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BRittany

DUKES of brittanY

 

v4.1 Updated 28 August 2017

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Chapter 1.                DUKES of BRITTANY 831-1213. 1

A.         DUKES of BRITTANY 831-907. 2

B.         DUKES of BRITTANY 938-952 (FAMILY of COMTES de POHER) 11

C.        DUKES of BRITTANY 970-1066 (FAMILY of COMTES de RENNES) 13

D.        DUKES of BRITTANY 1084-1156 (FAMILY of COMTES de CORNOUAÏLLE) 20

E.         DUKES of BRITTANY 1156-1206 (FAMILY of COMTES de PENTHIEVRE) 27

Chapter 2.                DUKES of BRITTANY 1213-1514 (DREUX-CAPET) 36

Chapter 3.                OTHER BRETON NOBILITY. 60

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    DUKES of BRITTANY 831-1213

 

 

 

A.      DUKES of BRITTANY 831-907

 

 

1.         WIHOMARC, son of --- (-825).  Einhard's Annales record that "Brittaniæ…Wihomarcus" rebelled in 825[1]The Gesta Francorum records that "Wihomarcus, Brito" treacherously made peace with the Vikings in 825 and was surrounded in his own home and killed by the men of Comte Lambert[2]

 

 

1.         MURMANUS, son of --- (-837).  Regino records the death in 837 of "Murmanus rex Brittonum"[3]

 

 

Two possible siblings, parents untraced:

1.         NOMINOË (-[8 Jun/22 Aug] 851, bur Redon).  Emperor Louis I "le Pieux" installed him as missus imperatoris in Brittania (sole ruler) in [831].  Duke of Brittany.  Emperor Louis I confirmed the donation of "fideli nostri Nominoë" to the monastery "Rotonensi S. Salvatoris…in pago Broweroch" by charter dated 834[4].  His forces defeated the Frankish army of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks at Redon 22 Nov 845, following their attack in retaliation for the murder of Renaud Comte de Nantes by Erispoë, Nominoë's son.  The two sides made peace in 846[5]The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Nomenoius dux" captured and destroyed "Redonas civitatem et Nannetis" before returning to Brittany, the event being dated from the context to the early 850s[6]"Nominoio tyranno Britonum" fought "Lambertus comes et Warnarius frater eius" in 850, and died "851 indictione 14"[7].  The Annales Bertiniani record the death in 851 of "Nomenogius Britto"[8]The Annals of St Salvator Redon record that "Nominoius princeps…cum Erispoe filio" were buried at the abbey of Redon[9]m ---.  The name of Nominoë's wife is not known.  Nominoë & his [wife] had three children: 

a)         ERISPOË (-murdered [2/12] Nov 857, bur Redon).  Regino names "filius Nomenoi Herispoius" when recording that he succeeded his father in Brittany[10].  The Chronica Fontanellensis names "Respogio filio Nomenoi, tyranno Brittonum"[11]The Chronica Rainaldi records that "Rainaldo…comite Nannetensium" was killed in 843 while fighting "Herispoium, Noremoi filium at alios Britannos apud Metiacum"[12]"Erispoius…provinciæ Brittaniæ princeps" names "genitoris mei Nominoe…consobrini mei Salomonis filiique mei Conan episcoporumque" in a charter dated 19 May [851/57][13].  He succeeded his father in 851 as Duke of Brittany.  Although "Respogius filius Nomenogii" swore allegiance to Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, he defeated the king's army at Jengland, on the river Vilaine, and was ceded Rennes, Nantes and the pays de Retz[14], although peace was agreed and confirmed by the betrothal of Erispoë's daughter to the king's son.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Respogius dux Brittonum" was killed in 857 by "Salamone et Almaro Brittonibus"[15].  The Chronica Rainaldi records that "Herispoius rex tyrannicus Britonum" was killed in 857 by "Salomone" [his cousin][16]m MARMOHEC, daughter of --- (-[856/57]).  The Chronicle of Nantes records a donation by "Herispogii" for the soul of "Marmohec coniugis nostræ" dated 857[17], which suggests that she was then deceased.  No indication has been found that Marmohec was the mother of Erispoë's children who are shown below.  Erispoë & [his wife] had three children: 

i)          daughter The Annales Bertiniani record the betrothal of "Respogio Brittone…filiam eius" and "Karlus rex…filio suo Ludoico" in early 856[18]It is likely that the oldest daughter of Erispoë was betrothed to the Carolingian prince.  It is not known whether this was the same person as his unnamed daughter who later married Gurwent (see below).  Betrothed (Feb 856, contract broken end 857) to LOUIS, son of CHARLES II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks & his first wife Ermentrudis [d'Orléans] (1 Nov 846-Compiègne 10 Apr 879, bur Compiègne, église collégiale Saint-Corneille).  His father awarded him the duchy of Mans and part of Neustria and arranged his betrothal in Feb 856, from which time he seems to have received the title king.  He was expelled from Brittany after the rebellion which followed the murder of King Erispoë, and sought refuge with his father[19].  He succeeded his father in 877 as LOUIS II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks

ii)         daughter .  Her parentage is deduced from the Annales Mettenses which names "Judicheil ex filia Heriospoii regis natus" when recording that he ruled jointly with "Alanus frater Pasquitani"[20].  Her marriage date is suggested on the assumption that she was the same daughter of Erispoe who was earlier betrothed to Louis, son of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks (see above), but this is not certain.  m ([after 857]) GURWENT [Gurvand], son of --- (-877).  Regino records that "Pasquitano et Vurfando" killed "Salomon rex Brittonum" in 874, specifying that they divided the kingdom between them although Pascwethen received the larger share[21].  They were deposed in 876 and succeeded by Judicaël, Gurwent's son, and Alain Comte de Vannes who was Pascwethen's brother[22]

iii)        CONAN (-after 857).  "Erispoius…provinciæ Brittaniæ princeps" names "genitoris mei Nominoe…consobrini mei Salomonis filiique mei Conan episcoporumque" in a charter dated 19 May [851/57][23].  The Chronicle of Nantes records a donation by "Herispogii" for the soul of "Marmohec coniugis nostræ" dated 857 subscribed by "Konani…", signing first in the list of subscriptions but without any indication of his relationship to the donor[24]

b)         PASTHENETEN .  The Annals of St Salvator Redon name "Pastheneten Leonensis et Gurvant Goelensis comites, Nominoe principis filii" as the murderers of Salomon[25]

c)         GURWENT .  The Annals of St Salvator Redon name "Pastheneten Leonensis et Gurvant Goelensis comites, Nominoe principis filii" as the murderers of Salomon[26]

2.         [daughter .  The charter dated 19 May [851/57], in which "Erispoius…provinciæ Brittaniæ princeps" names "genitoris mei Nominoe…consobrini mei Salomonis filiique mei Conan episcoporumque"[27], suggests that the mother of Duke Salomon was the sister of Nominoë Duke of Brittany, assuming that "consobrinus" is interpreted in its strict sense.  This connection is open to doubt.  m ---, son of ---.] 

 

 

1.         --- .  The name and origin of Salomon´s father is not known.  m ---.  The name and origin of Salomon´s mother is not known.  The charter dated 19 May [851/57], in which "Erispoius…provinciæ Brittaniæ princeps" names "genitoris mei Nominoe…consobrini mei Salomonis filiique mei Conan episcoporumque"[28], suggests that she may have been --- of Brittany, sister of Nominoë Duke of Brittany, daughter of ---, assuming that "consobrinus" is interpreted in its strict sense.  This connection is open to doubt.  One child: 

a)         SALOMON (-murdered 28 Jun 874).  "Erispoius…provinciæ Brittaniæ princeps" names "genitoris mei Nominoe…consobrini mei Salomonis filiique mei Conan episcoporumque" in a charter dated 19 May [851/57][29].  The Chronicle of Nantes names "Salomon nepos Nomenoii" when recording that he murdered "Herispogium regem cognatum suum"[30].  The Historia Brittania Armorica names "Salomon nepos Nomenoii"[31]The Annales Bertiniani record that "Salomon Britto" submitted to Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and was granted a third of Brittany in 852[32]Regino records the accession of "Salomon dux" on the death of "Herispoius rex Brittonum"[33].  He murdered [his cousin] Duke Erispoe and succeeded in Nov 857 as Duke of Brittany.  "Salomon Brittania princeps" donated property to the abbey of Redon by charter dated 6 Mar 863[34].  Another charter dated [874] names "Salomoni Brittanie duci"[35].  An opponent of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, in 863 Salomon eventually swore allegiance to the king who granted him the land between the Mayenne and Sarthe rivers.  However, he rebelled and defeated King Charles at Brissarthe in 866 helped by Viking allies, but was granted the county of Coutances (Cotentin and Avranchin) under the peace agreed subsequently.  He styled himself king in charters[36]The Annales Bertiniani record the death in 874 of "Salomon dux Brittonum"[37]Regino records that "Salomon rex Brittonum" was killed by "Pasquitano et Vurfando", specifying that they thereupon divided the kingdom between them although Pascwethen received the larger share[38]The Chronica Rainaldi records that "Salomon rex Britonum" was killed "874 IV Kal Jul" by his followers[39]The Chronicle of Nantes records that "Salomon rex Britanniæ" was killed "a Britannis suis"[40].  m GUENEBRET, daughter of ---.  Pope Nicholas I addressed a letter to "Salomone Britannorum rege eiusque conjuge Gyenebret" dated "7 Kal Jun Indictione XIII"[41].  No indication has been found that Guenebret was the mother of Salomon's children who are shown below.  Duke Salomon & [his wife] had four children:

i)          PROSTLON (-before 8 Jan 876)Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Annales Bertiniani which name "Paswithen gener Salamonis" when recording that he negotiated peace with Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks at Compiègne in early Aug 867[42].  "Pacuueten princeps" donated property to the abbey of Redon "post mortem uxoris sue Prostlon" by charter dated 8 Jan 876[43]m PASCWETHEN [Pasquitan] Comte de Vannes, son of ---. 

ii)         RIVALLON (-after 17 Apr 869, maybe before 10 Feb 872).  The Annals of St Salvator Redon name "Rivallone filio Salamonis, Wincone fratre eius" citing a donation of 868[44].  "Salomon…totius Britanniæ magneque parties Galliarum princeps" donated property to the abbey of Redon by charter dated 17 Apr 869, naming "antecessores nostri Nominoe videlicet Erispoe", witnessed by "Riuuallon et Guegon filii supradicti Salamonis"[45].  "…Riuuelen comes, Pascuethen comes, Bran comes…Jedecael princeps Poucher…Moruuethen comes…Riuallon et Guigon filii Salomonis…" witnessed the charter dated 9 Jul 871 relating to a dispute involving the abbey of Redon[46].  If it is correct (as suggested below) that "Vuicon filius Riuuilin", who subscribed the charter dated 10 Feb 872 was the son of Duke Salamon's son Rivallon, the absence of Rivallon's name from the list of subscribers suggests that he may have died before that date.  m ---.  The name of Rivallon's wife is not known.  Rivallon & his [wife] had [one possible child]:

(a)       [GUEGON [Wincon] (-after 10 Feb 872).  "Salomon rex Britannie" donated property to the abbey of Redon by charter dated 10 Feb 872, witnessed by "Salamon rex…Vuicon filius eius, Bran, Vuruuant, Vuicon filius Riuuilin…"[47].  It is not certain Rivallon, father of the second named "Vuicon", was the same person as the grandson of Duke Salomon but this is a possibility.] 

iii)        GUEGON [Wincon] (-after 10 Feb 872).  The Annals of St Salvator Redon name "Rivallone filio Salamonis, Wincone fratre eius" citing a donation of 868[48].  "Salomon…totius Britanniæ magneque parties Galliarum princeps" donated property to the abbey of Redon by charter dated 17 Apr 869, naming "antecessores nostri Nominoe videlicet Erispoe", witnessed by "Riuuallon et Guegon filii supradicti Salamonis"[49].  "…Riuuelen comes, Pascuethen comes, Bran comes…Jedecael princeps Poucher…Moruuethen comes…Riuallon et Guigon filii Salomonis…" witnessed the charter dated 9 Jul 871 relating to a dispute involving the abbey of Redon[50].  "Salomon rex Britannie" donated property to the abbey of Redon by charter dated 10 Feb 872, witnessed by "Salamon rex…Vuicon filius eius, Bran, Vuruuant, Vuicon filius Riuuilin…"[51]

iv)       ALBIGEON (-bur Redon).  The Annals of St Salvator Redon record that "Albigeon, Salamonis Britonum regis filius" was buried at the abbey of Redon[52]

 

 

1.         GURWENT [Gurvand], son of --- (-877)Regino records that "Pasquitano et Vurfando" killed "Salomon rex Brittonum" in 874, specifying that they divided the kingdom between them although Pascwethen received the larger share[53]Duke of Brittany.  They were deposed in 876 and succeeded by Judicaël, Gurwent's son, and Alain Comte de Vannes who was Pascwethen's brother[54]m ([after 857]) --- of Brittany, daughter of ERISPOË Duke of Brittany & his wife [Marmohec ---].  Her parentage is deduced from the Annales Mettenses which names "Judicheil ex filia Heriospoii regis natus" when recording that he ruled jointly with "Alanus frater Pasquitani"[55].  Her marriage date is suggested on the assumption that she was the same daughter of Erispoe who was earlier betrothed to Louis, son of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks (see above), but this is not certain.  Gurwent & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         JUDICAËL (-killed in battle [1 Aug/8 Nov] 888).  Comte [de Rennes].  Regino records that "Iudicheil, ex filia Herispoii regis natus" ruled Brittany jointly with "Alanus frater Pasquitani" after the death of Pascwethen in 876, and his death in battle against the Vikings[56].  He succeeded his father in 876 as joint Duke of Brittany, ruling jointly with Alain Comte de Vannes.  Regino records disputes between "Alanum et Iudicheil duces Brittonium" in 890[57], which indicates that the date of his death recorded in the previous passage in the same source may not be accurate. 

b)         [daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Borderie suggests that Judicael Comte de Rennes was the grandson of Duke Gurwent, but he does not cite any primary source which supports his reasoning[58]m BERENGER Comte, son of ---.  889/before 931.] 

 

 

[Three] siblings, parents not known:

1.         PASCWETHEN [Pasquitan] (-[876]).  Comte de Vannes.  "Pascuueten" donated property "de sua hereditate in Bene, quæ dicitur Rancaruuan" to the abbey of Redon by charter dated 17 Jun 862[59].  "Pascuueten comes provintie Brouueroch" witnessed a charter dated 22 May 865[60]The Annales Bertiniani name "Paswithen gener Salamonis" when recording that he negotiated peace with Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks at Compiègne in early Aug 867[61].  "…Riuuelen comes, Pascuethen comes, Bran comes…Jedecael princeps Poucher…Moruuethen comes…Riuallon et Guigon filii Salomonis…" witnessed the charter dated 9 Jul 871 relating to a dispute involving the abbey of Redon[62]Regino records that "Pasquitano et Vurfando" killed "Salomon rex Brittonum" in 874, specifying that they divided the kingdom between them although Pascwethen received the larger share[63].  He succeeded his father-in-law in 874 as joint Duke of Brittany, ruling jointly with Gurwent, son-in-law of Erispoë.  He sought Viking help against his co-ruler, but they were both deposed in 876 and succeeded by Pascwethen's brother Alain Comte de Vannes and Judicaël, Gurwent's son[64]m PROSTLON, daughter of SALOMON Duke of Brittany & his wife [Guenebret] --- (-before 8 Jan 876).  "Pacuueten princeps" donated property to the abbey of Redon "post mortem uxoris sue Prostlon" by charter dated 8 Jan 876[65]Her parentage and marriage is confirmed by the Annales Bertiniani which name "Paswithen gener Salamonis" when recording that he negotiated peace with Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks at Compiègne in early Aug 867[66]

2.         ALAIN (-907)Regino records that "Alanus frater Pasquitani" succeeded his brother, jointly with "Iudicheil, ex filia Herispoii regis natus"[67].  The Annales Mettenses names "Judicheil ex filia Heriospoii regis natus" when recording that he ruled jointly with "Alanus frater Pasquitani"[68].  He succeeded his brother in [876] as ALAIN I "le Grand" joint Duke of Brittany, ruling jointly with Judicaël son of Duke Gurwent.  Regino records disputes between "Alanum et Iudicheil duces Brittonium" in 890[69] and, in an earlier passage, that Duke Alain ruled solely after Judicaël died fighting the Vikings[70].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that the Bretons defeated the Vikings at St Lo in 890 and "drove them into a river and drowned many"[71].  Guillaume of Jumièges records that Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks granted "terram maritimam ab Eptæ flumine usque ad Britannicos limites" together with "sua filia...Gisla" to Rollo who renounced his campaigns, that the king added "tota Britannia" and that “ipsius provinciæ principibus Berengerio atque Alanno” swore allegiance to Rollo[72].  The chronology of this passage appears incompatible with the death of Alain in 907.  It appears that, after the death of Alain, power in Brittany was shared between the counts of Poher (Alain´s son-in-law), Vannes (Alain´s possible eldest son) and Cornouaïlle, and that none of them was acknowledged as overall ruler.  It is likely that this situation persisted until the Viking invasion in 919 as no reference has been found to any overall Breton duke during that time in any of the primary sources so far consulted in the preparation of the present document.  m [firstly] OREGUEN, daughter of ---.  "Alanus…rex Brittaniæ" donated property "abbatial sancti Sergii in pago Andecavensi" to "Raino Andacavensis episcopus" to "episcopo Adalaldo archiepiscopo simulque Rainoni episcopo, fratri eiusdem" by charter dated [5 Feb 897/26 Nov 903], subscribed by "Orgaim uxoris suæ…Vuereche filii Alani, Pascuiten fratris sui"[73].  [m secondly as her first husband, ---.  "Tanchi comes…cum…filiolum suum Derian, filium Alani" shared property which they donated to the abbey of Redon by charter dated 27 Nov 910, "Gurmahilon regnante Britanniam"[74].  This charter indicates that Tanguy was closely related to the family of Duke Alain.  The use of the word "filiolus" suggests that Derien may have been Tanguy´s stepson.  As Duke Alain´s other known children were adult by the late 9th century as shown by the various documents in which they are named, it is unlikely that their mother would have remarried after her husband´s death.  The most likely explanation therefore is that Alain remarried after the death of his wife Oreguen, had a son by this second marriage, and that his widow married secondly Tanguy after her first husband died.  This would explain the joint holding of property in which the other sons of Duke Alain are not stated to have held any interest.]  Duke Alain I & his [first] wife had [six] children: 

a)         [RODALD (-after 30 Nov 909).  The Chronicle of Nantes quotes a charter, dated to after 5 Feb 897, under which "Alanus rex, summus Britonnum dux…conjugis nostræ Ohurguen ac…communis prolis" donated property, signed by "Rodaldi, Guerech, Pascultani, Budici"[75].  The charter does not specify the relationship between the donor and the four witnesses.  However, other documents quoted below show that Guerec and Pascwethen were Alain´s sons.  It therefore appears likely that Rodald and Budic were also his children.  If this is correct, Rodald was presumably the oldest child as he is named first.  The dating clause of a charter dated 30 Nov 909 refers to "Rudalt comite post mortem patri sui", referring to the county of Vannes[76].  Comte de Vannes.  It appears that, after the death of Alain, power in Brittany was shared between the counts of Poher (Alain´s son-in-law), Vannes (Alain´s possible eldest son) and Cornouaïlle and that none of these was acknowledged as overall ruler.] 

b)         GUEREC [Werec/Vuerech] (-after [5 Feb 897/26 Nov 903]).  "Alanus…rex Brittaniæ" donated property "abbatial sancti Sergii in pago Andecavensi" to "Raino Andacavensis episcopus" to "episcopo Adalaldo archiepiscopo simulque Rainoni episcopo, fratri eiusdem" by charter dated [5 Feb 897/26 Nov 903], subscribed by "Orgaim uxoris suæ…Vuereche filii Alani, Pascuiten fratris sui"[77]The Chronicle of Nantes quotes a charter, dated to after 5 Feb 897, under which "Alanus rex, summus Britonnum dux…conjugis nostræ Ohurguen ac…communis prolis" donated property, signed by "Rodaldi, Guerech, Pascultani, Budici"[78]

c)         PASCWETHEN (-after [5 Feb 897/26 Nov 903]).  "Alanus…rex Brittaniæ" donated property "abbatial sancti Sergii in pago Andecavensi" to "Raino Andacavensis episcopus" to "episcopo Adalaldo archiepiscopo simulque Rainoni episcopo, fratri eiusdem" by charter dated [5 Feb 897/26 Nov 903], subscribed by "Orgaim uxoris suæ…Vuereche filii Alani, Pascuiten fratris sui"82The Chronicle of Nantes quotes a charter, dated to after 5 Feb 897, under which "Alanus rex, summus Britonnum dux…conjugis nostræ Ohurguen ac…communis prolis" donated property, signed by "Rodaldi, Guerech, Pascultani, Budici"[79]

d)         [BUDIC (-after 5 Feb 897).  "Alan dux, filius eius Uueroc, Paxuueten, Budic…" witnessed a charter dated 15 Jan 895 which records that "Keuric…filiam" joined the monks at Redon[80].  The Chronicle of Nantes quotes a charter, dated to after 5 Feb 897, under which "Alanus rex, summus Britonnum dux…conjugis nostræ Ohurguen ac…communis prolis" donated property, signed by "Rodaldi, Guerech, Pascultani, Budici"[81].  The charter does not specify the relationship between the donor and the four witnesses.  However, other documents quoted above show that Guerec and Pascwethen were Alain´s sons.  It therefore appears likely that Rodald and Budic were also his children.  If this is correct, Budic was presumably the youngest of the named children as he is named last.] 

e)         daughter.  The Chronicle of Nantes records that the mother of "filium suum [Mathuedoi]…Alanum" was "filia Alani Magni Britonum ducis"[82]m MATHEDOI [Matuedo] Comte de Poher, son of --- (-936)

Alain & his [second] wife had one child: 

f)          [DERIEN (-after 27 Nov 910).  "Tanchi comes…cum…filiolum suum Derian, filium Alani" shared property which they donated to the abbey of Redon by charter dated 27 Nov 910, "Gurmahilon regnante Britanniam"[83].  It is not certain from this text that Derien was the son of Alain I Duke of Brittany, but it is a possibility.] 

3.         [--- .  Assuming that “nepos” in the source quoted below can be translated as nephew, one of Euen’s parents was the sibling of Alain I Duke of Brittany.  This is only one possible explanation of the family relationship considering the flexibility with which “nepos” was used.  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         EUEN .  "Matuedoi comes" confirmed a donation of property "quod rex Alanus antea atque Euuen nepos eius Sancte Mariæ Bilique episcopo in monacho sempiterno dederat" to the abbey of Redon by charter dated 25 Oct 913[84]same person as…?  EUEN .  "Comes Euuenus" donated property to Landevenec by undated charter, dated to the mid-10th century[85].  "Euuenus comes qui dictus est Magnus" donated property to Landevenec by charter dated 10 Apr 955[86].  An undated charter, dated to [945/52], records the death and burial of "Budic…comes", witnessed by "Alan dux Britanniæ…Benedictus episcopus filius istius Budic…Euhuarn vicecomes…"[87]

 

 

 

B.      DUKES of BRITTANY 938-952 (FAMILY of COMTES de POHER)

 

 

ALAIN de Poher, son of MATHEDOI [Matuedo] Comte de Poher & his wife --- de Bretagne (in Brittany [before 919]-952, bur Church of St Donatian and St Rogatian).  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of Nantes which records that "Mathuedoi comes de Poher" fled "ad regem Anglorum Adelstanum" with "filium suum…Alanum"[88].  Taken to England by his father, he was baptised there, with Æthelstan King of Wessex acting as his godfather.  As King Æthelstan succeeded to the throne in 924, it is likely that this baptism took place when Alain was already past infancy.  It is probable that Alain was not younger than 15 years old, at the youngest, when he took part in the 931 uprising against the Danes in Brittany.  If this is correct, he must have been born several years before his father's escape to England.  He took part in a disastrous uprising against the Danes in Brittany in 931, and fled to England again.  With the help of King Æthelstan, he re-established himself as Comte de Vannes et de Nantes in 936[89], in effect succeeding as ALAIN II "Barbetorte" Duke of Brittany.  Borderie dates the start of Duke Alain´s reign to 938[90].  The Chronicon Floriacensi records the death in 952 of "Ugo Dux Burgundionum et Alanus Brittonum"[91].  The Chronicle of Nantes records the death of "Alanus dux" and his burial "apud ecclesiam Sanctorum Donatiani et Rogatiani"[92]

m firstly (943) ROSCILLE d'Anjou, daughter of FOULQUES I "le Roux" Comte d'Anjou & his wife Roscille [de Loches] (-[943/49]).  A document, allegedly from a "Registre conservé à la Tour de Londres, composé par ordre de Foulque IV", records that "Comes Fulco et Tescendis comitissa" [presumably referring to Comte Foulques I and his wife Roscille] had "tres filios…et Roscillam Alani comitis dicti de Barbatorta uxorem", although this text does not form part of the surviving fragmentary history of the counts of Anjou which is attributed to Foulque IV "Réchin" Comte d´Anjou[93].   

m secondly (before [949/51]) as her first husband, --- de Blois, daughter of THIBAUT [I] "l'Ancien" Comte de Blois & his [second wife Richilde ---]The Chronicle of Nantes records the marriage of "Alanus dux" and "Theobaldum comitem Blesensem…sorore sua"[94].  Although no date is known for this second marriage of Duke Alain, it is likely that his first wife died in 949 at the latest given the birth of his son by his second marriage and his own death in 952.  Duke Alain's second wife married secondly, as his second wife, Foulques II Comte d'Anjou.  The Chronicle of Nantes records the marriage of "Theobaldus comes Blesensis…sororem suam relictam Alani Barbætortæ ducis" and "Fulconi comiti Andegavensi"[95]

Mistress (1): JUDITH, daughter of --- (-after 952).  The Chronicle of Nantes names "Alani Barbætortæ filios…Hoel et Guerech…progeniti ex nobili matre…Judith" when recording that they were installed as counts of Nantes[96].  It is assumed that Judith married after the death of Duke Alain, as the Chronicle of Nantes names "le Vicomte Hamon", stating that he mourned the loss of "ses frères Hoel et Guerech" and sought the support of Foulques "Nerra" Comte d'Anjou to avenge their deaths, then being "jouvenceau de l'aage de vingt ans"[97].  As he was so much younger than his brothers, it is assumed that Duke Alain could not have been his father.  Hamon was killed 27 Jun 992 at the battle of Conquereuil[98], dated "992 V Kal Jul" in the Chronicon britannicum[99]

Duke Alain II & his second wife had one child:

1.         DREUX [Drogo] ([949/52]-Angers [958]).  The Chronicle of Nantes names "filio suo parvulo Drogoni ex muliere sua" when recording that his father on his deathbed required oaths of loyalty from his vassals in the presence of "suoque sororio Theubaldo, filii sui prædicti avunculo"[100].  This wording suggests that Dreux’s mother was his father’s wife who was living at his death.  He succeeded his father in 952 as DREUX Duke of Brittany, under the guardianship of his maternal uncle Thibaut "le Tricheur" Comte de Blois, Vicomte de Tours who came to dominate Brittany[101].  The Chronicle of Nantes records that "Drogo infans" was killed in his bath through the machinations of his stepfather[102]

Duke Alain II had two illegitimate sons by Mistress (1): 

2.          HOËL (-killed [981])The Chronicle of Nantes names "Alani Barbætortæ filios…Hoel et Guerech…progeniti ex nobili matre…Judith" when recording that they were installed as counts of Nantes[103].  "…Houuel comes, Vuerec…" subscribed an undated charter of "Alanus dux Britonum"[104]Comte de Nantes.  The Chronicle of Nantes records that Hoël was killed by "Conano filio Judicael Berengarii Redonensi comite"[105].  The Annals of St Salvator Redon record that "Hoel, Namnetensis comes, Conani dolo interemptus" was buried at the abbey of Redon[106]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Hoël's mistress is not known.  Comte Hoël had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

a)         JUDICAËL ([978/80]-1005).  The Chronicle of Nantes names "Judicael et Hoel" as the sons of Hoël "d'une concubine" stating that they were brought up by their paternal grandmother[107]Comte de Nantes

-        COMTES de NANTES

b)         HOËL The Chronicle of Nantes names "Judicael et Hoel" as the sons of Hoël "d'une concubine" stating that they were brought up by their paternal grandmother[108]. 

3.          GUEREC [Vuerech] (-[990], bur Redon).  The Chronicle of Nantes names "Alani Barbætortæ filios…Hoel et Guerech…progeniti ex nobili matre…Judith" when recording that they were installed as counts of Nantes[109].  "…Houuel comes, Vuerec…" subscribed an undated charter of "Alanus dux Britonum"[110].  He refused to be consecrated Bishop of Nantes in 981.  The Chronicle of Nantes records that Guerec was captured by Conan comte de Rennes and poisoned[111]m (after 981) AREMBURGIS, daughter of ---.  The Chronicle of Nantes names "Aremburgis" as wife of Guerec and "Alanum filium suum", stating that she built "castrum Anvenisii"[112].  Guerec & his wife had one child: 

a)         ALAIN (-[990]).  The Chronicle of Nantes names "Aremburgis" as wife of Guerec and "Alanum filium suum"[113].  The Chronicle of Nantes records that Alain died soon after his father from illness[114]

 

 

 

C.      DUKES of BRITTANY 970-1066 (FAMILY of COMTES de RENNES)

 

 

CONAN de Rennes, son of JUDICAËL [Juhael] Comte de Rennes & his wife Gerberge --- (-killed in battle Conquereil 27 Jun 992).  The Chronicle of Nantes names "Conano filio Judicael Berengarii Redonensi comite" when recording that he held a large part of Brittany from Thibaut [II] Comte de Blois and fought with Hoël Comte de Nantes[115].  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronico Sancti Michaelis which records the death of his grandson "Gaufridus Dux Britanniæ filius Conani filii Juhelli Berengarii" in 1008[116].  Comte de Rennes.  He succeeded in [970] as CONAN I "le Tort" Duke of BrittanyRodulfus Glaber records that Conan "crowned himself with a royal diadem", was defeated by his brother-in-law Foulques Comte d'Anjou, and surrendered after his right hand had been cut off[117]The Chronico Sancti Michaelis records that "Conanus Brito…filius Juhelli Berengarii" was killed in battle "V Kal Jul 992" against Foulques Comte d'Anjou[118].  The Chronicle of Nantes reports that he was killed at the battle of Conquereuil[119], dated "992 V Kal Jul" in the Chronicon britannicum[120]The Chronicon Kemperlegiense records the death "in bello Conçurruç…V Kal Jul" of "Conanus comes, filius Iudicaëlis Berengarii Comitis Redonensis"[121]

m (973) ERMENGARDE d'Anjou, daughter of GEOFFROY I "Grisegonelle" Comte d'Anjou & his first wife Adela de Meaux [Vermandois-Carolingian] (before 965-after 982)Rodulfus Glaber records that Conan married the sister of Foulques of Anjou but does not name her[122].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. 

Duke Conan I & his wife had five children:

1.         GEOFFROY de Bretagne ([980]-20 Nov 1008).  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronico Sancti Michaelis which records that "Gaufridus Dux Britanniæ filius Conani filii Juhelli Berengarii" died in 1008 "dum pergeret Romam causa orationis"[123].  He succeeded his father in 992 as GEOFFROY I Duke of Brittany

-        see below.

2.         JUDITH de Bretagne ([982]-16 Jun 1017).  Guillaume of Jumièges records the marriage of “dux Richardus” and “Goiffredum Britannorum comitem...sororem...Iudith” at “limina Archangeli Michaelis[124].  Orderic Vitalis records that “Ricardus Gunnorides...et Judith uxor eius soror Gaufredi Britonum comitis” founded “cœnobium apud Bernaïcum in honore sanctæ Dei genitricis Mariæ[125].  An agreement between the abbots of Jumièges and Bougeuil concerning an exchange of land in Poitou, by charter dated [13 Apr/4 Apr] 1012, is subscribed by "Richardus…filius Ricardi principi magni…Judith…"[126].  The Chronicle of Caen Saint-Etienne records the death in 1017 of "Judita comitissa"[127]m (Mont Saint-Michel [1000]) as his first wife, RICHARD II "le Bon/l'Irascible" Comte de Normandie, son of RICHARD I "Sans-Peur" Comte [de Normandie] & his second wife Gunnora (-28 Aug 1027). 

3.         JUDICAËL (-1037).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 1026 which recalls that "Gaufridus, Conani Curvi filius" was killed "apud Concuruz prelium", witnessed by "Judicael et Hurwodius duo fratres ipsius"[128].  Comte de Porhoët. 

4.         CATUALLON (-15 Jan, 1050 or after).  Tresvaux records that Catuallon, brother of Geoffroy I Duke of Brittany, was abbot of Redon, but does not cite the primary source on which this information is based[129]

5.         HURNOD [Urvod] de Bretagne (-after 1026).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 1026 which recalls that "Gaufridus, Conani Curvi filius" was killed "apud Concuruz prelium", witnessed by "Judicael et Hurwodius duo fratres ipsius"[130]

 

 

GEOFFROY de Bretagne, son of CONAN I "le Tort" Duke of Brittany & his wife Ermengarde d'Anjou ([980]-20 Nov 1008).  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronico Sancti Michaelis which records that "Gaufridus Dux Britanniæ filius Conani filii Juhelli Berengarii" died in 1008 "dum pergeret Romam causa orationis"[131].  He succeeded his father 992 as GEOFFROY I Duke of Brittany.  A charter dated 1026 recalls that "Gaufridus, Conani Curvi filius" was killed "apud Concuruz prelium"[132]The Chronicon Kemperlegiense records the death "dum pergeret Romam" in 1008 of "Gauffridus Dux Britanniæ filius Conani filii Iuhaëlis Berengarii"[133]

m (996) HAVISE de Normandie, daughter of RICHARD I "Sans-Peur" Comte [de Normandie] & his second wife Gunnora --- (-21 Feb 1034).  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Emma...secunda Hadvis...tertia Mathildis” as the three daughters of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam”, adding that Havise married “Goiffredo Britannorum comiti” by whom she had “Alanum et Eudonem duces[134]A charter dated 1008 records that, after the death of "Gaufrido comite Britanniæ", "filii eius Alanus et Eudo cum matre eorum Hadeguisia" restored the abbey of Saint-Méen[135].  "…Aduise matre eorum comitum…" signed the charter dated to [1013/22] under which "Alanus et Egio Britannorum monarchi" founded the priory of Livré "in pago Redonensi"[136]The Chronico Kemperlegiensi records the death "1034 IX Kal Mar" of "Haduisa comitissa Britanniæ, vidua Gauffridi"[137]

Duke Geoffroy I & his wife had three children:

1.         ALAIN de Bretagne ([997]-poisoned Montgommery 1 Oct 1040).  A charter dated 1026 recalls that "Gaufridus, Conani Curvi filius" was killed "apud Concuruz prelium", stating that "quo defuncto, Alanus filius eius…renum patris suscipiens", witnessed by "Alanus comes…Heudo frater eius"[138].  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Emma...secunda Hadvis...tertia Mathildis” as the three daughters of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam”, adding that Havise married “Goiffredo Britannorum comiti” by whom she had “Alanum et Eudonem duces[139].  He succeeded his father in 1008 as ALAIN III Duke of BrittanyThe Chronicon Kemperlegiense records that "Alanus filius eius" succeeded "Gauffridus Dux Britanniæ filius Conani filii Iuhaëlis Berengarii" in 1008[140].  A charter dated 1008 records that, after the death of "Gaufrido comite Britanniæ", "filii eius Alanus et Eudo cum matre eorum Hadeguisia" restored the abbey of Saint-Méen[141].  "Alanus et Egio Britannorum monarchi" founded the priory of Livré "in pago Redonensi" by charter dated to [1013/22], signed by "…Aduise matre eorum comitum, Rivalloni vicarii, Triscanni…"[142].  "Alanus Britannice gentis dux atque princeps" founded the abbey of Saint-Georges de Rennes by charter dated to [1028/30], witnessed by "Eudo meus germanus, Gozolinus vicecomes, Rivallonis vicarius, Alanus Cornugallie comes…"[143]Orderic Vitalis records that "Alannus Britannorum comes" was poisoned “a Normannis in Normania[144].  The Chronicon Britannico records the death in 1040 of "Alanus Comes Redonensis", another manuscript specifying that "Alanus Dux Britanniæ" died "Kal Apr"[145]m (1018) as her first husband, BERTHE de Blois, daughter of EUDES II Comte de Blois et de Chartres & his second wife Ermengarde d'Auvergne (-[11/13] Apr 1085).  The Chronicon Kemperlegiense records that "Alanus filius eius" succeeded "Gauffridus Dux Britanniæ filius Conani filii Iuhaëlis Berengarii" and married "Bertham filiam Odonis Comitis Carnotensis"[146].  The Flandria Generosa names "Berta comitissa" daughter of "altera Ermengardis comitissa", when outlining the basis for the consanguinity between Baudouin VII Count of Flanders and his wife Havise de Bretagne which constituted grounds for the couple's separation[147]She married secondly (after 14 May 1046) Hugues IV Comte du Maine (-26 Mar 1051).  The Actus pontificum Cenomannis records that Bishop Gervais arranged the marriage of "Hugonem…Herberti filium" and "Bertam…Alani Britannorum comitis olim coniugem"[148]Orderic Vitalis records that "Hugo filius Herberti", after the death of "Alannus Britannorum comes" who was poisoned “a Normannis in Normania”, married “Bertam ipsius relictam, Tedbaldi Blesensium comitis sororem[149].  Her second marriage is confirmed by the Chronicon Ruyensis Cœnobii which records the death in 1062 of "Herbertus Cenomannensium Comes et frater uterinus Conani ducis"[150]"Berta comitissa Alani Redonensis ducis uxor" donated property to Sainte-Croix de Quimperlé, for the souls of "filie nostre Hadeuis comitisse Hoelis ducis Britannie conjugis et…filiorum suorum, meorum…nepotum Alani et Mathie", by charter dated 1075, signed by "Alanus nothus filius Conani comitis…familiars comitisse Haduis neptis mee…"[151].  The Chronicon Britannico records the death in 1084 of "Bertha Comitissa mater Conani"[152].  The Chronicon Britannico Alter records the death in 1085 of "Bertha religiosa Comitissa", stating that she restored "Monasterium S. Melanii"[153].  The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "II Id Apr" of "Berta comitissa"[154].  The Chronicon Ruyensis Cœnobii records the death in 1085 of "Berthæ comitissæ"[155]The Chronicon Kemperlegiensis records the death "Kal Jun" in 1085 of "Bertha Comitissa Britanniæ, mater Conani Ducis, soror Fulconis"[156], although no other record has been found which confirms that Berthe had a brother named Foulques.  Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Duke Alain's mistress is not known.  Duke Alain III & his wife had two children:

a)         CONAN de Bretagne (-[Anjou] 11 Dec 1066)His parentage is confirmed by the necrology entry which names his mother (see below), read together with the sources which confirm his mother's marriage.  He succeeded his father in 1040 as CONAN II Duke of Brittany, but was deprived of the duchy by his paternal uncle Eudes.  He retaliated, captured Eudes and imprisoned him in chains, confirming himself as duke in 1057[157]"Abbatissa…Addela…soror…Alani Britannie ducis" issued a charter dated 1050, before "Conanum comitem…eius nepotem", relating to the rights of the abbey of Saint-Georges de Rennes[158]The Breton/Norman war of 1064/65 was triggered by the rebellion of Rivallon [I] de Dol, who was supported by Guillaume II Duke of Normandy.  Robert of Torigny records the death in 1066 of "Conanus dux Britanniæ"[159].  The Chronicon Britannico records the death in 1066 of "Conanus dux Britanniæ filius Alani"[160].  Another manuscript of the Chronicon Britannico names "Comes Britannorum Conanus iuvenis et maliciosus" when recording that he attacked Anjou and died there in 1066[161].  The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "III Id Dec" of "Conanus Britannorum comes", stating that "Berta comitissa mater eius" donated property for his soul[162].  Conan had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress: 

i)          ALAIN (-after 1075).  "Alanus nothus filius Conani comitis" witnessed the charter dated 1075 under which "Berta comitissa Alani Redonensis ducis uxor" donated property to Sainte-Croix de Quimperlé, for the souls of "filie nostre Hadeuis comitisse Hoelis ducis Britannie conjugis et…filiorum suorum, meorum…nepotum Alani et Mathie"[163]

b)         HAVISE de Bretagne (-19 Aug 1072)The Flandria Generosa names "Havisis Namnetensis comitissa" as daughter of "Berta comitissa", when outlining the basis for the consanguinity between Baudouin VII Count of Flanders and his wife Havise de Bretagne which constituted grounds for the couple's separation[164]The Chronicon Briocensi records the marriage of "Hasevisiam sororem…Conani Ducis" and "Hoellus Dux"[165]Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated to before 1072 under which "Constancius" donated property to the abbey of Redon with the consent of "Jedear uxore mea" and affirmed by "Hoel comes et Haduis comitissa, Alanus et Mathias et Eudo filii eorum"[166], read together with another passage in the Flandria Generosa which names "comes Alanus" as son of "Havisis Namnetensis comitissa"[167]She was heiress of her brother Conan II Duke of Brittany in 1066.  The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "XIV Kal Sep" of "Haduisis filia Berta comitisse"[168].  The Chronicon Universum in the cartulary of Sainte-Croix de Quimperlé records the death in 1072 of "Hadeuguis comitissa"[169]m (1066) HOËL Comte de Nantes, de Cornouaïlle, et de Léon, son of ALAIN "Caignart" Comte de Cornouaïlle & his wife Judith de Nantes (-13 Apr 1084). 

Duke Alain III had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

c)          GEOFFROY (-St Courentin 25 Oct 1084).  The Historia sancti Florentii Salmurensis records the donation by "comes Brittaniæ Goffredus cognomento Bastardus cum…uxoris suæ Bertæ", undated[170].  His parentage is suggested by the charter dated 1050 relating to the abbey of Saint-Georges de Rennes witnessed by "Comes Eudo et nepos eius Gaufridus, Robertus vicecomes et frater eius Eudo…Guichomarus filius Alani vicecomitis…"[171].  The Chronicon Britannico Alter records that "Gaufredus Comes bastardus" was captured in 1084 "apud Redonensem urbem"[172].  The Chronicon Kemperlegiensis records that "Gaufridus Comes Redonensis nothus" died in captivity in 1084 "apud Sanctum Courentinum…XXV Oct"[173]m BERTHE, daughter of ---.  The Historia sancti Florentii Salmurensis records the donation by "comes Brittaniæ Goffredus cognomento Bastardus cum…uxoris suæ Bertæ", undated[174].   

2.         EUDES de Bretagne (-Cesson 1079, bur Saint-Brieuc).  Guillaume of Jumièges names “Emma...secunda Hadvis...tertia Mathildis” as the three daughters of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam”, adding that Havise married “Goiffredo Britannorum comiti” by whom she had “Alanum et Eudonem duces[175]A charter dated 1008 records that, after the death of "Gaufrido comite Britanniæ", "filii eius Alanus et Eudo cum matre eorum Hadeguisia" restored the abbey of Saint-Méen[176].  "Alanus et Egio Britannorum monarchi" founded the priory of Livré "in pago Redonensi" by charter dated to [1013/22], signed by "…Aduise matre eorum comitum, Rivalloni vicarii, Triscanni…"[177]A charter dated 1026 recalls that "Gaufridus, Conani Curvi filius" was killed "apud Concuruz prelium", recalling that "quo defuncto, Alanus filius eius…renum patris suscipiens", witnessed by "Alanus comes…Heudo frater eius"[178]"Alanus Britannice gentis dux atque princeps" founded the abbey of Saint-Georges de Rennes by charter dated to [1028/30], witnessed by "Eudo meus germanus, Gozolinus vicecomes, Rivallonis vicarius, Alanus Cornugallie comes…"[179]Eudes appears to have ruled Brittany jointly with his brother until the death of their mother in 1034.  Following disputes with his brother, a division of territories was agreed, Eudes taking the dioceses of Dol, Saint Malo, Saint Brieuc and Tréguier, at which time he can be said to have become Comte de Penthièvre"Manigenius…miles" founded the priory of Saint-Cyr-lès-Rennes and donated it to Tours Saint-Julien by charter dated 23 May 1037, subscribed by "Alanus dux…Eudonis fratris Alani ducis Britannorum, Gotzelini vicecomitis, Rualentis domini Doli…"[180]After the death of his brother in 1040, Eudes seized Brittany and excluded his nephew, succeeding as EUDES I Duke of Brittany.  According to Orderic Vitalis, Eudes ruled the country "freely without acknowledging any lord for 15 years"[181].  However, his nephew retaliated, captured Eudes and imprisoned him in chains[182]

-        COMTES de PENTHIEVRE

3.         ADELA de Bretagne (-1067).  "Abbatissa…Addela…soror…Alani Britannie ducis" issued a charter dated 1050, before "Conanum comitem…eius nepotem", relating to the rights of the abbey of Saint-Georges de Rennes[183]The Chronicon Ruyensis Cœnobii records the death in 1067 of "Adela Abbatissa Conani Ducis amita"[184].  Abbess of Saint-Georges at Rennes. 

 

 

 

D.      DUKES of BRITTANY 1084-1156 (FAMILY of COMTES de CORNOUAÏLLE)

 

 

ALAIN de Cornouaïlle, son of HOËL Comte de Cornouaïlle & his wife Havise de Bretagne (-13 Oct 1119).  The Chronicon Briocensi names "Alanum, Mathiam et Benedictum" as the three children of "Hoellus…ex Hadevisa uxore sua"[185]The Flandria Generosa names "comes Alanus" son of "Havisis Namnetensis comitissa", when outlining the basis for the consanguinity between his daughter Havise and her husband Baudouin VII Count of Flanders which constituted grounds for the couple's separation[186]"Constancius" donated property to the abbey of Redon with the consent of "Jedear uxore mea" and affirmed by "Hoel comes et Haduis comitissa, Alanus et Mathias et Eudo filii eorum" by charter dated before 1072[187]"Berta comitissa Alani Redonensis ducis uxor" donated property to Sainte-Croix de Quimperlé, for the souls of "filie nostre Hadeuis comitisse Hoelis ducis Britannie conjugis et…filiorum suorum, meorum…nepotum Alani et Mathie", by charter dated 1075, signed by "Alanus nothus filius Conani comitis, Vitalis et Gualterius Carnotenses, familiares comitisse Haduis neptis mee…"[188]He succeeded in 1084 as ALAIN IV "Fergant" Duke of Brittany"Alanus comes filius Hoeli comitis" confirmed the rights of the abbey of Sainte-Croix de Quimperlé by charter dated 1084[189]"Alano qui et Fergant, Hoeli filio, totius Britannie consule" donated property to the abbey of Redon by charter dated 1092[190].  He accompanied Robert III Duke of Normandy on the First Crusade[191].  Albert of Aix names "…domnus Alens cognomine Fercans, Conans quoque, ambo principes Brittanorum…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[192].  He abdicated in [1114/16] in favour of his son, becoming a monk at the abbey of Redon: the Annals of St Salvator Redon record that "Alanus Fergent, ex Britonum duce rotonensis monachus, anno 1119 fato functus" was buried at the abbey of Redon[193].  The Chronicon Britannico Alter records the death in 1119 of "Alanus Fergent pater Conani"[194]The Chronicon Kemperlegiensis records the death "III Id Oct" in 1119 of "Alanus Fergant junior filius Hoëlis Comitis"[195]

m firstly (contract Caen, Bayeux [1086/88]) CONSTANCE of England, daughter of WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England & his wife Mathilde de Flandre (Normandy [1057/1061]-13 Aug 1090, bur Church of St Melans near Rhedon).  Guillaume of Jumièges names Constance as second daughter, naming her husband "Alanno Fergant comiti minoris Britanniæ filio...Hoelli" and specifying that she died childless[196].  Orderic Vitalis records that King William I arranged the marriage of "Constantiam filiam suam" and “Alanno Ferganno” at Caen (presumably indicating the finalisation of the marriage contract) and in a later passage that the couple were married at Bayeux[197].  Three different Breton sources record her marriage in different years.  The Chronicon Ruyensis Cœnobii records the marriage in 1086 of "Alanus" and "Constantiam filiam Regis Anglorum Guillelmi"[198]The Chronicon Kemperlegiensis records the marriage in 1087 of "Alanus Hoëli Consulis filius" and "Constantiam Guillelmi Regis Anglorum filiam"[199]The Chronicon Britannico Alter records the marriage in 1088 of "Alanus" and "Constantiam filam Regis Guillelmi Anglorum"[200].  Orderic "Alanus dux Britannorum et Constantia uxor eius" donated property to the priory of Livré by charter dated 31 Jul 1089[201].  According to William of Malmesbury, "she excited the inhabitants [of Brittany] by the severity of her justice to administer a poisonous potion to her"[202].  Orderic Vitalis, on the other hand, says that she "did everything in her power to further the welfare of her subjects" and "was deeply grieved when she died"[203].  The Chronicon Britannico Alter records the death in 1090 of "Constantia Alani coniux…sine liberis"[204].  The Chronicon Universum in the cartulary of Sainte-Croix de Quimperlé records the death in 1090 of "Constantia comitissa filia regis Anglorum"[205]

m secondly ([1093]) as her second husband, ERMENGARDE d'Anjou, divorced wife of GUILLAUME IX Duke of Aquitaine [GUILLAUME VII Comte de Poitou], daughter of FOULQUES IV "le Rechin" Comte d'Anjou & his first wife Hildegarde de Baugency ([1068]-Jerusalem 1 Jun 1146, bur Redon).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the daughter of "Fulco" as "comitissam Redonensem" but does not name her[206]"Fulco Andegavensis comes" donated property to Angers with the consent of "filiis meis Gaufrido et Fulconello et filia mea Ermengarde" by charter dated 23 Jun 1096[207].  William of Tyre names her "Hermingerda", gives her father's name implying that she was born from his fifth marriage, and names her first husband "Pictaviensium comitis Willelmi", records her divorce and names her second husband "comes Brittaniæ"[208]Orderic Vitalis records that "Fergannus comes" married “filiam comitis Andegavorum” after the death of his first wife[209].  The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum records that "comitissa Brittaniæ" was the daughter of Foulques & his first wife "filiam Lancelini de Baugenciaco", adding that she became a nun at "Jerusalem in ecclesia Sanctæ Annæ" after her husband died[210].  The Chronicon Briocensi records the marriage of "Alanus filius primogenitus [Hoelli]" and "Ermengardem filiam Comitis Andegavensis"[211]"Fulco Andecavorum comes nepos Goffridi Martelli…consulis" donated property to Angers with the consent of "Ermenjarde filia sua comitissa Brittaniæ" by charter dated 12 Apr 1109[212]"Conanus…Britaniaæ dux cum sorore mea Hidevis et matre mea Ermeniart" donated property to the abbey of Sainte-Croix de Quimperlé by charter dated 1118, which names "pater meus Alanus et avus Hoel et attavus Alanus"[213].  The necrology of Angers Cathedral records the death "Kal Jun" of "Ermengardis comitissa Britanniæ mater Conan ducis et soror Fulconis regis Hierosolymitani"[214].  The Annals of St Salvator Redon record that "Ermengardeque Alani conjugem, vere piam ac religiosam" was buried at the abbey of Redon[215]

Mistresses (1) - (2): ---.  The names of Duke Alain's mistresses are not known. 

Duke Alain IV & his second wife had three children: 

1.         CONAN de Bretagne (-17 Sep 1148).  Orderic Vitalis names “Conanum” as the son of "Fergannus comes" and his second wife “filiam comitis Andegavorum[216].  The Chronicon Briocensi names "Conanum et Hazevisiam" as the two children of "Alanus filius primogenitus [Hoelli]" and his wife "Ermengardem filiam Comitis Andegavensis"[217].  William of Tyre records his parentage[218].  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in [1114/16] as CONAN III "Grossus/le Gros" Duke of Brittany"Conanus Britannorum dux" donated property to Saint-Nicolas d´Angers by charter dated to [1129/36], which names "mater mea Ermengardis comitissa"[219]The Chronicon Britannico Alter records the death in 1148 of "Conanus Dux Britanniæ"[220].  The Chronicon Ruyensis Cœnobii records the death in 1148 of "Conanus Dux Britanniæ filius Alani et Ermengardæ"[221].  The necrology of Angers Cathedral records the death "XV Kal Oct" of "Conanus dux et comes Britanniæ" and his donation of "ecclesiam de Pinello" to the church of St Maurice[222]m (1112 or before) MATILDA, illegitimate daughter of HENRY I King of England & his mistress --- (-after 1128).  Her marriage is referred to by Orderic Vitalis[223], in a later passage recording that the betrothal occurred before the alliance was agreed between Henry I King of England and Louis VI King of France, which is dated to 1113[224]Guillaume de Jumièges names Mathilde as illegitimate daughter of King Henry I and her husband "Conano comiti minoris Britanniæ"[225].  "Alanus, Hoelli filius, comes totius Britannie et princeps" donated property to the abbey of Redon with the consent of "suorum filiorum Conani et Gaufridi, necnon et uxoris suæ Hermengardis et uxoris filii sui Conani, Mahalt" by charter dated 1112[226]"Mathilda comitissa et Haduisa soror comitis Conani" signed the undated charter Duke Conan III donated a fishery to the abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel[227].  "Ermengardis mater mea et uxor mea Matildis…" signed the charter dated 1128 under which Duke Conan III confirmed the possessions of the monks of Saint-Melaine de Rennes[228]Duke Conan III & his wife had [three] children:

a)         HOËL de Bretagne (-1156).  The Chronicon Britannico Alter records the death in 1148 of "Conanus Dux Britanniæ" and records that he had disinherited "Hoellus…suum…filium"[229]"Hoelli filii comitis…" signed the undated charter which records the judgment of the court of Duke Conan III relating to the rights of the monastery of Saint-Martin de Vertou[230]Comte de Nantes 1148.  "Hoellus…Britanniæ dux, Conani comitis filius" donated "terram…Villa Nova" to the abbey of Buzai, with the consent of "sorore mea Berta comitissa", by charter dated 1153[231]The Chronicon Briocensi records the death in 1156 of "Hoelli Ducis", although it does not specify that he was the son of Duke Conan III[232]

b)         BERTHE de Bretagne (-[1158/64]).  The Chronicon Britannico Alter records the death in 1148 of "Conanus Dux Britanniæ" and records that he had disinherited "Hoellus…suum…filium" and that he appointed as his successor "Eudone Vicecomite Porhoëtensi" who had married "sororem eius Bertam"[233].  Her first marriage is suggested by the Chronicon Kemperlegiensis which records the death in 1146 of "Alanus Niger, Conani Ducis gener"[234].  The undated record of an enquiry relating to the property rights of Henri d´Avaugour states that "le comte Estienne" had three children “Geffroi, Alain et Henri aieul de cest Henri ci-dessus”, adding that Alain was sent to England, was “comte de Richemont”, and on his return married “la fille de Conan comte de Rennes[235]m firstly ([1137]) ALAIN "le Noir" de Penthièvre, Lord of Richmond, son of ETIENNE de Bretagne Lord of Richmond & his wife Havise de Guingamp (before 1100-in Brittany 15 Sep 1146, bur Bégard).  m secondly (1148 or before) as his first wife, EUDES Vicomte de Porhoët, son of GEOFFROY Vicomte de Porhoët & his wife Hawise --- (-after 1180).  He succeeded in 1148 as EUDES Duke of Brittany, by right of his wife.  Deposed by his stepson in 1156, he was taken prisoner by Raoul de Fougères. 

c)         [CONSTANCE de Bretagne (-1148).  Constance is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln as the younger daughter of Duke Conan III, died 1148[236].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  The information has not therefore been verified.  m as his first wife, GEOFFROY de Mayenne, son of JUHEL Seigneur de Mayenne & his wife Clémence de Ponthieu (-18 Feb or 25 Jul 1169).] 

Duke Conan III had two [probably illegitimate] children [by unknown mistresses]: 

d)         AIMERIC (-after [1137]).  "…Hamericus filius comitis…" witnessed the charter dated to [1137] under which Conan III Duke of Brittany donated property to Tiron abbey "mater mea Ermengardis comitissa"[237]. 

e)         GUYOMAR (-after 1154).  "Guihummaro fratri Hohelli ducis Britannie, monacho Sancti Florentii" was granted the privilege of being associated with the spiritual benefits of the abbey by the abbot of Saint-Aubin d´Angers, by charter dated 1154/57[238].  The date suggests that "Hohelli ducis Britannie" must have been the disinherited son of Duke Conan III.  If this is correct, it is probable that his brother Guyomar was illegitimate as there is no record in the primary sources of Duke Conan having a second legitimate son.  Monk at Saumur Saint-Florent. 

2.         HAVISE de Bretagne.  The Chronicon Briocensi names "Conanum et Hazevisiam" as the two children of "Alanus filius primogenitus [Hoelli]" and his wife "Ermengardem filiam Comitis Andegavensis"[239]The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana refers to the wife of "Balduinum comitem" as "filiam Alani Fregani comitis Brittaniæ", but does not name her[240]The Flandria Generosa names "filiam Alani comitis Brittaniæ" as the wife of "Balduinus Inclitus", specifying that they were separated by Pope Pascal II on grounds of consanguinity[241]"Conanus…Britaniaæ dux cum sorore mea Hidevis et matre mea Ermeniart" donated property to the abbey of Sainte-Croix de Quimperlé by charter dated 1118, which names "pater meus Alanus et avus Hoel et attavus Alanus"[242]"Mathilda comitissa et Haduisa soror comitis Conani" signed the undated charter Duke Conan III donated a fishery to the abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel[243]m (1110, divorced) BAUDOUIN de Flandre, son of ROBERT II Count of Flanders & his wife Clémence de Bourgogne [Comté] (1093-Boulers 17 Jun 1119, bur Saint Bertin).  He succeeded his father in 1111 as BAUDOUIN VII Count of Flanders

3.         GEOFFROY "le Roux" de Bretagne (-Jerusalem 1116).  "Alanus, Hoelli filius, comes totius Britannie et princeps" donated property to the abbey of Redon with the consent of "suorum filiorum Conani et Gaufridi, necnon et uxoris suæ Hermengardis et uxoris filii sui Conani, Mahalt" by charter dated 1112[244].  The Chronicon Ruyensis Cœnobii records the death in 1116 of "puer filius Alani Comitis…Gaufridus" at "apud Jerosolymam"[245], the word "puer" suggesting that he was much younger than his brother and sister. 

Duke Alain IV had [two] illegitimate sons by Mistresses (1) - (2): 

4.          GUY [Guimar] .  Orderic Vitalis records that "Guiumar Brito filius Alanni comitis" was captured with Joscelin de Courtenay at the siege of Manbij and "held in fetters for a year"[246].  He and other captives were subsequently given to the Caliph of Baghdad, who freed them but with whom he stayed for "three and a half years and were greatly honoured" before returning to Antioch[247]

5.          [BRIEN [FitzCount] ([1090/1100]-after [1141/42])Domesday Descendants states that Brien was the illegitimate son of Alain IV Duke of Brittany[248], but the primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified.  According to the Complete Peerage, Brien FitzCount was the son of Alain "le Noir" de Penthièvre Lord of Richmond (who died in 1146) and his wife Berthe daughter of Conan III Duke of Brittany[249], but this is impossible from a chronological point of view.  He was raised by Henry I King of England[250]"…Brientio filio comitis…" witnessed the charter dated 1114 under which Henry I King of England granted the land of Roger de Worcester to Walter de Beauchamp[251].  "…Brientio filio Comitis…" witnessed the charter dated 1126 under which Henry I King of England confirmed a donation to Worksop priory[252].  The 1130 Pipe Roll records "Brientio fil Com" in Oxfordshire (three entries), Wiltshire (three entries), Hampshire, and Surrey (twice)[253].  Lord of Wallingford, Berkshire de iure uxoris.  The Gesta Stephani Regis records that "Brianus filius Comitis" who had "Walengefordiam" rebelled against King Stephen, dated to [1140/42][254].  The sources which relate Brien´s holding of the lordship of Abergavenny raise a difficult problem relating to his parentage.  The Historia fundationis cum fundatoris genealogia of the priory of Abergavenny which records that “Brientio filio comitis de Insula, nepoti suo de sorore sua…Lucia” inherited the castle of Abergavenny after the death of “Hamelinus, frater Luciæ comitissæ de Insula” without heirs[255].  This is partially confirmed by the undated charter under which “H. de Bellocampo” confirmed donations to Abergavenny priory by “antecessores mei Hamelinus de Balon et Brientius filius comitis[256].  If this is correct, he was Brien, son of --- Comte de l´Isle & his wife Lucia.  No trace has so far been found of the family of this alleged "Comte de l´Isle".  The Complete Peerage takes the problem a stage further by suggesting that Brien was Lord of Abergavenny (from before 1119) maybe by right of his wife[257]No other source has been identified which corroborates any family relationship between Hamon de Ballon Lord of Abergavenny and either Brien or his wife.  The account in the Historia (which is dated to the early 14th century) should presumably be dismissed as spurious.  However, the problem remains of deciding whether Brien was in fact granted the lordship of Abergavenny by right of succession.  Empress Matilda permitted "Milon com Heref" to hold the castle and honour of Abergavenny, from "Bri fil com et Matild de Walengeford uxor sue" by charter dated [Jul 1141/Dec 1142][258].  The Testa de Nevill includes a writ of King John dated 1212 which records that "Briennius et…Mathillis uxor eius" retired to monasteries ("reddiderunt se religioni") during the reign of King Stephen and that Henri Duke of Normandy, son of Empress Matilda, acquired the honour of Wallingford[259]According to the Complete Peerage, he was ancestor of the lords of Bedale and Stapelton,  and the Stapilton family, who became extinct in the male line in 1307[260]According to Domesday Descendants, he left no issue[261], presumably based on the report in the Testa de Nevill that Brien left no heirs by his wife Matilda[262].]  m MATILDA Lady of Wallingford, Berkshire, daughter of --- (-after [1150]).  Empress Matilda permitted "Milon com Heref" to hold the castle and honour of Abergavenny, from "Bri fil com et Matild de Walengeford uxor sue" by charter dated [Jul 1141/Dec 1142][263].  Two possible origins are proposed for Matilda.  The Testa de Nevill includes a writ of King John dated 1212 which records that "Roberto Doilli…filiam Mathillidem" inherited the honour of Wallingford in Berkshire and married "Milo Crispinus", and after his death "Briennio filio comitis", adding that the latter had no heirs by her[264].  If this is correct, she was MATILDA de Oilly, widow of MILES Crespin, daughter and heiress of ROBERT d'Oilly of Wallingford & his wife ---.  According to the Complete Peerage, this inquisition in the Testa de Nevill, which appears to be the only surviving authority which supposedly confirms this second marriage, is "of too late a date to be implicitly relied on"[265].  In any case, from a chronological point of view, its version of events is extremely improbable: Matilda de Oilly´s marriage to Milo Crispin is estimated to before Easter 1084 (based on the Chronicle of Abingdon names "Milone de Walingaford cognomento Crispin" among those who accompanied Henry, son of William I King of England, to Abingdon monastery to celebrate Easter 1084[266]), while her supposed second husband Brien FitzCount was raised by Henry I King of England[267], presumably indicating his date of birth in the late 11th/early 12th century.  Bracton notes a claim, dated 1225, by "Henricus de Oilly" against "Willelmum Basset" for "feodum dim. militis…in Hispedena", the plaintiff claiming that it was held by "Matillis de Oylli […Briennius filius Comitis…uxor sua]…tempore H. Regis patris Imperatricis" who died without heirs, inherited by "Roberto de Oylli…Henrici de Oylli patri istius Henrici"[268].  A second possible origin is proposed by Domesday Descendants, according to which Brien´s wife was the daughter of the older Matilda of Wallingford[269], therefore MATILDA Crespin, daughter of MILES Crispin Lord of Wallingford & his wife Matilda de Oilly Lady of Wallingford.  This proposed solution appears to answer all the possible difficulties.  The Testa de Nevill includes a writ of King John dated 1212 which records that "Briennius et…Mathillis uxor eius" retired to monasteries ("reddiderunt se religioni") during the reign of King Stephen and that Henri Duke of Normandy, son of Empress Matilda, acquired the honour of Wallingford[270].  Brien had [two possible children, maybe not by his known wife]: 

a)         [two sons .  The Historia fundationis cum fundatoris genealogia of the priory of Abergavenny records that the two sons of Brien Lord of Abergavenny were lepers[271].  If correct, this would explain why the lordship of Abergavenny was transferred away from Brien´s family.  However, as discussed further above, the account in the Historia is dubious.  As also noted above, the inquisition dated 1212 stated that Brien died without heirs by his wife Matilda de Wallingford, although if their sons were lepers they could have been disinherited.] 

 

 

 

E.      DUKES of BRITTANY 1156-1206 (FAMILY of COMTES de PENTHIEVRE)

 

 

CONAN de Penthièvre, son of ALAIN Earl of Richmond & his wife Berthe heiress of Brittany ([1138]-18 or 20 Feb 1171, bur Bégard Monastery)The Chronicæ Sancti Albini names "Conanus junior, comes Britanniæ, Alani comitis filius et Berta mater eius comitissa" when recording his death[272]The Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ records that "Conanus filius Alani" succeeded his father "in honorem Richemundiæ" and built "turrim magnam infra Castellum Richemundiæ"[273].  He invaded Brittany in 1156, captured Rennes, expelled his stepfather who was taken prisoner by Raoul de Fougères, and succeeded as CONAN IV "le Petit" Duke of Brittany.  He seized the county of Nantes on the death in 1158 of Geoffroy Comte de Nantes, son of Henry II King of England.  King Henry II deprived Duke Conan of the lordship of Richmond, but it was returned to him under the agreement reached in Sep 1158.  "Conan dux Britannie comes Richmundie" confirmed the donation of Plubihan and Plougasnou to Saint-Georges de Rennes by charter to [1156/69], witnessed by "Margarita comitissa, Willelmo filio Hamon, Alano de Rohan, Constancia sorore comitis…"[274]Duke Conan confiscated Tréguier and Guingamp from his uncle Comte Henri.  He was forced to surrender Brittany to King Henry II in 1166, on the betrothal of his daughter to Henry's son, who was proclaimed Duke of Brittany in 1169.  The Chronicæ Sancti Albini record that "Conanus junior, comes Britanniæ, Alani comitis filius et Berta mater eius comitissa" was dying in 1169 and that Henry II King of England subjugated Brittany and placed his son Geoffroy to rule there through "Guillelmi filii Hamonis"[275]Robert of Torigny records the death in 1171 of "Conanus dux Britanniæ"[276]The Chronicon Britannico Alter records the death in 1171 of "Conanus junior Dux Britanniæ"[277].  The necrology of Landévennec records the death “XII Kal Mar” of “Conanus dux Britanniæ 1171[278].  The Chronicon Kemperlegiensis records the death "XX Feb" in 1171 of "Conanus Dux Britanniæ et Comes Richemundiæ"[279]The Chronicon Ruyensis Cœnobii records the death in 1171 of "Conani Ducis Britanniæ, Alani et Berthæ filii"[280].  The Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ records the death in Brittany in 1170 of "Conanus filius Alani" and his burial "Begare"[281]

m (1160) as her first husband, MARGARET of Scotland, daughter of HENRY of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland & his wife Ada de Warenne ([1144/45]-1201, bur Sawtrey Abbey, Hunts).  Her origin and first marriage are deduced from Benedict of Peterborough recording that "filia sororis regis Scotiæ Willelmi comitissa Brittaniæ" gave birth in 1186 to "filium…Arturum"[282].  Her birth date is estimated from the Rotuli de Dominabus of 1185 which records property “villam de Wissinton” held by “Margareta comitissa…xl annorum”, adding that “comes Britannie habet filiam suam” and that she has “i filium de Humfrido de Buun qui est infra etatem[283]The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1160 of "Malcolm king of Scotland…his sister Margaret to Conan duke of Brittany"[284]The Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ records that "Conanus filius Alani" married "Margaretam sororem Willielmi Regis Scotie"[285]"Conan dux Britannie comes Richmundie" confirmed the donation of Plubihan and Plougasnou to Saint-Georges de Rennes by charter to [1156/69], witnessed by "Margarita comitissa, Willelmo filio Hamon, Alano de Rohan, Constancia sorore comitis…"[286]She married secondly (before Easter 1175) Humphrey [IV] de Bohun Constable of England.  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey records that “dominus Humfridus quartus de Bohun, comes Herefordiæ et constabularius Angliæ” married “Margaretam comitissam Britanniæ[287].  The Annals of Burton record the death in 1201 of “Margareta mater…Constantiæ, soror Willelmi regis Scotiæ, mater Henrici de Boum comitis Herefordiæ[288]

Duke Conan & his wife had one child: 

1.         CONSTANCE de Bretagne ([1161]-[Nantes] [3/5] Sep 1201, bur Bégard Monastery, transferred 24 Nov 1225 to Villeneuve-les-Nantes, Abbaye de Notre-Dame).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Constantiam comitis Conani filia" as wife of "Gaufridus dux Britannie comes Richemontis filius Henrici regis Anglie natu tertius", specifying that she married [thirdly] "Guido frater vicecomitem de Tuart"[289].  She is named by Matthew of Paris, who also gives her parentage, when he records her betrothal[290].  She succeeded her father in 1171 as CONSTANCE Dss de BretagneRobert of Torigny records the marriage in 1182 of "Gaufredus dux Britanniæ filius regis Henrici" and "filiam Conani comitis Britanniæ"[291]The Annales Cestrienses record in 1188 that “Rannulphus comes Cestrie” was knighted “in die circumcisionis domini apud [Cadomum]” by King Henry II who also granted him “relictam [Galfridi filii sui]...comitissam Britannie filia Alani comitis Britannie...Constancia et toto comittatu de Richemund” whom he married “in die Sancte Werburge...III Non Feb apud ---[292].  The Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ records that "Constantia filia Conani" married secondly "Ranulphus Comes Cestriæ", stating that he divorced her because of her adultery and that the marriage was childless[293].  Living apart from her second husband, he captured her at Pontorson in 1196 and imprisoned her at his castle at Beuvron.  She was liberated in Summer 1198, and repudiated her marriage.  The Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ records that "Constantia filia Conani" married thirdly "Guidoni de Thoarcio"[294].  The Annals of Burton record the death in 1201 of “Constantia mater Arthuri comitis Britanniæ[295].  The Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ records the death in 1201 of "Constantia filia Conani" and her burial "apud Begar"[296].  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death "III Non Sep" in 1201 of "Constantia Ducissa Britanniæ"[297].  Another Chronicon Britannicum records the death "pridie non Sep" in 1201 of "Constantia comitissa, Conani filia, mater Arturi"[298].  The Chronicon Ruyensis Cœnobii records the death in 1201 of "Constantia Comitissa apud Nannetum"[299]m firstly (betrothed 1166, Jul 1181) GEOFFREY of England, son of HENRY II King of England & his wife Eléonore Dss d'Aquitaine (23 Sep 1158-Paris 19 Aug 1186, bur Notre dame Cathedral, Paris).  Proclaimed GEOFFROY Duke of Brittany 1169 by his father Henry II King of England.  He was trodden to death by a horse during a tournament in Paris.  m secondly (3 Feb 1188, repudiated 1198) as his first wife, RANULF "de Blundeville" Earl of Chester, son of HUGH Earl of Chester & his wife Bertrade de Montfort (Oswestry, Powys [1170]-Wallingford 28 Oct 1232, bur 3 Nov 1232 Chester, Abbey of St Werburgh).  m thirdly (Oct 1199) as his first wife, GUY de Thouars, son of GEOFFROY [IV] Vicomte de Thouars & his wife Aumou --- (-château de Chemillé 23 Apr 1213, bur 24 Nov 1225 Villeneuve-les-Nantes, Abbaye de Notre-Dame).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that Philippe II King of France besieged "Albam Marnam castrum" in 1196 and captured "Guido frater Reymundi vicecomitis Thoarcensis", who later married "matrem Arturi iunioris Constantiam relicta…Gaufridi" and became "comes Britannie"[300].  After the death of Arthur Duke of Brittany in 1203, he was chosen by the nobles of Brittany as GUY Duke of Brittany during the minority of his daughter.  His English lands were confiscated in 1203.  Philippe II "Auguste" King of France conquered Brittany in 1206, deposed Guy as Duke but left him as Regent, a post which he continued to hold until 1213.  The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis records that "Guy de Thouars" died of leprosy[301]Duchess Constance & her first husband had three children: 

a)         MATHILDE de Bretagne ([1182/83] or 1185-before May 1189).  “Constantia comitis Conani filia ducissa Britanniæ et comitissa Richemontis” donated property to the abbey of Saint-Gildas de Ruis, for the souls of “Conani patris mei et Gaudefridi mariti mei et Mathillæ filiæ meæ”, by charter dated May 1189[302]

b)         ELEONORE de Bretagne "la Brette" ([1184]-Corfe Castle, Dorset or Bristol 10 Aug 1241, bur Bristol, St James, transferred to Amesbury convent)The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Arturum iuvenum et filiam unam Alienordem" as children of "Gaufridus dux Britannie comes Richemontis filius Henrici regis Anglie natu tertius" & his wife[303]She is named as daughter of "Galfridi comitis Britanniæ" by Matthew of Paris[304]The Chronicon Briocensi names "Arturum et…Alienor" as the two children of "Goffridus Henrici Regis filius" and his wife "Constantiam de Brittania"[305].  Her betrothal was agreed as part of the terms for the release of Richard I King of England from the custody of Emperor Heinrich VI in Feb 1194, together with the betrothal of her fiancé's younger brother to the daughter of Isaakios Dukas Komnenos ex-Emperor in Cyprus[306].  The two brides left for Vienna from Normandy in Dec 1194 in the charge of Baudouin de Béthune, but turned back when they learnt of the death of Leopold V Duke of Austria[307]Eléonore was imprisoned in England by King John, who feared her marriage as she was the rightful heir to the throne of England.  She was therefore unable to succeed her brother as Dss of Brittany.  She was styled Countess of Richmond from 27 May 1208.  The Annales Londonienses record the death "apud Bristowe" in 1241 of "Alienora quondam comitis Britanniæ filia, in custodia diuturni carceris strictissime reservata", commenting that she was the true heir to England[308].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the death “IV Id Aug” in 1241 of “Alienora de Britannia consanguinea domini regis Henrici Angliæ”, her burial “in ecclesia Sancti Jacobi Bristollis” and her transfer “circa festum sancti Nicholai VI regia apud Ambresburiam[309]Betrothed (Feb 1194) to FRIEDRICH of Austria, son of LEOPOLD V Duke of Austria & his wife Ilona of Hungary (-Palestine on crusade 16 Apr 1198, bur Heiligenkreuz)He succeeded his father in 1195 as FRIEDRICH I "der Katolische" Duke of Austria

c)         ARTHUR de Bretagne (posthumously Nantes 29 Mar 1187-murdered Rouen or Cherbourg 3 Apr 1203, bur Notre dame des Prés, Rouen or Abbaye de Bec, Normandy)Benedict of Peterborough records that "filia sororis regis Scotiæ Willelmi comitissa Brittaniæ" gave birth "in nocte Dominicæ Resurrectionis apud Namnetisis in Britanniam" to "filium…Arturum"[310].  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1187 that “Constantia comitissa Britanniæ” gave birth “die Paschæ” to “filium...Arturum[311].  His birth is recorded by Matthew of Paris, who specifies that he was born posthumously but does not give the precise date[312].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Arturum iuvenum et filiam unam Alienordem" as children of "Gaufridus dux Britannie comes Richemontis filius Henrici regis Anglie natu tertius" & his wife[313].  The Chronicon Briocensi names "Arturum et…Alienor" as the two children of "Goffridus Henrici Regis filius" and his wife "Constantiam de Brittania"[314]He succeeded from birth as ARTHUR I Duke of Brittany.  His uncle Richard I King of England recognised him as his heir in England and in his territories in France.  On Richard's death 6 Apr 1199, Arthur, who was in Brittany, led a force into Anjou and Maine, where he was recognised by the barons as the rightful heir.  He styled himself Duke of Brittany, Comte d'Anjou and Earl of Richmond from 18 Apr 1199.  He did homage to Philippe II "Auguste" King of France but, offended by the latter, fled to his uncle John who received him kindly.  Warned of John's intentions, he escaped to Angers but was captured by the king at Mirebeau and sent to Falaise.  He was murdered on the orders of King John.  The Chronicon Britannicum records that "Arturus Dux Britanniæ" was held captive in 1203 "apud Mirabellum" by his uncle John King of England and murdered[315]Betrothed (11 Nov 1190) to --- of Sicily, daughter of TANCRED di Lecce King of Sicily & his wife Sibilla ---.  Benedict of Peterborough records the betrothal in 1190 of "Arturum ducem Britanniæ" and "unam de filiabus regis Tancredi"[316].  This betrothal was arranged as part of the treaty signed between Richard I King of England and Tancred King of Sicily, concerning the inheritance of Tancred's predecessor Guillaume II King of Sicily whose widow was King Richard's sister[317].  The agreement between “Tancredo...Regi Siciliæ” and “Ricardus...Rex Angliæ...”, dated 1190, includes the betrothal of “Arthurum...ducem Britanniæ...nepotem nostrum et hæredem si forte sin prole nos obire contigerit” and “filiam vestram” [referring to King Tancred][318]Betrothed (Apr 1202) to MARIE de France, daughter of PHILIPPE II "Auguste" King of France & his third wife Agnes von Andechs-Merano (after 1197-15 Aug 1238, bur Louvain, église Saint Pierre).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "filium unum Philippum…et filiam unam Mariam" as children of "Philippus [rex]" and "Mariam filiam ducis Meranie et marchionis Histrie", and in a later passage records their legitimation[319].  The primary source which confirms this betrothal has not yet been identified. 

Duchess Constance & her third husband had [three] children:

d)         ALIX de Thouars ([1200]-21 Oct 1221, bur 24 Nov 1225 Villeneuve-les-Nantes, Abbaye de Notre-Dame)The Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ names "Adelicia" as the daughter of "Constantia filia Conani" and her third husband "Guidoni de Thoarcio", stating that she married "domno Petro Mauclerc"[320].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "unam filiam Mabiliam" as the child of "Constantiam comitis Conani filia" and her [third] husband "Guido frater vicecomitem de Tuart"[321].  A Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum names "Alipsam et Catherinam" as the two daughters of "Wido…comes de Thoarcio" and "Constantiam Gaufridi Ducis Britanniæ relictam", stating that Alix married "Petro Comiti Drocarum"[322]She succeeded her half-brother in 1203 as ALIX Dss of Brittany, Ctss of Richmond.  The marriage contract between "G. de Thoarco comes Britannie...A filia mea quam habeo de comitissa Britannie Constancia" and "Alanus filius comitis...Henricus filius predicti Alani primogenitus" is dated 1209[323].  Her first betrothal is confirmed by the charter dated 1209 under which "Alanus comes, Henrici comitis filius" granted letters of assurance to "domino Andreæ de Vitreio", with the consent of "Henrico filio meo et Alici uxori eius"[324].  The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis records that daughter of Guy de Thouars and Constance de Bretagne married "Pierre Mauclerc, fils de Robert comte de Dreux"[325]The Chronicon Britannicum records the death "XII Kal Nov" in 1221 of "Aalis Ducissa Britanniæ"[326]Betrothed (contract Paris 7 Dec 1209, broken) to HENRI d'Avaugour, son of ALAIN de Bretagne Comte de Penthièvre & his second wife Adélaïde --- ([1205]-6 Oct 1281, bur Dinan).  He succeeded his father in 1212 as Comte de Penthièvre.  m ([Mar 1213/Oct 1214]) as his first wife, PIERRE de Dreux, son of ROBERT II Comte de Dreux et de Braine & his second wife Yolande de Coucy ([1187]-at sea off Damietta end-May 1250, bur Braine, église abbatiale de Saint-Ived).   He swore allegiance at Paris 27 Jan 1213 to Philippe II "Auguste" King of France as PIERRE I "Mauclerc" Duke of Brittany.  Comte de Penthièvre by annexation 1214.  Created Earl of Richmond by Henry III King of England 16 Jan 1218/19 (confiscated Nov 1224, restored Oct 1229, confiscated again Jan 1235).  He surrendered the Duchy of Brittany to his son in 1237, after which he called himself PIERRE de Braine.  He accompanied King Louis IX on crusade in 1249 and was captured at Faraskur 6 Apr 1250, after being wounded at the battle of Mansourah.  He died at sea on his way back to western Europe.   

-        DUKES of BRITTANY 1213-1514 (DREUX-CAPET).

e)         CATHERINE de Thouars ([1/5 Sep 1201]-[1237/40]).  A Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum names "Alipsam et Catherinam" as the two daughters of "Wido…comes de Thoarcio" and "Constantiam Gaufridi Ducis Britanniæ relictam", stating that Catherine married "Andreæ de Vitreio"[327].  As her mother gave birth to two children during her short third marriage, it is likely that Catherine was born towards the end of her mother’s life, which may have ended in giving birth to Catherine.  The primary source which confirms that this speculation is correct has not been identified.  A charter dated 1212 records the dowry agreed between "Alix filia comitis Britanniæ" and "Andreæ de Vitreio juveni" for the latter´s marriage to "Catherina sorore mea"[328].  A charter dated to [1213] records that comes Guido Britannie" married "Katherinam filiam suam" to "domine Andree de Vitriaco" with "in maritagium unam partem foreste Redonensis"[329]m (1212) as his first wife, ANDRE [III] Seigneur de Vitré, son of ANDRE [II] Seigneur de Vitré & his second wife Eustache de Rays (-Mansurah 8 Feb 1250). 

f)          [MARGUERITE (-[1216/1220]).  The parentage of the first wife of Geoffroy [I] de Rohan is discussed more fully below.  Her marriage is confirmed by the following document: "Gaufredus vicecomes de Rohan" confirmed donations to Bonrepos abbey made by “avus meus Alanus vicecomes de Rohan et pater meus”, for the salvation of “Margaritæ uxoris meæ”, with the consent of "fratribus meis Oliverio et Alano", by charter dated 1216[330].  The following charter appears to provide the only indication of Marguerite’s family origin: "Petrus dux Britanniæ comes Richemundiæ" confirmed, for the souls of “nostræ et...Margaritæ sororis nostræ dicti Gaufridi quondam uxoris”, that “Alanus vicecomes de Rohan” had donated revenue “de Costeteia” to Bonrepos for the soul of "Gaufridi fratris sui", by charter dated 1232[331].  If “sororis” in this document is read literally, she was the sister of Pierre de Dreux Duke of Brittany.  Another possibility is that “sororis” should be interpreted as sister-in-law.  This parentage was assumed to be correct by several 18th and 19th century secondary sources[332] and is an attractive possibility considering Marguerite’s Breton marriage.  The difficulty is that Constance, during her short third marriage, appears to have had insufficient time to have given birth to three children, although Léa Chaillou has suggested recently that Marguerite may have been twin with Catherine and that a difficult twin birth may explain Constance’s early death[333]m as his first wife, GEOFFROY [I] Vicomte de Rohan, son of ALAIN [IV] Vicomte de Rohan & his wife Mabile de Fougères (-15 Sep 1221).]

Duke Conan had [one [presumably illegitimate] child] by [an unknown mistress]: 

2.         [GUILLAUME (-after [1199/1201]).  The following two charters indicate a family relationship between Guillaume and the rulers of Brittany: “Constantia comitis Conani filia ducissa Britannie, comitissa Richemundie” granted a house at Nantes to Buzay abbey, for the souls of “patris mei Comitis Conani et Comitis Gaufridi, quondam mariti mei”, with the consent of “Arturi filii mei”, by charter dated to [1199/1201], witnessed by “...Willelmo clerico, fratre Comitisse...[334].  “Arturus dux Britannie...et Constancia domina et mater mea...” confirmed donations to Saint-Julien-du-Pré made by “Hugo comes et Berta Comitissa antecessores nostri” by charter dated to [6 Apr 1199/Aug 1201], witnessed by “...Willelmo fratre Comitisse[335].  It is assumed that “Comitisse” refers in both cases to Constance, although she is also named “ducissa” elsewhere in the first document.  There are several possible explanations for the family relationship.  (1) Guillaume was the illegitimate son of Duke Conan, the most likely possibility in view of his sister’s succession to the duchy.  (2) He was Duke Conan’s legitimate son, born after Constance’s betrothal to Geoffrey of England, whose succession rights would have imperilled King Henry II’s plan to control Brittany and were set aside by the king.  If that is correct, it is surprising that his birth appears to have been ignored by contemporary chronicles, unless he was in some way disabled which might also explain his ecclesiastical career.  (3) He was the son of Constance’s mother by her second marriage, although in that case his presence in charters in Brittany would be surprising as he would more likely have lived in England.  No indication has been found of Guillaume’s ecclesiastical position.]  

 

 

The precise parentage of the following person, whose relationship with the dukes of Brittany is recorded as shown below, is uncertain. 

 

1.         MARGUERITE (-[1216/1220]).  Her marriage is confirmed by the following document: "Gaufredus vicecomes de Rohan" confirmed donations to Bonrepos abbey made by “avus meus Alanus vicecomes de Rohan et pater meus”, for the salvation of “Margaritæ uxoris meæ”, with the consent of "fratribus meis Oliverio et Alano", by charter dated 1216[336].  The following charter appears to provide the only indication of Marguerite’s family origin: "Petrus dux Britanniæ comes Richemundiæ" confirmed, for the souls of “nostræ et...Margaritæ sororis nostræ dicti Gaufridi quondam uxoris”, that “Alanus vicecomes de Rohan” had donated revenue “de Costeteia” to Bonrepos for the soul of "Gaufridi fratris sui", by charter dated 1232[337].  Four possible parentages have been proposed.  Firstly, if “soror” in this document is read literally, she was Marguerite de Dreux, daughter of Robert [II] Comte de Dreux et de Braine & his second wife Yolande de Coucy.  No other record has been found which names one of Pierre’s sisters Marguerite, so this parentage is not impossible.  It is true that the Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers only to seven daughters of Pierre’s parents[338], but the omission of an eighth daughter is not impossible bearing in mind Alberic’s numerous inaccuracies.  None of Pierre’s known sisters married Breton noblemen, but after his own marriage Pierre may have wanted to consolidate his position in Brittany by marrying an unmarried sister to a powerful local magnate.  Secondly, “sororis” in the 1232 document could be interpreted as sister-in-law which, if correct, means that she was Marguerite de Thouars, daughter of Guy de Thouars & his second wife Constance Dss of Brittany.  This parentage was assumed to be correct by several 18th and 19th century secondary sources[339] and is an attractive possibility considering Marguerite’s Breton marriage.  The difficulty is that Constance, during her short third marriage, appears to have had insufficient time to have given birth to three children, although Léa Chaillou has suggested recently that Marguerite may have been twin with Constance’s daughter Catherine and that a difficult twin birth may explain Constance’s early death[340].  Thirdly, Europäische Stammtafeln shows Guy de Rohan’s first wife as Marguerite de Blundeville, daughter of Ranulf de Blundeville Earl of Chester & his first wife Constance de Bretagne[341].  No other source has been found which discusses this possibility.  It is assumed that it is speculative, based on the apparent chronological difficulty of Constance giving birth to three children by her third husband.  This possibility appears unlikely to be correct as Marguerite’s hereditary claim to the duchy of Brittany which would have been senior to the wife of Pierre de Dreux, who was Constance’s oldest daughter by her third husband.  While Marguerite may have been side-lined like Constance’s oldest daughter Eléonore, born from her mother’s first marriage, it is probable that Marguerite’s Breton husband would have pressed such a claim to increase his power-base.  Another problem is the Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ which records that the second marriage of "Constantia filia Conani" and "Ranulphus Comes Cestriæ" was childless[342], although it is possible that this source omitted children who died young without children of their own.  Fourthly, she could have been Marguerite de Blundeville, daughter of Ranulf de Blundeville Earl of Chester & his second wife Clémence de Fougères.  This seems the least likely of the four possibilities as it would stretch the definition of “soror” in the 1232 document beyond what is probable.  m as his first wife, GEOFFROY [I] Vicomte de Rohan, son of ALAIN [IV] Vicomte de Rohan & his wife Mabile de Fougères (-15 Sep 1221).] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    DUKES of BRITTANY 1213-1514 (DREUX-CAPET)

 

 

PIERRE de Dreux, son of ROBERT [II] Comte de Dreux et de Braine & his second wife Yolande de Coucy ([1187]-at sea off Damietta end-May 1250, bur Braine, église abbatiale de Saint-Ived).   The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Henricum archiepiscopum Remensem et tres comites, Robertum de Brana, Petrum de Britannia, Iohannem Masticonesem et eorum sorores numero septem" as children of "comiti de Brana Roberto" and his wife Yolande[343]He swore allegiance at Paris 27 Jan 1213 to Philippe II "Auguste" King of France as PIERRE I "Mauclerc" Duke of Brittany.  Comte de Penthièvre by annexation 1214.  He was created Earl of Richmond by Henry III King of England 16 Jan 1219 (confiscated Nov 1224, restored Oct 1229, confiscated again Jan 1235).  Johannes comes Matisconensis” names “frater meus P. comes Britannie” in a charter dated Aug 1234[344]He surrendered the duchy of Brittany to his son in 1237, after which he is sometimes referred to as PIERRE de BraineWilliam of Tyre (Continuator) names "Pierre de Drues cuens de Bretaigne" among those who took part in the crusade from France which landed at Acre in 1239[345]He accompanied King Louis IX on crusade in 1249 and was captured at Faraskur 6 Apr 1250, after being wounded at the battle of Mansurah.  He died at sea on his return to western Europe. 

m firstly ([Mar 1213/Oct 1214]) ALIX de Thouars Dss of Brittany, daughter of GUY de Thouars & his second wife Constance Dss of Brittany ([1200]-21 Oct 1221, bur 24 Nov 1225 Villeneuve-les-Nantes, Abbaye de Notre-Dame).  The Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ names "Adelicia" as the daughter of "Constantia filia Conani" and her third husband "Guidoni de Thoarcio", stating that she married "domno Petro Mauclerc"[346].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "unam filiam Mabiliam" as the child of "Constantiam comitis Conani filia" and her [third] husband "Guido frater vicecomitem de Tuart"[347]The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis records that daughter of Guy de Thouars and Constance de Bretagne married "Pierre Mauclerc, fils de Robert comte de Dreux"[348]A Chronicon Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum names "Alipsam et Catherinam" as the two daughters of "Wido…comes de Thoarcio" and "Constantiam Gaufridi Ducis Britanniæ relictam", stating that Alix married "Petro Comiti Drocarum"[349].  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death "XII Kal Nov" in 1221 of "Aalis Ducissa Britanniæ"[350]

Betrothed (before 21 Jul 1229) to [MARIE] de Lusignan, daughter of HUGUES I King of Cyprus & his wife Alix of Jerusalem Ctss of Jaffa ([before 1215]-[1251/53])A Papal prohibition on the marriage between "comes Britannie" and "filiam reginam Cypri", by reason of 4o consanguinity, is dated at Pérouse 21 Jul 1229[351].  It is not known which daughter was betrothed to the Duke of Brittany, but it is a reasonable assumption that it was Marie who was the older of the queen’s two daughters. 

m secondly ([1230]) NICOLE, daughter of --- (-Feb 1232, bur Villeneuve-les-Nantes, Abbaye de Notre-Dame).  Her marriage is confirmed by an epitaph at Villeneuve which records the burial of "Nicolle, la mère monsour Olivier de Machecou"[352], read together with the charter dated 10 Mar 1258 under which "Jehan duc de Bretaigne conte de Richemont" confirmed an agreement between "Morice de Belle Ville, par raison de Jehanne sa femme, dame de la Roche sur Yon et de Luçon" and "Olivier nostre frère" concerning "la terre de Machecoul et de Saint Philbert"[353].  No indication has been found of Nicole’s parentage. 

m thirdly (before Jan 1236) as her second husband, MARGUERITE de Montaigu Dame de Montaigu et de La Garnache[-en-Poitou], widow of HUGUES de Thouars Seigneur de Montaigu, daughter of [BRIENT [I] Seigneur de Montaigu & his wife Agathe ---] ([1188/90]-after 27 Nov 1241).  "Petrus dux Britanie, comes Richemundie, dominus Gasnapie et Margarita uxor eius" confirmed donations to the abbey Blanche de Noirmoutier by charter dated 1236[354].  The difficulties connected with identifying Marguerite´s correct parentage are discussed by Blanchard, who concludes that she was probably the daughter of Brient [I] Seigneur de Montaigu[355].  He also cites various sources which confirm her first marriage.  "Margarita uxor…Petri de Brana, Montis Acuti et Gasnapie domina" confirmed the same donations to the abbey Blanche de Noirmoutier by charter dated 1239[356].  "Margarita domina Gasnapie, Montis Acuti et Machecolii" confirmed the donation of a marsh made to Buzay by "le curé de Bouin" by charter dated Jul 1239[357]"Margarita Montis Acuti et Guasnapiæ domina et hæres" donated property to the abbey of Geneston, with the consent of "viro nostro Petro de Brana", by charter dated 27 Nov 1241[358]

Duke Pierre I & his first wife had three children:

1.         JEAN de Bretagne ([1217/18]-Château de l'Isle, Férel, Morbihan 8 Oct 1286, bur Prières, église abbatiale de Notre Dame)The Chronicon Ruyensis Cœnobii records the birth in 1217 of "Johannes filius Petri Comitis et Aelidis Comitissæ Britanniæ"[359].  The Chronicon Britannicum records the birth in 1218 of "Johannes, filius Petri Ducis Britanniæ"[360]He succeeded on the abdication of his father in 1237 as JEAN I "le Roux" Duke of Brittany.   

-        see below

2.         YOLANDE de Bretagne (in Brittany end 1218-château de Bouteville 10 Oct 1272, bur Villeneuve-les-Nantes, église abbatiale de Notre Dame).  A letter of King Henry III dated 19 Oct 1226 confirms his betrothal to "Jolentam filiam Petri ducis Brittanniæ et comitis Richemundiæ"[361].  The Chronicon Turonense records the betrothal of "Rex Franciæ Joannem fratrem suum, puerum octennem" and "filiæ Petri Comitis Britanniæ", and the grant of the county of Anjou to him[362].  The marriage contract between “P. dux Britannie, comes Richemondie…Yolendi filie mee” and “Ludovicus, rex Francorum…Johannem fratrem suum” is dated 27 Mar [1226/27][363].  The Annals of Dunstable record the betrothal of “filiam comitis Britanniæ” and “rex Franciæ…fratri suo minori”, who received the county of Anjou, in 1227[364].  Her betrothal to Thibaut IV Comte de Champagne is confirmed by a letter from King Louis IX to Comte Thibaut, dated 1229, which states that the king had “entendu que vous avez convenancé et promis à prendre à femme la fille du Comte Pierre de Bretaigne” and forbade him from proceeding, adding “la raison pourquoi vous savez bien” (without providing any further explanation)[365].  The 1229 date (cited by Lobineau) is presumably incorrect, assuming that the date of death of Comte Thibaut´s second wife is correctly reported as 11 Jul 1231 as shown above.  This suggested redating is confirmed by a letter from Pope Gregory IX to the archbishop of Bourges dated 24 Apr 1232 stating that “Campaniæ et Britanniæ comites” intended to arrange a marriage alliance prohibited by the degrees of consanguinity and forbidding the arrangement[366]Dame de la Fère-en-Tardenois, de Chailly et de Longjumeau.  Ctss de Penthièvre 1236, as her dowry.  The Chronicon Britannicum records in 1236 that "Penthevria excepto Jugonio" was granted to “Hugoni filio comitis de Marchia” with “filia Petri comitis totius Britanniæ[367]Ctss de Porhoët, by grant of her brother.  "Hugo Lebrun, filius comitis Marchie primogenitus, et dominus Lambalie et Hyolandis uxor sua" noted the end of the excommunication of "Guidonem de Argenteio dominum de Plancoit" in a charter dated 1246[368]"Hugo Brunus comes Engolisme et domina Hiolendis uxor eius heres et domina Penthevrie" confirmed the donation to Lamballe made by “domini P. quondam ducis Britannie genitoris predicte Hiolendis uxoris nostre...domine Ælidis ducisse Britannie et comitisse Richem. genitricis predicte Hiolendis” by charter dated Jul 1247[369]Regent of La Marche and Angoulême 1250-1256.  Betrothed (before 19 Oct 1226) to HENRY III King of England, son of JOHN King of England & his second wife Isabelle Ctss d'Angoulême (Winchester Castle 1 Oct 1207-Palace of Westminster 16 Nov 1272, bur Westminster Abbey).  Betrothed (Mar 1227) to JEAN de France Comte d'Anjou et du Maine, son of LOUIS VIII King of France & his wife Infanta doña Blanca de Castilla (Sep 1219-1232, bur Notre-Dame de Poissy).  [370]Betrothed ([1231], terminated) to THIBAUT IV Comte de Champagne, son of THIBAUT III Comte de Champagne & his wife Infanta doña Blanca de Navarra (Pamplona 3 May 1201-Pamplona 8 Jul 1253, bur Pamplona).  m (Jan 1236) HUGUES [XII] de Lusignan, son of HUGUES [XI] de Lusignan Comte de la Marche et d'Angoulême & his wife Isabelle Ctss d'Angoulême ([1221]-Damietta Apr 1250, bur Abbaye de la Couronne, Charente).  He succeeded his father in 1250 as Seigneur de Lusignan, Comte de la Marche et d'Angoulême

3.         ARTHUR de Bretagne ([1220]-shortly after 1223)Lobineau records the birth in 1220 of “un second fils...Artur” but cites no primary source on which he bases this date[371]The Chronicon Turonense records the betrothal in 1223 of "Arturo puero, filio Comitis Britanniæ" and "Amorricus de Credone, senescallus Andegaviæ, filiam unicam"[372]Betrothed to JEANNE de Craon, daughter of AMAURY [I] Seigneur de Craon & his wife Jeanne des Roches.  The Chronicon Turonense records the betrothal in 1223 of "Arturo puero, filio Comitis Britanniæ" and "Amorricus de Credone, senescallus Andegaviæ, filiam unicam"[373]

Duke Pierre & his second wife had one child:

4.         OLIVIER [I] de Braine dit de Machecoul ([1231/32]-1279, bur Villeneuve-lez-Nantes).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 10 Mar 1258 under which "Jehan duc de Bretaigne conte de Richemont" confirmed an agreement between "Morice de Belle Ville, par raison de Jehanne sa femme, dame de la Roche sur Yon et de Luçon" and "Olivier nostre frère" concerning "la terre de Machecoul et de Saint Philbert"[374].  The identity of his mother is confirmed by an epitaph at Villeneuve which records the burial of "Nicolle, la mère monsour Olivier de Machecou"[375][Seigneur de Machecoul.] 

-        SEIGNEURS de MACHECOUL

 

 

JEAN de Bretagne, son of PIERRE I Duke of Brittany & his first wife Alix de Thouars Dss of Brittany ([1217/18]-Château de l'Isle, Férel, Morbihan 8 Oct 1286, bur Prières, église abbatiale de Notre Dame)The Chronicon Ruyensis Cœnobii records the birth in 1217 of "Johannes filius Petri Comitis et Aelidis Comitissæ Britanniæ"[376].  The Chronicon Britannicum records the birth in 1218 of "Johannes, filius Petri Ducis Britanniæ"[377]On his marriage his father-in-law declared Jean as his heir in Navarre, even if he subsequently had a male heir.  After his majority, his father resigned the duchy and Jean swore allegiance to Louis IX King of France in Paris 16 Nov 1237 as JEAN I "le Roux" Duke of Brittany, Seigneur de Pontarcy, de Brie-Comte-Robert et de la Fère-en-Tardenois.  Seigneur de Muzillac [1250].  He renounced his rights to Navarre for an annuity of 3,000 livres, by agreement 1254.  Châtelain de Dinan 1264-1265.  Seigneur de Hédé, de Hennedon-le-Viel, de Léon et de la Roche-Derrien 1265.  Vicomte de Gourin [1265].  Henry III King of England restored him as Earl of Richmond at Woodstock 15 Jul 1268, but he immediately surrendered the earldom to his son.  He accompanied Louis IX King of France on his second Crusade in 1270.  Comte de Penthièvre, Seigneur de Lavaux 1272.  Comte de Léon 1276.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death "Id Oct" 1286 of “Joannes comes Britanniæ fundator abbatiæ de Precibus” and the succession of “Joannes filius eius[378]

m (contract Château-Thierry, Aisne 16 Jan 1236) Infanta doña BLANCA de Navarra, daughter of TEOBALDO I King of Navarre [THIBAUT IV Comte de Champagne] & his second wife Agnès de Beaujeu (1226-château de Hédé, Ille-et-Vilaine 11/12 Aug 1283, bur Hennebont, Morbihan, Abbaye cistercienne de Notre dame de la Joie).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "Agnes comitissa Campanie" left an only daughter but does not name her[379].  The marriage contract between “P. dux Britannie comes Richerimontis…Johanni de Britannia filio nostro” and “Theobaldus…rex Navarre, Campanie et Brie comes palatinus…filiam suam domiscellam Blancham” is dated 16 Jan 1236[380].  She founded the Abbaye de la Joie near Hennebont [1270], where she was later buried.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death "pridie Id Aug" 1273 (presumably error for 1283) of “domina Blancha ducissa Britanniæ” and her burial “apud Henbond[381]The necrology of the Abbaye des Clairets records the death "IV Id Sep" of "Blancha comitissa Britannie"[382]

Duke Jean I & his wife had eight children: 

1.         JEAN de Bretagne (3/4 Jan 1239-Lyon 16 Nov 1305, bur Ploërmel, Morbihan, église Notre dame du couvent des Carmes)The Chronicon Universum in the cartulary of Sainte-Croix de Quimperlé records the birth "die martis infra octabas Sanctorum Innocentium" in 1239 of "Johannes primogenitus Johannis comitis Britannie"[383]He succeeded his father in 1286 as JEAN II Duke of Brittany.   

-        see below

2.         PIERRE de Bretagne (Châteaulin, Finistère 2 Apr 1241-Paris 19 Oct 1268, bur Paris, église des Cordeliers).  The Chronicon Kemperlegiense records the birth "die Martis post Resurrectionem Domini…apud castrum Lini" in 1241 of "Petrus secundus filius Iohannis Comitis Britanniæ"[384]Seigneur de Dinan, de Léon, de Hédé, de Hennebont et de la Roche-Derrien.  He bought from Alain d'Avaugour Seigneur de Mayenne in 1264 all the latter's possessions in Brittany.  Betrothed (Papal dispensation 6 Aug 1266[385]) to MARGUERITE de Flandre, daughter of GUY Count of Flanders & his first wife Mathilde de Béthune ([1251]-3 Jul 1285). 

3.         ALIX de Bretagne (Château de Sucinio, Sarzeau, Morbihan 6 Jun 1243-2 Aug 1288, bur Abbaye de Laguiche, Coulanges, Loir-et-Cher).  Dame de Pontarcy et de Brie-Comte-Robert, as her dowry.  She founded the abbey of Laguiche near Blois in 1277, where she was later buried.  She visited Palestine in 1287, erecting a monument to Ptolemy in Syria.  A charter dated Jan 1295 records that Johannis comitis Britannie” and “Hugonis de Castellione comitis Blesen.” agreed a division of territories following the deaths of “la contesse Jehane de Blois...sans hoir [...et du conte Pierre d´Alençon son mary]...du conte Jehan de Bloys et de la contesse Aaliz notre seur sa femme[386]m (contract 11 Dec 1254) JEAN [I] de Châtillon Comte de Blois, de Chartres et de Dunois, son of HUGUES Seigneur de Châtillon-sur-Marne Comte de Saint-Pol et de Blois & his second wife Marie d'Avesnes Ctss de Blois (-28 Jun 1279, bur Abbaye de Laguiche, Coulanges, Loir-et-Cher).

4.         THIBAUT de Bretagne (23 Jul 1245-23 Oct 1246, bur Rhuys, Morbihan, église abbatiale de Saint Gildas).  Lobineau records the children of Duke Jean I and his wife “Thibaud [naquit] le 23 Jul 1245 et mourut le 23 Oct de l´année suivante, il fut enterré à S. Gildas de Ruis...” but gives no indication of the primary sources on which he bases this information[387].  His tomb exists in the church[388]

5.         THIBAUT de Bretagne (9 Nov 1247-young, bur Rhuys, Morbihan, église abbatiale de Saint Gildas).  Lobineau records the children of Duke Jean I and his wife “...un autre Thibaud naquit le 9 Nov 1247...” but gives no indication of the primary sources on which he bases this information[389].  His tomb exists in the church[390]

6.         ELEONORE de Bretagne (end 1248-young, bur Rhuys, Morbihan, église abbatiale de Saint Gildas).  Lobineau records the children of Duke Jean I and his wife “...Alienor née en 1248, mourut peu de tems après et fut enterrée avec son frere Thibaud à S. Gildas de Ruis...” but gives no indication of the primary sources on which he bases this information[391].  Her tomb exists in the church[392]

7.         NICOLAS de Bretagne (8 Dec 1249-14 Aug 1251, bur Rhuys, Morbihan, église abbatiale de Saint Gildas).  Lobineau records the children of Duke Jean I and his wife “...Nicolas né le 8 Dec 1249, fut tenu sur les fonds par S. Louis et mourut en 1241 le 14 Aug...” but gives no indication of the primary sources on which he bases this information[393].  His tomb exists in the church[394]

8.         ROBERT de Bretagne (6 Mar 1251-4 Feb 1259, bur Nantes, église du couvent des Cordeliers).  Lobineau records the children of Duke Jean I and his wife “...Robert né le 6 Mar 1251, mourut le 10 Feb 1259 et fut enterré dans l´Eglise des Cordeliers de Nantes dans le Chœur” but gives no indication of the primary sources on which he bases this information[395]The necrology of Nantes Cordeliers records the death "IV Id Feb" 1259 of Robert son of Jean Duke of Brittany, his burial being recorded in the epitaph on his tomb there[396]

 

 

JEAN de Bretagne, son of JEAN I Duke of Brittany & his wife Infanta doña Blanca de Navarra [Champagne] (3/4 Jan 1239-Lyon 16 Nov 1305, bur Ploërmel, Morbihan, église Notre dame du couvent des Carmes)The Chronicon Universum in the cartulary of Sainte-Croix de Quimperlé records the birth "die martis infra octabas Sanctorum Innocentium" in 1239 of "Johannes primogenitus Johannis comitis Britannie"[397]The Chronicon Kemperlegiense records the birth in 1240 of "Iohannes primogenitus Iohannis Comitis Britanniæ"[398].  Earl of Richmond 1268, when his father resigned the earldom.  He accompanied his father and Louis IX King of France on the Crusade in 1270.  William of Tyre (Continuation) records the arrival in Palestine of "Johan filz le conte de Bretaigne" 14 Sep 1272[399]He succeeded his father in 1286 as JEAN II Duke of Brittany: the Chronicon Britannicum records the death "Id Oct" 1286 of “Joannes comes Britanniæ fundator abbatiæ de Precibus” and the succession of “Joannes filius eius[400]He received Papal recognition 1 Sep 1288.  Philippe IV King of France confirmed his title of duke of Brittany, pair de France at Courtrai Sep 1297[401]King Edward I of England confiscated his English possessions in 1296, for supporting the French, but they were restored to him 1 May 1304.  He was killed by a falling wall, while leading the Pope's horse during the consecration of Pope Clement V.  The testament of "Jehan Duc de Bretaigne Comte de Richemond", dated Jul 1304, bequeathed property to “Artur mon ainzné filz...Jean de Bretaigne mon filz...Alienor de Bretaigne ma fille nonain de Fontevrault...[402]The Chronicon Britannicum records the death in Lugduno” 1305 of “Joannes dux Britanniæ” and the succession of “Arturus eius filius[403]

m (contract 13 Oct 1260, église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint Denis Nov 1260, Westminster Abbey [25 Dec] 1260) BEATRIX of England, daughter of HENRY III King of England & his wife Eléonore de Provence (Bordeaux 25 Jun 1242-London 24 Mar 1275, maybe bur Reading Abbey, transferred to Greyfriars Church, Newgate, London).  The Annales Londonienses record the marriage in 1260 of "Johannes filius comitis Britanniæ" and "Beatricem filiam regis Angliæ"[404].  The Chronicle of Thomas Wykes records the marriage “apud Westmonasterium” in 1259 of “Johannem filium et hæredum comitis Britanniæ” and “Beatriciam filiam regis[405].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death in 1275 of "Margareta regina Scotie et Beatrix comitissa Britanniæ, filiæ Henrici"[406]

Duke Jean II & his wife had six children:

1.         ARTHUR de Bretagne (25 Jul 1262-Château de l'Isle 1312, bur Vannes).  The Chronicon Kemperlegiense records the birth "VIII Kal Aug" in 1262 of "Arturus primogenitus Iohannis Ducis Britanniæ ex Beatrice filia Regis Angliæ"[407].  He succeeded his father 1305 as ARTHUR II Duke of Brittany

-        see below

2.         JEAN de Bretagne ([1266]-in Scotland 17 Jan 1334, bur Nantes, église des Franciscains).  Lobineau states that Jean, second son of Duke Jean II, was born in 1266 but gives no indication of the primary source on which he bases this information[408]Appointed Lieutenant of Aquitaine 1294, and Captain of the English forces there, removed Oct 1295.  The testament of "Jehan Duc de Bretaigne Comte de Richemond", dated Jul 1304, bequeathed property to “Artur mon ainzné filz...Jean de Bretaigne mon filz...Alienor de Bretaigne ma fille nonain de Fontevrault...[409]He was summoned to the English Parliament 24 May and 13 Jul 1305, whereby he is held to have become Lord Brittany[410].  He was appointed Guardian of Scotland 15 Oct 1305.  He was created Earl of Richmond by grant of Edward I King of England 15 Oct 1306[411].  He served the kings of England until his death.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death XVII Jan” 1333 of “nobilis princeps dominus Johannes de Britannia quondam comes Richemondiæ” and his burial “in domo Fratrum Minorum Nann.[412]Inquisitions following a writ dated 13 Feb 1334, following the death of "John de Britannia Earl of Richemund", record “heir unknown because the said earl was born in foreign parts and was never married” when listing his numerous properties in England[413]

3.         MARIE de Bretagne (1268-5 May 1339, bur Abbaye de Cercamp)The marriage contract between Jehan Duc de Bretagne Conte de Richemont...Damoiselle Marie fille dud. Duc de Bretagne” and “Hues de Chastillon Conte de Blois Sires de Avenes…Guy nostre…frere” is dated 22 Jul 1292[414]Heiress of Clermont.  Dame d'Elincourt et d'Arleux 1317.  m (22 Jul 1292) GUY [III] de Châtillon Comte de Saint-Pol, son of GUY [II] de Châtillon Comte de Saint-Pol & his wife Beatrix de Brabant (-6 Apr 1317). 

4.         PIERRE de Bretagne (1269-Jul 1312, bur Paris, église des Cordeliers).  Vicomte de Léon until 1293.  A charter dated Oct 1293 records that Petrum de Britannia filium suum” transferred “Leonie...vicecomitatum” to “Johannes comes Britannie[415]Kerrebrouck records that Pierre died in 1312 from a wound received in his leg from a horse´s kick and was buried “en l´église des Cordeliers de Paris” but does not cite the corresponding primary sources[416]

5.         BLANCHE de Bretagne (1270-Château du Bois-de-Vincennes 19 Mar 1327, bur Paris église des Jacobins)The Gesta Philippi Tertia Francorum Regis of Guillaume de Nangis records that "comes Attrebati Robertus...[filium] Philippum" married "filiam Johannis comitis Britanniæ Blancham, neptem Edoardi regis Angliæ"[417]Dame de Brie-Comte-Robert.  Philippe IV King of France granted revenue to "consanguinea nostra Blancha...J. ducis Britannie filia" for “Margarete filie sue...Ludovici comitis Ebroicensis germani nostri...uxori...maritagii” by charter dated Jul 1303[418]Dame de Neuvy et de Pandy 1304.  m (after Nov 1281) PHILIPPE d'Artois Seigneur de Conches, son of ROBERT II "le Bon/le Noble" Comte d'Artois [Capet] & his first wife Amicie de Courtenay (1269-near Furnes 11 Sep 1298, bur Paris, église des Jacobins).  

6.         ELEONORE de Bretagne (in England 1275-Fontevrault 16 May 1342, bur Fontevrault).  A manuscript Memorandum records the donation of “Manerio de Chadelworth” in Berkshire by “domina Alianora regina Angliæ, mater regis”, and names “Alianora de Britan. filia domini Johannis ducis Britan.” as a nun at Amesbury[419]Nun at Fontevrault [1291].  The testament of "Jehan Duc de Bretaigne Comte de Richemond", dated Jul 1304, bequeathed property to “Artur mon ainzné filz...Jean de Bretaigne mon filz...Alienor de Bretaigne ma fille nonain de Fontevrault...[420]Abbess of Fontevrault 1304. 

 

 

ARTHUR de Bretagne, son of JEAN II Duke of Brittany & his wife Beatrix of England (25 Jul 1262-Château de l'Isle 1312, bur Vannes).  The Chronicon Kemperlegiense records the birth "VIII Kal Aug" in 1262 of "Arturus primogenitus Iohannis Ducis Britanniæ ex Beatrice filia Regis Angliæ"[421].  Vicomte de Limoges 1275-1301, in right of his first wife.  Earl of Richmond 1286.  Vicomte de Léon 1293.  The testament of "Jehan Duc de Bretaigne Comte de Richemond", dated Jul 1304, bequeathed property to “Artur mon ainzné filz...Jean de Bretaigne mon filz...Alienor de Bretaigne ma fille nonain de Fontevrault...[422]He succeeded his father in 1305 as ARTHUR II Duke of Brittany, pair de France, Comte de Penthièvre: the Chronicon Britannicum records the death in Lugduno” 1305 of “Joannes dux Britanniæ” and the succession of “Arturus eius filius[423]Comte de Montfort-l'Amaury 1311, in right of his second wife.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death Kal Aug” 1312 of “Arturus dux Britanniæ” and his burial “in ecclesia fratrum minorum Venetensium[424]

m firstly (Betrothed 17 Jun 1273, Papal dispensation 24 Nov 1275, Tours 1277) MARIE Vicomtesse de Limoges, daughter and heiress of GUY IV Vicomte de Limoges & his wife Marguerite de Bourgogne (1260-1292).  A charter dated 17 Jun 1273 records the obligation of "Jahan duc de Bretangne" to pay "la vicontaisse de Limoges" for the marriage of "Artur nostre nevou" and "Marie la fille à ladite vicontesse"[425]An anonymous Chronicon of Saint-Marcial records the marriage in 1275 of "Arturus filius comitis Britannie" and "Mariam filiam vicecomitisse Lemovicensis" at Tours[426]The Majus Chronicon Lemovicense records the marriage "in crastinum beatæ Mariæ Magdalenæ" in 1275 of "Maria heres vicecomitatus Lemovicensis, neptis ducis Burgundiæ" and "Arturo herede Britanniæ, nepote regis Angliæ"[427]

m secondly ([May 1292]) as her second husband, YOLANDE de Dreux, widow of ALEXANDER III “the Glorious” King of Scotland, daughter of ROBERT IV Comte de Dreux et de Braine ([1269]-24 Aug 1322).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the betrothal "post festum Purificationis beatæ Mariæ virginis" of "rex Alexander" and "Joletam sive Jolandam…filiam…comitis de Droco sive Droys", dated to [1284/85] from the context, and in a later passage their marriage "die S. Calixti" in 1285[428]Ctss de Montfort-l'Amaury 1311.  "Jehan Duc de Bret." and “Yoland de Dreux duchesse de Bretaigne femme jadis Artur Duc de Bretaigne pere doudit Jehan” reached agreement on her dower by charter dated Apr 1312[429]The necrology of Port-Royal records the death "IV Non Aug" of "dame Yoland, royne d'Escosse, duchesse de Bretaigne et contesse de Montfort"[430]

Duke Arthur II & his first wife had three children:

1.         JEAN de Bretagne (château de Champtoceaux, Maine-et-Loire 8 Mar 1286-Caen 30 Apr 1341, bur Ploërmel, église Notre dame du couvent des Carmélites)The Chronicon Britannicum records the birth "die veneris ante festum B. Gregorii" 1285 (presumably O.S.) of “Joannes primogenitus filius Arturi[431]He succeeded his mother in 1291 as Vicomte de Limoges, until 1314, and again 1328-1341.  He succeeded his father in 1312 as JEAN III "le Bon" Duke of Brittany, pair de France.  Comte de Penthièvre 1312-1317.  Earl of Richmond 1334, by grant of Edward III King of England, following his uncle's death.  He supported his third wife's claim to the county of Savoy.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death 30 Apr 1341 of “Johannes dux Britanniæ” who had founded “capellam SS. Donationi et Rogatiani prope muros civitatis Nannetensis[432]m firstly (18 Feb 1298) ISABELLE de Valois, daughter of CHARLES de France Comte de Valois & his first wife Marguerite of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] ([1292]-1309).  The marriage contract between “Charles filz de Roy de France comte de Valois, d´Alençon, de Chartres et d´Anjou et Marguerite sa femme comtesse...Isabeau nostre premiere et ainsnée fille” and “Jehan Duc de Bretaigne comte de Richemont...filz ainsné Artur de Bretaigne ainsné filz de nous dit Duc” dated 18 Feb 1297 (O.S.)[433]m secondly (dispensation 21 Jun 1310, Burgos 1310) as her second husband, Infanta doña ISABEL de Castilla y León, separated wife of JAIME II King of Aragon, daughter of SANCHO IV King of Castile and León & his wife doña María de Molina (1283-24 Jul 1328, bur Abbaye de Notre-Dame de Prière).  The Papal dispensation for the marriage of "Johanni primogenito...Arturi ducs Britanniæ vicecomitis Lemovicensis" and “Isabellæ natæ claræ memoriæ Sancii Castellæ regis”, dated 21 Jun 1310, records her 3o consanguinity with “Isabellis nata...filii...Caroli nati...Philippi regis Francorum prior uxor tua[434]Vicomtesse de Limoges 1312-1314, and again 1317-1328.  "Johannes ducis Britannie primogenitus vicecomes Lemovicensis" granted “vicecomitatum Lemovicensem” to “Ysabellam...Sancii quondam regis Castelle et Legionis filiam” by charter dated Mar 1312[435]m thirdly (Papal dispensation 10 Aug 1329, église Notre Dame, Chartres 21 Mar 1330) JEANNE de Savoie, daughter of EDOUARD Comte de Savoie & his wife Blanche de Bourgogne [Capet] ([1310]-Château du Bois de Vincennes 29 Jun 1344, bur Dijon, église des Cordeliers).  She claimed the succession to the county of Savoy on the death of her father but ceded her rights to her uncle Comte Aimon at Vincennes 29 Nov 1329.  Vicomtesse de Limoges, as her dower, on her marriage in 1330.  She renewed her claim to Savoy after her marriage, and allied herself with the Dauphin de Viennois against her uncle.  By agreement 22 Nov 1339, she renounced her rights of succession in Savoy in return for an annual income of 6,000 livres.  The testament of "Gioanna di Savoia Duchessa di Bretagna, e Vicontessa di Limoges figlia unica del Conte Odoardo di Savoia" dated 21 Jun 1344 chooses burial "nella Chiesa de P. P. Minori de Dyon…ove resta sepolta sua Madre", appoints "Filippo figlio del Re di Francia di Lei Cugino" as her heir, in particular to the county of Savoy, and in default "Carlo di Francia Duca di Normandia, e di Filippo Duca di Borgogna"[436]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Duke Jean's mistress is not known.  Duke Jean III had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

a)         JEAN bâtard de Bretagne (-after Dec 1334).  Seigneur de Trouchatiau.  Jehan Duc de Bretaigne Comte de Richemont Vicomte de Limoge” granted “le chastel assiz en la paroisse de Cleguer...led. chastiau de Trouchatiau” to “Jehan le Bastart nostr fils” by charter dated Dec 1334[437].

2.         GUY de Bretagne (1287-Nigeon near Paris 27 Mar 1331, bur Guingamp église des Cordeliers)"Johannem ducem Britannie" granted property “ex successione...defuncte Marie quondam genitricis eorum in Lemovicino et Petragoricino” to “Guidonem fratrem eius” by charter dated Mar 1313[438]Vicomte de Limoges 1314-1317.  Comte de Penthièvre 1317.  Comte de Goelo, Seigneur d'Avaugour, de Chatel-Audrey et de l'Aigle 1318.  m firstly (1318) JEANNE d'Avaugour Ctss de Goello dame d'Avaugour, daughter and heiress of HENRI [IV] Seigneur d'Avaugour & his wife Jeanne d'Harcourt dame de Laigle (-28 Jul or 30 Aug 1327, bur Guingamp église des Cordeliers).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated [Mar] 1338 under which Monsieur Hervé de Leon” and “Marguerite d´Avaugour sa femme fille de feu monsieur Henri d´Avaugour” claimed part of her father´s succession from [her daughter] “la Dame de Penthievre hoir principal audit sire d´Avaugour [...Charles de Blaes seignor de Penthevre et damiselle Jahanne sa fame Dame de Penthevre[439]The Chronicon Britannicum records the death in 1327 of “domina Johanna de Avalgoria consors domini Guidonis comitis Penthevriæ” and her burial “in habitu S. Claræ ante majus altare[440]The necrology of Notre-Dame-de-Beauport records the death "III Kal Sep" of "domine Johanne d´Avalgor, uxoris domini Guidonis de Britannia"[441]m secondly (Papal dispensation 10 Feb 1330) as her second husband, JEANNE de Belleville, widow of GEOFFROY [VIII] Seigneur de Châteaubriand, daughter of MAURICE de Montaigu Seigneur de Belleville-sur-Vie & his second wife Letice de Parthenay (-before 30 Dec 1359).  She married thirdly as his second wife Oliver [IV] de ClissonJehanne dame de Cliçon et de Belleville” confirmed receipt of payment from “Macé --- nostre chastelain de Chasteaum---” by charter dated 18 Oct 1342[442].  She married fourthly Walter de Bentele.  Edward III King of England confirmed “loca de Beauvoir, Ampant, la Barre, la Baye et de Castel-Noef” to “Walterus de Bentele...ac...Johannæ tunc uxoris eius dominæ de Bella-villa et de Clizon”, and “Oliverius dominus de Clizon” requested rights over properties “tam prædictus Walterus quam præfata Johanna mater eiusdem Oliverii cujus hæres...est”, by charter dated 30 Dec 1359[443]Comte Guy & his first wife had one child: 

a)         JEANNE de Bretagne (1319-Guingamp 10 Sep 1384, bur Guingamp église des Cordeliers)Dame d'Avaugour, de Mayenne, de Chatel-Audrey et de l'Aigle 1327, confirmed 1331.  Ctss de Goello et de Penthièvre 1331.  Edward III King of England appointed Willielmi d´Aubeneye militis et Joannis Caupegorge” as proxies to negotiate the marriage between “Joannem comitem Cornubiæ fratrem nostrum” and “Johannam filiam Guidonis de Britannia neptem et hæredem [Johanne Duce Britanniæ consanguineo nostro]” by charter dated 31 Dec 1335[444]She succeeded in 1341 as JEANNE "la Boiteuse" Dss of Brittany, until 1364.  Vicomtesse de Limoges 1341-1369.  She renounced her rights by the Treaty of Guérande 1365, ending the Breton wars.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death in 1384 of “domina Johanna filia D. Guidonis de Britannia Penthevriæ comitiis, Johannæque de Avalgorio...ducissa Britanniæ uxor bonæ memoriæ Caroli de Blesis[445]The necrology of Notre-Dame-de-Beauport records the death "IV Id Sep" in 1384 of "domine Johanne ducisse Britannie, uxoris bone memorie Caroli domini du Plexeix"[446]m (Paris 4 Jun 1337) CHARLES de Blois-Châtillon, son of GUY [I] de Châtillon Comte de Blois et de Dunois & his wife Marguerite de Valois (1319-killed in battle near Auray 29 Sep 1364, bur Guingamp église des Cordeliers).  He succeeded in 1341 as CHARLES Duke of Brittany, Comte de Penthièvre, Seigneur de Guise, by right of his wife. 

Guy had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

b)         THOMAS bâtard de Bretagne (-after 21 Jun 1349).  Cleric in the diocesis of Vannes, he received a dispensation of legitimacy dated 21 Jun 1349[447]

3.         PIERRE de Bretagne ([1289]-).  Lobineau states that Pierre, son of Duke Arthur II and his first wife, was born in 1289 but gives no indication of the primary source on which he bases this information[448]

Duke Arthur II & his second wife had six children:

4.         JEAN de Bretagne (1293-Château d'Hennebont 26 Sep 1345, bur Quimperlé, église de la Sainte-Croix, later transferred to the couvent des Jacobins)"Yolent Duchesse de Bretaigne Contesse de Montfort, Jehan de Bretaigne fil, damoiselles Jehanne, Beatrix et Aelis filles feu Artur Duc de Bretaigne et de lad. Duchesse, Bouchart Conte de Vandosme, Jehan de Vandosme son frere, Bouchart de Vendosme Seigneur de Bonneval et Thibaut de Danisy Seigneur de Boolon" were present at the marriage contract between “led. Conte de Vendosme” and “lad. damoiselle Aelis”, dated Aug 1320[449]He succeeded in 1341 as JEAN IV Duke of Brittany

-        see below

5.         BEATRIX de Bretagne (7 Dec 1295-9 Dec 1384, bur Abbaye de Clermont near Laval)"Yolent Duchesse de Bretaigne Contesse de Montfort, Jehan de Bretaigne fil, damoiselles Jehanne, Beatrix et Aelis filles feu Artur Duc de Bretaigne et de lad. Duchesse, Bouchart Conte de Vandosme, Jehan de Vandosme son frere, Bouchart de Vendosme Seigneur de Bonneval et Thibaut de Danisy Seigneur de Boolon" were present at the marriage contract between “led. Conte de Vendosme” and “lad. damoiselle Aelis”, dated Aug 1320[450]Dame de Hédém (2 Mar 1315) GUY [IX] de Laval, son of GUY [VIII] de Laval Seigneur de Laval et de Vitré & his wife Beatrix Dame de Gavre (-killed in battle la Roche-Derrien 18 Jun 1347).  He succeeded in 1333 as Seigneur de Laval et de Vitré

6.         JEANNE de Bretagne (1296-Ypern 24 Mar 1364).  "Yolent Duchesse de Bretaigne Contesse de Montfort, Jehan de Bretaigne fil, damoiselles Jehanne, Beatrix et Aelis filles feu Artur Duc de Bretaigne et de lad. Duchesse, Bouchart Conte de Vandosme, Jehan de Vandosme son frere, Bouchart de Vendosme Seigneur de Bonneval et Thibaut de Danisy Seigneur de Boolon" were present at the marriage contract between “led. Conte de Vendosme” and “lad. damoiselle Aelis”, dated Aug 1320[451].  Pope John XXII granted dispensation for the marriage between “Roberto de Flandria quondam Roberti comitis Flandrie filio” and “Johanne nate quondam Arturi ducis Britanie” for 4o consanguinity, dated 22 Nov 1322[452]Dame de Nogent-le-Rotrou.  "Domina Johanna de Britannia domina de Casleto, dicti domini…relicta" founded an anniversary for "dominus Robertus de Flandria dominus quondam de Casleto" at Warneton abbey by charter dated 1333[453]m (Papal dispensation 22 Nov 1322, St Germain-des-Prés 21 Sep 1323) ROBERT de Flandre Seigneur de Cassel, Comte de Marle, son of ROBERT III "de Béthune" Count of Flanders & his second wife Yolande de Bourgogne [Capet] Ctss de Nevers (-Warneton 26 May 1331). 

7.         ALIX de Bretagne (1298-Montoire-en-Vendômois May 1377, bur Mans église des Jacobins)"Yolent Duchesse de Bretaigne Contesse de Montfort, Jehan de Bretaigne fil, damoiselles Jehanne, Beatrix et Aelis filles feu Artur Duc de Bretaigne et de lad. Duchesse, Bouchart Conte de Vandosme, Jehan de Vandosme son frere, Bouchart de Vendosme Seigneur de Bonneval et Thibaut de Danisy Seigneur de Boolon" were present at the marriage contract between “led. Conte de Vendosme” and “lad. damoiselle Aelis”, dated Aug 1320[454]m (Rondechanier-sous-Montfort Aug 1320) BOUCHARD [IX] Comte de Vendôme, son of JEAN [V] Comte de Vendôme & his wife Eléonore de Montfort-l'Amaury (-26 Feb 1353, bur Vendôme église St Georges). 

8.         BLANCHE de Bretagne (18 Jul 1300-young).  The Chronicon Britannicum records the birth in festo Arnulfi...xviii mensis Jul” 1300 of “Blanchia filia domini Arturi ducis Britanniæ et Yollandis uxoris suæ quondam reginæ Scotiæ[455]

9.         MARIE de Bretagne (1302-[Poissy] 24 May 1371, bur Poissy).  Revenue was granted to “Yolent duchesse de Bretagne comtesse de Montfort...Artur jadis duc de Bretagne...Marie fille des devant ditz duc et duchesse” by charter dated 7 Feb 1323[456]Nun at Poissy 1323. 

 

 

JEAN de Bretagne, son of ARTHUR II Duke of Brittany & his second wife Yolande de Dreux Ctss de Montfort l'Amaury (1293-Château d'Hennebont 26 Sep 1345, bur Quimperlé, église de la Sainte-Croix, later transferred to the couvent des Jacobins).  He succeeded his mother in 1322 as Comte de Montfort-l'Amaury, Seigneur de Guérande.  He claimed Brittany on the death of his half-brother, and was proclaimed JEAN IV Duke of Brittany at Nantes in May 1341.  He secured the support for his claim from Edward III King of England, but the Court of Peers of France found in favour of Charles de Blois, husband of his niece 7 Sep 1341.  The king of France confiscated Montfort.  Earl of Richmond, by grant of Edward III 24 Sep 1341, to hold until he recovered Montfort.  The French besieged him at Nantes, he surrendered in Nov 1341 and was taken to Paris where he was imprisoned at the Louvre until 1 Sep 1343.  He escaped to England at Easter 1345, did homage to Edward III, and sailed with an English army to Brittany.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death in 1345 of “nobilis Johannes comes Montisfortis filius Arturi frater Johannis et pater Johannis ducis” and his burial “in ecclesia Fratrum Prædicatorum apud Kemperellé[457]

m (Chartres Mar 1329) JEANNE de Flandre, daughter of LOUIS of Flanders Comte de Nevers & his wife Jeanne de Rethel ([1295]-Sep 1374).  She was famed for her gallant defence of Hennebont during her husband's captivity.  She accompanied Edward III to England in Feb 1343, and lived in exile at Tickhill Castle, Yorkshire, maybe insane[458]

Duke Jean IV & his wife had two children:

1.         JEAN de Bretagne ([Nov/Dec] 1339 or [30 Sep/8 Dec] 1340-Nantes 1 or 2 Nov 1399, bur Nantes Cathedral).  He was recognised as JEAN V "le Vaillant" Duke of Brittany in 1365. 

-        see below.

2.         JEANNE de Bretagne ([1341]-8 Nov 1402, bur Lavendon Abbey, Buckinghamshire).  The testament of Jehan Duc de Bretainge Comte de Montfort et de Richemont”, dated 21 Oct 1385, bequeathed property to “nostre...sœur de pere et de mere la Dame de Basset[459]The will of "Ralph Basset of Drayton Knight", dated 17 Jan 1389, chose burial “in the cathedral church of Lichfield”, bequeathed property to “Joan my wife[460].  She was granted Richmond, jointly with Anthony de Rise and Nicholas de Alderwych, 23 Apr 1398, but this grant was ignored or resumed by King Henry IV.  King Richard II confirmed “comitatum castrum villam et honorem Richemundie” to “Johanne que fuit uxor Radulphi Basset de Drayton chivaler sorori...fratris nostri Johannis Ducis Britannie et comitis Richemund, Antonio Rick et Nicholao Alderwich” by charter dated 20 Apr 1398[461]m as his second wife, RALPH Basset Lord Basset (of Drayton), son of RALPH Basset Lord Basset (of Drayton) & his wife Joan de Grey ([1334/35]-10 May 1390 son of RALPH Basset Lord Basset (of Drayton) & his wife Joan de Grey ([1334/35]-10 May 1390, bur Lichfield Cathedral).

 

 

JEAN de Bretagne, son of JEAN IV Duke of Brittany & his wife Jeanne de Flandre ([Nov/Dec] 1339 or [30 Sep/8 Dec] 1340-Nantes 1/2 Nov 1399, bur Nantes Cathedral).  He was brought up at the court of Edward III King of England.  He was restored to Montfort in 1361, under the Treaty of Brétigny.  He met his rival, Charles de Blois at the conference of Poitiers 24 Feb 1363.  He defeated and killed Charles de Blois at Auray 29 Sep 1364, and was recognised as JEAN V "le Vaillant" Duke of Brittany, pair de France, by the treaty of Guérande 12 Apr 1365.  He was restored as Earl of Richmond 20 Jul 1372 after entering an alliance with Edward III.  The French drove him out of Brittany, the Duc de Bourbon having discovered a copy of the treaty with England in the baggage of the duchess when he captured her on the road from Rennes to Vannes.  Brittany was formally confiscated in Dec 1378, but in 1379 the Bretons recalled Duke Jean.  The testament of Jehan Duc de Bretainge Comte de Montfort et de Richemont”, dated 21 Oct 1385, chooses burial “au Monstier de N. D. de Prieres [ou] en nostre Chapelle de S. Michel d´Auray ou en l´Eglise Cathedrale de Nantes”, and bequeathed property to “nostre...sœur de pere et de mere la Dame de Basset[462]He was deprived of Richmond in 1393, restored in May 1398.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death 2 Nov 1399 in castro de turre nova Nannetensi” of “Johannes Britanniæ dux” and his burial “in choro ecclesiæ B. Petri Nannetensis[463]

m firstly (Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire Summer 1361) MARY of England, daughter of EDWARD III King of England & his wife Philippa de Hainaut (Waltham, near Winchester, Hampshire 10 Oct 1344-1362 after 25 Dec, bur Abingdon Abbey, Oxfordshire).  The Chronicon Britannicum records thatJohannes dux Britanniæ comes Montisfortis et Richemundiæ” married firstly “Mariam filiam regis Angliæ[464]

m secondly (London May 1366) JOAN Holand of Kent, daughter of Sir THOMAS Holand Earl of Kent & his wife Joan Ctss of Kent (1350-Nantes Nov 1384, bur Nantes, Abbaye de Notre dame de Prières).  The Chronicon Britannicum records thatJohannes dux Britanniæ comes Montisfortis et Richemundiæ” married secondly “Johannam filiam principisse Galliæ et Aquitaniæ[465]The testament of Jehanne Duchesse de Bretagne Comtesse de Montfort et de Richemont”, dated 25 Sep 1384, chooses burial “ou moustier de Nostre-Dame de Prieres en l´Evesché de Vannes et de l´ordre de Citeaux”, appoints “le Comte de Kent nostre frere” as her heir to all property in England, requests that “mon...Seigneur le Duc de Bretagne” continues to enjoy the “Comté de Richemont[466]

m thirdly (Saillé-près-Guérande 11 Sep 1386) as her first husband, Infanta doña JUANA de Navarra, daughter of CARLOS II King of Navarre & his wife Jeanne de France (Pamplona 1370-Dower House, Royal Manor of Havering-atte-Bower, Essex 9 Jul 1437, bur Canterbury Cathedral).  The Chronicon Britannicum records the marriage 11 Sep 1386in villa de Saille in parrochia Guerrandiæ” of “Johannes dux Britanniæ comes Montisfortis et Richemundiæ” and “Johannam filiam regis Navarræ[467].  “Jehan Duc de Bretagne” assigned dower to “nostre...espouse Jehanne fille du Roy de Navarre” by charter dated 26 Feb 1395, witnessed by “...Jehan de Bretagne Comte de Penthevre, Guy Seigneur de Laval et de Vitré, Olivier Seigneur de Cliczon, Alain Vicomte de Rohan, Charles Seigneur de Chasteau-Brient, Jehan Seigneur de Rochefort, Raoul Seigneur de Montfort, Geffroy Seigneur de Quintin, Jehan Seigneur de Malestroict, Robert Seigneur de Beaumanoir, Guillaume Seigneur de Montauban et Jehan Seigneur de la Hunaudaye[468]Regent of Brittany 1399-1402.  She married secondly as his second wife, Henry IV King of EnglandThe Chronicle of Adam de Usk records that “Rex” married “ducis Brytanie relictam regisque Navarie sororem”, dated to 1403 from the context[469]

Duke Jean V & his third wife had nine children: 

1.         JEANNE de Bretagne (Nantes 12 Aug 1387-7 Dec 1388, bur Rhuys église de St Gildas).  The Chronicon Britannicum records thatJohanna ducissa Britanniæ” gave birth at Nantes 12 Aug 1387 to “Johannam filiam suam” and her baptism “in castro de turre nova[470]The Chronicon Britannicum records the deathVII Id Sep, alii die VII Dec” of “Johanna filia Johannis ducis Britanniæ” and her burial “in ecclesia D. Gildasii Ruyensis[471]

2.         ISABELLE de Bretagne ([Oct] 1388-[end 1388]).  Kerrebrouck records the birth of Isabelle in 1388 and her baptism “par Guillaume de Saint-André, scholastique de Dol, dans la chapelle du château de Sucinio(Sarzeau, Morbihan), décédée peu après” but does not cite the primary source on which he bases this information[472]

3.         PIERRE de Bretagne (Château de l'Hermine, near Vannes, Morbihan 24 Dec 1389-manoir de La Touche, near Nantes 29 Aug 1442, bur Tréguier, Cathédrale Saint-Tugdual)The Chronicon Britannicum records thatJohanna filia regis Navarræ ducissa Britanniæ” gave birth “in vigilia nativitatis Domini...in castro de Hermina Venetis” of “masculinum...Petrus” whose father granted him “comitatum Montisfortis” at his baptism[473]He was renamed JEAN 2 Dec 1396 on the wish of his father[474].  He succeeded his father in 1399 as JEAN VI Duke of Brittany

-        see below

4.         MARIE de Bretagne ([Nantes] 18 Feb 1391-18 Dec 1446)The Chronicon Britannicum records the birth 18 Feb 1390 (O.S.)in...castro de l´Ermine” of “domina Johanna de Britannia filia...ducis et ducissæ” who was baptised “Maria[475]A marriage was proposed between le Duc de Bretaigne...Marie fille aisnée dudit Duc de Bretagne” and “Henry filz aisné et hoir de Monsieur le Comte de Derby filz et hoir [du] [Duc de Guienne et] Duc de Lancastre” (undated, classified in the compilation with other charters dated 1394/95)[476].  No evidence has been found to indicate whether this proposal was confirmed as a betrothal.  “Pierres Conte d´Alençon Seigneur de Fougieres et Viconte de Beaumont ayant la garde...de nostre...fils Jehan Conte de Perche” issued proxy for his marriage to “le Duc de Bretaigne...la fille” by charter dated 3 Apr 1396[477].  The marriage contract between “Pierres Comte d´Alançon Seigneur de Foulgeres et Vicomte de Beaumont et...Marie Comtesse Dame et Vicomtesse desdits lieux...nostre...fils Jehan Comte du Perche” and “Marie fille de...nos...cousin et cousin les Duc et Duchesse de Bretagne” is dated 26 Jun 1396[478]Dame de La Guerche.  m (contract Château de l’Hermine, Vannes 26 Jun 1396) JEAN d'Alençon, son of PIERRE II “le Bon/le Noble” Comte d’Alençon & his wife Marie Chamaillart, Vicomtesse de Beaumont-au-Maine (Château d'Essay 3 May 1385-killed in battle Agincourt 25 Oct 1415, bur Sées, Abbaye de Saint-Martin).  He succeeded his father in 1404 as JEAN I "le Sage" Comte d'Alençon.  Created Duc d’Alençon 1 Jan 1415. 

5.         MARGUERITE de Bretagne (1392-13 Apr 1428)The Chronicon Britannicum records the marriage 26 Jun 1407 in capella castri Nannetensis” of “Blanchia filia...Joannis quondam ducis Britanniæ et dominæ Johannæ filiæ regis Navarræ” and on the same day the marriage of “eius Blanchiæ soror Margareta” and “Alano filio vicecomitis et filiæ deffuncti...Oliverii de Clicon” after receiving papal dispensation for consanguinity[479]Dame de Guillac.  m (26 Jun 1407) as his first wife, ALAIN [IX] de Rohan, son of ALAIN [VIII] Vicomte de Rohan & his wife Beatrix de Clisson (-20 Mar 1462, bur Abbey de Bonrepos).  He succeeded in 1429 as Vicomte de Rohan et de Léon Comte de Porhoët Baron du Pont-Château. 

6.         ARTHUR de Bretagne (Château de Sucinio, near Vannes 24 Aug 1393-Nantes 26 Dec 1458, bur Nantes Cathedral).  Earl of Richmond 1393.  Comte de Dreux, de Montfort-l'Amaury et Seigneur de Neaufle-le-Châtel 1393.  Seigneur de Parthenay 1415.  Comte de Goelo, Seigneur d'isle de Bréhat 1422.  Regent of France 1423.  Duc de Touraine, Comte de Montfort et d'Ivry.  Seigneur de Viré 1450.  Governor of Ile de France and Normandy 1450.  He succeeded his nephew in 1457 as ARTHUR III "le Justicier" Duke of Brittany, pair de France.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death 27 Dec 1458 of “Arturus dux Britanniæ” and his burial “in conventu Cartusiensi juxta Nannetum[480]The necrology of Vauvert records the death "VII Kal Jan" of "dominus Arturus dux Britannie connestabularius Francie"[481]m firstly (Dijon 10 Oct 1423) as her second husband, MARGUERITE de Bourgogne, widow of LOUIS de France Dauphin de Viennois, daughter of JEAN "Sans-Peur" Duke of Burgundy & his wife Margareta of Holland (1390-Paris 2 Feb 1442, bur Paris église des Carmélites).  The Geste des Nobles records the marriage of “la seur ainsnée du duc de Bourgoigne qui veufve fut de feu duc de Loys de Guienne” and “[le] comte de Richemont, frère du duc de Bretaigne”, dated to 1423 from the context[482]Created Dss de Guyenne at Paris 9 Mar 1424.  Ctss de Gien, de Montargis, de Dun-le-Roy et de Fontenay-le-Comte 1424.  Jean Chartier’s Chronique de Charles VII records the death “le jour de la feste de la Purification de Nostre-Dame...à Paris en l’ostel de Porc-Espi”, 1442 (N.S.) from the context, of “madame de Guienne jadis femme première de feu de bonne mémoire...le duc Loys de Guienne, aisné filz du roy Charles VI, et depuis femme de Monseigneur le conte de Richemont” after a long illness and her burial “[en l’]église jucques à Nostre-Dame des Carmes[483]m secondly (Nerac 29 Aug 1442) JEANNE d'Albret, daughter of CHARLES [II] d'Albret Comte de Dreux & his wife Anne d'Armagnac (-Parthenay [20] Sep 1444).  Ctss de Dreux.  m thirdly (2 Jul 1445) CATHERINE de Luxembourg, daughter of PIERRE de Luxembourg Comte de Saint Pol & his wife Margherita del Balzo (-1492, bur Chartreuse de Nantes).  Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Duke Arthur's mistress is not known.  Duke Arthur III had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):   

a)         JACQUETTE bâtarde de Richemont .  Legitimated 1443.  m (15 Jan 1438) ARTHUR Brécart, son of --- (-after 24 Apr 1460). 

7.         GILLES de Bretagne ([Autumn] 1394-Cosne-sur-Loire 19 Jul 1412, bur Nantes Cathedral).  Seigneur de Chantocé et d'Ingrande.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death in 1412 “à Cosne” of “M. Gilles frere du Duc de Bretagne” and his burial “au cœur de S. Pierre de Nantes prez de son pere[484]

8.         RICHARD de Bretagne (end 1395-Château de Clisson, Loire-Atlantique 2 Jun 1438, bur Nantes Cathedral Saint-Pierre).  Comte d'Etampes at Sablé 8 May 1421, confirmed at Poitiers Oct 1425 with the county of Mantes. 

-        see below

9.         BLANCHE de Bretagne (1397-before 1419)The marriage contract between "Bernard comte d´Armagnac et Jean d´Armagnac vicomte en Lomagne son fils ainé" and "Monseigneur Jean duc de Bretagne pour Madame Blanche sa sœur puinée" is dated 30 Jul 1406[485]The Chronicon Britannicum records the marriage 26 Jun 1407 in capella castri Nannetensis” of “Blanchia filia...Joannis quondam ducis Britanniæ et dominæ Johannæ filiæ regis Navarræ” and “domino Johanni filio comitis de Armeniaco et dominæ Johannæ filiæ ducis Bituricensis eius conjugis[486]m (contract 30 Jul 1406, Nantes 26 Jun 1407) as his first wife, JEAN [IV] d'Armagnac, son of BERNARD [VII] Comte d´Armagnac & his wife Bonne de Berry (Convent des Cordeliers Rodez 15 Oct 1396-L´Isle-Jourdain [14 Oct 1450/12 May 1451]).  He succeeded in 1418 as Comte d'Armagnac.  Comte de Bigorre et Vicomte de Lomagne 1425. 

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the persons shown below have not been identified, unless otherwise indicated.  The information is copied from secondary sources which generally appear reliable but has therefore not been verified. 

 

PIERRE de Bretagne, son of JEAN V "le Vaillant" Duke of Brittany & his third wife Infanta doña Juana de Navarra (Château de l'Hermine, near Vannes, Morbihan 24 Dec 1389-manoir de La Touche, near Nantes 29 Aug 1442, bur Tréguier, Cathédrale Saint-Tugdual)The Chronicon Britannicum records thatJohanna filia regis Navarræ ducissa Britanniæ” gave birth “in vigilia nativitatis Domini...in castro de Hermina Venetis” of “masculinum...Petrus” whose father granted him “comitatum Montisfortis” at his baptism[487]He was renamed JEAN 2 Dec 1396 on the wish of his father[488].  Earl of Richmond 1396.  He succeeded his father in 1399 as JEAN VI Duke of Brittany, pair de France, Comte de Montfort-l'Amaury, under the regency of Philippe de France Duke of Burgundy until 1404.  He entered Rennes 22 Mar 1401, and was crowned the next day in the Cathedral.  "Duc d'Orléans" 1406.  Seigneur de Courtenay 1417-1420.  He was arrested by --- Comte de Penthièvre at Loroux in 1420, taken to Châteauceaux, but released after his wife successfully besieged the castle.  Comte de Penthièvre 1420.  Baron de Fougères 1427.  Baron de Retz 1435.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death 28 Aug 1442 at Nantes of Johannes dux Britannorum[489]

m (contract Tours 26 Jan 1392, Hôtel de Saint-Pol, Paris 19 Sep 1396, Palais du Louvre 30 Jul 1397) JEANNE de France, daughter of CHARLES VI King of France & his wife Isabelle von Bayern-Ingolstadt (Château de Melun, Seine-et-Marne 24 Jan 1391-Vannes, Morbihan 27 Sep 1433, bur Vannes, Cathédrale de Saint-Pierre).  The marriage contract between Jehan Duc de Bretagne Comte de Richemont...nostre...filz Jehan Comte de Montfort” and “Monsieur le Roy...Madame Jehanne de France [sa] fille”, on the understanding that he would succeed “à nostre...compagne la Duchesse mere de nostredit filz...come son filz aisné”, is dated 26 Jan 1391 (presumably O.S.)[490]Her marriage was celebrated twice, due to an "irregularity" in the first ceremony, Kerrebrouck stating that in his first dispensation the Pope had omitted to mention that the parties were both minors.  The second ceremony followed the receipt of a second Papal dispensation[491].  She besieged Châteauceaux in 1420 and released her husband who had been imprisoned by --- Comte de Penthièvre.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death 20 Sep 1433 of Johanna senior filia regis Franciæ ducissa Britanniæ” and her burial “in ecclesia cathedrali S. Petri Venetensis[492]

Betrothed (contract 19 Jul 1441, ratified 29 Sep 1441, no religious ceremony) to ISABEL of Scotland, daughter of JAMES I King of Scotland & his wife Joan Beaufort (Autumn 1426-[13 Oct 1494/5 Mar 1499]).  She later married Duke Jean VI's son after the former's death before the religious ceremony for this marriage. 

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Duke Jean's mistress is not known. 

Duke Jean VI & his wife had seven children:

1.         ANNE de Bretagne ([1409]-before 2 Apr 1415). 

2.         ISABELLE de Bretagne ([1411]-Auray 13 Jan 1442, bur Nantes église des Jacobins)m (Redon 1 Oct 1430) as his first wife, GUY [XIV] de Laval Comte de Laval, Seigneur de Laval, de Vitré et de Gavre, son of JEAN de Montfort [GUY [XIII] de Laval] Seigneur de Kergorlay & his wife Anne de Laval Dame de Laval et de Vitré (-Châteaubriand 2 Sep 1486, bur Laval Saint-Vénéran, église de Saint-Tugdal).  

3.         MARGUERITE de Bretagne (Apr 1412-Jun 1421, bur Vitré église de La Madeleine).  

4.         FRANÇOIS de Bretagne (Vannes 11 May 1414-Château de l'Hermine, Vannes 17 Jul 1450, bur Redon Abbaye de St Sauveur, Ille-et-Vilaine)The Chronicon Britannicum records that Johannes dux Britannorum” left “liberis tribus...Francisco, Egidio et Petro” born to “Johanna primogenita Caroli VI regis Franciæ[493]Comte de Montfort, Baron de Fougères.  He succeeded his father in 1442 as FRANÇOIS I Duke of Brittany, pair de France, Earl of Richmond, Comte de Montfort-l'Amaury, Seigneur de Neaufle-le-Châtel, crowned at Rennes 9 Dec 1442.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death XVI Kal Aug” 1450 of “Franciscus dux Britanniæ” and his burial “in ecclesia S. Salvatoris de Rothono[494]m firstly (contract Redon, Ille-et-Vilaine 14 Mar 1431, contract Fougères 21 Mar 1431, Amboise 20 Aug 1431) YOLANDE d'Anjou, daughter of LOUIS II Duc d'Anjou Titular King of Sicily and Jerusalem & his wife Infanta doña Violante de Aragón (Arles 13 Aug 1412-Manoir de Plaisance, near Vannes, Morbihan 17 Jul 1440, bur Vannes église des Cordeliers).  m secondly (Château d'Auray 30 Oct 1442) ISABEL of Scotland, daughter of JAMES I King of Scotland & his wife Joan Beaufort (Autumn 1426-[13 Oct 1494/5 Mar 1499]).  Isabel had been contracted to marry Duke François's father, who had died before the religious ceremony.  Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Duke François's mistress is not known.  Duke François I & his first wife had one child: 

a)         ROYAN [Renaud] de Bretagne (-before 1440).  Comte de Montfort l'Amaury. 

Duke François I & his second wife had two children: 

b)         MARGUERITE de Bretagne ([1443]-[Nantes] 25 Sep 1469, bur Nantes église des Carmélites)The Chronicon Britannicum names Marie fille de l´autre Duc François” as wife of “François Duc de Bretagne[495]m (Vannes 13 or 16 Nov 1455) as his first wife, FRANÇOIS de Bretagne, son of RICHARD de Bretagne Comte d'Etampes & his wife Marguerite d'Orléans Ctss de Vertus (23 Jun 1433-Coiron 9 Sep 1488, bur Nantes église des Carmélites).  He succeeded in 1458 as FRANÇOIS II Duke of Brittany.  

c)         MARIE de Bretagne ([1444]-[2 Nov 1506/17 Nov 1511])m (8 Mar 1461) JEAN [II] Vicomte de Rohan et de Léon Comte de Porhoët et de La Garnache, son of ALAIN [IX] Vicomte de Rohan et de Léon Comte de Porhoët & his second wife Marie de Vaudémont (Château de La Chèze 6 Nov 1452-1516).  Lieutenant-General in the French army. 

Duke François I had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):   

d)         JEANNE bâtarde de Bretagne (-after end 1474).  m (1458) JEAN Morhier Seigneur de Villers le Morhier, son of SIMON Morhier Seigneur de Houdan et de Villiers-le-Morhier & his wife Blanche de Popincourt (-after 20 Jun 1473). 

5.         CATHERINE de Bretagne (1416-after 1 Apr 1421). 

6.         PIERRE de Bretagne (7 Jul 1418-Nantes 22 Sep 1459, bur Nantes Notre-Dame)The Chronicon Britannicum records that Johannes dux Britannorum” left “liberis tribus...Francisco, Egidio et Petro” born to “Johanna primogenita Caroli VI regis Franciæ[496]Comte de Guingamp 1421.  He was adopted in 1428 by his uncle Arthur de Bretagne.  He succeeded his brother in 1450 as PIERRE II "le Simple" Duke of Brittany, pair de France.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death 22 Sep 1457 of “Petrus dux Britanniæ[497]m (1442) FRANÇOISE d'Amboise Dame de Bénon, daughter of LOUIS d'Amboise Vicomte de Thouars Prince de Talmond & his wife Marie de Rieux (Château de Thouars 9 May 1427-Coets near Nantes 4 Nov 1485, bur Nantes).  Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Duke Pierre's mistress is not known.  Duke Pierre II had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):   

a)         JEANNE bâtarde de Bretagne de Guingamp (-after 1513). 

7.         GILLES de Bretagne (1420-murdered Château de la Hardouinais 24 Apr 1450, bur Bosquien Abbaye Notre Dame)The Chronicon Britannicum records that Johannes dux Britannorum” left “liberis tribus...Francisco, Egidio et Petro” born to “Johanna primogenita Caroli VI regis Franciæ[498]Seigneur de Princé et de la Motte-Achard 1436-1438.  Châtelain de Lamballe 1438.  Seigneur de Chantocé et d'Ingrande 1439-1443.  He was strangled.  m (1444) as her first husband, FRANÇOISE de Dinan-Montafilant Dame de Châteaubriand, de Vioreau, de Hugutières-en-Retz, de Beaumanoir, du Bodister-en-Pleurin, du Guildo, de Montafilant et de la Hardouinais, daughter of JACQUES de Dinant Seigneur du Bodister-en-Pleurin & his wife Catherine de Rohan (20 Dec 1436-3 Jan 1499, bur Nantes église Dominicain).  She married secondly (1450) as his second wife, Guy [XIV] de Laval Comte de Laval.  She married thirdly (soon after 1486) Jean de ProisyMistress (1): ---.  The name of Gilles's mistress is not known.  Gilles had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

a)         EDOUARD (-after 1477). 

b)         GUILLAUME (-after 1466).  

Duke Jean VI had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):   

8.          TANGUY bâtard de Bretagne (-[1466/71]).  Seigneur de Hédé.  m JEANNE Turpin, daughter of ANTOINE Turpin Seigneur de Crissé et de Villers & his wife Anne de La Grézille (-after 1471).   

 

 

RICHARD de Bretagne, son of JEAN V "le Vaillant" Duke of Brittany & his third wife Infanta doña Juana de Navarra (end 1395-Château de Clisson, Loire-Atlantique 2 Jun 1438, bur Nantes Cathedral Saint-Pierre).  Captain-General of Guyenne and Poitou 1419.  Comte d'Etampes at Sablé 8 May 1421, confirmed at Poitiers Oct 1425 with the county of Mantes.  Seigneur de Palluau et de Châteaumur de Thouarcé, de Bourgomeaux-l'Evêque et de Ligron 8 May 1421.  Comte de Vertus-en-Champagne et de Bénon 1423.  Baron de Clisson, Seigneur de Courtenay, de Piffonds, de Houdan et de l'Epine-Gaudin 1423.  Châtelain de Renac et de Bois-Raoul near Redon 1424.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death 11 Jun 1438 au Chasteau de Cliczon” of “M. Richart Seig. d´Estampes et de Cliczon” and his burial “en l´église de saint Pere de Nantes...avec son pere[499]

m (Château de Blois, Loir-et-Cher 29 Aug 1423) MARGUERITE d'Orléans Ctss de Vertus, daughter of LOUIS de France Duc d'Orléans & his second wife Valentina Visconti (1406-Abbaye de Laguiche, near Blois 24 Apr 1466, bur Abbaye de Laguiche).  The Geste des Nobles records that “le régent” gave “mademoiselle Marguerite seule sœur le duc d’Orléans” in marriage to “Richart de Bretaigne” with “le conté d’Estampes”, against the wishes of her brother, dated to 1420 from the context[500]Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by letters dated 14 Aug 1461 which record a claim by “Mariam de Sillé defuncti Iacobi de Surgeriis...militis domini de Floceleria relicta” which names “...Margaretam de Aurelianis defuncti...Richardi de Britannia...comitis Stamparum relictam[501]She was given the county of Vertus as her dowry.  After her husband died, she retired to the Abbaye de Laguiche. 

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Richard's mistress is not known. 

Comte Richard & his wife had seven children: 

1.         MARIE de Bretagne (1424-19 Oct 1477, bur La Madeleine).  Nun at Longchamps.  Abbess of Fontevraud 1457/58.  Nun at La Madeleine near Orléans.  

2.         ISABELLE de Bretagne (1426-1438). 

3.         CATHERINE de Bretagne (1428-before 22 Apr 1476)Dame de l'Epine-Gaudin, de la Ferté-Milon, de Nogent d'Artaud, de Gandelu, de Luzarche et de Courtenay.  m (19 Aug 1438) GUILLAUME VIII Prince d'Orange, son of LOUIS II "le Bon" Prince d'Orange [Chalon-Bourgogne-Comté] & his first wife Jeanne de Montbéliard dame de Montfaucon (-Château d'Orange 27 Sep 1475, bur Orange église des Cordeliers). 

4.         FRANÇOIS de Bretagne (23 Jun 1433-Coiron 9 Sep 1488, bur Nantes église des Carmélites)Comte d'Etampes et de Dreux 1442-1477.  He succeeded his uncle in 1458 as FRANÇOIS II Duke of Brittany.   

-        see below

5.         son (-[1436], bur Bodon église des Carmélites).  

6.         MARGUERITE de Bretagne ([1437]-before 1466).  

7.         MADELEINE de Bretagne (-Longchamps 29 Mar 1461, bur Longchamps).  A list of nuns at Longchamp in the abbey's necrology includes "mademoiselle seur Magdalene de Bretaigne, fille…prince monseigneur Richard de Bretaigne conte d'Estampes et de Vertus et seigneur de Clisson et de…madame Marguerite d'Orleans…seur de…prince Francoys duc de Bretagne" and records that she died 29 Mar 1461[502]Nun at Longchamps before 29 Sep 1459. 

Comte Richard had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):   

8.          JEANNE bâtarde d'Etampes (-after [1459/62]). 

 

 

FRANÇOIS de Bretagne, son of RICHARD de Bretagne Comte d'Etampes & his wife Marguerite d'Orléans Ctss de Vertus (23 Jun 1433-Coiron 9 Sep 1488, bur Nantes église des Carmélites).  Comte d'Etampes et de Dreux 1442-1477.  He succeeded his uncle in 1458 as FRANÇOIS II Duke of Brittany, Duc de Montbazon.  Earl of Richmond 1458.  Comte de Montfort-l'Amaury 1458.  He founded the University of Nantes in 1459.  Seigneur de Courtenay 1466.  General-Lieutenant in the French army 1475.  He died from a fall from his horse. 

m firstly (Vannes 13 or 16 Nov 1455) MARGUERITE de Bretagne, daughter of FRANÇOIS I Duke of Brittany & his second wife Isabella of Scotland ([1443]-[Nantes] 25 Sep 1469, bur Nantes église des Carmélites).  The Chronicon Britannicum names Marie fille de l´autre Duc François” as wife of “François Duc de Bretagne[503]

m secondly (Clisson 27 Jun 1471) MARGUERITE de Foix, daughter of GASTON IV Comte de Foix Prince of Navarre & his wife Infanta doña Leonor de Navarra (after 1458-Nantes 15 May 1486, bur Nantes église des Carmélites). 

Mistress (1): ANTOINETTE de Maignelais, daughter of JEAN Seigneur de Maignelais & his wife Marie de Jouy.

Duke François II & his first wife had one child:

1.         FRANÇOIS de Bretagne (29 Jun 1463-25 Aug 1463, bur Nantes Cathedral).  The Chronicon Britannicum records the birth 29 Jun 1463 of François Comte de Montfort filz de François Duc de Bretagne et de Marie fille de l´autre Duc François”, and his death 7 Aug 1463 and burial “au cueur de l´église de Nantes”, a second report recording his death 25 Aug[504]Comte de Montfort-l'Amaury. 

Duke François II & his second wife had two children: 

2.         ANNE de Bretagne (Château de Nantes 25 Jan 1477-Château de Blois 9 Jan 1514, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  The Journal de Louise de Savoie records the birth at Nantes 26 Jan 1476 (O.S.) of “Anne reine de France et duchesse de Bretagne[505].  She was created Duchess by her father before his death.  She succeeded her father in 1488 as ANNE Dss of Brittany, crowned 10 Feb 1489 at Rennes, Cathédrale Saint-Pierre.  Anne styled herself "Reine des Romains" after her first marriage.  Brittany was incorporated into the royal domains under the contract for her second marriage, and Anne was deprived of her title of duchess.  Another condition of the contract was that, should her husband die without heirs, she could only marry the heir to the French throne as her next husband.  She was crowned queen of France at Saint-Denis 8 Feb 1492.  Anne regained her independence and her title of duchess of Brittany after the death of her first husband.  She was crowned queen of France, for the second time, 18 Nov 1504 at l'Abbaye de Saint-Denis.  Under the terms of her third marriage, she retained the government of the duchy.  Her third husband gave her Etampes in Mar 1513.  The Journal de Louise de Savoie records the death at Blois 9 Jan 1514 of “madame Claude reine de France et femme de mon fils[506]m firstly (by proxy Cathédrale de Rennes 19 Dec 1490, annulled by the Pope) as his second wife, MAXIMILIAN King of the Romans Archduke of Austria, son of Emperor FRIEDRICH III King of the Romans, Duke of Austria & his wife Infanta dona Leonor de Portugal (Burg zu Neustadt 22 Mar 1459-Wels 12 Jan 1519m secondly (Château de Langeais, Indre-et-Loire 6 Dec 1491, contract Langeais 13 Dec 1491) CHARLES VIII "l'Affable" King of France, son of LOUIS XI King of France & his second wife Charlotte de Savoie (Château d'Amboise, Indre-et-Loire 30 Jun 1470-Château d'Amboise 7 Apr 1498, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  He incorporated Brittany into the royal domains, entering Nantes 4 Apr 1491.  m thirdly (contract Etampes 18 Aug 1498[507], Papal dispensation 13 Sep 1498, Château de Nantes 7 Jan 1499) as his second wife, LOUIS XII King of France, son of CHARLES Duc d'Orléans & his third wife Maria von Kleve (Château de Blois 27 Jun 1462-Hôtel royal des Tournelles, Paris 1 Jan 1515, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  

3.         ISABELLE de Bretagne (1481 before 10 May-Rennes 24 Aug 1490, bur Rennes Cathedral). 

Duke François II had five illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

4.          FRANÇOIS d'Avaugour dit de Bretagne (1462-after 1494)Baron d’Avaugour.  Comte de Vertus et de Goëllo.  m ([1492]) as her second husband, MADELEINE de Brosse, widow of JANUS de Savoie Comte de Genève, daughter of JEAN de Brosse dit de Bretagne Comte de Penthievre et de Périgord & his wife Louise de Laval (-before 22 May 1512). 

-        d'AVAUGOUR dit de BRETAGNE.  

5.          ANTOINE Baron d'Avaugour (1463-young).  

6.          son (1466-young).  

7.          daughter (1465-young).  

8.          FRANÇOISE d'Avaugour (1473-[1498]). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    OTHER BRETON NOBILITY

 

 

1.         IESTIN .  "Alanus dux Britonum" donated property to Landevenec by undated charter, dated to [940/50], witnessed by "Alan dux, Iudhæel comes…Houuel comes…Iestin vicecomes, Diles vicecomes…"[508].  "Numinoæ comitis…Jestin vicecomitis…" signed a donation to Landevenec by "vir…stemate regalium ortus…Moysen" by undated charter dated to the mid-10th century[509]

 

2.         DILES .  "Alanus dux Britonum" donated property to Landevenec by undated charter, dated to [940/50], witnessed by "Alan dux, Iudhæel comes…Houuel comes…Iestin vicecomes, Diles vicecomes…"[510].  "Vir nobilis…stemate regalium ortus…Diles" donated property to Landevenec by undated charter dated to the mid-10th century[511]

 

 

3.         FREDERIC (-after 14 Jul 1086).  "Fredoricus vicecomes…Eudonis vicecomitis filii Goscellini…" witnessed the charter dated 14 Jul 1086 under which "Alanus Fergandus comes Britannie" confirmed the foundation of the priory of Saint-Florent sous Dol "in pago Redonensi"[512]

 

 

1.         MORVAN (-20 Sep 1218).  Vicomte deFago” [Faou].  The necrology of Landévennec records the death “XII Kal Oct” of “Morvannus vicecomes de Fago 1218[513]m ---.  The name of Morvan´s wife is not known.  Morvan & his wife had one child: 

a)         RIVALLON (-19 Feb ----).  Vicomte [de ---].  The necrology of Landévennec records the death “XI Kal Mar” of “Rivallonius filius Morvani vicecomes[514]

 

2.         ROALD de Donges (-after [1205]).  Vicomte de ---.  "Eudo Britannie comes" donated property to Saint-Martin de Josselin, with the consent of "fratrum meorum…Joscii vicecomitis et Alani Ceoche", witnessed by "Roaldo Dongie vicecomitis, Henrico de Arundelle, ---dio de Leon, Gaufredo de Monteforti", with the consent of "Alano de Rohan cognato meo", by charter dated 1164, witnessed by "…Stephanus frater meus…Guihomarus alterius filius de Leon…"[515].  The Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...Roaldus vicecomes...” among “milites Britanniæ[516]

 

3.         PIERRE de Lohiac (-after [1205]).  The Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...Petrus de Loheiac...” among “milites Britanniæ[517]

 

4.         GEOFFROY Giron (-after [1205]).  The Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...Gaufridus Gyron, Alanus de Castro Gironis...” among “milites Britanniæ[518]

 

5.         ALAIN de Château-Giron (-after [1205]).  The Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...Gaufridus Gyron, Alanus de Castro Gironis...” among “milites Britanniæ[519]

 

6.         BERARD de Baim (-after [1205]).  The Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...Berrardus de Baim...” among “milites Britanniæ[520]

 

7.         GUILLAUME d’Aubigny (-after [1205]).  The Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...Guillelmus de Albigneio...Alemannus de Albigneio” among “milites Britanniæ[521]

 

8.         ALEMAN d’Aubigny (-after [1205]).  The Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...Guillelmus de Albigneio...Alemannus de Albigneio” among “milites Britanniæ[522]

 

9.         GEOFFROY Espine (-after [1205]).  The Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...Gaufridus Spina...” among “milites Britanniæ[523]

 

10.      OLIVIER de Tintignac (-after [1205]).  The Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...Oliverus de Tinteniac...” among “milites Britanniæ[524]

 

11.      HERVE de Beau-Mortier (-after [1205]).  The Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...Herveus de Bello Mortario...” among “milites Britanniæ[525]

 

12.      W--- de Roche de Vens (-after [1205]).  The Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...W. de Roca de Venz...” among “milites Britanniæ[526]

 

13.      W--- de Plessy (-after [1205]).  The Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...W. de Plesseicio...” among “milites Britanniæ[527]

 

14.      OLIVIER de Roche (-after [1205]).  The Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...Oliverus de Roca...” among “milites Britanniæ[528]

 

15.      EUDES de PonsThe Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...Guillelmus Eudo de Ponte” among “milites Britanniæ[529]

 

16.      GEOFFROY de Hiberic (-after [1205]).  The Scripta de Feodis of King Philippe II, dated to the early 13th century, record “...Gaufridus de Hiberic” among “milites Britanniæ[530]

 

 

 



[1] Einhardi Annales 825, MGH SS I, p. 213. 

[2] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 825, MGH SS I, p. 359. 

[3] Reginonis Chronicon 837, MGH SS I, p. 567. 

[4] RHGF, Tome VI, CXCIV, p. 597. 

[5] McKitterick (1983), pp. 242-3. 

[6] Adémar de Chabannes, III, 18, p. 135. 

[7] Fragmentum Chron. Fontanellensis, 850 and 851, MGH SS II, p. 303. 

[8] Annales Bertiniani II 851. 

[9] Redon, Monasterii S. Salvatoris Rotonensis Annales, VII Sepulturæ Insigniores, p. 450. 

[10] Reginonis Chronicon 862, MGH SS I, p. 571. 

[11] Fragmentum Chron. Fontanellensis, 851, MGH SS II, p. 303. 

[12] Chronica domni Rainaldi archidiaconi sancti Mauricii Andegavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 5.  

[13] Redon, Appendix XXXI, p. 365. 

[14] Annales Bertiniani II 851, 856 and 857, discussed in McKitterick (1983), p. 243. 

[15] Annales Bertiniani II 857. 

[16] Chronica domni Rainaldi archidiaconi sancti Mauricii Andegavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 6.  

[17] Chronique de Nantes, XIV, p. 45. 

[18] Annales Bertiniani II 856. 

[19] Settipani (1993), pp. 313-4. 

[20] Annales Mettenses 874, RHGF, Tome VII, p. 202. 

[21] Reginonis Chronicon 874, MGH SS I, p. 586. 

[22] McKitterick (1983), p. 245. 

[23] Redon, Appendix XXXI, p. 365. 

[24] Chronique de Nantes XIV, p. 45. 

[25] Redon, Monasterii S. Salvatoris Rotonensis Annales, VI Benefactores Præcipui, p. 443. 

[26] Redon, Monasterii S. Salvatoris Rotonensis Annales, VI Benefactores Præcipui, p. 443. 

[27] Redon, Appendix XXXI, p. 365. 

[28] Redon, Appendix XXXI, p. 365. 

[29] Redon, Appendix XXXI, p. 365. 

[30] Chronique de Nantes XV, p. 50. 

[31] Historia Britanniæ Armoricæ, RHGF, Tome VII, p. 51. 

[32] Annales Bertiniani II 852. 

[33] Reginonis Chronicon 866, MGH SS I, p. 577. 

[34] Redon LXXVIII, p. 60. 

[35] Redon XC, p. 68. 

[36] McKitterick (1983), pp. 243-4. 

[37] Annales Bertiniani III 874. 

[38] Reginonis Chronicon 874, MGH SS I, p. 586. 

[39] Chronica domni Rainaldi archidiaconi sancti Mauricii Andegavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 7.  

[40] Chronique de Nantes XXI, p. 68. 

[41] Epistola XXIII, RHGF, Tome VII, p. 408. 

[42] Annales Bertiniani III 867. 

[43] Redon CCLX, p. 209. 

[44] Redon, Monasterii S. Salvatoris Rotonensis Annales, VI Benefactores Præcipui, p. 443. 

[45] Redon CCXLI, p. 189. 

[46] Redon CCXLVII, p. 198. 

[47] Redon CCLVII, p. 207. 

[48] Redon, Monasterii S. Salvatoris Rotonensis Annales, VI Benefactores Præcipui, p. 443. 

[49] Redon CCXLI, p. 189. 

[50] Redon CCXLVII, p. 198. 

[51] Redon CCLVII, p. 207. 

[52] Redon, Monasterii S. Salvatoris Rotonensis Annales, VII Sepulturæ Insigniores, p. 450. 

[53] Reginonis Chronicon 874, MGH SS I, p. 586. 

[54] McKitterick (1983), p. 245. 

[55] Annales Mettenses 874, RHGF, Tome VII, p. 202. 

[56] Reginonis Chronicon 874, MGH SS I, p. 587. 

[57] Reginonis Chronicon 890, MGH SS I, p. 602. 

[58] Borderie (1898), Tome II, p. 412. 

[59] Redon LXXXV, p. 64. 

[60] Redon CCLVIII, p. 208. 

[61] Annales Bertiniani III 867. 

[62] Redon CCXLVII, p. 198. 

[63] Reginonis Chronicon 874, MGH SS I, p. 586. 

[64] McKitterick (1983), p. 245. 

[65] Redon CCLX, p. 209. 

[66] Annales Bertiniani III 867. 

[67] Reginonis Chronicon 874, MGH SS I, p. 587. 

[68] Annales Mettenses 874, RHGF, Tome VII, p. 202. 

[69] Reginonis Chronicon 890, MGH SS I, p. 602. 

[70] Reginonis Chronicon 874, MGH SS I, p. 587. 

[71] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, pp. 82 and 83. 

[72] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Duchesne, 1619), Liber II, XVII, p. 230. 

[73] Angers Cathedral, 12, p. 29. 

[74] Redon CCLXXIX, p. 226. 

[75] Chronique de Nantes XXV, p. 74. 

[76] Redon CCLXXVIII, p. 225. 

[77] Angers 12, p. 29. 

[78] Chronique de Nantes XXV, p. 74. 

[79] Chronique de Nantes XXV, p. 74. 

[80] Redon CCLXVI, p. 216. 

[81] Chronique de Nantes XXV, p. 74. 

[82] Chronique de Nantes XXVII, p. 83. 

[83] Redon CCLXXIX, p. 226. 

[84] Redon CCLXXVI, p. 223. 

[85] Landevenec (Borderie), 38, p. 163. 

[86] Landevenec (Borderie), 39, p. 163. 

[87] Landevenec (Borderie), 46, p. 168. 

[88] Chronique de Nantes XXXVI, pp. 105-6. 

[89] Stenton (2001), p. 348, which cites no primary source for these statements. 

[90] Borderie (1898), Tome II, p. 405. 

[91] Ex Chronico Floriacensi, RHGF, Tome VIII, p. 254. 

[92] Chronique de Nantes XXXIV, p. 102. 

[93] Borderie (1898), Tome II, p. 416, quoting Lobineau (1707), Tome I, p. 81. 

[94] Chronique de Nantes XXXIV, p. 102. 

[95] Chronique de Nantes XXXVII, pp. 107-8. 

[96] Chronique de Nantes XXXIX, p. 112. 

[97] Chronique de Nantes XLIII, p. 126. 

[98] Chronique de Nantes XLV, p. 132. 

[99] Chronicon britannicum 992, cited in Chronique de Nantes, p. 132 footnote 2. 

[100] Chronique de Nantes XXXVI, p. 105. 

[101] Settipani (1993), p. 229. 

[102] Chronique de Nantes XXXVII, p. 110. 

[103] Chronique de Nantes XXXIX, p. 112. 

[104] Landévennec 25, p. 562. 

[105] Chronique de Nantes XL, p. 115. 

[106] Redon, Monasterii S. Salvatoris Rotonensis Annales, VII Sepulturæ Insigniores, p. 450. 

[107] Chronique de Nantes XLIII, p. 126. 

[108] Chronique de Nantes XLIII, p. 126. 

[109] Chronique de Nantes XXXIX, p. 112. 

[110] Landévennec 25, p. 562. 

[111] Chronique de Nantes XLIII, p. 124. 

[112] Chronique de Nantes XLII, p. 123. 

[113] Chronique de Nantes XLII, p. 123. 

[114] Chronique de Nantes XLIII, p. 126. 

[115] Chronique de Nantes XXXIX, p. 112. 

[116] Chronico Sancti Michaelis in periculo maris, RHGF, Tome X, p. 175. 

[117] Rodulfus Glaber Opera, II.4, p. 59. 

[118] Chronico Sancti Michaelis in periculo maris, RHGF, Tome X, p. 175. 

[119] Chronique de Nantes XLV, p. 132. 

[120] Chronicon britannicum 992, cited in Chronique de Nantes, p. 132 footnote 2. 

[121] Chronicon Kemperlegiense, Stephani Baluzii Miscellaneorum, Liber I, Collectio Veterum, p. 520. 

[122] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum II.4, p. 59. 

[123] Chronico Sancti Michaelis in periculo maris, RHGF, Tome X, p. 175. 

[124] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Duchesne, 1619), Liber V, XIII, p. 255. 

[125] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, I, p. 10. 

[126] Jumièges, Tome I, 7, p. 16. 

[127] Annales Historia breve suve Chronica monasterii S. Stephani Cadomensis, p. 165. 

[128] Redon CCXCVI, p. 246. 

[129] Tresvaux (1839), p. 446. 

[130] Redon CCXCVI, p. 246. 

[131] Chronico Sancti Michaelis in periculo maris, RHGF, Tome X, p. 175. 

[132] Redon CCXCVI, p. 246. 

[133] Chronicon Kemperlegiense, Stephani Baluzii Miscellaneorum, Liber I, Collectio Veterum, p. 521. 

[134] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Duchesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, Liber V, V, pp. 247 and 251. 

[135] La Borderie (1888), I, p. 3. 

[136] La Borderie (1888), II, p. 6. 

[137] Chronico Kemperlegiensi 1034, RHGF, Tome X, p. 294. 

[138] Redon CCXCVI, p. 246. 

[139] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Duchesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[140] Chronicon Kemperlegiense, Stephani Baluzii Miscellaneorum, Liber I, Collectio Veterum, p. 521. 

[141] La Borderie (1888), I, p. 3. 

[142] La Borderie (1888), II, p. 6. 

[143] Rennes Saint-Georges, I, p. 217. 

[144] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, XII, p. 252. 

[145] Ex Chronico Britannico, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 412. 

[146] Chronicon Kemperlegiense, Stephani Baluzii Miscellaneorum, Liber I, Collectio Veterum, p. 521. 

[147] Flandria Generosa 25, MGH SS IX, p. 323.   

[148] Actus Pontificum Cenomannis, p. 365. 

[149] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, XII, p. 252. 

[150] Ex Chronico Ruyensis Cœnobii, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 563. 

[151] Quimperlé Sainte-Trinité, LXXV, p. 222. 

[152] Ex Chronico Britannico, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 557. 

[153] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 559. 

[154] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Eglise cathédrale de Chartres, Nécrologe du xi siècle, p. 10.       

[155] Ex Chronico Ruyensis Cœnobii, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 563. 

[156] Ex Chronico Kemperlegiensis, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 562. 

[157] William of Poitiers, Book I, c. 43. 

[158] Rennes Saint-Georges, VII, p. 231. 

[159] Robert de Torigny, Tome I, 1066, p. 55. 

[160] Ex Chronico Britannico, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 557. 

[161] Ex Chronico Britannico, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 413. 

[162] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Eglise cathédrale de Chartres, Nécrologe du xi siècle, p. 25.       

[163] Quimperlé Sainte-Trinité, LXXV, p. 222. 

[164] Flandria Generosa 25, MGH SS IX, p. 323.   

[165] Ex Chronico Briocensi, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 565. 

[166] Redon CCCXXXIII, p. 283. 

[167] Flandria Generosa 25, MGH SS IX, p. 323.   

[168] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Eglise cathédrale de Chartres, Nécrologe du xi siècle, p. 10.       

[169] Quimperlé Sainte-Trinité, Chronicon Universum, p. 104. 

[170] Historia sancti Florentii Salmurensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 300, footnote 1 stating that he was the illegitimate son of Comte Alain III and Comte de Rennes. 

[171] Rennes Saint-Georges, XIII, p. 238. 

[172] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 559. 

[173] Ex Chronico Kemperlegiensis, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 561. 

[174] Historia sancti Florentii Salmurensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 300. 

[175] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Duchesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247. 

[176] La Borderie (1888), I, p. 3. 

[177] La Borderie (1888), II, p. 6. 

[178] Redon CCXCVI, p. 246. 

[179] Rennes Saint-Georges, I, p. 217. 

[180] Tours Saint-Julien, 13, p. 20. 

[181] Orderic Vitalis (Chibnall), Vol. III, Book V, p. 89, which says that Eudes "followed his brother Alain" without mentioning Alain's son Conan. 

[182] William of Poitou Book I, c. 43. 

[183] Rennes Saint-Georges, VII, p. 231. 

[184] Ex Chronico Ruyensis Cœnobii, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 563. 

[185] Ex Chronico Briocensi, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 566. 

[186] Flandria Generosa 25, MGH SS IX, p. 323.   

[187] Redon CCCXXXIII, p. 283. 

[188] Quimperlé Sainte-Trinité, LXXV, p. 222. 

[189] La Borderie (1888), XIX, p. 44. 

[190] Redon CCC, p. 251. 

[191] Orderic Vitalis, quoted in Domesday Descendants, p. 224. 

[192] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIII, p. 316. 

[193] Redon, Monasterii S. Salvatoris Rotonensis Annales, VII Sepulturæ Insigniores, p. 451. 

[194] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 559. 

[195] Ex Chronico Kemperlegiensis, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 562. 

[196] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Duchesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXXIV, p. 310. 

[197] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, XVII, p. 291, and Orderic Vitalis (Chibnall), Vol. III, Book V, p. 115

[198] Ex Chronico Ruyensis Cœnobii, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 563. 

[199] Ex Chronico Kemperlegiensis, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 562. 

[200] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 559. 

[201] La Borderie (1888), XXIII, p. 56. 

[202] William of Malmesbury, 276, p. 255. 

[203] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, XVII, p. 291, translation Orderic Vitalis (Chibnall), Vol. II, Book IV, p. 353. 

[204] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 559. 

[205] Quimperlé Sainte-Trinité, Chronicon Universum, p. 105. 

[206] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1095, MGH SS XXIII, p. 803. 

[207] Angers 65, p. 127. 

[208] William of Tyre, RHC, Historiens occidentaux (Paris, 1844), I, XIV.I, p. 606. 

[209] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, XVII, p. 291. 

[210] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 140. 

[211] Ex Chronico Briocensi, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 566. 

[212] Angers 93, p. 171. 

[213] Morbihan, 192, p. 155. 

[214] Obituaire de la cathédrale d'Angers

[215] Redon, Monasterii S. Salvatoris Rotonensis Annales, VII Sepulturæ Insigniores, p. 451. 

[216] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, XVII, p. 292. 

[217] Ex Chronico Briocensi, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 566. 

[218] William of Tyre XIV.I, p. 606. 

[219] La Borderie (1888), XXXII, p. 70. 

[220] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 560. 

[221] Ex Chronico Ruyensis Cœnobii, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 564. 

[222] L'Obituaire de la cathédrale d'Angers

[223] Orderic Vitalis (Chibnall), Vol. II, Book IV, p. 353. 

[224] Orderic Vitalis (Chibnall), Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 181. 

[225] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Duchesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXIX, p. 307. 

[226] Redon CCCLXX, p. 323. 

[227] La Borderie (1888), XLII, p. 87. 

[228] La Borderie (1888), XXXI bis, p. 90. 

[229] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 560. 

[230] La Borderie (1888), XLI, p. 85. 

[231] La Borderie (1888), XLVII, p. 99. 

[232] Ex Chronico Briocensi, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 566. 

[233] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 560. 

[234] Ex Chronico Kemperlegiensis, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 562. 

[235] Morice (1742), Tome I, col. 888. 

[236] ES II 75 Neu, at end of ES III.1. 

[237] Tiron Sainte-Trinité, CCXVI, p. 244. 

[238] Angers Saint-Aubin, Tome II, CCCCLIX, p. 58. 

[239] Ex Chronico Briocensi, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 566. 

[240] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[241] Flandria Generosa 25, MGH SS IX, p. 323.   

[242] Morbihan 192, p. 155. 

[243] La Borderie (1888), XLII, p. 87. 

[244] Redon CCCLXX, p. 323. 

[245] Ex Chronico Ruyensis Cœnobii, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 563. 

[246] Orderic Vitalis (Chibnall), Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 111, dated to Sep 1122. 

[247] Orderic Vitalis (Chibnall), Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 121. 

[248] Domesday Descendants, p. 877. 

[249] CP V 397.  According to Domesday Descendants (2002), p. 877, he left no issue. 

[250] Domesday Descendants (2002), p. 224. 

[251] Regesta Regem Anglo-Normannorum (1956), Vol. II, Appendix, LXXXIX, p. 331. 

[252] Regesta Regem Anglo-Normannorum (1956), Vol. II, Appendix, CLXXXV, p. 356. 

[253] Pipe Roll 31 Hen I (1129/30), Oxfordshire, pp. 4-6, Wiltshire, pp. 22-3, Hampshire, p. 39, Surrey, pp. 50 and 52. 

[254] Gesta Stephani Regis, I, p. 58. 

[255] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartæ I, p. 615. 

[256] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartæ II, p. 616. 

[257] CP I 19-20. 

[258] Ancient Charters (Round), Part I, 26, p. 43. 

[259] Testa de Nevill, Part I, p. 116. 

[260] CP V 397. 

[261] Domesday Descendants (2002), p. 877. 

[262] Testa de Nevill, Part I, p. 116. 

[263] Ancient Charters (Round), Part I, 26, p. 43. 

[264] Testa de Nevill, Part I, p. 116. 

[265] CP I 20, citing Testa de Nevill, p. 115. 

[266] Abingdon Chronicle, Vol. II, p. 12. 

[267] Domesday Descendants (2002), p. 224. 

[268] Bracton’s Note Book, Vol. III, 1688, p. 535. 

[269] Domesday Descendants (2002), p. 775. 

[270] Testa de Nevill, Part I, p. 116. 

[271] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Priory of Bergavenny or Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, Cartæ I, p. 615. 

[272] Chronica sancti Sergii Andegavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 150.  

[273] Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ post conquestum Angliæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 569. 

[274] Rennes Saint-Georges, XX, p. 249. 

[275] Chronica sancti Sergii Andegavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 150.  

[276] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 25. 

[277] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 560. 

[278] Landévennec Necrology, pp. 33-49. 

[279] Ex Chronico Kemperlegiensis, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 563. 

[280] Ex Chronico Ruyensis Cœnobii, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 564. 

[281] Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ post conquestum Angliæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 569. 

[282] Benedict of Peterborough, Vol. I, 1186, p. 361.   

[283] Rotuli Dominabus, Rotuli V, Norffolk, p. 33. 

[284] Chronicle of Melrose, 1162, p. 12. 

[285] Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ post conquestum Angliæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 569. 

[286] Rennes Saint-Georges, XX, p. 249. 

[287] Dugdale Monasticon VI, Lanthony Abbey, Gloucestershire, II, Fundatorum progenies, p. 134. 

[288] Annales de Burton, p. 209. 

[289] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1185, MGH SS XXIII, p. 859. 

[290] Matthew Paris, Vol. II 1067-1216, 1168, pp. 244-5. 

[291] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 104. 

[292] Annales Cestrienses, p. 40. 

[293] Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ post conquestum Angliæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 569. 

[294] Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ post conquestum Angliæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 569. 

[295] Annales de Burton, p. 208. 

[296] Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ post conquestum Angliæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 569. 

[297] Ex Chronico Britannico, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 329. 

[298] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 330. 

[299] Ex Chronico Ruyensis Cœnobii, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 332. 

[300] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1196, MGH SS XXIII, p. 873. 

[301] Guillaume de Nangis, p. 89. 

[302] La Borderie (1888), LXII, p. 122.  This charter is discussed in Craig, M. A. ‘A Second Daughter of Geoffrey of Brittany’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research (later Historical Research), Vol. 50, no. 121 (May 1977), pp. 112-15.  I am grateful to Léa Chaillou for drawing my attention to this source (in a private email to the author dated 17 Jun 2014). 

[303] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1185, MGH SS XXIII, p. 859. 

[304] Matthew Paris, Vol, IV, 1241, p. 163, although he specifies neither the place nor the exact date. 

[305] Ex Chronico Briocensi, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 567. 

[306] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), I,, pp. 160-2. 

[307] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), pp. 163-4. 

[308] Annales Londonienses, p. 38. 

[309] Annales de Theokesberia, p. 118. 

[310] Benedict of Peterborough I 1186, p. 361.   

[311] Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X (1652), Radulphus de Diceto, Abbreviationes Chronicorum, col. 519. 

[312] Matthew Paris, Vol. II, 1186, p. 325. 

[313] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1185, MGH SS XXIII, p. 859. 

[314] Ex Chronico Briocensi, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 567. 

[315] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 330. 

[316] Benedict of Peterborough 2 1190, p. 133.   

[317] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 38-40. 

[318] Fœdera (1816), Vol. I, Part I, p. 52. 

[319] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1196 and 1201, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 872 and 878. 

[320] Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ post conquestum Angliæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 569. 

[321] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1185, MGH SS XXIII, p. 859. 

[322] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 243. 

[323] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 812. 

[324] La Borderie (1888), LXXIX, p. 151. 

[325] Guillaume de Nangis, p. 89. 

[326] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 331. 

[327] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 243. 

[328] La Borderie (1888), LXXXI, p. 154. 

[329] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes I, 1061, p. 396. 

[330] Morice (1742), Tome I, col. 830. 

[331] Morice (1742), Tome I, col. 878. 

[332] For example Morice (1750), Tome I, p. 129. 

[333] Chaillou ‘On Constance of Brittany’s family’ (2017)

[334] Everard & Jones (1999), C45, p. 75.  I am grateful to Léa Chaillou for highlighting this and the next charter. 

[335] Everard & Jones (1999), A16, p. 128. 

[336] Morice (1742), Tome I, col. 830. 

[337] Morice (1742), Tome I, col. 878. 

[338] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1168, MGH SS XXIII, p. 852. 

[339] For example Morice (1750), Tome I, p. 129. 

[340] Chaillou ‘On Constance of Brittany’s family’ (2017)

[341] ES X 14. 

[342] Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ post conquestum Angliæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 569. 

[343] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1168, MGH SS XXIII, p. 852. 

[344] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes, Tome II, 2303, p. 269. 

[345] William of Tyre Continuator, XXXIII.XLIV, p. 413. 

[346] Genealogia Comitum Richemundiæ post conquestum Angliæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 569. 

[347] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1185, MGH SS XXIII, p. 859. 

[348] Guillaume de Nangis, p. 89. 

[349] Ex Fragmentis Chronicorum Comitum Pictaviæ et Aquitaniæ Ducum, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 243. 

[350] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 331. 

[351] Le Mans Evêché, no. 263, pp. 35-6. 

[352] Rays, Vol. I, Introduction, p. cxxxi, quoting Bibl. nat. ms. fr. 22329, p. 717, and Du Paz (1619), p. 237. 

[353] Rays, Vol. II, CCXX, p. 254. 

[354] Rays, Vol. I, Introduction, p. cxxviii, quoting D. Mor Pr, I, 901. 

[355] Rays, Vol. I, Introduction, pp. cxxvi-cxxx and cxxxiii footnote 1. 

[356] Rays, Vol. I, Introduction, p. cxxviii, quoting D. Fontenau, I, 365, and extract D. Mor Pr, I, 860 (latter with incorrect date 1229). 

[357] Rays, Vol. I, Introduction, p. cxxix, quoting Archives L-Inf., H 24, copy Bibl. nat. ms. lat. 17092, p. 89. 

[358] La Borderie (1888), CXVII, p. 191. 

[359] Ex Chronico Ruyensis Cœnobii, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 332. 

[360] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 331. 

[361] Letters Henry III, Vol. I, CCXLII, p. 295. 

[362] Chronicon Turonense, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 319. 

[363] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes, Tome II, 1922, p. 119. 

[364] Annales de Dunstaplia, p. 103. 

[365] Lobineau (1707), Tome I, p. 224, quoting the letter without providing any citation reference to the full document. 

[366] Auvray (1896), Tome I, 789, col. 494. 

[367] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 111. 

[368] Geslin de Bourgogne & Barthélémy (1864), Tome III Diocèse de Saint-Brieuc, CLVII, p. 106. 

[369] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 931. 

[370] Evans 'The matrilineal descent', p. 65. 

[371] Lobineau (1707), Tome I, p. 214. 

[372] Chronicon Turonense, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 303. 

[373] Chronicon Turonense, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 303. 

[374] Rays, Vol. II, CCXX, p. 254. 

[375] Rays, Vol. I, Introduction, p. cxxxi, quoting Bibl. nat. ms. fr. 22329, p. 717, and Du Paz (1619), p. 237. 

[376] Ex Chronico Ruyensis Cœnobii, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 332. 

[377] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF, Tome XVIII, p. 331. 

[378] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 112. 

[379] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1231, MGH SS XXIII, p. 929. 

[380] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes, Tome II, 2432, p. 311. 

[381] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 112. 

[382] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Abbaye des Clairets, p. 281.       

[383] Quimperlé Sainte-Trinité, Chronicon Universum, p. 109. 

[384] Chronicon Kemperlegiense, Stephani Baluzii Miscellaneorum, Liber I, Collectio Veterum, p. 527. 

[385] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 361, citing Pocquet du Haut-Jussé, B. A. (1928) Les papes et les ducs de Bretagne. Essai sur les rapports du Saint-Siège avec un Etat (Paris), Tome I, p. 167 n. 1 [not yet consulted]. 

[386] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1105. 

[387] Lobineau (1707), Tome I, p. 276. 

[388] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 364 footnote 37, citing Copy, J. Y. (1986) Art, société et politique au temps des ducs de Bretagne: les gisants haut-bretons (Paris), p. 273, no. 223 [not yet consulted]. 

[389] Lobineau (1707), Tome I, p. 276. 

[390] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 364 footnote 39, citing Copy (1986), p. 273, no. 224 [not yet consulted]. 

[391] Lobineau (1707), Tome I, p. 276. 

[392] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 364 footnote 41, citing Copy (1986), p. 272, no. 221 [not yet consulted]. 

[393] Lobineau (1707), Tome I, p. 276. 

[394] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 364 footnote 43, citing Copy (1986), pp. 39, 51, 272, no. 222 [not yet consulted]. 

[395] Lobineau (1707), Tome I, p. 276. 

[396] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 980. 

[397] Quimperlé Sainte-Trinité, Chronicon Universum, p. 109. 

[398] Chronicon Kemperlegiense, Stephani Baluzii Miscellaneorum, Liber I, Collectio Veterum, p. 526. 

[399] William of Tyre Continuator XXXIV.XV, p. 462. 

[400] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 112. 

[401] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1122. 

[402] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1185. 

[403] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 112. 

[404] Annales Londonienses, p. 54. 

[405] Thomas Wykes, p. 124. 

[406] Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus II, Continuatio, p. 214. 

[407] Chronicon Kemperlegiense, Stephani Baluzii Miscellaneorum, Liber I, Collectio Veterum, p. 527. 

[408] Lobineau (1707), Tome I, p. 270. 

[409] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1185. 

[410] CP II 330. 

[411] CP X 815. 

[412] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 113. 

[413] Inquisitions Post Mortem, Vol. VII, Edward III, 625, p. 425. 

[414] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1098. 

[415] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1107. 

[416] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 367. 

[417] RHGF, Tome XX, Gesta Philippi Tertii Francorum Regis, p. 500. 

[418] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1180. 

[419] Dugdale Monasticon II, Amesbury Monastery, Wiltshire, I, De Manerio de Chadelworth in Com. Berk…, p. 338.   

[420] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1185. 

[421] Chronicon Kemperlegiense, Stephani Baluzii Miscellaneorum, Liber I, Collectio Veterum, p. 527. 

[422] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1185. 

[423] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 112. 

[424] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 112. 

[425] La Borderie (1888), CXXXIX, p. 225. 

[426] Anonymum S Martialis Chronicon, Chroniques de Saint-Martial de Limoges, p. 172. 

[427] RHGF, Tome XXI, Majus Chronicon Lemovicense, p. 786. 

[428] Joannis de Fordun (Goodall), Vol. II, Lib. X, Cap. XXXIX-XL, p. 127. 

[429] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1237. 

[430] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Abbaye de Port-Royal, p. 642. 

[431] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 112. 

[432] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 113. 

[433] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1123. 

[434] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1230. 

[435] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1245. 

[436] State Archives, volume 104, page 56, fascicule 10. 

[437] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1368. 

[438] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1248. 

[439] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1394. 

[440] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 112. 

[441] Geslin de Bourgogne (1864) Tome IV, Nécrologe de Beauport, p. 226. 

[442] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1434. 

[443] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1529. 

[444] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1375. 

[445] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 114. 

[446] Geslin de Bourgogne (1864) Tome IV, Nécrologe de Beauport, p. 226. 

[447] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 370, citing Pocquet du Haut-Jussé (1928), Tome I, p. 339 n. 8 [not yet consulted]. 

[448] Lobineau (1707), Tome I, p. 278. 

[449] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1293. 

[450] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1293. 

[451] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1293. 

[452] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1330. 

[453] Chronicon abbatiæ Warnestoniensis, Appendix, p. 34. 

[454] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1293. 

[455] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 112. 

[456] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, col. 1337. 

[457] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 113. 

[458] CP X 821. 

[459] Morice (1744) Preuves, Tome II, col. 496. 

[460] Nicolas (1826), Vol. I, p. 125. 

[461] Morice (1744) Preuves, Tome II, col. 681. 

[462] Morice (1744) Preuves, Tome II, col. 496. 

[463] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 115. 

[464] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 114. 

[465] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 114. 

[466] Morice (1744) Preuves, Tome II, col. 478. 

[467] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 114. 

[468] Morice (1744) Preuves, Tome II, col. 661. 

[469] Chronicon Adæ de Usk, p. 85. 

[470] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 114. 

[471] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 114. 

[472] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 387. 

[473] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 115. 

[474] Kerrebrouck (1990), p. 125 footnote 34. 

[475] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 115. 

[476] Morice (1744) Preuves, Tome II, col. 644. 

[477] Morice (1744) Preuves, Tome II, col. 664. 

[478] Morice (1744) Preuves, Tome II, col. 667. 

[479] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 116. 

[480] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 117.  

[481] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Chartreux de Vauvert, p. 705. 

[482] Vallet de Viriville (1859), Fragments de la Geste des Nobles François, Chap. 201, p. 191. 

[483] Vallet de Viriville (1858), Tome II, Chap. 156, p. 34. 

[484] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 116. 

[485] Monlezun (1849), Tome VI, p. 323. 

[486] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 116. 

[487] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 115. 

[488] Kerrebrouck (Valois), p. 125 footnote 34. 

[489] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 116. 

[490] Morice (1744) Preuves, Tome II, col. 590. 

[491] Kerrebrouck (Valois), p. 125 footnote 35. 

[492] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 116. 

[493] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 117. 

[494] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 117. 

[495] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 117. 

[496] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 117. 

[497] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 117. 

[498] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 117. 

[499] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 116. 

[500] Vallet de Viriville (1859), Fragments de la Geste des Nobles François, Chap. 190, p. 184. 

[501] Duchesne (1621) Châtillon, Preuves, p. 140. 

[502] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Abbaye de Longchamp, p. 682. 

[503] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 117. 

[504] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 117. 

[505] Michaud & Poujoulat (1838), Tome V, Journal de Louise de Savoye, p. 87. 

[506] Michaud & Poujoulat (1838), Tome V, Journal de Louise de Savoye, p. 88. 

[507] Conditional on the annulment of her third husband's first marriage. 

[508] Landevenec (Borderie), 25, p. 156. 

[509] Landevenec (Borderie), 40, p. 164. 

[510] Landevenec (Borderie), 25, p. 156. 

[511] Landevenec (Borderie), 43, p. 167. 

[512] La Borderie (1888), XXI, p. 51. 

[513] Landévennec Necrology. 

[514] Landévennec Necrology. 

[515] Morbihan 227, p. 183. 

[516] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684. 

[517] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684. 

[518] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684. 

[519] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684. 

[520] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684. 

[521] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684. 

[522] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684. 

[523] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684. 

[524] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684. 

[525] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684. 

[526] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684. 

[527] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684. 

[528] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684. 

[529] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684. 

[530] RHGF, Tome XXIII, Scripta de Feodem ad Regem spectantibus, 355, p. 684.