HOLLAND & frisia

  v3.0 Updated 24 July 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                DUKES and COUNTS of the FRISIANS. 14

A.         DUKES of the FRISIANS.. 14

B.         COUNTS of the FRISIANS.. 21

Chapter 2.                COUNTS OF HOLLAND [900]-1299. 25

Chapter 3.                COUNTS OF HOLLAND 1299-1354 (AVESNES) 64

Chapter 4.                COUNTS OF HOLLAND 1349-1433 (WITTELSBACH) 65

Chapter 5.                GRAVEN van BETUWE. 67

Chapter 6.                GRAVEN van DRENTHE. 71

Chapter 7.                GRAVEN van HAMALAND. 74

Chapter 8.                NORTHERN FRISIAN COUNTIES. 80

Chapter 9.                GRAVEN van OOSTERGO en WESTERGO. 83

Chapter 10.              GRAVEN van TEISTERBAND. 85

A.         GRAVEN van TEISTERBAND (FAMILY of EBERHARD) 85

B.         GRAVEN van TEISTERBAND (FAMILY of ANSFRID) 89

C.        HEREN van CUYK en MALSEN.. 90

Chapter 11.              GRAVEN van WALCHEREN. 93

Chapter 12.              MARCH of FRISIA. 94

Chapter 13.              GRAVEN van ZUTPHEN. 96

A.         GRAVEN van ZUTPHEN.. 96

B.         GRAVEN van ZUTPHEN (family of GOTTSCHALK) 97

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

From the early 9th century, the territory of the country which is today known as The Netherlands was part of Frisia, which covered the whole coastal area from southern Denmark in the east to Flanders in the west.  "Frisia" should be distinguished from "Friesland", which is the current name of the northern province of The Netherlands.  "Ostfriesland" refers to a small region in north-west Germany, while "West-Friesland" is applied to the eastern part of the present-day Dutch province of Noord-Holland. 

 

Under the partition of imperial territories agreed at Thionville in 806, Frisia was assigned to Charles, eldest son of Emperor Charles I[1], before reverting to the emperor on his son's early death in 811.  After 843, the territory of the future Netherlands became the northernmost part of the kingdom of Lotharingia, created under the treaty of Verdun which finally settled the lengthy disputes between the sons of Emperor Louis I.  The county of Holland was the western part of The Netherlands, stretching approximately from the island of Texel in the north to Dordrecht in the south.  The county is first referred to by the name "Holland" in a charter dated 1101[2], although the name "Holtlant" (wood-land), referring to a place in the area of Leiden, appears once in a 9th century charter which lists the property of St Maarten's church[3].  The name "Holland" is now frequently used to refer to the whole nation of The Netherlands, but this is incorrect, similar to saying "England" when one wishes to refer to "Great Britain".  The present document sets out the dukes and counts of Frisia, the counts of Holland, and the counts of the adjacent counties which were eventually incorporated into The Netherlands. 

 

The earliest recorded duke of Frisia was Radbod.  The Continuator of Fredegar states that Radbod was defeated by Pepin "le Gros", maior domus of Austrasia, at Duurstede in [692/97], and that he made a treaty with Ragamfred maior domus of Neustria in [716][4].  The marriage of Radbod's daughter Theodelindis to Grimoald, son of Pepin "le Gros", is recorded in 711 in the Annales Metenses[5].  Frisia marked the northern boundary of the kingdom of Austrasia, although it is unclear how much of the territory was effectively controlled by the Merovingian Frankish kings.  The pacification process must have been slow and subject to setbacks.  The Continuator of Fredegar records that Grimoald was murdered by a Frisian in 714, and that Charles "Martel" "conquered" (presumably meaning reconquered) the territory in 719[6].  Further revolts in Frisia against the Franks are recorded in the 740s[7].  Reuter suggests that the local Frisian nobility was absorbed only to a limited extent into the Frankish ruling elite, contrasting the situation in Frisia with that of Saxony[8].  Ecclesiastically, Frisia fell within the jurisdiction of the bishopric of Utrecht, whose earliest bishop is recorded in 791[9].  The eastern parts of the bishopric were transferred in the later 8th century to the bishoprics of Osnabrück, Verden and Bremen[10].  Chapter 1 of this document sets out what is known about the early dukes of Frisia and about early Frisian counts who were probably descended from these dukes. 

 

Frisia's marshy terrain made it relatively inaccessible by land.  However, it was subject to repeated Viking attacks from the sea from the early 9th century, as reported in numerous contemporary sources.  The first such confrontation is recorded in 810 in the Royal Frankish Annals, which report that Godefrid King of the Danes fought the Frisians[11].  The Annales Fuldenses refer to a devastating Viking attack on Dorestad and the island of Walcheren in 837[12].  The Annales Bertiniani record that in 852 "Godefridus, Herioldi Dani filius" raided Frisia and sailed up the Schelde[13].  It is clear that the Vikings did not just see Frisia as an attractive target for raids.  The area constituted a convenient staging post from which to launch raids on Frankish territory further to the south.  The first Frisian land to be ceded to the Danes was Rüstringen, on the mouth of the river Weser in upper Frisia (north-west Germany), which was granted to Harald King of Denmark in 826.  The Annales Fuldenses record the baptism of "Herioldus cum uxore et magna Danorum multitudine" at Mainz[14], an important symbolic gesture in the process of integration.  It is clear that the Carolingian Frankish kings of Lotharingia did not relinquish their claim to jurisdiction over Frisia despite Viking encroachment, as shown by the Annales Bertiniani which record that Emperor Lothaire I gave Frisia to his son the future King Lothaire II in 855[15].  The last grant of land to the Viking invaders is recorded in 882, when Emperor Karl III "der Dicke" granted "comitatus et benefice qua Rorich Nordmannus…in Kinnin [Kennemerland]" to Godefrid the Dane, who was baptised and married to Gisela, illegitimate daughter of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia according to the Annales Fuldenses[16].  Godefrid effectively became Duke of Frisia, under imperial suzerainty.  After Godefrid was killed in 885, the emperor appointed the Saxon Graf Eberhard as duke and, after Eberhard was murdered in 898, his brother Meginhard was appointed.  No later mention of this imperially created Frisian duchy has been found in the primary sources so far consulted and it is assumed that it lapsed as separate counties developed in Frisia.  Meginhard is probably identified with the early 9th century Graaf van Hamaland of the same name. 

 

It is likely that descendants of the early Danish invaders settled permanently in Frisia and integrated into the local aristocracy.  This is suggested by the wife of Theoderich, Saxon ruler and father of the second wife of Heinrich I King of Germany, being named "Reinhildam, Danorum Fresonumque germine procreatam" in the Vita Mathildis Reginæ[17] (see the document SAXONY, DUKES & ELECTORS).  The influence of Saxon nobility extended well into the Frisian counties, as shown by the Vita Domni Deoderici Episcopi Maioris which names "comite Everardo" and his wife Amelrada (who was sister of Mathilde Queen of Germany) as parents of "Deodericum ex pago Saxoniæ Hamalant"[18], the descendants of his supposed brother being counts in the county of Teisterband in the 10th century.  The name "Dirk", used by seven counts of Holland, also suggests a Saxon connection in its Latin form "Theodericus", a name which was closely connected with the Saxon paternal ancestors of Heinrich I King of Germany.  Other names of 9th and 10th century northern Lotharingian nobility also suggest a Danish origin, notably Reginar (the name of several comtes de Hainaut, see the document HAINAUT). 

 

The early development of the Frisian pagi and counties is obscure.  The Divisio Imperii dated [Feb 831] refers to "Frisiæ" as one of the territories assigned to the kingdom of Bavaria, but does not name its component counties[19].  The Divisio Imperii of Jun 839 assigns, among other lands, "ducatum Fresica usque Mosam…comitatum Hamarlant, comitatum Batavorum, comitatum Testrabenticum, Dorestado" to the kingdom of Italy (equivalent to the kingdom which would later be called Lotharingia)[20].  The 839 text implies that the four named counties were vassals of the duchy of Frisia.  However, no dukes of Frisia have been identified at that time in the primary sources so far consulted, and few contemporary references have been found to local counts.  The division of Lotharingian territories agreed 8 Aug 870 between Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks and his half-brother Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks allocated "…comitatus Testrabant, Batia, Hattuaries, Masau…" to King Ludwig but only refers generally to Ludwig also receiving "de Frisia duas partes de regno, quod Lotharius habuit" without specifying any of Frisia's component counties[21].  After this date, northern Lotharingia remained under East Frankish suzerainty.  Although the West Frankish kingdom disputed East Frankish superiority in the whole of Lotharingia, its incursions and temporary acquisitions never reached as far north as The Netherlands. 

 

A detailed study of the pagi located within the territory of what is now The Netherlands was carried out by Van den Bergh in the mid-19th century[22].  His study is extensive but may not be exhaustive: for example, Vanderkindere in his work on the Lotharingian territories names some additional pagi in Frisia, omits some of Van den Bergh's, and amalgamates others[23].  This confusion may be due to the lack of definitive names for the Frisian pagi, as many alternate names for the same areas can be identified in the primary sources.  What is clear is that considerable doubt persists about these early medieval territorial divisions in The Netherlands and their precise geographical demarcations.  What is probably the earliest extant list of Frisian pagi is contained in the Traditiones Fuldenses which record donations to the monastery, probably dated to the 8th and 9th centuries, of property in Frisia “in pago Wirense [also Wironi]…in pago…Nvira…in pago…Mecinga […Meringa]…in pago Wisaha…in pago Tochingen…in pago Federetgewe…in pago Ostrahe […Ostrache]…in pago Lieron…in pago Emergewe […Emisgowe]…in pago Westrahe […Westeriche]…in pago Kilingo…in pago Tokingen…in pago Hunergewe…in  pago Wertingewe…in pago Lacharenorum…in pago Tyesle […Tyelle]…in pago Federgewe…in pago Waldahi…in pago Lieren[24].  It is not easy to place all these names. 

 

Van den Bergh divides his list of Dutch pagi into three categories: Frisian, Saxon and Frankish.  The limited number of surviving primary sources suggests that these influences were not exclusive in the three areas he describes, but the categorisation represents as good a way as any.  Van den Bergh further sub-categorises the "Frisian" category of pagi into three groups.  The first of these groups lay between the rivers Ems and Lauwers, east of Groningen in the north of The Netherlands.  Early descriptions of pagi and counties in this area include Altfrid's Vita S. Liudgeri, which records that "in gente Fresonum ab orientali parte fluminis Labeki" there were five pagi "Hugmerchi, Hunusga, Fivilga, Emisga, Federitga" and one island "Bant"[25]; a document dated 997 which records that Kloster Elten received tribute from four counties "Hunesgo, Fivilgo, Humerche et Emische"[26]; and Adam of Bremen who records that five pagi in Frisia depended from the bishopric of Münster "Hugmerchi, Hunusga, Fivilga, Emisga, Federitga et insula Bant"[27].  Of the different entities named in these sources, Van den Bergh retains four: firstly, Hunsingo, north of Groningen along the North Sea coast between the river Hunse in the west and Fivilgo in the east[28], secondly, Fivilgo, to the east of Hunsingo as far as the river Fivel[29], thirdly, Hugmerchi (Humerche or Humerke, or Humsterland), which lay south of the river Hunse, west of Middagsterland, east of the river Lauwers, marking the border with Oostergo, and north of Drenthe[30], and fourthly, Middagsterland (Midage), bordered to the north and east by Hunsingo and to the south and west by Hugmerchi[31].  Vanderkindere suggests that Baldric Graaf van Drenthe inherited these northern counties of Frisia, which were recorded in 970 in the hands of his future father-in-law Graf Wichmann[32], but no primary source has yet been identified which confirms that this is correct.  The charter dated 25 Apr 1057, under which Heinrich IV King of Germany confirmed the grant of "comitatum…in pagis Hunesga et Fiuilga" to the church of Bremen-Hamburg[33], suggests that they later developed under ecclesiastical administration.  Vanderkindere supplements Van den Bergh's list of northern Dutch pagi by adding Federgewe, Asterga, Nordendi and Riustri[34], under the original jurisdiction of the dukes of Frisia and all located in the area east of the river Ems in what is today the north-western corner of the German Land of Niedersachsen (where the county of Ostfriesland evolved in the late 14th/early 15th centuries). 

 

Van den Bergh's second group of "Frisian" pagi consists of Oostergo (Ostraga) and Westergo (Westraga), which lay to the west and south-west of Groningen, between the rivers Lauwers and Vlie, in the present-day Dutch province of Friesland.  Oostergo, in the eastern half, was west of the river Lauwers, although its southern limits are uncertain[35].  Westergo, covered the western half of this area, reaching the western North Sea coast around Stavoren[36].  The river Burdine separated the two counties.  The Annales Metenses record that in 736 the forces of Charles "Martel" arrived "ad Wistriamchi et Wastrachia insulas" and killed "Poponem…ducem illorum" while capturing the castle "super Bordinem…fluvium"[37].  An imperially appointed count Albdag is named in Oostergo in 873: the Annales Xantenses record that "Ruodoldus nepos prædicti tiranni [Ruorich]" devastated "totam Fresiam…in pago Ostachia"[38], the Annals of Fulda adding that, in Jun 873, "Hruodolfus quidam Nordmannus de regio genere" invaded "comitatum…Albdagi, missisque nuntiis"[39].  Counts named Gerhart, Reginbert and Deodradus are recorded as having donated property in Westergo to Fulda[40].  The counties of Oostergo and Westergo were transferred to the church of Utrecht by charter dated 7 Feb 1086[41]

 

Van den Bergh's third group of "Frisian" pagi lay in the western part of The Netherlands, southwards from the island of Texel (Texla) in the present day Dutch provinces of Nordholland and Utrecht.  The island of Texel is named in a charter dated 774 under which "Gerrich et Rutwar" donated property "in loco…Forismarische in Thesla" to Kloster Lorsch[42].  Wieringen or Westfriesland (Wiron, pagus Wironi or Wirensis) was the northern part of the peninsular formed by the province of Nordholland, north of Kennermerland, its main town being Medemblik[43].  It was possibly ruled by Count Ansfrid in the late 10th century, and was referred to in 1064 as comitatus in Westerlingæ when it was donated by Dirk V Count of Holland to the church of Utrecht[44].  Kennermerland (Kinhem), named after the river Kinnem which marked its northern boundary, lay to the south of Wieringen and bordered on Rijnland in the south; its main town was Alkmaar[45].  Moving southwards, the pagus of Rijnland covered the area southwards as far as the Rhine river[46], and Maasland, south of Rijnland as far as the river Maas, its main town being Vlaardingen[47].  To the east of Rijnland, Van den Bergh identifies the small pagus of Germapi, which he says is referred to only in the registers of Utrecht, lying across both banks of the Rhine as far north as Rinesmuthon or Zwammerdam with the town of Breudijk as its westernmost point[48].  The county of Lek en Ijssel lay further east, with Utrecht as its principal city[49].  This is the land between the rivers Lek and Hollandsche Ijssel, between the modern cities of Rotterdam and Gouda[50].  The county of Nifterlake was also located near Utrecht, Fethna being its main centre[51]

 

Van den Bergh's so-called "Saxon" counties in Frisia are Drenthe, pagus Forestensis, Twenthe, Salland and Hamaland, arranged north to south between the Zuiderzee and the current border between The Netherlands and Germany.  The main town of Drenthe (Thrianta), the northernmost of these counties which covered much of the present-day Dutch province of Drenthe, was Groningen located in its northernmost part.  "Pago Trenthe…in comitatu Everhardi" is named in a charter dated 944[52].  "Henricus…rex" donated property "in pago Thrient…in comitatu Baldrici" to the church of Utrecht by charter dated 24 Apr 1006[53].  Graf Temmo is named in "comitatus de Trenthe" in 1024[54].  Heinrich IV King of Germany confirmed the grant of Drenthe county ("comitatum de Thrente") to the church of Utrecht by charter dated [Apr 1057][55].  The pagus Forestensis (also known as Agridiocensis or Umbalaha) lay to the west of Drenthe, south of Westergo, with Vollenhove as its main town[56].  The county of Twenthe (Tuvanti) lay south of Drenthe, in the present-day Dutch province of Overijssel, bound on the north by the river Reest, with Hamaland and Zutphen to the south and the area which later developed into the county of Bentheim to the east.  Its main town was Goor[57].  "Godescalci comitis Thuente", probably the count of Zutphen of the same name, is named in a charter of bishop Bernulf dated before 1054[58].  The county of Salland lay directly south of the pagus Forestensis, west of Twenthe[59].  Lastly, the county of Hamaland lay south of Twenthe, between Deventer in the north and Elten on the Rhine in the south, bound on the west by the river IJssel[60]

 

The Frisian counties categorised as "Frankish" by Van den Bergh lay south of Utrecht and the county of Hamaland.  The three counties of Flehite, Veluwe and Nardinclant were located north of the river Rhine.  Approximately from west to east, Flehite lay east of the county of Niftarlake, around the town of Utrecht[61].  The county of Veluwe (Felua) was east of Flehite along the Grebbe, its main town being Engelanderholt near Loenen[62].  Vanderkindere suggests that Veluwe extended as far north as the Zuiderzee and eastwards to the river IJssel[63].  Veluwe was one of the counties of Baldric, passing after his death to the descendants of Eberhard who was Graaf van Salland and Graaf van Drenthe[64].  By the 13th century, most of the county of Veluwe belonged to the bishopric of Utrecht.  The county of Nardinclant was located east of Flehite, west of the towns of Vecht and Loenen, and south of Hamaland[65].  "Otto…imperator augustus" gave property "in territorio Vrek in pago Salo…in comitatu Nerdincklant…in comitatu Hamelant", all held by Wichmann, to Kloster Elten founded by "Wichmannus comes in litore Reni in comitatu Hamelant" by charter dated 29 Jun 968[66]

 

The four "Frankish" counties of Teisterband, Betuwe, Duffel and Nijmegen lay south of the river Rhine and north of the river Maas.  The county of Teisterband stretched from the North Sea coast eastwards to its main town Tiel on the river Waal[67].  "Otto tercius…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property "Tiele in comitatu Unrochi comitis et in pago Testerbant…et Nerestein in comitatu Amichonis in pago Nahgowi" to the monks of the Marienkapelle at Aachen by charter dated 6 Feb 1000[68].  Heinrich IV King of Germany confirmed the grant of Teisterband county ("comitatum in Testerbant") to the church of Utrecht by charter dated [Apr 1057][69].  To the east of Teisterband lay the county of Betuwe (Batua), north of the river Waal[70].  A charter dated 897 refers to property "Harawa…in pago Battawi in comitatu Dodonis"[71].  South of the river Waal, lay the county of Duffel (Dubla, also called Tubalgo) east of Rijkswald, in the area in which the town of Kleve later developed[72], now located in Germany.  The county of Nijmegen (Niumagen) was centred on the town of the same name in which the imperial palace was located, although it is not known how far outside the town the county spread.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "comitem Lantbertum" was custodian of Nijmegen [in 830][73], presumably a temporary appointment as "comes palatii" of the royal palace at Nijmegen maybe for the period of the emperor's visit.  Similarly, "Ansfridus…comes palatii" is named in 868, presumably also referring to a position in the palace of Nijmegen[74].  "Meinardus comes de Niumago" is recorded in 1165, "Herimannus comes de Novimagio" in 1176 and "Alardus comes de Novimagio" in 1196[75].  Vanderkindere adds the county of Hattuaria, between the rivers Maas and Rhine north of Moilla[76], but this falls outside the territory of what is today The Netherlands. 

 

Van den Bergh states that the so-called "Frankish" counties of Holtland, Schouwen, Beveland, Walcheren, Strijen and Taxandrie were located south of the river Maas.  He says that the county of Holtland en Forne lay between Merwede and the river Oude Maas, around the town of Dordrecht[77], but as noted above the references to "Holtland" are limited.  To the south of Holtland, the island counties of Schouwen (Scaldis)[78], Beveland (Bevelanda)[79], and Walcheren (Walchra) lay off the coast of the present Dutch province of Noord-Brabant[80].  Vanderkindere amalgamates these three counties into pagus Maritima[81], but it is possible that he is extrapolating the existence of this pagus from the reference in the Annales Bertiniani in 837 to "Frisiæ Maritimæque", which from the context of the Annales included at least the island of Walcheren[82].  The Annales Fuldenses name "Eggihardum" as count of Walcheren when recording that he was killed by the Vikings in 837[83], and the Annales Bertiniani that "Gualacras" (Walcheren) was granted to "Herioldo" by Emperor Lothaire in 841[84].  The county of Strijen (Stria) lay further east in what is now the central part of the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant[85].  Further east, the county of Taxandrie (pagus Toxandria), north-west of Masau, lay south of the river Maas in what is now the southern part of the Netherlands, east of the river Schelde and north of the river Dyle in northern Belgium, including land which later developed as the March of Antwerp.  To the east, Taxandrie appears to have been bound by the marshes of Peel which marked the border with the county of Masau[86].  Under the division of Lotharingian territories agreed 8 Aug 870 between Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks and his half-brother Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks "…comitatum Texandrum…" was allocated to King Charles[87].  Completing the picture, the pagus Gasterna was centred on the town of IJzendijke, north of Bruges, in the extreme south-west corner of The Netherlands and may have been part of Flanders[88].  In addition, the land of Waas (Wasia) lay along the river Schelde around the town of Teemsche, east of Gasterna, and included the towns of Axel, Hulst, Assenede and Bouchoute[89]

 

Let us to turn to the formation and early expansion of the county of Holland as traced through contemporary charters.  The first attested reference to a count in the area is the charter dated [4 Aug] 889 under which Arnulf King of Germany granted property "inter Renum et Suithardeshaghe in comitatu ipsius in locis Northa et Osprehtashem" to "comes noster…Gerolfus"[90].  This refers to the area around the town of Tiel in Teisterband and the coastal area around Leiden at the mouth of the river Rhine[91].  Although "Suithardeshaghe" has not been identified, it probably lay between Leiden and Haarlem.  Gerulf was one of the two Frisian counts whom Regino records ("Gerolfum et Gardolfum comites Fresorum") as having been sent by Godefrid the Dane Duke of Frisia to Emperor Karl III "der Dicke" in 885[92].  The Annales Vedastini record that Godefrid was subsequently murdered in Herispich (Spijk, near Kleve) by a trick of "Gerulfi, sui fidelis"[93].  A purportedly earlier charter is dated "DCCC[C]LXVIII[I] Id Apr…regnante domno Loth[ario] anno XV", under which "Loth[arius]…rex" granted property "forestum Was[el]a" to "nostro fideli…Theoderico comiti" at the request of "coniunx nostra Hemma regina"[94].  The text of this charter contains contradictions which suggest that it is spurious.  "Hemma regina" was the wife of Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks, whereas Lothaire II was the king of Lotharingia (whose territory included the Low Countries) who had ruled for fifteen years in 869.  The Oorkondenboek van Holland en Zeeland dates this charter to 969, on the assumption that it refers to Count Dirk II, but if that is correct the grantee would have been Emperor Otto I.  If the correct date was 869, no other attested reference to a Count Dirk has been found around that time.  The issue is further confused by the Annales Egmundani, which state that Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks granted "forestum Aewasda" to "Theodorico comiti Hollandiæ" in 867 at the request of "Hemma regina", and incidentally also confirm that Count Dirk had been granted "Ekmundam…et aliis…inter Forthrepam et Sintherthes" in 863[95].  It is assumed that "forestum Was[el]a" and "forestum Aewasda" refer to Waasland in Flanders, to the south of the county of Holland, although if the charter is genuine this represents the only reference to the counts having extended their jurisdiction this far south. 

 

What appears to be a more reliable charter is dated "XVII Kal Iul…anno XXX regnante domno Karolo rege", under which "Karolus…rex Francorum" granted property "Suuithardeshaga usque Fortrapa et Kinnem" to "fideli nostro…Theoderico" in the presence of "Hagano…comes"[96], the last reference indicating that the grantee must be Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks whose favourite in the early 920s was Count Hagano.  The dating of this charter has also been misinterpreted from as early as the mid-14th century, when Beke's Chronologia records that Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks granted "ecclesia Egmondensem et Kinhem a Zuitgerdes-Haga" to "Theodrico fratri Walgeri principis" in 863 at the request of "comitis Haganonis"[97].  These two 869/969 and 863/921 charters have caused considerable problems in past reconstructions of the genealogy of the early counts of Holland, as discussed further below.  The next charter which confirms the territories of the county of Holland is dated 25 Aug 985, under which Otto III King of Germany recognised the rights in property "inter duo flumina que vocantur Liora et Hisla" and "in comitatibus Masalant, Kinhem, Texla" of "fideli nostro Theoderico comiti"[98].  The rivers Liora and Hisla are presently known as Lek and Hollandsche Ijssel (between Gouda and Rotterdam).  Masalant refers to the area now stretching from the Hook of Holland to where Rotterdam was later built, Kinheim is Kennermerland near Haarlem, and Texla is the island of Texel in the north of Holland.  No reference has been found to the counts of Holland being vassals of the dukes of Lower Lotharingia.  It is assumed therefore that the emperor was the direct suzerain of the county of Holland, until 1061 when it was annexed by the bishopric of Utrecht, the bishop taking advantage of the minority of Count Dirk V.  The transfer of vassalship was confirmed by Heinrich IV King of Germany by charter dated 30 Apr 1064, in which the territory was described as "comitatum omnem in Westflinge et circa horas Reni" which "Theodricus comes habuit"[99].  Beke's Chronologia records "Theodricus Hollandie, Henricus Gelrie, et Theodricus Clivie" as the principal vassals of the bishop of Utrecht in 1156[100]

 

Chapters 2 to 4 of the present document set out the families of the counts of Holland.  The genealogy of the early counts is reconstructed largely from two early-14th century sources, the Annales Egmundani and the Chronologia of Johannes de Beke, corroborated by the necrology of Egmond monastery (also attributed to Beke) as well as a probably spurious charter, dated 1083 but which is more likely dated to [1130], which recites the history of Egmond monastery.  These sources all agree that the first count of Holland was Dirk ["Theodericus"] who can be linked, from other primary sources, to the family of the earlier counts of Frisia who are shown in Chapter 1.  As mentioned above, the Annales and the Chronologia both claim that Count Dirk was granted land in the Low Countries in the mid-9th century.  However, these reported grants present considerable chronological difficulties, given that Count Dirk is also recorded in a charter dated 928 and that the death of his supposed son, Count Dirk II, is recorded in 988.  There are two possible solutions to the problem.  The simpler and probably correct explanation is that the dates have been misrepresented and that the grants should more accurately be dated to the late 9th or early 10th century.  This is supported by the fact that Lothaire II was king of Lotharingia until 869, so that neither King Charles II "le Chauve" nor King Ludwig II " der Deutsche" would have had jurisdiction over the county of Holland at the time.  The supposition concerning the misdating of these documents is corroborated by the text of one of the charters which must refer to Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks rather than Charles II "le Chauve".  A more complex solution to the problem is that the dates are correct, but that the 863/867 grantee was not Count Dirk I and that the reconstructed genealogy omits one or two generations.  The starting point for this latter hypothesis is that "Theodericus comes", recorded in charters dated 981[101] and 985[102], and identified with Count Dirk II whose death is recorded in 988, must have been born in [920/30].  As can be seen in Chapter 2, this estimated birth date range is calculated from the likely birth and marriage dates of Dirk II's known descendants, and appears reasonably robust.  If it is correct, Dirk II's father was probably born in [890/900].  It is therefore likely that he was the "Thiedrici comitis" who subscribed the 928 charter[103], and maybe also the "Theodericus comes" who is named in a 916 charter, assuming that he was born in the earlier part of this range[104].  If the 863/867 grantee was in early adult life when he received the grants, he was probably born in [825/40].  If the date is nearer 825, and Count Dirk I's birth nearer 900, the timespan is sufficient to include two intervening generations.  If nearer 840, and Count Dirk I's birth is nearer 890, a single intervening generation is indicated.  Other sources show that Count Dirk was the son of the Gerulf who was granted land by King Arnulf in 889.  If the dates of the 863/867 grants are correct, this would be consistent with the grantee being Gerulf's father, whose name is not otherwise known.  A third possible solution is proposed by Europäische Stammtafeln[105] which suggests inserting another Count Dirk ("Count Dietrich I bis") as a possible additional generation between Count Dirk I and Count Dirk II.  However, there appears insufficient time for another generation in the first half of the 10th century, assuming that the estimated birth dates of the different counts are correct as proposed above. 

 

There are many other examples of inaccuracies in the primary sources referred to above, in particular Beke's Chronographia.  These include the statements that the wife of Count Dirk II was allegedly "…filiam Ludovici regis Francie"[106] which appears chronologically impossible.  Also, the comment that the wife of Arnulf Count of Holland was "…filiam Theophani…imperatoris Grecorum et sororum Theophane imperatoris"[107] which is contradicted by other more reliable sources and must be incorrect.  Lastly, and most surprisingly, there are errors in the names and marriages of the children of Jan II Count of Holland (Jean II Comte de Hainaut), who were born in the later decades of the 13th century and were therefore still alive when the Chronographia was compiled[108].  These errors do not inspire confidence in this source.  However, there are few other surviving primary sources against which the information can be corroborated. 

 

Turning to the other counties in Frisia, their early development is obscure.  Chapters 5 to 11 of this document set out the known 9th to 11th century counts in the counties of Betuwe, Drenthe, Hamaland, the group of northern Frisian counties, Oostergo and Westergo, Teisterband, and Walcheren.  Insufficient information is known about counts in the other Frisian pagi/counties, named in the earlier part of this Introduction, to justify devoting separate chapters to them.  One of the puzzles is whether the counts were counts "of" these counties (implying territorial exclusivity) or counts "in" the counties (implying some form of territorial division within each county).  This is particularly relevant as many of the individual counts are recorded with property in more than one county.  Research into the early pagi/counties in neighbouring Saxony and Franconia (see GERMAN NOBILITY, SAXONY and FRANCONIA) suggests that there may have been more than one count in the larger counties at any one time.  This suggests in turn that the count's personal jurisdiction may have been limited to the area around his castles and that calling the whole regional division a "county", as if it constituted a fully functioning administrative unit, misrepresents the situation.  Unfortunately there is insufficient surviving primary source data to provide a definitive answer to this question, but it is undoubtedly one which deserves further research.  The dates when these other Frisian counties were incorporated into the county of Holland have not yet been traced, except for Oostergo and Westergo which according to Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium were transferred from the bishopric of Utrecht to the count of Holland in [1126][109].  This transfer was presumably prompted by the family relationship between Count Dirk VI and the emperor, the count's mother being Emperor Lothar's older uterine half-sister. 

 

This document also shows, in Chapter 12, the March of Frisia.  This was a short-lived imperial creation designed to provide greater control in times of rebellion and prevent incursions from Frisia into neighbouring Saxony and Franconia.  However, little precise information has been found in the primary sources concerning this March and its rulers, as is the case with the equally obscure marches of Antwerp and Valenciennes further to the south.  The Graven van Zutphen, which evolved in the early 11th century to the east of the county of Holland, are shown in Chapter 13.  Counts in the counties of Taxandrie (later the March of Antwerp), Tubalgo and Hattuaria, which lay mainly in areas outside the territory of the present-day Netherlands, are set out in the document LOWER LOTHARINGIAN NOBILITY.  Other counties, such as Gelderland and Kleve, which evolved in the early 12th century in the area which straddles both banks of the river Rhine in the south-eastern part of The Netherlands and western Germany, are shown in the document LOWER RHINE NOBILITY. 

 

I am grateful to Kees Nieuwenhuijsen for his help in identifying, and supplying copies of, sources used in researching the family of the counts of Holland and for reading and correcting an early draft of this Introduction. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    DUKES and COUNTS of the FRISIANS

 

 

A.      DUKES of the FRISIANS

.

 

1.         RATBOD (-719[110]).  Duke of Frisia.  The Continuator of Fredegar records that he was defeated by Pepin "le Gros", maior domus of Austrasia, at Duurstede in [692/97][111].  Bede records that "Pippinum ducem Francorem" expelled "Rathbedo rege" from Frisia and welcomed "Uilbrord presbyteri" to convert the population[112].  The Continuator of Fredegar records that Radbod made a treaty with Ragamfred maior domus of Neustria in [716][113].  The Annales Petaviani record that "Ratbodus" came to Köln in Mar 716[114].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Radbodus rex" died "apud insulam Fostenslandie"[115].  The Annales Petaviani record the death in 719 of "Ratbodus"[116]

a)         THEODESINDIS .  The Chronicon Moissiacense names "Thudsindam filiam Radbodi ducis" as wife of "Grimaldus"[117].  Her marriage is referred to by the Continuator of Fredegar[118].  Sigeberto's Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis refers to the betrothal of "Grimoaldus" and "Rabbodonis ducis Fresionum…filiæ"[119].  The date of the marriage is provided by the Annales Metenses which record the marriage in 711 of "Grimoaldus" and "filiam Radboldi ducis Frisionum"[120]m GRIMOALD son of PEPIN [II] maior domus of Austrasia and Neustria & his first wife Plectrudis --- (-murdered Liège Apr 714).  His father named him maiordomus in Neustria [695] and in Burgundy [700]. 

b)         [--- .  m ---.  This descent is specified in the Chronologia Johannes de Beke which records that "dominus Radbodus" was elected Bishop of Utrecht after the death of Bishop Egilbold (see below) and specifies that "Radbodus rex Frisie predictus ipsius matris attavus"[121].  It is not known how accurate this information is, nor whether the descent is through male or female lines.] 

i)          [--- .  m ---.] 

(a)       [--- .  m ---.] 

(1)       [daughter .  m ---.] 

a.         GÜNTHER (-after 871)Archbishop of Köln: the Annales Colonienses Brevissimi record "Guntarius episcopus Coloniæ XII Kal Mai" in 850[122].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "dominus Radbodus" was elected Bishop of Utrecht after the death of Bishop Egilbold and specifies that "Radbodus rex Frisie predictus ipsius matris attavus" and that "Guntarius archiepiscopus Coloniensis eius avunculus"[123].  The Cæsarii Heisterbacensis Catalogus of archbishops of Köln records that the concubine of "Lotharius" was "Waldradam, sororem Guntheri archiepiscopi Coloniensis" and that her brother encouraged Lothaire to leave his legitimate wife for Waldrada, for which he was excommunicated by the Pope[124].  He was deposed in 863 by Pope Nicholas I. 

b.         HILDUIN (-after 866).  The Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium records that "Hilduino" was elected Bishop of Cambrai[125] in 863, but his candidature was not accepted and he was expelled in 866[126].  The Annales Bertiniani record that, during the dispute with Rome which followed the divorce of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia, "Guntharius...per Hilduinum fratrem suum clericum" wrote to Rome in 864 and that “suprascriptus...Hilduinus” forcibly entered St Peter´s “cum hominibus Guntharii”, killing one of the guards[127].  The Annales Bertiniani record in 866 that King Lothaire II removed “episcopium Coloniense” from “Hugone” and appointed "Hilduino fratri Guntharii", adding that Hilduin also governed “ecclesia Treverensis[128]

c.         daughter .  Her family origin is confirmed by the Kronik van Arent toe Bocop which names "Radeboldus der Vriessen" as ancestor of the mother of "Radeboldus", installed as fourteenth bishop of Utrecht in 901, and "die byscop van Collen" as his mother´s brother[129]m ---.  One child: 

(i)         RATBOD (-30 Nov 917).  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop names "Radeboldus der Vriessen" as ancestor of the mother of "Radeboldus", installed as fourteenth bishop of Utrecht in 901, and "die byscop van Collen" as his mother´s brother[130]Bishop of Utrecht 901.  The Vita Radbodi records that he was "ab…Francorum parentibus…patriam rustice Lomochanum"[131], which Vanderkindere takes to be a reference to the pagus Lommensis, later Namur[132].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "dominus Radbodus" was elected Bishop of Utrecht after the death of Bishop Egilbold and specifies that "Radbodus rex Frisie predictus ipsius matris attavus" and that "Guntarius archiepiscopus Coloniensis eius avunculus"[133].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "917 III Kal Dec" of "sanctus Radbodus 14 episcopus Traiectensis"[134].  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "Radeboldus" bishop of Utrecht died in 927[135]

d.         [WALDRADA (-9 Apr after 868).  One manuscript of the Gesta Treverorum names "Waldradam sororem…Guntheri Coloniensis archiepiscopus" when recording her adulterous relationship with King Lothaire II[136].  The Cæsarii Heisterbacensis Catalogus of archbishops of Köln records that the concubine of "Lotharius" was "Waldradam, sororem Guntheri archiepiscopi Coloniensis" and that her brother encouraged Lothaire to leave his legitimate wife for Waldrada, for which he was excommunicated by the Pope[137]The Annales Novesienses record that “Guntherus episcopus Coloniensis” had sororem…Vastradam…aliis Waldradam” whom “dux Lotharingiæ Lotharius…superdixit” after her brother approved his divorce from “legitima uxore Tyberga[138]According to Baron Ernouf[139], Gunther archbishop of Köln was uncle of Waldrada and Thetgaud archbishop of Trier was her brother, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  The Annales Bertiniani names "Hlotharius Waldradam concubinam" when recording that Lothaire purported to marry her in 862 and crowned her with the support of "Liutfrido avunculo suo et Waltario"[140].  Waldrada was also related to the Etichonen Grafen im Nordgau (ALSACE), as shown by the Vita Sancti Deicoli which names "Waldrada…Heberardo comitis consanguinitatis"[141], but the precise relationship is not known.  Folcuin records King Lothaire's excommunication after repudiating his wife for Waldrada[142].  King Lothaire purported to marry Waldrada in [Aug/Sep] 862 and crowned her as Queen, but this was not recognised by the church[143].  She became a nun at Remiremont.  Mistress (from [855]) of LOTHAIRE II King of Lotharingia, son of Emperor LOTHAIRE I King of Lotharingia & his wife Ermengarde de Tours (-Piacenza 8 Aug 868). 

e.         [THETGAUD [Dietgod] (-29 Sep 868).  Archbishop of Trier 847.  According to Baron Ernouf[144], Gunther archbishop of Köln was uncle of Waldrada and Thetgaud archbishop of Trier was her brother, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.] 

(2)       [--- m ---, relative of Eberhard [III] Graf im Nordgau, [son/daughter] of ---.  The Vita Sancti Deicoli names "Waldrada…Heberardo comitis consanguinitatis" as concubine of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia[145], Waldrada being described in another source as sister of Gunther Archbishop of Köln (see above).  The precise relationship with the Alsatian Grafen im Nordgau is unknown.  It is provisionally represented here as through the family of the archbishop's mother, whose name and origin are otherwise unknown, but this is solely for the purpose of introducing the hyperlink to the document ALSACE and must not be assumed to be correct.] 

(3)       [HILDUIN (-after 870).  The Annales Xantenses refer to “Guntharius” [archbishop of Köln] as “nepos...Hildiwini iunioris” in 864[146].  It is not known whether the relationship was through the archbishop´s maternal or paternal family.  The Annales Xantenses records that Charles II “le Chauve” King of the Franks invaded Aachen, and while “in Pertinaria” and noting that “Guntharium” [archbishop of Köln] had been expelled “de loco suo”, sent “Hilduvinum quendam nepotem eiusdem” to Köln to take the archbishopric in 870, after having him ordained by the bishop of Liège[147].  Regino records that King Charles II proposed “Hilduinum abbatem” as archbishop of Köln and had him ordained “in Aquis palatio” by “Francone episcopo Tungrensis dioceseos[148]same person as...?  HILDUIN (-Quierzy 7 Jun 877, bur Saint-Bertin).  Abbé de Saint-Bertin.  Lot suggests that “Pertinaria”, in the 870 passage in the Annales Xantenses, indicates Saint-Bertin and therefore suggests that this co-identity is correct[149].  This hypothesis is supported by Regino´s description of “Hilduinum abbatem”, although he does not specify the location of which he was abbot.  The cartulary of Saint-Bertin records that King Charles II “le Chauve” removed "Humfrido" as abbot of Saint-Bertin and in 866 “XIII Kal Jul” appointed in his place “Hilduino canonico”, who had recently become his supporter after defecting from King Lothaire II (“nuper de Lotharii senioratu ad se converso”)[150].  The cartulary of Saint-Bertin records the death in 877 "in Karisiaco regali palatio...VII Id Jun" of “abbate Hilduino[151].] 

 

2.         POPPO (-killed in battle River Bordo 736).  Duke of Frisia.  The Annales Metenses record that in 736 the forces of Charles "Martel" arrived "ad Wistriamchi et Wastrachia insulas" and killed "Poponem…ducem illorum" while capturing the castle "super Bordinem…fluvium"[152]m ---.  The name of Poppo's wife is not known.  Poppo & his wife had one child: 

a)         ALFBAD (-before 786).  Hugo Jaekel names Alfbad as son of Poppo and Graaf van Oostergo en Westergo, dying before 786[153], although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  

 

1.         WURSINGUS .  The Vita Sancti Ludgeri records at the time of "Radbodi regis Fresonum", a nobleman "Wursingus cognomento Ado"[154]m ADALGARDA, daughter of ---.  The Vita Sancti Ludgeri names "Adalgarda" or "Adalburch" the wife of "Wursingus cognomento Ado"[155]

a)         NOTGRIM .  The Vita Sancti Ludgeri names "Nothgrimo" son of "Wursingus cognomento Ado" & his wife, specifying that he joined "ducem Francorum nomine Grifo"[156]m ---.  The name of Notgrim's wife is not known. 

i)          daughters .  The Vita Sancti Ludgeri records that "Notgrimus" had three daughters (unnamed), specifying that their descendants included "sancto Willibrordo cum sancto Bonifatio" without giving details of these descents[157]

b)         THIATGRIM .  The Vita Sancti Ludgeri names "Thiatgrimus filius iunior Wursingi"[158]m LIAFBURCH, daughter of NOTRAD & his wife Adelburga ---.  The Vita Sancti Ludgeri names "Liafburch filiam Nothradi et Adelburgæ" wife of "Thiatgrimus filius iunior Wursingi", as well as her brothers "maior Wullibrat, minor Thyatbrat"[159]

i)          LIUTGER .  The Vita Sancti Ludgeri names "sancto Liutgero filius Thiatgrimus"[160]

ii)         [---.  m ---.] 

(a)       GERFRID .  The Vita Sancti Ludgeri names "Gerfridus nepos eius [=Liutgeri]" when recording that he succeeded Liutger[161]

 

 

1.         GODEFRID, son of HARALD "Klak" King of Denmark & his wife --- (-murdered Jun 885).  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Godefridus, Herioldi Dani filius", who had been baptised at Mainz during the reign of Emperor Louis, defected from Emperor Lothar in 852, raided Frisia, and sailed up the Scheldt and the Seine[162].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Nordmanni Godafredo duce" sailed up the Seine in 850 and that Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks granted him territory, without specifying where this was[163].  He lost control of Rüstringen in 856.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Roric et Godofridus" returned to Denmark after Emperor Lothaire gave Frisia to his son Lothaire in 855, but recovered most of Frisia at the end of the same year, establishing themselves at Dorestad[164]Duke [of Frisia] 882.  The Annales Fuldenses names "Nortmannorum…cum ipsis regibus…Sigifredo et Godofrido, principis Vurm, Hals" when recording a Viking attack in 882, in another manuscript recording the baptism of "Gotafridum" and that he was given "comitatus et benefice qua Rorich Nordmannus…in Kinnin [Kennemerland]" held from the Frankish kings[165].  The Annales Vedastini record that "Godefridus…rex" was granted land which "olim Roricus Danus tenuerat" in 882[166].  Regino records that "Everhardi comitis" killed "Godefridi" in 885[167].  The Annales Vedastini record that "Godefridus Danus" was killed in the city of "Gerulfi sui fidelis" by "Heinrico duce" in 885[168]

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         EBERHARD, son of MEGINHARD & his wife Evesa --- (-murdered 898)Regino names "Eberhardus Saxo, filius Meginhardi comitis" when recording his capture in 881[169].  Regino records that "Everhardi comitis" killed "Godefridi" in 885[170].  Regino records that "Everhardi comitis" killed "Godefridi" in 885[171]Duke [of Frisia] 885.  Regino records that "Eworhardus dux, filius Meginhardi" was hunted out and killed in 898 "a Waltgario Fresone, filio Gerulfi" and that the emperor granted "ducatus" to "Meginhardo fratri"[172]

2.         MEGINHARD, son of MEGINHARD & his wife Evesa --- .  Regino records that "Eworhardus dux, filius Meginhardi" was hunted out and killed in 898 "a Waltgario Fresone, filio Gerulfi" and that the emperor granted "ducatus" to "Meginhardo fratri"[173]Duke [of Frisia] 898.  same person as…?  MEGINHARD ([870/80]-[after 938]).  No direct proof has yet been found confirming the co-identity of these two individuals but it looks highly probable.  A document dated 7 Nov 921 recording a meeting between King Charles III and King Heinrich I names "Evrardus, Chonradus, Herimannus, Hato, Godefredus, Otto, Herimannus, Cobbo, Magenhardus, Fridericus, Foldac" as representatives of the latter[174]Graaf van Hamaland

-        GRAVEN van HAMALAND

 

 

 

B.      COUNTS of the FRISIANS

 

 

Common use of the names Theoderic [Dirk] and Ratbod suggests that the following individuals and small family group were related, but the precise relationship cannot be identified.  The name Ratbod also suggests descent from Radbod Duke of Frisia. 

 

1.         NORDALAH (-810).  Vanderkindere names Nordalah as "comes et advocatus Fresonum", suggests that he was the brother of Theoderic [I] (see CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY), and adds that he died in 810[175], although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. 

 

2.         THEODERIC [Deodredus/Dirk] (-820 or after).  "Deodredus…comes" donated property "hereditatis mee in villa…Antlida…in villa…Federwrt…[et] in villa…Creslinge" to Fulda in [820][176]

 

3.         GEROLF (-after 839).  Graaf van Westergo.  Emperor Louis I restored property to "Gerulfo fideli suo" by charter dated 839[177].  m ---.  The name of Gerolf's wife is not known.  Gerolf & his wife had [one] child: 

a)         [GERHART (-855).  Vanderkindere names Gerhart as son of Gerolf and count in Frisia between 834 and 855[178], although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.]  m ---.  The name of Gerhart's wife is not known.  Gerhart & his wife had [one] child: 

i)          [WIGGING (-[873]).  Vanderkindere names Wigging as son of Gerhart[179], although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.] 

 

4.         RATBOD (-after [870]).  A document of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 21 Mar 858 is subscribed by "Hungarius, Engilramnus, Isembardus, Odo, Osbertus, Ratbodus, Hunfridus, Odalricus, Rhodulfus, Engilschalcus, Herluinus, Hitto"[180].  An agreement between Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks dated Jun 860 names "nobilis ac fidelibus laicis…Chuonradus, Evrardus, Adalardus, Arnustus, Warnarius, Liutfridus, Hruodolfus, Erkingarius, Gislebertus, Ratbodus, Arnulfus, Hugo, item Chuonradus, Liutharius, Berengarius, Matfridus, Boso, Sigeri, Hartmannus, Liuthardus, Richuinus, Wigricus, Hunfridus, Bernoldus, Hatto, Adalbertus, Burchardus, Christianus, Leutulfus, Hessi, Herimannus, item Hruodulfus, Sigehardus"[181].  Guillaume de Jumièges records that “Rollo” attacked “Walgrenses...gens barbara”, devastated “in Walgras” allied with “Alstemus rex Anglorum”, and defeated “Rainerium Longi-colli Hasbacensme et Hainaucensem ducem et Radebodum Frisiæ regionis principem” whose help “Walgris” had sought[182], maybe dateable to [870]. 

 

5.         GEROLF (-after [4 Aug] 889)Count of FrisiaRegino names "Gerolfum et Gardolfum comites Fresorum", sent by "Godefridem" as legates to the emperor after Hugo, son of King Lothar, rebelled in 885[183].  The Annales Vedastini record that "Godefridus Danus" was killed in the city of "Gerulfi sui fidelis" by "Heinrico duce" in 885[184].  "Arnolfus…rex" granted property "inter Renum et Suithardeshaghe in comitatu ipsius in locis Northa et Osprehtashem" to "comes noster…Gerolfus" by charter dated [4 Aug] 889[185].  This is the area around the town of Tiel in Teisterband and the coastal area around Leiden at the mouth of the river Rhine[186]m ---.  The name of Gerolf's wife is not known.  Gerolf & his wife had two children:  

a)         WALTGER (-after 928).  Regino names "Ramnulfum et fratrem eius Gozbertum et Ebulonem abbatum de sancto Dionysio" when recording their battle against "Waltgerius comes" in Jul 892[187]Graaf van Lek en Ijssel: Otto I King of Germany donated property "in pago Lake et Isla quod Waltgerus et postea filius eius Ratbotus" held to the church of Utrecht by charter dated 17 Jul 944[188].  Regino records that "Eworhardus dux, filius Meginhardi" was hunted out and killed in 898 "a Waltgario Fresone, filio Gerulfi" and that the emperor granted "ducatus" to "Meginhardo fratri"[189].  "Chuonradus…rex" confirmed property to the bishopric of Utrecht at the request of "Udonem consanguineum nostrum Vualdgerumque comitum" by charter dated 9 Jul 914[190].  Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks restored Kloster Susteren to the abbey of Prüm by charter dated 19 Jan 916 which names "fidelium nostrorum…Theodericus comes…Uualcherus comes"[191].  "Gysalbertus dux rectorque S. Traiectenses ecclesie" donated property "Gulisam…in pago [Ardunensi] in comitatu Everhardi" to Trier by charter dated 928, subscribed by "Walgeri comitis, Thiedrici comitis, Cristiani comitis, Folcoldi comitis"[192].  "Otto…rex" granted property "monasterium in loco Tiela" including rights previously conceded by "Waldgero et a filio eius Radbodone nec non et Hattone" by charter dated 20 Apr 950[193], Tiel being located in the county of Teisterband.  "Otto…rex" granted property "villa Amuda quod Waldgero iam olim" held and "terram quam Hatto in loco Eki" to the church of Utrecht by charter dated 21 Apr 953[194]m ALBERADA, daughter of ---.  Alpertus names "quodam comite Waltgero" as founder of "monasterium quoque sanctæ Walburgæ" and "suo coniuge…Alberada"[195].  Waltger & his wife had one child: 

i)          RATBOD (-[before 17 Jul 944]).  Graaf van Lek en Ijssel: Otto I King of Germany donated property "in pago Lake et Isla quod Waltgerus et postea filius eius Ratbotus" held to the church of Utrecht by charter dated 17 Jul 944[196].  This is the land between the rivers Lek and Hollandsche Ijssel, between the modern cities of Rotterdam and Gouda[197].  There is no indication in the charter whether the property in question had lapsed to the crown because Radbod had died without heirs or that it had been confiscated.  "Otto…rex" granted property "monasterium in loco Tiela" including rights previously conceded by "Waldgero et a filio eius Radbodone nec non et Hattone" by charter dated 20 Apr 950[198]

ii)         [--- .  m HATTO, son of --- (-before 20 Apr 950).  "Otto…rex" granted property "monasterium in loco Tiela" including rights previously conceded by "Waldgero et a filio eius Radbodone nec non et Hattone" by charter dated 20 Apr 950[199].  "Otto…rex" granted property "villa Amuda quod Waldgero iam olim" held and "terram quam Hatto in loco Eki" to the church of Utrecht by charter dated 21 Apr 953[200].  Both of these charters suggest that Hatto may have been related to Waldger, although it is unlikely that the text of the 950 document should be interpreted as meaning that Hatto was a younger son of Waltger.  He is suggested as Waltger's possible son-in-law, but this is pure speculation.  No other references have been found to Hatto.] 

b)         DIRK [Theoderic] (-6 Oct, 928 or after, maybe after 8 Jul 949, bur Egmond).  His parentage is deduced from the Chronologia Johannes de Beke which records that Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks granted "ecclesia Egmondensem et Kinhem a Zuitgerdes-Haga" to "Theodrico fratri Walgeri principis" in 863 at the request of "comitis Haganonis"[201], although as explained in the Introduction there are considerable chronological difficulties with this text.  The same grant of land is also referred to in a later charter[202], as shown in detail below, but unfortunately the document does not refer to Dirk's family relationship with Waltger.  He is known to history as DIRK I Count of Holland, although it is unlikely that he used this territorial epithet at the time. 

-        see Chapter 2. COUNTS of HOLLAND

6.         [GARDOLFRegino names "Gerolfum et Gardolfum comites Fresorum", sent by "Godefridem" as legates to the emperor after Hugo, son of King Lothar, rebelled in 885[203].  The relationship, if any, between the two counts Gerolf and Gardolf is not known but it is possible that they were brothers or otherwise closely related.  "Otto…imperator augustus" donated property "insule…in Almere Urch…in comitatu Ekberti comitis" previously held by "Gardolfus iam quondam comes" to Kloster St Pantaleon, Köln by undated charter, included in the compilation with other charters dated early 966[204].  Gardolf was presumably the same person as the supposed brother of Gerolf.] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    COUNTS OF HOLLAND [900]-1299

 

 

DIRK, son of GEROLF Count [of Frisia] & his wife --- (-6 Oct, 928 or after, maybe after 8 Jul 949, bur Egmond).  His parentage is deduced from the Chronologia Johannes de Beke which records that Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks granted "ecclesia Egmondensem et Kinhem a Zuitgerdes-Haga" to "Theodrico fratri Walgeri principis" in 863 at the request of "comitis Haganonis"[205], although as explained in the Introduction to the present document there are considerable chronological difficulties with accepting the dating of this text.  The same grant of land is also referred to in the charter dated "XVII Kal Iul…anno XXX regnante domno Karolo rege", under which "Karolus…rex Francorum" granted property "Suuithardeshaga usque Fortrapa et Kinnem" to "fideli nostro…Theoderico" in the presence of "Hagano…comes"[206], which is more credible from a chronological point of view, on the assumption that "Karolus…rex Francorum" is Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks not Charles II "le Chauve".  The document makes no reference to Dirk's family relationship with Waltger.  The Annales Egmundani state that Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks granted "forestum Aewasda" to "Theodorico comiti Hollandiæ" in 867 at the request of "Hemma regina", and incidentally also confirm that the same Count Dirk had been granted "Ekmundam…et aliis…inter Forthrepam et Sintherthes" in 863[207].  This text is also dubious from a chronological point of view.  The corresponding charter is dated "DCCC[C]LXVIII[I] Id Apr…regnante domno Loth[ario] anno XV", under which "Loth[arius]…rex" granted property "forestum Was[el]a" to "nostro fideli…Theoderico comiti" at the request of "coniunx nostra Hemma regina"[208], although the text contains contradictions which suggest that it is spurious.  "Hemma regina" was the wife of Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks, whereas Lothaire II was the king of Lotharingia (whose territory included the Low Countries) who had ruled for fifteen years in 869.  The Oorkondenboek van Holland en Zeeland dates this charter to 969, on the assumption that it refers to Count Dirk II, but if that is correct the grantee would have been Emperor Otto I.  On the other hand, if the correct date was 869, the only other reference to a Count Dirk around that time is the dubious reference in Beke's Chronologia.  He is known to history as DIRK I Count of Holland, although it is unlikely that he used this territorial epithet at the time.  He founded the monastery at Egmond.  "Theodericus…Holtlandensis comes…Florentii filius" recites the ownership history of properties claimed by the church of Utrecht in Holland, including the foundation of Egmond church by "Theodericus, frater Waldgeri, cum legitima coniuge sua Geua", by spurious charter dated 26 Jul 1083, probably written in [1130][209].  Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks restored Kloster Susteren to the abbey of Prüm by charter dated 19 Jan 916 which names "fidelium nostrorum…Widricus comes palatii, Richuuinus comes, Gislebertus, Matfridus, Beringerius comites, Theodericus comes, Reinherus comes, Erleboldus comes, Uualcherus comes"[210].  "Gysalbertus dux rectorque S. Traiectenses ecclesie" donated property "Gulisam…in pago [Ardunensi] in comitatu Everhardi" to Trier by charter dated 928, subscribed by "Walgeri comitis, Thiedrici comitis, Cristiani comitis, Folcoldi comitis"[211].  Flodoard's Annals record that "Gislebertus…dux et Otho, Isaac atque Theodericus comites" offered the French crown to Louis IV "d'Outremer" King of the West Franks in 939[212].  "Dominus Theodericus comes…cum…coniuge sua…Geva" donated property "in villa Franla…in villa Allecmere…in villa Callinge" to the church of Egmond, and "dominus Theodericus junior filius prefati Theoderici" exchanged property "in orientali parte fluminis…Fle" for property "in villa Nienthorp", by undated charter[213].  "Theoderici" is named in charters dated Dec 941 and 11 Mar 948, and "Teoderici comitis" is named in charters dated 10 Jul [936/41] and 8 Jul 949[214].  It is not known whether these later names refer to Dirk I or Dirk II.  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "900 Pridie Non Oct" of "Theodericus primus comes" and his burial at Egmond[215], although the year is inconsistent with the other sources cited above. 

m GEVA, daughter of --- (-11 Jan ----, bur Egmond).  The Annales Egmundani name "Geva comitissa" as wife of "Theodericus primus comes [Hollandensium]"[216].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke also records that "Theodricus primus Hollandie comes" married "matronam nobilem…Ghevam"[217].  "Dominus Theodericus comes…cum…coniuge sua…Geva" donated property "in villa Franla…in villa Allecmere…in villa Callinge" to the church of Egmond, and "dominus Theodericus junior filius prefati Theoderici" exchanged property "in orientali parte fluminis…Fle" for property "in villa Nienthorp", by undated charter[218].  "Theodericus…Holtlandensis comes…Florentii filius" recites the ownership history of properties claimed by the church of Utrecht in Holland, including the foundation of Egmond church by "Theodericus, frater Waldgeri, cum legitima coniuge sua Geua", by spurious charter dated 26 Jul 1083, probably written in [1130][219].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "III Id Jan" of "Geva prima comitissa uxor Theoderici" and her burial at Egmond[220]

Dirk I & his wife had one child: 

1.         DIRK ([920/30]-Egmond 6 May 988, bur Egmond).  The Annales Egmundani name "Theodericus secundus comes filius Theoderici primi"[221].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Theodricus…secundus Hollandie comes" was the only son of "Theodricus primus Hollandie comes" & his wife[222].  His birth date range is calculated from his own estimated marriage date and the estimated dates of birth of his descendants.  "Dominus Theodericus comes…cum…coniuge sua…Geva" donated property "in villa Franla…in villa Allecmere…in villa Callinge" to the church of Egmond, and "dominus Theodericus junior filius prefati Theoderici" exchanged property "in orientali parte fluminis…Fle" for property "in villa Nienthorp", by undated charter[223].  He succeeded his father as DIRK II Count of Holland, although the date is not known.  "…Isaac comitis, Arnulfi filii eius, Theoderici comitis…" signed the charter dated 8 Jul 941 under which "Arnulfus…regis…marchysus" restored property to Saint-Pierre de Gand[224], although it is not known whether this charter refers to Count Dirk I or Count Dirk II.  "Theoderici comitis" subscribed charters dated 5 May [951/963], 29 Jul [955/64], 18 Oct 962, 28 Mar 967, 13 Apr 969 and 31 Jan 972[225].  "…Baldwini advocati, Theoderici comitis…" signed the charter dated 5 May 962 under which "Arnulfus marchysus" donated property to Saint-Pierre de Gand[226].  According to Nicholas, after the death of Arnoul I Count of Flanders in 964, Count Dirk occupied Gent and Waas, taking advantage of the weakness of the government of the county of Flanders during the minority of Count Arnoul II[227].  However, this may be speculation based on an interpretation of the charter dated "DCCC[C]LXVIII[I] Id Apr…regnante domno Loth[ario] anno XV", under which "Loth[arius]…rex" granted property "forestum Was[el]a" to "nostro fideli…Theoderico comiti" at the request of "coniunx nostra Hemma regina"[228].  As explained above, it is likely that this charter is spurious.  On the other hand, the charter dated 28 Mar 965 under which "Theodericus comes et Baldwinus cognomento Baldzo et Ericus et Everwinus" donated property to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "senioris sui Arnulfi defuncti"[229], demonstrates that Count Dirk played an active role in Gand after the death of Count Arnoul I.  The charters dated 11 Apr 969 under which "Theodericus comes" donated "sui iuris possessionem…Frilingim in pago Flandrensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[230], and 30 Sep 972 under which "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" donated "sui iuris sitam in pago Flandrensi…Clehiham" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[231] show that other parts of Flanders were included in Count Dirk´s area of influence.  "Thodericus…comes et Baduuinus et Ericus et Eueruuinus" donated property "sui iuris possessionem…Vualehem…in comitatum Custricense seu Tornacinse" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, in accordance with the wishes of "senioris mei Arnulfi defuncti", by charter dated 28 Mar 964[232].  "Theoderico comite et Arnulfo filio eius, Folberto advocato…Ingelberto advocato…" signed the charter dated 26 Oct 970 under which "Mathelgodus et uxor sua Ingelswindis" donated "hereditatem sue possessionis in loco…Wessingim…Siringim…in pago Bracbantensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[233].  "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" donated "in villa Haleftra in pago Mempesco sita" to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 2 Oct 974, signed by "Arnulfo juniore marchyso, Ingelberto advocato, Hecberto et Arnulfo filiis ipsius Theoderici…"[234].  Egbert Archbishop of Trier donated property "de beneficio Luthardi comitis…mortuo sine herede" to St Paul at Trier by charter dated 981, subscribed by "Theoderici comitis…"[235].  "Otto…rex" recognised the rights in property "in comitatibus Masalant, Kinhem, Texla" of "fideli nostro Theoderico comiti" by charter dated 25 Aug 985[236].  This refers to the area now known as the Hook of Holland, where Rotterdam was later built, as far north as Gouda, Kennermerland near Haarlem, and the island of Texel in the north of Holland[237].  "…Theoderico comite, Arnulfo comite, Artoldo comite, Baldwino comite, item Arnulfo comite…" signed the charter dated 1 Apr 988 under which "Baldwinus marchysus cum matre sua Susanna" donated "villam Aflingehem…jacentem in pago Tornacinse" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, after the death of "Arnulfi marchysi"[238].  The Annales Egmundani record the death in 988 of "Theodericus II comes"[239].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "988 II Non Mai" of "domino Theodricus secundus comes Hollandie" and his burial at Egmond monastery[240].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "988 pridie Non Mai" of "Theodericus 2 comes"[241]m ([945/50]) HILDEGARD, daughter of --- (before 933-10 Apr 990, bur Egmond).  "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" are named in a charter dated Oct [967/79][242].  "Theoderici et Hildegardis" subscribed a charter dated 30 Sep 975, before "Arnulfi filii eorum [Theoderici et Hildegardis]"[243].  The Annales Egmundani name "Hildegardis comitissa" as wife of "Theodericus comes secundus [Hollandensium]" but do not give her origin[244].  "Theodericus…Holtlandensis comes…Florentii filius" recites the ownership history of properties claimed by the church of Utrecht in Holland, including the further construction of the church by "Theodericus secundus, predicti filius, cum Hildegarda coniuge sua", by spurious charter dated 26 Jul 1083, probably written in [1130][245].  According to Rösch[246], she was Hildegard de Flandre, daughter of Arnoul I Count of Flanders, but he cites no primary source on which this is based.  Her naming her two sons Arnulf and Egbert suggests that the affiliation may be correct.  Boer & Cordfunke refer to a 938 meeting, between Count Dirk I, Count Meginhard of Hamaland, and Count Arnulf I of Flanders and his wife Adela, to arrange the betrothals of Hildegard of Flanders and Count Dirk II (son of Count Dirk I), and of her sister Liutgard and Wichmann of Hamaland (son of Count Meginhard)[247].  The meeting is alleged to be recorded in the Verbrüderungsbuch der Abtei Reichenau, but no trace of this has been found in the copy consulted[248].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, Hildegard was the daughter of Count Arnoul & his wife Adela de Vermandois and born in [934][249].  However, from a chronological point of view it is more likely that Hildegard was born from an earlier unknown marriage of Count Arnoul, as explained in the document FLANDERS, assuming that she was Count Arnoul's daughter.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that Count Dirk II married "Hildegardim (ut creditor) filiam Ludovici regis Francie"[250].  This is chronologically impossible, assuming that the birth date of Arnoul Count of Holland is correctly estimated as shown below, as Hildegard daughter of Louis III King of France would have been too old for the marriage and any daughter of Louis IV King of France would have been too young.  It is also unlikely that the wife of Count Dirk II was Hildegard, daughter of Charles III "le Simple" King of France, whose birth date is estimated to [908/12].  There therefore seems no possibility that the Chronologia could even be partially correct in assigning this possible Carolingian French origin to Dirk's wife, although it is curious how this origin came to be included in the source.  "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" donated "sui iuris sitam in pago Flandrensi…Clehiham" to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 30 Sep 972[251].  "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" donated "in villa Haleftra in pago Mempesco sita" to Saint-Pierre de Gand by charter dated 2 Oct 974[252].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "III Id Apr" of "Hildegardis…sua conthoralis" and her burial at Egmond monastery[253].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "IV Id Apr" of "Hildegardis uxor [Theoderici 2 comitis] filia Ludovici regis Francie"[254]Europäische Stammtafeln shows 990 as her year of death[255], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  Count Dirk II & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         ARNULF ([Gent] [950/55]-killed in battle Winkel, West-Friesland 18 Sep 993, bur Egmond).  The Annales Egmundani name "Arnulfus filius eius [=Theoderici II comitis]" when recording that he succeeded his father[256].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Arnulfum comitem, Egbertum Treverensem archiepiscopum ac Arlindam puellam" as the children of Count Dirk II & his wife[257].  "Arnulfi comitum" subscribed a charter dated 29 Jun [955/64], signing directly after "Theoderici comitis"[258].  "Theoderico comite et Arnulfo filio eius, Folberto advocato…Ingelberto advocato…" signed the charter dated 26 Oct 970 under which "Mathelgodus et uxor sua Ingelswindis" donated "hereditatem sue possessionis in loco…Wessingim…Siringim…in pago Bracbantensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[259].  "…Hecberto et Arnulfo filiis ipsius Theoderici…" signed the charter dated 2 Oct 974 under which "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" donated "in villa Haleftra in pago Mempesco sita" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[260].  "Arnulpho filio Theoderici comitis" is named in a charter dated 30 Sep 975, subscribed by "Arnulfi filii eorum [Theoderici et Hildegardis]"[261].  "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" and "Hecberto et Arnulfo filiis ipsius Theoderici" are named in a charter dated Oct [967/79][262].  "Arnulfus filius Theoderici comitis et Arnulfus filius Hildwini" donated "in pago Taruennensis…in Rumingehim et in Keremberg, in pago Flandrensi…in Uckesham et super Gersta" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, at the request of "Everardi et filii eius Baldwini nepotis sui", by charter dated 4 Mar 981, signed by "Arnulfi junioris…marchysi, Theoderici comitis…Ingelberti advocati…"[263].  "…Theoderico comite, Arnulfo comite…" signed the charter dated 1 Apr 988 under which "Baldwinus marchysus cum matre sua Susanna" donated "villam Aflingehem…jacentem in pago Tornacinse" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, after the death of "Arnulfi marchysi"[264].  He succeeded his father in 988 as ARNULF Count of Holland.  "Arnulfi comitum" subscribed a charter dated 20 May 988[265], the first charter included in the compilation which he signed without his father.  He was killed in battle against the Frisians[266], although this is doubted by de Boer & Cordfunke who suggest that he was killed at the mouth of the river Rhine as the quarrels with the West Frisians started much later[267].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death in battle "Winckel apud pagum Westfrisie…993 XIV Kal Oct" of "Arnulfus comes" and his burial at Egmond[268]m (Betrothed 980) LIUTGARD de Luxembourg, daughter of SIEGFRIED Count [of Luxembourg] & his wife Hedwig --- ([965/70]-14 May, after 1005, bur Egmond).  The Annales Egmundani name "Lutgarda comitissa" as wife of "Arnulphus comes tertius [Hollandensium]" but do not give her origin, specifying in a later passage that they were "legally" betrothed in 980 at "coram rege Ottone"[269].  Her origin is indicated by Thietmar who names "the queen's sister Liudgard", recording that "the king attacked the Frisians with a fleet…to placate [her] fury", dated to [May/Jun] 1005 from the context of the text[270].  Her origin is confirmed by the necrology of Ranshofen which records the death "III Id May" of "Liukart com soror Chunigundis imperatricis"[271].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that the wife of "Arnulfus tercius comes Hollandie" was "Lutgardim, filiam Theophani…imperatoris Grecorum et sororum Theophane imperatoris"[272], but this is clearly inconsistent with all other primary sources consulted.  "Theodericus comes cum matre sua Lietgarda" donated "alodum suum situm secus fluvium Scaldum in pago Gandensi seu Tornacensi in vulla Rucga" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "patris sui Arnulfi", by charter dated 20 Sep 995[273].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "II Id Mai" of "Lutgardis…sua collateralis" and her burial at Egmond[274].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "pridie Id Mai" of "Lutgairdis uxor eius [Arnulfi comitis] filia regis Grecorum"[275].  According to the Preface of Vitæ Heinrici et Cunegundis Imperatores, "Liukart comitissa, soror Chunigundis imperatricis, obiit II Non Iulii"[276], but this date is inconsistent with other primary sources.  Count Arnulf & his wife had [three] children: 

i)          DIRK ([981/90]-27 May 1039).  The Annales Egmundani name "Theodricus III filius eius [=Arnulfi comitis]" when recording that he succeeded his father[277].  He succeeded his father in 993 as DIRK III Count of Holland.   

-         see below

ii)         SIGFRID [Sicco] (-5 Jun 1030, bur Egmond).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum succedentem comitem…et Sifridum sive Sicconem presidem" as the children of Count Dirk III & his wife[278].  "Theodericus…Holtlandensis comes…Florentii filius" recites the ownership history of properties claimed by the church of Utrecht in Holland, including the foundation of Egmond church by "Theodericus, frater Waldgeri, cum legitima coniuge sua Geua", the further construction of the church by "Theodericus secundus, predicti filius, cum Hildegarda coniuge sua", donations by "Sifridus cognomento Sicco, predicti frater Theoderici", by spurious charter dated 26 Jul 1083, probably written in [1130], which also names "Othelhilda uxore mea"[279].  The Liber Sancti Adalberti (written [1214] in Egmond) records that "Arnulfus…ex Liutgarda" had "duos filios Theodericum et Sifridum", specifying that the latter was buried "ante crucem in templo"[280].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "1030 V die Iunii" of "Sifridus Sicco", and his burial "cum Thetburga coniuge" in the church of Egmond[281]m TETBURGA, daughter of --- (-27 Jan ----, bur Egmond).  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "1030 V die Iunii" of "Sifridus Sicco", and his burial "cum Thetburga coniuge" in the church of Egmond[282], in another version recording the death "VI Kal Feb" of Thetburga[283].  Sigfrid & his wife [one child]: 

(a)       [BALDRIC (-994, bur Utrecht cathedral).  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "Baldericus", installed as seventeenth bishop of Utrecht in 990, was the son of "Siffridi…statholder…van Kennemerlant…broeder van den grawe van Hollant Dirrick, dye 3o", and died in 994 and was buried in Utrecht cathedral[284].  This proposed parentage is clearly impossible from a chronological point of view.  The question remains whether the source incorrectly identifies the count of Holland and whether Baldric was the grandson of Dirk I, which would be chronologically consistent.] 

iii)        [ALEIDA .  She is named as the possible daughter of Arnulf, and her two marriages are shown, in Europäische Stammtafeln[285] but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  The Chronique de Saint Riquier records that "Angelran" killed "le comte de Boulogne" in battle and married his widow "Adelvie…qui était de l'origine la plus illustre", after which he adopted the title comte[286]m firstly BAUDOUIN de Boulogne, son of GUY de Boulogne & his wife --- (-1033).  m secondly [as his second wife,] ENGUERRAND Avoué de Saint-Riquier, son of HUGUES Avoué de Saint-Riquier [Ponthieu] & his wife Gisèle de France [Capet] (-[1045]).]

b)         EGBERT (-8/9 Dec 993, bur St Andreas).  "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" and "Hecberto et Arnulfo filiis ipsius Theoderici" are named in a charter dated Oct [967/79][287].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Arnulfum comitem, Egbertum Treverensem archiepiscopum ac Arlindam puellam" as the children of Count Dirk II & his wife[288].  "…Hecberto et Arnulfo filiis ipsius Theoderici…" signed the charter dated 2 Oct 974 under which "Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis" donated "in villa Haleftra in pago Mempesco sita" to Saint-Pierre de Gand[289].  The Vita Sancti Adalberti Egmondani name "Theoderici iunioris filius Egbertus Trevirensis post archiepiscopus"[290].  Imperial Chancellor 976.  Archbishop of Trier 977.  The Gesta Treverorum records that "Eckebertus…de Britannia ortus, patre Theoderico comite et matre Hildegarda" succeeded "Theodericus" as archbishop of Trier[291].  "Theodericus…Holtlandensis comes…Florentii filius" recites the ownership history of properties claimed by the church of Utrecht in Holland, including donations by "Ekbertus, nominati comitis filius…Treuerice ecclesie archiepiscopus", by spurious charter dated 26 Jul 1083, probably written in [1130][292].  The Annales Egmundani record the death in 994 of "Ekbertus frater Arnulfi comitis Treveronum archiepiscopus"[293].  The Gesta Treverorum records that "Eckebertus" went "ad fluvium Oleviam" where he died and was buried "in parva ecclesia, quam ipse construxerat in honore sancti Andreæ"[294]

c)         HERLINDE .  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Arnulfum comitem, Egbertum Treverensem archiepiscopum ac Arlindam puellam" as the children of Count Dirk II & his wife[295].  The Annales Egmundani name "Erlinda soror eius [=Ekbertus filius Theoderici II comitis] monocula"[296].  The Vita Sancti Adalberti Egmondani names "eidem comiti [=Theoderici iunioris] filia Erlinda"[297].  Abbess of Egmond, later of Bennsbrock.  The reference in the Annales Egmundani to her being one-eyed provides an interesting corroboration for the theory that children with disabilities were assigned to careers in the church. 

d)         [daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are suggested by the charter dated 4 Mar 981 under which "Arnulfus filius Theoderici comitis et Arnulfus filius Hildwini" donated "in pago Taruennensis…in Rumingehim et in Keremberg, in pago Flandrensi…in Uckesham et super Gersta" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, at the request of "Everardi et filii eius Baldwini nepotis sui", by charter dated 4 Mar 981[298].  The document is unclear whether "nepotis sui" refers to "Arnulfus filius Theoderici comitis" or to "Arnulfus filius Hildwini" or to both.  The identity of "Arnulfus filius Hildwini" is not known, although the name "Hildwini" suggests a connection with the preceding family of Comtes [de Tournai] (see HAINAUT).  m EVERARD [de Tournai], son of --- (-after 4 Mar 981).] 

 

 

DIRK, son of ARNULF Count of Holland & his wife Liutgard de Luxembourg ([981/90]-27 May 1039)The Annales Egmundani name "Theodricus III filius eius [=Arnulfi comitis]" when recording that he succeeded his father[299].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum succedentem comitem…et Sifridum sive Sicconem presidem" as the children of Count Dirk III & his wife[300].  He succeeded his father in 993 as DIRK III Count of Holland.  "Theodericus comes cum matre sua Lietgarda" donated "alodum suum situm secus fluvium Scaldum in pago Gandensi seu Tornacensi in vulla Rucga" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "patris sui Arnulfi", by charter dated 20 Sep 995[301].  Count Dirk III had a stronghold in Vlaardingen, usurped property belonging to the bishop of Utrecht in the Vlaardingen area, and introduced a toll on ships passing along the river Merwede to Tiel without the consent of the emperor or the bishop[302].  Thietmar records that "Dietrich the empress's nephew" attacked Adalbold Bishop of Utrecht in 1018, before his forces were attacked by the Frisians and suffered numerous casualties[303].  "Thiederici Fresoniæ" witnessed a donation of property dated "Id Sep 1024" by "Hildigunda abbatissa de Gesike" and one dated "18 Kal Oct [1029]" by "Brun comes cum uxore sua Ida"[304].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "1039 VI Kal Iun" of "tercius Theodericus Hollandie…comes"[305]

m OTHELINDIS, daughter of --- (-in Saxony 9 Mar [1043/44], bur in Saxony).  The Annales Egmundani name "Othelhildis comitissa" as wife of "Theodericus comes quartus [Hollandensium]" but do not give her origin[306].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[307], she was Othelindis von Haldensleben, daughter of Bernhard I Markgraf der Nordmark Graf von Haldensleben, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of "Theodericus…tercius…comes Hollandie" and "Utilhildim filiam…ducis Saxonie"[308].  The corresponding duke of Saxony would have been the Billung Duke Bernhard I (who died in 1011).  However, if Duke Bernhard was Othelindis's father, the wife of Count Dirk III's son Count Floris would have been his first cousin on his mother's side, which seems unlikely to be correct.  "Theodericus…Holtlandensis comes…Florentii filius" recites the ownership history of properties claimed by the church of Utrecht in Holland, including donations by "Theodericus tertius, predicti Arnulfi filius, cum coniuge sua Othelhildis", by spurious charter dated 26 Jul 1083, probably written in [1130][309]The Annales Egmundani record the death in 1044 of "Othilhildis comitissa"[310].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Othilhildis…comitissa" returned to Saxony after her husband died, and that she died there "1043 VII Id Mai" and was buried there[311].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "1043 VII Id Mar" of "Othelhildis comitissa rediens ad Saxoniam"[312]

Count Dirk III & his wife had [four] children: 

1.         DIRK (-killed in battle Dordrecht 13 Jan 1049, bur Egmond).  The Annales Egmundani name "Theodericus filius eius [=Theoderici III comitis]" when recording that he succeeded his father[313].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names "Theodricum succedentem Hollandia principum et Florencium Orientalis Frisie comitem" as children of Count Dirk III & his wife[314].  He succeeded his father in 1039 as DIRK IV Count of Holland.  The Annales Egmundani record that "Theodericus IIII comes filius Theoderici et Othelhildis" was killed "apud Thuredrech"[315].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death in battle of "Theodricus Hollandie comes…per Dordracum 1048 Id Ian" and his burial at Egmond, commenting that he died unmarried and without children[316].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records that "Theodericus quartus Hollandie comes" was killed "1048 V Id Mai…Dordraci"[317]

2.         FLORIS ([1025]-Hamerth 28 Jun 1061, bur Egmond).  The Annales Egmundani names "Florentius I" as brother of "Theodericus IIII comes filius Theoderici et Othelhildis" when recording that he succeeded his brother[318].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names "Theodricum succedentem Hollandia principum et Florencium Orientalis Frisie comitem" as children of Count Dirk III & his wife[319].  "Heinricus…rex" confirmed a treaty between Wilhelm Bishop of Utrecht and Reginbert Abbot of Echternach under which they recognised each other's rights in "Flardinge, Kiericwerve, Velsereburc, Heligelo, Pethem" by charter dated 28 Dec 1063 which names "Theoderico comite ac filio eius Theoderico fratreque eius Florencio"[320].  He succeeded his brother in 1049 as FLORIS I Count of Holland.  The Annales Egmundani record that "Florentius comes Hollandensis" was killed in 1061 at "Hamerthe"[321].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "1061…in Hamerth…XIV Kal Iun" of Count Floris and his burial at Egmond[322].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records that "Florentius primus Hollandie comes" was killed in battle "1061 IV Kal Iul"[323]m ([1050]) as her first husband, GERTRUD of Saxony, daughter of BERNHARD II Duke of Saxony [Billung] & his wife Eilika von Schweinfurt (Schweinfurt [1028]-Veurne 4 Aug 1113, bur Veurne).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Floris and "Gertrudim filiam Hermanni ducis Saxonum"[324], "Hermanni" being an error for "Bernardi" as the former would be impossible chronologically.  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "filiam Bernardi Saxonum comitis Gertrudem" as wife of "Robertus", specifying that she was "viduam Florentii comitis Fresonum"[325].  "Theodericus…Holtlandensis comes…Florentii filius" recites the ownership history of properties claimed by the church of Utrecht in Holland, including donations by "Florentius, tercii Theoderici filius, cum bone memorie uxore sua Gerthrude", by spurious charter dated 26 Jul 1083, probably written [1130][326].  She married secondly (1063) Robert de Flandre ([1035]-13 Oct 1093), who was regent of Holland for his stepson until 1071, when he succeeded as Robert I Count of Flanders.  The date of her second marriage is based on the Chronologia Johannes de Beke recording that, two years after the death of her first husband, Gertrud married "Roberto iuniori filio Balduini comitis Flandrie", specifying that the latter ruled the county of Holland on behalf of "Theodrici domicelli iunioris adhuc etatis"[327].  "Gertrudis" is named as wife of "Roberti Frisonis" in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin, which does not give her origin[328].  The Genealogia ex stirpe Sancti Arnulfi names "Idam Namucensem…uxorem Angelberti marchionis et Gertrudem comitissam Flandrensem" as children of "Bernardum"[329].  The Annales Egmundani specify that Robert acquired the "comitatum Hollandiæ et Fresiæ" by marrying Gertrud[330].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XV Kal Aug" of "Gertrudis comitissa"[331].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "IV die Aug" of "Gheertrudis…" and her burial in Flanders[332].  Count Floris & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         DIRK ([1050/55]-17 Jun 1091, bur Egmond).  The Annales Egmundani name "Theoderici V filii Florentii comitis"[333].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum et Florencium…et Machtildim" as children of Count Floris & his wife[334].  He succeeded his father in 1061 as DIRK V Count of Holland, under the regency of his stepfather until 1071.  The county of Holland was annexed by the bishopric of Utrecht by Bishop Willem in 1061.  "Henricus…rex" confirmed the transfer of "comitatum omnem in Westflinge et circa horas Reni" which "Theodricus comes habuit" to the bishopric of Utrecht, on the advice of "…Gotefridi, Frederici, Gerhardi ducum", by charter dated "II Kal Mai 1064"[335].  "Henricus…rex" records that "Theodrico comite eiusque filiis" took property from the bishopric of Utrecht "a tempore Heinrici secundi et Adelboldi…episcopi", including property "Sigeldrith usque in Rinesmuthon, inde sursum ab occidentali parte Reni usque in Bodengrauen" held by "comes Unroch…post Unroch Godezo, post Godezonem Theodricus Baue filius", by charter dated "VI Non Mai 1064"[336].  Dirk V recovered his county in 1076, and imprisoned the Bishop.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that Count Dirk V defeated his stepfather at "Islemunde" in 1076[337].  "Theodericus…Holtlandensis comes…Florentii filius" recites the ownership history of properties claimed by the church of Utrecht in Holland, including the foundation of Egmond church by "Theodericus, frater Waldgeri, cum legitima coniuge sua Geua", the further construction of the church by "Theodericus secundus, predicti filius, cum Hildegarda coniuge sua", donations by "Ekbertus, nominati comitis filius…Treuerice ecclesie archiepiscopus", by "Arnulfus comes cum…uxore sua Liutgarda", by "Theodericus tertius, predicti Arnulfi filius, cum coniuge sua Othelhildis", by "Sifridus cognomento Sicco, predicti frater Theoderici", by "Florentius, tercii Theoderici filius", cum bone memorie uxore sua Gerthrude", by spurious charter dated 26 Jul 1083, probably written in [1130], which names "Othelhilda uxore mea"[338].  The Annales Egmundani record the death in 1091 of "Theoderici V comes"[339].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "1091 XV Kal Iul" of Count Dirk V[340].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "1091 V Kal Dec" of "Theodericus quintus Hollandie comes" and his burial "ad caput Florencii Crassi"[341]m (before 26 Jul 1083) OTHELINDIS, daughter of --- (-18 Nov ----, bur Egmond).  The Annales Egmundani name "Othelhildis comitissa" as wife of "Theodericus comes septimus [Hollandensium]" but do not give her origin[342].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Dirk V and "Otihildim filiam prepotentis ducis Saxonie"[343].  The name "Othelindis" suggests a Saxon origin (see Count Dirk V's paternal grandmother).  However, it is unlikely that Othelindis's father was duke of Saxony, because of the consanguinity that would have resulted between the parties no reference to which has been found in the sources so far consulted.  No indication has been found of her precise Saxon origin.  "Theodericus…Holtlandensis comes…Florentii filius" recites the ownership history of properties claimed by the church of Utrecht in Holland, by spurious charter dated 26 Jul 1083, probably written in [1130], which names "Othelhilda uxore mea"[344].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "XIV Kal Dec" of "Uthilhildis" wife of Count Dirk V and her burial at Egmond[345].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "XIV Kal Dec" of "Othilhildis comitissa" and her burial at Egmond with her husband[346].  Count Dirk V & his wife had two children: 

i)          FLORIS (-2 Mar 1121, bur Egmond).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names "Florencium succedentem comitem et Machtildim" as children of Count Dirk V & his wife[347].  The Annales Egmundani name "Florentius II filius eius [=Theoderici V comitis]" when recording that he succeeded his father[348].  He succeeded his father in 1091 as FLORIS II “the Fat” Count of Holland

-         see below.

ii)         MATHILDE .  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names "Florencium succedentem comitem et Machtildim" as children of Count Dirk V & his wife[349]

b)         FLORIS (-before 1061, bur Egmond).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum et Florencium…et Machtildim" as children of Count Floris & his wife[350].  Canon at St Lambert in Liège.  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death of "Florencius filius Florencii…puer" and his burial "ad caput patris sui postea defuncti"[351].  The reference in this source to "puer" is not considered inconsistent with Floris having been a canon at Liège as the term may only reflect his being sent to the cathedral at any early age for his education. 

c)         [PETER .  Canon at St Lambert in Liège.  He is named in Europäische Stammtafeln[352], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  No record of another individual named Peter has been found in this family, which suggests that his identification as a son of Count Dirk IV should be viewed with scepticism.]  

d)         BERTHA of Holland ([1058]-Montreuil-sur-Mer, Pas-de-Calais 30 Jul 1093).  The Liber Modernorum Regum Francorum records the marriage of "filiam ducis Frisiæ" and "rex Philippus"[353].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum et Florencium…et Machtildim" as children of Count Floris & his wife, specifying that "Machtildim" married "Philippus rex Francie" after the death of her father which indicates that "Machtildim" in this text is an error for Bertha[354].  The Historia Francorum names "filiam Florentii ducis Frisonum Bertam" as wife of King Philippe[355].  Her marriage was arranged as part of the settlement under which her future husband recognised her stepfather as Count of Flanders[356].  Her husband sent her to Montreuil after repudiating her.  m (1072, repudiated 1092) as his first wife, PHILIPPE I King of France, son of HENRI I King of France & his second wife Anna Iaroslavna of Kiev (1052-château de Melun, Seine-et-Marne 30 Jul 1108, bur Abbaye Saint Benoît-sur-Loire).

e)         [ADELA [Christina] (-1085).  The Historia Comitum Ghisnensium names "viri Lotharie et milicie ducis florigeri Florentini filiam Adelam…dicta Cristiana" as wife of "Balduinum [comem Ghisnensi]"[357].  The passage contains no direct reference to the Counts of Holland, although the first name "Florentinus" is indicative and has not been found in other contemporary noble families.  If Adela belonged to the family of the Counts of Holland, the text is chronologically consistent with Count Floris I being her father.  This hypothesis assumes that the text correctly names Adela's father in the first place.  This is far from certain in light of the numerous inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the early parts of the Historia.  In addition, none of the names typically associated with the family of the Counts of Holland are found among the couple's descendants.  m BAUDOUIN I Comte de Guines, son of EUSTACHE Comte de Guines & his wife Susanne de Grimmingen (-[1100]).]

3.         [BERTRADA .  The Annalista Saxo names "Bertrada, soror Suanehildis comitisse de castro quod dicitur Lon in Hasbania, cuius filius fuit Arnoldus comes Mogotiensis prefectus" as wife of Graf Dietrich[358].  Bertrada is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[359] as the daughter of Count Dirk III but the primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  m DIETRICH I Graf von Katlenburg, son of UDO Graf im Liesgau und Rittegau [Nordmark-Stade] & his wife Bertrada --- (-killed in battle Werben 10 Sep 1056).] 

4.         [SUANEHILDIS (-31 Mar [1100]).  The Annalista Saxo names "Bertrada, soror Suanehildis comitisse de castro quod dicitur Lon in Hasbania, cuius filius fuit Arnoldus comes Mogotiensis prefectus" as wife of Graf Dietrich (identified as Dietrich I Graf von Katlenburg)[360].  As noted above, no primary source has been identified which indicates that Bertrada was the daughter of Dirk III Count of Holland.  Nevertheless, from a chronological point of view Count Dirk is the most likely father, assuming that Bertrada was a member of this family.  "Arnoldus comes Mogotiensis prefectus" in this passage must be identified as Arnaud [I] Comte de Looz, who is recorded as the son of Emmo Comte de Looz.  If that is correct, Suanehildis was the wife of Emmo.  From a chronological point of view, the suggestion is feasible: the birth of the children of Count Dirk III must be dated to [1010/35], while Comte Emmo´s children were probably born in [1040/60].  The necrology of Liège Saint-Jacques points to this being the correct solution when it records the death 31 Mar of “Spannehildis comitissima de Los” and her donation[361].  Verdonk indicates that she died in 1100 on a pilgrimage to Rome[362].  [The Vita Andreæ, first abbot of Averboden, in the Chronicle written by Nicolas Hogeland Abbot of Middelburg, records that "comitis Arnoldi Lossensis" descended "ex parte matris" from "Cliviæ comitibus"[363], which would be inconsistent with this hypothesis but, as pointed out below, Klaversma notes that this source is a 17th century forgery and is therefore unreliable[364].]  m EMMO Comte de Looz [Immo], son of [GISELBERT Comte de Looz] & his wife [Liutgarde de Namur] (-17 Jan 1078]).] 

 

 

FLORIS of Holland, son of DIRK V Count of Holland & his wife Othelindis --- (-2 Mar 1121, bur Egmond).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names "Florencium succedentem comitem et Machtildim" as children of Count Dirk V & his wife[365].  The Annales Egmundani name "Florentius II filius eius [=Theoderici V comitis]" when recording that he succeeded his father[366].  He succeeded his father in 1091 as FLORIS II “the Fat” [Count of Holland].  He acknowledged the Bishop of Utrecht as his overlord while retaining the rule of his county.  The first recorded mention of the title "Count of Holland" is found in the charter dated [May 29] 1101 under which Burchard Bishop of Utrecht granted the church of "Thiedradeskerke" to Utrecht Sint Jan, witnessed by "…Florentius comes de Hollant, Heinricus de Kuc, Herimannus de Merehem, Wichardus comes…"[367].  "Florentius…Hollandiensis comes" granted fiscal exemptions to "civibus Heylegommensibus" {citizens of Heilo} by charter dated 13 Apr 1108[368].  "Florencius dictus crassus…cum…coniuge sua Petronilla" donated property to Egmond by undated charter which also records that "Nobilis Petronilla, super maritum mortuum" donated additional property for his soul[369].  The Annales Egmundani record the death "1121 VI Non Mar" of "Florentius crassus comes filius Theoderici"[370].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke record the death "1121 VI Non Mar" of "Florencius comes Hollandie, confrater ecclesie Traiectensis" and his burial at Egmond[371].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "1121 VI Non Mar" of "Florencius 2 Hollandie comes"[372]

m (1113) GERTRUDE [Petronella] de Lorraine, daughter of THIERRY II Duke of Lorraine & his first wife Hedwig von Formbach (-23 May 1144, bur Rijnsburg).  The Annales Egmundani name "Petronilla" as widow of "Florentius crassus comes filius Theoderici" but do not give her origin[373].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Floris and "Petronillam Lotharii cesaris sororem"[374].  "Florencius dictus crassus…cum…coniuge sua Petronilla" donated property to Egmond by undated charter which also records that "Nobilis Petronilla, super maritum mortuum" donated additional property for his soul[375].  The Annales Magdeburgenses name "Gertrudeis comitissa de…Holland…soror Lotherii Saxonis ducis" when recording her rebellion in 1123[376].  Regent of Holland for her son Count Dirk VI during his minority.  She founded the abbey of Rijnsburg in 1133.  The Annales Egmundani record the death in 1144 of "Petronilla comitissa uxor Florentii crassi comitis" and her burial at "Rinsburch"[377].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke record that "Petronilla…comitissa" became a nun at Rijnsburg after her husband died, and died and was buried there "X Kal Iun"[378].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "1144 X Kal Iun" of "Petronilla comitissa"[379]

Count Floris II & his wife had four children: 

1.         DIRK ([1114]-5 Aug 1157, bur Egmond).  The Annales Egmundani name "filios pusillos Theodericum, Florentium, Simonem" as the three sons of "Florentius crassus comes filius Theoderici" and his wife Petronilla[380].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names "Theodricum, Florencium, Simonem ac Hadewigim virginem" as the children of Count Floris & his wife[381].  He succeeded his father in 1121 as DIRK VI Count of Holland, under the regency of his mother during his minority.  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records that "Lotharius imperator avunculus Theoderici" took "comitatus de Ostergon et Westergon" from the church of Utrecht and granted them to the county of Holland in [1126][382].  The Annales Egmundani record that "Theodericus comes Hollandensis" made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1138[383].  "Thedricus Hollandensium comes…cum conjuge mea Sophia comitissa et filio nostro Florentio" exchanged property with Epternach by charter dated 1156[384].  The Annales Egmundani record the death "1157 Non Aug" of "Theodericus comes filius Florentii crassi comitis"[385].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "1157 Non Aug" of Count Dirk VI and his burial at Egmond[386]m (before 1137) SOPHIE von Rheineck heiress of Bentheim, daughter of OTTO von Salm Pfalzgraf bei Rhein Graf von Rheineck und Bentheim & his wife Gertrud von Northeim (-Jerusalem 26 Sep 1176, bur Jerusalem, in church later called church of the Teutonic Knights).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Dirk VI and "Sophiam filiam Ottonis de Rinegh comitis palatini"[387].  The Annales Egmundani name "palatinus…comes Otto de Rineke" as brother of "comitissæ Sophiæ Hollandensis"[388].  "Thedricus Hollandensium comes…cum conjuge mea Sophia comitissa et filio nostro Florentio" exchanged property with Epternach by charter dated 1156[389].  The Annales Egmundani record the visit to Jerusalem in 1173 of "Sophia comitissa Hollandensis et filio suo Ottone" and her death in 1176[390].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Sophia comitissa" visited Jerusalem after her husband died and died there "VI Kal Oct" and was buried "ad hospitale Teutonicorum in Iherusalem"[391].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the burial "VI Kal Oct" of "Sophia…mater Florencii comitis" at Jerusalem[392].  Count Dirk VI & his wife had ten children: 

a)         DIRK ([1138/39]-1151).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Florencium succedentem Hollandie principem, Ottonem de Benthem comitem, Balduinem pontificum, Theodricum antistitem, Peregrinum presidem, Sophiam abbatissam, Hadewigim sanctimonialem et Petronellam…domicellam" as the children of Count Dirk VI & his wife[393].  The Annales Egmundani record the death in 1151 of "Theodericus…filius Theoderici comitis et Sophiæ cognomento Peregrinus", specifying that he was 12 years old[394].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium clarifies that "Peregrinus preses" was "senior filius" but died aged 12 and was buried at Egmond[395]

b)         FLORIS ([1140]-Antioch 1 Aug 1190, bur Antioch St Peter).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Florencium succedentem Hollandie principem, Ottonem de Benthem comitem, Balduinem pontificum, Theodricum antistitem, Peregrinum presidem, Sophiam abbatissam, Hadewigim sanctimonialem et Petronellam…domicellam" as the children of Count Dirk VI & his wife[396].  The Annales Egmundani name "Florentius filius eius [=Theodericus comes filius Florentii crassi comitis]" when recording that he succeeded his father[397].  He succeeded his father in 1157 as FLORIS III Count of Holland

-        see below

c)         OTTO ([1140/45]-[1208/13 Feb 1209]).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Florencium succedentem Hollandie principem, Ottonem de Benthem comitem, Balduinem pontificum, Theodricum antistitem, Peregrinum presidem, Sophiam abbatissam, Hadewigim sanctimonialem et Petronellam…domicellam" as the children of Count Dirk VI & his wife[398].  The Annales Egmundani name "Ottonem fratrem Florentii Hollandensis comitis"[399].  Graf van Bentheim.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Otto de Hollandia filius sororis sue" inherited "comitatum de Benthem" after "Otto palatinus comes de Rinegh castellanus in Benthem sororius Theodrici comitis Hollandie" was murdered by "Hermanno comite de Stalik"[400].  "Frater episcopi Balduini Otto comes de Benthem" made war at Drenthen against "Covordiæ præfectos", dated to 1196[401].  "Theodericus…comes et A. uxor mea Hollandiæ comitissa…et avunculus noster Otto comes de Benethem et soror eius Sophia abbatissa" confirmed donations to Rijnsburg by "beatæ memoriæ Sophia quondam Hollandiæ comitissa", for the souls of "præmemoratæ Sophiæ comitissæ et mariti eius Theoderici comitis", by charter dated 1202[402]

-        GRAFEN van BENTHEIM

d)         BOUDEWIJN (-[21/30] Apr 1196, bur Utrecht).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Florencium succedentem Hollandie principem, Ottonem de Benthem comitem, Balduinem pontificum, Theodricum antistitem, Peregrinum presidem, Sophiam abbatissam, Hadewigim sanctimonialem et Petronellam…domicellam" as the children of Count Dirk VI & his wife[403].  The Annales Egmundani name "Baldwinum præpositum" as brother of "Florentii comitis Hollandensis"[404].  Provost at St Maria in Utrecht.  Bishop of Utrecht 1178.  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "Balderich van Hollant…grave Floris van Hollants broeder" was installed as twenty-ninth bishop of Utrecht in 1178, died 21 Apr 1196, and was buried at Utrecht[405].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "1196 II Kal Mai" of "Balduinus filius Theoderici comitis Hollandie Traiecetensis episcopus"[406]

e)         DIRK (-Pavia 28 Aug 1197, bur Pavia).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Florencium succedentem Hollandie principem, Ottonem de Benthem comitem, Balduinem pontificum, Theodricum antistitem, Peregrinum presidem, Sophiam abbatissam, Hadewigim sanctimonialem et Petronellam…domicellam" as the children of Count Dirk VI & his wife[407]Bishop of Utrecht 1196.  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "Dirrick van Hollant" was installed as thirty-first bishop of Utrecht in 1198, but died four months later at "Padua", adding that he was buried there[408].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "1197" of "Theodericus frater Balduini precedentis episcopus Traiectensis"[409]

f)          SOPHIE (-after 1202).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Florencium succedentem Hollandie principem, Ottonem de Benthem comitem, Balduinem pontificum, Theodricum antistitem, Peregrinum presidem, Sophiam abbatissam, Hadewigim sanctimonialem et Petronellam…domicellam" as the children of Count Dirk VI & his wife[410].  The Annales Egmundani name "Sophia abbatissa soror comitis Florentii" when recording that she became abbess at Rijnsburg in 1186[411].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium names "Sophia abbatissa in Fontanella [filia comitis Theoderici et Sophie]" but does not record her date of death[412].  "Theodericus…comes et A. uxor mea Hollandiæ comitissa…et avunculus noster Otto comes de Benethem et soror eius Sophia abbatissa" confirmed donations to Rijnsburg by "beatæ memoriæ Sophia quondam Hollandiæ comitissa", for the souls of "præmemoratæ Sophiæ comitissæ et mariti eius Theoderici comitis", by charter dated 1202[413]

g)         HEDWIG (-28 Aug 1167).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Florencium succedentem Hollandie principem, Ottonem de Benthem comitem, Balduinem pontificum, Theodricum antistitem, Peregrinum presidem, Sophiam abbatissam, Hadewigim sanctimonialem et Petronellam…domicellam" as the children of Count Dirk VI & his wife[414].  Nun at Rijnsburg.  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "1167 V Kal Sep" of "Hadewigis sanctimonialis in Reynsburch [filia comitis Theoderici et Sophie]"[415]

h)         GERTRUD (-13 Aug ----).  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "IV Id Aug" of "Gheertrudis infantula [filia comitis Theoderici et Sophie]"[416]

i)          PETRONELLA (-5 Dec ----).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Florencium succedentem Hollandie principem, Ottonem de Benthem comitem, Balduinem pontificum, Theodricum antistitem, Peregrinum presidem, Sophiam abbatissam, Hadewigim sanctimonialem et Petronellam…domicellam" as the children of Count Dirk VI & his wife[417].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "pridie Non Dec" of "Petronilla domicella [filia comitis Theoderici et Sophie]"[418]

Count Dirk VI had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

j)           ROBERT (-before 1190, bur Rijnsburg Abbey).  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium states it was alleged that "Robertus" was "frater Florencii forte naturalis"[419].  "Florentius tertius…comes Hollandie" donated the church of Vlaardingen, held by "patris mei Theoderici", to Egmond abbey by charter dated 28 Aug 1162, witnessed by "Robertus frater comitis…"[420].  Dirk VII Count of Holland confirmed a donation to Rijnsburg abbey made by "pater meus Florentius comes" for the soul of "fratris sui Roberti" who was buried at the abbey, by charter dated 20 Feb 1201[421]

2.         FLORIS "de Zwarte" ([1115]-killed in battle Utrecht 26 Oct 1132, bur Rijnsburg Monastery).  The Annales Egmundani name "filios pusillos Theodericum, Florentium, Simonem" as the three sons of "Florentius crassus comes filius Theoderici" & his wife Petronilla[422].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names "Theodricum, Florencium, Simonem ac Hadewigim virginem" as the children of Count Floris & his wife[423].  Lothar King of Germany confirmed property of Duisburg by charter dated 8 May 1129 witnessed by "…Comites: Gerhardus Longus de Gelere, Arnoldus de Cliue, Hermannus de Caluerlage, Hermannus de Salmene, Otto de Rinecke, Florentius de Hollande, Gerhardus de Hostad, Bernhardus de Hildenesheim, Godefridus et Hermannus de Cuch, Adolfus de Berge…"[424].  He supported the West-Friesians in an uprising against his brother Dirk VI.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Florencius dictus Niger" rebelled against "fratrem suum Theodricum comitem" in 1133[425].  The Annalista Saxo records the death of "consobrinus inperatoris Lotharii Florentius, filius Florentii comitis de provincial Hollant", killed by "Godofrido et fratre eius Herimanno de Kuc"[426].  The Annales Egmundani record that "Florentius niger comes…frater Theoderici comes" was killed "VII Id Nov"[427].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records that "Florencius [filius Florenciis et Petronilla]" was killed "in Traiecto VI Kal Nov…1131" and his burial at Rijnsburg[428]

3.         SIMON (-7 Nov ---).  The Annales Egmundani name "filios pusillos Theodericum, Florentium, Simonem" as the three sons of "Florentius crassus comes filius Theoderici" & his wife Petronilla[429].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names "Theodricum, Florencium, Simonem ac Hadewigim virginem" as the children of Count Floris & his wife[430].  Canon at St Martin in Utrecht 1131-47.  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "VII Id Nov" of "Symon [filius Florenciis et Petronilla]…iuvenis"[431]

4.         HEDWIG (-1132).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names "Theodricum, Florencium, Simonem ac Hadewigim virginem" as the children of Count Floris & his wife[432].  Nun.  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium names "Hadewigis [filia Florenciis et Petronilla]" but does not record her date of death[433]

 

 

FLORIS of Holland, son of DIRK VI Count of Holland & his wife Sophie von Rheineck ([1140]-Antioch 1 Aug 1190, bur Antioch St Peter).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Florencium succedentem Hollandie principem, Ottonem de Benthem comitem, Balduinem pontificum, Theodricum antistitem, Peregrinum presidem, Sophiam abbatissam, Hadewigim sanctimonialem et Petronellam…domicellam" as the children of Count Dirk VI & his wife[434].  "Thedricus Hollandensium comes…cum conjuge mea Sophia comitissa et filio nostro Florentio" exchanged property with Epternach by charter dated 1156[435].  The Annales Egmundani name "Florentius filius eius [=Theodericus comes filius Florentii crassi comitis]" when recording that he succeeded his father[436].  He succeeded his father in 1157 as FLORIS III Count of Holland.  He made peace with the West-Friesians in 1161.  "Florentius tertius…comes Hollandie" donated the church of Vlaardingen, held by "patris mei Theoderici", to Egmond abbey by charter dated 28 Aug 1162, the dating clause of which refers to "anno primo…matrimonii nostri quo sororem regis Scotie Ade duxit uxorem"[437].  He was created Earl of Ross in 1162 by his brother-in-law Malcolm IV King of Scotland, but the earldom was withdrawn from him[438].  He was imprisoned in Flanders 1167 during a struggle over Zeeland.  In 1176 he supported Emperor Friedrich “Barbarossa” in the battle of Legnano, and was rewarded with the imperial toll-post at Geervliet.  He took part in the Third Crusade 1189, on which he died.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "1190 Kal Aug…in Antiochia" of Count Floris III and his burial in "basilica sancti Petri"[439].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "1190 Kal Aug" of "Florencius 3 comes Hollandie" at Antioch[440]

m (1162, before 28 Aug) ADA of Scotland, daughter of HENRY of Scotland Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland & his wife Ada de Warenne ([1146/48]-11 Jan after 1205, bur Middleburg Monastery).  The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1162 of "Malcolm king of Scotland…his second sister Ada to Florence earl of Hoilande"[441].  Her birth date is estimated assuming that she was her parents´ second daughter, and bearing in mind the estimated birth dates of their other children as shown in the document SCOTLAND.  The Annales Egmundani records the marriage in 1162 of "Florentius comes Hollandiæ" and "sororem Regis Scottorum…Ada"[442].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Floris III and "Adam filiam Henrici prepotentis regis Scottorum"[443].  "Florentius tertius…comes Hollandie" donated the church of Vlaardingen, held by "patris mei Theoderici", to Egmond abbey by charter dated 28 Aug 1162, the dating clause of which refers to "anno primo…matrimonii nostri quo sororem regis Scotie Ade duxit uxorem"[444].  "Theodericus Hollandie comes…comitis Florentii et Ade comitisse filius" donated property at Poeldijk bij Naaldwijk to the church of St Maria, Utrecht by charter dated 1198, in the presence of "Ada mater mea, Willelmus frater meus comes Frisie, Margareta soror mea, Florentius frater meus…"[445].  "Ada…marchionissa de Brandebrug" donated land "on Pole" to Rijnsburg abbey, with the consent of "Wilhelmi comitis et Florentii fratrum meorum et Ade comitisse matris mee et Ade neptis mee", by charter dated 1205[446].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "III Id Ian" of "Ada quidam Hollandie comitissa regie stirpis" and her burial in Middleburg monastery[447].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "Id Jan" of "Ada comitissa filia Heynrici regis Scothorum"[448]

Count Floris III & his wife had eleven children: 

1.         DIRK (-Dordrecht 4 Nov 1203, bur Egmond).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum succedentem comitem Hollandie, Wilhelmum comitem Orientalis Frisie, Florencium prepositum Traiecetensis ecclesie, Robertum presidium Kenemarie, Beatricem, Elizabeth, Adelheydim et Margaretam comitissam Clivie" as the children of Count Floris III & his wife[449].  The Annales Egmundani name "Theodericus filius Florentii comitis et Adæ" when recording his marriage in 1186[450].  He succeeded his father 1190 as DIRK VII Count of Holland.  "Theodericus Hollandie comes…comitis Florentii et Ade comitisse filius" donated property at Poeldijk bij Naaldwijk to the church of St Maria, Utrecht by charter dated 1198, in the presence of "Ada mater mea, Willelmus frater meus comes Frisie, Margareta soror mea, Florentius frater meus…"[451].  "Theodericus…comes et A. uxor mea Hollandiæ comitissa…et avunculus noster Otto comes de Benethem et soror eius Sophia abbatissa" confirmed donations to Rijnsburg by "beatæ memoriæ Sophia quondam Hollandiæ comitissa", for the souls of "præmemoratæ Sophiæ comitissæ et mariti eius Theoderici comitis", by charter dated 1202[452].  The Annales Egmundani records the death in 1203 of "Theodericus comes Hollandiæ"[453].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "1203…apud Dordracum…II Non Nov" of Count Dirk VII and his burial at Egmond monastery[454].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "1203 pridie Non Nov" of "Theodericus septimus Hollandie comes"[455]m (1186) ADELHEID von Kleve, daughter of DIETRICH IV Graf von Kleve & his wife Adelheid von Sulzbach.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Dirk VII and "Adelheydim filiam…Theodrici comite de Clivo"[456].  The Annales Egmundani records the marriage in 1186 of "Theodericus filius Florentii comitis et Adæ" and "sororem Theoderici iunioris comitis de Cleve…Alydam" in "villa Losdun"[457].  1186/1242.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Wilhelmus comes Orientalis Frisie" conspired after the death of his brother Count Dirk VII in 1203, with the support of "Florencius frater suus Traiectensis prepositus, Otto comes de Benthem ipsius patruus" and others, against "Ludovicum comitem de Loon…ac Adelheidim Hollandie viduam"[458].  Count Dirk VII & his wife had two children: 

a)         ALEIDIS [Adelheid] ([1186]-before 1203, bur Rijnsburg).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names "Adelheidim et Adam" as the two daughters of Count Dirk VII & his wife, specifying that Adelheid was betrothed to "Henrico domicello Gelrie"[459].  The Annales Egmundani record the betrothal in 1197 of "Theodericus comes filiam Aleydem" and "filio comitis Ottonis…Heinricus" but specifying that "idem puer" died and was buried at Rijnsburg[460].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Otto comes Gelrensis" and "Theodericus Hollandensis" were reconciled and agreed the betrothal of "filiam suam Aleidem" and "filio comitis Ottonis…Henricus", but specifying in a later passage that both died soon after and were buried "in Rinesburgensi monasterio"[461]Betrothed (1198) HENDRIK van Gelre, son of OTTO Graf van Gelre & his wife Richardis of Bavaria (-1198, bur Rijnsburg). 

b)         ADA ([1188]-[1220/27]).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names "Adelheidim et Adam" as the two daughters of Count Dirk VII & his wife, specifying that Ada was betrothed to "Ludovicus comes de Loon" against the wishes of the people of Holland[462].  The Annales Egmundani record the betrothal in 1203 of "filiam suam [=Theodericus comes Hollandiæ] Ada" to "comiti de Lone", specifying that the county was transferred to the latter[463].  The Gesta Episcopum Traiectensium refers to "Theoderico comite Hollandie filia sua unica" when recording her marriage to "Lodowico comiti de Loen" after her father's death[464].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Ludovicus de Loon" came "ab Holtena Dordracum" where his marriage to "Adelheidis comitisse…Adam puellam de regali stirpe progenita" immediately after her father's death and before he was buried[465].  She succeeded her father in 1203 as ADA Ctss of Holland, but was deposed by her uncle the same year.  "Ada…marchionissa de Brandebrug" donated land "on Pole" to Rijnsburg abbey, with the consent of "Wilhelmi comitis et Florentii fratrum meorum et Ade comitisse matris mee et Ade neptis mee", by charter dated 1205[466].  "Ludewicus comes de Lon et Heinricus prepositus Traiectensis et Arnoldus frater eius et Ada comitissa" donated property to Eberbach, at the request of "fratris nostri Gerhardi comitis de Renecken", by charter dated 1213[467].  "Domina Ada comitissa de Los et domina Y. de Heinsberghe…" witnessed a charter dated 1220 under which Dirk [I] Heer van Heinsberg in favour of Herkenrode abbey[468]m (Dordrecht [5] Nov 1203) LOUIS [II] Comte de Looz, son of GERARD [II] Comte de Looz & his wife Adelheid van Gelre (-29/30 Jul 1218).  He claimed to succeed his wife in 1203 as LODEWIJK I Count of Holland.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Wilhelmus comes Orientalis Frisie" conspired after the death of his brother Count Dirk VII in 1203, with the support of "Florencius frater suus Traiectensis prepositus, Otto comes de Benthem ipsius patruus" and others, against "Ludovicum comitem de Loon…ac Adelheidim Hollandie viduam", in a later passage recording that "Ludovicus comes de Loen" was defeated and expelled from Holland[469].  Deposed 1206.

2.         WILLEM (-4 Feb 1222).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum succedentem comitem Hollandie, Wilhelmum comitem Orientalis Frisie, Florencium prepositum Traiecetensis ecclesie, Robertum presidium Kenemarie, Beatricem, Elizabeth, Adelheydim et Margaretam comitissam Clivie" as the children of Count Floris III & his wife[470].  The Gesta Episcopum Traiectensium names "Theodericum comitem Hollandie fratrem suum Wilhelmum" when recording the disagreement between the two brothers[471].  He succeeded his niece in 1203 as WILLEM I Count of Holland.   

-        see below

3.         FLORIS (-Middleburg Monastery 30 Nov 1210).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum succedentem comitem Hollandie, Wilhelmum comitem Orientalis Frisie, Florencium prepositum Traiecetensis ecclesie, Robertum presidium Kenemarie, Beatricem, Elizabeth, Adelheydim et Margaretam comitissam Clivie" as the children of Count Floris III & his wife[472].  "Theodericus Hollandie comes…comitis Florentii et Ade comitisse filius" donated property at Poeldijk bij Naaldwijk to the church of St Maria, Utrecht by charter dated 1198, in the presence of "Ada mater mea, Willelmus frater meus comes Frisie, Margareta soror mea, Florentius frater meus…"[473].  Provost at Utrecht 1198.  "Th….comes Hollandie atque Selandie et Aleidis comitissa" donated property near Zubburg to Middelburg abbey by charter dated 1198, witnessed by "Florencius prepositus et Balduinus fratres mei…"[474].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Wilhelmus comes Orientalis Frisie" conspired after the death of his brother Count Dirk VII in 1203, with the support of "Florencius frater suus Traiectensis prepositus, Otto comes de Benthem ipsius patruus" and others, against "Ludovicum comitem de Loon…ac Adelheidim Hollandie viduam"[475].  Monk at Middelburg.  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "pridie Kal Dec 1210" of "Florencius [filius Florencii et Ada] in Middelburch" as a monk[476]

4.         BOUDEWIJN (-19 Jul 1204).  "Th….comes Hollandie atque Selandie et Aleidis comitissa" donated property near Zubburg to Middelburg abbey by charter dated 1198, witnessed by "Florencius prepositus et Balduinus fratres mei…"[477].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "1204 XIV Kal Aug" of "Balduinus filius Florencii comitis"[478]

5.         ROBERT .  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum succedentem comitem Hollandie, Wilhelmum comitem Orientalis Frisie, Florencium prepositum Traiecetensis ecclesie, Robertum presidium Kenemarie, Beatricem, Elizabeth, Adelheydim et Margaretam comitissam Clivie" as the children of Count Floris III & his wife[479]

6.         BEATRIX .  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum succedentem comitem Hollandie, Wilhelmum comitem Orientalis Frisie, Florencium prepositum Traiecetensis ecclesie, Robertum presidium Kenemarie, Beatricem, Elizabeth, Adelheydim et Margaretam comitissam Clivie" as the children of Count Floris III & his wife[480]

7.         ELISABETH (-27 Aug ----).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum succedentem comitem Hollandie, Wilhelmum comitem Orientalis Frisie, Florencium prepositum Traiecetensis ecclesie, Robertum presidium Kenemarie, Beatricem, Elizabeth, Adelheydim et Margaretam comitissam Clivie" as the children of Count Floris III & his wife[481].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "VI Kal Sep" of "Elizabeth puella filia Florencii et Ada comitissa"[482]

8.         ADA (-after 1205).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum succedentem comitem Hollandie, Wilhelmum comitem Orientalis Frisie, Florencium prepositum Traiecetensis ecclesie, Robertum presidium Kenemarie, Beatricem, Elizabeth, Adelheydim et Margaretam comitissam Clivie" as the children of Count Floris III & his wife[483].  "Ada…marchionissa de Brandebrug" donated land "in Pole" to Rijnsburg abbey, with the consent of "Wilhelmi comitis et Florentii fratrum meorum et Ade comitisse matris mee et Ade neptis mee", by charter dated 1205[484].  The identity of Ada´s Brandenburg husband is difficult to establish with complete certainty.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[485], he was Otto I Markgraf von Brandenburg.  Markgraf Otto I´s second wife is named "Adelheid" in Brandenburg sources ("Otto Brandenburgensis marchio" founded Kloster Arendsee, with the consent of "meis heredibus Ottone, Heinrico, Adelberto filiis meis et uxore mea Adelheide", by charter dated 1184[486]).  The similarity between "Ada" and "Adelheid" appears at first sight to establish the connection.  However, the chronology is not ideal.  It is most likely that "Adelheid" was the mother of Markgraf Otto I´s youngest son Markgraf Albrecht II.  Albrecht II was named in the charter dated 1 Jan 1177 quoted above, so was born in the mid-1170s.  Albrecht is named in an 1197 document in his own capacity, indicating that he had already reached the age of majority.  If Ada of Holland was his mother, she would have been 12 years old at the most when he was born, assuming that she was her parents´ oldest child which appears unlikely: the order of birth of her parents´ daughters as set out in the Chronologia Johannes de Beke, quoted above, suggests that "Adelheydim" was the third daughter.  While it is acknowledged that the order of births as recorded in such sources is not consistently reliable, the order in which Count Floris´s sons are named in the Chronologia does appear to correspond to the order of their births.  If Ada was her parents´ third daughter, it is unlikely that she was born before [1166/68], also bearing in mind that the birth of the couple´s oldest son Dirk should probably be placed in the 1160s in view of his marriage which is recorded in 1186.  This date [1166/68] makes it impossible that Ada was the mother of Markgraf Albrecht II.  A second possibility for Ada´s Brandenburg husband is Otto II Markgraf von Brandenburg, stated to be the case by Alfred Riedel who compiled the Codex Diplomaticus Brandenburgensis series in the mid-19th century.  In his index volume, he lists "Ada Margräfin v. Brandenburg, Gemahlin Otto´s II, Schwester des Grafen Wilhelm von Holland", although he cites no primary source which confirms that this statement is correct[487].  This possibility was also discussed by Hermann Krabbo in the early 20th century[488].  All problems of chronology would be resolved if Otto II was Ada´s husband.  In addition, the timing of her 1205 donation to Rijnsberg abbey would have followed her husband´s death.  It would also be easier to explain her return to Holland (why would she have gone back if Markgraf Albrecht II had been her son?) and also the absence of any reference to Brandenburg relatives in the 1205 charter.  References to the wife of Markgraf Otto II are found in the Cronica Principum Saxonie which records that "Otto secundus" had "uxorem cum magna sibi in Werda gloria presentatam"[489], and Pulchawa´s Böhmischer Chronik which states that "Otto secundus, filius primi Ottonis" married "uxorem…sibi traditam cum magna gloria in Verdn"[490].  Both sources say that she was childless.  She is also referred to in three charters, the first in which Pope Innocent III summoned Otto II to treat his wife with love, the second dealing with an attempt to murder Ada, the third Otto´s participation in a crusade hoping that God will favour him with the birth of an heir[491].  [Alternative possible marriages: m ([1171/75]) as his second wife, OTTO I Markgraf von Brandenburg, son of ALBRECHT "der Bär" Markgraf von Brandenburg [Ballenstedt] & his wife Sophie von Winzenburg ([1126/28]-7 Mar 1184, bur Kloster Lehnin), or m OTTO II Markgraf von Brandenburg, son of OTTO I Markgraf von Brandenburg & his first wife Judyta of Poland (-4 Jul 1205, bur Kloster Lehnin)]. 

9.         MARGARETA (-after 1203).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum succedentem comitem Hollandie, Wilhelmum comitem Orientalis Frisie, Florencium prepositum Traiecetensis ecclesie, Robertum presidium Kenemarie, Beatricem, Elizabeth, Adelheydim et Margaretam comitissam Clivie" as the children of Count Floris III & his wife[492].  The Annales Egmundani record the marriage in 1182 of "filiam comitis Florentii et comitissæ Adæ, Margaretam" and "Theodericus comes de Cleve"[493].  "Theodericus Hollandie comes…comitis Florentii et Ade comitisse filius" donated property at Poeldijk bij Naaldwijk to the church of St Maria, Utrecht by charter dated 1198, in the presence of "Ada mater mea, Willelmus frater meus comes Frisie, Margareta soror mea, Florentius frater meus…"[494]m (1182) DIETRICH [III] Graf von Kleve, son of DIETRICH [II] Graf von Kleve & his wife Adelheid von Sulzbach (-[27 Mar 1200/1203]). 

10.      HEDWIG (-13 Jan ----, bur Haarlem).  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "Id Ian" of "Hathewidis filia Florencii" and her burial at Haarlem[495]

11.      AGNES (-22 Apr 1228).  Abbess of Rijnsburg 1205.  She is named in Europäische Stammtafeln[496] as daughter of Count Dirk VI, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. 

 

 

WILLEM of Holland, son of FLORIS III Count of Holland & his wife Ada of Scotland (-4 Feb 1222).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum succedentem comitem Hollandie, Wilhelmum comitem Orientalis Frisie, Florencium prepositum Traiecetensis ecclesie, Robertum presidium Kenemarie, Beatricem, Elizabeth, Adelheydim et Margaretam comitissam Clivie" as the children of Count Floris III & his wife[497].  "Theodericus Hollandie comes…comitis Florentii et Ade comitisse filius" donated property at Poeldijk bij Naaldwijk to the church of St Maria, Utrecht by charter dated 1198, in the presence of "Ada mater mea, Willelmus frater meus comes Frisie, Margareta soror mea, Florentius frater meus…"[498].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Wilhelmum comitem" was received "in Orientalis Frisia" after his marriage[499].  The Gesta Episcopum Traiectensium names "Theodericum comitem Hollandie fratrem suum Wilhelmum" when recording the disagreement between the two brothers[500].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Wilhelmus comes Orientalis Frisie" conspired after the death of his brother Count Dirk VII in 1203, with the support of "Florencius frater suus Traiectensis prepositus, Otto comes de Benthem ipsius patruus" and others, against "Ludovicum comitem de Loon…ac Adelheidim Hollandie viduam"[501].  He succeeded his niece in 1203 as WILLEM I Count of Holland.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Wilhelmus comes Orientalis Frisie" conspired after the death of his brother Count Dirk VII in 1203, with the support of "Florencius frater suus Traiectensis prepositus, Otto comes de Benthem ipsius patruus" and others, against "Ludovicum comitem de Loon…ac Adelheidim Hollandie viduam", in a later passage recording that "Ludovicus comes de Loen" was defeated and expelled from Holland, after which Willem succeeded as count[502].  Matthew Paris records that “duos...capitaneos Willelmum...Houlandiæ ducem et comitem de Weiz Georgium” besieged “Alchaciam” after landing at Lisbon in 1217[503].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "1223 II Non Feb" of Count Willem[504]

m firstly (Stavoren, Friesland 1197) ADELHEID van Gelre, daughter of OTTO I Graf van Gelre & his wife Richardis of Bavaria (-4 Feb 1218, bur Rijnsburg).  The Annales Egmundani record the marriage in 1197 of "Wilhelmum fratrem Theoderici comitis" and "filiam comitis Ottonis [Pictavis Aquisgrani]"[505].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of "Wilhelmum comitem" and "Otto comes…Adelheidem suam filiam", specifying that it was celebrated "in Stavria"[506].  The Gesta Epsicoporum Traiectensium records the marriage of "Wilhelmum" and "Otto comes Gelrensis…filiam"[507].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "1219 II Id Feb" of "comitissa" and her burial at Rijnsburg[508].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "pridie Id Feb" 1218 of "Aleidis uxor prima Wilhelmi primi comitis XII"[509]

m secondly (Jul 1220) as her second husband, MARIE de Brabant, widow of Emperor OTTO IV King of Germany, daughter of HENRI I Duke of Brabant & his first wife Mathilde de Flandre ([1191]-[9 Mar/14 Jun] 1260, bur Louvain, église collégiale de Saint Pierre).  The Gesta Abbatem Trudonensium records that "Henricus dux Brabancie…filiam suam Ottoni in uxorem dare promisit"[510].  The Chronicæ Regiæ Coloniensis record the marriage in 1214 of "Otto imperator" and "filiam ducis Brabantie"[511].  The Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ names "Maria imperatrix Romanorum" as the eldest of the four daughters of "Henricus dux" & his wife Mathilde[512].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that Count Willem married secondly "Mariam", but does not state her origin[513].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that Count Willem married secondly "Mariam", but does not state her origin[514].  The Oude Kronik van Brabant records that Marie was buried "Lovanii…in ecclesia Sancti Petri" with her husband[515]

Count Willem & his first wife had five children:

1.         FLORIS (24 Jun 1210-Corbie 19 Jul 1234, bur Rijnsburg).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Florencium Hollandie comitem, Ottonem Traiectensem pontificem, Wilhelmum presidium, Adam abbatissan Rinesburgensem et Richardim…monialem" as the children of Count Willem & his first wife[516].  He succeeded his father in 1222 as FLORIS IV Count of Holland.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Claromontensis comes" killed Count Floris "in Corbiaco XIV Kal Aug"[517].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records that "Florentius IV comes Hollandie tredecimus" was killed "XIV Kal Aug" in 1234 and buried "Reynsburch"[518]m (Betrothed 5 Nov 1214, 5 Dec 1224) as her second husband, MATHILDE de Brabant, widow of HEINRICH II Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, daughter of HENRI I Duke of Brabant & his first wife Mathilde de Flandre (-22 Dec 1267, bur Loosduinen Cistercian Abbey).  The Oude Kronik van Brabant names "Mariam, conthoralem Ottonis Quartus Romanorum imperatoris, Aleydam comitssam Auernie, Margaretam comitissam Gerardi comitis Ghelrie et Mechteldim, primo quidem comitissam Palatinam Rheni, postea…comitissam Hollandie" as the daughters of "Henricus…primus, dux Lotharingie" and his wife "Mechteldim, filiam Mathei Boloniensis comitis"[519].  The Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ names "Machtildem [uxor] Florentius comes Hollandie" as the fourth of the four daughters of "Henricus dux" and his wife Mathilde[520].  The marriage contract of "Mathildam filiam Henrici ducis Lotharingiæ" and "filium Willelmi comitis Hollandiæ Florentium primogenitum" is dated 5 Nov 1214[521].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Floris IV and "Machtildim filiam Henrici ducis Brabancie"[522].  "…Machtildis comitissa, Richard soror comitis" witnessed the charter dated 1231 under which Floris IV Count of Holland confirmed rights of Rijnsburg abbey[523].  "Mathildis comitissa Hollandiæ" donated property to Afflighem abbey, where she and "due filie mee…Aleidis et Margareta" elected their burial, by charter dated Sep 1244[524].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "1267 VI Kal Ian" of "Machtildis comitissa" and her burial "apud puellæ cystersiensis ordinis Losdunensis monasterii"[525].  Count Floris IV & his wife had [five] children: 

a)         WILLEM (1227-killed in battle near Hoogwoude 28 Jan 1256, bur 1262 Middleburg).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Wilhelmum Romanorum regem, Florencium presidem, Adelheidim Hannonie, et Machtildim Hennenbergie comitissas" as children of Count Floris IV & his wife[526].  The Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ names "Willelmum regem Romanorum et Florentium et Aleydem comitissam Hanonie et Margaretam comitissam de Hinneberga" as children of "Florentius comes Hollandie" & his wife Mathilde[527].  He succeeded his father in 1234 as WILLEM II Count of Holland.  Elected King of Germany in 1247. 

-        see below.    

b)         FLORIS “de Voogd” (-Antwerpen 26 Mar 1258, bur Middelburg).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Wilhelmum Romanorum regem, Florencium presidem, Adelheidim Hannonie, et Machtildim Hennenbergie comitissas" as children of Count Floris IV & his wife[528].  The Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ names "Willelmum regem Romanorum et Florentium et Aleydem comitissam Hanonie et Margaretam comitissam de Hinneberga" as children of "Florentius comes Hollandie" & his wife Mathilde[529].  The Annales Blandinienses names "Florentii fratris suis [=Willelmi regis Alemannie"[530].  Regent of Holland 1248-1258.  His forces defeated Guy Count of Flanders in Jul 1253 at Westkappel, on the island of Walcheren, after he invaded Holland in Jul 1253[531]

c)         ALEIDE (-[1 Mar/7 Apr] 1284).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Wilhelmum Romanorum regem, Florencium presidem, Adelheidim Hannonie, et Machtildim Hennenbergie comitissas" as children of Count Floris IV & his wife[532].  The Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ names "Willelmum regem Romanorum et Florentium et Aleydem comitissam Hanonie et Margaretam comitissam de Hinneberga" as children of "Florentius comes Hollandie" & his wife Mathilde[533].  "Mathildis comitissa Hollandiæ" donated property to Afflighem abbey, where she and "due filie mee…Aleidis et Margareta" elected their burial, by charter dated Sep 1244[534].  Regent of Holland 1258-1263.  The testament of "Aleidis germana felicis recordationis domini Willelmi Romanorum regis et uxor condam domini Johannis de Avennis" is dated 18 Oct 1271 and provides for religious donations[535]m (9 Oct 1246) JEAN d’Avesnes, son of BOUCHARD d'Avesnes & his wife Marguerite II Ctss of Flanders, Ctss de Hainaut (1 May 1218-24 Dec 1257, bur Valenciennes).  He succeeded in 1246 as JEAN I Comte de Hainaut.    

i)          JEAN de Hainaut (1247-22 Aug 1304).  He succeeded his mother in 1280 as JEAN II Comte de Hainaut.  He succeeded in 1299 as JAN II Count of Holland.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the succession in 1299 of "Iohannes comes Hannoniensis filius Adelheydis sororis Wilhelmi regis" as Count of Holland[536]

-         see below, Chapter 2

ii)         other children – COMTES DE HAINAUT

d)         MARGARETA (-26 Mar 1277, bur Kloster Losduinen)The Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ names "Willelmum regem Romanorum et Florentium et Aleydem comitissam Hanonie et Margaretam comitissam de Hinneberga" as children of "Florentius comes Hollandie" & his wife Mathilde[537].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Wilhelmum Romanorum regem, Florencium presidem, Adelheidim Hannonie, et Machtildim Hennenbergie comitissas" as children of Count Floris IV & his wife, "Machtildim" presumably being an error for "Margaretam"[538].  "Mathildis comitissa Hollandiæ" donated property to Afflighem abbey, where she and "due filie mee…Aleidis et Margareta" elected their burial, by charter dated Sep 1244[539].  "Wilhelmus…Romanorum rex" granted property to "comiti Hermanno de Henneberg…sororio nostro Margaretam…sororem nostram" on their marriage by charter dated 12 Jul 1249[540].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "ipso die parasceve" in 1276 of "Margreta de Hennenbergh comitissa, soror regis Wilhelmi peperit filios et filias 364…sepulta in Lausdunis"[541]m (Mainz 23 May 1249) HERMANN [I] Graf von Henneberg in Coburg, Schmalkalden, Eisfeld und Hildburghausen, son of POPPO [VII] Graf von Henneberg & his second wife Jutta von Thüringen (-Aschach 18 Dec 1290, bur Kloster Frauenrod).  "Hermannus comes de Hayneburg...Boppone", on his behalf and on behalf of “Boppone filio nostro...Othone marchione Brandenburgensi et Jutta filia nostra eiusdem marchionis uxore”, the hereditary rights of “domina Margareta quondam uxor nostra materque dictorum Bopponis et Jutte” in “comitatu Hollandie” to “domino Johanni de Avesnis comiti Hannonie” by charter dated Aug 1281[542]

e)         [RIKARDE (-after 28 Jan 1256).  After recording the death of Willem II Count of Holland, King of Germany, the Chronologia Johannes de Beke states that "domicella Richardis" founded the convent of "Campus Regalis" for the soul of "fratris sui sepedicti regis"[543].  This is the only reference so far found to this sister Rikarde.] 

2.         OTTO (-3 Apr 1249, bur Utrecht Cathedral).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Florencium Hollandie comitem, Ottonem Traiectensem pontificem, Wilhelmum presidium, Adam abbatissan Rinesburgensem et Richardim…monialem" as the children of Count Willem & his first wife[544].  Regent of Holland 1238-39.  Bishop of Utrecht 1245.  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "Otto des graven van Hollant sonne" was installed as thirty-sixth bishop of Utrecht in 1233, died 4 Apr 1249 and was buried in Utrecht cathedral[545].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "1249 II Non Apr" of "Otto Traiectensis episcopus" and his burial "apud ecclesiam maiorem"[546]

3.         WILLEM (-30 Aug 1238).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Florencium Hollandie comitem, Ottonem Traiectensem pontificem, Wilhelmum presidium, Adam abbatissan Rinesburgensem et Richardim…monialem" as the children of Count Willem & his first wife[547].  The Annales Stadenses record that "Willehelmus frater comitis Hollandiæ" was killed in a tournament in 1238[548].  Regent of Holland 1234-1238.  "Wilhelmus tutor Hollandiæ" donated property, to which "fratris nostri et beatæ memoriæ comitis Hollandiæ" was connected, by charter dated 1 Apr 1235[549]

4.         ADA (-15 Jun 1258).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Florencium Hollandie comitem, Ottonem Traiectensem pontificem, Wilhelmum presidium, Adam abbatissan Rinesburgensem et Richardim…monialem" as the children of Count Willem & his first wife[550].  Abbess at Rijnsburg 1239. 

5.         RIKARDE (-3 Jan 1262, bur Camp).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Florencium Hollandie comitem, Ottonem Traiectensem pontificem, Wilhelmum presidium, Adam abbatissan Rinesburgensem et Richardim…monialem" as the children of Count Willem & his first wife[551].  "…Machtildis comitissa, Richard soror comitis" witnessed the charter dated 1231 under which Floris IV Count of Holland confirmed rights of Rijnsburg abbey[552].  "Rikardis domicella Hollandiæ" donated property to Loosduinen convent, for the souls of "patris et matris meæ nec non et fratrum meorum", by charter dated 28 Oct 1250[553].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death in 1262 and burial "in monasterio Campi regis…III Non Jan", which she founded, of "Richardis filia [Wilhelmus I frater Theoderici comes Hollandie XII]"[554]

 

 

WILLEM of Holland, son of FLORIS IV Count of Holland & his wife Mathilde de Brabant (1227-killed in battle near Hoogwoude 28 Jan 1256, bur 1282 Middleburg Abbey).  The Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ names "Willelmum regem Romanorum et Florentium et Aleydem comitissam Hanonie et Margaretam comitissam de Hinneberga" as children of "Florentius comes Hollandie" & his wife Mathilde[555].  He succeeded his father in 1234 as WILLEM II Count of Holland.  After the death in Feb 1247 of Heinrich Raspe anti-King of Germany, Landgraf of Thuringia, Count Willem's maternal uncle Henri II Duke of Brabant proposed him as successor after declining the position himself[556].  He was elected WILHELM King of Germany at Worringen 3 Oct 1247, after Köln refused admittance, by the archbishops of Köln, Mainz and Trier and recognised by Pope Innocent IV as rex Romanorum 8 Nov 1247[557].  He appointed an imperial vicar in Lombardy and received allegiance from Burgundy[558].  In autumn 1248, he conquered the cities of Kaiserswerth, Dortmund and Aachen and was crowned at Aachen 1 Nov 1248 by the archbishop of Köln[559].  His support within Germany was largely limited to the Rhineland and Swabia until 1252/53 when Pope Innocent IV attracted northern German princes to his cause, by negotiating Willem's marriage to the daughter of the Duke of Brunswick, granting the Markgrafen of Brandenburg the advocacy of the city of Lübeck which enjoyed customs exemptions in Holland, and granting the Duke of Saxony the right of investiture in the bishoprics of Lübeck, Ratzeburg and Schwerin.  Willem was re-elected King of Germany in Brunswick 25 Mar 1252 with support from these three principalities[560].  He supported his brother-in-law Jean I Comte de Hainaut in 1253 when Charles Duc d'Anjou subjugated the county on behalf of Marguerite II Ctss of Flanders.  After military conflict was avoided, a truce was negotiated between all parties 26 Jul 1254 including an agreement to submit the dispute to Louis IX King of France for adjudication[561].  The death of his rival King Konrad in 1254 resulted in many cities supporting Count Willem, in return for confirmation of their privileges[562].  However, in 1252 Willem lost the support of the archbishop of Mainz by confirming Sophie of Thuringia in possession of Hessian lands in his province, of the archbishop of Trier over a dispute over the king's obligation to pay tolls in Trier territory, and of the archbishop of Köln who formed an offensive alliance with Marguerite II Ctss of Flanders and Charles Comte d'Anjou and in 1254 conducted secret negotiations to replace Willem by Otakar King of Bohemia[563].  He died during a campaign against the Frisians who surprised and killed him after he fell through ice[564].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1255 of "Willelmus comes Hollandie" killed "mense Ianuario" by the Frisians[565].  After recording his death, the Chronologia Johannes de Beke states that "domicella Richardis" founded the convent of "Campus Regalis" for the soul of "fratris sui sepedicti regis"[566]

m (Braunschweig 25 Jan 1252) ELISABETH von Braunschweig, daughter of OTTO I “dem Kind” Herzog von Braunschweig & his wife Mathilde von Brandenburg [Askanier] (-27 May 1266, bur Middelburg).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Willem and "Elisabeth filiam ducis de Brunswijc"[567].  Her parentage is confirmed by the Cronica Principum Saxonie which names (in order) "Mechtildim…Helenam…Alheidem…Helenam" as the daughters of "Ottonem de Lunenburch" & his wife, specifying that the second "Helenam" (an error for "Elisabetham") married "Wilhelmus de Hollandia rex"[568].  The date is supplied by the Annales Erphordenses which record the marriage "1252 VIII Kal Feb in beati Pauli Brunswic" of "filiam ducis Brunswicensis" and "rex Wilhelmus"[569].  This marriage was arranged by Pope Innocent IV to attract support for the papal party from princes in northern Germany, which had until then remained in the Hohenstaufen camp[570].  In 1255, she was captured by Hermann von Rietburg, robbed and imprisoned in the castle of Rietburg, although freed 4 Dec 1255[571].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death in 1266 of "matrona Elizabeth Romanorum regina" and her burial at Middelburg monastery[572].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "VI Kal Jun" 1266 of "Elizabeth regina mater Florentii unigeniti" and her burial "Middelburch"[573]

Mistress (1): ---. 

Count Willem II & his wife had two children: 

1.         FLORIS (Jul 1254-murdered Utrecht 27 Jun 1296, bur Rijnsburg Monastery).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names "Florencium" as son of Count Willem & his wife[574].  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Florencium comitem Hollandie" as the son of "Wilhelmus de Hollandia rex" & his wife[575].  He succeeded his father in 1256 as FLORIS V Count of Holland.  He was a claimant to the throne of Scotland in 1291, through his great-grandmother, first in order on the Great Roll of Scotland.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the murder "Traiectum…1296 V Kal Iul" of Count Floris by "Gerardus de Velsen" and his burial in Rijnsburg monastery[576]m ([1270]) BEATRIX de Flandre, daughter of GUY Count of Flanders & his first wife Mathilde de Béthune (1260-23 Mar 1296).  The Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ refers to the three (unnamed) daughters of "Guido…ex Mathilde filia Roberti Tenremontensis", specifying that one (listed second) married "Florentie comiti Hollandie"[577].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Floris and "Beatricem filiam Guidonis Flandrensis comitis"[578].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "1296 X Kal Aug" of "Beatricem conthoralem suam"[579].  Count Floris V & his wife had eleven children: 

a)         DIRK (-young).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum, Florencium, Wilhelmum, Ottonem, Wilhelmum, Florencium et Iohannem Hollandie comitem, Beatricem, Machtildim, Elizabeth et Margaretam Anglie reginam" as children of Count Floris & his wife[580]

b)         FLORIS (-young).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum, Florencium, Wilhelmum, Ottonem, Wilhelmum, Florencium et Iohannem Hollandie comitem, Beatricem, Machtildim, Elizabeth et Margaretam Anglie reginam" as children of Count Floris & his wife[581]

c)         WILLEM (-young).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum, Florencium, Wilhelmum, Ottonem, Wilhelmum, Florencium et Iohannem Hollandie comitem, Beatricem, Machtildim, Elizabeth et Margaretam Anglie reginam" as children of Count Floris & his wife[582].  

d)         OTTO (-young).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum, Florencium, Wilhelmum, Ottonem, Wilhelmum, Florencium et Iohannem Hollandie comitem, Beatricem, Machtildim, Elizabeth et Margaretam Anglie reginam" as children of Count Floris & his wife[583]

e)         WILLEM (-young).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum, Florencium, Wilhelmum, Ottonem, Wilhelmum, Florencium et Iohannem Hollandie comitem, Beatricem, Machtildim, Elizabeth et Margaretam Anglie reginam" as children of Count Floris & his wife[584]

f)          FLORIS (-young).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum, Florencium, Wilhelmum, Ottonem, Wilhelmum, Florencium et Iohannem Hollandie comitem, Beatricem, Machtildim, Elizabeth et Margaretam Anglie reginam" as children of Count Floris & his wife[585]

g)         BEATRIX (-young).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum, Florencium, Wilhelmum, Ottonem, Wilhelmum, Florencium et Iohannem Hollandie comitem, Beatricem, Machtildim, Elizabeth et Margaretam Anglie reginam" as children of Count Floris & his wife[586]

h)         MECHTILD (-young).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum, Florencium, Wilhelmum, Ottonem, Wilhelmum, Florencium et Iohannem Hollandie comitem, Beatricem, Machtildim, Elizabeth et Margaretam Anglie reginam" as children of Count Floris & his wife[587]

i)          ELISABETH (-young).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum, Florencium, Wilhelmum, Ottonem, Wilhelmum, Florencium et Iohannem Hollandie comitem, Beatricem, Machtildim, Elizabeth et Margaretam Anglie reginam" as children of Count Floris & his wife[588]

j)          MARGARETA (-after 12 Aug 1284).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum, Florencium, Wilhelmum, Ottonem, Wilhelmum, Florencium et Iohannem Hollandie comitem, Beatricem, Machtildim, Elizabeth et Margaretam Anglie reginam" as children of Count Floris & his wife[589], the reference to “Anglie reginam” being explained by her betrothal.  Floris V Count of Holland betrothed "Margaretam filiam nostram" to “domino Edwardo...regi Anglie...domino Alfonso eius filio” by charter dated 5 Jul 1281[590].  Floris V Count of Holland agreed the dowry for the marriage of "Edwardi regis Anglorum...dominum Alfonsum dicti domini regis primogenitum" and “Margaretam filiam nostram” by charter dated 12 Aug 1283, which also provides for the marriage between “Johannis filii nostri” and “eius filiam[591]Betrothed (5 Jul 1281) to ALFONSO of England, son of EDWARD I King of England & his first wife Infanta doña Leonor de Castilla (Bayonne or Bordeaux or in Maine 24 Nov 1275-Windsor Castle 19 Aug 1284, bur Westminster Abbey). 

k)         JAN (before 12 Aug 1283-Haarlem 10 Nov 1299).  He succeeded his father in 1296 as JAN I Count of Holland, under the guardianship of Wolfart van Borselen who was murdered in 1298 on the orders of Jean Comte de Hainaut who seized Count Jan and his wife and succeeded as guardian.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "1299 IV Kal Nov apud Harlem" of "Iohannes domicellus"[592].  Count Jan died of a gastric complaint, allegedly poisoned by Comte Jean who succeeded him as Count of Holland[593]m (Betrothed 1285, Ipswich Priory Church, Suffolk 18 Jan 1297) as her first husband, ELIZABETH of England, daughter of EDWARD I “Longshanks” King of England & his first wife Infanta doña Leonor de Castilla (Rhuddlan Castle, Flintshire Aug 1282-Quendon, Essex [5] May 1316, bur Walden Abbey, Essex).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "apud Rothelan" in 1282 of "filiam…Elizabetham" to "Alienora regina Angliæ"[594].  Floris V Count of Holland agreed the dowry for the marriage of "Edwardi regis Anglorum...dominum Alfonsum dicti domini regis primogenitum" and “Margaretam filiam nostram” by charter dated 12 Aug 1283, which also provides for the marriage between “Johannis filii nostri” and “eius filiam[595].  The marriage contract between "Edwardum...regem Anglie...filie sue Elizabethe" and “dominum Florentium comitem Hollandie...Johannis filii sui primogeniti” is dated 1285[596].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Jan and "Elizabeth…Eduardi regis filia", recording in a later passage that she returned to England after her husband died and married (secondly) "comes Erffordie"[597].  She married secondly (Papal dispensation 10 Aug 1302, Westminster Abbey 14 Nov 1302) Humphrey [VIII] de Bohun Earl of Hereford and Essex.  The dispensation for the marriage of “Humfrido comiti Herefordensi” and “Elizabetæ natæ...Edvardi regis Angliæ...relictæ quondam Johannis comitis Hollandiæ” is dated 10 Aug 1302[598].  The Annales Londonienses record the marriage "in festo Sanctæ Katerinæ…apud Caversham juxta Redyng" in 1302 of "Margareta filia regis Angliæ, comitissa Hoylandiæ et Salondiæ" and "domino Humfrido de Bohun comiti Herefordiæ"[599].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Jan and "Elizabeth…Eduardi regis filia", recording in a later passage that she returned to England after her husband died and married (secondly) "comes Erffordie"[600].  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey records that “Humfredus octavus de Bohun, comes Herefordiæ et Essex, constabularius Angliæ et dominus Breconiæ” married “Elizabetham filiam regis Edwardi filii regis Henrici tertii”, adding that she was buried “apud Waldene[601].  The History of the foundation of Walden abbey records the birth “apud Quenden” of “quædam filia” to “Humfridus de Bohun” and his wife “Elizabethæ…regis Angliæ Edwardi…filiæ” during whose birth her mother died, and in a later passage her burial at Waldon[602]

Count Floris V had [seven] illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

l)           WITTE ([1280/82]-[6 Jan/26 Dec] 1321).  Heer van Haamstede.  m (before 1307) AGNES van der Sluis, daughter of ARNOLD van der Sluis & his wife Agnes van der Lecke. 

-        HEREN van HAAMSTEDE[603]

m)        KATHARINA (-after 12 Aug 1328)m (before 21 Apr 1301) ZWEDER [I] Burchgraeve van Montfoort (-[28 May 1329/2 Jan 1331]).  

n)         GERHARD (-before 28 Jul 1327).  

o)         WILLEM .  1318/1343.

p)         ALIDA .

q)         PIETER .  1350.

r)          [DIRK .]

2.         [MECHTILD .  1256.  She is named in Europäische Stammtafeln[604] as daughter of Count Willem II, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  On the other hand, Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "VI Kal Jun" 1266 of "Elizabeth regina mater Florentii unigeniti", indicating that King Wilhelm and his wife had only one child[605].] 

Count Willem II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

3.          DIRK (-[1312]). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    COUNTS OF HOLLAND 1299-1354 (AVESNES)

 

 

The details of this family are more fully set out in the document HAINAUT.  

 

 

JEAN d'Avesnes, son of JEAN I Comte de Hainaut & his wife Aleide of Holland (1247-22 Aug 1304).  He succeeded his mother in 1280 as JEAN II Comte de Hainaut.  He succeeded in 1299 as JAN II Count of Holland.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the succession in 1299 of "Iohannes comes Hannoniensis filius Adelheydis sororis Wilhelmi regis" as Count of Holland[606]

1.         GUILLAUME ([1286]-7 Jun 1337).  He succeeded his father in 1304 as GUILLAUME III Comte de Hainaut, WILLEM III Count of Holland.   

a)         MARGUERITE de Hainaut (1311-Le Quesnoy 23 Jun 1356, bur Valenciennes)The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) records the marriage in 1324 of "Rex Ludwicus" and "filiam Comitis Holandiæ"[607].  The Oude Kronik van Brabant records the marriage "apud Aquisgranum" of "Wilhelmus comes Hollandie…Margaretam filiam suam" and "Ludovico duci Bavarie, imperatori Romanorum"[608].  She succeeded her brother in 1345 as MARGUERITE II Ctss de Hainaut, MARGARETA Ctss of Holland and Zeeland 1345, abdicated 7 Dec 1354.  m (Keulen 25 or 26 Feb 1324) as his second wife, LUDWIG IV Duke of Bavaria King of Germany, son of LUDWIG II "der Strenge" Joint-Duke of Bavaria & his third wife Mechtild von Habsburg (Munich 1 Apr 1282-Fürstenfeld near Munich 11 Oct 1347).  Crowned King of Italy at Milan 31 May 1327.  Crowned Emperor LUDWIG at Rome 17 Jan 1328.    

b)         GUILLAUME (1317-killed in battle 26 Sep 1345).  He succeeded his father 1337 as GUILLAUME IV Comte de Hainaut, WILLEM IV Count of Holland.   

c)         other children: - see HAINAUT

2.         other children: - see HAINAUT

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    COUNTS OF HOLLAND 1349-1433 (WITTELSBACH)

 

 

The details of this family are more fully set out in the documents BAVARIA and HAINAUT. 

 

 

MARGUERITE de Hainaut, daughter of GUILLAUME Comte de Hainaut, WILLEM III Count of Holland & his wife (1311-Le Quesnoy 23 Jun 1356, bur Valenciennes).  She succeeded her brother in 1345 as MARGUERITE II Ctss de Hainaut, MARGARETA Ctss of Holland and Zeeland 1345, abdicated 7 Dec 1354. 

m (Köln 25 Feb 1324) as his second wife, LUDWIG IV Duke of Bavaria King of Germany, son of LUDWIG II "der Strenge" Joint-Duke of Bavaria & his third wife Mechtild von Habsburg ([Feb/Mar] 1282-Puch bei Fürstenfeldbruck 11 Oct 1347, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  Crowned King of Italy at Milan 31 May 1327.  Crowned Emperor LUDWIG[609] at Rome 17 Jan 1328.  In 1329, he agreed the Convention of Pavia with his nephews Rudolf II and Ruprecht I under which the latter jointly received the Palatinate while Ludwig IV continued as sole ruler of Upper Bavaria. 

1.         other children: see BAVARIA

2.         WILHELM (Frankfurt-am-Main 12 May 1330-Le Quesnoy 15 Apr 1388, bur Valenciennes).  He succeeded his father in 1347 as WILHELM I joint-Duke of Bavaria.  He and his brothers partitioned their territories in 1349, Duke Wilhelm keeping Lower Bavaria jointly.  He succeeded his mother in 1349 as WILLEM V Count of Holland and Zeeland, but she retook control of these territories in 1350.  Willem took up arms against his mother, finally forcing her to yield 7 Dec 1354.  Count Willem’s succession in Holland was, according to his father’s wishes, joint with his brother Albrecht.  However, the Dutch refused to accept this and in practice Willem governed alone.  As a result of a further partition in 1353, he received Straubing jointly with his brother Albrecht.  He was confirmed 26 Feb 1357 as GUILLAUME V Comte de Hainaut, following the death of his mother.  He became insane in [1356/57], and was detained at the château du Quesnoy in 1358. 

3.         ALBRECHT von Bayern (Munich 25 Jul 1336-The Hague 13 Dec 1404, bur The Hague).  He succeeded his mother 1349 as ALBERT Count of Holland and Zeeland, jointly with his brother Willem.  He succeeded on the death of his brother in 1388 as ALBERT Comte de Hainaut, Count of Holland and Zeeland. 

-        see below.   

 

 

ALBRECHT von Bayern, son of Emperor LUDWIG IV Duke of Bavaria, King of Germany & his second wife Marguerite Ctss de Hainaut, Ctss of Holland (Munich 25 Jul 1336-The Hague 13 Dec 1404, bur The Hague).  He succeeded his father in 1347 as ALBRECHT I joint-Duke of Bavaria.  He and his brothers partitioned their territories in 1349, he kept Lower Bavaria jointly.  He succeeded his mother 1349 as ALBRECHT Count of Holland and Zeeland, jointly with his brother Willem.  However, the Dutch refused to accept this and in practice Willem governed alone.  As a result of a further partition in 1353, he received Straubing jointly with his brother Wilhelm.  Named Protector of Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland in 1358, on behalf of his brother who had become insane.  Emperor Karl IV invested him with the Counties of Holland, Zeeland, Friesland and Hainaut, but this remained unrecognised by the population.  He only succeeded on the death of his brother in 1388 as ALBERT Comte de Hainaut, Count of Holland and Zeeland. 

1.         other children: - see HAINAUT.

2.         GUILLAUME de Hainaut (5 Apr 1365-château de Bouchain 30 May 1417, bur Valenciennes).  He succeeded his father in 1404 as GUILLAUME VI Comte de Hainaut, WILLEM VI Count of Holland, WILHELM II Graf von Straubing. 

a)         JACQUELINE (chr Le Quesnoy 16 Aug 1401-murdered Schloß Teilingen 8/9 Oct 1436, bur The Hague).  She succeeded her father in 1417 as JACQUELINE Ctss de Hainaut, JACOBA Ctss of Holland and Zeeland, but this was disputed by her uncle.  He transferred Hainaut to her 13 Feb 1419, in return for the right to retain the other counties for 12 years, but she retook these on his death in 1425.  Deposed 12 Apr 1433.  She was succeeded by Philippe "le Bon" Duke of Burgundy, who had been Regent of Holland 1428-1433, and was Count of Holland 1433-1467. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    GRAVEN van BETUWE

 

 

The four "Frankish" counties of Teisterband, Betuwe, Duffel and Nijmegen lay south of the river Rhine but north of the river Maas.  The county of Betuwe (Batua) was north of the river Waal to the east of the county of Teisterband[610]

 

 

1.         ANSFRID [I] (-after 868)Graaf van Betuwe.  "Folcherus" donated property "…in Batuue in comitatu Ansfridi…" to Werden abbey by charter dated 10 Nov 855[611].  "Ansfridus…comes…et Hildiwardus filius meus" donated property "in pago Darnau, in marca vel villa Sodoia…super fluvium Geldiun, in comitatu Giselberti" to Lorsch by charter dated 5 Oct 863[612].  "Ansfridus…comes palatii" is named in 868, presumably in reference to the palace of Nijmegen[613]m ---.  The name of Ansfrid's wife is not known.  Ansfrid & his wife had one child: 

a)         HILDIWARD (-after 5 Oct 863).  The Chronicon Laureshamense records the donation dated 5 Oct 863 by "Ansfridus comes…et Hildiwardus filius meus"[614]

 

 

1.         RICFRIED [Dodo] (-before 950).  The Memorial of "Ricfridus hoc nomine Dodo vocatus…comes" names "presul Baldricus…preses Rodolphus…rector Yrimfredus pariterque comes Nevelongus" as his children and "Herisindæ" as their mother, recording that she was buried with her husband[615]Graaf van Betuwe: "Zuendeboldus…rex" gave "villam ex nostra abbatial Capremons dicta Ren…ex sua proprietate in pago Battauui in comitatu Dodonis" to "nostro comiti Folcberto" by charter dated 11 Jul 897[616]m HERENSINDA, daughter of ---.  The Memorial of "Ricfridus hoc nomine Dodo vocatus…comes" names "presul Baldricus…preses Rodolphus…rector Yrimfredus pariterque comes Nevelongus" as his children and "Herisindæ" as their mother, recording that she was buried with her husband[617].  Ricfried & his wife had five children:

a)         EHRENFRIED (-1 Nov ----).  The Memorial of "Ricfridus hoc nomine Dodo vocatus…comes" names "presul Baldricus…preses Rodolphus…rector Yrimfredus pariterque comes Nevelongus" as his children and "Herisindæ" as their mother[618].  [same person as…?  ANSFRID [II] (-after 969).  A charter of Lorsch dated 969 refers to property "in pago Dehsendron in præfidatu Ansfridi comitis"[619].]  Vanderkindere suggests that Ansfrid [II] was the maternal, not paternal, uncle of Ansfrid [III], and that he was the same person as Ehrenfried, son of Ricfrid[620], which would require a loose interpretation of Thietmar who refers to the "like-named paternal uncle ("patruo") of Count Ansfrid" who held fifteen countships[621].  It also assumes that Ehrenfried, son of Ricfried, was the same person as Ehrenfried, count in several different counties, who is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[622] as son of Eberhard Graf im Bonngau and ancestor of the Pfalzgrafen von Lothringen (see the document GERMANY EARLY NOBILITY).] 

b)         NIBELUNG (-before 953).  The Memorial of "Ricfridus hoc nomine Dodo vocatus…comes" names "presul Baldricus…preses Rodolphus…rector Yrimfredus pariterque comes Nevelongus" as his children and "Herisindæ" as their mother[623]Graaf van Betuwe 943.  m (before 943) --- de Hainaut, daughter of REGINAR [II] Comte de Hainaut & his wife ---.  Her origin is deduced from the Gesta Abbatum Gemblacensium referring to "Raginero comiti…Longicollus" as "primi Baldrici Leodicensium episcopi avunculus"[624], although it appears chronologically more likely that "Raginero" was Reginar [III] rather than his paternal grandfather Reginar [I], an interpretation which appears confirmed by the same source recording the death in battle at Florennes of "Lantbertum comitem filium Ragineri Longicolli"[625].  This assumes that "primi Baldrici" was the bishop whose installation in 955 is recorded in the following paragraph of the Gesta[626], which also appears correct from the context.  Her parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 24 Jun 943 under which “Baldricus...Traiectensis ecclæsie...presul...per manus advocati mei Folberti”, addressing [her as] “nobilissime probateque Deo sacrate” [unnamed], granted “res...de abbatia...Hereberc...mansos...Rura, Liethorp, Linne, Sulethum, Flothorp, Ascolon, Malicalieol, Curnelo” to “filius vester...Baldricus in vita sua...post eum Rodulfus frater suus”, for the souls of “genitoris nostri Raineri comitis et insuper Nevelungi senioris vestri[627].  958.  Nibelung & his wife had [three] children: 

i)          RUDOLF .  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 24 Jun 943 under which [his paternal uncle] “Baldricus...Traiectensis ecclæsie...presul...per manus advocati mei Folberti”, addressing [Rudolf´s mother as] “nobilissime probateque Deo sacrate” [unnamed], granted “res...de abbatia...Hereberc...mansos...Rura, Liethorp, Linne, Sulethum, Flothorp, Ascolon, Malicalieol, Curnelo” to “filius vester...Baldricus in vita sua...post eum Rodulfus frater suus”, for the souls of “genitoris nostri Raineri comitis et insuper Nevelungi senioris vestri[628].  Mantelius says that Rudolf was the son of Reginar II Comte de Hainaut, cited in charters until 24 Jan 966 (see the document HAINAUT)[629].  He does not cite the primary source on which he bases this assertion, but his work on the early generations of the Looz family does not inspire confidence as his reconstruction is inconsistent in other details with the primary sources which are quoted in the present document.    

-         COMTES de LOOZ

ii)         BALDRIC [II] (-20 Apr 959, bur Liège St Jacques).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 24 Jun 943 under which [his paternal uncle] “Baldricus...Traiectensis ecclæsie...presul...per manus advocati mei Folberti”, addressing [Baldric´s mother as] “nobilissime probateque Deo sacrate” [unnamed], granted “res...de abbatia...Hereberc...mansos...Rura, Liethorp, Linne, Sulethum, Flothorp, Ascolon, Malicalieol, Curnelo” to “filius vester...Baldricus in vita sua...post eum Rodulfus frater suus”, for the souls of “genitoris nostri Raineri comitis et insuper Nevelungi senioris vestri[630].  Abbot of Lobbes.  The Gesta Abbatum Gemblacensium records that "Raginero comiti…Longicollus…primi Baldrici Leodicensium episcopi avunculus" granted his nephew the benefice of "abbatiam Lobiensem"[631]Bishop of Liège 955.  The Gesta Abbatum Gemblacensium records the installation of "Baldricus" as bishop of Liège in 955[632].  The Annales Lobienses record that "Ratherio" was expelled and "Baldricus" succeeded to "Leodicensium episcopium"[633].  Sigebert's Chronica records in 956 that, after "Ratherio ab episcopatu Leodicensium eiecto", “Baldricus annuente avunculo suo Raginero comite Montinese” was appointed bishop[634].  The Annales Stabulenses record the death in 959 of "Baldricus episcopus" and the succession of "Everacrus"[635].  The Annales Lobienses record the death in 959 of "Baldricus Leodicensium episcopus" and the successsion of "Everacrus"[636]

iii)        [BERTA (-[30 Oct] ----).  Her origin is indicated by her son Arnoul [II] Comte de Valenciennes being recorded as a relative of Baldric [II] Bishop of Liège[637], who was Berta's brother according to the reconstruction proposed in the present document.  The Gesta Abbatem Trudonensium records that "illustris femina domna Bertha vidua et Deo sacrata comitissa Flandrie" donated property to Saint-Trond on her deathbed for her burial there, and that after she died "Arnulfo...filio suo Flandrensi comiti" donated property in “villam Proviin in castellania Ylensi sitam iuxta fluvium Doulam...silvam...non longe a villa Merwel et unam decimam apud villam...Brustemium”, adding that Berta died “XVII Kal Aug” 967[638].  A charter dated 1146 confirms the donation and names “Regnier et Roger [frères d´Arnoul de Valenciennes]...comtes Eremfrid et Rodolphe [frère et neveu de Baldric Bishop of Utrecht]” as witnesses to the original charter[639].  The necrology of Liège Saint-Lambert records the death "III Kal Nov" of "Berte comitisse qui dedit nobis Crehem"[640], which which may refer to the wife of Comte Arnoul [I] as the deaths of her son and grandson are also recorded in the same source.  m ARNOUL de Cambrai, son of [ISAAC Comte de Cambrai & his wife ---] (-967).] 

c)         RUDOLF .  The Memorial of "Ricfridus hoc nomine Dodo vocatus…comes" names "presul Baldricus…preses Rodolphus…rector Yrimfredus pariterque comes Nevelongus" as his children and "Herisindæ" as their mother[641].  Prelate.  same person as...?  RAOUL (-948).  Vanderkindere suggests this co-identity[642]Bishop of Laon 936.  Flodoard records in 936 that “Rodulfo eiusdem loci presbitero” was appointed to “episcopatus Laudunensis”, that he was elected “a civibus concorditer”, and consecrated by Artaud Archbishop of Reims[643].  Flodoard records in 948 the presence at the synod of Ingelheim of "Wido episcopus Suessonicus, Hildegarius quoque Belvacensis, Rodulfus Laudunensis ceterique cuncti Remensis dioceseos episcopi"[644].  Flodoard records in 948 the deaths of “episcopi Geruncus Biturigensis et Rodulfus Laudunensis[645].     

d)         BALDRIC [I] (-27 Dec 975, bur Utrecht St Salvator).  The Memorial of "Ricfridus hoc nomine Dodo vocatus…comes" names "presul Baldricus…preses Rodolphus…rector Yrimfredus pariterque comes Nevelongus" as his children and "Herisindæ" as their mother[646]Bishop of Utrecht 917.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Baldricus…filius…Rixfridi comitis Clivensis" was elected Bishop of Utrecht after the death of bishop Radbod, which it dates to 917[647].  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "Baldericus van Clewe", who was installed as fifteenth bishop of Utrecht in 927, was "een broeder van den grawe van Clewe"[648].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "977 VI Id Jan" of Bishop Baldric[649]

e)         [daughter .  Vanderkindere suggests that the mother of Ansfrid [II] was the sister of Nibelung, for onomastic reasons and considering the origins of the counties which were inherited by Ansfrid[650]m LAMBERT Comte [in Masau], son of --- (-before 938).] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    GRAVEN van DRENTHE

 

 

Van den Bergh's so-called "Saxon" counties are Drenthe, pagus Forestensis, Twenthe, Salland and Hamaland, arranged north to south between the Zuiderzee and the current border between The Netherlands and Germany.  The main town of Drenthe (Thrianta), the northernmost of these counties which covered much of the present-day province of Drenthe, was Groningen located in its northernmost part. 

 

Graf Eberhard is recorded in Drenthe, as well as neighbouring Salland and pagus Forestensis in the mid-10th century.  However, no record has been found in the primary sources so far consulted of any later counts in Drenthe until Baldric in the early 11th century.  The origin of Baldric is not known.  His name suggests a family relationship with the family of the Graven van Betuwe (see Chapter 5), which included one bishop of Utrecht and two bishops of Liège of this name in the 10th and 11th centuries.  Another possible clue is provided by Alpertus who names "Wicmannus" (who, it is suggested, refers to Wichmann [III] son of Ekbert [I] "der Einäugige", see SAXONY) as husband of "præfecti Godefridi, avunculi Balderici, filiam"[651].  This Gottfried is identified as Graf von Hattuaria (see LOWER LOTHARINGIAN NOBILITY).  Vanderkindere suggests that Baldric also inherited the northern counties of Frisia, which were recorded in 970 in the hands of his future father-in-law[652], but no primary source has yet been identified which confirms that this is correct.  After the death of Baldric, the county of Drenthe passed to Gozelon, who in 1023 succeeded as Duke of Lower Lotharingia.  However, under a charter dated Emperor Heinrich II granted "comitatum de Thrente" to the bishop of Utrecht, on the intervention of "comitis Bertolfi"[653], who has not been identified.  The county must have returned to Duke Gozelon after he recognised the accession of Konrad II King of Germany, later in 1024, as Heinrich III King of Germany regranted "comitatum…in Thrente" to the bishop of Utrecht by charter dated 22 May 1046, which specifies that the grant was made "post obitum Gozlini ducis nostre"[654].  Heinrich III King of Germany donated property "in villa Cruoninga…in comitatu Trente…cum omni eiusdem comitatus…" to the church of Utrecht by charter dated 21 May 1040[655]

 

 

1.         EBERHARD, son of [EBERHARD Graf von Bonn & his wife ---] (-[3 Sep] before 964).  Eberhard is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[656] as the possible son of Ehrenfried & his wife, but the primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Flodoard records that Heinrich I King of Germany sent "Ebrardus quidam Transrhenensis" to "regnum Lotharii" to re-establish peace[657], although it is not certain to which Eberhard this refers.  Graaf in pagus Forestensis: "Otto…rex" granted property "in pago forestensi quod est in comitatu Everhardi" to the church of Utrecht by charter dated 26 Nov 944[658]Graaf van Drenthe: "Otto…rex" granted property "[in] Daventria…in comitatu Uuicmanni comitis…et villa…Tuncgurun in comitatu Everhardi comitis" to Magdeburg Moritzkirche by charter dated 2 Jul 956[659]Graaf van Salland: "Otto…rex" donated property "Dauantri…in pago…Hamalant in comitatu Wichmanni comitis…et in pago Velua…et in pago Salalant in comitatu Euerhardi comitis" to Magdeburg St Moritz by charter dated 28 Aug 960[660].  "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property "presium,,,Bulceshuson…quondam Eberhardi comitis dum vixit…in comitatu Gerungi comitis" to Gerberga Abbess of Gandersheim by charter dated 7 Oct 972[661].  The necrology of Gorze records the death "III Non Sep" of "Everardus comes"[662]

-        GRAVEN van TEISTERBAND

 

 

2.         BALDRIC (-Burg Heimbach 5 Jun 1021)Graaf van Drenthe.  The Vita Meinwerci records a donation to Paderborn by "Baldericus comes" with the consent of "suæ contectalis Athelæ", in the presence of "Meinwerco episcopo…Heinrici imperatoris…Bernhardi ducis, Liudolfi, Thiederici, Wicmanni comitum"[663].  Heribert Archbishop of Köln donated property "curtim…Antwilre", donated by "Baldericus comes et coniunx eius…Adela", to Kloster Deutz by charter dated 1 Apr 1003, witnessed by "…Cristiani comitis, Herimanni advocati Diuitensis ecclesie, Bilisonis comitis…"[664].  "Henricus…rex" donated property "in pago Thrient…in comitatu Baldrici" to the church of Utrecht by charter dated 24 Apr 1006[665].  "Henricus…rex" granted property "inter flumina…Nitæ…Thila…Wauerwald in comitatu Gotizonis comitis qui Antwerk dicitur situm" to "nostrum bestiarum Baldrico sanctæ Leodicensis ecclesiæ presul nec non Baldrico comiti" by charter dated 12 Sep 1008[666].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property to Kloster Boppard "quod Paldricus comes in Pochpartun nobis tradidit" by charter dated 1021[667].  The work of Thiodericus names "Baldricus comes de Oplathe vel Houberch" and records his death "Non Iun" without specifying the year[668].  Heribert Archbishop of Köln donated property "ecclesiam…in villa…Sethone…in pago…Betuam", donated by "Baldericus cum uxore Adela", to Kloster Deutz by charter dated 17 Jul 1015, witnessed by "…Cristiani comitis…Bilisonis comitis…"[669].  Thietmar records that "Berthold, Liuthar's son" killed Baldric "a most excellent vassal of Count Wichmann" at Burg Monreberg in [1 Apr] 1017[670], although it is not clear that this can be the same Baldric given the contrast with Thietmar's earlier uncomplimentary descriptions of Baldric, husband of Adela.  "Baldricus comes" donated property to Kloster Ziflick, with the consent of "contectalis mee Athalæ", by undated charter dated to [1014/20][671]m (before 18 Dec 996) as her second husband, ADELA, widow of IMMED, daughter of WICHMANN [V] Graaf van Hamaland & his wife Liutgard of Flanders (-22 Mar [1014/16]).  The Vita Meinwerci names "uxorem de terra Saxoniæ, Athelam nomine" as wife of Immed[672].  Widukind records that Meinwerk Bishop of Paderborn was "materno a Wichmanno, Herimanni ducis nepote, propinquo Ottonis I"[673]Alpertus names "Adela sorori domnæ Liutgardæ", commenting that Adela was "clamosa in voce, lasciva in verbis, veste composite, animo dissoluta", the subsequent paragraph recording that, after her sister died, Adela took all her property which she had intended for the church before "vidua lasciva" married Baldric as her second husband[674].  Her birth date range is estimated from her giving birth to five known children by her first husband, who died in early 983.  "Otto…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the rights and privileges of Kloster Elten naming "filiam Lutgardam…abbatissam [et] filia Adela…[et] Baldericus…maritus Adele" by charter dated 18 Dec 996[675].  Alpertus records that the wife of "Baldericus" was the daughter of "Wicmanni, cuius maiores magnam partem Germaniæ et maxime circa littoral oceani imperia tenebant"[676].  Heribert Archbishop of Köln donated property "curtim…Antwilre", donated by "Baldericus comes et coniunx eius…Adela", to Kloster Deutz by charter dated 1 Apr 1003, witnessed by "…Cristiani comitis, Herimanni advocati Diuitensis ecclesie, Bilisonis comitis…"[677].  Heribert Archbishop of Köln donated property "ecclesiam…in villa…Sethone…in pago…Betuam", donated by "Baldericus cum uxore Adela", to Kloster Deutz by charter dated 17 Jul 1015, witnessed by "…Cristiani comitis…Bilisonis comitis…"[678].  Thietmar records that the wife of Baldric encouraged her husband to arrange for the murder of "Count Wichmann" in 1016[679].  "Baldricus comes" donated property to Kloster Ziflick, with the consent of "contectalis mee Athalæ", by undated charter dated to [1014/20][680].  Alpertus names her "Adelæ uxoris Baldrici" in a later (undated) passage recording her death aged 60[681].  The work of Thiodericus names "Ida comitissa eius [=Baldricus] coniunx" ("Ida" presumably being an error for "Adela") and records her death "XI Kal Apr" without specifying the year[682]

 

 

3.         BERTHOLF (-after 1024).  [Graaf van Drenthe].  Under a charter dated Emperor Heinrich II granted "comitatum de Thrente" to the bishop of Utrecht, on the intervention of "comitis Bertolfi"[683], who has not been identified.  It is not known whether this document indicates the Bertholf was Graaf van Drenthe or not. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    GRAVEN van HAMALAND

 

 

Van den Bergh's so-called "Saxon" counties in Frisia are Drenthe, pagus Forestensis, Twenthe, Salland and Hamaland, arranged north to south between the Zuiderzee and the current border between The Netherlands and Germany.  The county of Hamaland lay south of Twenthe, between Deventer in the north and Elten on the Rhine in the south, bound on the west by the river IJssel[684].  The first recorded count of Hamaland, Wichmann [I], is recorded in 855 and was most likely a member of the Billung family who were later dukes of Saxony.  Meginhard is recorded in Hamaland in the 920s, but no family relationship has been confirmed between him and Wichmann.  Later counts of Hamaland were called Wichmann, presumably descendants of the first Wichmann, possibly through the female line.  It is not known when Meginhard received the county of Hamaland.  As can be seen below, it is likely that he was the same person as the brother of Eberhard who was appointed duke of Frisia after his brother was murdered.  The sources indicate that he was succeeded in Hamaland by his grandson Wichmann.  The identity of Wichmann's father is not known, but his name suggests that he was closely related to the family of the Billung dukes of Saxony and to the first Wichmann.  Graf Wichmann also held the counties in northern Frisia by 3 Aug 970, as shown by the charter of that date by which "Otto…imperator augustus" confirmed donations to Kloster Elten by "Wichmannus comes…in his quatuor comitatibus…Hunesca, Fivelga, Merime, Miclaga"[685]

 

 

1.         WICHMANN [I], son of --- (-after 10 Nov 855)Graaf van Hamaland.  "Folcherus" donated property "…in pago Hamulande in comitatu Wigmanni…" to Werden abbey by charter dated 10 Nov 855[686]

 

 

MEGINHARD, son of MEGINHARD & his wife Evesa --- [870/80]-[after 938]).  Regino records that "Eworhardus dux, filius Meginhardi" was hunted out and killed in 898 "a Waltgario Fresone, filio Gerulfi" and that the emperor granted "ducatus" to "Meginhardo fratri"[687]Duke [of Frisia] 898.  No direct proof has yet been found confirming the co-identity of duke Meginhard and Meginhard Count of Hamaland but it looks highly probable.  A document dated 7 Nov 921 recording a meeting between King Charles III and King Heinrich I names "Evrardus, Chonradus, Herimannus, Hato, Godefredus, Otto, Herimannus, Cobbo, Magenhardus, Fridericus, Foldac" as representatives of the latter[688]Graaf van Hamaland.  "Henricus…rex" granted property "in pago Friesonoueld in comitatu Sigifridi…locis Osterhusa, Asendorf, Uuntea, Hoenpergi, Seorebininga, Sitechenbehque…[et] in pagis Altgeuue et Uuestgeuue…in comitatibus Meginuuarchi et Sigifridi loca Tennistat, Chirihbaringa, Uuoluesbaringa, Paringi, Bisenuuinida, Hursilagamundi, Asbah, Eckihartesleba, Asgari, Saltzaha, Durniloha et Germari" to Kloster Hersfeld by charter dated 1 Jun 932[689].  "Henricus…rex" granted property "in pago Languizza in comitatu Meginwardi locum Husun" to Kloster Hersfeld by charter dated 1 Jun 932[690].  "Henricus…rex" granted property "in Uuihe et in Burgdorf…in pago Vuestergowe in comitatu Meginvuarchi duo loca Barcuelda et Bretinga" to Kloster Hersfeld through "advocatorum suorum Friderici et Christani" by charter dated 1 Jun 933[691].  Boer & Cordfunke refer to a 938 meeting, between Count Dirk I, Count Meginhard of Hamaland, and Count Arnulf I of Flanders and his wife Adela, to arrange the betrothals of Hildegard of Flanders and Count Dirk II (son of Count Dirk I), and of her sister Liutgard and Wichmann of Hamaland (son of Count Meginhard)[692].  The meeting is alleged to be recorded in the Verbrüderungsbuch der Abtei Reichenau, although no trace of this has been found in the copy consulted[693].  However, the following necrology entry confirms that it was Meginhard's grandson not his son who was betrothed.  The Necrologium of Elten records the death of "Meginhard, pater Gerberch, cuius filius Wichmannus comes fundator ecclesia"[694]

m ---.  The name of Meginhard's wife is not known. 

Meginhard & his wife had one child: 

1.         GERBERGA ([905/10]-).  Her parentage is confirmed by the Necrologium of Elten which records the death of "Meginhard, pater Gerberch, cuius filius Wichmannus comes fundator ecclesia"[695].  The identity of her husband is unknown.  The name of his son, Wichmann, suggests a close family relationship with the Billung family of dukes of Saxony.  The connection appears confirmed by Widukind who records that Meinwerk Bishop of Paderborn was "materno a Wichmanno, Herimanni ducis nepote, propinquo Ottonis I"[696], the bishop's mother being corroborated in other sources as Adela, daughter of Wichmann [V].  There are so many uncertainties regarding the genealogy of the Billung family that detailed speculation on any precise relationship does not seem worthwhile.  Gerberga's husband is shown as a possible son of Billung only for the purposes of making the hyperlink connection.  m [---, son of BILLUNG & his wife ---].  One child: 

a)         WICHMANN [V] ([930]-after 27 Sep 979).  His parentage is confirmed by the Necrologium of Elten which records the death of "Meginhard, pater Gerberch, cuius filius Wichmannus comes fundator ecclesia"[697].  If Boer & Cordfunke are correct regarding the 938 meeting between Count Dirk I, Count Meginhard of Hamaland, and Count Arnulf I of Flanders, regarding the betrothal of their children (see above), Wichmann was the son of Meginhard, but as noted above it has not been possible to verify this against primary sources and it seems disproved by the necrology entry.  His birth date is estimated from the estimated date of his marriage.  Graaf van Hamaland.  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon records that Emperor Otto I built the dyke from the Schelde to the sea known as the "Ottingam" and installed "comitem Wicmannus" in the castle on the banks of the Leie which controlled the towns of "Hasnethe, Bocholt, Axle, Huleta cum tota Wasia"[698], probably dated to [950/52] judging by the following charter.  "Otto…rex" confirmed the donation of property "in loco Dauindre…in pago…Hamalant in comitatu Vuigmanni" to St Moritz at Magdeburg by "nostra amita…Uota" by charter dated 30 Dec 952[699].  "Otto…rex" granted property "[in] Daventria…in comitatu Uuicmanni comitis…et villa…Tuncgurun in comitatu Everhardi comitis" to Magdeburg Moritzkirche by charter dated 2 Jul 956[700].  "Otto…rex" donated property "Dauantri…in pago…Hamalant in comitatu Wichmanni comitis…et in pago Velua…et in pago Salalant in comitatu Euerhardi comitis" to Magdeburg St Moritz by charter dated 28 Aug 960[701].  "Wicmannus…comes" donated "mei juris villam Thesla" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "coniugis mee defuncte Lietgardis", by charter dated 18 Oct 962, signed by "comitis Arnulfi patris supradicte Lietgardis comitisse, Theoderici comitis…"[702].  Wichmann acquired the abbey of St Bavo in Gent, and became Graaf van Gent as vassal of his father-in-law, but transferred this to Dirk II Count of Holland in [964/69] and returned to Hamaland.  "Otto…imperator augustus" gave property "in territorio Vrek in pago Salo…in comitatu Nerdincklant…in comitatu Hamelant", all held by Wichmann, to Kloster Elten founded by "Wichmannus comes in litore Reni in comitatu Hamelant" by charter dated 29 Jun 968[703]Count in the North Frisian counties: "Otto…imperator augustus" confirmed donations to Kloster Elten by "Wichmannus comes…in his quatuor comitatibus…Hunesca, Fivelga, Merime, Miclaga" by charter dated 3 Aug 970[704].  "Otto…imperator augustus" gave property "locum Pateleke…in pago Ambraga in comitatu Wichmanni comitis" to his wife Empress Theophanu by charter dated 27 Sep 979[705]m ([after 10 Jul 953]) LIUTGARD de Flandre, daughter of ARNOUL I Count of Flanders & his [second] wife Adela de Vermandois (935-962, before 18 Oct).  Boer and Cordfunke refer to a 938 meeting, between Count Dirk I, Count Meginhard of Hamaland, and Count Arnulf I of Flanders and his wife Adela, to arrange the betrothals of Hildegard of Flanders and Count Dirk II (son of Count Dirk I), and of her sister Liutgard and Wichmann of Hamaland (son of Count Meginhard)[706].  The meeting is alleged to be recorded in the Verbrüderungsbuch der Abtei Reichenau, but no trace of this has been found in the copy consulted[707].  "Arnulfus Flandrie comes et marchisus" granted use of property "Snellenghem in pago Flandrensi" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for "uxore mea…Adala atque…filio meo Balduino et filia mea Lietgardis" and for deceased "Balduino genitore meo et Elstrudis genetrice mea atque Heeberto filio meo", by charter dated 10 Jul 953[708].  This document suggests that Liutgard was not married at the time.  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon records the donation dated 962 by "Wicmannus comes…pro remedio anima coniugis mea Lietgardis…Arnulphi marchisi Flandrie patris" of "villam Thessela…Desselbergine" to "monasterio Sancti Petri in Blandino"[709].  "Wicmannus…comes" donated "mei juris villam Thesla" to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "coniugis mee defuncte Lietgardis", by charter dated 18 Oct 962, signed by "comitis Arnulfi patris supradicte Lietgardis comitisse, Theoderici comitis…"[710].  The Annales Blandinienses record the deaths in 962 of "Baldwinus, filius Arnulfi marchisi, et soror eius Liutgardis"[711].]  Wichmann [V] & his wife had two children:

i)          LIUTGARD (-997).  "Otto…imperator augustus" confirmed the privileges of Kloster Elten naming "Wichmannus comes [et] eius filia Lutgarda…abbatissæ…Heltnon" by charter dated 14 Dec 973[712]Alpertus names "Liutgardam sororem [=uxoris Baldericus] abbatissam Eltuensis montis", a later paragraph recording her death[713].  Abbess of Elten before Dec 973. 

ii)         ADELA ([955/60]-22 Mar [1014/16]).  The Vita Meinwerci names "uxorem de terra Saxoniæ, Athelam nomine" as wife of Immed[714].  Widukind records that Meinwerk Bishop of Paderborn was "materno a Wichmanno, Herimanni ducis nepote, propinquo Ottonis I"[715]Alpertus names "Adela sorori domnæ Liutgardæ", commenting that Adela was "clamosa in voce, lasciva in verbis, veste composite, animo dissoluta", the subsequent paragraph recording that, after her sister died, Adela took all her property which she had intended for the church before "vidua lasciva" married Baldric as her second husband[716].  Her birth date range is estimated from her giving birth to five known children by her first husband, who died in early 983.  "Otto…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the rights and privileges of Kloster Elten naming "filiam Lutgardam…abbatissam [et] filia Adela…[et] Baldericus…maritus Adele" by charter dated 18 Dec 996[717].  Alpertus records that the wife of "Baldericus" was the daughter of "Wicmanni, cuius maiores magnam partem Germaniæ et maxime circa littoral oceani imperia tenebant"[718].  Heribert Archbishop of Köln donated property "ecclesiam…in villa…Sethone…in pago…Betuam", donated by "Baldericus cum uxore Adela", to Kloster Deutz by charter dated 17 Jul 1015, witnessed by "…Cristiani comitis…Bilisonis comitis…"[719].  Heribert Archbishop of Köln donated serfs to Kloster Deutz by charter dated 1 May 1015, witnessed by "…Arnoldi comitis, Gerardi comitis"[720].  Thietmar records that the wife of Baldric encouraged her husband to arrange for the murder of "Count Wichmann" in 1016[721].  "Baldricus comes" donated property to Kloster Ziflick, with the consent of "contectalis mee Athalæ", by undated charter dated to [1014/20][722].  Alpertus names her "Adelæ uxoris Baldrici" in a later (undated) passage recording her death aged 60[723].  The work of Thiodericus names "Ida comitissa eius [=Baldricus] coniunx" ("Ida" presumably being an error for "Adela") and records her death "XI Kal Apr" without specifying the year[724]m firstly IMMED, son of --- (-27 Jan 983).  m secondly (before 18 Dec 996) BALDRIC Graaf van Drenthe, son of --- (-Burg Heimbach 5 Jun 1021).  The Vita Meinwerci records a donation to Paderborn by "Baldericus comes" with the consent of "suæ contectalis Athelæ", in the presence of "Meinwerco episcopo…Heinrici imperatoris…Bernhardi ducis, Liudolfi, Thiederici, Wicmanni comitum"[725].  "Henricus…rex" donated property "in pago Thrient…in comitatu Baldrici" to the church of Utrecht by charter dated 24 Apr 1006[726].  "Henricus…rex" granted property "inter flumina…Nitæ…Thila…Wauerwald in comitatu Gotizonis comitis qui Antwerk dicitur situm" to "nostrum bestiarum Baldrico sanctæ Leodicensis ecclesiæ presul nec non Baldrico comiti" by charter dated 12 Sep 1008[727].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property to Kloster Boppard "quod Paldricus comes in Pochpartun nobis tradidit" by charter dated 1021[728].  The work of Thiodericus names "Baldricus comes de Oplathe vel Houberch" and records his death "Non Iun" without specifying the year[729].  Thietmar records that "Berthold, Liuthar's son" killed Baldric "a most excellent vassal of Count Wichmann" at Burg Monreberg in [1 Apr] 1017[730], although it is not clear that this is the same Baldric given the contrast with Thietmar's early uncomplimentary descriptions of Baldric, husband of Adela. 

 

 

1.         WEZILO (-after 1027).  "Chonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed property "in Alsatia et in comitatibus Gisilberti et Wezilonis comitum" to Kloster Peterlingen by charter dated 1027[731]same person as…?  WEZILO (-after [1047]).  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted property "in villa Subenhara in pago Hamaland in comitatu Wecelonis comitis" to "fideli nostro Anselmo" by an undated charter, grouped with charters dated 1047 in the compilation[732].  It is not certain that Wezilo in Hamaland, in the northern part of Lower Lotharingia, and Wezilo in Alsace are the same individual.  However, "Gisilberti" in the 1027 charter was probably Giselbert Comte de Looz, another Lower Lotharingian territory.  This suggests that the Alsatian territories of Wezilo and Giselbert may have represented only a minor part of their respective landholdings, their main bases being in Lower Lotharingia.  m ---.  The name of Wezilo's wife is not known.  Wezilo & his wife had one child: 

a)         DIETRICH [Thierry] (-28 Apr 1089).  The Chronicon Hugonis records that "Theodericus, Wezelonis comitis filius" was installed as bishop of Verdun in 1046[733].  The necrology of Verdun Cathedral records the death "IV Kal Mai" of "Theodericus episcopus"[734]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    NORTHERN FRISIAN COUNTIES

 

 

The first of Van den Bergh's groups of "Frisian" pagi lay between the rivers Ems and Lauwers, east of the city of Groningen in the north of The Netherlands.  Early descriptions of pagi and counties in this area include Altfrid's Vita S. Liudgeri, which records that "in gente Fresonum ab orientali parte fluminis Labeki" there were five pagi "Hugmerchi, Hunusga, Fivilga, Emisga, Federitga" and one island "Bant"[735]; a document dated 997 which records that Kloster Elten received tribute from four counties "Hunesgo, Fivilgo, Humerche et Emische"[736]; and Adam of Bremen who records that five pagi in Frisia depended from the bishopric of Münster "Hugmerchi, Hunusga, Fivilga, Emisga, Federitga et insula Bant"[737].  Of the different geographical entities named in these sources, Van den Bergh retains four: firstly, Hunsingo, north of Groningen along the North Sea coast between the river Hunse in the west and Fivilgo in the east[738], secondly, Fivilgo, to the east of Hunsingo as far as the river Fivel[739], thirdly, Hugmerchi (Humerche or Humerke, or Humsterland), which lay south of the river Hunse, west of Middagsterland, east of the river Lauwers, marking the border with Oostergo, and north of Drenthe[740], and fourthly, Middagsterland (Midage), bordered to the north and east by Hunsingo and to the south and west by Hugmerchi[741].  Vanderkindere suggests that Baldric Graaf van Drenthe inherited these northern counties of Frisia, which were recorded in 970 in the hands of his future father-in-law Graf Wichmann[742], but no primary source has yet been identified which confirms that this is correct.  The charter dated 25 Apr 1057, under which Heinrich IV King of Germany confirmed the grant of "comitatum…in pagis Hunesga et Fiuilga" to the church of Bremen-Hamburg[743], suggests that they developed later under ecclesiastical administration.  Adam of Bremen records that "comitatum Fresiæ", granted to the church of Bremen, had previously belonged to "Gotafridus"[744], presumably referring to Godefroi "le Barbu" Duke of Lower Lotharingia, although it is not clear whether this means that Godefroi held the counties directly or that he was suzerain of the ruling count in his capacity as duke.  A later passage adds that "dux Gotafridus et nunce Ekibertus" held "Fivelgoe", stating that this was the first county to submit to the emperor (Heinrich III)[745].  Nevertheless, Adam of Bremen records that "Bernardus…[et] Ekibertus" each retained one of the  "comitatus Fresiæ" after they were granted to the church[746], referring to Bernhard Duke of Saxony and Ekbert [I] "der Einäugige" his cousin, a previous passage confirming that Bernhard's county was "comitatus…in Fresia…Emisgoe"[747]

 

 

1.         WICHMANN [V], son of --- & his wife Gerberga --- ([930]-after 27 Sep 979).  His parentage is confirmed by the Necrologium of Elten which records the death of "Meginhard, pater Gerberch, cuius filius Wichmannus comes fundator ecclesia"[748].  If Boer & Cordfunke are correct regarding the 938 meeting between Count Dirk I, Count Meginhard of Hamaland, and Count Arnulf I of Flanders, regarding the betrothal of their children (see above), Wichmann was the son of Meginhard, but as noted above it has not been possible to verify this against primary sources and it seems disproved by the necrology entry.  His birth date is estimated from the estimated date of his marriage.  Graaf van Hamaland.  The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon records that Emperor Otto I built the dyke from the Schelde to the sea known as the "Ottingam" and installed "comitem Wicmannus" in the castle on the banks of the Leie which controlled the towns of "Hasnethe, Bocholt, Axle, Huleta cum tota Wasia"[749], probably dated to [950/52] judging by the following charter.  "Otto…rex" confirmed the donation of property "in loco Dauindre…in pago…Hamalant in comitatu Vuigmanni" to St Moritz at Magdeburg by "nostra amita…Uota" by charter dated 30 Dec 952[750].  "Otto…rex" granted property "[in] Daventria…in comitatu Uuicmanni comitis…et villa…Tuncgurun in comitatu Everhardi comitis" to Magdeburg Moritzkirche by charter dated 2 Jul 956[751].  "Otto…rex" donated property "Dauantri…in pago…Hamalant in comitatu Wichmanni comitis…et in pago Velua…et in pago Salalant in comitatu Euerhardi comitis" to Magdeburg St Moritz by charter dated 28 Aug 960[752].  Wichmann acquired the abbey of St Bavo in Gent, and became Graaf van Gent as vassal of his father-in-law, but transferred this to Dirk II Count of Holland in [964/69] and returned to Hamaland.  "Otto…imperator augustus" gave property "in territorio Vrek in pago Salo…in comitatu Nerdincklant…in comitatu Hamelant", all held by Wichmann, to Kloster Elten founded by "Wichmannus comes in litore Reni in comitatu Hamelant" by charter dated 29 Jun 968[753]Count in the North Frisian counties: "Otto…imperator augustus" confirmed donations to Kloster Elten by "Wichmannus comes…in his quatuor comitatibus…Hunesca, Fivelga, Merime, Miclaga" by charter dated 3 Aug 970[754].  "Otto…imperator augustus" gave property "locum Pateleke…in pago Ambraga in comitatu Wichmanni comitis" to his wife Empress Theophanu by charter dated 27 Sep 979[755]

 

 

2.         RUDOLF (-after 1040).  Count in the North Frisian counties: Heinrich III King of Germany donated property "predia…Letherminge…in comitatu Rodulfi…inter Emese et Laueke" to the church of Utrecht by charter dated 21 May 1040[756]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    GRAVEN van OOSTERGO en WESTERGO

 

 

Oostergo (Ostraga) and Westergo (Westraga), which lay to the west and south-west of Groningen, between the rivers Lauwers and Vlie, in the present-day Dutch province of Friesland.  Oostergo, in the eastern half, was west of the river Lauwers, although its southern limits are uncertain[757].  Westergo, covered the western half of this area, reaching the western North Sea coast around Stavoren[758].  The river Burdine separated the two counties.  Hugo Jaekel compiled a list of counts in these two counties in the 8th and 9th centuries[759].  The Annales Metenses record that in 736 the forces of Charles "Martel" arrived "ad Wistriamchi et Wastrachia insulas" and killed "Poponem…ducem illorum" while capturing the castle "super Bordinem…fluvium"[760].  An imperially appointed count Albdag is named in Oostergo in 873: the Annales Xantenses record that "Ruodoldus nepos prædicti tiranni [Ruorich]" devastated "totam Fresiam…in pago Ostachia"[761], while the Annals of Fulda add that, in Jun 873, "Hruodolfus quidam Nordmannus de regio genere" invaded "comitatum…Albdagi, missisque nuntiis"[762].  Counts named Gerhart, Reginbert and Deodradus are recorded as having donated property in Westergo to Fulda[763].  By the mid-10th century, part at least of these counties was presumably held by Ekbert [I] "der Einäugige", relative of the Billung Dukes of Saxony (see SAXONY): "Otto…imperator augustus" made a donation to St Pantaleon at Köln of property "insule medietatem in Almere que Urch vocatur…quod Gardolfus iam quondam comes…tenuisse…in comitatu Ekberti comitis" by an undated charter, dated to 966[764].  Vanderkindere speculates that Ekbert inherited his Frisian properties from his maternal grandmother Reginlind, wife of Theoderic and parents of Mathilde Queen of Germany, who is named "Reinhildam, Danorum Fresonumque germine procreatam" in the Vita Mathildis Reginæ[765], suggesting that this indicates a relationship with the early counts of Frisia.  Her family is set out in the document GERMAN NOBILITY.  Ekbert [I]'s Frisian lands were inherited by his descendants, but his great-grandson Ekbert rebelled against Emperor Heinrich IV and his properties were confiscated.  The counties of Oostergo and Westergo were transferred to the church of Utrecht by charter dated 7 Feb 1086[766]

 

 

1.         ALBDAG (-after Jun 873).  Graaf van Oostergo.  The Annales Xantenses record that, in 873, "Ruodoldus nepos prædicti tiranni [Ruorich]" devastated "totam Fresiam…in pago Ostachia"[767].  The Annals of Fulda adding that, in Jun 873, "Hruodolfus quidam Nordmannus de regio genere" invaded "comitatum…Albdagi, missisque nuntiis"[768]

 

 

2.         GERHARTGraaf van Westergo.  Counts named Gerhart, Reginbert and Deodradus are recorded as having donated property in Westergo to Fulda[769]

 

3.         REGINBERT (-after 7 Nov 921).  Graaf van Westergo.  Counts named Gerhart, Reginbert and Deodradus are recorded as having donated property in Westergo to Fulda[770].  A document dated 7 Nov 921 recording a meeting between Charles III "le Simple" King of France and Heinrich I King of Germany names "Matfredus, Erkengerus, Hagano, Boso, Waltherus, Isaac, Ragenberus, Theodricus, Adalardus, Adelelmus" as representatives of the former[771]m ---.  The name of Reginbert's wife is not known.  Reginbert & his wife had one child: 

a)         GERBERT (-after 945).  The Traditiones Fuldensis name "Gerberto Reginberti prefecti filio", in a description of the monastery's Frisian territories, as donor of several properties[772]

 

4.         DEODRADGraaf van Westergo.  Counts named Gerhart, Reginbert and Deodradus are recorded as having donated property in Westergo to Fulda[773]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10.  GRAVEN van TEISTERBAND

 

 

A.      GRAVEN van TEISTERBAND (FAMILY of EBERHARD)

 

 

The four "Frankish" counties of Teisterband, Betuwe, Duffel and Nijmegen lay south of the river Rhine and north of the river Maas.  The county of Teisterband stretched from the North Sea coast eastwards to its main town Tiel on the river Waal[774].  The charter dated 20 Apr 950 under which "Otto…rex" granted property "monasterium in loco Tiela", including rights previously conceded by "Waldgero et a filio eius Radbodone nec non et Hattone"[775], suggests that Waltger Count of Frisia and his successors may also have been counts of Teisterband, in which Tiel was located.  "Otto tercius…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property "Tiele in comitatu Unrochi comitis et in pago Testerbant…et Nerestein in comitatu Amichonis in pago Nahgowi" to the monks of the Marienkapelle at Aachen by charter dated 6 Feb 1000[776].  Heinrich IV King of Germany confirmed the grant of Teisterband county ("comitatum in Testerbant") to the church of Utrecht by charter dated [Apr 1057][777]

 

Europäische Stammtafeln[778] shows the possible connection between this family and the Ezzonen, later Pfalzgrafen von Lothringen.  The source on which this speculation is based has not yet been identified.  If it is based solely on onomastics, Eberhard appears to be the only name which is common to the two families.  Use of the first name Unruoch suggests a connection with the Unruochingi Marchesi of Friulia, later kings of Italy, a family of prominent Frankish noblemen recorded in northern France in the mid-9th century. 

 

 

1.         EBERHARD, son of [EBERHARD Graf von Bonn & his wife ---] (-[3 Sep] before 964).  Eberhard is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[779] as the possible son of Ehrenfried & his wife, but the primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Flodoard records that Heinrich I King of Germany sent "Ebrardus quidam Transrhenensis" to "regnum Lotharii" to re-establish peace[780], although it is not certain to which Eberhard this refers.  Graaf in pagus Forestensis: "Otto…rex" granted property "in pago forestensi quod est in comitatu Everhardi" to the church of Utrecht by charter dated 26 Nov 944[781]Graaf van Drenthe: "Otto…rex" granted property "[in] Daventria…in comitatu Uuicmanni comitis…et villa…Tuncgurun in comitatu Everhardi comitis" to Magdeburg Moritzkirche by charter dated 2 Jul 956[782]Graaf van Salland: "Otto…rex" donated property "Dauantri…in pago…Hamalant in comitatu Wichmanni comitis…et in pago Velua…et in pago Salalant in comitatu Euerhardi comitis" to Magdeburg St Moritz by charter dated 28 Aug 960[783].  "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property "presium…Bulceshuson…quondam Eberhardi comitis dum vixit…in comitatu Gerungi comitis" to Gerberga Abbess of Gandersheim by charter dated 7 Oct 972[784].  The necrology of Gorze records the death "III Non Sep" of "Everardus comes"[785]m AMALRADA, daughter of Graf THEODERICH [Immedinger] & his wife Reginlind --- ([7 Sep] ----).  A list of names in the Libri Confraternitatum Sancti Galli sets out (in order) "Thieterich, Reginhilt, *, Oto, Amalrat, Perectheid, Friderun, Pia", immediately after a list of family members of Heinrich I King of Germany and his wife, which no doubt refers to the latter's parents and sisters[786].  The Vita Domni Deoderici Episcopi Maioris names "Amelrada" as wife of "comite Everardo", sister of "Mathildis reginæ…filiæ Thiadrici ducis", and she and her husband as parents of "Deodericum ex pago Saxoniæ Hamalant"[787].  The necrology of Gorze records the death "VII Id Sep" of "Amarrada comitissa"[788].  Eberhard & his wife had two children:

a)         DIETRICH ([929]-Metz 7 Sep 984, bur Metz St Vincent).  The Vita Deoderici Episcopi names "Deodericum ex pago Saxoniæ Hamalant" as son of "comite Everardo" and "Amelrada"[789].  Canon at Halberstadt.  Bishop of Metz 965.  Sigebert's Chronica records in 964 that, after the death of "Adelberone Mettensium epìscopo", “Deodericus consobrinus Ottonis imperator” was appointed bishop[790].  "Otto…imperator augustus" made donations to Notker Bishop of Liège by charter dated 15 Jun 983, which names "Mettensium episcopus Theodericus noster consanguineus et illustris dux Beatrix nostra consobrina[791].  As shown above, the blood relationship between Bishop Dietrich and Emperor Otto was through the bishop's mother.  Thietmar records that Dietrich Bishop of Metz "belonged to that group of corrupt men who, in return for obscuring the truth, had accepted one thousand pounds of gold and silver from the archbishop"[792]

b)         son .  His existence and parentage is confirmed by the Vita Deoderici Episcopi which names "Everardi fratruelis sui [=Dietrich Bishop of Metz]…infans…ex cuius fratre fuit genitus", when recording his son's death in Sep 978[793]m [--- [de Huy], daughter of ---].  The identity of Eberhard's mother is not known.  However, it is possible that she was related to Ansfrid [III] Comte de Huy, later Bishop of Utrecht (see Part C below), because Alpertus names "consanguineusque eius…Unruoch comes" (presumed son of this couple) when recording the death of "Ansfridi episcopi"[794].  This unknown couple had five children:  

i)          EBERHARD (-young Sep 978).  "Everardi fratruelis sui [=Dietrich Bishop of Metz]…infans…ex cuius fratre fuit genitus" is named in the Vita Deoderici, when recording his death in Sep 978[795].

ii)         FRETHERHARD (-after 996).  His parentage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[796], but the primary source which confirms this has not yet been identified.  Graaf van Teisterband

iii)        ADELBOLD (-after 21 Jul 1026).  His parentage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[797], but the primary source which confirms this has not yet been identified.  Bishop of Utrecht 1012. 

iv)        UNRUOCH [Hunerik] [I] (-before 1026).  His parentage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[798], but the primary source which confirms this has not yet been identified.  A clue is provided by Alpertus who names "consanguineusque eius…Unruoch comes" when recording the death of "Ansfridi episcopi"[799], referring to Ansfred [III] Bishop of Utrecht, previously Comte de Huy (see Part C below).  Graaf van Teisterband.  981/1010.  Alpertus refers to "Unruocho comiti", who served in the army of Emperor Otto III in Italy, fighting with "Balterico" against the Vikings[800].  "Otto tercius…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property "Tiele in comitatu Unrochi comitis et in pago Testerbant…et Nerestein in comitatu Amichonis in pago Nahgowi" to the monks of the Marienkapelle at Aachen by charter dated 6 Feb 1000[801].  "Henricus…rex" records that "Theodrico comite eiusque filiis" took property from the bishopric of Utrecht "a tempore Heinrici secundi et Adelboldi…episcopi", including property "Sigeldrith usque in Rinesmuthon, inde sursum ab occidentali parte Reni usque in Bodengrauen" held by "comes Unroch…post Unroch Godezo, post Godezonem Theodricus Baue filius", by charter dated "VI Non Mai 1064"[802]

v)         GODIZO (-1018).  His parentage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[803], but the primary source which confirms this has not yet been identified.  Graaf van Betuwe.  "Henricus…rex" records that "Theodrico comite eiusque filiis" took property from the bishopric of Utrecht "a tempore Heinrici secundi et Adelboldi…episcopi", including property "Sigeldrith usque in Rinesmuthon, inde sursum ab occidentali parte Reni usque in Bodengrauen" held by "comes Unroch…post Unroch Godezo, post Godezonem Theodricus Baue filius", by charter dated "VI Non Mai 1064"[804].  The text specifies no family relationship between Unruoch and Godizo, but suggests that the former predeceased the latter.  m [as her second husband,] BERTHA [Bave], [widow of ---], daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  As indicated below, the text of the 1064 charter in which her son is named suggests that he may have been born from an earlier marriage rather than Bertha's marriage to Godizo.  Godizo & his wife had [one possible child]: 

(a)       [DIETRICH [Dirk] .  "Henricus…rex" records that "Theodrico comite eiusque filiis" took property from the bishopric of Utrecht "a tempore Heinrici secundi et Adelboldi…episcopi", including property "Sigeldrith usque in Rinesmuthon, inde sursum ab occidentali parte Reni usque in Bodengrauen" held by "comes Unroch…post Unroch Godezo, post Godezonem Theodricus Baue filius", by charter dated "VI Non Mai 1064"[805].  The reference to "Bave filius" suggests that Dietrich may have been his mother's son by an earlier marriage, not the son of Godizo.] 

 

 

2.         EBERHARD .  ["Hezel…palatinus comes…domni Ezzonis palatini comitis frater uterinus" donated property "in villa…Luvenich" to Köln St Gereon by charter dated 29 Sep 1033, witnessed by "…Euerhart comes…"[806].]  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[807], Eberhard was the son of Graf Fretherhard (see above) but the primary source which confirms this has not yet been identified.  Graaf van Betuwe en Teisterbandm ---.  The name of Eberhard's wife is not known.  Eberhard & his wife had one child:

a)         ADELHEID (-after 1086).  "Adelheyt comitissa, comitis Everhardi filia" donated “predium suum Ortinam” [Orten (Bois-le-Duc)] to Utrecht St Marten, for the souls of “sue ac mariti sui Henrici...per manum Hermanni...advocatum”, by charter dated to [1076/99][808].  The Chronicon Affligemense names "Adela comitissa Lovaniensis" as mother of two sons "Heinrico et Godefrido" specifying that she was one of the founders of Afflighem Abbey[809].  She founded the abbey of Afflighem in 1086.  m HENRI [II] Comte de Louvain, son of LAMBERT [II] Comte de Louvain & his wife Uda of Lotharingia (-[1078/79], bur Nivelles). 

 

3.         UNRUOCH [II] .  The primary source which confirms his existence has not yet been identified.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[810], Unruoch was the son of Graf Fretherhard (see above).  The same table conflates him with Unruoch Graaf van Kempenland in 1084, but this appears unlikely to be correct chronologically.  Kuiken's analysis also suggests that this is incorrect[811]m ([1040]) ---, daughter of HERMANN Graaf van Lek en IJssel & his wife ---.  This marriage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[812], but the primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

 

4.         HERMANN [I] (-1080 or after).  The primary source which confirms his existence has not yet been identified.  Graf in Utrecht 1064. 

          -        HEREN van CUYK

 

5.         UNRUOCH [III] .  The primary source which confirms his existence has not yet been identified.  1064.  Graf im Kempenland 1073. 

 

 

 

B.      GRAVEN van TEISTERBAND (FAMILY of ANSFRID)

 

 

1.         ANSFRID [III], son of LAMBERT & his wife [--- van Betuwe] ([945/50][813]-3 May 1010).  The Gesta Episcoporum Leodiensium, added paragraph introduced by "Et pergit interpolator Hoiensis" referred to above, names "Ansfredi comitis" as the descendant of "Liethardus", specifying that he was Comte de Huy during the time of "Nothgeri Leodicensis episcopi"[814], the latter being bishop of Liège between 972 and 1007[815].  Thietmar names Count Ansfrid who "sprung from the high lineage of his ancestors", specifying that he was brought up by Bruno Archbishop of Köln, became sword-bearer of Emperor Otto when the latter entered Rome, and founded the abbey of Thorn[816]Graaf van Teisterband.  "Otto…rex" gave property "villa Medemelacha…in comitatu Frisie" to "nostro Ansfrido comite" by charter dated 26 Jun 985[817].  "Otto…rex" granted rights to the church of Liège in property in "comitatum Hoiensem quod…Ansfridus comes…tenebat" by charter dated 7 Jul 985[818].  Bishop of Utrecht [994/95].  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "Anffridus" was installed as eighteenth bishop of Utrecht in 994, was "grawe van Tysterbant, van dye Houbenten und herre van Holmina", and was descended from Emperor Charlemagne[819].  The Annales Colonienses specify that "Ansfridus comes laicus suscepto clericatu successit" in 995[820].  Thietmar records that he became a monk after the death of his wife and was appointed Bishop of Utrecht[821].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the election of "Ansfridus, qui pridem de seculari comite clericus attonsus est" as bishop of Utrecht, that he donated his lands "in comitatu Teysterbancie" and that he died "1007 V Non Mai"[822]Vincentius Bellovacensis names "Anfridus, qui cum fuisset comes Bratuspantium"[823].  The chronicle of Alpertus names "Ansfridi episcopus Traiectenses", his daughter "abbatissa Tornensis monasterii" and "consanguineusque eius…Unruoch comes"[824].  Beke's Egmondscii Necrologium records the death "1008 V Non Mai" of "Anfridus ultimus comes Hoyensis", stating that he gave his county to the church of Liège, and specifying that he was also "comes Teysterbancie"[825].

-        COMTES de HUY

 

 

 

C.      HEREN van CUYK en MALSEN

 

 

1.         HERMANN [van Malsen] (-1080 or after).  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[826], Hermann was the son of Unruoch [I] but the primary source which confirms this has not yet been identified.  1057/80.  m ([1070]) [as her first husband,] IDA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[827], she was possibly Ida de Boulogne, daughter of Eustache II Comte de Boulogne & his wife Ida of Lotharingia, married secondly to Conon Comte de Montaigu.  The only partial corroboration for this hypothesis which has so far found is in Orderic Vitalis, who says that "Cono comes Alemannus" married "Duke Godfrey's sister"[828].  On the other hand, the Chronicle of Saint-Hubert, interpolated in the Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines, names "Ida filia senioris Lamberti" only as wife of "comes Cono de Monteacute"[829].  Hermann & his wife had three children: 

a)         HENDRIK (-1108).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Heer van Cuyk.  "…Henrici de Cuck, Arnulphi de Rode…" witnessed the charter dated 1096 under which "Ida Boloniensis comitissa" donated property in "Genapia" to Afflighem abbey[830]m ([1100]) ALVERADIS [von Hochstaden] heiress of the Waldgrafschaft Osning, daughter of [GERHARD [I] Graf von Hochstaden & his wife Aleydis von Wickrath] (-after 2 May 1131).  The primary source which confirms her suggested parentage has not yet been identified.  She founded Kloster Marienweerd jointly with her sons Gottfried and Hermann in 1129.  Lothar King of Germany confirmed the donation to Kloster Siegburg made by "Alverada de Cuck cum suis liberis" by charter dated 2 May 1131 witnessed by "…Comes Gerhardus de Iuliaco, Comes Adolfus de Saffenberch, Gerhardus Hostath, Godefridus et frater eius Herimannus de Chuh, Gerhardus de Mulenarca…"[831].  Heinrich & his wife had four children: 

i)          GOTFRID von Malsen gt van Cuyk (-1168 or after).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names "Godefridus…de Arnsberch ac Hermannus de Kuyc famosi comites et…fratres"[832].  The Annalista Saxo names "Godefridi comitis de Kuc [et] fratre suo Herimanno" recording that the emperor confiscated their ancestral lands[833].  Lothar King of Germany confirmed property of Duisburg by charter dated 8 May 1129 witnessed by "…Comites: Gerhardus Longus de Gelere, Arnoldus de Cliue, Hermannus de Caluerlage, Hermannus de Salmene, Otto de Rinecke, Florentius de Hollande, Gerhardus de Hostad, Bernhardus de Hildenesheim, Godefridus et Hermannus de Cuch, Adolfus de Berge…"[834].  Lothar King of Germany confirmed the donation to Kloster Siegburg made by "Alverada de Cuck cum suis liberis" by charter dated 2 May 1131 witnessed by "…Comes Gerhardus de Iuliaco, Comes Adolfus de Saffenberch, Gerhardus Hostath, Godefridus et frater eius Herimannus de Chuh, Gerhardus de Mulenarca…"[835].  Graf von Arnsberg [1130]. 

-         GRAFEN von ARNSBERG

ii)         HERMANN von Malsen (-1167 or after).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names "Godefridus…de Arnsberch ac Hermannus de Kuyc famosi comites et…fratres"[836].  The Annalista Saxo names "Godefridi comitis de Kuc [et] fratre suo Herimanno" recording that the emperor confiscated their ancestral lands[837].  Heer van Cuyk en Grave.  Lothar King of Germany confirmed property of Duisburg by charter dated 8 May 1129 witnessed by "…Comites: …Godefridus et Hermannus de Cuch…"[838].  Lothar King of Germany confirmed the donation to Kloster Siegburg made by "Alverada de Cuck cum suis liberis" by charter dated 2 May 1131 witnessed by "…Comes Gerhardus de Iuliaco, Comes Adolfus de Saffenberch, Gerhardus Hostath, Godefridus et frater eius Herimannus de Chuh, Gerhardus de Mulenarca…"[839].  Konrad III King of Germany dismissed claims by "comes Adelbertus de Noruenich" to property "in silva…Osninch" claimed from Kloster Brauweiler by charter dated 14 Sep 1141, witnessed by "…comes Arnoldus de Cleuia, comes Adolfus de Monte, comes Heinricus de Gelra, comes Adolfus de Saphenberch, Gerardus puer comes de Iuliaco, Godefridus de Arnesberch, Herimannus de Cuich…"[840].  Stadgraaf van Utrecht. 

-         STADGRAVEN van UTRECHT, HEREN toe HERPEN en MERUM[841]

iii)        ALEIDIS .  The Annales Egmundani name "Aleida" as sister of "Godefridus [de Arnesburch] et Hermannus [de Kuk]" and wife of "Arnoldi de Rothen "[842].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Godefridus…de Arnsberch ac Hermannus de Kuyc famosi comites et…fratres" had "neptim…Heylwigim, ex Adelheydi sorore sua ac Arnoldo de Rothem" specifying that "Hermannus…avunculus" became her guardian after her parents died[843].  Heiress of the Waldgrafschaft Osning.  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.   m firstly ([1120]) ARNOLD von Rode, son of --- (-before 1131).  m secondly ([1133]) ADALBERT [II] Graf von Saffenberg und Nörvenich, son of --- (-1152 or after).  Arnold & his wife had one child: 

(a)       HEILWIVA .  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Godefridus…de Arnsberch ac Hermannus de Kuyc famosi comites et…fratres" had "neptim…Heylwigim, ex Adelheydi sorore sua ac Arnoldo de Rothem" specifying that "Hermannus…avunculus" became her guardian after her parents died[844].  The Annales Egmundani name "Heilwivam" as daughter of "Arnoldi de Rothen" & his wife Aleidis[845]

iv)       ANDREAS (-1165 or after).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Provost of St Petrus, Utrecht 1155/65. 

b)         ANDREAS (-23 Jun 1139, bur Utrecht cathedral).  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "Andreas van Cuck" was installed in 1128 as twenty-fifth bishop of Utrecht and was the son "des graven van Cucks…Hermen"[846].  Provost at Emmerich.  Archdeacon and provost of St Lambert, Liège.  Bishop of Utrecht 1128.  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that Andreas Bishop of Utrecht died in 1138 and was buried in Utrecht cathedral[847]

c)         GOTFRID (-after 1135).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Provost at Xanten.  [Provost at St Severin, Köln.]  Elected Archbishop of Köln 1131.  Canon at Steinfeld 1135. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11.  GRAVEN van WALCHEREN

 

 

Van den Bergh records that south of the river Maas were located the so-called "Frankish" counties of Holtland, Schouwen, Beveland, Walcheren, Strijen and Taxandrie.  To the south of Holtland, the island counties of Schouwen (Scaldis)[848], Beveland (Bevelanda)[849], and Walcheren (Walchra) lay off the coast of the province of Noordbrabant[850].  Vanderkindere amalgamates these three counties into pagus Maritima[851], but its status is unclear.  It is possible that he is extrapolating the existence of a separate pagus from the reference in the Annales Bertiniani in 837 to "Frisiæ Maritimæque", which from the context includes at least the island of Walcheren[852].  The Annales Fuldenses name "Eggihardum" as count of Walcheren when recording that he was killed by the Vikings  in 837[853], and the Annales Bertiniani that "Gualacras" (Walcheren) was granted to "Herioldo" by Emperor Lothaire in 841[854]

 

 

1.         EKKEHARD (-killed in battle Walcheren 17 Jun 837)Graaf van Walcheren.  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Nordmanni" exacted tribute in "Walchram insulam", where "Eggihardum eiusdem loci comitem et Hemmingum Halbdani filium" were killed "837 XV Kal Iul" and "Dorestadum" was devastated[855]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12.  MARCH of FRISIA

 

 

The March of Frisia was presumably established by the kings of Germany as a response to the activities of Dirk III Count of Holland, whom Thietmar records (as "Dietrich the empress's nephew") attacked Adalbold Bishop of Utrecht in 1018, before his forces were attacked by the Frisians and suffered numerous casualties[856].  The precise date when the March was first established is not known.  Liudolf von Braunschweig is the first person who appears with the title, from 1028.  His candidature was presumably approved because his paternal grandfather, Ekbert [I] "der Einäugige", held counties in Frisia (see the introductions to Chapters 8 and 9 above).  According to Vanderkindere, Liudolf's son and grandson, both named Ekbert, were also installed in the march of Frisia[857].  Although the primary sources indicate that they held land in Frisia, their march was Meissen.  Heinrich Graf von Northeim, whose wife was heiress of the Brunswick family, was installed as Markgraf in Frisia in 1101 but was killed while trying to subdue the territory. 

 

 

1.         LIUDOLF von Braunschweig, son of BRUNO [I] [von Braunschweig] & his wife Gisela of Swabia ([1003/05]-23 Apr 1038).  The Annalista Saxo names "Liudolfus comes Saxonicus, filius Brunonis de Bruneswic et Gisle inperatricis", when recording his death[858].  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 1051 under which "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated "comitatum quem Brun eiusque filius noster frater Liutolfus nec non et eius filius Echbreht comites…in pagis Northduringen, Darlingen, Valen, Salthga, Grethe, Mulbeze" to the church of Hildesheim[859].  His birth date range is estimated assuming that he was "the young Count Liudolf" whom Thietmar notes was captured during a conflict with the Poles, dated to 1015[860], although it is not certain that this was the same person.  Vajay[861] suggests a birth date range of [1006/08], which is more consistent with his mother's birth date but appears late for the 1015 capture.  The Annalista Saxo records that "Liudolfus comes Saxonicus, filius Brunonis de Bruneswic et Gisle inperatricis" was killed "IX Kal Maii inmatura…cum maximo suorum conprovincialium merore"[862].  He was installed as Markgraf in Frisia by his stepfather Emperor Konrad II after 1 Jul 1028. 

 

 

2.         HEINRICH "der Fette" Graf von Northeim, son of OTTO Graf von Northeim Duke of Bavaria & his wife Richenza of Swabia [Ezzonen] (-killed in battle Norden, Frisia 1101).  The Annalista Saxo names "Heinricum Crassum comitem…Sifridum de Boumeneburh et Cononem comitem de Bichlinge et tres filias" as children of Otto von Northeim & his wife[863].  The Annales Stadenses name (in order) "Heinricum Crassum…Cononem comitem de Bichilinc…Sifridum de Bomeneburgh" as the three sons of Otto, specifying that Heinrich "fuit lantgravius, patrem Rekinsem imperatoris" and that he was killed at Norden in Frisia[864]Graf von Northeim.  He founded Kloster Bursfeld, as shown by the charter dated 23 Jul 1144 under which "Henricus dux Saxonie" confirmed the privileges of Kloster Bursfeld, founded by "comes Henricus filius Ottonis ducis, proavus meus"[865].  The Annalista Saxo records that he was installed as Markgraf in Frisia by Emperor Heinrich III in 1101 but was killed while attempting to subdue the territory[866].  The Annales Corbeienses record that "Heinricus comes Pinguis" was killed in 1101[867]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 13.  GRAVEN van ZUTPHEN

 

 

A.      GRAVEN van ZUTPHEN

 

 

The county of Zutphen was a late creation, formed out of the remains of the county of Hamalant[868].  The county of Zutphen was inherited by the counts of Gelderland, who are shown in the document LOWER RHINE NOBILITY. 

 

 

1.         OTTO (-1037 or before)Graaf van Zutphen.  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names "Ottonis comitis de Sudveno" when recording the marriage of his daughter[869]m ---.  The name of Otto's wife is not known.  Graf Otto & his wife had two children: 

a)         ADELHEID .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Heiress of Zutphen, and the Vogteien of Münster and Borghorst.  "Comiti Godescalco et uxori suæ Adelhaidæ et eorum filiis Gebehardo et Ottoni" reached agreement with Wilhelm Bishop of Utrecht concerning certain payments, by charter dated 1059[870]m GOTTSCHALK, son of HERMANN & his wife --- (-killed in battle 1063 or 1064). 

b)         MATHILDE van Zutphen .  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names "filiam Ottonis comitis de Sudveno nomine Mathildem" as wife of Ludolf[871]m LUDOLF Herr von Waldenburg, son of EZZO [Erenfried] Pfalzgraf of Lotharingia & his wife Mathilde of Germany [Ottonen] (-11 Apr 1031, bur Brauweiler). 

 

 

 

B.      GRAVEN van ZUTPHEN (family of GOTTSCHALK)

 

 

HERMAN (-after 1036).  Graaf [in Gau Nifterlake].  Emperor Konrad II donated "predium…Eitthera...in pago Eittheri...in comitatu Erimanni", held by "clericus...Waltgerus" after whose death it had reverted to the emperor, to Werden by charter dated 10 Oct 1036[872]

m ---.  The name of Hermann's wife is not known. 

Graaf Herman & his wife had [two children]:

1.         [GOTTSCHALK (-killed in battle 1063 or 1064).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Graaf van Twenthe 1027.  Graaf van Zutphen 1037-1054.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated "Mehgida…in comitatu Godeschalci comitis et in pago Westvalen" to the Stift St Simon und Juda at Goslar by charter dated 27 Mar 1052[873].  "Godescalci comitis Thuente" is named in a charter of bishop Bernulf dated before 1054[874].  Graf in der Hetter 1062.]  m ADELHEID van Zutphen, daughter of OTTO Graaf van Zutphen & his wife ---.  Heiress of Zutphen and the Vogteien of Münster and Borghorst.  "Comiti Godescalco et uxori suæ Adelhaidæ et eorum filiis Gebehardo et Ottoni" reached agreement with Wilhelm Bishop of Utrecht concerning certain payments, by charter dated 1059[875].  Graf Gottschalk & his wife had two children: 

a)         GEBHARD (-after 1059).  "Comiti Godescalco et uxori suæ Adelhaidæ et eorum filiis Gebehardo et Ottoni" reached agreement with Wilhelm Bishop of Utrecht concerning certain payments, by charter dated 1059[876]

b)         OTTO [II] "der Reiche" (-1113).  "Comiti Godescalco et uxori suæ Adelhaidæ et eorum filiis Gebehardo et Ottoni" reached agreement with Wilhelm Bishop of Utrecht concerning certain payments, by charter dated 1059[877]Graaf van Zutphen.  Burchard Bishop of Utrecht granted privileges to the church of St Peter and St Walburgis in Zutphen, at the request of “comitis domini Ottonis”, by charter dated 1105[878].  Heinrich V King of Germany confirmed donations to the church of Zutphen made by “domini Ottonis comitis de Sutfenne et filii eius Heinrici” by charter dated 28 Dec 1107[879].  Vogt von Corvey.  The Annales Colonienses Maximi record the death in 1113 of “Otto...comes de Sudvene[880]m JUDITH, daughter of --- (-[1118]).  Her marriage is confirmed by a charter dated 1134 which records the donation by "Domina Ermengardis comitissa…hæres legitima oppidi Sutphaniensis…cum marito suo Cunrado comite de Lucelenburg et filio suo Henrico" of "ecclesiam Lochemensem", confirmed by the bishop of Utrecht, for the souls of "mariti sui Gerardi…domini Ottonis comitis patris sui et matris suæ Judithæ et fratrum suorum piæ memoriæ…episcopi Theodrici et comitum Henrici et Gerardi"[881].  Graf Otto [II] & his wife had four children: 

i)          HENDRIK (-before 1134).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1134 which records the donation by "Domina Ermengardis comitissa…hæres legitima oppidi Sutphaniensis…cum marito suo Cunrado comite de Lucelenburg et filio suo Henrico" of "ecclesiam Lochemensem", confirmed by the bishop of Utrecht, for the souls of "mariti sui Gerardi…domini Ottonis comitis patris sui et matris suæ Judithæ et fratrum suorum piæ memoriæ…episcopi Theodrici et comitum Henrici et Gerardi"[882].  Heinrich V King of Germany confirmed donations to the church of Zutphen made by “domini Ottonis comitis de Sutfenne et filii eius Heinrici” by charter dated 28 Dec 1108[883]Graaf van Zutphen.  Heinrich V King of Germany granted "comitatum Frisie" to "comiti Henrico de Zutphenne" in return for "beneficii Alcei" by charter dated 28 Dec 1108[884].  The Annales Colonienses Maximi record a dispute in 1114 between Friedrich Archbishop of Köln and “ducis de Lovene Godefridi et comitis Westfalie Friderici fratrisque sui Heinrici et Theoderici de Are et Heinrici de Sudvene et Heinrici de Linburg[885].  Friedrich [I] Archbishop of Köln issued a charter dated 1117 relating to the church at Zufflich witnessed by "Godefridus dux, Fridericus comes de Arnesberg, Arnoldus de Cliue, Henricus comes de Sutuene"[886]m MATHILDE von Beichlingen, daughter of KUNO Graf von Beichlingen & his wife Kunigunde von Weimar .  The Annalista Saxo records (but does not name, except for the fourth daughter) the four daughters of Kuno & his wife, one of whom (listed first) married "Heinricus comes de Suitfene"[887].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  1117. 

ii)         DIRK (-before 1134).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1134 which records the donation by "Domina Ermengardis comitissa…hæres legitima oppidi Sutphaniensis…cum marito suo Cunrado comite de Lucelenburg et filio suo Henrico" of "ecclesiam Lochemensem", confirmed by the bishop of Utrecht, for the souls of "mariti sui Gerardi…domini Ottonis comitis patris sui et matris suæ Judithæ et fratrum suorum piæ memoriæ…episcopi Theodrici et comitum Henrici et Gerardi"[888].  Bishop. 

iii)        GERAARD (-before 1134).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1134 which records the donation by "Domina Ermengardis comitissa…hæres legitima oppidi Sutphaniensis…cum marito suo Cunrado comite de Lucelenburg et filio suo Henrico" of "ecclesiam Lochemensem", confirmed by the bishop of Utrecht, for the souls of "mariti sui Gerardi…domini Ottonis comitis patris sui et matris suæ Judithæ et fratrum suorum piæ memoriæ…episcopi Theodrici et comitum Henrici et Gerardi"[889]

iv)        ERMGARD (-after 1134).  A charter dated 1134 records the donation by "Domina Ermengardis comitissa…hæres legitima oppidi Sutphaniensis…cum marito suo Cunrado comite de Lucelenburg et filio suo Henrico" of "ecclesiam Lochemensem", confirmed by the bishop of Utrecht, for the souls of "mariti sui Gerardi…domini Ottonis comitis patris sui et matris suæ Judithæ et fratrum suorum piæ memoriæ…episcopi Theodrici et comitum Henrici et Gerardi"[890].  Heiress of Zütphen.  Neptis of Emperor Lothar [von Süpplingenburg], although the primary source which confirms this, and the precise relationship, has not yet been identified.  m firstly ([1115/17]) GERHARD [II] Graaf van Gelre, son of GERHARD [I] "Flaminius" Graaf van Wassenberg & his [first wife ---] (-before 1134).  m secondly (before 1134) CONRAD II Comte de Luxembourg, son of GUILLAUME I Comte de Luxembourg & his wife Luitgard von Beichlingen (-1136). 

2.         [ERMENTRUDE (-bur [Utrecht St Maria]).  Emperor Heinrich V confirmed property "in villa…Eitera…inter…fluvies Renum et Leccum", donated by his grandfather Emperor Heinrich III but appropriated by "comitis Rutberti et uxoris sue Ermenthrudis", to Kloster Werden by charter dated 27 May 1122[891].  Verdonk quotes an inscription in the church of Utrecht St Maria which records the burial of “Irmedrudis comitissa”, although it is not known with certainty that this relates to the wife of Graf Rotbert[892].  Her possible parentage is suggested by the charter dated 27 May 1122 under which Emperor Heinrich V confirmed property "in villa…Eitera…inter…fluvies Renum et Leccum", donated by his grandfather Emperor Heinrich III but appropriated by "comitis Rutberti et uxoris sue Ermenthrudis", to Kloster Werden[893].  The property in question appears to be the same referred to in the charter dated 10 Oct 1036 which names Graaf Herman (see above).  It is likely therefore that he was the father either of Rotbert or Ermentrude.  The fact that Ermentrude was named at all in the 27 May 1122 charter suggests that she had a direct interest in the property.  If that is correct, it appears more likely that she was the daughter of Graaf Herman, rather than her husband being his son.]  m ROTBERT [I], son of --- (-[after 1073/75]).] 

 

 

1.         ROTBERT [I], son of --- (-[after 1073/75]).  ["Gertrudis" donated property "in villa…Chessencih…et…in villa…Wesseno" to Deutz abbey by charter dated to [1073/75], subscribed by "Christiani comitis…Arnoldi comitis, Franconis comitis, Ruperti comitis, Sicconis comitis…"[894].  It is not certain whether this charter refers to Rotbert [I] or his supposed son Rotbert [II].]  m ERMENTRUDE, daughter of [HERMAN & his wife ---] (-bur [Utrecht St Maria]).  Emperor Heinrich V confirmed property "in villa…Eitera…inter…fluvies Renum et Leccum", donated by his grandfather Emperor Heinrich III but appropriated by "comitis Rutberti et uxoris sue Ermenthrudis", to Kloster Werden by charter dated 27 May 1122[895].  Verdonk quotes an inscription in the church of Utrecht St Maria which records the burial of “Irmedrudis comitissa”, although it is not known with certainty that this relates to the wife of Graf Rotbert[896].  Her possible parentage is suggested by the charter dated 27 May 1122 under which Emperor Heinrich V confirmed property "in villa…Eitera…inter…fluvies Renum et Leccum", donated by his grandfather Emperor Heinrich III but appropriated by "comitis Rutberti et uxoris sue Ermenthrudis", to Kloster Werden[897].  The property in question appears to be the same referred to in the charter dated 10 Oct 1036 which names Graaf Herman (see above).  It is likely therefore that he was the father either of Rotbert or Ermentrude.  The fact that Ermentrude was named at all in the 27 May 1122 charter suggests that she had a direct interest in the property.  If that is correct, it appears more likely that she was the daughter of Graaf Herman, rather than her husband being his son.  Rotbert & his wife had [four children]: 

a)         [ROTBERT .  ["Gertrudis" donated property "in villa…Chessencih…et…in villa…Wesseno" to Deutz abbey by charter dated to [1073/75], subscribed by "Christiani comitis…Arnoldi comitis, Franconis comitis, Ruperti comitis, Sicconis comitis…"[898].  It is not certain whether this charter refers to Rotbert [I] or his supposed son Rotbert [II].]  “Ermengard” donated property to Köln St Pantaleon “per manus Ruperti nepotis mei, filii fratris mei Ruperti” by charter dated to [1106/14][899].]  m ---.  The name of Rotbert´s wife is not known.  Rotbert [II] & his wife had one child: 

i)          ROTBERT [III] .  “Ermengard” donated property to Köln St Pantaleon “per manus Ruperti nepotis mei, filii fratris mei Ruperti” by charter dated to [1106/14][900]

b)         [HERMAN (-29 Dec 1121).  “Ermengard” donated property to Köln St Pantaleon “per manus Ruperti nepotis mei, filii fratris mei Ruperti” by charter dated to [1106/14], which names her brother Hermann abbot of St Pantaleon and “filii sororis mee Thidericus et Herimannus[901].] 

c)         [ERMENGARD (-after [1106/14]).  “Ermengard” donated property to Köln St Pantaleon “per manus Ruperti nepotis mei, filii fratris mei Ruperti” by charter dated to [1106/14], which names her brother Hermann abbot of St Pantaleon and “filii sororis mee Thidericus et Herimannus[902].] 

d)         [daughter .]  m ---.  Two children: 

i)          DIRK .  “Ermengard” donated property to Köln St Pantaleon “per manus Ruperti nepotis mei, filii fratris mei Ruperti” by charter dated to [1106/14], which names her brother Hermann abbot of St Pantaleon and “filii sororis mee Thidericus et Herimannus[903]

ii)         HERMAN .  “Ermengard” donated property to Köln St Pantaleon “per manus Ruperti nepotis mei, filii fratris mei Ruperti” by charter dated to [1106/14], which names her brother Hermann abbot of St Pantaleon and “filii sororis mee Thidericus et Herimannus[904]

 

 



[1] MGH LL Capitularia regum Francorum, I, 45, Divisio Regnorum 806, p. 126. 

[2] Koch, A. C. F. (ed.) (1970) Oorkondenboek van Holland en Zeeland tot 1299 (Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague) ("Oorkondenboek Holland (1970)"), 92, p. 189. 

[3] Property Register St Maarten's Church, Gysseling & Koch (eds.) (1950) Diplomata Belgica, no. 195, transcribed at <http://www.keesn.nl/sources/en_start.htm> (15 Sep 2006). 

[4] Fredegar (Continuator), 6 and 8. 

[5] Annales Mettenses 711, MGH SS I, p. 322. 

[6] Fredegar (Continuator), 17. 

[7] Fredegar (Continuator), 31. 

[8] Reuter, T. (1991) Germany in the early middle ages c.800-1056 (Longman), p. 69. 

[9] Grote, H. (1877) Stammtafeln (reprint Leipzig, 1984), p. 495. 

[10] Reuter (1991), p. 69. 

[11] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”), 810, pp. 91-2. 

[12] Annales Fuldenses 837, MGH SS I, p. 361. 

[13] Annales Bertiniani II 852. 

[14] Annales Fuldenses 826, MGH SS I, p. 359. 

[15] Annales Bertiniani II 855. 

[16] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 882, MGH SS I, p. 396. 

[17] Vita Mathildis Reginæ 2, MGH SS IV, p. 285. 

[18] Vita Domni Deoderici Episcopi Maioris I, MGH SS IV, p. 464. 

[19] MGH LL Capitularia regum Francorum II, p. 24. 

[20] MGH LL Capitularia regum Francorum II, p. 58. 

[21] MGH LL Capitularia regum Francorum II, p. 194. 

[22] Van den Bergh, L. P. C. (1852) Handboek der Middel-Nederlandsche Geographie (Leiden), pp. 129-227. 

[23] Vanderkindere, A. (1902) La formation territoriale des principautés belges au moyen-âge (Brussels), Vol. 2, pp. 275-6.

[24] Dronke, E. F. J. (ed.) (1844) Traditiones et Antiquitates Fuldenses (Fulda) ("Traditiones Fuldenses"), pp. 42-51, conveniently summarised in Van den Bergh, L. P. C. (1866) Oorkondenboek van Holland en Zeeland, Eerste afdeeling, eerste deel (Amsterdam) ("Oorkondenboek Holland (1866)"), 9, pp. 5-10. 

[25] Altfridi Vita S. Liudgeri 19, MGH SS II, p. 410. 

[26] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 130, quoting "Bondam I, no. 54 and 59". 

[27] Adami Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I, 13, Schol. 4, MGH SS VII, p. 289. 

[28] Van den Bergh, L. P. C. (1852) Handboek der Middel-Nederlandsche Geographie (Leiden), p. 129. 

[29] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 131. 

[30] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 132. 

[31] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 134. 

[32] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 292. 

[33] D H IV 18, p. 22. 

[34] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 276. 

[35] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 136. 

[36] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 141. 

[37] Annales Metenses 736, MGH SS I, p. 326. 

[38] Annales Xantenses 873, MGH SS II, p. 235. 

[39] Annalium Fuldensium Pars Tertia 873, MGH SS I, p. 386. 

[40] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 141. 

[41] D H IV 386, p. 511. 

[42] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 144, quoting Cod. dipl. Lauresh. I, p. 162. 

[43] Van den Bergh (1852), pp. 146-7. 

[44] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 147. 

[45] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 150. 

[46] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 155. 

[47] Van den Bergh (1852), pp. 159-60. 

[48] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 164. 

[49] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 165. 

[50] Kees Nieuwenhuijsen, in a private email to the author dated 3 Oct 2006. 

[51] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 169. 

[52] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 173. 

[53] D H II 112, p. 137. 

[54] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 173. 

[55] D H IV 15, p. 19. 

[56] Van den Bergh (1852), pp. 175-7. 

[57] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 177. 

[58] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 177. 

[59] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 179. 

[60] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 184. 

[61] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 194. 

[62] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 191. 

[63] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 306. 

[64] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 306. 

[65] Van den Bergh (1852), pp. 195-6. 

[66] D O I 358, p. 491.   

[67] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 200. 

[68] D O III 347, p. 776. 

[69] D H IV 16, p. 20. 

[70] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 198. 

[71] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 199, citing Lacomblet, T. J. (ed.) (1840) Urkundenbuch für die Geschichte des Niederrheins, Band I (Düsseldorf) ("Niederrheins Urkundenbuch"), no. 79. 

[72] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 205. 

[73] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 45, MGH SS II, p. 633. 

[74] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 209, citing Bondam, I, no. 5. 

[75] Van den Bergh (1852), pp. 207-8. 

[76] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 277. 

[77] Van den Bergh (1852), pp. 218-9. 

[78] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 223. 

[79] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 224. 

[80] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 225. 

[81] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 275. 

[82] Annales Bertiniani Pars Secunda auctore Prudentio Trecensi Episcopo 837, MGH SS I, p. 430. 

[83] Annales Fuldenses 837, MGH SS I, p. 361. 

[84] Annales Bertiniani Pars Secunda auctore Prudentio Trecensi Episcopo 841, MGH SS I, p. 438. 

[85] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 221. 

[86] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 119. 

[87] MGH LL Capitularia regum Francorum II, p. 195. 

[88] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 226. 

[89] Van den Bergh (1852), pp. 226-7. 

[90] D Arn 57, p. 81, and Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 21, p. 36. 

[91] Kees Nieuwenhuijsen, in a private email to the author dated 3 Oct 2006. 

[92] Reginonis Chronicon 885, MGH SS I, p. 595. 

[93] Annales Vedastini 885, MGH SS II, p. 201. For the location Herispich, see Regino.  For the narrative sources, see <http://www.gjallar.nl/> (25 Oct 2006). 

[94] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 41, p. 73. 

[95] Annales Egmundani 867, MGH SS XVI, p. 445. 

[96] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 28, p. 49. 

[97] Bruch, H. (ed.) (1973) Chronologia Johannes de Beke (The Hague), 28a, p. 55, available at <http://www.inghist.nl/Onderzoek/Projecten KroniekVanJohannesDeBekeTot1430/latijn> (31 Aug 2006). 

[98] D O III 19, p. 417, and Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 55, p. 106. 

[99] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 85, p. 163. 

[100] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 55a, p. 113. 

[101] Beyer, H. (ed.) (1860) Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der, jetzt die Preussischen Regierungsbezirke Coblenz und Trier bildenden Mittelrheinischen Territorien (Coblenz), Vol. I, (“Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch I”), 255, p. 311, consulted at <http:/www.rlb.de/mrHist/> (12 Dec 2007). 

[102] D O III 19, p. 417. 

[103] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 169, p. 233. 

[104] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 159, p. 222.  

[105] ES II 2. 

[106] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 33a, p. 61. 

[107] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 37, p. 71. 

[108] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 78a, p. 255. 

[109] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 108. 

[110] Annales Xantenses 719, MGH SS II, p. 221. 

[111] Fredegar (Continuator), 6. 

[112] Plummer, C. (1895) Venerabilis Bædæ opera historica, Tomus prior (Oxford) Bædæ Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum ("Bede Historia Ecclesiastica (Plummer)"), Book V, Chapter X, p. 299. 

[113] Fredegar (Continuator), 8. 

[114] Annales Petaviani 716, MGH SS I, p. 7. 

[115] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 9, p. 14. 

[116] Annales Petaviani 719, MGH SS I, p. 7. 

[117] Chronicon Moissiacense 713, MGH SS I, p. 290. 

[118] Fredegar (Continuation), 7, which does not give her name. 

[119] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Sigeberto xxvii, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 405. 

[120] Annales Mettenses 711, MGH SS I, p. 322. 

[121] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 34, p. 63. 

[122] Annales Colonienses Brevissimi 850, MGH SS I, p. 97. 

[123] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 34, p. 63. 

[124] Cæsarii Heisterbacensis Catalogus Archiepiscopum Coloniensium 94-1230, Fontes rerum Germanicarum II, p. 272. 

[125] Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium I, 50, MGH SS VII, p. 418. 

[126] Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium I, 51, MGH SS VII, p. 419. 

[127] Annales Bertiniani 864, MGH SS I, p. 465. 

[128] Annales Bertiniani 866, MGH SS I, p. 471. 

[129] Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus, Second Series (Utrecht 1860), vijfde deel, p. 50. 

[130] Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, p. 50. 

[131] Vita Radbodi, MGH SS XV.1, p. 569. 

[132] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 198. 

[133] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 34, p. 63. 

[134] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 105. 

[135] Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, p. 51. 

[136] Gesta Treverorum, 26, MGH SS II, p. 164. 

[137] Cæsarii Heisterbacensis Catalogus Archiepiscopum Coloniensium 94-1230, Fontes rerum Germanicarum II, p. 272. 

[138] Annales Novesienses, Veterum Scriptorum IV, col. 537. 

[139] Baron Ernouf (1858) Histoire de Waldrade, de Lother II et de leurs descendants (Paris), p. 5. 

[140] Annales Bertiniani III 862. 

[141] Vita Sancti Deicoli 13, MGH SS XV.2, p. 678. 

[142] Folcuini Gesta Abbatum Lobiensium 13, MGH SS IV, p. 61. 

[143] Settipani (1993), pp. 271-2. 

[144] Baron Ernouf (1858) Histoire de Waldrade, de Lother II et de leurs descendants (Paris), p. 5. 

[145] Vita Sancti Deicoli 13, MGH SS XV.2, p. 678. 

[146] Annales Xantenses, 864, MGH SS II, p. 231. 

[147] Annales Xantenses, 864, MGH SS II, p. 231. 

[148] Reginonis Chronicon, 869, MGH SS I, p. 581. 

[149] Lot, F. ‘De quelques personnages du IX siècle qui ont porté le nom de Hilduin’, Le Moyen Âge (1903), p. 267. 

[150] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Bertin (Paris) (“Saint-Bertin”), XLI, p. 112. 

[151] Saint-Bertin, LV, p. 123. 

[152] Annales Metenses 736, MGH SS I, p. 326. 

[153] Jaekel, H. (1895) Die Grafen von Mittelfriesland aus dem Geschlechte König Radbods (not yet consulted), cited in Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 287.  

[154] Vita Sancti Ludgeri I.1, MGH SS II, p. 405. 

[155] Vita Sancti Ludgeri I.2, MGH SS II, p. 405. 

[156] Vita Sancti Ludgeri I.2, MGH SS II, p. 405. 

[157] Vita Sancti Ludgeri I.5, MGH SS II, p. 406. 

[158] Vita Sancti Ludgeri I.5, MGH SS II, p. 406. 

[159] Vita Sancti Ludgeri I.5, MGH SS II, p. 406. 

[160] Vita Sancti Ludgeri I.6, MGH SS II, p. 406. 

[161] Vita Sancti Ludgeri II.7, MGH SS II, p. 414. 

[162] Annales Bertiniani II 852. 

[163] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 850, MGH SS I, p. 366. 

[164] Annales Bertiniani II 855. 

[165] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 882, MGH SS I, p. 396. 

[166] Annales Vedastini 882, MGH SS I, p. 520. 

[167] Reginonis Chronicon 885, MGH SS I, p. 595. 

[168] Annales Vedastini 885, MGH SS I, p. 522. 

[169] Reginonis Chronicon 881, MGH SS I, p. 591. 

[170] Reginonis Chronicon 885, MGH SS I, p. 595. 

[171] Reginonis Chronicon 885, MGH SS I, p. 595. 

[172] Reginonis Chronicon 898, MGH SS I, p. 608. 

[173] Reginonis Chronicon 898, MGH SS I, p. 608. 

[174] Karoli III et Heinrici I pactum ad Bonnam castrum, MGH LL 1, p. 567. 

[175] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 287, citing Jaekel, H. (1895) Die Grafen von Mittelfriesland as dem Geschlechte König Radbods (not yet consulted).  

[176] Droinke (ed.) (1844) Traditiones et Antiquitates Fuldenses, Codex Eberhardi, Chapter 7, pp. 42-51, transcribed at <http://www.keesn.nl/sources/en_start.htm> (15 Sep 2006). 

[177] RHGF VI, p. 626 (which does not include the full text of the charter, but refers to Schatenum Lib. 2 Annal. Paderborn, p. 118). 

[178] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 287, citing Jaekel, H. (1895) Die Grafen von Mittelfriesland as dem Geschlechte König Radbods (not yet consulted).  

[179] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 287, citing Jaekel, H. (1895) Die Grafen von Mittelfriesland as dem Geschlechte König Radbods (not yet consulted).  

[180] Karoli II Conventus Carisiaensis acta, MGH LL 1, p. 450. 

[181] Adnuntatio domni Karoli, MGH LL 1, p. 469. 

[182] Willelmi Gemmetensis monachi Historiæ Normannorum, Du Chesne, A. (1619) Historiæ Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui (Paris) (“Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619)”), Liber II, VIII, p. 226. 

[183] Reginonis Chronicon 885, MGH SS I, p. 595. 

[184] Annales Vedastini 885, MGH SS I, p. 522. 

[185] D Arn 57, p. 81. 

[186] Kees Nieuwenhuijsen, in a private email to the author dated 3 Oct 2006. 

[187] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 604. 

[188] D O I 58, p. 140, and Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 32, p. 55. 

[189] Reginonis Chronicon 898, MGH SS I, p. 608. 

[190] D K I 24, p. 23. 

[191] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 159, p. 222. 

[192] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 169, p. 233. 

[193] D O I 124, p. 206. 

[194] D O I 164, p. 245. 

[195] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.8, MGH SS IV, p. 704. 

[196] D O I 58, p. 140, and Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 32, p. 55. 

[197] Kees Nieuwenhuijsen, in a private email to the author dated 3 Oct 2006. 

[198] D O I 124, p. 206. 

[199] D O I 124, p. 206, and OSU 118, p. 118. 

[200] D O I 164, p. 245. 

[201] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 28a, p. 55. 

[202] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 28, p. 49. 

[203] Reginonis Chronicon 885, MGH SS I, p. 595. 

[204] D O I 324, p. 438. 

[205] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 28a, p. 55. 

[206] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 28, p. 49. 

[207] Annales Egmundani 867, MGH SS XVI, p. 445. 

[208] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 41, p. 73. 

[209] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 88, p. 181, Latin text and English translation available at <http://www.keesn.nl/sources/en_start.htm> (31 Aug 2006). 

[210] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 159, p. 222. 

[211] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 169, p. 233. 

[212] Flodoardi Annales 939, MGH SS III, p. 386. 

[213] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 25, p. 19. 

[214] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 30, 31, 33 and 35, pp. 52, 53, 57 and 61. 

[215] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 105. 

[216] Annales Egmundani, MGH SS XVI, p. 444. 

[217] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 28a, p. 55. 

[218] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 25, p. 19. 

[219] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 88, p. 181, Latin text and English translation available at <http://www.keesn.nl/sources/en_start.htm> (31 Aug 2006). 

[220] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 105. 

[221] Annales Egmundani 985, MGH SS XVI, p. 443. 

[222] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 28a, p. 55. 

[223] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 25, p. 19. 

[224] Fayen, A. (1906) Cartulaire de la ville de Gand, Chartes et documents T. I, Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis (Gand) ("Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis"), 65, p. 68. 

[225] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 36-41, pp. 63-77. 

[226] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 69, p. 75. 

[227] Nicholas, D. (1992) Medieval Flanders (Longman), p. 43. 

[228] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 41, p. 73. 

[229] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 74, p. 78. 

[230] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 77, p. 80. 

[231] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 83, p. 84. 

[232] Lokeren, A. van (1868) Chartes et documents de l´abbaye de Saint Pierre au Mont Blandin à Gand (Gand) ("Gand Saint-Pierre") 36, p. 39. 

[233] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 80, p. 81. 

[234] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 87, p. 86. 

[235] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 255, p. 311. 

[236] D O III 19, p. 417. 

[237] Kees Nieuwenhuijsen, in a private email to the author dated 3 Oct 2006. 

[238] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 96, p. 92. 

[239] Annales Egmundani 988, MGH SS XVI, p. 444. 

[240] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 36, p. 69. 

[241] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 106. 

[242] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 45, p. 84. 

[243] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 43, p. 80. 

[244] Annales Egmundani, MGH SS XVI, p. 444. 

[245] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 88, p. 181, Latin text and English translation available at <http://www.keesn.nl/sources/en_start.htm> (31 Aug 2006). 

[246] Rösch, S. (1977) Caroli Magni Progenies (Verlag Degener & Co, Neustadt an der Aisch), p. 138. 

[247] Boer, D. E. H. de and Cordfunke, E. H. P. (1995) Graven van Holland (Walburg Pers, Zutphen), reference provided by Kees Nieuwenhuijsen in a private email to the author dated 3 Oct 2006. 

[248] Autenrieth, J. (ed.) (1979) Das Verbrüderungsbuch der Abtei Reichenau (MGH, Hannover), consulted at <http://www.dmgh.de/> (10 Oct 2006). 

[249] ES II 5. 

[250] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 33a, p. 61. 

[251] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 83, p. 84. 

[252] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 87, p. 86. 

[253] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 36, p. 69. 

[254] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 106. 

[255] ES II 5. 

[256] Annales Egmundani 988, MGH SS XVI, p. 444. 

[257] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 33a, p. 61. 

[258] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 38, p. 65. 

[259] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 80, p. 81. 

[260] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 87, p. 86. 

[261] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 43, p. 80. 

[262] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 45, p. 84. 

[263] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 90, p. 89. 

[264] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 96, p. 92. 

[265] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 60, p. 111. 

[266] Melis Stoke Rijmkroniek

[267] Kees Nieuwenhuijsen, in a private email to the author dated 3 Oct 2006. 

[268] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 38b, p. 71. 

[269] Annales Egmundani 980, MGH SS XVI, p. 445. 

[270] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press), 6.19, p. 250. 

[271] Necrologium Genealogicum Ranshofense, Passau Necrologies I, p. 424. 

[272] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 37, p. 71. 

[273] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 102, p. 97. 

[274] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 38b, p. 73. 

[275] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 106. 

[276] Vitæ Heinrici et Cunegundis Imperatores Preface, MGH SS IV, p. 791. 

[277] Annales Egmundani 993, MGH SS XVI, p. 444. 

[278] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 37, p. 71. 

[279] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 88, p. 181, Latin text and English translation available at <http://www.keesn.nl/sources/en_start.htm> (31 Aug 2006). 

[280] Oppermann, O. (ed.) (1933) Liber Sancti Adalberti (Fontes Egmundenses, Utrecht), information supplied by Kees Nieuwenhuijsen, in a private email to the author dated 31 Aug 2006. 

[281] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 106. 

[282] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 106. 

[283] Oppermann, O. (ed.) (1933) Beke's Necrologium, information supplied by Kees Nieuwenhuijsen, in a private email to the author dated 31 Aug 2006. 

[284] Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, p. 65. 

[285] ES II 2. 

[286] Prarond, E. (ed.) (1899) Chronicon Centulense ou Chronique de l'abbaye de Saint-Riquier, traduction d'Hariulfe par le Marquis Le Ver (Abbeville) ("Chronique de l'abbaye de Saint-Riquier"), IV.XII, p. 218. 

[287] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 45, p. 84. 

[288] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 33a, p. 61. 

[289] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 87, p. 86. 

[290] Vita et miraculis Sancti Adalberti Egmondani 19, MHG SS XV.2, p. 703. 

[291] Gesta Treverorum, 29, MGH SS VIII, p. 169. 

[292] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 88, p. 181, Latin text and English translation available at <http://www.keesn.nl/sources/en_start.htm> (31 Aug 2006). 

[293] Annales Egmundani 994, MGH SS XVI, p. 444. 

[294] Gesta Treverorum, 29, MGH SS II, p. 171. 

[295] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 33a, p. 61. 

[296] Annales Egmundani 988, MGH SS XVI, p. 444. 

[297] Vita et miraculis Sancti Adalberti Egmondani 20, MHG SS XV.2, p. 703. 

[298] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 90, p. 89. 

[299] Annales Egmundani 993, MGH SS XVI, p. 444. 

[300] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 37, p. 71. 

[301] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 102, p. 97. 

[302] Nieuwenhuijsen, K. C. The Battle of Vlaardingen 1018, consulted at <http://www.keesn.nl/vlaard/> (10 Oct 2006). 

[303] Thietmar 8.27, p. 380. 

[304] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 197 and 202, MGH SS XI, pp. 152-3. 

[305] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 107. 

[306] Annales Egmundani, MGH SS XVI, p. 444. 

[307] ES II 2. 

[308] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 39a, p. 73. 

[309] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 88, p. 181, Latin text and English translation available at <http://www.keesn.nl/sources/en_start.htm> (31 Aug 2006). 

[310] Annales Egmundani 1044, MGH SS XVI, p. 447. 

[311] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 43, p. 81. 

[312] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 107. 

[313] Annales Egmundani 1030, MGH SS XVI, p. 447. 

[314] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 39a, p. 73. 

[315] Annales Egmundani 1049, MGH SS XVI, p. 447. 

[316] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 44b, pp. 83 and 85. 

[317] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 107. 

[318] Annales Egmundani 1049, MGH SS XVI, p. 447. 

[319] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 39a, p. 73. 

[320] D H IV 116, p. 152. 

[321] Annales Egmundani 1061, MGH SS XVI, p. 447. 

[322] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 46, p. 87. 

[323] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 107. 

[324] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 45, p. 85. 

[325] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[326] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 88, p. 181, Latin text and English translation available at <http://www.keesn.nl/sources/en_start.htm> (31 Aug 2006). 

[327] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 46, p. 87. 

[328] Saint-Bertin II.92, p. 288. 

[329] Genealogia ex stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 7, MGH SS XXV, p. 384. 

[330] Annales Egmundani 1063, MGH SS XVI, p. 447. 

[331] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 321.       

[332] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 107. 

[333] Annales Egmundani 1076, MGH SS XVI, p. 448. 

[334] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 45, p. 85. 

[335] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 85, p. 163. 

[336] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 86, p. 166. 

[337] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 48b, p. 91. 

[338] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 88, p. 181, Latin text and English translation available at <http://www.keesn.nl/sources/en_start.htm> (31 Aug 2006). 

[339] Annales Egmundani 1076, MGH SS XVI, p. 448. 

[340] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 48b, p. 93. 

[341] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 107. 

[342] Annales Egmundani, MGH SS XVI, p. 444. 

[343] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 48b, p. 93. 

[344] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 88, p. 181, Latin text and English translation available at <http://www.keesn.nl/sources/en_start.htm> (31 Aug 2006). 

[345] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 48b, p. 93. 

[346] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 108. 

[347] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 48b, p. 93. 

[348] Annales Egmundani 1091, MGH SS XVI, p. 448. 

[349] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 48b, p. 93. 

[350] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 45, p. 85. 

[351] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 107. 

[352] ES II 2. 

[353] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 11, MGH SS IX, p. 390. 

[354] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 45, p. 85. 

[355] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 11, MGH SS IX, p. 391, additional manuscript quoted in footnote *. 

[356] Nicholas (1992), p. 52. 

[357] Historia Comitum Ghisnensium 25, MGH SS XXIV, p. 573. 

[358] Annalista Saxo 1056. 

[359] ES II 2. 

[360] Annalista Saxo 1056. 

[361] Berlière, U. ‘Fragment d’un nécrologe de l’abbaye de Saint-Jacques à Liège’, Bulletin de la Commission Royale d’Histoire, Vol. XVC (Brussels, 1931), p. 231, quoted in Verdonk, H. ‘De Herkomst van de Heren van Herlaer’, De Brabantse Leeuw (2000), p. 138. [information provided by Ed von Gohren in a private email to the author dated 2 Dec 2011] 

[362] Verdonk ‘De Herkomst van de Heren van Herlaer’, p. 138, citing Kahnsnitz (1992) Die Grunde von Lauch und Sayn, Fürstenbündnisse des 13. Jahrhunderts (Nürnberg), p. 90, and Bogler, T. (1983) Abdijkerk Maria-Laach (München), p. 3. [information provided by Ed von Gohren in a private email to the author dated 2 Dec 2011] 

[363] Wouters, M. J. (1849) Notice historique sur l´ancienne abbaye d´Averboden (Gand), Annexes, Vita B. Andreæ primi abbatis Averbodiensis monasterii, XIII, p. 147. 

[364] Klaversma, T. ´De geschlachten van Altena en Horne tot ca. 1300´, Publications de la Société Historique et Archéologique dans le duché de Limbourg (“PSAHL”), tome 114 (1978), p. 38 footnote 155 (information provided by Ed von Gohren in a private email to the author dated 27 Sep 2011).  

[365] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 48b, p. 93. 

[366] Annales Egmundani 1091, MGH SS XVI, p. 448. 

[367] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 92, p. 189. 

[368] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 98, p. 64. 

[369] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 109, p. 71. 

[370] Annales Egmundani 1121, MGH SS XVI, p. 451. 

[371] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 51, p. 99. 

[372] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 108. 

[373] Annales Egmundani 1121, MGH SS XVI, p. 451. 

[374] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 49a, p. 93. 

[375] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 109, p. 71. 

[376] Annales Magdeburgenses 1123 18, MGH SS XVI, p. 182. 

[377] Annales Egmundani 1144, MGH SS XVI, p. 456. 

[378] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 51, p. 99. 

[379] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 108. 

[380] Annales Egmundani 1121, MGH SS XVI, p. 451. 

[381] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 49a, p. 93. 

[382] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 108. 

[383] Annales Egmundani 1138, MGH SS XVI, p. 455. 

[384] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 133, p. 85. 

[385] Annales Egmundani 1157, MGH SS XVI, p. 461. 

[386] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 56, p. 117. 

[387] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 52, p. 101. 

[388] Annales Egmundani 1143, MGH SS XVI, p. 455. 

[389] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 133, p. 85. 

[390] Annales Egmundani 1173 and 1176, MGH SS XVI, p. 468. 

[391] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 56, p. 117. 

[392] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 109. 

[393] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 52, p. 101. 

[394] Annales Egmundani 1151, MGH SS XVI, p. 456. 

[395] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 109. 

[396] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 52, p. 101. 

[397] Annales Egmundani 1157, MGH SS XVI, p. 461. 

[398] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 52, p. 101. 

[399] Annales Egmundani 1172, MGH SS XVI, p. 467. 

[400] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 54b, p. 109. 

[401] Jungio, J. H. (1774) (Hannover) Historiæ antiquísima comitatus Benthemiensis, Codex diplomatum et documentorum variorum pro Historia Benthemiensi ("Codex diplomatum Benthemiensi"), XI "Auctor incertus de rebus Ultrajectinis, editus seorsum ab Antonio Matthæo, s. VI, p. 5", p. 28. 

[402] Codex diplomatum Benthemiensi, XII, p. 34. 

[403] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 52, p. 101. 

[404] Annales Egmundani 1167, MGH SS XVI, p. 466. 

[405] Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, pp. 141 and 152. 

[406] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 110. 

[407] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 52, p. 101. 

[408] Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, p. 155. 

[409] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 110. 

[410] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 52, p. 101. 

[411] Annales Egmundani 1186, MGH SS XVI, p. 470. 

[412] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 109. 

[413] Codex diplomatum Benthemiensi, XII, p. 34. 

[414] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 52, p. 101. 

[415] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 109. 

[416] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 109. 

[417] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 52, p. 101.  

[418] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 109. 

[419] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 109. 

[420] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 143, p. 91. 

[421] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 188, p. 115. 

[422] Annales Egmundani 1121, MGH SS XVI, p. 451. 

[423] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 49a, p. 93. 

[424] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, 305, p. 200. 

[425] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 53b, p. 103. 

[426] Annalista Saxo 1133. 

[427] Annales Egmundani 1134, MGH SS XVI, p. 453. 

[428] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 108. 

[429] Annales Egmundani 1121, MGH SS XVI, p. 451. 

[430] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 49a, p. 93. 

[431] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 108. 

[432] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 49a, p. 93. 

[433] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 108. 

[434] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 52, p. 101. 

[435] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 133, p. 85. 

[436] Annales Egmundani 1157, MGH SS XVI, p. 461. 

[437] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 143, p. 91. 

[438] CP XI 140. 

[439] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 58b, p. 131. 

[440] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 109. 

[441] Stevenson, J. (trans.) (1991) A Medieval Chronicle of Scotland: The Chronicle of Melrose (Llanerch Press reprint), 1162, p. 12. 

[442] Annales Egmundani 1162, MGH SS XVI, p. 462. 

[443] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 57a, p. 117. 

[444] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 143, p. 91. 

[445] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 177, p. 109. 

[446] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 202, p. 122. 

[447] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 58b, p. 131. 

[448] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 109. 

[449] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 57a, p. 117. 

[450] Annales Egmundani 1186, MGH SS XVI, p. 470. 

[451] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 177, p. 109. 

[452] Codex diplomatum Benthemiensi, XII, p. 34. 

[453] Annales Egmundani 1203, MGH SS XVI, p. 473. 

[454] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 61, p. 141. 

[455] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 110. 

[456] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 63a, p. 147. 

[457] Annales Egmundani 1186, MGH SS XVI, p. 470. 

[458] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 63b, p. 149. 

[459] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 59a, p. 131. 

[460] Annales Egmundani 1197, MGH SS XVI, p. 473. 

[461] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 59a and 61, pp. 131 and 143. 

[462] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 59a, p. 131. 

[463] Annales Egmundani 1203, MGH SS XVI, p. 473. 

[464] Gesta Episcopum Traiectensium 15, MGH SS XXIII, p. 408. 

[465] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 61, p. 141. 

[466] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 202, p. 122. 

[467] Baur, L. (ed.) (1862) Hessische Urkunden, Band II (Darmstadt), 37, p. 49. 

[468] Ernst, S. P. (1839) Histoire de Limbourg, Tome III (Liège), p. 365, quoting Villenfagne d´Ingihoul, H. N. de (1810) Mélange pour server à l´histoire civile, politique et littéraire du ci-devant pays de Liège, p. 459. 

[469] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 63b and 63c, pp. 149 and 157. 

[470] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 57a, p. 117. 

[471] Gesta Episcopum Traiectensium 13, MGH SS XXIII, p. 407. 

[472] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 57a, p. 117. 

[473] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 177, p. 109. 

[474] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 178, p. 110. 

[475] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 63b, p. 149. 

[476] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 110. 

[477] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 178, p. 110. 

[478] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 110. 

[479] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 57a, p. 117. 

[480] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 57a, p. 117. 

[481] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 57a, p. 117. 

[482] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 110. 

[483] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 57a, p. 117. 

[484] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 202, p. 122. 

[485] ES I.2 183. 

[486] Codex Brandenburgensis, Erster Haupttheil - Band 17, I, p. 1. 

[487] Riedel, A. F. (1867) Novus Codex Diplomaticus Brandenburgensis, Nameverzeichniß zu sämmtlichen Bänden (Berlin), Band I, p. 2. 

[488] Krabbo, H. ´Die Markgrafen Otto I, Otto II, und Albrecht II von Brandenburg´, Forschungen zur brandenburgischen und preußischen Geschichte, Vol. 24 (1911), pp. 323-370, 345-6 [not yet consulted, information provided by Bert M. Kamp in a private email to the author dated 11 Jun 2011]. 

[489] Cronica Principum Saxonie , MGH SS XXV, p. 477. 

[490] Codex Brandenburgensis, Vierter Haupttheil - Band 1, Pulcawa´s Böhmischer Chronik, p. 7. 

[491] Krabbo, H. (1910-11) Regesten der Markgrafen von Brandenburg aus askanischem Hause, Lieferung 1 & 2, nos. 512, 526 and 527 [not yet consulted, information provided by Bert M. Kamp in a private email to the author dated 23 Jun 2011]. 

[492] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 57a, p. 117. 

[493] Annales Egmundani 1182, MGH SS XVI, p. 469. 

[494] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 177, p. 109. 

[495] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 110. 

[496] ES II 2. 

[497] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 57a, p. 117. 

[498] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 177, p. 109. 

[499] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 61, p. 141. 

[500] Gesta Episcopum Traiectensium 13, MGH SS XXIII, p. 407. 

[501] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 63b, p. 149. 

[502] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 63b and 63c, pp. 149 and 157. 

[503] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (“MP”), Vol. III, 1217, p. 32. 

[504] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 65b, p. 163. 

[505] Annales Egmundani 1197, MGH SS XVI, p. 472. 

[506] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 61, p. 141. 

[507] Gesta Episcoporum Traiectensium, MGH SS XXIII, p. 408. 

[508] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 65b, p. 163. 

[509] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 110. 

[510] Gestorum Abbatem Trudonensium Continuatio Tertia II, 7, MGH SS X, p. 392. 

[511] Chronicæ Regiæ Coloniensis Continuatio Prima 1214, MGH SS XXIV, p. 18. 

[512] Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ 7, MGH SS XXV, p. 390. 

[513] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 65b, p. 163. 

[514] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 65b, p. 163. 

[515] Oude Kronik van Brabant, Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus, Second Series (Utrecht 1855), deerde deel, Part 1, p. 64. 

[516] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 61, p. 141. 

[517] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 69b, p. 183. 

[518] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 110. 

[519] Oude Kronik van Brabant, p. 62. 

[520] Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ 7, MGH SS XXV, p. 390. 

[521] Butkens, C. (1724) Trophées tant sacrés que profanes du duché de Brabant (The Hague), Vol. I, Preuves, p. 64, "Extraicts des registres de Brabant". 

[522] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 65b, p. 163. 

[523] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 333, p. 187. 

[524] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 409, p. 218. 

[525] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 69b, p. 183. 

[526] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 66a, p. 163. 

[527] Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ 7, MGH SS XXV, p. 390. 

[528] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 66a, p. 163. 

[529] Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ 7, MGH SS XXV, p. 390. 

[530] Annales Blandinienses 1256, MGH SS V, p. 31. 

[531] Bayley, C. C. (1949) The Formation of the German College of Electors in the mid-Thirteenth Century (Toronto), p. 39. 

[532] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 66a, p. 163. 

[533] Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ 7, MGH SS XXV, p. 390. 

[534] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 409, p. 218. 

[535] Fremery, J. de (1901) Oorkondenboek van Holland en Zeeland, Supplement (The Hague) ("Oorkondenboek Holland (Supplement)"), 163, p. 111. 

[536] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 78a, p. 255. 

[537] Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ 7, MGH SS XXV, p. 390. 

[538] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 66a, p. 163. 

[539] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 409, p. 218. 

[540] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 495, p. 265. 

[541] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 110. 

[542] Van Den Bergh, L. P. C. (1873) Oorkondenboek van Holland en Zeeland, Eerste afdeeling, tweede deel (Amsterdam) ("Oorkondenboek Holland (1873)"), 432, p. 192. 

[543] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 72i, p. 215. 

[544] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 61, p. 141. 

[545] Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, pp. 197 and 200. 

[546] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 70i, p. 197. 

[547] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 61, p. 141. 

[548] Annales Stadenses 1238, MGH SS XVI, p. 363.  

[549] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 353, p. 195. 

[550] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 61, p. 141. 

[551] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 61, p. 141. 

[552] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 333, p. 187. 

[553] Oorkondenboek Holland (1866), 528, p. 282. 

[554] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 110. 

[555] Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ 7, MGH SS XXV, p. 390. 

[556] Bayley (1949), p. 22. 

[557] Bayley (1949), p. 22. 

[558] Bayley (1949), p. 23. 

[559] MP, Vol. V, 1248, p. 26. 

[560] Bayley (1949), pp. 35-6. 

[561] Bayley (1949), p. 39. 

[562] Bayley (1949), p. 40, cites Frankfurt, Gelnhausen, Worms, Oppenheim, Speier, Hagenau and Colmar. 

[563] Bayley (1949), pp. 40-1 and 43. 

[564] Bayley (1949), p. 53. 

[565] Annales Blandinienses 1255, MGH SS V, p. 31. 

[566] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 72i, p. 215. 

[567] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 70a, p. 185. 

[568] Cronica Principum Saxonie , MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[569] Annales Erphordenses 1252, MGH SS XVI, p. 38. 

[570] Bayley (1949), p. 35. 

[571] Bayley (1949), p. 51. 

[572] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 72i, p. 215. 

[573] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 110. 

[574] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 70a, p. 185. 

[575] Cronica Principum Saxonie , MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[576] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 75c, pp. 237, 239 and 241. 

[577] Iohannis de Thielrode Genealogia Comitum Flandriæ MGH SS IX, p. 335. 

[578] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 74e, p. 227. 

[579] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 75c, p. 241. 

[580] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 74e, p. 227. 

[581] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 74e, p. 227. 

[582] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 74e, p. 227. 

[583] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 74e, p. 227. 

[584] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 74e, p. 227. 

[585] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 74e, p. 227. 

[586] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 74e, p. 227. 

[587] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 74e, p. 227. 

[588] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 74e, p. 227. 

[589] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 74e, p. 227. 

[590] Oorkondenboek Holland (1873), 424, p. 188. 

[591] Oorkondenboek Holland (1873), 512, p. 226. 

[592] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 77b, p. 253. 

[593] Ghent, pp. 42-3. 

[594] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 228. 

[595] Oorkondenboek Holland (1873), 512, p. 226. 

[596] Oorkondenboek Holland (1873), 581, p. 254. 

[597] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 74e and 77b, pp. 229 and 253. 

[598] Rymer, T. (1745) Fœdera, Conventiones, Literæ 3rd Edn (London), Tome I, Pars IV, p. 17. 

[599] Annales Londonienses, p. 129. 

[600] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 74e and 77b, pp. 229 and 253. 

[601] Dugdale Monasticon VI, Lanthony Abbey, Gloucestershire, II, Fundatorum progenies, p. 135. 

[602] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Walden Abbey, Essex, I, Fundationis Historia, pp. 139 and 140.   

[603] ES III 293. 

[604] ES II 2. 

[605] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 110. 

[606] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 78a, p. 255. 

[607] Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci), Liber II, Caput XI, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 136. 

[608] Oude Kronik van Brabant, p. 74. 

[609] He called himself Ludwig IV as emperor, although he was in fact the fifth Emperor Ludwig.

[610] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 198. 

[611] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 65, p. 30. 

[612] Chronicon Laureshamense, MGH SS XXI, p. 370. 

[613] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 209, citing Bondam, I, no. 5. 

[614] Chronicon Laureshamense, MGH SS XXI, p. 370. 

[615] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 295. 

[616] D Zw 15, p. 44. 

[617] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 295. 

[618] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 295. 

[619] Codex Laureshamensis (1768), Tome I, LXXV, p. 127. 

[620] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 295. 

[621] Thietmar 4.31, p. 174. 

[622] ES I.2 200. 

[623] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 295. 

[624] Gesta Abbatum Gemblacensium 14, MGH SS VIII, p. 530. 

[625] Gesta Abbatum Gemblacensium 32, MGH SS VIII, p. 537. 

[626] Gesta Abbatum Gemblacensium 15, MGH SS VIII, p. 531. 

[627] Sloet, L. A. J. W. (ed.) (1872) Ooorkondenboek der graafschappens Gelre en Zutfen, Eerste gedeelte (The Hague), p. 79. 

[628] Sloet (1872), Vol. I, p. 79. 

[629] Mantelius, J. (1717) Historiæ Lossensis (Liège), Lib. III, p. 34. 

[630] Sloet (1872), Vol. I, p. 79. 

[631] Gesta Abbatum Gemblacensium 14, MGH SS VIII, p. 530. 

[632] Gesta Abbatum Gemblacensium 15, MGH SS VIII, p. 531. 

[633] Annales Lobienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 234. 

[634] Sigeberti Chronica 956, MGH SS VI, p. 349. 

[635] Annales Stabulenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 43. 

[636] Annales Lobienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 234. 

[637] Rousseau, F. (ed.) (1936) Actes des Comtes de Namur de la Première Race 946-1196 (Brussels) ("Namur"), p. xxxvii. 

[638] Gestorum Abbatem Trudonensium Continuatio Tertia Pars I, 14, MGH SS X, p. 379. 

[639] Piot, C. (1870) Cartulaire de l´abbaye de Saint-Trond, Tome I, p. 72 [not yet consulted], cited in Baerten, J. ‘Les origines des comtes de Looz et la formation territoriale du comté’, Revue belge de philologie et d´histoire, Tome 43, fasc. 2 (1965), p. 464. 

[640] Bormans, E. & Schoolmeisters, E. (1933) Cartulaire de l´église Saint-Lambert de Liège (Brussels) ("Liège Saint-Lambert"), p. 150. 

[641] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 295. 

[642] Vanderkindere, L. ‘A propos d´une charte de Baldéric d’Utrecht’, Académie royale de Belgique (1900) Bulletin de la Classe des Lettres et des Sciences Morales et Politiques (Bruxelles), p. 46. 

[643] Flodoard 936, MGH SS III, p. 383. 

[644] Flodoard 948, MGH SS III, p. 396. 

[645] Flodoard 948, MGH SS III, p. 398. 

[646] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 295. 

[647] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 35a, p. 67. 

[648] Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, p. 51. 

[649] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 35c, p. 69. 

[650] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 295. 

[651] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.1, MGH SS IV, p. 702.  The date 1006 is in the margin of I.8, p. 704, another passage referring to his marriage. 

[652] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 292. 

[653] D H II 504, p. 645. 

[654] D H III 152, p. 192. 

[655] D H III 45, p. 55. 

[656] ES I.2 200. 

[657] Flodoardi Annales 926, MGH SS III, pp. 376-7. 

[658] D O I 62, p. 143. 

[659] D O I 181, p. 264. 

[660] D O I 216, p. 298. 

[661] D O I 422, p. 576. 

[662] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 268. 

[663] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 134, MGH SS XI, p. 134, undated but other paragraphs suggest the range [1008/1017]. 

[664] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 138, p. 86. 

[665] D H II 112, p. 137. 

[666] D H II 186, p. 221. 

[667] D H II 438, p. 560. 

[668] Thioderici Aeditui Tuitiensis Opuscula, MGH SS XIV, p. 564. 

[669] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 138, p. 86. 

[670] Thietmar 7.53, p. 346. 

[671] Spaen, W. A. van (1805) Oordeelkundige inleiding tot de Historie van Gelre, Vierde Deel (Utrecht) Codex diplomaticus, I, p. 1. 

[672] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 2, MGH SS XI, p. 108, footnote 10 quoting her death "8 Idus Aug" in necrologium Abdinhofense

[673] Widukind I.III, c. 69, cited in Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 5, MGH SS XI, p. 108, footnote 11. 

[674] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.2 and 1.3, MGH SS IV, pp. 702 and 703, the latter passage with "18 May 997" added in the margin. 

[675] D O III 235, p. 649. 

[676] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.1, MGH SS IV, p. 701. 

[677] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 138, p. 86. 

[678] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 138, p. 86. 

[679] Thietmar 7.47, p. 340. 

[680] Spaen (1805) Codex diplomaticus, I, p. 1. 

[681] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum II.5, MGH SS IV, p. 711. 

[682] Thioderici Aeditui Tuitiensis Opuscula, MGH SS XIV, p. 564. 

[683] D H II 504, p. 645. 

[684] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 184. 

[685] D O I 397, p. 539. 

[686] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 65, p. 30. 

[687] Reginonis Chronicon 898, MGH SS I, p. 608. 

[688] Karoli III et Heinrici I pactum ad Bonnam castrum, MGH LL 1, p. 567. 

[689] D H I 32, p. 67. 

[690] D H I 33, p. 67. 

[691] D H I 35, p. 69. 

[692] Boer, D. E. H. de and Cordfunke, E. H. P. (1995) Graven van Holland (Walburg Pers, Zutphen), reference provided by Kees Nieuwenhuijsen in a private email to the author dated 3 Oct 2006. 

[693] Autenrieth, J. (ed.) (1979) Das Verbrüderungsbuch der Abtei Reichenau (MGH, Hannover), consulted at <http://www.dmgh.de/> (10 Oct 2006). 

[694] Vanderkindere I, p. 75, quoting Van Spaen Introduction à l'histoire de la Gueldre, I, p. 67, no. 20. 

[695] Vanderkindere I, p. 75, quoting Van Spaen Introduction à l'histoire de la Gueldre, I, p. 67, no. 20. 

[696] Widukind I.III, c. 69, cited in Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 5, MGH SS XI, p. 108, footnote 11. 

[697] Vanderkindere I, p. 75, quoting Van Spaen Introduction à l'histoire de la Gueldre, I, p. 67, no. 20. 

[698] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 8, MGH SS XXV, p. 563. 

[699] D O I 159, p. 240 

[700] D O I 181, p. 264. 

[701] D O I 216, p. 298. 

[702] Gand Saint-Pierre 32, p. 35. 

[703] D O I 358, p. 491.   

[704] D O I 397, p. 539. 

[705] D O II 202, p. 228. 

[706] Boer, D. E. H. de and Cordfunke, E. H. P. (1995) Graven van Holland (Walburg Pers, Zutphen), reference provided by Kees Nieuwenhuijsen in a private email to the author dated 3 Oct 2006. 

[707] Autenrieth, J. (ed.) (1979) Das Verbrüderungsbuch der Abtei Reichenau (MGH, Hannover), consulted at <http://www.dmgh.de/> (10 Oct 2006). 

[708] Lokeren, A. van (1868) Chartes et documents de l´abbaye de Saint Pierre au Mont Blandin à Gand (Gand) ("Gand Saint-Pierre") 22, p. 28. 

[709] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon, MGH SS XXV, p. 564. 

[710] Gand Saint-Pierre 32, p. 35. 

[711] Annales Blandinienses 962, MGH SS V, p. 25. 

[712] D O II 67, p. 79. 

[713] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.2, MGH SS IV, p. 702, and I.3, p. 703, the latter recording her death with the date "997" in the margin. 

[714] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 2, MGH SS XI, p. 108, footnote 10 quoting her death "8 Idus Aug" in necrologium Abdinhofense

[715] Widukind I.III, c. 69, cited in Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 5, MGH SS XI, p. 108, footnote 11. 

[716] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.2 and 1.3, MGH SS IV, pp. 702 and 703, the latter passage with "18 May 997" added in the margin. 

[717] D O III 235, p. 649. 

[718] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.1, MGH SS IV, p. 701. 

[719] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 138, p. 86. 

[720] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 148, p. 91. 

[721] Thietmar 7.47, p. 340. 

[722] Spaen (1805) Codex diplomaticus, I, p. 1. 

[723] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum II.5, MGH SS IV, p. 711. 

[724] Thioderici Aeditui Tuitiensis Opuscula, MGH SS XIV, p. 564. 

[725] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 134, MGH SS XI, p. 134, undated but other paragraphs suggest the range [1008/1017]. 

[726] D H II 112, p. 137. 

[727] D H II 186, p. 221. 

[728] D H II 438, p. 560. 

[729] Thioderici Aeditui Tuitiensis Opuscula, MGH SS XIV, p. 564. 

[730] Thietmar 7.53, p. 346. 

[731] D K II 87, p. 118. 

[732] D H III 196, p. 248. 

[733] Chronicon Hugonis, monachi Virdunensis et Divionensis abbatis Flaviniacensis II.16, MGH SS VIII, p. 406. 

[734] Aimond, C. 'Le nécrologe de la cathédrale de Verdun', Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde Year 21 (second part) (1910), p. 209. 

[735] Altfridi Vita S. Liudgeri 19, MGH SS II, p. 410. 

[736] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 130, quoting "Bondam I, no. 54 and 59". 

[737] Adami Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I, 13, Schol. 4, MGH SS VII, p. 289. 

[738] Van den Bergh, L. P. C. (1852) Handboek der Middel-Nederlandsche Geographie (Leiden), p. 129. 

[739] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 131. 

[740] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 132. 

[741] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 134. 

[742] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 292. 

[743] D H IV 18, p. 22. 

[744] Adami Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II, 8, MGH SS VII, p. 338. 

[745] Adami Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II, 45, MGH SS VII, p. 353. 

[746] Adami Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II, 48, MGH SS VII, p. 354. 

[747] Adami Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II, 45, MGH SS VII, p. 353. 

[748] Vanderkindere I, p. 75, quoting Van Spaen Introduction à l'histoire de la Gueldre, I, p. 67, no. 20. 

[749] Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon 8, MGH SS XXV, p. 563. 

[750] D O I 159, p. 240 

[751] D O I 181, p. 264. 

[752] D O I 216, p. 298. 

[753] D O I 358, p. 491.   

[754] D O I 397, p. 539. 

[755] D O II 202, p. 228. 

[756] D H III 43, p. 53. 

[757] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 136. 

[758] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 141. 

[759] Jaekel, H. (1895) Die Grafen von Mittelfriesland as dem Geschlechte König Radbods (not yet consulted), cited in Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, pp. 286-7.  

[760] Annales Metenses 736, MGH SS I, p. 326. 

[761] Annales Xantenses 873, MGH SS II, p. 235. 

[762] Annalium Fuldensium Pars Tertia 873, MGH SS I, p. 386. 

[763] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 141. 

[764] D O I 324, p. 438.   

[765] Vita Mathildis Reginæ 2, MGH SS IV, p. 285. 

[766] MGH Diplomata VI.2, D H IV 386, p. 511. 

[767] Annales Xantenses 873, MGH SS II, p. 235. 

[768] Annalium Fuldensium Pars Tertia 873, MGH SS I, p. 386. 

[769] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 141. 

[770] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 141. 

[771] Karoli III et Heinrici I pactum ad Bonnam castrum, MGH LL 1, p. 567. 

[772] Traditiones Fuldenses 37, pp. 67-8. 

[773] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 141. 

[774] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 200. 

[775] D O I 124, p. 206. 

[776] D O III 347, p. 776. 

[777] D H IV 16, p. 20. 

[778] ES I.2 201. 

[779] ES I.2 200. 

[780] Flodoardi Annales 926, MGH SS III, pp. 376-7. 

[781] D O I 62, p. 143. 

[782] D O I 181, p. 264. 

[783] D O I 216, p. 298. 

[784] D O I 422, p. 576. 

[785] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 268. 

[786] Piper, P. (ed.) (Berlin) Libri confraternitatum Sancti Galli, Augiensis, Fabariensis (Berlin), p. 84. 

[787] Vita Domni Deoderici Episcopi Maioris I, MGH SS IV, p. 464. 

[788] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 268. 

[789] Vita Domni Deoderici Episcopi Maioris I, MGH SS IV, p. 464. 

[790] Sigeberti Chronica 960, MGH SS VI, p. 350. 

[791] D O II 308, p. 365. 

[792] Thietmar 3.16, p. 140. 

[793] Vita Domni Deoderici Episcopi Maioris I9, MGH SS IV, pp. 479-80. 

[794] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.16, MGH SS IV, p. 708. 

[795] Vita Domni Deoderici Episcopi Maioris I9, MGH SS IV, pp. 479-80. 

[796] ES I.2 201. 

[797] ES I.2 201. 

[798] ES I.2 201. 

[799] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.16, MGH SS IV, p. 708. 

[800] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.8, MGH SS IV, p. 704. 

[801] D O III 347, p. 776. 

[802] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 86, p. 166. 

[803] ES I.2 201. 

[804] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 86, p. 166. 

[805] Oorkondenboek Holland (1970) 86, p. 166. 

[806] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 169, p. 105. 

[807] ES I.2 201. 

[808] Sloet (1872), 184, p. 182. 

[809] Chronicon Affligemense 4, MGH SS IX, p. 408. 

[810] ES I.2 201. 

[811] Kuiken, K. 'Na Unroch Godizo: het taaie leven van een falsum', Niederlandsche Leeuw (2004), pp. 238-56.  (this reference has been supplied by Bert van Beek)

[812] ES VIII 35. 

[813] Birth date range consistent with his having been brought up by Bruno, archbishop of Köln from 953 to 965. 

[814] Ægidii Aurenvallenses, Gesta Episcoporum Leodiensium II 40, MGH SS XXV, p. 51. 

[815] Grote (1877), p. 496. 

[816] Thietmar 4.31 and 4.32, pp. 174 and 175, footnote 103 stating that Ansfrid's father was a brother of Queen Mathilde but no corroboration of this has been found. 

[817] D O III 14, p. 410. 

[818] D O III 16, p. 413. 

[819] Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, p. 65. 

[820] Annales Colonienses 995, MGH SS I, p. 99. 

[821] Thietmar 4.35, pp. 176-7. 

[822] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 40, p. 75. 

[823] Duaci (ed.) (1624) Vincentius Bellovacensis Speculum Historiale, lib. 24, cap. 157, quoted in Chronologia Johannes de Beke 40, p. 75. 

[824] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I 16, MGH SS IV, p. 708. 

[825] Beka's Egmondscii Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 106. 

[826] ES VIII 35. 

[827] ES VIII 35. 

[828] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) (1969) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Clarendon Press), Vol. V, Book IX, p. 167, the editor in footnote 5 identifying him as Conan Comte de Montaigu.  She is not listed among the children of Eustache III Comte de Boulogne & his wife Ida of Lotharingia given in Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book IX, p. 175. 

[829] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1106, MGH SS XXIII, p. 816. 

[830] Miraeus (Le Mire), A. (1723) Opera diplomatica et historica, 2nd edn. (Louvain), Tome I, LXVII, p. 77. 

[831] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 310, p. 205. 

[832] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 53b, p. 105. 

[833] Annalista Saxo 1136. 

[834] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 305, p. 200. 

[835] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 310, p. 205. 

[836] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 53b, p. 105. 

[837] Annalista Saxo 1136. 

[838] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 305, p. 200. 

[839] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 310, p. 205. 

[840] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 343, p. 232. 

[841] ES VIII 35. 

[842] Annales Egmundani 1132, MGH SS XVI, p. 453. 

[843] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 53b, p. 105. 

[844] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 53b, p. 105. 

[845] Annales Egmundani 1132, MGH SS XVI, p. 453. 

[846] Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, p. 121. 

[847] Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, p. 122. 

[848] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 223. 

[849] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 224. 

[850] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 225. 

[851] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 275. 

[852] Annales Bertiniani Pars Secunda auctore Prudentio Trecensi Episcopo 837, MGH SS I, p. 430. 

[853] Annales Fuldenses 837, MGH SS I, p. 361. 

[854] Annales Bertiniani Pars Secunda auctore Prudentio Trecensi Episcopo 841, MGH SS I, p. 438. 

[855] Annales Fuldenses 837, MGH SS I, p. 361. 

[856] Thietmar 8.27, p. 380. 

[857] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 288. 

[858] Annalista Saxo 1038. 

[859] D H III 279, p. 380. 

[860] Thietmar 7.21, p. 320. 

[861] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Mathilde, Reine de France inconnue', Journal des Savants (Oct-Dec 1971), p. 252. 

[862] Annalista Saxo 1038. 

[863] Annalista Saxo 1082. 

[864] Annales Stadenses 1105, MGH SS XVI, p. 317. 

[865] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 28, p. 31. 

[866] Annalista Saxo 1101. 

[867] Annales Corbeienses, Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, Tome I, p. 41. 

[868] Vanderkindere, Vol. 2, p. 316. 

[869] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 6, MGH SS XI, p. 398. 

[870] Lindeborn, J. (1670) Historia sive notitia episcopatus Daventriensis (Metelen), p. 537. 

[871] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 6, MGH SS XI, p. 398. 

[872] D K II 232, p. 316. 

[873] D H III 286, p. 388. 

[874] Van den Bergh (1852), p. 177. 

[875] Lindeborn (1670), p. 537. 

[876] Lindeborn (1670), p. 537. 

[877] Lindeborn (1670), p. 537. 

[878] Sloet (1872), 208, p. 206. 

[879] Sloet (1872), 214, p. 212. 

[880] Annales Colonienses Maximi, MGH SS XVII, p. 749. 

[881] Lindeborn (1670), p. 535. 

[882] Lindeborn (1670), p. 535. 

[883] Sloet (1872), 214, p. 212. 

[884] Doorninck, P. N. van & Veen, J. S. va, (eds.) (1908) Acten betreffende Gelre en Zutphen 1107-1415 (Haarlem), p. 1. 

[885] Annales Colonienses Maximi, MGH SS XVII, p. 749. 

[886] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 285, p. 186. 

[887] Annalista Saxo 1103.  

[888] Lindeborn (1670), p. 535. 

[889] Lindeborn (1670), p. 535. 

[890] Lindeborn, J. (1670) Historia sive notitia episcopatus Daventriensis (Metelen), p. 535. 

[891] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 295, p. 193. 

[892] Verdonk, H. (1996) Ermentrud een Utrechtse gravin? (Lelystad), p. 5. 

[893] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 295, p. 193. 

[894] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 225, p. 146. 

[895] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 295, p. 193. 

[896] Verdonk (1996), p. 5. 

[897] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 295, p. 193. 

[898] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 225, p. 146. 

[899] Verdonk (1996), p. 6. 

[900] Verdonk (1996), p. 6. 

[901] Verdonk (1996), p. 6. 

[902] Verdonk (1996), p. 6. 

[903] Verdonk (1996), p. 6. 

[904] Verdonk (1996), p. 6.