatis Regii et Castri Corrigii" from "Domino Feltrino de Gonzaga qui erat Dominus dictć civitatis Regii" in May 1371[178].  His nephew Gian Galeazzo deposed him 6 May 1385.  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Dominum Bernabovem et Dominum Ludovicum et Dominum Rodulphum eius filios" were captured at Pavia 6 May 1385, and that "Dominus Bernabos…Dominus civitatem Mediolani, Laudć, Pergami, Cremonć, Brixić, Parmć et Regii" died "in Castro Trecii" in 1385 and was buried "in civitate Mediolani in ecclesia S. Johannis in Concha"[179].  He was poisoned.  The Annales Mediolanenses record that Bernabň left 36 children alive when he died and 18 women pregnant by him[180]m (Verona 27 Sep 1350) BEATRICE "Regina" della Scala, daughter of MASTINO [II] della Scala Lord of Verona, Vicenzo, Brescia, Parma and Lucca & his wife Taddea da Carrara (Verona [1331]-Milan 18 Jun 1384, bur Milano).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Barnobovi" married "Dominam Reginam filiam quondam Domini Mastini de la Scala"[181].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus Archiepiscopus" arranged the marriage of "Domino Barnabovi" and "Dominam Reginam de la Scala filiam Domini Mastini" after recalling him from exile[182].  She acquired her nickname because of her haughty disposition[183].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death "in civitate Mediolani" in 1383 of "Domina Regina uxor…Domini Bernabovis Vicecomitis, filia quondam Domini Mastini de la Scala Domini Veronć et Vicentić" who built "ecclesiam S. Marić de la Scala Mediolani"[184].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death 18 Jun 1383 in Milan of "Domina Regina de la Scala uxor Domini Bernabovis" and the epitaph of "Regina Beatrix"[185].  Bernabň & his wife had sixteen children: 

a)         TADDEA Visconti (Milan [1351]-28 Sep 1381, bur Munich).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in Oct 1381 of "Domina Thaddća filia Domini Bernabovis et uxor Principis Leopoldi [error for Stefani] Ducis Bavarić et Comitis Rheni"[186].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "IV Kal Oct 1381" of "domina Thadaea filia de Mediolano ducissa Babarie"[187]m (13 Oct 1364) as his first wife, STEFAN III Herzog von Bayern-Ingolstadt, son of STEFAN II "mit der Hafte" Duke of Bavaria & his first wife Isabella of Sicily [Aragon] ([1337]-25 Sep 1413). 

b)         VERDE [Viridis] Visconti (Milan 1352-before 11 Mar 1414, bur Sittich, Carinthia).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage 13 Jan 1366 of "Dominus Barnabos…Dominam Viridem filiam suam" and "Domino Leopoldo Duci Austrić"[188].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death in Jul 1365 of "Rodulphus Dux Austrić" who had come to Milan for the marriage of "suo fratre" and "filiam Domini Bernabovis Vicecomitis"[189].  The Necrologium Austriacum refers to the wife of Duke Leopold as "herrn Barlaba tochter von Mayland"[190]m (Milan 23 Feb 1365) as his second wife, LEOPOLD III Duke of Austria and Styria, son of ALBRECHT II Duke of Austria & his wife Jeanne de Ferrette [Pfirt] (1 Nov 1351-in battle Sempach 9 Jul 1386). 

c)         MARCO Visconti (Milan Nov 1353-Milan [3] Jan 1382, bur Milan, Church of San Giovanni di Conca).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Barnabos…ex coniuge Regina…natu major…Marcus"[191].  Signore di Parma 1364.  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death "in civitate Mediolani" in 1382 of "Dominus Marcus Vicecomes filius…Domini Bernabovis"[192].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in Milan in 1382 of "Dominus Marcus Vicecomes primogenitus Domini Bernabovis" and his burial 7 Jan "in ecclesia Sancti Johannis in Conca"[193]m (Milan 1367) ELISABETH von Bayern-Landshut, daughter of STEFAN II "mit der Hafte" Duke of Bavaria & his first wife Isabella of Sicily [Aragon] (-Milan 17 Jan 1382, bur Milan, Church of San Giovanni di Conca).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage in 1367 in Milan of "Dominus Marcus natus…Domini Barnabovis Vicecomitis" and "Dominam Elisabet filiam…Principis Domini Stephani, Palatini Comitis et Ducis Bavarić"[194].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death "in civitate Mediolani" in 1382 of "Dominus Marcus Vicecomes filius…Domini Bernabovis" and one month later of "uxor dicti Domini Marci, soror Domini Ducis Bavarić" also in Milan[195].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death 17 Jan 1382 of "Domina Elisabeth…uxor…quondam Domini Marci et filia quondam…Principis Domini Stephani Palatini Comitis Rheni et Ducis Bavarić" and her burial "in ecclesia Sancti Johannis in Conca"[196].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVI Kal Jan 1382" of "Elisabeth filia Friderici ducis Babarie" [presumably an error for Stefan][197].  Marco & his wife had one child: 

i)          ANNA (-after 1397).  "Princeps…et…dominus Johannes Galeaz Dux Mediolani…Papie, Anglerieque ac Virtutum comes", in his testament dated 1397, provided dowries for "dominabus Anglesie et Lucie consanguineis suis filiabus quondam…d. Bernabovis Vicecomitis…et…domine Anne filie quondam domini Marci filii quondam predicti d. Bernabovis"

d)         LODOVICO Visconti (Sep 1358-Trezzo 7 Mar 1404)The Annales Mediolanenses record the baptism in "Mediolano" in Sep 1358 of "unus filius…Domini Barnabovis…Ludovicus"[198].  Governatore e Signore di Parma 1364 to 1404.  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus Aloysius filius Domini Bernabovis" accompanied "Domina Valentina filia Domini Bernabovis" when she left Milan in 1377 to join her husband "Regis Cypri"[199].  Governatore di Lodi 1379 to 1385.  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus Aloysius et Rodulfus fratres filii Domini Barnabovis" were imprisoned in "castrum Sancti Columbani Episcopatus Laudensis" in 1385[200].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Dominum Bernabovem et Dominum Ludovicum et Dominum Rodulphum eius filios" were captured at Pavia 6 May 1385[201].  "Princeps…et…dominus Johannes Galeaz Dux Mediolani…Papie, Anglerieque ac Virtutum comes", in his testament dated 1397, bequeathed property to "dominus Ludovicus et dominus Maximus filius quondam…d. Bernabovis eorumque descendentes…"[202]m (18 Apr 1381, Nov 1381) as her third husband, his first cousin, VIOLANTE Visconti, widow firstly of LIONEL "of Antwerp" Duke of Clarence and secondly of SECONDOTTO Marchese di Monferrato, daughter of GALEAZZO II Visconti Lord of Milan & his wife Blanche Marie de Savoie (1354-Pavia Nov 1386, bur Pavia San Agostino).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the marriage in Nov 1381 of "Dominus Comes Virtutem…Dominam Violantem sororem suam" and "Domino Ludovico filio…Domini Bernabovis"[203].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death "in civitate Papić" in Nov 1386 of "Domina Violans soror…domini comitis Virtutem et uxor Domini Ludovici filii quondam Domini Bernabovis Vicecomitis" and her burial "in ecclesia S. Augustini in cittadella Papić prope sepulturam Domini Galeaz patris sui"[204].  Lodovico had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:

i)          GIOVANNI Visconti (-after 10 Apr 1413).  Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan granted "Melegnani…Basilicapetri…Belzoyosii" {Melegnano, Bescapč and Belgiojoso} to "Johanne Vicecomite nato quondam…domini Ludovici, Francisco et Hestore fratribus de Vicecomitibus natis quondam…domini Hestoris, et Bernabove Vicecomite nato quondam…domini Mastini", with reversion to "domini Antonii de Vicecomitibus…germano prelibati dominum Ducis" in execution of a convention between "Franciscum dictum Carmagnolam de Boxonis" and "dominam Valentinam de Vicecomitibus natam quondam…domini Bernabovis tunc gubernatricem castri Modoetie", by charter dated 10 Apr 1414[205].  The family Milano-Visconti, Reichsfreiherren at Utrecht claim descent from him. 

e)         RODOLFO Visconti (Milan 1358-Trezzo Jan 1389, bur Santa Maria della Scala).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus Aloysius et Rodulfus fratres filii Domini Barnabovis" were imprisoned in "castrum Sancti Columbani Episcopatus Laudensis" in 1385[206].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Dominum Bernabovem et Dominum Ludovicum et Dominum Rodulphum eius filios" were captured at Pavia 6 May 1385[207].  Signore di Parma 1364 to 1385.  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in Jan 1389 of "Dominus Rodulfus Vicecomes in carceribus Tricii" and his burial "in Sancta Maria de la Scala"[208]

f)          CARLO Visconti (Sep 1359-Aug 1403).  Signore di Parma 1364.  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "alii duo filii…Domini Bernabovis…Dominus Carolus et Dominus Mastolus" escaped when "Dominum Bernabovem et Dominum Ludovicum et Dominum Rodulphum eius filios" were captured at Pavia 6 May 1385, "Dominus Carolus" being at "Cremć cum Domina Beatrice eius uxore"[209].  [Betrothed] ([2] Apr 1376) to MARGUERITE of Cyprus, daughter of PIERRE I King of Cyprus & his second wife Infanta dońa Leonor de Aragón (-[1397]).  A charter dated 4 Apr 1376 notifies the marriages by proxy between "domini Petri Jerusalem et Cipri regis" and "Valenziam natam…Bernabos" and between "Karolum natum…Bernabos" and "dominam Margaritam domini regis prelibati sororem"[210]m (by proxy 9 May 1382) as her second husband, BEATRIX d'Armagnac, widow of GASTON de Foix, daughter of JEAN [II] Comte d’Armagnac & his wife Jeanne de Périgord.  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage in 1382 of "Dominum Bernabovem…Domino Carolo filio suo" and "Karoli geniti…Bernabos Vicecomes"[211].  A charter dated 9 May 1382 notifies the marriage by proxy between "dominum comitem Armeniaci…Beatrix genita" and "Magdalenam natam…Bernabos Vicecomes"[212].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "alii duo filii…Domini Bernabovis…Dominus Carolus et Dominus Mastolus" escaped when "Dominum Bernabovem et Dominum Ludovicum et Dominum Rodulphum eius filios" were captured at Pavia 6 May 1385, "Dominus Carolus" being at "Cremć cum Domina Beatrice eius uxore"[213].  Carlo & his wife had four children: 

i)          MARCO Visconti (14 Jun 1383-after 1413).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the birth 14 Jun 1383 of "Domino Carolo Vicecomiti ex Domina Beatrice…filius masculus"[214]

ii)         BONA Visconti (Oct 1385-after 1433).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (1414) as his second wife, GUILLAUME Seigneur de Montauban, son of OLIVIER [V] Seigneur de Montauban & his wife Mathilde d'Aubigné Dame de Landal (-1432, bur Carmes, Dol). 

iii)        GIOVANNI CARLO detto "Gianpiccinino" Visconti (-murdered Paris 1418).  The Chronicon Guelforum et Gibellinorum records that "Dominus Johannes Miles natus quondam…Domini Caroli olim…Domini Barnabovis Vicecomitum" accepted "Dominium civitatis Bergomi" in 1405[215]Signore di Brescia, della Val Camonica e della Riviera di Salň 1405.  He usurped the position of Lord of Milan 16 May 1412 to 12 Jun 1412.  m ---.  The name of Giovanni Carlo´s wife is not known.  Giovanni Carlo & his wife had two children: 

(a)       CARLO Visconti (-after 1413).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

(b)       RODOLFO Visconti (-after 1413).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

iv)       VERDE [Viridis] Visconti (-young).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

g)         ANTONIA Visconti (Milan [1360]-26 Mar 1405, bur Stiftskirche, Stuttgart).  A charter dated 1 Jul 1380 notifies the marriage by proxy between "Antoniam natam…Bernabos" and "domino Everardo juniori comiti de Virtemberg primogenito…principis domini Holrici comitis de Virtemberg"[216].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage in 1380 of "Dominus Barnabos…Dominam Antoniam filiam suam" and "Domino Prochavino…Principis Domini Imperatoris filio"[217].  She laid out water gardens in their castle grounds, known as "der Frau von Mailand Garten".  m (by proxy 1 Jul 1380, Urach 27 Oct 1380) as his first wife, EBERHARD von Württemberg, son of ULRICH IV Graf von Württemberg & his wife Elisabeth of Bavaria ([1364]-Göppingen am Sauerbrunnen 16 May 1417, bur Stuttgart Stiftskirche).  He succeeded his grandfather in 1392 as EBERHARD III "der Milde" Graf von Württemberg

h)         CATERINA Visconti ([1361]-poisoned Monza 17 Oct 1404).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage 2 Oct 1380 of "Dominus Barnabos…Dominam Catharinam filiam suam" and "Domino Comiti Virtutum nepoti suo"[218].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the marriage in Nov 1381 of "Dominus Comes Virtutem" and "Dominam Catelinam filiam Domini Bernabovis Vicecomitis"[219]m (2 Oct 1380 or Nov 1381) as his second wife, her first cousin, GIAN GALEAZZO Visconti Count of Pavia, son of GALEAZZO [II] Visconti & his wife Blanche Marie de Savoie (Melegnano [Marignan] 15 Oct or Nov 1351-Pavia 3 Sep 1402).  He was created GIAN GALEAZZO "il Grande" Duke of Milan in 1395. 

i)          AGNESE Visconti ([1362]-executed Mantua 1391).  A charter dated 15 Aug 1375 records the marriage by proxy between "dominam Agnetem filiam legitimam…domini Bernabovis" and "domini Francischi filii legiptimi…domini Ludovici"[220].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage in 1380 of "Dominus Barnabos…aliam filiam suam" and "Domini Mantuć"[221].  A charter dated 26 Sep 1380 notifies the marriage of "Agnetis filie…Bernabos", addressed to "domino Ludovicho de Gonzaga", but does not name her husband[222].  "Regina de la Scala" notified "domino Ludovicho de Gonzaga" that she proposed the marriage of "natam nostram…et nurum vestram Agnetem" should take place at Christmas, by charter dated 18 Sep 1380[223].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus Franciscus de Gonzaga Dominus Mantuć" had his wife "filiam Domini Bernabovis Vicecomitis" beheaded in 1391, "causa, quia hoc fecit, non bene scitur"[224]m (by proxy 15 Aug 1375, [26 Sep] 1380) as his first wife, GIANFRANCESCO Gonzaga Signore di Mantua, son of LODOVICO [II] Gonzaga Signore di Mantua & his wife Alda d´Este (1363-8 Mar 1407). 

j)          MADDALENA Visconti (Milan [12 Aug 1367]-Burghausen, Bavaria 17 Jul 1404, bur Kloster Raitenhaslach).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the proclamation in Milan 12 Aug 1367 of the birth of "Dominus Barnabos…Domina Regina uxor sua…unam…puellam"[225].  It is possible that this was the birth of either Maddalena or Valentina.  A charter dated 9 Apr 1382 notifies the marriage by proxy between "dominum Federichum Bavarie ducem" and "Magdalenam natam…Bernabos Vicecomes"[226].  The Liber defunctorum of Raitenhaslach records the death of "d a Magdalena ducissa Bauarie ux di Friderici principis et ducis Bauarie, da Magdalena ducissa filia eius"[227]m (Landshut 2 Sep 1381, by proxy 9 Apr 1382) as his second wife, FRIEDRICH Herzog von Bayern-Landshut, son of STEFAN II "mit der Hafte" Duke of Bavaria & his wife Elisabeth/Isabella of Sicily ([1339]-Budweis 3 or 4 Dec 1393, bur Seligenthal). 

k)         VALENTINA Visconti (Milan [12 Aug 1367]-Cyprus before Sep 1393).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the proclamation in Milan 12 Aug 1367 of the birth of "Dominus Barnabos…Domina Regina uxor sua…unam…puellam"[228].  It is possible that this was the birth of either Maddalena or Valentina.  The Chronicle of Amadi records the marriage of the king and "la figlia de messer Bernardo duca de Milan…Valentina" with a large dowry, the marriage being kept secret for a long time[229].  The context indicates that the marriage took place in 1372, but this is early in light of the following document.  A charter dated 4 Apr 1376 notifies the marriages by proxy between "domini Petri Jerusalem et Cipri regis" and "Valenziam natam…Bernabos" and between "Karolum natum…Bernabos" and "dominam Margaritam domini regis prelibati sororem"[230].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Domina Valentina filia Domini Bernabovis" left Milan in 1377 to join her husband "Regis Cypri"[231].  The Chronicle of Amadi records the arrival in Cyprus of "la regina Valentina, nepote del signor Barnabo duca de Milan" with a great treasure, in 1377 from the context[232].  She quarrelled with her mother-in-law, eventually expelling her from Cyprus.  After her husband died, she attempted to seize the crown of Cyprus for herself.  Her death is reported in a letter from Heloise Queen of Cyprus to the duke of Milan which arrived 12 Sep 1393[233]m (Sep 1378) PIERRE II King of Cyprus, son of PIERRE I King of Cyprus & his second wife Infanta dońa Leonor de Aragón ([1357]-13 Oct 1382). 

l)          ANGLESOLA Visconti (-after 1397).  "Princeps…et…dominus Johannes Galeaz Dux Mediolani…Papie, Anglerieque ac Virtutum comes", in his testament dated 1397, provided dowries for "dominabus Anglesie et Lucie consanguineis suis filiabus quondam…d. Bernabovis Vicecomitis…et…domine Anne filie quondam domini Marci filii quondam predicti d. Bernabovis"[234]

m)       LUCIA Visconti (1372-14 Apr 1424, bur Austin Friars, London).  A charter dated 20 Jul 1382 notifies the marriage by proxy between "dominum Ludovicum ducem Andegavie et Turonie et comitem Cenomanie…domino Ludovico eius primogenito" and "Luziam natam…Bernabos Vicecomes"[235].  "Princeps…et…dominus Johannes Galeaz Dux Mediolani…Papie, Anglerieque ac Virtutum comes", in his testament dated 1397, provided dowries for "dominabus Anglesie et Lucie consanguineis suis filiabus quondam…d. Bernabovis Vicecomitis…et…domine Anne filie quondam domini Marci filii quondam predicti d. Bernabovis"The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   Betrothed (Milan 2 Aug 1384) to LOUIS d'Anjou, son of LOUIS I de France Duc d'Anjou, titular King of Sicily & his wife Marie de Châtillon-Blois (Château d'Angers 5 Oct 1377-Château d'Angers 29 Apr 1417, bur Angers Cathédrale Saint-Maurice).  He succeeded his father in 1384 as LOUIS II Duc d'Anjou titular King of Sicily, Duc de Provence under the Regency of his mother.  m (Southwark, St Mary Ottery 24 Jan 1407) EDMUND Holland Earl of Kent Baron Wake, Woodstock and Holland, son of THOMAS de Holland Earl of Kent & his wife Lady Alice Fitzalan (6 Jan 1383-killed in battle Ile de Bréhat, Brittany 15 Sep 1408, bur Bourne Abbey, Lincolnshire).  No issue. 

n)         ELISABETTA Visconti (Milan [1374]-Munich 2 Feb 1432, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   "Princeps…et…dominus Johannes Galeaz Dux Mediolani…Papie, Anglerieque ac Virtutum comes", in his testament dated 1397, made arrangements for "Elisabeth filia quondam predicti d. Bernabovis maritata…dominum Ernestum Bavarie ducem" should she be left a widow[236].  The necrology of Scheftlarn records the death "IV Non Feb 1432" of "Elysabeth ducissa coniunx Ernesti ducis Bawarie"[237]m (Pfaffenhofen/Ilm 26 Jan 1395) ERNST von Bayern, son of JOHANN II Duke of Bavaria & his wife Katharina von Görz (1373-Munich 2 Jul 1438, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  He succeeded his father in 1397 as ERNST I joint Duke of Bavaria, jointly with his uncle Duke Stephan III. 

o)         ELOISA Visconti (-Reggio Emilia 12 Oct 1439)A document dated 1 May 1404 at Naples, relating to the dowry of Marie de Lusignan, wife of Ladislas King of Naples, names "dominorum Jani et Eloysie, Cipri et Armenie regis et regine"[238].  Her parentage is confirmed by a letter to the ambassador of the king of Cyprus dated 12 Dec 1401 at Venice records that the queen of Cyprus was the sister of the duchess of Milan "domina ducissa Mediolani…sororem suam dominam reginam"[239]m (after Jan 1400, annulled [1407/09]) as his first wife, JANUS I King of Cyprus, son of JACQUES I King of Cyprus & his wife Helvis von Braunschweig (Genoa [1374/75]-29 Jun 1432, bur Nicosia, Dominican church).  No issue. 

p)         GIANMASTINO Visconti (Mar 1377-Bergamo 19 Jun 1405)The Annales Mediolanenses record the birth in Mar 1377 of "Dominus Bernabos…ex Domina Regina…filium…Johannes Mastinus"[240].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "alii duo filii…Domini Bernabovis…Dominus Carolus et Dominus Mastolus" escaped when "Dominum Bernabovem et Dominum Ludovicum et Dominum Rodulphum eius filios" were captured at Pavia 6 May 1385, adding that "Dominus Mastinus" was "nondum in virili ćtate" when he was later imprisoned "in civitatem Brixić…in cittadella et castro", and that he later left for Venice[241].  "Princeps…et…dominus Johannes Galeaz Dux Mediolani…Papie, Anglerieque ac Virtutum comes", in his testament dated 1397, bequeathed property to "dominus Ludovicus et dominus Maximus filius quondam…d. Bernabovis eorumque descendentes…"[242]Signore di Bergamo, Valcamonica e Ghiaradadda 1405.  m (1385) CLEOFA della Scala, daughter of ANTONIO della Scala & his wife Samaritana da Polenta.  Gianmastino & his wife had three children: 

i)          BEATRICE Visconti .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m PROSDOCIMO de'Conti, son of ---. 

ii)         BERNABŇ Visconti (-after 10 Apr 1414).  Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan granted "Melegnani…Basilicapetri…Belzoyosii" {Melegnano, Bescapč and Belgiojoso} to "Johanne Vicecomite nato quondam…domini Ludovici, Francisco et Hestore fratribus de Vicecomitibus natis quondam…domini Hestoris, et Bernabove Vicecomite nato quondam…domini Mastini", with reversion to "domini Antonii de Vicecomitibus…germano prelibati dominum Ducis" in execution of a convention between "Franciscum dictum Carmagnolam de Boxonis" and "dominam Valentinam de Vicecomitibus natam quondam…domini Bernabovis tunc gubernatricem castri Modoetie", by charter dated 10 Apr 1414[243]m ---.  The name of Bernabň´s wife is not known.  Bernabň & his wife had one child: 

(a)       DONNINA Visconti .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m FRANCISCOLO Castiglioni, Patrizio of Milan. 

iii)        MADDALENA Visconti .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m GIOVANNI Porro, Patrizio of Milan. 

Bernabň had two illegitimate children by BELTRAMOLA Grassi:

q)         AMBROGIO (1343-murdered Caprino Bergamasco 17 Aug 1373).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Dominus…Ambrosius filius naturalis…Domini Barnabovis"[244].  Governatore di Pavia.  Condottiero in his father's army.  The Annales Mediolanenses name "Dominus Ambrogius Vicecomes filius naturalis Domini Barnabovi" among those captured in 1363 when Bernabň Visconti Lord of Milan attacked Guastalla[245].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death in 1373 of "Miles Dominus Ambrosius filius naturalis…Domini Bernabovis Vicecomitis" in "episcopate Pergami in Valle Sancti Martini per rusticos dictć Vallis…rebelles dicti Domini Bernabovis"[246]. 

r)          ESTORE Visconti (1346-Monza 1413).  m ---.  The name of Estore´s wife is not known.  Estore & his wife had two children: 

i)          FRANCESCO Visconti (-after 10 Apr 1414).  Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan granted "Melegnani…Basilicapetri…Belzoyosii" {Melegnano, Bescapč and Belgiojoso} to "Johanne Vicecomite nato quondam…domini Ludovici, Francisco et Hestore fratribus de Vicecomitibus natis quondam…domini Hestoris, et Bernabove Vicecomite nato quondam…domini Mastini", with reversion to "domini Antonii de Vicecomitibus…germano prelibati dominum Ducis" in execution of a convention between "Franciscum dictum Carmagnolam de Boxonis" and "dominam Valentinam de Vicecomitibus natam quondam…domini Bernabovis tunc gubernatricem castri Modoetie", by charter dated 10 Apr 1414[247]. 

ii)         ESTORE Visconti (-after 10 Apr 1414).  Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan granted "Melegnani…Basilicapetri…Belzoyosii" {Melegnano, Bescapč and Belgiojoso} to "Johanne Vicecomite nato quondam…domini Ludovici, Francisco et Hestore fratribus de Vicecomitibus natis quondam…domini Hestoris, et Bernabove Vicecomite nato quondam…domini Mastini", with reversion to "domini Antonii de Vicecomitibus…germano prelibati dominum Ducis" in execution of a convention between "Franciscum dictum Carmagnolam de Boxonis" and "dominam Valentinam de Vicecomitibus natam quondam…domini Bernabovis tunc gubernatricem castri Modoetie", by charter dated 10 Apr 1414[248]. 

Bernabň had two illegitimate children by MONTANINA de Lazzari:

s)          SAGRAMORO (-1385).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus Comes" [Galeazzo] imprisoned "Dominos Sagramorum et Galeottum fratres et filios naturales Domini Bernabovis in castro Modoëtć"[249].  Signore di Brignano

-           SIGNORI di BRIGNANO

t)           DONNINA ([1360]-1406).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage in Milan in 1377 of "Dominus Bernabos…eius [filiam] naturalis" and "Domino Johanni Agudo Anglico Capitaneo Anglicorum"[250].  m firstly (1377) Sir JOHN Hawkswood, son of --- (Edingham [1320]-Mar 1394).  He was known as GIOVANNI Acuto in Italy.  Signore di Bagnavallo, Cotignola, Coselice, Bertinoro, Faenza, Massa Lombarda e Sant'Arcangelo di Romagna.  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in 1393 (presumably O.S.) in Florence of "Dominus Johannes Agutus, qui fuit Britannicus…Capitaneus"[251].  m secondly FRANCESCO Castiglioni Patrizio of Milan.   

Bernabň had one illegitimate child by BELTAMEDA Cassa:

u)         ELISABETTA [Isotta] (-1388).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage in Milan in 1377 of "Dominus Bernabos…Elisabetham…eius [filiam] naturalis" and "Comiti Lucio Lando Theutonico"[252].  m (1377) LUDWIG I [Lutz] Graf von Landau, son of EBERHARD III Graf von Landau & his wife Guta von Gundelfingen (-30 Sep 1398). 

Bernabň had one illegitimate child by GIOVANNOLA Montebretto

v)          BERNARDA (-1376).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m GIOVANNI Suardi Patrizio of Milan. 

Bernabň had three illegitimate children by DONNINA Porro:

w)         PALAMEDE (-after 1402).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

x)          LANCELLOTTO (-after 1413).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   m ---.  The name of Lancellotto´s wife is not known.  Lancellotto & his wife had one child: 

i)          DONNINA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m ANNIBALE Bentivoglio, son of ---. 

y)          GINEVRA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m LEONARDO Malaspina Marchese di Gragnola. 

Bernabň had one illegitimate child by CATERINA di Cremona

z)          GALEOTTO (-after 1413).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus Comes" [Galeazzo] imprisoned "Dominos Sagramorum et Galeottum fratres et filios naturales Domini Bernabovis in castro Modoëtć"[253]. 

Bernabň had eight illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

aa)       SOVRANA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m GIOVANNI de Prato, son of ---. 

bb)       LIONELLO (-after 1404).  The Chronicon Guelforum et Gibellinorum records that "Dominus Lionellus natus quondam naturalis…Domini Barnabovis Vicecomitem" visited Bergamo in 1404 in the name of "Domini Mastini…filii legitimi…Domini Barnobovis"[254]. 

cc)        ISABELLA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

dd)       MARGHERITA (-after 1413).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Abbess of the Convent of Santa Margherita. 

ee)       DAMIGELLA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

ff)         ISOTTA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (annulled 1382) CARLO Fogliani, son of ---. 

gg)       ENRICA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m FRANCHINO Rusconi dei Signori di Como. 

hh)       daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m BERNARDO della Sala Signore di Soriano nel Cimino (-Jun 1391). 

ii)          VALENTINA Visconti (-after 10 Apr 1414).  Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan granted "Melegnani…Basilicapetri…Belzoyosii" {Melegnano, Bescapč e Belgiojoso} to "Johanne Vicecomite nato quondam…domini Ludovici, Francisco et Hestore fratribus de Vicecomitibus natis quondam…domini Hestoris, et Bernabove Vicecomite nato quondam…domini Mastini", with reversion to "domini Antonii de Vicecomitibus…germano prelibati dominum Ducis" in execution of a convention between "Franciscum dictum Carmagnolam de Boxonis" and "dominam Valentinam de Vicecomitibus natam quondam…domini Bernabovis tunc gubernatricem castri Modoetie", by charter dated 10 Apr 1414[255].  m ANTONIO Visconti, son of VERCELLINO Visconti & his wife --- (-[31 Oct 1407/2 Jul 1413]). 

3.         GALEAZZO [II] Visconti ([1324/27]-Pavia 6 Aug 1378, bur Pavia San Agostino)The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Matthćus, Barnabos et Galeaz fratres, filii quondam Domini Stephani" and "Domina de Auria de Janua"[256]He was exiled from Milan with his brother Bernabo by their uncle Luchino Visconti in 1346, and sought refuge in Savoy[257].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus Archiepiscopus" allowed the return of "nepotes suos…Dominos Matthćum, Barnabovem et Galeazium fratres" in 1349 after their uncle Lucchino Visconti Lord of Milan was killed[258].  Lord of Milan 1349, jointly with his brother and uncle.  Signore di Pavia, Como, Novara, Vercelli, Asti, Alba, Tortona, Alessandria e Vigevano 1354.  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Domini Bernabos et Galeaz Vicecomites Mediolani Vicarii Imperiales" divided "civitas Mediolani cum comitatu" between them after their brother Matteo died in Sep 1355, with Galeazzo taking "Placentiam et Bobium, Terram Modoëtić, Viglevani et Abiate"[259].  Signore di Piacenza, San Donnino, Bobbio e Monza 1355.  Vicar Imperial of Milan, Genoa, Savona, Ventimiglia, Albenga and Noli 20 Dec 1354, confirmed 15 May 1355.  The Annales Mediolanenses record that Galeazzo built "castrum Papić" in 1359[260].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death 6 Aug 1378 in Pavia of "Dominus Galeaz Vicecomes tunc Dominus civitatem Mediolani, Papić, Placentić, Cumarum, Novarić, Vercellarum, Alexandrić, Terdonć et Bobii"[261]m (Rivoli 28 Sep 1350) BLANCHE MARIE de Savoie, daughter of AYMON Comte de Savoie & his wife Violanta di Monferrato ([1335]-Pavia 31 Dec 1387, bur Pavia Santa Chiara).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Domino Galeazio" married "Blancam…sororem…principis domini comitis Sabaudić"[262].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus Archiepiscopus" arranged the marriage of "Domino Galeazio" and "Dominam Blancam de Sabaudia sororem…Principis Sabaudić" after recalling him from exile[263].  The contract of marriage between "Galeazzo Visconti di Milano" and "Bianca figlia del Conte Aimone di Savoia, Sorella del Conte Amedeo" is dated 18 Sep 1350[264].  Dame de Yenne.  Her marriage was arranged to seal the alliance between her brother and the Visconti family, which had enjoyed good relations since Galeazzo's exile at the court of Savoy from 1346 to 1349[265].  She was granted the towns of Monza, Abiate, San Colombano, Graffignana, Binasco, Conzano, Gentilino and Corte Nuova, which she ceded to her son 24 Nov 1380.  The testament of "domina Blanca de Sabaudia filia quondam bone memorie…principis domini Amonis comitis Sabaudie et relicta quondam…domini Galeaz Vicecomitis Mediolani Papie…imperialis vicarii generalis…" is dated 12 Nov 1387, and chooses burial "in ecclesia sancte Marie della Nunciata ordinis sancte Clare…in civitate Papie"[266].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death in Jan 1387 in Pavia of "Domina Blanca mater…Domini comitis Virtutum et quondam soror Domini comitis Sabaudić" and her burial "in ecclesia monasterii monialium Sanctć Clarć"[267]Mistress (1): MALGAROLA da Lucino, daughter of ---.  Galeazzo [II] & his wife had three children: 

a)         GIAN GALEAZZO Visconti (15 Oct 1351-Marignan/Melegnano 3 Sep 1402).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Dominum Johannem Galeazium natu maiorem" as the son of "Domino Galeazio" and his wife "Blancam sororem Domini comitis Sabaudić"[268].  Comte de Vertus, in right of his wife Apr 1361.  Conte di Asti 27 Mar 1379.  He deposed his uncle 6 May 1385, succeeding as Lord of Milan.  He was created GIAN GALEAZZO Duke of Milan 11 May 1395 by Emperor Wenzel, crowned 5 Sep 1395.   

-        see below, Part B. DUKES of MILAN

b)         VIOLANTE Visconti (1354-Pavia Nov 1386, bur Pavia San Agostino)The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Dominam Violantam natu minorem" as the daughter of "Domino Galeazio" and his wife "Blancam sororem Domini comitis Sabaudić"[269].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the marriage in 1368 of "Galeaz vicecomes unicam filiam suam…Violantem juvenem" and "Domino Lionello Duci Clarencić filio Regis Anglić", adding that her dowry was "civitatem Albć et plura Castra Pedemontium…Montem-Vicum, Cunium, Carascum et Demontem et plura alia, cum etiam maximo thesauro" {Alba, Mondovi, Cuneo, Cherasco and Demonte} and that the marriage was consummated at Milan[270].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the marriage in Aug 1377 of "Dominus Galeaz Vicecomes…Dominam Violantem eius filiam, uxorem quondam Domini Leonelli filii Regis Anglić" and "Marchioni Secundino Montis-ferrati"[271].  Benvenuto di San Giorgio quotes the marriage contract dated 15 Jun 1377 between "Jo. Galeaz vicecomes Mediolani comes Virtutum…filius…Galeaz vicecomitis Mediolani…imperialis vicarii generalis…D. Violantam ipsius D. comitis sororem genitam ex prćdicto…D. Galeaz" and "D. Secundottonis Marchionis Montis-ferrati"[272]Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the marriage in Nov 1381 of "Dominus Comes Virtutem…Dominam Violantem sororem suam" and "Domino Ludovico filio…Domini Bernabovis"[273].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death "in civitate Papić" in Nov 1386 of "Domina Violans soror…domini comitis Virtutem et uxor Domini Ludovici filii quondam Domini Bernabovis Vicecomitis" and her burial "in ecclesia S. Augustini in cittadella Papić prope sepulturam Domini Galeaz patris sui"[274]m firstly (contract Westminster 15 May 1367, Milan, Santa Maria Maggiore 28 May 1368) as his second wife, LIONEL "of Antwerp" Duke of Clarence, Earl of Ulster, son of EDWARD III King of England & his wife Philippa de Hainaut (Antwerp 29 Nov 1338-Alba, Piémont 17 Oct 1368, bur Pavia, later removed to Clare Priory, Suffolk).  m secondly (contract 15 Jun 1377, 2 Aug 1377) SECONDOTTO Marchese di Monferrato, son of GIOVANNI II Marchese di Monferrato & his second wife Infante dońa Isabel de Aragón titular Queen of Mallorca (1361-murdered Langhirano, near Parma 16 Dec 1378).  m thirdly (18 Apr 1381, Nov 1381) her first cousin, LODOVICO Visconti Signore di Lodi, son of BERNABŇ Visconti Lord of Milan, Bergamo, Cremona, Lodi, and Bologna & his wife Beatrice [Regina] della Scala (Sep 1358-Trezzo 7 Mar 1404).  

c)         MARIA (-1362).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

Galeazzo [II] had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

d)         BEATRICE (-after 1410).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m Conte GIOVANNI Anguissola Patrizio of Piacenza (-1396). 

4.         GIOVANNI Visconti (-before 1349).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

 

 

 

C.      DUKES of MILAN

 

GIAN GALEAZZO 1395-1402, GIOVANNI MARIA 1402-1412, FILIPPO MARIA 1412-1447

 

GIAN GALEAZZO Visconti, son of GALEAZZO [II] Visconti Lord of Milan & his wife Blanche Marie de Savoie (Melegnano [Marignan] 15 Oct or Nov 1351-Pavia 3 Sep 1402).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario names "Dominum Johannem Galeazium natu maiorem" as the son of "Domino Galeazio" and his wife "Blancam sororem Domini comitis Sabaudić"[275]Comte de Vertus, in right of his wife Apr 1361.  Signore di Pavia, Como, Novara, Asti, Vercelli, Tortona, Alessandria e Vigevano 1378.  Lord of Milan 1378, jointly with his uncle.  Conte di Asti 27 Mar 1379.  Vicar Imperial 17 Jan 1380.  He deposed his uncle 6 May 1385, succeeding as sole Lord of Milan with the title "Signore Generale".  As part of the contract of marriage of his daughter Valentina, Gian Galeazzo irrevocably appointed her his successor in Milan in the absence of a male heir.  After the birth of his son Giovanni Maria, the King of France recognised Gian Galeazzo's right to arrange his succession as he wished, at Maubuisson 2 Dec 1388.  He was created GIAN GALEAZZO "il Grande" Duke of Milan by Imperial decree 1 May 1395 of Emperor Wenzel, crowned 5 Sep 1395, confirmed 30 Mar 1397.  Created Conte di Pavia by Imperial decree 13 Oct 1396, invested 3 Feb 1397.  Created Conte di Angleria 25 Jan 1397, and Duke of Lombardy 30 Mar 1397.  "Princeps…et…dominus Johannes Galeaz Dux Mediolani…Papie, Anglerieque ac Virtutum comes", in his testament dated 1397, bequeathed "ducatu et…civitate Mediolani…civitatum…Brixie, Cremone, Bergami, Cumarum, Laude, Placentie, Parme, Regii et Bobii" to "dominum Johannem Mariam Anglum natum ex se et ex…consorte sua domina Catarina ducissa…filius primogenitus masculus", "comitatu…Papie…et in civitatibus Novarie, Vercellarum, Alexandrie et Terdone…" to "filium suum dominum Philippum Mariam Anglum eius secundumgenitum natum ex eo et ex dicta…consorte sua", "in civitate Pisarum" to "filium suum dominum Gabrielem Anglum natum ex eo et…domina Agnete de Mantegatiis, legitimatum…a Romanorum rege", provided for "Caterine ducisse consorti sue…Agnes de Mantegatiis….Valentinam filiam suam et consortem…d. Ludovici ducis Aurelianensis et filii quondam Francorum regis", provided dowries for "dominabus Anglesie et Lucie consanguineis suis filiabus quondam…d. Bernabovis Vicecomitis…et…domine Anne filie quondam domini Marci filii quondam predicti d. Bernabovis", made arrangements for "Elisabeth filia quondam predicti d. Bernabovis maritata…dominum Ernestum Bavarie ducem" should she be left a widow, and bequeathed property to "dominus Ludovicus et dominus Maximus filius quondam…d. Bernabovis eorumque descendentes…Camfranciscus filius quondam domini Antonii della Scala…et a dicto eius primogenito"[276].  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus noster Dux" held "dominium civitatis Perusić" in Feb 1400[277].  Exercising his rights to arrange his own succession, by will he substituted a fideicommis in place of his son, which later provided the dukes of Orléans with the basis for their claim to Milan.  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death "in castro Meregnani" 3 Sep 1402 of "Dux Johannes Galeaz primus dux"[278].  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the death 3 Sep 1402 "in Melegnano" of "Johanne Galeazo ducha de Mo"[279]

m firstly (Milan 8 Oct 1360) ISABELLE de France, daughter of JEAN II "le Bon" King of France & his first wife Bonne of Bohemia (Château de Bois-de-Vincennes 1 Oct 1348-Pavia 11 Sep 1373, bur Pavia San Francesco).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records the marriage of "Dominum Johannem Galeazium", son of "Domino Galeazio" and his wife, and "Dominam Elisabetam filiam…Regis Francorum"[280].  Her marriage was arranged by her maternal uncle Amédée VI Comte de Savoie[281].  Her dowry was the county of Sommičres, exchanged for the county of Vertus.  Declared Ctss de Vertus in Apr 1361.  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death "in civitate Papić" of "Domina Isabellis consors Domini Galeaz Vicecomitis, comitis Virtutum, filii Domini Galeaz Vicecomitis Domini Mediolani…quondam filia…Domini Johannis Regis Francorum et sorore…Domini Caroli Regis Bohemić" giving birth to "filium masculum…Dominum Carolum"[282]

m secondly (2 Oct 1380 or Nov 1381) CATERINA Visconti, daughter of BERNABŇ Visconti, Lord of Milan, Bergamo, Cremona, Lodi and Bologna & his wife Beatrice [Regina] della Scala (Milan [1361]-poisoned Monza 17 Oct 1404).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage 2 Oct 1380 of "Dominus Barnabos…Dominam Catharinam filiam suam" and "Domino Comiti Virtutum nepoti suo"[283].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the marriage in Nov 1381 of "Dominus Comes Virtutem" and "Dominam Catelinam filiam Domini Bernabovis Vicecomitis"[284].  "Princeps…et…dominus Johannes Galeaz Dux Mediolani…Papie, Anglerieque ac Virtutum comes", in his testament dated 1397, provided for "Caterine ducisse consorti sue…"[285]

Mistress (1): ([1384/89]) AGNESE Mantegazza, daughter of ---.  "Princeps…et…dominus Johannes Galeaz Dux Mediolani…Papie, Anglerieque ac Virtutum comes", in his testament dated 1397, bequeathed "in civitate Pisarum" to "filium suum dominum Gabrielem Anglum natum ex eo et…domina Agnete de Mantegatiis, legitimatum…a Romanorum rege", and provided for "…Agnes de Mantegatiis…."[286]

Mistress (2): ---.  The name of Gian Galeazzo´s second mistress is not known. 

Gian Galeazzo & his first wife had four children:

1.         GIAN GALEAZZO Visconti (-before 1376, bur Pavia Franciscan Church).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum names "tres filios et unam filiam…Dominum Johannem Galeaz, Dominum Azonem et Dominam Valentinam et…Dominum Carolum ultimum" as the children of "Dominus Galeaz" and his wife "Domina Isabella", adding that all her sons died within seven or eight years of her death, Gian Galeazzo being the second of her sons to die, all three being buried "in ecclesia Fratrum Minorum de Pavia…circa sepultoram…matris eorum"[287]

2.         AZZONE Visconti (Pavia 1366-Pavia 4 Oct 1381, bur Pavia Franciscan Church).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum names "tres filios et unam filiam…Dominum Johannem Galeaz, Dominum Azonem et Dominam Valentinam et…Dominum Carolum ultimum" as the children of "Dominus Galeaz" and his wife "Domina Isabella", adding that all her sons died within seven or eight years of her death, "Dominus Azo" being the last to die after the death of "dicti Domini Galeaz avi sui", , all three being buried "in ecclesia Fratrum Minorum de Pavia…circa sepultoram…matris eorum"[288].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in 1381 of "Dominus Azzo filius…Domini Comitis Virtutem et…Dominć Isabellć uxoris quondam suć"[289]

3.         VALENTINA Visconti (Pavia 1371-Château de Blois, Loir-et-Cher 14 Dec 1408, bur Paris, église des Célestins).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum names "tres filios et unam filiam…Dominum Johannem Galeaz, Dominum Azonem et Dominam Valentinam et…Dominum Carolum ultimum" as the children of "Dominus Galeaz" and his wife "Domina Isabella"[290].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the betrothal in 1387 of "Dominus comes Virtutum…unicam filiam suam Dominam Valentinam" and "Duci Turonić comiti Valexii, fratris…Regis Francorum"[291].  She was given the counties of Vertus and Asti as dowry.  She left the French court Apr 1396, living at Asničres, Château-Thierry, Villers-Cotteręts and Blois.  "Princeps…et…dominus Johannes Galeaz Dux Mediolani…Papie, Anglerieque ac Virtutum comes", in his testament dated 1397, provided for "…Valentinam filiam suam et consortem…d. Ludovici ducis Aurelianensis et filii quondam Francorum regis"[292]m (contract Paris 27 Jan 1387, by proxy Pavia 8 Apr 1387, in person Melun 17 Aug 1389) LOUIS de France Duc de Touraine, Comte de Valois, son of CHARLES V King of France & his wife Jeanne de Bourbon (Paris 13 Mar 1372-murdered Paris 23 Nov 1407).  Created Duc d'Orléans at Paris 4 Jun 1392, in exchange for the Duchy of Touraine. 

4.         CARLO Visconti (Pavia 11 Sep 1372-Pavia 1373, bur Pavia Franciscan Church).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum names "tres filios et unam filiam…Dominum Johannem Galeaz, Dominum Azonem et Dominam Valentinam et…Dominum Carolum ultimum" as the children of "Dominus Galeaz" and his wife "Domina Isabella", adding that Carlo died in the first year following his mother´s death and that his body was carried "de dicto Castro ad ecclesiam Fratrum Minorum Papić"[293]

Gian Galeazzo & his second wife had three children: 

5.         daughter (Jun 1385-Pavia 9 Jul 1385, bur Pavia Church of San Agostino).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the birth in Jun 1385 of "Dominus Comes Virtutum…ex Domina Catharina consorte sua…filiam", her death in Pavia 9 Jul, and burial "in civitate Papić…in Sancto Augustino"[294]

6.         GIOVANNI MARIA Visconti (Milan 7 Sep 1388-murdered San Gottardo 16 May 1412).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the birth 7 Sep 1388 "in Abiate Graffo comitatus Mediolani" of "Dominus Johannes Maria filius legitimus primogenitus…Domini comitis Virtutum ex Domina Catherina secunda uxore…filia quondam Domini Bernabovis"[295].  "Princeps…et…dominus Johannes Galeaz Dux Mediolani…Papie, Anglerieque ac Virtutum comes", in his testament dated 1397, bequeathed "ducatu et…civitate Mediolani…civitatum…Brixie, Cremone, Bergami, Cumarum, Laude, Placentie, Parme, Regii et Bobii" to "dominum Johannem Mariam Anglum natum ex se et ex…consorte sua domina Catarina ducissa…filius primogenitus masculus"[296].  He succeeded his father in 1402 as GIOVANNI MARIA Duke of Milan.  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus Johannem Mariam eius primogenitum" succeeded his father "in ducatu Mediolani…et in comitatum Anglerić et…[in] civitates…Cumas, Pergamum, Brixiam, Laude, Cremonam, Placentiam, Parmam, Regium, Bononiam, Senas, Perusium et Assisium"[297].  He lost Perugia and Assisi in 1402, Bologna 3 Sep 1403, Siena 1 May 1404 and Reggio 7 May 1404.  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the death 12 Mar 1411 of "ducha Johane Maria ducha de Milano in la corte de Milano"[298]m (1408) ANTONIA Malatesta, daughter of MALATESTA Malatesta di Rimini Signore di Pesaro, Signore di Cesena & his wife Elisabetta Varano di Camerino.  "Antonia de Malatestis ducissa Mediolani" granted baking rights to "Johannini de Lomazio" by charter dated 3 Feb 1413[299]

7.         FILIPPO MARIA Visconti (Milan 23 Sep 1392-Milan 13 Aug 1447).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominus Philippum Mariam eius secundogenitum" succeeded his father "in comitatu…Papić…et…[in] civitatum Terdonć, Alexandrić, Novarić, Vercellarum, Casalis, Valentić, Veronć, Vicentić, Feltri, Cividalis, Bassani et omnium Terrarum ultra Aricem"[300].  "Princeps…et…dominus Johannes Galeaz Dux Mediolani…Papie, Anglerieque ac Virtutum comes", in his testament dated 1397, bequeathed "comitatu…Papie…et in civitatibus Novarie, Vercellarum, Alexandrie et Terdone…" to "filium suum dominum Philippum Mariam Anglum eius secundumgenitum natum ex eo et ex dicta…consorte sua"[301].  Conte di Pavia 1402.  He lost Verona, Vicenza, Feltre and Belluno in 1404.  He succeeded his brother in 1412 as FILIPPO MARIA Duke of Milan.  On his death, three claimants to the Duchy of Milan emerged, Charles Duc d'Orléans as legitimate heir through his mother Valentina Visconti, Duc de Savoie Filippo Maria's brother-in-law, and Alfonso V King of Aragon whom Filippo Maria designated as his heir.  Charles Duc d'Orléans entered the city of Milan 22 Oct 1447, briefly taking control.  Betrothed (26 Jan 1404) to SOFIA di Monferrato, daughter of TEODORO II Paleologo Marchese di Monferrato & his second wife Jeanne de Bar (-21 Aug 1434).  m firstly (24 Jul 1412) as her second husband, BEATRICE di Ventimiglia-Lascaris, widow of FACINO Cazze [Cane] Conte di Biandrate, daughter of GUGLIELMO Lascaris Conte di Tenda & his wife --- (1372-beheaded Binasco 13 Sep 1418).  Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan granted "terra, castro et rocha Modoetie" {Monza} to "domina Beatrix Ducissa Mediolani, Verone…Papie Anglerieque comitissa eius consors" by charter dated 2 Jan 1414[302]m secondly (contract 2 Dec 1427[303], by proxy 2 Dec 1427, in person Vercelli 24 Sep 1428) MARIE de Savoie, daughter of AMEDEE VIII Duke of Savoy & his wife Marie de Bourgogne [Valois-Capet] (Chambéry end Jan 1411-Vigone 22 Feb 1479).  The marriage contract between "Amedeus Dux Sabaudić…Marić filić majoris" and "Philippus Maria Anglus Dux Mediolani…" is dated 2 Dec 1427[304].  Nun at Turin 1447.  Mistress (1): AGNESE del Maino, daughter of AMBROSIO del Maino & his wife --- (-after Aug 1447).  Duke Filippo Maria had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

a)         BIANCA MARIA Visconti (Castello di Settimo 31 Mar 1425-Cremona 23 Oct 1468)The Annales Ludovici di Raimo record the marriage 25 Oct 1441 at Cremona San Gismundo of "Signor Conte Francesco Sforza" and "Madama Maria Bianca figliola delle...Duca di Milano"[305].  Her dowry was the towns of Cremona and Pontremoli.  Regent of Milan 1466-1468.  m (Milan 23 Feb 1432, Cremona San Gismundo 25 Oct 1441) FRANCESCO ALESSANDRO Sforza, son of GIACOPO MUCIO Attendolo Sforza & his wife Lucia di Torsano (San Miniato, Tuscany 23 Jul 1401-6 Mar 1466).  After the disputed succession of his father-in-law, he finally entered Milan 25 Mar 1450, succeeding as FRANCESCO I Duke of Milan, Count of Pavia. 

-        see below, Chapter 2.B. DUKES of MILAN 1450-1535. 

b)         CATERINA [Lucia] (Castello di Settimo 1426-young).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

Gian Galeazzo had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

8.          GABRIELE MARIA (1385-beheaded Genoa 15 Dec 1407).  The Annales Mediolanenses record that "Dominum…Gabrielem filium suum naturalem sed legitimatum" succeeded his father as "Dominum Pisarum et Cremć"[306].  Legitimated.  "Princeps…et…dominus Johannes Galeaz Dux Mediolani…Papie, Anglerieque ac Virtutum comes", in his testament dated 1397, bequeathed "in civitate Pisarum" to "filium suum dominum Gabrielem Anglum natum ex eo et…domina Agnete de Mantegatiis, legitimatum…a Romanorum rege"[307].  Signore di Pisa, Sarzana e Crema 1402.  The Ordo of the funeral of Gian Galeazzo Visconti Duke of Milan, 3 Sep 1402, names as present "Dominus Gabriel Maria Vicecomes filius prćfati Domini…"[308].  He was deposed 26 Jul 1405 by the French governor of Genoa.  "Dominus Gabriel Maria Vicecomes filius quondam…domini Johannis Galeaz Vicecomitis olim ducis Mediolani…dominus civitatis Pisarum" sold "civitatem Pisarum" to "communis et populi civitatis Florentie" by charter dated 27 Aug 1405[309].  The Chronicon Guelforum et Gibellinorum records "Dominus Franciscus Miles et Dominus Antonius eius frater Vicecomitum qui tenebant castrum et villam de Cassano, et Dominus Gabriel Maria frater naturalis…Domini Ducis Mediolani" as rebels in Bergamo in Feb 1406[310].  Gabriele Maria had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:

a)         GIACOPO ([1405]-after 1446).  He was legitimated by the Duke of Milan in 1429 and invested with Tortona and Valenza.  m CATERINA Rossi dei Conti di San Secondo, daughter of ---.  Giacopo had two illegitimate children by an unknown mistress:

i)          GIOVANNI (-after 1455).  He was legitimated in 1455 by the Duke of Milan. 

ii)         son (-after 1455).  He was legitimated in 1455 by the Duke of Milan. 

9.          ANTONIO (1389-[1391]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

Gian Galeazzo had one illegitimate child by Mistress (2): 

10.       ANTONIO (-after 10 Apr 1414).  Filippo Maria Visconti Duke of Milan granted "Melegnani…Basilicapetri…Belzoyosii" {Melegnano, Bescapč e Belgiojoso} to "Johanne Vicecomite nato quondam…domini Ludovici, Francisco et Hestore fratribus de Vicecomitibus natis quondam…domini Hestoris, et Bernabove Vicecomite nato quondam…domini Mastini", with reversion to "domini Antonii de Vicecomitibus…germano prelibati dominum Ducis" in execution of a convention between "Franciscum dictum Carmagnolam de Boxonis" and "dominam Valentinam de Vicecomitibus natam quondam…domini Bernabovis tunc gubernatricem castri Modoetie", by charter dated 10 Apr 1414[311]. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    DUKES of MILAN (SFORZA)

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

1.         LORENZO da Cottignola (-after Mar 1395).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records that "Sforza e Lorenzo da Cottignola" fought "lo marchese de Ferrara" 14 Apr 1393 and "lo conte Johanne e conte Albrigo de Zagona" in Mar 1395[312]

 

2.         GIACOPO SFORZA di Attendoli da Cottignola (Cottignola 19 Jun 1369-murdered Pescara 4 Jan 1424).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth in 1369 of "Sforza de Attendoli de Cottignola"[313].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the birth in Cotignola 19 Jun 1369 of "Jacobus…vocatus…Muzullus, postea…Sfortia"[314].  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records that "Sforza e Lorenzo da Cottignola" fought "lo marchese de Ferrara" 14 Apr 1393 and "lo conte Johanne e conte Albrigo de Zagona" in Mar 1395[315].  A charter dated 15 May 1411 records an alliance between "dominus Nicolaus marchio Estensis" and "Sfortia de Attendolis comes Cutignole", under which the former granted "castrum Cutignole" to the latter[316].  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records that "la Regina Iohana" selected "misare Iacobo de Bornona conte de la Martia di Francia" as her husband in 1414, and that "lo re Iacobo" arrested "Sfortia…et Foschino suo nepote"[317].  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the death 3 Jan 1424 of "Sforza…in la Piscara"[318]m firstly (1411) ANTONIA di Salimbene, daughter of FRANCESCO Salimbeni Patrizio di Siena Signore di Chiusi & his wife --- (-Milan 1411).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the marriage in 1411 of "Sforza" and "madama Antonia di Salibeni"[319]m secondly (16 Jul 1415) CATERINA Alopo, daughter of --- (-1418).  m thirdly (1421) as her second husband, MARIA da Marzano dei Duchi di Sessa, widow of NICOLA Conte di Celano, daughter of --- (-[1440]).  Mistress (1): LUCIA Terzani, daughter of --- (-Milan 1461).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records that "Madonna Lucia" was pregnant in 1409 when Sforza sent her to Cotignola where "Alessandro" was born[320].  Sforza & his first wife had one child: 

a)         BOSIO Sforza (Siena 1411-Santa Fiora 1476).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth in 1411 of "el s. Boso Sforza figliolo del prefato s Sforza in la ripa del patrimonio"[321]m firstly (1439) CECILIA Aldobrandeschi, daughter of GUIDO Aldobrandeschi Conte di Santa Fiora e Pitigliano & his wife --- (-[1451]).  m secondly (1464) GRISEIDE di Capua, daughter of MATTEO di Capua Duca di Atri, Conte di Palena & his wife ---.  Bosio & his first wife had three children: 

i)          ANASTASIA Sforza (3 Sep 1443-).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth 3 Sep 1443 "in Sancta Fiora" of "Nestasia figliola del…Boso Sforza et de la contessa Cicilia"[322]

ii)         GUIDO Sforza (20 Feb 1445-after 1502).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth 20 Feb 1445 of "Guido Sforza figliolo de li dicti s Boso et contessa"[323]

-         DUCHI di SEGNI

iii)        COSTANZA Sforza (-after 21 May 1497)m firstly her first cousin, FILIPPO MARIA Sforza, son of FRANCESCO Sforza Duke of Milan & his second wife Bianca Maria Visconti (Pavia 12 Dec 1449-1492).  m secondly (21 May 1497) CLAUDE de la Palud Conte de la Roche-en-Montaigne, Seigneur de Varambon, son of --- (-28 Nov 1517).  

Sforza & his second wife had two children: 

b)         LEONARDO Sforza (Benevento 1417-Ascoli 1438).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth in 1417 of "Leonardo Sforza figliolo del prefato S. Sforza in Benevento"[324]

c)         SFORZA Sforza (Benevento 1418-).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth in 1419 of "Sforza figliolo del prefato s. Sforza in Benevento"[325]

Sforza & his third wife had one child: 

d)         CARLO Sforza (1423-).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth in 1423 of "Carlo Sforza figliolo del prefato S. Sforza in --- nel reame"[326]

Sforza had six illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

e)         FRANCESCO Sforza (San Miniato 23/24 Jul 1401-Milan 6 or 8 Mar 1466).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth "in sancto Meniate del mese de luyo die sabbate…in vigilia de sancto Iacobo" of "il conte Francesco Sforza"[327].  He succeeded 25 Mar 1450 as FRANCESCO I Duke of Milan

-        see below

f)          ELISA Sforza (Pisa 1402-Caiazzo 1476).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth in 1402 in Pisa of "madona Helisa figliola del prefato S. Sforza" who later married "m. Leonetto da Sanseverino"[328].  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the marriage in 1417 of "madona Lisa" and "Lioneto Sanseverino"[329]m (1417) LEONETTO di Sanseverino dei Signori di Caiazzo, son of ---. 

g)         [CHIARA .  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the marriage in 1417 of "madona Chiara" and "lo conte de sancto Angelo Mario Carazolo"[330]m (1417) MARIO Carazolo Conte di San Angelo, son of ---.] 

h)         ANTONIA Sforza (Arezzo 1404-Milan 1471).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth in 1404 of "madona Helisa [corrected by marginal addition to "Antonia in Arezo de Toscana"] figliola del prefato S. Sforza" who later married "m. Ardizone de Carara"[331]m firstly (1417) ARDIZZONE da Carrara dei Signori di Padova, son of ---.  m secondly (1432) MANFREDO da Barbiano, son of --- (-1451). 

i)           LEONE Sforza (Castel Fiorentino 1406-murdered Caravaggio 1440).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth in 1406 of "el s. Leone Sforza figliolo del prefato S. Sforza in Castel fiorentino de Toscana"[332]

j)           GIOVANNI Sforza (Pisa 1407-Pavia Dec 1451).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth in 1407 of "el s. Johanne Sforza figliuolo del prefato S. Sforza in Pisa"[333]The Annales Ludovici di Raimo record that "il Signor Giovanni Attendoli frate del Conte Francesco Sforza" was defeated by "Re Renato" 29 Jun 1442[334]

k)          ALESSANDRO [Giorgio] Sforza (Cotignola 1409-Fossa 3 Apr 1473)The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records that "Madonna Lucia" was pregnant in 1409 when Sforza sent her to Cotignola where "Alessandro" was born, being baptised "Georgio" but later called Alessandro[335]m firstly (8 Dec 1444) COSTANZA da Varano dei Signori di Camerino, daughter of PIETRO Gentile da Varano & his wife --- (-6 Jul 1447).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the death 6 Jul 1447 of "mad. Costanza dona del mio S. mess. Alesandro Sforza"[336]m secondly (1448, divorced 1457) SVEVA da Montefeltro dei Conti di Urbino, daughter of GUIDANTONIO Conte di Montefeltro & his wife --- (Urbino 1432-Pesaro 8 Sep 1478).  Alessandro & his first wife had two children: 

i)          BATTISTA Sforza (Pesaro 1446-Urbino 6 Jul 1472)m (1460) FEDERICO da Montefeltro Duke of Urbino, illegitimate son of GUIDANTONIO da Montefeltro Duke of Urbino & his mistress --- (-1482). 

ii)         COSTANZO Sforza (Pesaro 5 Jul 1447-Pesaro 19 Jul 1483).  Signore di Pesaro.  m (1475) as her second husband, CAMILLA da Marzano, widow of ---, daughter of MARINO Marzano Duca di Sessa, Duca di Squillache & his wife --- (-after 1489).  Mistress (1): FIORA Boni, daughter of ---.  Costanzo had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

(a)        GIOVANNI Sforza (Pesaro 5 Jul 1466-Pesaro 19 Jul 1510)Signore di Pesaro.  m firstly (27 Oct 1489) MADDALENA Gonzaga, daughter of FEDERICO Gonzaga Marchese di Mantua & his wife Margareta von Bayern (Mantua 1472-Pesaro 8 Jan 1490).  m secondly (Vatican 12 Jun 1493, annulled 1497) as her first husband, LUCREZIA Borgia, illegitimate daughter of RODRIGO Borgia [Pope Alexander VI] & his mistress Vannozza de´ Catanei (Rome 18 Apr 1480-Ferrara 24 Jun 1519, bur Ferrara Corpus Domini).  She married secondly (Rome Jul 1498) Alfonso d´Aragona Principe di Salerno Duca di Biscaglia, and thirdly (6 Jan 1502) as his second wife, Alfonso d´Este, who succeeded his father in 1505 as Alfonso I Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggiom thirdly (1503) GINEVRA Tiepolo, daughter of --- (-Murano, monastery of San Niccolň ----). 

(b)        GALEAZZO Sforza (Pesaro 1470-Cremona 14 Apr 1515).  Signore di Pesaro.  He was deposed 2 Oct 1512 when the land was transferred to the Papal States.  Governor of Cremona 1513.  m (1508) GINEVRA Bentivoglio dei Signori de Bologna, daughter of --- (Bologna 1492-after 20 Feb 1524). 

Alessandro had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

iii)        GINEVRA Sforza (Ancona 1440-Bologna 16 Jul 1507)Legitimated.  m firstly (Bologna 1454) SANTE Bentivoglio Signore di Bologna, son of ERCOLE Bentivoglio Signore di Bologna & his mistress --- (-1462).  m secondly (Bologna 1464) GIOVANNI Bentivoglio Signore di Bologna, son of ANNIBALE Bentivoglio Signore di Bologna & his wife --- (-1509). 

3.         MARGHERITA .  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza names "Margarita sorella de Sfortia matre de Foschino" during the war with "lo re Iacobo", dated to [1415][337]m ---.  Two children: 

a)         FOSCHINO di Attendoli da Cottignola (23 Jun 1392-).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth 23 Jun 1392 of "el s. Foschino de li Attendoli in Cottignola"[338].  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records that "la Regina Iohana" selected "misare Iacobo de Bornona conte de la Martia di Francia" as her husband in 1414, and that "lo re Iacobo" arrested "Sfortia…et Foschino suo nepote"[339]m EMILIA, daughter of ---.  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records that "Fuschino" married "madama Hemila" in 1433[340].  Foschino & his wife had two children: 

i)          GIOVANNI FRANCESCO Sforza (1436-).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth 24 Jun 1436 of "Iohanne Francesco Sforza figliolo de Fuschino in ture magiore in die sancti Iohannis baptiste a di 24 di giugno"[341]

ii)         MARGHERITA BIANCA (Benevento 8 Jun 1438-).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth 8 Jun 1438 of "a Fuschino…in Benevento una fiola…Margarita Biancha"[342]

b)         MARCO (-Piacenza 1466).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza names "Marco fratello di Foschino" in a list of members of the family[343]

 

 

 

B.      DUKES of MILAN 1450-1535

 

 

FRANCESCO I 1450-1466, GALEAZZO MARIA 1466-1476, GIAN GALEAZZO II 1476-1494, LODOVICO 1494-1508, MASSIMILIANO 1512-1515, FRANCESCO II 1521-1535

 

FRANCESCO Sforza, illegitimate son of SFORZA di Attendoli da Cottignola & his mistress Lucia Terziani (San Miniato 23/24 Jul 1401-Milan 6 or 8 Mar 1466).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth "in sancto Meniate del mese de luyo die sabbate…in vigilia de sancto Iacobo" of "il conte Francesco Sforza"[344]The Annales Ludovici di Raimo record the birth 20 Jun 1401 of "il conte Francesco Sforza"[345]Conte di Celano e Montaldo 1418.  Signore di Benevento e Manfredonia 1424-1440.  Signore di Cremona e Pontremoli 1442.  Conte di Pavia e Signore di Piacenza 1447.  He succeeded 25 Mar 1450 as FRANCESCO I Duke of Milan.  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records that "lo duca di Milano conte Francesco Sforza" entered Milan 26 Geb 1450[346].  Lord of Genoa 19 Apr 1464.  Conte della Corsica 4 Jul 1464.  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records the death 5 Mar 1463 of "lo Ducha Francisco de Milano"[347].  

m firstly (Naples 19 Oct 1418) as her second husband, POLISSENA Ruffo Contessa di Corigliano e Montalto, widow of GIACOMO Marulli, Seneschal of the kingdom of Naples, daughter of CARLO Ruffo Signor di Montalto & his wife --- (-1424).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the marriage in 1418 of "Sf…Francisco suo figliolo" and "la contessa de Montalto conte…in Calabria"[348]

m secondly (Milan 23 Feb 1432, Cremona San Gismundo 25 Oct 1441) BIANCA MARIA Visconti, illegitimate daughter of FILIPPO MARIA Visconti Duke of Milan & his mistress Agnese del Maino (Castello di Settimo 31 Mar 1425-Cremona 23 Oct 1468).  The Annales Ludovici di Raimo record the marriage 25 Oct 1441 at Cremona San Gismundo of "Signor Conte Francesco Sforza" and "Madama Maria Bianca figliola delle...Duca di Milano"[349]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Francesco´s first mistress is not known. 

Mistress (2): GIOVANNA d´Acquapendente, daughter of ---. 

Duke Francesco & his first wife had one child:

1.         POLISSENA Sforza (-1420).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

Duke Francesco & his second wife had nine children: 

2.         GALEAZZO MARIA Sforza (Milan 24 Jan 1444-murdered 26 Dec 1476)The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth 14 Jan 1444 of "comitis Galeaz Sfortia Maria"[350].  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records that "maddamma Bianca…duchessa de Milano" gave birth to a son "Galiaczo Maria" 14 Jan 1444[351].  He succeeded his father in 1466 as GALEAZZO MARIA Duke of Milan.  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records that "Galiazo Maria Spina figliolo de la…maddamma Bianca" was murdered 27 Dec 1476, after reigning for 10 years, 9 months and 6 days, by "messer Joanni Andrea de Andreamo de Milano" who was captured and quartered alive[352].  m firstly (1466) DOROTEA Gonzaga, daughter of LODOVICO III Marchese di Mantua & his wife Barbara von Brandenburg (-1468).   m secondly (6 Jul 1468) BONNE de Savoie, daughter of LOUIS Duke of Savoy & his wife Anne Pss of Cyprus (Aug 1449-1 Nov 1485).  The marriage contract between "Duca Galeazzo Maria Sforza" and "Bona Sorella del Duca di Savoia e cognate del Re di Francia" was ratified by charter dated 3 May 1468[353].  Regent of Milan 1476.  Mistress (1): LUCREZIA Landriani, daughter of ---.  Duke Galeazzo Maria & his second wife had four children: 

a)         GIAN GALEAZZO MARIA Sforza (Castel Albbiategrasso 1469-Pavia 2 Oct 1494).  He succeeded his father in 1476 as GIAN GALEAZZO II MARIA Duke of Milanm (Milan 2 Feb 1489) his first cousin, ISABELLA of Naples, daughter of ALFONSO of Naples [later ALFONSO II King of Naples] [Aragon] & his wife Ippolita Maria Sforza (Naples 2 Oct 1470-Bari 1 Feb 1524).  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records that "Ysabella de Aragona duchessa de Milano" left Naples 26 Dec 1488 by sea for Genoa to travel to Milan to join her husband[354].  Dss di Bari, Pss di Rossano Nov 1500.  Ctss di Borello, Rosarno e Longobucco.  An energetic personality, she supported her husband's attempts to wrest power in Milan from his uncle Lodovico "il Moro".  However, the latter's alliance with the French, who were offered passage through Milan in return for support, hastened the fall of the Kingdom of Naples.  Duke Galeazzo II Maria & his wife had four children: 

i)          FRANCESCO Sforza (1490-1511).  Abbot of Marmonters. 

ii)         child. 

iii)        IPPOLITA Sforza (1493-[1501]). 

iv)       BONA Sforza ([1494/95]-1558)m (1518) as his second wife, ZYGMUNT I “Stary/the Old” King of Poland, son of KAZIMIERZ IV "the Great" King of Poland & his wife Elisabeth Adss of Austria (1 Jan 1467-1 Apr 1548). 

b)         ERMES Sforza (1470-after Dec 1488).  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records that "lo fratello del dicta duca de Milano…lo signor Ermes" accompanied "Ysabella de Aragona duchessa de Milano" when she left Naples 26 Dec 1488 by sea for Genoa to travel to Milan to join her husband[355].  

c)         BIANCA MARIA Sforza (Pavia 5 Apr 1472-Innsbruck 31 Dec 1510, bur Stams)m firstly (Jan 1474) PHILIBERT I Duke of Savoy, son of AMEDEE IX Duke of Savoy & his wife Yolande de France (Chambéry 7 Aug 1465-Lyon 22 Apr 1482).  m secondly (Hall, Tyrol 16 Mar 1494) as his third wife, MAXIMILIAN I King of the Romans Archduke of Austria, son of Emperor FRIEDRICH III King of the Romans, Duke of Inner Austria & his wife Infanta dona Leonor de Portugal (Burg zu Neustadt 22 Mar 1459-Wels 12 Jan 1519).  He was elected Emperor in 1508. 

d)         ANNA Sforza (1473-30 Nov 1497)m (12 Jan 1491) as his first wife, ALFONSO d’Este, son of ERCOLE I d’Este Duke of Modena, Ferrara & Reggio & his wife Eleonora of Naples (21 Jul 1476-31 Oct 1534, bur Ferrara Corpus Domini).  He succeeded his father in 1505 as ALFONSO I Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio.  

Duke Galeazzo Maria had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

e)         CATERINA Sforza (1462-Florence 28 May 1509)m firstly GIROLAMO Riario, nephew of Pope SIXTUS IV della Rovere, son of --- (-1488).  Signore sovrano di Forli.  m secondly GIACOMO Feo, son of --- (-1495).  m thirdly (Forli 1497) GIULIANO Giovanni de’ Medici "il Popolano", son of PIER FRANCESCO de´Medici & his wife Laudomia Acciajuoli (Florence 21 Oct 1467-San Pietro de Bagno 14 Sep 1498).

3.         IPPOLITA MARIA Sforza (Cremona 18 Apr 1446-Naples 20 Aug 1484)The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth 18 Mar 1445 of "dna Hyppolita Maria"[356].  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records that "maddamma Bianca…duchessa de Milano" gave birth to a daughter "Ypolita Maria" 18 May 1445[357].  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records the arrival in Naples 14 Sep 1465 of "la figlia del Ducha de Milano…Ypolita Maria" who was married "al Ducha de Calabria…Don Alfonso de Aragona primogenito del Re Ferrante primo"[358].  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records the death 19 Aug 1488 of "maddamma Ipolita Maria Spina Sforza duchessa de Calabria…mogliera de lo ducha de Calabria primogenito de re Ferrante" in "lo castello Capuana de Napoli" and her burial "ala Nunciata"[359].  m (Milan 10 Oct 1465) ALFONSO of Naples, son of FERRANTE I King of Naples [Aragon] & his first wife Isabelle Guilhem de Clermont (Naples 4 Nov 1448-Messina 18 Dec 1495).  He succeeded his father 1494 as ALFONSO II King of Naples

4.         FILIPPO MARIA Sforza (Pavia 12 Dec 1449-1492)The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth 22 Dec 1449 at Pavia of "Filippum Maria…3 fil. legiptimum"[360].  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records that "maddamma Bianca…duchessa de Milano" gave birth to a son "Filippo Maria Sforcza" 12 Dec 1449 "in la cammera del castello novo de Pavia"[361].  Betrothed (contract renewed 24 Sep 1454, contract 13 Dec 1454[362]) to MARIE de Savoie, daughter of LOUIS Duke of Savoy & his wife Anne Pss of Cyprus (20 Mar 1448-1475).  The marriage contract between "Filippo Maria Sforza figlio di Francesco Sforza Duca di Milano" and "Maria di Savoia figlia di Lodovico Duca di Savoia" is dated 13 Dec 1454[363]m as her first husband, his first cousin, COSTANZA Sforza, daughter of BOSIO Sforza & his first wife Cecilia Aldobrandini (-after 21 May 1497).  She married secondly (21 May 1497) Claude de la Palud Conte de la Roche-en-Montaigne, Seigneur de Varambon.  Filippo Maria & his wife had one child: 

a)         BONA Sforza m GIAN GALEAZZO Visconti, son of ---. 

5.         SFORZA MARIA Sforza (18 Aug 1451-).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth 18 Aug 1451 of "I Sforcia Maria…quartus filius legiptimus"[364]

6.         LODOVICO Sforza (Vigema [Vigevano?] 3 Aug 1452-27 May 1508)The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth 3 Aug 1452 of "Ludovicus Maria…quintus filius legiptimus"[365].  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records that "maddamma Bianca…duchessa de Milano" gave birth to a son "Lodovicho Sforza" 18 Aug 1451 "in lo castello de Vigema"[366].  He succeeded his nephew 1494 as LODOVICO “il Moro” Duke of Milan.  Deposed 1499.  m (18 Jan 1491) BEATRICE d'Este, daughter of ERCOLE I d’Este Duke of Modena, Ferrara & Reggio & his wife Eleonora of Naples (Naples 29 Jun 1475-2 Jan 1497).  Mistress (1): LUCREZIA Crivelli, daughter of ---.  Lodovico & his wife had two children: 

a)         MASSIMILIANO Sforza (1491-1530).  He succeeded 1512 as MASSIMILIANO Duke of Milan.  Deposed 1515. 

b)         FRANCESCO Sforza (4 Feb 1492-24 Oct 1535).  He was installed in 1525 as FRANCESCO II Duke of Milanm (4 May 1534) CHRISTINE of Denmark, daughter of CHRISTIAN II King of Denmark (1521-10 Dec 1590). 

Lodovico had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):   

c)          GIAMPAOLO Sforza (Milan 1497-Naples 13 Dec 1535).  He was invested as first Marchese di Caravaggio, Conte di Galliate 16 Apr 1533.  m VIOLANTE Bentivoglio dei Signori di Bologna, daughter of ---.   

-        MARCHESI di CARAVAGGIO

7.         [FRANCESCO GALEAZZO MARIA (5 Aug [1453/54]-).  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records that "maddamma Bianca…duchessa de Milano" gave birth to a son "don Francisco Galiaczo Maria" 5 Aug 1482 (date clearly incorrect) "in la cammera verso lo Iardino"[367].]  

8.         ASCANIO MARIA (3 Mar 1455-28 May 1505).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth 3 Mar 1455 of "Aschanius Maria…filius sextus legiptimus"[368].  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records that "maddamma Bianca…duchessa de Milano" gave birth to a son "Ascanio Maria, et de poi fo cardinale" 3 Mar 1455[369].  Cardinal 1484. 

9.         ELISABETTA Sforza (Asti 10 Jun 1456-1473).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth 10 Jun 1456 of "dona Helysabeta…mei filia 7 legiptima…Asti"[370].  A continuation of the Chronica Jacobi de Aquis names "Elisabetta sorella del Duca Galeazzo Visconte Signore di Milano" as the second wife of "Guglielmo" second son of "Zoanne Jacobo figlolo di Teodoro"[371]m (1469) as his second wife, GUGLIELMO X Marchese di Monferrato, son of GIANGIACOMO Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Jeanne de Savoie (19 Jul 1420-28 Feb 1483). 

10.      OTTAVIO Sforza (Asti 30 Apr 1458-1477).  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the birth 30 Apr 1458 of "Octorinus…8 filius legiptimus Asti"[372].  Conte di Lugano. 

Duke Francesco has one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

11.       TRISTANO Sforza (Genoa 1424-Milan 1477)Signore di Saliceto, Noceto e Lusurasco.  m as her second husband, BEATRICE d´Este, widow of NICCOLŇ da Correggio Conte di Corregio, illegitimate daughter of NICCOLŇ [III] d'Este Signore di Ferrara e Modena & his mistress Catarina --- (1427-before 29 Nov 1497). 

Duke Francesco has one illegitimate child by Mistress (2): 

12.       POLISSENA Sforza (Fermo 1428-Rimini Jun 1449)She was alleged to have been murdered by her husband.  m (23 Mar 1443) as his second wife, SIGISMONDO PANDOLFO Malatesta Signore di Rimini, illegitimate son of PANDOLFO [III] Malatesta Signore di Fano & his mistress Antonia da Barignano (Brescia 19 Jun 1417-Castel Sismondo 7 Oct 1468). 

Duke Francesco had illegitimate children by unknown Mistresses:    

13.       SFORZA Sforza (Grottammare 1433-Piacenza after 1501).  Conte di Borgonuovo 1451.  Governor-General of Parma 1483.  Governor of Piacenza 1484.  Patrician of Naples 1501. 

-        CONTI di BORGONUOVO

 

 



[1] Osio, L. (ed.) (1864) Documenti Diplomatici tratti dagli archivii Milanesi (Milan) ("Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi"), Vol. I, XX, p. 28. 

[2] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, LVIII, p. 111. 

[3] Muratori, L. A. (ed.) (1730) Rerum Italicarum Scriptores ("RIS") (Milan) Tome XVI, Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XI, col. 649. 

[4] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 599. 

[5] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXX, RIS XVI, col. 686. 

[6] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXIII, p. 318. 

[7] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XII, RIS XVI, col. 649. 

[8] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XII, RIS XVI, col. 649. 

[9] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XII, RIS XVI, col. 649. 

[10] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XII, RIS XVI, col. 649. 

[11] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XXXV, RIS XVI, col. 664. 

[12] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XII, RIS XVI, col. 649. 

[13] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XXXVII, RIS XVI, col. 666. 

[14] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XXXVII, RIS XVI, col. 666. 

[15] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XII, RIS XVI, col. 649. 

[16] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XII, RIS XVI, col. 649. 

[17] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XI, RIS XVI, col. 649. 

[18] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XII, RIS XVI, col. 649. 

[19] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XI, RIS XVI, col. 649. 

[20] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XII, RIS XVI, col. 649. 

[21] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XXXVII, RIS XVI, col. 666. 

[22] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XLVI, RIS XVI, col. 673. 

[23] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, XIV, p. 22. 

[24] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XLIX, RIS XVI, col. 675. 

[25] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 599. 

[26] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XLVII, RIS XVI, col. 674. 

[27] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LIII, RIS XVI, col. 678. 

[28] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XLIX, RIS XVI, col. 675. 

[29] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXXIV, RIS XVI, col. 688. 

[30] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXXVII, RIS XVI, col. 689. 

[31] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XII, RIS XVI, col. 649. 

[32] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, XIV, p. 22. 

[33] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XLIX, RIS XVI, col. 675. 

[34] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XLIX, RIS XVI, col. 675. 

[35] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXXIV, RIS XVI, col. 688. 

[36] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXXVIII, RIS XVI, col. 690. 

[37] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXXXIII, RIS XVI, col. 693. 

[38] Muratori, L. A. (1777) Antiquitates Italicć Medii ćvi, Tome XI, col. 35. 

[39] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XLVIII, RIS XVI, col. 675. 

[40] Muratori, L. A. (1777) Antiquitates Italicć Medii ćvi, Tome XI, col. 35. 

[41] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XII, RIS XVI, col. 649. 

[42] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XLIX, RIS XVI, col. 675. 

[43] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XII, RIS XVI, col. 649. 

[44] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXX, RIS XVI, col. 686. 

[45] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XXXVIII, RIS XVI, col. 666. 

[46] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXXIX, RIS XVI, col. 690. 

[47] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXXXIX, RIS XVI, col. 697. 

[48] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, XIV, p. 22. 

[49] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, XIV, p. 22. 

[50] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 599. 

[51] Annales Mediolanenses, Caps. LVI-LXV, cols. 679-83. 

[52] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, XXXI, p. 39. 

[53] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, XXXIV, p. 42. 

[54] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXV, col. 683. 

[55] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XLVII, RIS XVI, col. 674. 

[56] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 483. 

[57] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXXXVII, RIS XVI, col. 694. 

[58] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XCIX, RIS XVI, col. 704. 

[59] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CVIII, RIS XVI, col. 710. 

[60] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXXIII, RIS XVI, cols. 688-9. 

[61] Annales Mediolanenses, Caps. LXXIII and LXXIV, RIS XVI, col. 688. 

[62] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, XLI, p. 51. 

[63] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, XLI, p. 51. 

[64] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, XLI, p. 51. 

[65] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CIV, RIS XVI, col. 706. 

[66] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CX, RIS XVI, col. 715. 

[67] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVI, RIS XVI, col. 721. 

[68] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVI, RIS XVI, col. 721. 

[69] Osio, L. (ed.) (1869) Documenti Diplomatici tratti dagli archivii Milanesi (Milan) ("Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi"), Vol. II, Parte I, XLVIII, p. 73. 

[70] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XLVIII, p. 73. 

[71] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVI, RIS XVI, col. 721. 

[72] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXV, RIS XVI, col. 734. 

[73] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVI, RIS XVI, col. 721. 

[74] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVII, RIS XVI, col. 724. 

[75] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXX, RIS XVI, col. 729. 

[76] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXII, RIS XVI, col. 730. 

[77] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXX, RIS XVI, col. 729. 

[78] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CLXXI, p. 233. 

[79] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CLX, p. 225. 

[80] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXIX, p. 315. 

[81] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCLXIV, p. 400. 

[82] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XXIV, p. 30.  

[83] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XVIII, p. 18. 

[84] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 483. 

[85] Annales Mediolanenses, Caps. LVI-LXV, cols. 679-83. 

[86] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, XXXI, p. 39. 

[87] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXVII, RIS XVI, col. 684. 

[88] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, XLI, p. 51. 

[89] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXX, RIS XVI, col. 686. 

[90] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXXIV and LXXXIII, RIS XVI, cols. 688 and 693. 

[91] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IV, RIS XVI, col. 306. 

[92] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Matthias Nuewenburgensis, p. 200. 

[93] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 493. 

[94] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XCIV, RIS XVI, col. 700. 

[95] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. II, RIS XVI, col. 303. 

[96] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. II, RIS XVI, col. 303. 

[97] Matthias Nuewenburgensis, p. 200. 

[98] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXX, RIS XVI, col. 686. 

[99] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 489. 

[100] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XCIX, RIS XVI, col. 704. 

[101] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. C, RIS XVI, col. 704. 

[102] Annales Veteres Mutinensium, RIS, XI, col. 75. 

[103] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXXI, RIS XVI, col. 687. 

[104] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. VII, RIS XVI, col. 313. 

[105] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CIX, RIS XVI, col. 714. 

[106] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. VII, RIS XVI, col. 313. 

[107] Matthias Nuewenburgensis, p. 200. 

[108] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XCIX, RIS XVI, col. 704. 

[109] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, LII, p. 78. 

[110] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, LVI, p. 108. 

[111] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 498. 

[112] The Inventory of the State Archives of Turin, volume 102, page 54, fascicule 1, consulted at <http://ww2.multix.it/asto/asp/inventari.asp> (2 Feb 2006) ("State Archives"). 

[113] State Archives, volume 102, page 55, fascicule 2. 

[114] Date of a document relating to the payment of the dowry, State Archives, volume 102, page 55.2, fascicule 3. 

[115] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. VII, RIS XVI, col. 313. 

[116] Moriondus, J. B. (1790) Monumenta Aquensia (Turin), Pars II, Historiam Aquensem,Monferratensem ac Pedemontanam, col. 179. 

[117] State Archives, volume 25, page 15, fascicule 13. 

[118] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars II, col. 468. 

[119] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars II, col. 493.  

[120] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXIII, RIS XVI, col. 682. 

[121] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XXXI, RIS XVI, col. 663. 

[122] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. II, RIS XVI, col. 303. 

[123] Matthias Nuewenburgensis, p. 200. 

[124] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XCIX, RIS XVI, col. 704. 

[125] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, LVIII, p. 111. 

[126] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XI, RIS XVI, col. 334. 

[127] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 499. 

[128] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XI, RIS XVI, col. 336. 

[129] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XI, RIS XVI, col. 336. 

[130] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. II, RIS XVI, col. 303. 

[131] Matthias Nuewenburgensis, p. 200. 

[132] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. VIII, RIS XVI, col. 314. 

[133] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. II, RIS XVI, col. 303. 

[134] Matthias Nuewenburgensis, p. 200. 

[135] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XCIX, RIS XVI, col. 704. 

[136] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, LVIII, p. 111. 

[137] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IX, RIS XVI, col. 321. 

[138] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 499. 

[139] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IX, RIS XVI, col. 316. 

[140] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IX, RIS XVI, col. 316. 

[141] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 498. 

[142] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXV, RIS XVI, col. 720. 

[143] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IX, RIS XVI, col. 316. 

[144] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IX, RIS XVI, col. 316. 

[145] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXV, RIS XVI, col. 720. 

[146] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXXII, RIS XVI, col. 743. 

[147] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXXII, p. 348. 

[148] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXXII, p. 348. 

[149] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXXII, p. 348. 

[150] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXXII, p. 348. 

[151] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXXII, p. 348. 

[152] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IX, RIS XVI, col. 317. 

[153] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IX, RIS XVI, col. 317. 

[154] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVI, RIS XVI, col. 721. 

[155] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IX, RIS XVI, col. 317. 

[156] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. II, RIS XVI, col. 303. 

[157] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. XXXI, RIS XVI, col. 663. 

[158] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. II, RIS XVI, col. 303. 

[159] Matthias Nuewenburgensis, p. 200. 

[160] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars II, col. 585. 

[161] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IX, RIS XVI, col. 317. 

[162] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars II, col. 604. 

[163] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IX, RIS XVI, col. 317. 

[164] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CX, RIS XVI, col. 715. 

[165] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVI, RIS XVI, col. 721. 

[166] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVII, RIS XVI, col. 724. 

[167] Marie José (1956) La Maison de Savoie, Les Origines, Le Comte Vert, Le Comte Rouge (Paris, Albin Michel), p. 137. 

[168] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IX, RIS XVI, col. 317. 

[169] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CX, RIS XVI, col. 715. 

[170] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVII, RIS XVI, col. 724. 

[171] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXX, RIS XVI, col. 729. 

[172] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, LXXI, p. 137. 

[173] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IX, RIS XVI, col. 317. 

[174] Marie José (1956), p. 127. 

[175] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVI, RIS XVI, col. 721. 

[176] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVIII, RIS XVI, col. 724. 

[177] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXII, RIS XVI, col. 730. 

[178] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 511. 

[179] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 543. 

[180] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLVII, RIS XVI, col. 800. 

[181] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XI, RIS XVI, col. 324. 

[182] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVI, RIS XVI, col. 721. 

[183] Marie José (1956), p. 136. 

[184] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 546. 

[185] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLV, RIS XVI, cols. 777-8. 

[186] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLIII, RIS XVI, col. 774. 

[187] Necrologium Sćldentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[188] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXVIII, RIS XVI, col. 736. 

[189] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 508.  

[190] Necrologium Austriacum Gentis Habsburgicć Alterum, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 124. 

[191] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XIII, RIS XVI, col. 385. 

[192] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 546. 

[193] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLIV, RIS XVI, col. 775. 

[194] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXIX, RIS XVI, col. 736. 

[195] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 546. 

[196] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLIV, RIS XVI, col. 775. 

[197] Necrologium Sćldentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[198] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXX, RIS XVI, col. 729. 

[199] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXL, RIS XVI, col. 771. 

[200] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLVII, RIS XVI, col. 786. 

[201] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 543. 

[202] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXIII, p. 318. 

[203] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 543. 

[204] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 546. 

[205] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XXIV, p. 30. 

[206] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLVII, RIS XVI, col. 786. 

[207] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 543. 

[208] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CLI, RIS XVI, col. 806. 

[209] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 544. 

[210] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CXXIII, p. 180. 

[211] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLIV, RIS XVI, col. 775. 

[212] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CLXIV, p. 227. 

[213] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 544. 

[214] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLV, RIS XVI, col. 777. 

[215] Chronicon Bergomense, Chronicon Successuum Guelforum et Gibellinorum, RIS XVI, col. 971. 

[216] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CXXXIX, p. 206. 

[217] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLII, RIS XVI, col. 774. 

[218] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLII, RIS XVI, col. 774. 

[219] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 543. 

[220] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CXXI, p. 177. 

[221] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLII, RIS XVI, col. 774. 

[222] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CXLVIII, p. 213. 

[223] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CLI, p. 217. 

[224] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CLII, RIS XVI, col. 815. 

[225] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXIX, RIS XVI, col. 736. 

[226] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CLXII, p. 226. 

[227] Monumenta Necrologica Raitenhslacensia, Liber defunctorum Genealogica - Appendix, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[228] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXIX, RIS XVI, col. 736. 

[229] Amadi, p. 437. 

[230] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CXXIII, p. 180. 

[231] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXL, RIS XVI, col. 771. 

[232] Mas Latrie, R. de (ed.) (1891) Chroniques d'Amadi et de Strambaldi (Paris) (“Amadi”), p. 487. 

[233] Osio, L. (1864/72) Doc. diploma. tratti degli archivio Milan Vol. II, p. 115n, cited by Morris Bierbrier in a private email to the author dated 31 Mar 2007.  . 

[234] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXIII, p. 318. 

[235] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CLXVI, p. 228. 

[236] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXIII, p. 318. 

[237] Necrologium Scheftlariense, Freising Necrologies, p. 116. 

[238] Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre, Vol. II, p. 478. 

[239] Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre, Vol. II, p. 459. 

[240] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXXIX, RIS XVI, col. 763. 

[241] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 544. 

[242] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXIII, p. 318. 

[243] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XXIV, p. 30. 

[244] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XIII, RIS XVI, col. 402. 

[245] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXV, RIS XVI, col. 734. 

[246] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 519. 

[247] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XXIV, p. 30. 

[248] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XXIV, p. 30. 

[249] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLVII, RIS XVI, cols. 785-6. 

[250] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXXIX, RIS XVI, col. 763. 

[251] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CLV, RIS XVI, col. 821. 

[252] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXXIX, RIS XVI, col. 763. 

[253] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLVII, RIS XVI, cols. 785-6. 

[254] Chronicon Bergomense, Chronicon Successuum Guelforum et Gibellinorum, RIS XVI, col. 963. 

[255] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XXIV, p. 30. 

[256] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. IX, RIS XVI, col. 317. 

[257] Marie José (1956), p. 127. 

[258] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVI, RIS XVI, col. 721. 

[259] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVIII, RIS XVI, col. 724. 

[260] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXII, RIS XVI, col. 731. 

[261] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 543. 

[262] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XI, RIS XVI, col. 324. 

[263] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXVI, RIS XVI, col. 721. 

[264] State Archives, volume 102, page 59, fascicule 1. 

[265] Marie José (1956), p. 134. 

[266] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CXCII, p. 260. 

[267] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 549. 

[268] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XIV, RIS XVI, col. 402. 

[269] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XIV, RIS XVI, col. 402. 

[270] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 510. 

[271] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 541. 

[272] Ragionamento familiare dell´origine…de…Marchesi di Monferrato…per Benvenuto di S. Giorgio ("Benvenuto di San Giorgio"), RIS XXIII, col. 594. 

[273] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 543. 

[274] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 546. 

[275] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XIV, RIS XVI, col. 402. 

[276] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXIII, p. 318. 

[277] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CLXII, RIS XVI, col. 833. 

[278] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 560. 

[279] Una inedita chronachetta degli Sforza, Archivio storico per le province Napoletane, Anno XIX, Fascicolo IV (Naples, 1894) ("Cronachetta degli Sforza"), p. 720. 

[280] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XIV, RIS XVI, col. 405. 

[281] Marie José (1956), p. 142. 

[282] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 512. 

[283] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLII, RIS XVI, col. 774. 

[284] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 543. 

[285] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXIII, p. 318. 

[286] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXIII, p. 318. 

[287] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, cols. 512-13. 

[288] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, cols. 512-13. 

[289] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLIII, RIS XVI, col. 774. 

[290] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 512. 

[291] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 548. 

[292] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXIII, p. 318. 

[293] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, cols. 512-13. 

[294] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLVII, RIS XVI, col. 787. 

[295] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 551. 

[296] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXIII, p. 318. 

[297] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CLXIV, RIS XVI, col. 838. 

[298] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 724. 

[299] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XI, p. 13. 

[300] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CLXIV, RIS XVI, cols. 838-9. 

[301] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXIII, p. 318. 

[302] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XXIII, p. 27. 

[303] State Archives, volume 102, page 82, fascicule 1. 

[304] State Archives, volume 102, page 82, fascicule 1, and Guichenon, S. (1780) Histoire généalogique de la royale maison de Savoie (Turin) ("Guichenon (Savoie)"), Tome IV, Preuves, p. 344. 

[305] Annales Ludovici de Raimo, RIS XXIII, col. 230. 

[306] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CLXIV, RIS XVI, col. 839. 

[307] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXXIII, p. 318. 

[308] Ordo…pro obsequio…D. Johannis Galeaz Visconti, RIS XVI, col. 1027. 

[309] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCLXII, p. 393. 

[310] Chronicon Bergomense, Chronicon Successuum Guelforum et Gibellinorum, RIS XVI, col. 996. 

[311] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. II, Parte I, XXIV, p. 30. 

[312] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 719. 

[313] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 718. 

[314] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXXI, RIS XVI, col. 741. 

[315] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 719. 

[316] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCLXXVII, p. 417. 

[317] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 726. 

[318] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 731. 

[319] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 724. 

[320] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 722. 

[321] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 724. 

[322] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 735. 

[323] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 735. 

[324] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 729. 

[325] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 730. 

[326] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 731. 

[327] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 720. 

[328] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 720. 

[329] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 730. 

[330] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 730. 

[331] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 721. 

[332] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 722. 

[333] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 722. 

[334] Annales Ludovici de Raimo, RIS XXIII, col. 231. 

[335] Cronachetta degli Sforza, pp. 722-3. 

[336] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 735. 

[337] Cronachetta degli Sforza, pp. 726-7. 

[338] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 719. 

[339] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 726. 

[340] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 732. 

[341] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 734. 

[342] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 734. 

[343] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 724. 

[344] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 720. 

[345] Annales Ludovici de Raimo, RIS XXIII, col. 224. 

[346] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 735. 

[347] Capasso, B. (ed.) ´Le chronache de li antique ri del regno di Napoli di D. Gaspare Fuscolillo´, Archivio storico per le province Napoletane, Anno Primo, Fascicolo I (Naples, 1876) ("Gaspare Fuscolillo"), I, p. 50. 

[348] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 730. 

[349] Annales Ludovici de Raimo, RIS XXIII, col. 230. 

[350] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 735. 

[351] Gaspare Fuscolillo, I, p. 47. 

[352] Gaspare Fuscolillo, I, p. 51. 

[353] State Archives, volume 102, page 109, fascicule 3. 

[354] Gaspare Fuscolillo, I, p. 57. 

[355] Gaspare Fuscolillo, I, p. 57. 

[356] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 735. 

[357] Gaspare Fuscolillo, I, p. 47. 

[358] Gaspare Fuscolillo, I, p. 50. 

[359] Gaspare Fuscolillo, I, p. 57. 

[360] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 735. 

[361] Gaspare Fuscolillo, I, p. 48. 

[362] State Archives, volume 102, 103, 1, and 103.2, 2, respectively. 

[363] State Archives, volume 102, page 103, fascicule 1. 

[364] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 736. 

[365] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 736. 

[366] Gaspare Fuscolillo, I, p. 48. 

[367] Gaspare Fuscolillo, I, p. 48. 

[368] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 736. 

[369] Gaspare Fuscolillo, I, p. 49. 

[370] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 736. 

[371] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars II, Historiam Aquensem,Monferratensem ac Pedemontanam, col. 177. 

[372] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 736.